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Sample records for ampk um antigo

  1. Choreography of AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Langendorf, Christopher G; Kemp, Bruce E

    2015-01-01

    A recent study published in Cell Research by Li and colleagues reports a detailed biophysical and structural study of AMPK's intra-molecular interactions during activation. By employing subunit tagging and proximity analysis with the aid of AlphaScreen instrumentation, Li et al. add to our understanding of the choreography of activation of AMPK by both nucleotides and phosphorylation.

  2. Expanding role of AMPK in endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Kola, Blerina; Boscaro, Marco; Rutter, Guy A; Grossman, Ashley B; Korbonits, Márta

    2006-07-01

    Adenosine 5' monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a regulator of cellular and systemic energy homeostasis. It mediates some of the effects of peripheral hormones such as leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin, and it is involved in the insulin-sensitizing role of the antidiabetic drug metformin. There is increasing evidence that AMPK has a central role in mediating the appetite-modulating and metabolic effects of many other hormones and substances, including the cannabinoids. Recent studies have illustrated the interaction between hormones and AMPK, and highlighted AMPK as a potential target for the development of tissue-specific AMPK modulators in the treatment of obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

  3. Targeting AMPK for cancer prevention and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Young, Matthew R.; Chen, Guohong; Hua, Baojin

    2015-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important mediator in maintaining cellular energy homeostasis. AMPK is activated in response to a shortage of energy. Once activated, AMPK can promote ATP production and regulate metabolic energy. AMPK is a known target for treating metabolic syndrome and type-2 diabetes; however, recently AMPK is emerging as a possible metabolic tumor suppressor and target for cancer prevention and treatment. Recent epidemiological studies indicate that treatment with metformin, an AMPK activator reduces the incidence of cancer. In this article we review the role of AMPK in regulating inflammation, metabolism, and other regulatory processes with an emphasis on cancer, as well as, discuss the potential for targeting AMPK to treat various types of cancer. Activation of AMPK has been found to oppose tumor progression in several cancer types and offers a promising cancer therapy. This review evaluates the evidence linking AMPK with tumor suppressor function and analyzes the molecular mechanisms involved. AMPK activity opposes tumor development and progression in part by regulating inflammation and metabolism. PMID:25812084

  4. AMPK inhibition in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Viollet, Benoit; Horman, Sandrine; Leclerc, Jocelyne; Lantier, Louise; Foretz, Marc; Billaud, Marc; Giri, Shailendra; Andreelli, Fabrizio

    2010-08-01

    All living organisms depend on dynamic mechanisms that repeatedly reassess the status of amassed energy, in order to adapt energy supply to demand. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) alphabetagamma heterotrimer has emerged as an important integrator of signals managing energy balance. Control of AMPK activity involves allosteric AMP and ATP regulation, auto-inhibitory features and phosphorylation of its catalytic (alpha) and regulatory (beta and gamma) subunits. AMPK has a prominent role not only as a peripheral sensor but also in the central nervous system as a multifunctional metabolic regulator. AMPK represents an ideal second messenger for reporting cellular energy state. For this reason, activated AMPK acts as a protective response to energy stress in numerous systems. However, AMPK inhibition also actively participates in the control of whole body energy homeostasis. In this review, we discuss recent findings that support the role and function of AMPK inhibition under physiological and pathological states.

  5. The nuclear protein Artemis promotes AMPK activation by stabilizing the LKB1-AMPK complex

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, Koji; Uehata, Yasuko; Natsuizaka, Mitsuteru; Kohara, Toshihisa; Darmanin, Stephanie; Asaka, Masahiro; Takeda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masanobu

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nuclear protein Artemis physically interacts with AMPK{alpha}2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Artemis co-localizes with AMPK{alpha}2 in the nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Artemis promotes phosphorylation and activation of AMPK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The interaction between AMPK{alpha}2 and LKB1 is stabilized by Artemis. -- Abstract: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a hetero-trimeric Ser/Thr kinase composed of a catalytic {alpha} subunit and regulatory {beta} and {gamma} subunits; it functions as an energy sensor that controls cellular energy homeostasis. In response to an increased cellular AMP/ATP ratio, AMPK is activated by phosphorylation at Thr172 in the {alpha}-subunit by upstream AMPK kinases (AMPKKs), including tumor suppressor liver kinase B1 (LKB1). To elucidate more precise molecular mechanisms of AMPK activation, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening and isolated the complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the nuclear protein Artemis/DNA cross-link repair 1C (DCLRE1C) as an AMPK{alpha}2-binding protein. Artemis was found to co-immunoprecipitate with AMPK{alpha}2, and the co-localization of Artemis with AMPK{alpha}2 in the nucleus was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining in U2OS cells. Moreover, over-expression of Artemis enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK{alpha}2 and the AMPK substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). Conversely, RNAi-mediated knockdown of Artemis reduced AMPK and ACC phosphorylation. In addition, Artemis markedly increased the physical association between AMPK{alpha}2 and LKB1. Taken together, these results suggest that Artemis functions as a positive regulator of AMPK signaling by stabilizing the LKB1-AMPK complex.

  6. AMPK Function in Aging Process.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Rocío; Pérez-Villegas, Eva María; Manuel Carrión, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Aging involves the progressive deterioration of physiological functions, diminishing the individual's capacity for survival. Indeed, aging is the main risk factor for cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. The discovery that the rate of aging is controlled by conserved genetic and biochemical pathways represented an unprecedented advance in aging research. The AMPK protein is a metabolic sensor that acts as a qualified cellular housekeeper, as well as controlling energy homeostasis and resistance to stress. Thus, the correct regulation of this factor enhances health and survival. In this manuscript we will review the molecular pathways regulated by AMPK that are related to the aging process, paying special attention to mitochondrial dysfunction, metabolic deregulation, cell senescence and autophagy.

  7. AMPK activators: mechanisms of action and physiological activities

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joungmok; Yang, Goowon; Kim, Yeji; Kim, Jin; Ha, Joohun

    2016-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of energy homeostasis, which coordinates metabolic pathways and thus balances nutrient supply with energy demand. Because of the favorable physiological outcomes of AMPK activation on metabolism, AMPK has been considered to be an important therapeutic target for controlling human diseases including metabolic syndrome and cancer. Thus, activators of AMPK may have potential as novel therapeutics for these diseases. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of both indirect and direct AMPK activators and their modes of action in relation to the structure of AMPK. We discuss the functional differences among isoform-specific AMPK complexes and their significance regarding the development of novel AMPK activators and the potential for combining different AMPK activators in the treatment of human disease. PMID:27034026

  8. The Role of AMPK in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sinnett, Sarah E; Brenman, Jay E

    2016-01-01

    In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, mono-allelic expression of AMPK-α, -β, and -γ yields a single heterotrimeric energy sensor that regulates cellular and whole-body energetic homeostasis. The genetic simplicity of Drosophila, with only a single gene for each subunit, makes the fruit fly an appealing organism for elucidating the effects of AMPK mutations on signaling pathways and phenotypes. In addition, Drosophila presents researchers with an opportunity to use straightforward genetic approaches to elucidate metabolic signaling pathways that contain a level of complexity similar to that observed in mammalian pathways. Just as in mammals, however, the regulatory realm of AMPK function extends beyond metabolic rates and lipid metabolism. Indeed, experiments using Drosophila have shown that AMPK may exert protective effects with regard to life span and neurodegeneration. This chapter addresses a few of the research areas in which Drosophila has been used to elucidate the physiological functions of AMPK. In doing so, this chapter provides a primer for basic Drosophila nomenclature, thereby eliminating a communication barrier that persists for AMPK researchers trained in mammalian genetics.

  9. The nuclear protein Artemis promotes AMPK activation by stabilizing the LKB1-AMPK complex.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Koji; Uehata, Yasuko; Natsuizaka, Mitsuteru; Kohara, Toshihisa; Darmanin, Stephanie; Asaka, Masahiro; Takeda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masanobu

    2012-11-02

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a hetero-trimeric Ser/Thr kinase composed of a catalytic α subunit and regulatory β and γ subunits; it functions as an energy sensor that controls cellular energy homeostasis. In response to an increased cellular AMP/ATP ratio, AMPK is activated by phosphorylation at Thr172 in the α-subunit by upstream AMPK kinases (AMPKKs), including tumor suppressor liver kinase B1 (LKB1). To elucidate more precise molecular mechanisms of AMPK activation, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening and isolated the complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the nuclear protein Artemis/DNA cross-link repair 1C (DCLRE1C) as an AMPKα2-binding protein. Artemis was found to co-immunoprecipitate with AMPKα2, and the co-localization of Artemis with AMPKα2 in the nucleus was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining in U2OS cells. Moreover, over-expression of Artemis enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPKα2 and the AMPK substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). Conversely, RNAi-mediated knockdown of Artemis reduced AMPK and ACC phosphorylation. In addition, Artemis markedly increased the physical association between AMPKα2 and LKB1. Taken together, these results suggest that Artemis functions as a positive regulator of AMPK signaling by stabilizing the LKB1-AMPK complex. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Low-flow Characteristics of Eau Claire River Basin near Antigo, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmstrom, B.K.

    1975-01-01

    This report presents low-flow characteristics at six sites on streams in the Eau Claire River basin near Antigo, Wis., where applications for irrigation permits were made. The low-flow characteristics presented are the annual minimum 7-day mean flows at the 2-year recurrence interval and 10-year recurrence interval. A seepage run made October 10, 1974, showed a substantial gain in discharge from site 2 (3.75 ft3/s [cubic feet per second] or 0.11 m3/s (cubic metres per second) to site 6 (30.6 ft3/s or 0.87 m3/s) on the East Branch Eau Claire River and from site 12 (3.98 ft3/s or 0.11 m3/s) to site 16 (18.1 ft3/s or 0.51 m3/s) on the West Branch Eau Claire River; a fairly constant discharge between sites 6 (30.6 ft3/s or 0.87 m3/s) and 11 (32.3 ft3/s or 0.91 m3/s) on the East Branch and sites 16 (18.1 ft3/s or 0.51 m3/s) and 20 (18.8 ft3/s or 0.53 m3/s) on the West Branch; and a substantial gain in discharge from site 23 (57.3 ft3/s or 1.62 m3/s) to site 24 (63.4 ft3/s or 1.80 m3/s) on the Eau Claire River. A gaging station was established at the downstream potential irrigation site to collect continuous stage and discharge data on streamflow to assist the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources in the regulation of irrigation withdrawals.

  11. AMPK Regulation of Cell Growth, Apoptosis, Autophagy, and Bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Paz, Marina Villanueva; Cotán, David; Maraver, Juan Garrido; Oropesa-Ávila, Manuel; de la Mata, Mario; Pavón, Ana Delgado; de Lavera, Isabel; Gómez, Elizabet Alcocer; Córdoba, Mónica Álvarez; Alcázar, José A Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) generally promotes catabolic pathways that produce ATP and at the same time inhibits anabolic pathways involved in different processes that consume ATP. As an energy sensor, AMPK is involved in the main cellular functions implicated in cell fate, such as cell growth and autophagy.Recently, AMPK has been connected with apoptosis regulation, although the molecular mechanism by which AMPK induces and/or inhibits cell death is not clear.This chapter reviews the essential role of AMPK in signaling pathways that respond to cellular stress and damage, highlighting the complex and reciprocal regulation between AMPK and their targets and effectors. The therapeutic implications of the role of AMPK in different pathologies such as diabetes, cancer, or mitochondrial dysfunctions are still controversial, and it is necessary to further investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying AMPK activation.

  12. AMPK: Lessons from transgenic and knockout animals

    PubMed Central

    Viollet, Benoit; Athea, Yoni; Mounier, Remi; Guigas, Bruno; Zarrinpashneh, Elham; Horman, Sandrine; Lantier, Louise; Hebrard, Sophie; Devin-Leclerc, Jocelyne; Beauloye, Christophe; Foretz, Marc; Andreelli, Fabrizio; Ventura-Clapier, Renee; Bertrand, Luc

    2009-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a phylogenetically conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, has been proposed to function as a ‘fuel gauge’ to monitor cellular energy status in response to nutritional environmental variations. AMPK system is a regulator of energy balance that, once activated by low energy status, switches on ATP-producing catabolic pathways (such as fatty acid oxidation and glycolysis), and switches off ATP-consuming anabolic pathways (such as lipogenesis), both by short-term effect on phosphorylation of regulatory proteins and by long-term effect on gene expression. Numerous observations obtained with pharmacological activators and agents that deplete intracellular ATP have been supportive of AMPK playing a role in the control of energy metabolism but none of these studies have provided conclusive evidence. Relatively recent developments in our understanding of precisely how AMPK complexes might operate to control energy metabolism is due in part to the development of transgenic and knockout mouse models. Although there are inevitable caveats with genetic models, some important findings have emerged. In the present review, we discuss recent findings obtained from animal models with inhibition or activation of AMPK signaling pathway. PMID:19273052

  13. The AMPK inhibitor compound C is a potent AMPK-independent antiglioma agent.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaona; Chhipa, Rishi Raj; Nakano, Ichiro; Dasgupta, Biplab

    2014-03-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved energy sensor important for cell growth, proliferation, survival, and metabolic regulation. Active AMPK inhibits biosynthetic enzymes like mTOR and acetyl CoA carboxylase (required for protein and lipid synthesis, respectively) to ensure that cells maintain essential nutrients and energy during metabolic crisis. Despite our knowledge about this incredibly important kinase, no specific chemical inhibitors are available to examine its function. However, one small molecule known as compound C (also called dorsomorphin) has been widely used in cell-based, biochemical, and in vivo assays as a selective AMPK inhibitor. In nearly all these reports including a recent study in glioma, the biochemical and cellular effects of compound C have been attributed to its inhibitory action toward AMPK. While examining the status of AMPK activation in human gliomas, we observed that glioblastomas express copious amount of active AMPK. Compound C effectively reduced glioma viability in vitro both by inhibiting proliferation and inducing cell death. As expected, compound C inhibited AMPK; however, all the antiproliferative effects of this compound were AMPK independent. Instead, compound C killed glioma cells by multiple mechanisms, including activation of the calpain/cathepsin pathway, inhibition of AKT, mTORC1/C2, cell-cycle block at G2-M, and induction of necroptosis and autophagy. Importantly, normal astrocytes were significantly less susceptible to compound C. In summary, compound C is an extremely potent antiglioma agent but we suggest that caution should be taken in interpreting results when this compound is used as an AMPK inhibitor.

  14. Chromium enhances insulin responsiveness via AMPK.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Nolan J; Penque, Brent A; Habegger, Kirk M; Sealls, Whitney; Tackett, Lixuan; Elmendorf, Jeffrey S

    2014-05-01

    Trivalent chromium (Cr(3+)) is known to improve glucose homeostasis. Cr(3+) has been shown to improve plasma membrane-based aspects of glucose transporter GLUT4 regulation and increase activity of the cellular energy sensor 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, the mechanism(s) by which Cr(3+) improves insulin responsiveness and whether AMPK mediates this action is not known. In this study we tested if Cr(3+) protected against physiological hyperinsulinemia-induced plasma membrane cholesterol accumulation, cortical filamentous actin (F-actin) loss and insulin resistance in L6 skeletal muscle myotubes. In addition, we performed mechanistic studies to test our hypothesis that AMPK mediates the effects of Cr(3+) on GLUT4 and glucose transport regulation. Hyperinsulinemia-induced insulin-resistant L6 myotubes displayed excess membrane cholesterol and diminished cortical F-actin essential for effective glucose transport regulation. These membrane and cytoskeletal abnormalities were associated with defects in insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation and glucose transport. Supplementing the culture medium with pharmacologically relevant doses of Cr(3+) in the picolinate form (CrPic) protected against membrane cholesterol accumulation, F-actin loss, GLUT4 dysregulation and glucose transport dysfunction. Insulin signaling was neither impaired by hyperinsulinemic conditions nor enhanced by CrPic, whereas CrPic increased AMPK signaling. Mechanistically, siRNA-mediated depletion of AMPK abolished the protective effects of CrPic against GLUT4 and glucose transport dysregulation. Together these findings suggest that the micronutrient Cr(3+), via increasing AMPK activity, positively impacts skeletal muscle cell insulin sensitivity and glucose transport regulation.

  15. Chromium Enhances Insulin Responsiveness via AMPK

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Nolan J.; Penque, Brent A.; Habegger, Kirk M.; Sealls, Whitney; Tackett, Lixuan; Elmendorf, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Trivalent chromium (Cr3+) is known to improve glucose homeostasis. Cr3+ has been shown to improve plasma membrane-based aspects of glucose transporter GLUT4 regulation and increase activity of the cellular energy sensor 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, the mechanism(s) by which Cr3+ improves insulin responsiveness and whether AMPK mediates this action is not known. In this study we tested if Cr3+ protected against physiological hyperinsulinemia-induced plasma membrane cholesterol accumulation, cortical filamentous actin (F-actin) loss and insulin resistance in L6 skeletal muscle myotubes. In addition, we performed mechanistic studies to test our hypothesis that AMPK mediates the effects of Cr3+ on GLUT4 and glucose transport regulation. Hyperinsulinemia-induced insulin-resistant L6 myotubes displayed excess membrane cholesterol and diminished cortical F-actin essential for effective glucose transport regulation. These membrane and cytoskeletal abnormalities were associated with defects in insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation and glucose transport. Supplementing the culture medium with pharmacologically relevant doses of Cr3+ in the picolinate form (CrPic) protected against membrane cholesterol accumulation, F-actin loss, GLUT4 dysregulation and glucose transport dysfunction. Insulin signaling was neither impaired by hyperinsulinemic conditions nor enhanced by CrPic, whereas CrPic increased AMPK signaling. Mechanistically, siRNA-mediated depletion of AMPK abolished the protective effects of CrPic against GLUT4 and glucose transport dysregulation. Together these findings suggest that the micronutrient Cr3+, via increasing AMPK activity, positively impacts skeletal muscle cell insulin sensitivity and glucose transport regulation. PMID:24725432

  16. CHIP protects against cardiac pressure overload through regulation of AMPK.

    PubMed

    Schisler, Jonathan C; Rubel, Carrie E; Zhang, Chunlian; Lockyer, Pamela; Cyr, Douglas M; Patterson, Cam

    2013-08-01

    Protein quality control and metabolic homeostasis are integral to maintaining cardiac function during stress; however, little is known about if or how these systems interact. Here we demonstrate that C terminus of HSC70-interacting protein (CHIP), a regulator of protein quality control, influences the metabolic response to pressure overload by direct regulation of the catalytic α subunit of AMPK. Induction of cardiac pressure overload in Chip-/- mice resulted in robust hypertrophy and decreased cardiac function and energy generation stemming from a failure to activate AMPK. Mechanistically, CHIP promoted LKB1-mediated phosphorylation of AMPK, increased the specific activity of AMPK, and was necessary and sufficient for stress-dependent activation of AMPK. CHIP-dependent effects on AMPK activity were accompanied by conformational changes specific to the α subunit, both in vitro and in vivo, identifying AMPK as the first physiological substrate for CHIP chaperone activity and establishing a link between cardiac proteolytic and metabolic pathways.

  17. CHIP protects against cardiac pressure overload through regulation of AMPK

    PubMed Central

    Schisler, Jonathan C.; Rubel, Carrie E.; Zhang, Chunlian; Lockyer, Pamela; Cyr, Douglas M.; Patterson, Cam

    2013-01-01

    Protein quality control and metabolic homeostasis are integral to maintaining cardiac function during stress; however, little is known about if or how these systems interact. Here we demonstrate that C terminus of HSC70-interacting protein (CHIP), a regulator of protein quality control, influences the metabolic response to pressure overload by direct regulation of the catalytic α subunit of AMPK. Induction of cardiac pressure overload in Chip–/– mice resulted in robust hypertrophy and decreased cardiac function and energy generation stemming from a failure to activate AMPK. Mechanistically, CHIP promoted LKB1-mediated phosphorylation of AMPK, increased the specific activity of AMPK, and was necessary and sufficient for stress-dependent activation of AMPK. CHIP-dependent effects on AMPK activity were accompanied by conformational changes specific to the α subunit, both in vitro and in vivo, identifying AMPK as the first physiological substrate for CHIP chaperone activity and establishing a link between cardiac proteolytic and metabolic pathways. PMID:23863712

  18. AMPK and Exercise: Glucose Uptake and Insulin Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Hayley M

    2013-02-01

    AMPK is an evolutionary conserved sensor of cellular energy status that is activated during exercise. Pharmacological activation of AMPK promotes glucose uptake, fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial biogenesis, and insulin sensitivity; processes that are reduced in obesity and contribute to the development of insulin resistance. AMPK deficient mouse models have been used to provide direct genetic evidence either supporting or refuting a role for AMPK in regulating these processes. Exercise promotes glucose uptake by an insulin dependent mechanism involving AMPK. Exercise is important for improving insulin sensitivity; however, it is not known if AMPK is required for these improvements. Understanding how these metabolic processes are regulated is important for the development of new strategies that target obesity-induced insulin resistance. This review will discuss the involvement of AMPK in regulating skeletal muscle metabolism (glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, and insulin sensitivity).

  19. AMPK: energy sensor and survival mechanism in the ischemic heart.

    PubMed

    Qi, Dake; Young, Lawrence H

    2015-08-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a critical regulator of cellular metabolism and plays an important role in diabetes, cancer, and vascular disease. In the heart, AMPK activation is an essential component of the adaptive response to cardiomyocyte stress that occurs during myocardial ischemia. During ischemia-reperfusion, AMPK activation modulates glucose and fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial function, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, autophagy, and apoptosis. Pharmacological activation of AMPK prevents myocardial necrosis and contractile dysfunction during ischemia-reperfusion and potentially represents a cardioprotective strategy for the treatment of myocardial infarction. This review discusses novel mechanisms of AMPK activation in the ischemic heart, the role of endogenous AMPK activation during ischemia, and the potential therapeutic applications for AMPK-directed therapy.

  20. Fyn phosphorylates AMPK to inhibit AMPK activity and AMP-dependent activation of autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Eijiro; Okada, Shuichi; Bastie, Claire C.; Vatish, Manu; Nakajima, Yasuyo; Shibusawa, Ryo; Ozawa, Atsushi; Pessin, Jeffrey E.; Yamada, Masanobu

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that proto-oncogene Fyn decreased energy expenditure and increased metabolic phenotypes. Also Fyn decreased autophagy-mediated muscle mass by directly inhibiting LKB1 and stimulating STAT3 activities, respectively. AMPK, a downstream target of LKB1, was recently identified as a key molecule controlling autophagy. Here we identified that Fyn phosphorylates the α subunit of AMPK on Y436 and inhibits AMPK enzymatic activity without altering the assembly state of the AMPK heterotrimeric complex. As pro-inflammatory mediators are reported modulators of the autophagy processes, treatment with the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα resulted in 1) increased Fyn activity 2) stimulated Fyn-dependent AMPKα tyrosine phosphorylation and 3) decreased AICAR-dependent AMPK activation. Importantly, TNFα induced inhibition of autophagy was not observed when AMPKα was mutated on Y436. 4) These data demonstrate that Fyn plays an important role in relaying the effects of TNFα on autophagy and apoptosis via phosphorylation and inhibition of AMPK. PMID:27626315

  1. AMPK and the neuroendocrine regulation of appetite and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Stark, Romana; Ashley, Sarah E; Andrews, Zane B

    2013-02-25

    This review highlights recent advances in the hormonal control of hypothalamic AMPK activity and the impact on appetite and energy metabolism. AMPK is an intracellular energy sensor that switches off ATP-consuming pathways and switches on ATP-producing pathways such as glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation. In this regard, it is well positioned to respond to dynamic changes in metabolic state and nutritional over- or under-supply. Within the hypothalamus, AMPK responds to peripheral hormones that convey metabolic information based on increased plasma concentrations. For example, negative energy balance increases plasma ghrelin concentrations, increases hypothalamic AMPK and drives food intake. Conversely, plasma leptin concentrations are secreted in proportion to adipose levels and leptin suppresses hypothalamic AMPK activity and restricts food intake. This review explains that hypothalamic AMPK mediates neuroendocrine feedback control of energy metabolism. A current working model suggests that endocrine feedback influences hypothalamic AMPK via a number of mechanisms designed to shift an organism from negative to neutral energy balance. These mechanisms include (1) ghrelin stimulation of AMPK in NPY/AgRP in the arcuate nucleus (2) ghrelin stimulation of AMPK in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, (3) a novel ghrelin-stimulated AMPK-dependent presynaptic mechanism that sustains AgRP neuron firing via a local synaptic memory system, (4) adiponectin stimulation of hypothalamic AMPK and (5) hypothalamic AMPK control of energy expenditure by thyroid hormone or leptin. The number of diverse mechanisms ensures hypothalamic AMPK drives the shift from negative to neutral energy balance and underscores the fundamental importance of hypothalamic AMPK to maintain neutral energy balance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Regulation and function of AMPK in physiology and diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Sang-Min

    2016-01-01

    5′-adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase that was originally identified as the key player in maintaining cellular energy homeostasis. Intensive research over the last decade has identified diverse molecular mechanisms and physiological conditions that regulate the AMPK activity. AMPK regulates diverse metabolic and physiological processes and is dysregulated in major chronic diseases, such as obesity, inflammation, diabetes and cancer. On the basis of its critical roles in physiology and pathology, AMPK is emerging as one of the most promising targets for both the prevention and treatment of these diseases. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the molecular and physiological regulation of AMPK and its metabolic and physiological functions. In addition, we discuss the mechanisms underlying the versatile roles of AMPK in diabetes and cancer. PMID:27416781

  3. Regulation and function of AMPK in physiology and diseases.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sang-Min

    2016-07-15

    5'-adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase that was originally identified as the key player in maintaining cellular energy homeostasis. Intensive research over the last decade has identified diverse molecular mechanisms and physiological conditions that regulate the AMPK activity. AMPK regulates diverse metabolic and physiological processes and is dysregulated in major chronic diseases, such as obesity, inflammation, diabetes and cancer. On the basis of its critical roles in physiology and pathology, AMPK is emerging as one of the most promising targets for both the prevention and treatment of these diseases. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the molecular and physiological regulation of AMPK and its metabolic and physiological functions. In addition, we discuss the mechanisms underlying the versatile roles of AMPK in diabetes and cancer.

  4. Hypothalamic AMPK as a Regulator of Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, My Khanh Q.; Kinyua, Ann W.; Yang, Dong Joo

    2016-01-01

    Activated in energy depletion conditions, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acts as a cellular energy sensor and regulator in both central nervous system and peripheral organs. Hypothalamic AMPK restores energy balance by promoting feeding behavior to increase energy intake, increasing glucose production, and reducing thermogenesis to decrease energy output. Besides energy state, many hormones have been shown to act in concert with AMPK to mediate their anorexigenic and orexigenic central effects as well as thermogenic influences. Here we explore the factors that affect hypothalamic AMPK activity and give the underlying mechanisms for the role of central AMPK in energy homeostasis together with the physiological effects of hypothalamic AMPK on energy balance restoration. PMID:27547453

  5. Arctigenin alleviates ER stress via activating AMPK.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yuan; Sun, Xiao-xiao; Ye, Ji-ming; He, Li; Yan, Shou-sheng; Zhang, Hao-hao; Hu, Li-hong; Yuan, Jun-ying; Yu, Qiang

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the protective effects of arctigenin (ATG), a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan from Arctium lappa L (Compositae), against ER stress in vitro and the underlying mechanisms. A cell-based screening assay for ER stress regulators was established. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay. PCR and Western blotting were used to analyze gene and protein expression. Silencing of the CaMKKβ, LKB1, and AMPKα1 genes was achieved by RNA interference (RNAi). An ATP bioluminescent assay kit was employed to measure the intracellular ATP levels. ATG (2.5, 5 and 10 μmol/L) inhibited cell death and unfolded protein response (UPR) in a concentration-dependent manner in cells treated with the ER stress inducer brefeldin A (100 nmol/L). ATG (1, 5 and 10 μmol/L) significantly attenuated protein synthesis in cells through inhibiting mTOR-p70S6K signaling and eEF2 activity, which were partially reversed by silencing AMPKα1 with RNAi. ATG (1-50 μmol/L) reduced intracellular ATP level and activated AMPK through inhibiting complex I-mediated respiration. Pretreatment of cells with the AMPK inhibitor compound C (25 μmol/L) rescued the inhibitory effects of ATG on ER stress. Furthermore, ATG (2.5 and 5 μmol/L) efficiently activated AMPK and reduced the ER stress and cell death induced by palmitate (2 mmol/L) in INS-1 β cells. ATG is an effective ER stress alleviator, which protects cells against ER stress through activating AMPK, thus attenuating protein translation and reducing ER load.

  6. AMPK/Mitochondria in Metabolic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Bullon, Pedro; Marin-Aguilar, Fabiola; Roman-Malo, Lourdes

    The obtaining of nutrients is the most important task in our lives. Energy is central to life's evolutions; this was one of the aspect that induced the selection of the more adaptable and more energetically profitable species. Nowadays things have changed in our modern society. A high proportion of people has access to plenty amount of food and the obesity appear as one of the pathological characteristics of our society. Energy is obtained essentially in the mitochondria with the transfer of protons across the inner membrane that produce ATP. The exactly regulation of the synthesis and degradation of ATP (ATP ↔ ADP + phosphate) is essential to all form of life. This task is performed by the 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). mtDNA is highly exposed to oxidative damage and could play a central role in human health and disease. This high potential rate of abnormalities is controlled by one of the most complex mechanism: the autophagy. AMPK appears to be the key cellular energy sensor involved in multiple cellular mechanisms and is essential to have a good metabolic homeostasis to face all the aggression and start the inflammatory reaction. Therefore its disturbances have been related with multiple diseases. Recent findings support the role of AMPK in inflammation and immunity such as Metabolic Syndrome, Obesity and Diabetes. All these Metabolic Disorders are considered pandemics and they need an adequate control and prevention. One important way to achieve it is deepen in the pathogenic mechanisms. Mitochondria and AMPK are the key elements through which it happen, their knowledge and research allow us to a better management. The discovery and use of drugs that can modulate them is imperative to improve our way of manage the metabolic disorders.

  7. Arctigenin alleviates ER stress via activating AMPK

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yuan; Sun, Xiao-xiao; Ye, Ji-ming; He, Li; Yan, Shou-sheng; Zhang, Hao-hao; Hu, Li-hong; Yuan, Jun-ying; Yu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the protective effects of arctigenin (ATG), a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan from Arctium lappa L (Compositae), against ER stress in vitro and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: A cell-based screening assay for ER stress regulators was established. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay. PCR and Western blotting were used to analyze gene and protein expression. Silencing of the CaMKKβ, LKB1, and AMPKα1 genes was achieved by RNA interference (RNAi). An ATP bioluminescent assay kit was employed to measure the intracellular ATP levels. Results: ATG (2.5, 5 and 10 μmol/L) inhibited cell death and unfolded protein response (UPR) in a concentration-dependent manner in cells treated with the ER stress inducer brefeldin A (100 nmol/L). ATG (1, 5 and 10 μmol/L) significantly attenuated protein synthesis in cells through inhibiting mTOR-p70S6K signaling and eEF2 activity, which were partially reversed by silencing AMPKα1 with RNAi. ATG (1-50 μmol/L) reduced intracellular ATP level and activated AMPK through inhibiting complex I-mediated respiration. Pretreatment of cells with the AMPK inhibitor compound C (25 μmol/L) rescued the inhibitory effects of ATG on ER stress. Furthermore, ATG (2.5 and 5 μmol/L) efficiently activated AMPK and reduced the ER stress and cell death induced by palmitate (2 mmol/L) in INS-1 β cells. Conclusion: ATG is an effective ER stress alleviator, which protects cells against ER stress through activating AMPK, thus attenuating protein translation and reducing ER load. PMID:22705729

  8. AMPK as a Potential Anticancer Target – Friend or Foe?

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Hsiao-Ching; Chou, Chih-Chien; Kulp, Samuel K.; Chen, Ching-Shih

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key player in maintaining energy homeostasis in response to metabolic stress. Beyond diabetes and metabolic syndrome, there is a growing interest in the therapeutic exploitation of the AMPK pathway in cancer treatment in light of its unique ability to regulate cancer cell proliferation through the reprogramming of cell metabolism. Although many studies support the tumor-suppressive role of AMPK, emerging evidence suggests that the metabolic checkpoint function of AMPK might be overridden by stress or oncogenic signals so that tumor cells use AMPK activation as a survival strategy to gain growth advantage. These findings underscore the complexity in the cellular function of AMPK in maintaining energy homeostasis under physiological versus pathological conditions. Thus, this review aims to provide an overview of recent findings on the functional interplay of AMPK with different cell metabolic and signaling effectors, particularly histone deacetylases, in mediating downstream tumor suppressive or promoting mechanisms in different cell systems. Although AMPK activation inhibits tumor growth by targeting multiple signaling pathways relevant to tumorigenesis, under certain cellular contexts or certain stages of tumor development, AMPK might act as a protective response to metabolic stresses, such as nutrient deprivation, low oxygen, and low pH, or as a downstream effectors of oncogenic proteins, including androgen receptor, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, c-Src, and MYC. Thus, investigations to define at which stage(s) of tumorigenesis and cancer progression or for which genetic aberrations AMPK inhibition might represent a more relevant strategy than AMPK activation for cancer treatment are clearly warranted. PMID:23859619

  9. The autophagy initiator ULK1 sensitizes AMPK to allosteric drugs.

    PubMed

    Dite, Toby A; Ling, Naomi X Y; Scott, John W; Hoque, Ashfaqul; Galic, Sandra; Parker, Benjamin L; Ngoei, Kevin R W; Langendorf, Christopher G; O'Brien, Matthew T; Kundu, Mondira; Viollet, Benoit; Steinberg, Gregory R; Sakamoto, Kei; Kemp, Bruce E; Oakhill, Jonathan S

    2017-09-18

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic stress-sensing enzyme responsible for maintaining cellular energy homeostasis. Activation of AMPK by salicylate and the thienopyridone A-769662 is critically dependent on phosphorylation of Ser108 in the β1 regulatory subunit. Here, we show a possible role for Ser108 phosphorylation in cell cycle regulation and promotion of pro-survival pathways in response to energy stress. We identify the autophagy initiator Unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) as a β1-Ser108 kinase in cells. Cellular β1-Ser108 phosphorylation by ULK1 was dependent on AMPK β-subunit myristoylation, metabolic stress associated with elevated AMP/ATP ratio, and the intrinsic energy sensing capacity of AMPK; features consistent with an AMP-induced myristoyl switch mechanism. We further demonstrate cellular AMPK signaling independent of activation loop Thr172 phosphorylation, providing potential insight into physiological roles for Ser108 phosphorylation. These findings uncover new mechanisms by which AMPK could potentially maintain cellular energy homeostasis independently of Thr172 phosphorylation.AMPK is involved in sensing of metabolic stress. The authors show that the autophagy initiator ULK1 phosphorylates β1-Ser108 on the regulatory β1-subunit, sensitizing AMPK to allosteric drugs, and activates signaling pathways that appear independent of Thr172 phosphorylation in the kinase activation loop.

  10. AMPK activation--protean potential for boosting healthspan.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F

    2014-04-01

    AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is activated when the cellular (AMP+ADP)/ATP ratio rises; it therefore serves as a detector of cellular "fuel deficiency." AMPK activation is suspected to mediate some of the health-protective effects of long-term calorie restriction. Several drugs and nutraceuticals which slightly and safely impede the efficiency of mitochondrial ATP generation-most notably metformin and berberine-can be employed as clinical AMPK activators and, hence, may have potential as calorie restriction mimetics for extending healthspan. Indeed, current evidence indicates that AMPK activators may reduce risk for atherosclerosis, heart attack, and stroke; help to prevent ventricular hypertrophy and manage congestive failure; ameliorate metabolic syndrome, reduce risk for type 2 diabetes, and aid glycemic control in diabetics; reduce risk for weight gain; decrease risk for a number of common cancers while improving prognosis in cancer therapy; decrease risk for dementia and possibly other neurodegenerative disorders; help to preserve the proper structure of bone and cartilage; and possibly aid in the prevention and control of autoimmunity. While metformin and berberine appear to have the greatest utility as clinical AMPK activators-as reflected by their efficacy in diabetes management-regular ingestion of vinegar, as well as moderate alcohol consumption, may also achieve a modest degree of health-protective AMPK activation. The activation of AMPK achievable with any of these measures may be potentiated by clinical doses of the drug salicylate, which can bind to AMPK and activate it allosterically.

  11. AMPK: Evidence for an energy-sensing cytokinetic tumor suppressor.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Lopez-Bonet, Eugeni; Menendez, Javier A

    2009-11-15

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) system, an evolutionary conserved low-energy checkpoint, functions as a canonical suppressor of cell proliferation. Proliferating cells, however, should also ensure a proper spatio-temporal bond between AMPK-sensed cell's metabolic status and cell division. A crucial linkage between cell proliferation and AMPK-interpreted cell bioenergetics appears to take place during the M-phase of the cell cycle. A recent description of a physical interplay between the active form the alpha-catalytic AMPK subunit with essential mitotic regulators in the centrosome and midbody has provided direct evidence that tumor-suppressive properties for AMPK closely relate to its ability to exquisitely coordinate sensing of energy resources and the fundamental biological process of genome division during mitosis and cytokinesis. Based on recent findings in our laboratory observing abortive cytokinesis followed by nuclear shape reorganization, mitotic catastrophe, polyploidization events, and cell giantism in p53-null cancer cells pharmacologically manipulated to exhibit sustained activation of AMPK, we now propose that AMPK is a novel and biologically significant participant with a tumor suppressive activity in the mitotic/cytokinetic phase of the cell cycle. In this scenario, molecular co-evolution of the energy-sensing cytokinetic tumor suppressor AMPK within the chronic biophysical constraints of the tumor microenvironment may inherently promote a continuous generation of structural and numerical changes in chromosomes favoring generation of nascent tumor cells and/or tumor-initiating cells over tumor cell death.

  12. AMPK activation: a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes?

    PubMed

    Coughlan, Kimberly A; Valentine, Rudy J; Ruderman, Neil B; Saha, Asish K

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disease characterized by insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and elevated hepatic glucose output. Over 350 million people worldwide have T2D, and the International Diabetes Federation projects that this number will increase to nearly 600 million by 2035. There is a great need for more effective treatments for maintaining glucose homeostasis and improving insulin sensitivity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase whose activation elicits insulin-sensitizing effects, making it an ideal therapeutic target for T2D. AMPK is an energy-sensing enzyme that is activated when cellular energy levels are low, and it signals to stimulate glucose uptake in skeletal muscles, fatty acid oxidation in adipose (and other) tissues, and reduces hepatic glucose production. There is substantial evidence suggesting that AMPK is dysregulated in animals and humans with metabolic syndrome or T2D, and that AMPK activation (physiological or pharmacological) can improve insulin sensitivity and metabolic health. Numerous pharmacological agents, natural compounds, and hormones are known to activate AMPK, either directly or indirectly - some of which (for example, metformin and thiazolidinediones) are currently used to treat T2D. This paper will review the regulation of the AMPK pathway and its role in T2D, some of the known AMPK activators and their mechanisms of action, and the potential for future improvements in targeting AMPK for the treatment of T2D.

  13. AMPK regulation of the growth of cultured human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Asish K. . E-mail: aksaha@bu.edu; Persons, Kelly; Safer, Joshua D.; Luo Zhijun; Holick, Michael F.; Ruderman, Neil B.

    2006-10-20

    AMP kinase (AMPK) is a fuel sensing enzyme that responds to cellular energy depletion by increasing processes that generate ATP and inhibiting others that require ATP but are not acutely necessary for survival. In the present study, we examined the relationship between AMPK activation and the growth (proliferation) of cultured human keratinocytes and assessed whether the inhibition of keratinocyte growth by vitamin D involves AMPK activation. In addition, we explored whether the inhibition of keratinocyte proliferation as they approach confluence could be AMPK-related. Keratinocytes were incubated for 12 h with the AMPK activator, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-{beta}-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR). At concentrations of 10{sup -4} and 10{sup -3} M, AICAR inhibited keratinocyte growth by 50% and 95%, respectively, based on measurements of thymidine incorporation into DNA. It also increased AMPK and acetyl CoA carboxylase phosphorylation (P-AMPK and P-ACC) and decreased the concentration of malonyl CoA confirming that AMPK activation had occurred. Incubation with the thiazolidinedione, troglitazone (10{sup -6} M) caused similar alterations in P-AMPK, P-ACC, and cell growth. In contrast, the well known inhibition of keratinocyte growth by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (10{sup -7} and 10{sup -6} M) was not associated with changes in P-AMPK or P-ACC. Like most cells, the growth of keratinocytes diminished as they approached confluence. Thus, it was of note that we found a progressive increase in P-AMPK (1.5- to 2-fold, p < 0.05) as keratinocytes grown in control medium went from 25% to 100% confluence. In conclusion, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that activation of AMPK acts as a signal to diminish the proliferation of cultured keratinocytes as they approach confluence. They also suggest that AMPK activators, such as AICAR and troglitazone, inhibit keratinocyte growth and that the inhibition of cell growth by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} is AMPK-independent.

  14. Madagascine Induces Vasodilatation via Activation of AMPK

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dapeng; Lv, Bochao; Kobayashi, Sei; Xiong, Yongjian; Sun, Pengyuan; Lin, Yuan; Genovese, Salvatore; Epifano, Francesco; Hou, Shanshan; Tang, Fusheng; Ji, Yunyan; Yu, Dandan

    2016-01-01

    Madagascine (3-isopentenyloxyemodin) can be chemically synthesized or purified from several Rhamnus species, and it is found to have more potent biological activities than the parent compound emodin. The aim of this study is to characterize the vasodilatory effect of madagascine on vasoconstriction and sphingosylphosphorylcholine induced vasospasm in ex vivo and reveal the potential mechanisms in vitro. The effects of madagascine on vasoconstriction of rat mesenteric resistance arteries (MRAs) induced by K+, methoxamine, and endothelin-1 were, respectively, studied. The cholesterol-enriched porcine coronary vascular smooth muscle (VSM) strips were used to investigate the effects of madagascine on abnormal constriction induced by sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) which has a pivotal role in vasospasm. The vasodilatory effect was induced by madagascine (0.3–100 μM) in isolated rat MRAs and the vasodilatory effect was blocked by NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME and AMPK inhibitor compound C. Madagascine (10 μM) also significantly relaxed the abnormal constriction in porcine VSM induced by SPC and the effect was abolished by compound C. Madagascine significantly increased the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in endothelial cells while decreasing the phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) in VSM cells. Madagascine-induced vasodilatation was abrogated using small interfering RNA knockdown of AMPK. In summary, madagascine exerted vasodilatation through activating AMPK, leading to the activation of eNOS in endothelium and inhibition of ROCK/MYPT1 in VSM. This study suggests the potential value of madagascine in amelioration of vasospasm related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27932979

  15. SNF1/AMPK pathways in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hedbacker, Kristina; Carlson, Marian

    2009-01-01

    The SNF1/AMPK family of protein kinases is highly conserved in eukaryotes and is required for energy homeostasis in mammals, plants, and fungi. SNF1 protein kinase was initially identified by genetic analysis in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. SNF1 is required primarily for the adaptation of yeast cells to glucose limitation and for growth on carbon sources that are less preferred than glucose, but is also involved in responses to other environmental stresses. SNF1 regulates transcription of a large set of genes, modifies the activity of metabolic enzymes, and controls various nutrient-responsive cellular developmental processes. Like AMPK, SNF1 protein kinase is heterotrimeric. It is phosphorylated and activated by the upstream kinases Sak1, Tos3, and Elm1 and is inactivated by the Reg1-Glc7 protein phosphatase 1. Further regulation of SNF1 is achieved through autoinhibition and through control of its subcellular localization. Here we review the current understanding of SNF1 protein kinase pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other yeasts. PMID:17981722

  16. AMPK: a master energy regulator for gonadal function

    PubMed Central

    Bertoldo, Michael J.; Faure, Melanie; Dupont, Joëlle; Froment, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    From C. elegans to mammals (including humans), nutrition and energy metabolism significantly influence reproduction. At the cellular level, some detectors of energy status indicate whether energy reserves are abundant (obesity), or poor (diet restriction). One of these detectors is AMPK (5′ AMP-activated protein kinase), a protein kinase activated by ATP deficiency but also by several natural substances such as polyphenols or synthetic molecules like metformin, used in the treatment of insulin resistance. AMPK is expressed in muscle and liver, but also in the ovary and testis. This review focuses on the main effects of AMPK identified in gonadal cells. We describe the role of AMPK in gonadal steroidogenesis, in proliferation and survival of somatic gonadal cells and in the maturation of oocytes or spermatozoa. We discuss also the role of AMPK in germ and somatic cell interactions within the cumulus-oocyte complex and in the blood testis barrier. Finally, the interface in the gonad between AMPK and modification of metabolism is reported and discussion about the role of AMPK on fertility, in regards to the treatment of infertility associated with insulin resistance (male obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome). PMID:26236179

  17. Structural basis of AMPK regulation by small molecule activators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Bing; Sanders, Matthew J.; Carmena, David; Bright, Nicola J.; Haire, Lesley F.; Underwood, Elizabeth; Patel, Bhakti R.; Heath, Richard B.; Walker, Philip A.; Hallen, Stefan; Giordanetto, Fabrizio; Martin, Stephen R.; Carling, David; Gamblin, Steven J.

    2013-12-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a major role in regulating cellular energy balance by sensing and responding to increases in AMP/ADP concentration relative to ATP. Binding of AMP causes allosteric activation of the enzyme and binding of either AMP or ADP promotes and maintains the phosphorylation of threonine 172 within the activation loop of the kinase. AMPK has attracted widespread interest as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes and, more recently, cancer. A number of direct AMPK activators have been reported as having beneficial effects in treating metabolic diseases, but there has been no structural basis for activator binding to AMPK. Here we present the crystal structure of human AMPK in complex with a small molecule activator that binds at a site between the kinase domain and the carbohydrate-binding module, stabilising the interaction between these two components. The nature of the activator-binding pocket suggests the involvement of an additional, as yet unidentified, metabolite in the physiological regulation of AMPK. Importantly, the structure offers new opportunities for the design of small molecule activators of AMPK for treatment of metabolic disorders.

  18. Endocrine-related cancers and the role of AMPK.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kristy A; Samarajeewa, Nirukshi U; Simpson, Evan R

    2013-02-25

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator of energy homeostasis involved in the regulation of a number of physiological processes including β-oxidation of fatty acids, lipogenesis, protein and cholesterol synthesis, as well as cell cycle inhibition and apoptosis. Important changes to these processes are known to occur in cancer due to changes in AMPK activity within cancer cells and in the periphery. This review aims to present findings relating to the role and regulation of AMPK in endocrine-related cancers. Obesity is a known risk factor for many types of cancers and a number of endocrine factors, including adipokines and steroid hormones, are regulated by and regulate AMPK. A clear role for AMPK in breast cancer is evident from the already impressive body of work published to date. However, information pertaining to its role in prostate cancer is still contentious, and future work should unravel the intricacies behind its role to inhibit, in some cases, and stimulate cancer growth in others. This review also presents data relating to the role of AMPK in cancers of the endometrium, ovary and colon, and discusses the possible use of AMPK-activating drugs including metformin for the treatment of all endocrine-related cancers.

  19. AMPK Phosphorylation Modulates Pain by Activation of NLRP3 Inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Bullón, Pedro; Alcocer-Gómez, Elísabet; Carrión, Angel M.; Marín-Aguilar, Fabiola; Garrido-Maraver, Juan; Román-Malo, Lourdes; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesus; Culic, Ognjen; Ryffel, Bernhard; Apetoh, Lionel; Ghiringhelli, François; Battino, Maurizio; Sánchez-Alcazar, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Impairment in adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation are associated with several metabolic and inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the role of AMPK/NLRP3 inflammasome axis in the molecular mechanism underlying pain perception. Results: Impairment in AMPK activation induced by compound C or sunitinib, two AMPK inhibitors, provoked hyperalgesia in mice (p<0.001) associated with marked NLRP3 inflammasome protein activation and increased serum levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) (24.56±0.82 pg/ml) and IL-18 (23.83±1.882 pg/ml) compared with vehicle groups (IL-1β: 8.15±0.44; IL-18: 4.92±0.4). This effect was rescued by increasing AMPK phosphorylation via metformin treatment (p<0.001), caloric restriction diet (p<0.001), or NLRP3 inflammasome genetic inactivation using NLRP3 knockout (nlrp3−/−) mice (p<0.001). Deficient AMPK activation and overactivation of NLRP3 inflammasome axis were also observed in blood cells from patients with fibromyalgia (FM), a prevalent human chronic pain disease. In addition, metformin treatment (200 mg/daily), which increased AMPK activation, restored all biochemical alterations examined by us in blood cells and significantly improved clinical symptoms, such as, pain, fatigue, depression, disturbed sleep, and tender points, in patients with FM. Innovation and Conclusions: These data suggest that AMPK/NLRP3 inflammasome axis participates in chronic pain and that NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition by AMPK modulation may be a novel therapeutic target to fight against chronic pain and inflammatory diseases as FM. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 157–170. PMID:26132721

  20. AMPK at the Nexus of Energetics and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Burkewitz, Kristopher; Zhang, Yue; Mair, William B.

    2014-01-01

    When energy supply is low, organisms respond by slowing aging and increasing resistance to diverse age-related pathologies. Targeting the mechanisms underpinning this response may therefore treat multiple disorders through a single intervention. Here we discuss AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as an integrator and mediator of several pathways and processes linking energetics to longevity. Activated by low energy, AMPK is both pro-longevity and druggable, but its role in some pathologies may not be beneficial. As such, activating AMPK may modulate multiple longevity pathways to promote healthy aging, but unlocking its full potential may require selective targeting towards substrates involved in longevity-assurance. PMID:24726383

  1. Activation of AMPK Stimulates Neurotensin Secretion in Neuroendocrine Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Song, Jun; Weiss, Heidi L.; Weiss, Todd; Townsend, Courtney M.

    2016-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a critical fuel-sensing enzyme, regulates the metabolic effects of various hormones. Neurotensin (NT) is a 13-amino acid peptide predominantly localized in enteroendocrine cells of the small bowel and released by fat ingestion. Increased fasting plasma levels of pro-NT (a stable NT precursor fragment produced in equimolar amounts relative to NT) are associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and mortality; however, the mechanisms regulating NT release are not fully defined. We previously reported that inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) increases NT secretion and gene expression through activation of the MEK/ERK pathway. Here, we show that activation of AMPK increases NT secretion from endocrine cell lines (BON and QGP-1) and isolated mouse crypt cells enriched for NT-positive cells. In addition, plasma levels of NT increase in mice treated with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside, a pharmacologic AMPK activator. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of AMPKα decrease, whereas overexpression of the subunit significantly enhances, NT secretion from BON cells treated with AMPK activators or oleic acid. Similarly, small interfering RNA knockdown of the upstream AMPK kinases, liver kinase B1 and Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2, also attenuate NT release and AMPK phosphorylation. Moreover, AMPK activation increases NT secretion through inhibition of mTORC1 signaling. Together, our findings show that AMPK activation enhances NT release through inhibition of mTORC1 signaling, thus demonstrating an important cross talk regulation for NT secretion. PMID:26528831

  2. Activation of AMPK Stimulates Neurotensin Secretion in Neuroendocrine Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Song, Jun; Weiss, Heidi L; Weiss, Todd; Townsend, Courtney M; Evers, B Mark

    2016-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a critical fuel-sensing enzyme, regulates the metabolic effects of various hormones. Neurotensin (NT) is a 13-amino acid peptide predominantly localized in enteroendocrine cells of the small bowel and released by fat ingestion. Increased fasting plasma levels of pro-NT (a stable NT precursor fragment produced in equimolar amounts relative to NT) are associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and mortality; however, the mechanisms regulating NT release are not fully defined. We previously reported that inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) increases NT secretion and gene expression through activation of the MEK/ERK pathway. Here, we show that activation of AMPK increases NT secretion from endocrine cell lines (BON and QGP-1) and isolated mouse crypt cells enriched for NT-positive cells. In addition, plasma levels of NT increase in mice treated with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside, a pharmacologic AMPK activator. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of AMPKα decrease, whereas overexpression of the subunit significantly enhances, NT secretion from BON cells treated with AMPK activators or oleic acid. Similarly, small interfering RNA knockdown of the upstream AMPK kinases, liver kinase B1 and Ca(2+) calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2, also attenuate NT release and AMPK phosphorylation. Moreover, AMPK activation increases NT secretion through inhibition of mTORC1 signaling. Together, our findings show that AMPK activation enhances NT release through inhibition of mTORC1 signaling, thus demonstrating an important cross talk regulation for NT secretion.

  3. Calorie restriction: is AMPK as a key sensor and effector?

    PubMed Central

    Cantó, Carles; Auwerx, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Summary Dietary restriction can extend lifespan in most organisms tested to date, suggesting that mechanisms sensing nutrient and energy availability might regulate longevity. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has emerged as a key energy sensor with the ability to transcriptionally reprogram the cell and metabolically adapt to external cues. In this review we will discuss the possible role of AMPK in the beneficial effects of calorie restriction on health and lifespan. PMID:21841070

  4. GFAT1 phosphorylation by AMPK promotes VEGF-induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zibrova, Darya; Vandermoere, Franck; Göransson, Olga; Peggie, Mark; Mariño, Karina V; Knierim, Anne; Spengler, Katrin; Weigert, Cora; Viollet, Benoit; Morrice, Nicholas A; Sakamoto, Kei; Heller, Regine

    2017-03-07

    Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in endothelial cells regulates energy homeostasis, stress protection and angiogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Using a label-free phosphoproteomic analysis, we identified glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase 1 (GFAT1) as an AMPK substrate. GFAT1 is the rate-limiting enzyme in the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) and as such controls the modification of proteins by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that AMPK controls O-GlcNAc levels and function of endothelial cells via GFAT1 phosphorylation using biochemical, pharmacological, genetic and in vitro angiogenesis approaches. Activation of AMPK in primary human endothelial cells by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) or by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) led to GFAT1 phosphorylation at serine 243. This effect was not seen when AMPK was down-regulated by siRNA. Upon AMPK activation, diminished GFAT activity and reduced O-GlcNAc levels were observed in endothelial cells containing wild-type (WT)-GFAT1 but not in cells expressing non-phosphorylatable S243A-GFAT1. Pharmacological inhibition or siRNA-mediated down-regulation of GFAT1 potentiated VEGF-induced sprouting, indicating that GFAT1 acts as a negative regulator of angiogenesis. In cells expressing S243A-GFAT1, VEGF-induced sprouting was reduced, suggesting that VEGF relieves the inhibitory action of GFAT1/HBP on angiogenesis via AMPK-mediated GFAT1 phosphorylation. Activation of GFAT1/HBP by high glucose led to impairment of vascular sprouting, whereas GFAT1 inhibition improved sprouting even if glucose level was high. Our findings provide novel mechanistic insights into the role of HBP in angiogenesis. They suggest that targeting AMPK in endothelium might help to ameliorate hyperglycaemia-induced vascular dysfunction associated with metabolic disorders.

  5. EJE PRIZE 2017: Hypothalamic AMPK: a golden target against obesity?

    PubMed

    López, Miguel

    2017-05-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cellular gauge that is activated under conditions, such as low energy, increasing energy production and reducing energy waste. Centrally, the AMPK pathway is a canonical route regulating energy homeostasis, by integrating peripheral signals, such as hormones and metabolites, with neuronal networks. Current evidence links hypothalamic AMPK with feeding, brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT), as well as muscle metabolism, hepatic function and glucose homeostasis. The relevance of these data is interesting from a therapeutic point of view as several agents with potential anti-obesity and/or antidiabetic effects, some currently in clinical use, such as nicotine, metformin and liraglutide are known to act through AMPK, either peripherally or centrally. Furthermore, the orexigenic and weight-gaining effects of the worldwide use of antipsychotic drugs (APDs), such as olanzapine, are also mediated by hypothalamic AMPK. Overall, this evidence makes hypothalamic AMPK signaling an interesting target for the drug development, with its potential for controlling both sides of the energy balance equation, namely feeding and energy expenditure through defined metabolic pathways. © 2017 The authors.

  6. EJE PRIZE 2017: Hypothalamic AMPK: a golden target against obesity?

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cellular gauge that is activated under conditions, such as low energy, increasing energy production and reducing energy waste. Centrally, the AMPK pathway is a canonical route regulating energy homeostasis, by integrating peripheral signals, such as hormones and metabolites, with neuronal networks. Current evidence links hypothalamic AMPK with feeding, brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT), as well as muscle metabolism, hepatic function and glucose homeostasis. The relevance of these data is interesting from a therapeutic point of view as several agents with potential anti-obesity and/or antidiabetic effects, some currently in clinical use, such as nicotine, metformin and liraglutide are known to act through AMPK, either peripherally or centrally. Furthermore, the orexigenic and weight-gaining effects of the worldwide use of antipsychotic drugs (APDs), such as olanzapine, are also mediated by hypothalamic AMPK. Overall, this evidence makes hypothalamic AMPK signaling an interesting target for the drug development, with its potential for controlling both sides of the energy balance equation, namely feeding and energy expenditure through defined metabolic pathways. PMID:28232370

  7. AMPK as a New Attractive Therapeutic Target for Disease Prevention: The Role of Dietary Compounds AMPK and Disease Prevention.

    PubMed

    Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Giampieri, Francesca; Alvarez Suarez, Josè; Mazzoni, Luca; Y Forbes Hernandez, Tamara; Quiles, Josè L; Bullon, Pedro; Battino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    AMPK is a serine/threonine protein kinase that has the function of maintaining the balance between ATP production and consumption in most eukaryotic cells. It plays a relevant role in regulating cellular metabolism, preserving cellular energy homeostasis, and is involved in many other cellular processes as well as metabolic ones, including cell cycle regulation and endothelial and vascular relaxation. Recently, the effects of naturally occurring compounds able to prevent and treat diseases through AMPK activation have attracted the attention of many researchers. Among such compounds, flavonoids found in natural sources, like quercetin, genistein, epigallocatechins, resveratrol, have been proposed as AMPK activators. This review summarizes and updates the most recent findings concerning the mechanisms through which different dietary compounds, from plant foods, affect the AMPK pathway in healthy and pathological in vitro and in vivo models, paying particular attention to molecular mechanisms involved in diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and cancer.

  8. Berberine improves kidney function in diabetic mice via AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Long; Sun, Li-Na; Nie, Hui-Bin; Wang, Xue-Ling; Guan, Guang-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Effective therapies to prevent the development of this disease are required. Berberine (BBR) has several preventive effects on diabetes and its complications. However, the molecular mechanism of BBR on kidney function in diabetes is not well defined. Here, we reported that activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is required for BBR-induced improvement of kidney function in vivo. AMPK phosphorylation and activity, productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), kidney function including serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine clearance (Ccr), and urinary protein excretion, morphology of glomerulus were determined in vitro or in vivo. Exposure of cultured human glomerulus mesangial cells (HGMCs) to BBR time- or dose-dependently activates AMPK by increasing the thr172 phosphorylation and its activities. Inhibition of LKB1 by siRNA or mutant abolished BBR-induced AMPK activation. Incubation of cells with high glucose (HG, 30 mM) markedly induced the oxidative stress of HGMCs, which were abolished by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside, AMPK gene overexpression or BBR. Importantly, the effects induced by BBR were bypassed by AMPK siRNA transfection in HG-treated HGMCs. In animal studies, streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia dramatically promoted glomerulosclerosis and impaired kidney function by increasing serum BUN, urinary protein excretion, and decreasing Ccr, as well as increased oxidative stress. Administration of BBR remarkably improved kidney function in wildtype mice but not in AMPKα2-deficient mice. We conclude that AMPK activation is required for BBR to improve kidney function in diabetic mice.

  9. Energy metabolism and hindbrain AMPK: regulation by estradiol.

    PubMed

    Briski, Karen P; Ibrahim, Baher A; Tamrakar, Pratistha

    2014-03-01

    Nerve cell energy status is screened within multiple classically defined hypothalamic and hindbrain components of the energy balance control network, including the hindbrain dorsal vagal complex (DVC). Signals of caudal DVC origin have a physiological role in glucostasis, e.g., maintenance of optimal supply of the critical substrate fuel, glucose, through control of motor functions such as fuel consumption and gluco-counterregulatory hormone secretion. A2 noradrenergic neurons are a likely source of these signals as combinatory laser microdissection/high-sensitivity Western blotting reveals expression of multiple biomarkers for metabolic sensing, including adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Hypoglycemia elicits estradiol-dependent sex differences in A2 AMPK activation as phospho-AMPK (pAMPK) expression is augmented in male and ovariectomized (OVX) female, but not estrogen-replaced, OVX rats. This dichotomy may reflect, in part, estradiol-mediated up-regulation of glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme expression during hypoglycemia. Our new model for short-term feeding abstinence has physiological relevance to planned (dieting) or unplanned (meal delay) interruption of consumption in modern life, which is negatively correlated with appetite control and obesity, and is useful for investigating how estrogen may mitigate the effects of disrupted fuel acquisition on energy balance via actions within the DVC. Estradiol reduces DVC AMPK activity after local delivery of the AMP mimic, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-riboside, or cessation of feeding for 12 h but elevates pAMPK expression when these treatments are combined. These data suggest that estrogen maintains cellular energy stability over periods of suspended fuel acquisition and yet optimizes, by DVC AMPK-dependent mechanisms, counter-regulatory responses to metabolic challenges that occur during short-span feeding abstinence.

  10. Etoposide Induces ATM-Dependent Mitochondrial Biogenesis through AMPK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Yi Lisa; Liu, Leroy F.; Qi, Haiyan

    2008-01-01

    Background DNA damage such as double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) has been reported to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. The major player in response to DSBs is ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated). Upon sensing DSBs, ATM is activated through autophosphorylation and phosphorylates a number of substrates for DNA repair, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. ATM has been reported to phosphorylate the α subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which senses AMP/ATP ratio in cells, and can be activated by upstream kinases. Here we provide evidence for a novel role of ATM in mitochondrial biogenesis through AMPK activation in response to etoposide-induced DNA damage. Methodology/Principal Findings Three pairs of human ATM+ and ATM- cells were employed. Cells treated with etoposide exhibited an ATM-dependent increase in mitochondrial mass as measured by 10-N-Nonyl-Acridine Orange and MitoTracker Green FM staining, as well as an increase in mitochondrial DNA content. In addition, the expression of several known mitochondrial biogenesis regulators such as the major mitochondrial transcription factor NRF-1, PGC-1α and TFAM was also elevated in response to etoposide treatment as monitored by RT-PCR. Three pieces of evidence suggest that etoposide-induced mitochondrial biogenesis is due to ATM-dependent activation of AMPK. First, etoposide induced ATM-dependent phosphorylation of AMPK α subunit at Thr172, indicative of AMPK activation. Second, inhibition of AMPK blocked etoposide-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. Third, activation of AMPK by AICAR (an AMP analogue) stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis in an ATM-dependent manner, suggesting that ATM may be an upstream kinase of AMPK in the mitochondrial biogenesis pathway. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that activation of ATM by etoposide can lead to mitochondrial biogenesis through AMPK activation. We propose that ATM-dependent mitochondrial

  11. AMPK: A cellular metabolic and redox sensor. A minireview

    PubMed Central

    Shirwany, Najeeb A; Zou, Ming-Hui

    2014-01-01

    AMPK is a serine/threonine kinase that is found in all eukaryotes and is ubiquitously expressed in all organ systems. Once activated, AMPK stimulates hepatic fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis, inhibits cholesterol synthesis, lipogenesis, and triglyceride synthesis, inhibits adipocyte lipolysis and lipogenesis, stimulates skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation and muscle glucose uptake, and modulates insulin secretion by the pancreas. Thus its importance in many critical cellular processes is well established. For cells it is critical that energy supply and demand are closely matched. AMPK is recognized as a critical integrator of this balance. It is known to be allosterically activated by an increased AMP:ATP ratio. Activation of the kinase switches on catabolic pathways while switching off anabolic ones. It also acts as a redox sensor in endothelial cells where oxidative stress can disturb NO signaling. Abnormal NO signaling leads to disturbed vasodilatory responses. By inhibiting the formation of reactive oxygen species in the endothelium, AMPK can optimize the redox balance in the vasculature. Here, we review the role of AMPK in the cell. PMID:24389195

  12. AMPK at the crossroads of circadian clocks and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Sabine D; Lamia, Katja A

    2013-02-25

    Circadian clocks coordinate behavior and physiology with daily environmental cycles and thereby optimize the timing of metabolic processes such as glucose production and insulin secretion. Such circadian regulation of metabolism provides an adaptive advantage in diverse organisms. Mammalian clocks are primarily based on a transcription and translation feedback loop in which a heterodimeric complex of the transcription factors CLOCK (circadian locomotor output cycles kaput) and BMAL1 (brain and muscle Arnt-like protein 1) activates the expression of its own repressors, the period (PER1-3) and cryptochrome (CRY1 and CRY2) proteins. Posttranslational modification of these core clock components is critical for setting clock time or adjusting the speed of the clock. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is one of several metabolic sensors that have been reported to transmit energy-dependent signals to the mammalian clock. AMPK does so by driving the phosphorylation and destabilization of CRY and PER proteins. In addition, AMPK subunit composition, sub-cellular localization, and substrate phosphorylation are dependent on clock time. Given the well-established role of AMPK in diverse aspects of metabolic physiology, the reciprocal regulation of AMPK and circadian clocks likely plays an important role in circadian metabolic regulation.

  13. Sorafenib synergizes with metformin in NSCLC through AMPK pathway activation

    PubMed Central

    Groenendijk, Floris H; Mellema, Wouter W; van der Burg, Eline; Schut, Eva; Hauptmann, Michael; Horlings, Hugo M; Willems, Stefan M; van den Heuvel, Michel M; Jonkers, Jos; Smit, Egbert F; Bernards, René

    2015-01-01

    The multikinase inhibitor sorafenib is under clinical investigation for the treatment of many solid tumors, but in most cases, the molecular target responsible for the clinical effect is unknown. Furthermore, enhancing the effectiveness of sorafenib using combination strategies is a major clinical challenge. Here, we identify sorafenib as an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), in a manner that involves either upstream LKB1 or CAMKK2. We further show in a phase II clinical trial in KRAS mutant advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with single agent sorafenib an improved disease control rate in patients using the antidiabetic drug metformin. Consistent with this, sorafenib and metformin act synergistically in inhibiting cellular proliferation in NSCLC in vitro and in vivo. A synergistic effect of both drugs is also seen on phosphorylation of the AMPKα activation site. Our results provide a rationale for the synergistic antiproliferative effects, given that AMPK inhibits downstream mTOR signaling. These data suggest that the combination of sorafenib with AMPK activators could have beneficial effects on tumor regression by AMPK pathway activation. The combination of metformin or other AMPK activators and sorafenib could be tested in prospective clinical trials. PMID:25080865

  14. AMP as a low-energy charge signal autonomously initiates assembly of AXIN-AMPK-LKB1 complex for AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Lin; Guo, Huiling; Zhang, Chen-Song; Lin, Shu-Yong; Yin, Zhenyu; Peng, Yongying; Luo, Hui; Shi, Yuzhe; Lian, Guili; Zhang, Cixiong; Li, Mengqi; Ye, Zhiyun; Ye, Jing; Han, Jiahuai; Li, Peng; Wu, Jia-Wei; Lin, Sheng-Cai

    2013-10-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator of metabolic homeostasis by sensing cellular energy status. AMPK is mainly activated via phosphorylation by LKB1 when cellular AMP/ADP levels are increased. However, how AMP/ADP brings about AMPK phosphorylation remains unclear. Here, we show that it is AMP, but not ADP, that drives AXIN to directly tether LKB1 to phosphorylate AMPK. The complex formation of AXIN-AMPK-LKB1 is greatly enhanced in glucose-starved or AICAR-treated cells and in cell-free systems supplemented with exogenous AMP. Depletion of AXIN abrogated starvation-induced AMPK-LKB1 colocalization. Importantly, adenovirus-based knockdown of AXIN in the mouse liver impaired AMPK activation and caused exacerbated fatty liver after starvation, underscoring an essential role of AXIN in AMPK activation. These findings demonstrate an initiating role of AMP and demonstrate that AXIN directly transmits AMP binding of AMPK to its activation by LKB1, uncovering the mechanistic route for AMP to elicit AMPK activation by LKB1.

  15. AMPK-dependent and independent effects of AICAR and compound C on T-cell responses.

    PubMed

    Rao, Enyu; Zhang, Yuwen; Li, Qiang; Hao, Jiaqing; Egilmez, Nejat K; Suttles, Jill; Li, Bing

    2016-06-07

    As a master metabolic sensor, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is involved in different fundamental cellular processes. Regulation of AMPK activity either by agonists (e.g., AICAR) or by antagonists (e.g., Compound C) has been widely employed to study the physiological functions of AMPK. However, mounting evidence indicates AMPK-independent effects for these chemicals and how they regulate immune cell functions remains largely unknown. Herein, using T cells from AMPK conditional knockout mice and their wild type littermates, we demonstrate that AICAR and Compound C can, indeed, activate or inhibit AMPK activity in T cells, respectively. Specifically, AICAR inhibits, but Compound C promotes, Ca2+-induced T cell death in an AMPK-dependent manner. In contrast, our data also demonstrate that AICAR and Compound C inhibit T cell activation and cytokine production in an AMPK-independent manner. Moreover, we find that the AMPK-independent activity of AICAR and Compound Cis mediated via the mTOR signaling pathway in activated T cells. Our results not only reveal the critical role of AMPK in regulating T cell survival and function, but also demonstrate AMPK-dependent and independent rolesof AICAR/Compound C in regulating T cell responses, thus suggesting a context-dependent effect of these "AMPK regulators".

  16. Structural basis of AMPK regulation by adenine nucleotides and glycogen

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Xiaodan; Wang, Lili; Zhou, X. Edward; ...

    2014-11-21

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central cellular energy sensor and regulator of energy homeostasis, and a promising drug target for the treatment of diabetes, obesity, and cancer. Here we present low-resolution crystal structures of the human α1β2γ1 holo-AMPK complex bound to its allosteric modulators AMP and the glycogen-mimic cyclodextrin, both in the phosphorylated (4.05 Å) and non-phosphorylated (4.60 Å) state. In addition, we have solved a 2.95 Å structure of the human kinase domain (KD) bound to the adjacent autoinhibitory domain (AID) and have performed extensive biochemical and mutational studies. Altogether, these studies illustrate an underlying mechanism of allostericmore » AMPK modulation by AMP and glycogen, whose binding changes the equilibria between alternate AID (AMP) and carbohydrate-binding module (glycogen) interactions.« less

  17. Structural basis of AMPK regulation by adenine nucleotides and glycogen

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaodan; Wang, Lili; Zhou, X. Edward; Ke, Jiyuan; de Waal, Parker W.; Gu, Xin; Tan, M. H. Eileen; Wang, Dongye; Wu, Donghai; Xu, H. Eric; Melcher, Karsten

    2014-11-21

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central cellular energy sensor and regulator of energy homeostasis, and a promising drug target for the treatment of diabetes, obesity, and cancer. Here we present low-resolution crystal structures of the human α1β2γ1 holo-AMPK complex bound to its allosteric modulators AMP and the glycogen-mimic cyclodextrin, both in the phosphorylated (4.05 Å) and non-phosphorylated (4.60 Å) state. In addition, we have solved a 2.95 Å structure of the human kinase domain (KD) bound to the adjacent autoinhibitory domain (AID) and have performed extensive biochemical and mutational studies. Altogether, these studies illustrate an underlying mechanism of allosteric AMPK modulation by AMP and glycogen, whose binding changes the equilibria between alternate AID (AMP) and carbohydrate-binding module (glycogen) interactions.

  18. Estradiol Regulates Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis via Hypothalamic AMPK

    PubMed Central

    Martínez de Morentin, Pablo B.; González-García, Ismael; Martins, Luís; Lage, Ricardo; Fernández-Mallo, Diana; Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Ruíz-Pino, Francisco; Liu, Ji; Morgan, Donald A.; Pinilla, Leonor; Gallego, Rosalía; Saha, Asish K.; Kalsbeek, Andries; Fliers, Eric; Bisschop, Peter H.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Rahmouni, Kamal; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; López, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Summary Estrogens play a major role in the modulation of energy balance through central and peripheral actions. Here, we demonstrate that central action of estradiol (E2) inhibits AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) selectively in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), leading to activation of thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) through the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in a feeding-independent manner. Genetic activation of AMPK in the VMH prevented E2-induced increase in BAT-mediated thermogenesis and weight loss. Notably, fluctuations in E2 levels during estrous cycle also modulate this integrated physiological network. Together, these findings demonstrate that E2 regulation of the VMH AMPK-SNS-BAT axis is an important determinant of energy balance and suggest that dysregulation in this axis may account for the common changes in energy homeostasis and obesity linked to dysfunction of the female gonadal axis. PMID:24856932

  19. AMPK beta subunits display isoform specific affinities for carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Koay, Ann; Woodcroft, Ben; Petrie, Emma J; Yue, Helen; Emanuelle, Shane; Bieri, Michael; Bailey, Michael F; Hargreaves, Mark; Park, Jong-Tae; Park, Kwan-Hwa; Ralph, Stuart; Neumann, Dietbert; Stapleton, David; Gooley, Paul R

    2010-08-04

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimer of catalytic (alpha) and regulatory (beta and gamma) subunits with at least two isoforms for each subunit. AMPK beta1 is widely expressed whilst AMPK beta2 is highly expressed in muscle and both beta isoforms contain a mid-molecule carbohydrate-binding module (beta-CBM). Here we show that beta2-CBM has evolved to contain a Thr insertion and increased affinity for glycogen mimetics with a preference for oligosaccharides containing a single alpha-1,6 branched residue. Deletion of Thr-101 reduces affinity for single alpha-1,6 branched oligosaccharides by 3-fold, while insertion of this residue into the equivalent position in the beta1-CBM sequence increases affinity by 3-fold, confirming the functional importance of this residue. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Expanding roles for AMPK in skeletal muscle plasticity.

    PubMed

    Mounier, Rémi; Théret, Marine; Lantier, Louise; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit

    2015-06-01

    Skeletal muscle possesses a remarkable plasticity and responds to environmental and physiological challenges by changing its phenotype in terms of size, composition, and metabolic properties. Muscle fibers rapidly adapt to drastic changes in energy demands during exercise through fine-tuning of the balance between catabolic and anabolic processes. One major sensor of energy demand in exercising muscle is AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Recent advances have shed new light on the relevance of AMPK both as a multitask gatekeeper and as an energy regulator in skeletal muscle. Here we summarize recent findings on the function of AMPK in skeletal muscle adaptation to contraction and highlight its role in the regulation of energy metabolism and the control of skeletal muscle regeneration post-injury.

  1. The sweet side of AMPK signaling: regulation of GFAT1.

    PubMed

    Scott, John W; Oakhill, Jonathan S

    2017-03-23

    Maintaining a steady balance between nutrient supply and energy demand is essential for all living organisms and is achieved through the dynamic control of metabolic processes that produce and consume adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP), the universal currency of energy in all cells. A key sensor of cellular energy is the adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is the core component of a signaling network that regulates energy and nutrient metabolism. AMPK is activated by metabolic stresses that decrease cellular ATP, and functions to restore energy balance by orchestrating a switch in metabolism away from anabolic pathways toward energy-generating catabolic processes. A new study published in a recent issue of Biochemical Journal by Zibrova et al. shows that glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase-1 (GFAT1), the rate-limiting enzyme of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP), is a physiological substrate of AMPK. The HBP is an offshoot of the glycolytic pathway that drives the synthesis of uridine-5'-diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine, the requisite donor metabolite needed for dynamic β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification (O-GlcNAcylation) of cellular proteins. O-GlcNAcylation is a nutrient-sensitive post-translational modification that, like phosphorylation, regulates numerous intracellular processes. Zibrova et al. show that inhibitory phosphorylation of the GFAT1 residue Ser243 by AMPK in response to physiological or small-molecule activators leads to a reduction in cellular protein O-GlcNAcylation. Further work revealed that AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of GFAT1 promotes angiogenesis in endothelial cells. This elegant study demonstrates that the AMPK-GFAT1 signaling axis serves as an important communication point between two nutrient-sensitive signaling pathways and is likely to play a significant role in controlling physiological processes in many other tissues.

  2. Thiamine deficiency induces anorexia by inhibiting hypothalamic AMPK.

    PubMed

    Liu, M; Alimov, A P; Wang, H; Frank, J A; Katz, W; Xu, M; Ke, Z-J; Luo, J

    2014-05-16

    Obesity and eating disorders are prevailing health concerns worldwide. It is important to understand the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential nutrient. Thiamine deficiency (TD) can cause a number of disorders in humans, such as Beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. We demonstrated here that TD caused anorexia in C57BL/6 mice. After feeding a TD diet for 16days, the mice displayed a significant decrease in food intake and an increase in resting energy expenditure (REE), which resulted in a severe weight loss. At the 22nd day, the food intake was reduced by 69% and 74% for male and female mice, respectively in TD group. The REE increased by ninefolds in TD group. The loss of body weight (17-24%) was similar between male and female animals and mainly resulted from the reduction of fat mass (49% decrease). Re-supplementation of thiamine (benfotiamine) restored animal's appetite, leading to a total recovery of body weight. The hypothalamic adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a critical regulator of food intake. TD inhibited the phosphorylation of AMPK in the arcuate nucleus (ARN) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus without affecting its expression. TD-induced inhibition of AMPK phosphorylation was reversed once thiamine was re-supplemented. In contrast, TD increased AMPK phosphorylation in the skeletal muscle and upregulated the uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 in brown adipose tissues which was consistent with increased basal energy expenditure. Re-administration of thiamine stabilized AMPK phosphorylation in the skeletal muscle as well as energy expenditure. Taken together, TD may induce anorexia by inhibiting hypothalamic AMPK activity. With a simultaneous increase in energy expenditure, TD caused an overall body weight loss. The results suggest that the status of thiamine levels in the body may affect food intake and body weight.

  3. Lessons from Nature: Sources and Strategies for Developing AMPK Activators for Cancer Chemotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Arkwright, Richard T.; Deshmukh, Rahul; Adapa, Nikhil; Stevens, Ryan; Zonder, Emily; Zhang, Zhongyu; Farshi, Pershang; Ahmed, Reda Saber Ibrahim; El-Banna, Hossny Awad; Chan, Tak-Hang; Dou, Q. Ping

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase or AMPK is a highly-conserved master-regulator of numerous cellular processes, including: Maintaining cellular-energy homeostasis, modulation of cytoskeletal-dynamics, directing cell growth-rates and influencing cell-death pathways. AMPK has recently emerged as a promising molecular target in cancer therapy. In fact, AMPK deficiencies have been shown to enhance cell growth and proliferation, which is consistent with enhancement of tumorigenesis by AMPK-loss. Conversely, activation of AMPK is associated with tumor growth suppression via inhibition of the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex-1 (mTORC1) or the mTOR signal pathway. The scientific communities’ recognition that AMPK-activating compounds possess an anti-neoplastic effect has contributed to a rush of discoveries and developments in AMPK-activating compounds as potential anticancer-drugs. One such example is the class of compounds known as Biguanides, which include Metformin and Phenformin. The current review will showcase natural compounds and their derivatives that activate the AMPK-complex and signaling pathway. In addition, the biology and history of AMPK-signaling and AMPK-activating compounds will be overviewed, their anticancer-roles and mechanisms-of-actions will be discussed, and potential strategies for the development of novel, selective AMPK-activators with enhanced efficacy and reduced toxicity will be proposed. PMID:25511514

  4. High expressions of LDHA and AMPK as prognostic biomarkers for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaojia; Li, Xing; Xie, Xinhua; Ye, Feng; Chen, Bo; Song, Cailu; Tang, Hailin; Xie, Xiaoming

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential correlation between lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and their clinicopathologic significance in breast cancer. Western blot and qRT-PCR were used to detect the expression levels of LDHA and AMPK in eight breast cancer lines and eight breast cancer tissues. In addition, LDHA and AMPK were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using breast cancer tissue microarrays (TMAs) of 112 patients. The association between LDHA and AMPK expression levels was statistically analyzed. So were the prognostic roles and clinicopathologic significances in breast cancer. The expression levels of LDHA and AMPK were relatively higher in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines than in non-triple-negative breast cancer (NTNBC) cell lines. LDHA and AMPK were also further up-regulated in TNBC tissues than in NTNBC tissues. Correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between LDHA and AMPK expression levels. Expression of LDHA and AMPK were significantly correlated with TNM stage, distant metastasis, Ki67 status and survival outcomes of patients. Patients with both positive expression of LDHA and AMPK showed shorter overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). These findings improve our understanding of the expression pattern of LDHA and AMPK in breast cancer and clarify the role of LDHA and AMPK as promising prognostic biomarkers for breast cancer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Lessons from Nature: Sources and Strategies for Developing AMPK Activators for Cancer Chemotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Arkwright, Richard T; Deshmukh, Rahul; Adapa, Nikhil; Stevens, Ryan; Zonder, Emily; Zhang, Zhongyu; Farshi, Pershang; Ahmed, Reda Saber Ibrahim; El-Banna, Hossny Awad; Chan, Tak-Hang; Dou, Q Ping

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase or AMPK is a highly-conserved master-regulator of numerous cellular processes, including: Maintaining cellular-energy homeostasis, modulation of cytoskeletaldynamics, directing cell growth-rates and influencing cell-death pathways. AMPK has recently emerged as a promising molecular target in cancer therapy. In fact, AMPK deficiencies have been shown to enhance cell growth and proliferation, which is consistent with enhancement of tumorigenesis by AMPK-loss. Conversely, activation of AMPK is associated with tumor growth suppression via inhibition of the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex-1 (mTORC1) or the mTOR signal pathway. The scientific communities' recognition that AMPK-activating compounds possess an anti-neoplastic effect has contributed to a rush of discoveries and developments in AMPK-activating compounds as potential anticancer-drugs. One such example is the class of compounds known as Biguanides, which include Metformin and Phenformin. The current review will showcase natural compounds and their derivatives that activate the AMPK-complex and signaling pathway. In addition, the biology and history of AMPK-signaling and AMPK-activating compounds will be overviewed, their anticancer-roles and mechanisms-of-actions will be discussed, and potential strategies for the development of novel, selective AMPK-activators with enhanced efficacy and reduced toxicity will be proposed.

  6. AMPK Regulates Mitotic Spindle Orientation through Phosphorylation of Myosin Regulatory Light Chain

    PubMed Central

    Thaiparambil, Jose T.; Eggers, Carrie M.

    2012-01-01

    The proper orientation of the mitotic spindle is essential for mitosis; however, how these events unfold at the molecular level is not well understood. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates energy homeostasis in eukaryotes, and AMPK-null Drosophila mutants have spindle defects. We show that threonine172 phosphorylated AMPK localizes to the mitotic spindle poles and increases when cells enter mitosis. AMPK depletion causes a mitotic delay with misoriented spindles relative to the normal division plane and a reduced number and length of astral microtubules. AMPK-depleted cells contain mitotic actin bundles, which prevent astral microtubule-actin cortex attachments. Since myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC) is an AMPK downstream target and mediates actin function, we investigated whether AMPK signals through MRLC to control spindle orientation. Mitotic levels of serine19 phosphorylated MRLC (pMRLCser19) and spindle pole-associated pMRLCser19 are abolished when AMPK function is compromised, indicating that AMPK is essential for pMRLCser19 spindle pole activity. Phosphorylation of AMPK and MRLC in the mitotic spindle is dependent upon calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CamKK) activity in LKB1-deficient cells, suggesting that CamKK regulates this pathway when LKB1 function is compromised. Taken together, these data indicate that AMPK mediates spindle pole-associated pMRLCser19 to control spindle orientation via regulation of actin cortex-astral microtubule attachments. PMID:22688514

  7. AMPK protects leukemia-initiating cells in myeloid leukemias from metabolic stress in the bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Yusuke; Chapple, Richard H.; Lin, Angelique; Kitano, Ayumi; Nakada, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY How cancer cells adapt to metabolically adverse conditions in patients and strive to proliferate is a fundamental question in cancer biology. Here we show that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a metabolic checkpoint kinase, confers metabolic stress resistance to leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) and promotes leukemogenesis. Upon dietary restriction, MLL-AF9-induced murine AML activated AMPK and maintained leukemogenic potential. AMPK deletion significantly delayed leukemogenesis and depleted LICs by reducing the expression of glucose transporter 1 (Glut1), compromising glucose flux, and increasing oxidative stress and DNA damage. LICs were particularly dependent on AMPK to suppress oxidative stress in the hypoglycemic bone marrow environment. Strikingly, AMPK inhibition synergized with physiological metabolic stress caused by dietary restriction and profoundly suppressed leukemogenesis. Our results indicate that AMPK protects LICs from metabolic stress, and that combining AMPK inhibition with physiological metabolic stress potently suppresses AML by inducing oxidative stress and DNA damage. PMID:26440282

  8. Small molecule adenosine 5'-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) modulators and human diseases.

    PubMed

    Rana, Sandeep; Blowers, Elizabeth C; Natarajan, Amarnath

    2015-01-08

    Adenosine 5'-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master sensor of cellular energy status that plays a key role in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis. AMPK is a serine/threonine kinase that is activated by upstream kinases LKB1, CaMKKβ, and Tak1, among others. AMPK exists as αβγ trimeric complexes that are allosterically regulated by AMP, ADP, and ATP. Dysregulation of AMPK has been implicated in a number of metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Recent studies have associated roles of AMPK with the development of cancer and neurological disorders, making it a potential therapeutic target to treat human diseases. This review focuses on the structure and function of AMPK, its role in human diseases, and its direct substrates and provides a brief synopsis of key AMPK modulators and their relevance in human diseases.

  9. Activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) slows renal cystogenesis.

    PubMed

    Takiar, Vinita; Nishio, Saori; Seo-Mayer, Patricia; King, J Darwin; Li, Hui; Zhang, Li; Karihaloo, Anil; Hallows, Kenneth R; Somlo, Stefan; Caplan, Michael J

    2011-02-08

    Renal cyst development and expansion in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) involves both fluid secretion and abnormal proliferation of cyst-lining epithelial cells. The chloride channel of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) participates in secretion of cyst fluid, and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway may drive proliferation of cyst epithelial cells. CFTR and mTOR are both negatively regulated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Metformin, a drug in wide clinical use, is a pharmacological activator of AMPK. We find that metformin stimulates AMPK, resulting in inhibition of both CFTR and the mTOR pathways. Metformin induces significant arrest of cystic growth in both in vitro and ex vivo models of renal cystogenesis. In addition, metformin administration produces a significant decrease in the cystic index in two mouse models of ADPKD. Our results suggest a possible role for AMPK activation in slowing renal cystogenesis as well as the potential for therapeutic application of metformin in the context of ADPKD.

  10. AMPK as Target for Intervention in Childhood and Adolescent Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Joselyn; Arraiz, Nailet; Aguirre, Miguel; Velasco, Manuel; Bermúdez, Valmore

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major worldwide health problem. Intervention programs to ameliorate the rate of obesity have been designed and implemented; yet the epidemic has no end near in sight. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has become one of the most important key elements in energy control, appetite regulation, myogenesis, adipocyte differentiation, and cellular stress management. Obesity is a multifactorial disease, which has a very strong genetic component, especially epigenetic factors. The intrauterine milieu has a determinant impact on adult life, since the measures taken for survival are kept throughout life thanks to epigenetic modification. Nutrigenomics studies the influence of certain food molecules on the metabolome profile, raising the question of an individualized obesity therapy according to metabolic (and probably) genetic features. Metformin, an insulin sensitizing agent, its known to lower insulin resistance and enhance metabolic profile, with an additional weight reduction capacity, via activation of AMPK. Exercise is coadjutant for lifestyle modifications, which also activates AMPK in several ways contributing to glucose and fat oxidation. The following review examines AMPK's role in obesity, applying its use as a tool for childhood and adolescent obesity. PMID:21318055

  11. LKB1 and AMPK regulate synaptic remodeling in old age

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Melanie A; Voinescu, P Emanuela; Lilley, Brendan N; de Cabo, Rafa; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit; Pawlyk, Basil; Sandberg, Michael A; Vavvas, Demetrios G; Sanes, Joshua R

    2015-01-01

    Age-related decreases in neural function result in part from alterations in synapses. To identify molecular defects that lead to such changes, we focused on the outer retina, in which synapses are markedly altered in old rodents and humans. We found that the serine/threonine kinase LKB1 and one of its substrates, AMPK, regulate this process. In old mice, synaptic remodeling was accompanied by specific decreases in the levels of total LKB1 and active (phosphorylated) AMPK. In the absence of either kinase, young adult mice developed retinal defects similar to those that occurred in old wild-type animals. LKB1 and AMPK function in rod photoreceptors where their loss leads to aberrant axonal retraction, the extension of postsynaptic dendrites and the formation of ectopic synapses. Conversely, increasing AMPK activity genetically or pharmacologically attenuates and may reverse age-related synaptic alterations. Together, these results identify molecular determinants of age-related synaptic remodeling and suggest strategies for attenuating these changes. PMID:25086610

  12. AMPK and substrate availability regulate creatine transport in cultured cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Darrabie, Marcus D; Arciniegas, Antonio Jose Luis; Mishra, Rajashree; Bowles, Dawn E; Jacobs, Danny O; Santacruz, Lucia

    2011-05-01

    Profound alterations in myocellular creatine and phosphocreatine levels are observed during human heart failure. To maintain its intracellular creatine stores, cardiomyocytes depend upon a cell membrane creatine transporter whose regulation is not clearly understood. Creatine transport capacity in the intact heart is modulated by substrate availability, and it is reduced in the failing myocardium, likely adding to the energy imbalance that characterizes heart failure. AMPK, a key regulator of cellular energy homeostasis, acts by switching off energy-consuming pathways in favor of processes that generate energy. Our objective was to determine the effects of substrate availability and AMPK activation on creatine transport in cardiomyocytes. We studied creatine transport in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes and HL-1 cardiac cells expressing the human creatine transporter cultured in the presence of varying creatine concentrations and the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribonucleoside (AICAR). Transport was enhanced in cardiomyocytes following incubation in creatine-depleted medium or AICAR. The changes in transport were due to alterations in V(max) that correlated with changes in total and cell surface creatine transporter protein content. Our results suggest a positive role for AMPK in creatine transport modulation for cardiomyocytes in culture.

  13. Ionizing Radiation Activates AMP-Activated Kinase (AMPK): A Target for Radiosensitization of Human Cancer Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sanli, Toran; Rashid, Ayesha; Liu Caiqiong

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated kinase (AMPK) is a molecular energy sensor regulated by the tumor suppressor LKB1. Starvation and growth factors activate AMPK through the DNA damage sensor ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM). We explored the regulation of AMPK by ionizing radiation (IR) and its role as a target for radiosensitization of human cancer cells. Methods and Materials: Lung, prostate, and breast cancer cells were treated with IR (2-8 Gy) after incubation with either ATM or AMPK inhibitors or the AMPK activator metformin. Then, cells were subjected to either lysis and immunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, clonogenic survival assays, or cell cycle analysis. Results: IR induced a robust phosphorylation and activation of AMPK in all tumor cells, independent of LKB1. IR activated AMPK first in the nucleus, and this extended later into cytoplasm. The ATM inhibitor KU-55933 blocked IR activation of AMPK. AMPK inhibition with Compound C or anti-AMPK {alpha} subunit small interfering RNA (siRNA) blocked IR induction of the cell cycle regulators p53 and p21{sup waf/cip} as well as the IR-induced G2/M arrest. Compound C caused resistance to IR, increasing the surviving fraction after 2 Gy, but the anti-diabetic drug metformin enhanced IR activation of AMPK and lowered the surviving fraction after 2 Gy further. Conclusions: We provide evidence that IR activates AMPK in human cancer cells in an LKB1-independent manner, leading to induction of p21{sup waf/cip} and regulation of the cell cycle and survival. AMPK appears to (1) participate in an ATM-AMPK-p21{sup waf/cip} pathway, (2) be involved in regulation of the IR-induced G2/M checkpoint, and (3) may be targeted by metformin to enhance IR responses.

  14. IGF-I and IGFBP-2 Stimulate AMPK Activation and Autophagy, Which Are Required for Osteoblast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Gang; Rosen, Clifford J.

    2016-01-01

    IGF-I/insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) coordinately stimulate osteoblast differentiation but the mechanisms by which they function have not been determined. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is induced during differentiation and AMPK knockout mice have reduced bone mass. IGF-I modulates AMPK in other cell types; therefore, these studies determined whether IGF-I/IGFBP-2 stimulate AMPK activation and the mechanism by which AMPK modulates differentiation. Calvarial osteoblasts and MC-3T3 cells expressed activated AMPK early in differentiation and AMPK inhibitors attenuated differentiation. However, expression of constitutively activated AMPK inhibited differentiation. To resolve this discrepancy we analyzed the time course of AMPK induction. AMPK activation was required early in differentiation (day 3–6) but down-regulation of AMPK after day 9 was also necessary. IGF-I/IGFBP-2 induced AMPK through their respective receptors and blocking-receptor activation blocked AMPK induction. To determine the mechanism by which AMPK functioned we analyzed components of the autophagosome. Activated AMPK stimulated ULK-1 S555 phosphorylation as well as beclin-1 and microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B light-chain phosphatidylethanolamine conjugate (LC3II) induction. Inhibition of AMPK attenuated these changes and direct inhibition of autophagy inhibited differentiation. Conversely, expression of activated AMPK was associated with persistence of these changes beyond day 9 and inhibited differentiation. Blocking AMPK activation after day 9 down-regulated these autophagosome components and rescued differentiation. This allowed induction of mechanistic target of rapamycin and AKT, which suppressed autophagy. The results show that early induction of AMPK in response to IGF-I/IGFBP-2 followed by suppression is required for osteoblast differentiation. AMPK functions through stimulation of autophagy. The findings suggest that these early catabolic changes are

  15. Miltefosine Suppresses Hepatic Steatosis by Activating AMPK Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yaqin; Tong, Xing; Li, Kexue; Bai, Hui; Li, Xiaoyu; Ben, Jingjing; Zhang, Hanwen; Yang, Qing; Chen, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose It has been accepted that AMPK (Adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase) activation exhibits many beneficial effects on glucolipid metabolism. Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is an important lysophospholipid which can improve blood glucose levels in diabetic mice and attenuate inflammation by activating AMPK signal pathway in macrophages. Synthetic alkylphospholipids (ALPs), such as miltefosine, is used as an alternate of LPC for the clinical application. Here, we investigated whether miltefosine could have an impact on hepatic steatosis and related metabolic disorders. Experimental Approach Mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks to generate an obese model. Next, the obese mice were randomly divided into three groups: saline-treated and miltefosine-treated (2.5 or 5 mg/kg/d) groups. Miltefosine was intraperitoneally administrated into mice for additional 4 weeks plus HFD treatment. Key Results It was shown that miltefosine treatment could substantially improve glucose metabolism, prevented hepatic lipid accumulation, and inhibited liver inflammation in HFD-fed mice by activating AMPK signal pathway. In vitro, miltefosine stimulated AMPKα phosphorylation both in time and dose dependent manner and decreased lipid accumulation in liver cells. When a specific AMPK inhibitor compound C was used to treat mice, the antagonistic effects of miltefosine on HFD-induced mouse hyperlipidaemia and liver steatosis were abolished. Treatment with miltefosine also dramatically inhibited the HFD-induced liver inflammation in mice. Conclusions and Implications Here we demonstrated that miltefosine might be a new activator of AMPK signal pathway in vivo and in vitro and be useful for treatment of hepatic steatosis and related metabolic disorders. PMID:27681040

  16. Autophagy requires poly(adp-ribosyl)ation-dependent AMPK nuclear export.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vargas, José M; Rodríguez, María I; Majuelos-Melguizo, Jara; García-Diaz, Ángel; González-Flores, Ariannys; López-Rivas, Abelardo; Virág, László; Illuzzi, Giuditta; Schreiber, Valerie; Dantzer, Françoise; Oliver, F Javier

    2016-12-01

    AMPK is a central energy sensor linking extracellular milieu fluctuations with the autophagic machinery. In the current study we uncover that Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), a post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins, accounts for the spatial and temporal regulation of autophagy by modulating AMPK subcellular localisation and activation. More particularly, we show that the minority AMPK pool needs to be exported to the cytosol in a PARylation-dependent manner for optimal induction of autophagy, including ULK1 phosphorylation and mTORC1 inactivation. PARP-1 forms a molecular complex with AMPK in the nucleus in non-starved cells. In response to nutrient deprivation, PARP-1 catalysed PARylation, induced the dissociation of the PARP-1/AMPK complex and the export of free PARylated nuclear AMPK to the cytoplasm to activate autophagy. PARP inhibition, its silencing or the expression of PARylation-deficient AMPK mutants prevented not only the AMPK nuclear-cytosolic export but also affected the activation of the cytosolic AMPK pool and autophagosome formation. These results demonstrate that PARylation of AMPK is a key early signal to efficiently convey extracellular nutrient perturbations with downstream events needed for the cell to optimize autophagic commitment before autophagosome formation.

  17. Autophagy requires poly(adp-ribosyl)ation-dependent AMPK nuclear export

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Vargas, José M; Rodríguez, María I; Majuelos-Melguizo, Jara; García-Diaz, Ángel; González-Flores, Ariannys; López-Rivas, Abelardo; Virág, László; Illuzzi, Giuditta; Schreiber, Valerie; Dantzer, Françoise; Oliver, F Javier

    2016-01-01

    AMPK is a central energy sensor linking extracellular milieu fluctuations with the autophagic machinery. In the current study we uncover that Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), a post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins, accounts for the spatial and temporal regulation of autophagy by modulating AMPK subcellular localisation and activation. More particularly, we show that the minority AMPK pool needs to be exported to the cytosol in a PARylation-dependent manner for optimal induction of autophagy, including ULK1 phosphorylation and mTORC1 inactivation. PARP-1 forms a molecular complex with AMPK in the nucleus in non-starved cells. In response to nutrient deprivation, PARP-1 catalysed PARylation, induced the dissociation of the PARP-1/AMPK complex and the export of free PARylated nuclear AMPK to the cytoplasm to activate autophagy. PARP inhibition, its silencing or the expression of PARylation-deficient AMPK mutants prevented not only the AMPK nuclear-cytosolic export but also affected the activation of the cytosolic AMPK pool and autophagosome formation. These results demonstrate that PARylation of AMPK is a key early signal to efficiently convey extracellular nutrient perturbations with downstream events needed for the cell to optimize autophagic commitment before autophagosome formation. PMID:27689873

  18. Regulation of AMPK Activation by CD36 Links Fatty Acid Uptake to β-Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jingyu; Pietka, Terri; Gross, Richard W.; Eckel, Robert H.; Su, Xiong; Stahl, Philip D.

    2015-01-01

    Increases in muscle energy needs activate AMPK and induce sarcolemmal recruitment of the fatty acid (FA) translocase CD36. The resulting rises in FA uptake and FA oxidation are tightly correlated, suggesting coordinated regulation. We explored the possibility that membrane CD36 signaling might influence AMPK activation. We show, using several cell types, including myocytes, that CD36 expression suppresses AMPK, keeping it quiescent, while it mediates AMPK activation by FA. These dual effects reflect the presence of CD36 in a protein complex with the AMPK kinase LKB1 (liver kinase B1) and the src kinase Fyn. This complex promotes Fyn phosphorylation of LKB1 and its nuclear sequestration, hindering LKB1 activation of AMPK. FA interaction with CD36 dissociates Fyn from the protein complex, allowing LKB1 to remain cytosolic and activate AMPK. Consistent with this, CD36−/− mice have constitutively active muscle and heart AMPK and enhanced FA oxidation of endogenous triglyceride stores. The molecular mechanism described, whereby CD36 suppresses AMPK, with FA binding to CD36 releasing this suppression, couples AMPK activation to FA availability and would be important for the maintenance of cellular FA homeostasis. Its dysfunction might contribute to the reported association of CD36 variants with metabolic complications of obesity in humans. PMID:25157091

  19. Resveratrol, an activator of SIRT1, upregulates AMPK and improves cardiac function in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Gu, X S; Wang, Z B; Ye, Z; Lei, J P; Li, L; Su, D F; Zheng, X

    2014-01-21

    Reduced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression has been shown to play a significant role in the cardiac dysfunction in heart failure. This study was designed to examine the effect of resveratrol, a potent activator of silent information regulator (SIRT1), on cardiac function and AMPK expression in heart failure. Adult male rat left anterior descending arteries were ligated, and they were fed with either a regular diet or a diet enriched with resveratrol. Heart failure was produced by myocardial infarction, and was associated with markedly increased AMPK and SIRT1 protein levels. Resveratrol treatment had a tremendous beneficial effect, both in terms of improving AMPK expression and on cardiac function. Decreased cardiac function and AMPK expression were also found in SIRT1 knockout (+/-) mice. In cultured cardiomyocytes, resveratrol increased AMPK and SIRT1 expressions, and overexpression of SIRT1 was found to be sufficient to activate AMPK in H9c2 cells. In contrast, pretreatment of cardiomyocytes with an SIRT1 antagonist, nicotinamide, blocked these beneficial effects of resveratrol. Therefore, the protective effects of resveratrol were found to be dependent on its ability to activate SIRT1 and improve AMPK expression. These results demonstrated that in heart failure, the enzymatic activity of cardiac SIRT1 is increased, which contributes to increased expression of AMPK, and resveratrol enhances the expression of AMPK and improves cardiac function through the activation of SIRT1.

  20. Calcium-Oxidant Signaling Network Regulates AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Activation upon Matrix Deprivation*

    PubMed Central

    Sundararaman, Ananthalakshmy; Amirtham, Usha; Rangarajan, Annapoorni

    2016-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has recently been implicated in anoikis resistance. However, the molecular mechanisms that activate AMPK upon matrix detachment remain unexplored. In this study, we show that AMPK activation is a rapid and sustained phenomenon upon matrix deprivation, whereas re-attachment to the matrix leads to its dephosphorylation and inactivation. Because matrix detachment leads to loss of integrin signaling, we investigated whether integrin signaling negatively regulates AMPK activation. However, modulation of focal adhesion kinase or Src, the major downstream components of integrin signaling, failed to cause a corresponding change in AMPK signaling. Further investigations revealed that the upstream AMPK kinases liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ) contribute to AMPK activation upon detachment. In LKB1-deficient cells, we found AMPK activation to be predominantly dependent on CaMKKβ. We observed no change in ATP levels under detached conditions at early time points suggesting that rapid AMPK activation upon detachment was not triggered by energy stress. We demonstrate that matrix deprivation leads to a spike in intracellular calcium as well as oxidant signaling, and both these intracellular messengers contribute to rapid AMPK activation upon detachment. We further show that endoplasmic reticulum calcium release-induced store-operated calcium entry contributes to intracellular calcium increase, leading to reactive oxygen species production, and AMPK activation. We additionally show that the LKB1/CaMKK-AMPK axis and intracellular calcium levels play a critical role in anchorage-independent cancer sphere formation. Thus, the Ca2+/reactive oxygen species-triggered LKB1/CaMKK-AMPK signaling cascade may provide a quick, adaptable switch to promote survival of metastasizing cancer cells. PMID:27226623

  1. A role for AMPK in the inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by polyunsaturated fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kohan, Alison B.; Talukdar, Indrani; Walsh, Callee M.; Salati, Lisa M.

    2009-10-09

    Both polyunsaturated fatty acids and AMPK promote energy partitioning away from energy consuming processes, such as fatty acid synthesis, towards energy generating processes, such as {beta}-oxidation. In this report, we demonstrate that arachidonic acid activates AMPK in primary rat hepatocytes, and that this effect is p38 MAPK-dependent. Activation of AMPK mimics the inhibition by arachidonic acid of the insulin-mediated induction of G6PD. Similar to intracellular signaling by arachidonic acid, AMPK decreases insulin signal transduction, increasing Ser{sup 307} phosphorylation of IRS-1 and a subsequent decrease in AKT phosphorylation. Overexpression of dominant-negative AMPK abolishes the effect of arachidonic acid on G6PD expression. These data suggest a role for AMPK in the inhibition of G6PD by polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  2. Evolving Lessons on the Complex Role of AMPK in Normal Physiology and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Biplab; Chhipa, Rishi Raj

    2015-01-01

    AMP kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved enzyme required for adaptive responses to various physiological and pathological conditions. AMPK executes numerous cellular functions, some of which are often perceived at odds with each other. While AMPK is essential for embryonic growth and development, its full impact in adult tissues is revealed under stressful situations that organisms face in the real world. Conflicting reports about its cellular functions, particularly in cancer, are intriguing and a growing number of AMPK activators are being developed to treat human diseases such as cancer and diabetes. Whether these drugs will have only context-specific benefits or detrimental effects in the treatment of human cancer will be a subject of intense research. Here we review the current state of AMPK research with an emphasis on cancer and discuss the yet unresolved context-dependent functions of AMPK in human cancer. PMID:26711141

  3. A ROLE FOR AMPK IN THE INHIBITION OF GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE BY POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS

    PubMed Central

    Kohan, Alison B.; Talukdar, Indrani; Walsh, Callee M.; Salati, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    Both polyunsaturated fatty acids and AMPK promote energy partitioning away from energy consuming processes, such as fatty acid synthesis, towards energy generating processes, such as β-oxidation. In this report, we demonstrate that arachidonic acid activates AMPK in primary rat hepatocytes, and that this effect is p38 MAPK-dependent. Activation of AMPK mimics the inhibition by arachidonic acid of the insulin-mediated induction of G6PD. Similar to intracellular signaling by arachidonic acid, AMPK decreases insulin signal transduction, increasing Ser307 phosphorylation of IRS-1 and a subsequent decrease in AKT phosphorylation. Overexpression of dominant-negative AMPK abolishes the effect of arachidonic acid on G6PD expression. These data suggest a role for AMPK in the inhibition of G6PD by polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:19646964

  4. Dissecting the Dual Role of AMPK in Cancer: from Experimental to Human Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zadra, Giorgia; Batista, Julie L.; Loda, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The precise role of 5′AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) in cancer and its potential as a therapeutic target is controversial. While it is well established that activation of this energy sensor inhibits the main anabolic processes that sustain cancer cell proliferation and growth, AMPK activation can confer on cancer cells the plasticity to survive under metabolic stress such as hypoxia and glucose deprivation, which are commonly observed in fast growing tumors. Thus, AMPK is referred to as both a “conditional” tumor suppressor and “contextual” oncogene. To add a further layer of complexity, AMPK activation in human cancer tissues and its correlation with tumor aggressiveness and progression appears to vary in different contexts. The current review discusses the different faces of this metabolic regulator, the therapeutic implications of its modulation and provides an overview of the most relevant data available on AMPK activation and AMPK activating drugs in human studies. PMID:25956158

  5. AMPK Keeps Tumor Cells from Starving to Death.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Reuben J

    2015-11-05

    In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Saito et al. (2015) examine how leukemia-initiating cells react to metabolic stress imposed by different tissue environments. They find that inhibition of the metabolic stress sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) led to deranged glucose metabolism and redox homeostasis, resulting in reduced leukemic progression that was further attenuated by dietary restriction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Localisation of AMPK γ subunits in cardiac and skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Pinter, Katalin; Grignani, Robert T; Watkins, Hugh; Redwood, Charles

    2013-12-01

    The trimeric protein AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important sensor of energetic status and cellular stress, and mutations in genes encoding two of the regulatory γ subunits cause inherited disorders of either cardiac or skeletal muscle. AMPKγ2 mutations cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with glycogen deposition and conduction abnormalities; mutations in AMPKγ3 result in increased skeletal muscle glycogen. In order to gain further insight into the roles of the different γ subunits in muscle and into possible disease mechanisms, we localised the γ2 and γ3 subunits, along with the more abundant γ1 subunit, by immunofluorescence in cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle fibres. The predominant cardiac γ2 variant, γ2-3B, gave a striated pattern in cardiomyocytes, aligning with the Z-disk but with punctate staining similar to T-tubule (L-type Ca(2+) channel) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SERCA2) markers. In skeletal muscle fibres AMPKγ3 localises to the I band, presenting a uniform staining that flanks the Z-disk, also coinciding with the position of Ca(2+) influx in these muscles. The localisation of γ2-3B- and γ3-containing AMPK suggests that these trimers may have similar functions in the different muscles. AMPK containing γ2-3B was detected in oxidative skeletal muscles which had low expression of γ3, confirming that these two regulatory subunits may be co-ordinately regulated in response to metabolic requirements. Compartmentalisation of AMPK complexes is most likely dependent on the regulatory γ subunit and this differential localisation may direct substrate selection and specify particular functional roles.

  7. Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism, Lipid Metabolism, and Protein Metabolism by AMPK.

    PubMed

    Angin, Yeliz; Beauloye, Christophe; Horman, Sandrine; Bertrand, Luc

    This chapter summarizes AMPK function in the regulation of substrate and energy metabolism with the main emphasis on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, protein turnover, mitochondrial biogenesis, and whole-body energy homeostasis. AMPK acts as whole-body energy sensor and integrates different signaling pathway to meet both cellular and body energy requirements while inhibiting energy-consuming processes but also activating energy-producing ones. AMPK mainly promotes glucose and fatty acid catabolism, whereas it prevents protein, glycogen, and fatty acid synthesis.

  8. AMPK up-activation reduces motility and regulates other functions of boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Hurtado de Llera, A; Martin-Hidalgo, D; Gil, M C; Garcia-Marin, L J; Bragado, M J

    2015-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that AMPK inhibition in spermatozoa regulates motility, plasma membrane organization, acrosome integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential. As AMPK activity varies in different energy conditions induced by sperm environment, this work investigates the functional effects of AMPK activation in boar spermatozoa. Spermatozoa were incubated under non-stimulating (TBM) or Ca(2+) and [Formula: see text]-stimulating (TCM) media in the presence/absence of AMPK activator, A769662, for different times. AMPK activity, evaluated as Thr(172) phosphorylation by western blot, is effectively increased by A769662 in spermatozoa. AMPK activation significantly reduces the percentage of motile spermatozoa under Ca(2+) and/or [Formula: see text]-stimulating conditions. Moreover, AMPK activation in spermatozoa incubated in TBM or TCM significantly reduces curvilinear VCL, straight-line VSL and average VAP velocities, which subsequently lead to a significant decrease in the percentage of rapid spermatozoa (VAP > 80 μm/s). The effect of AMPK activation on motility is intensified by the absence of BSA in the incubation medium. AMPK activation for a short time prevents the decline in cell viability and in the sperm population displaying high mitochondrial membrane potential which is induced by Ca(2+) and [Formula: see text]. Sustained (24 h) AMPK activation under TBM or TCM significantly increases both lipid disorganization and phosphatidylserine externalization in the sperm plasma membrane, and diminishes the acrosome membrane integrity. In summary, AMPK activation modifies essential sperm processes such as motility, viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, acrosome membrane integrity, and organization and fluidity of plasma membrane. As these spermatozoa processes are required under different environmental conditions when transiting through the female reproductive tract to achieve fertilization, we conclude that balanced levels of AMPK activity are

  9. AMPK in cardiac fibrosis and repair: Actions beyond metabolic regulation.

    PubMed

    Daskalopoulos, Evangelos P; Dufeys, Cécile; Bertrand, Luc; Beauloye, Christophe; Horman, Sandrine

    2016-02-01

    Fibrosis is a general term encompassing a plethora of pathologies that span all systems and is marked by increased deposition of collagen. Injury of variable etiology gives rise to complex cascades involving several cell-types and molecular signals, leading to the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix that promotes fibrosis and eventually leads to organ failure. Cardiac fibrosis is a dynamic process associated notably with ischemia, hypertrophy, volume- and pressure-overload, aging and diabetes mellitus. It has profoundly deleterious consequences on the normal architecture and functioning of the myocardium and is associated with considerable mortality and morbidity. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a ubiquitously expressed cellular energy sensor and an essential component of the adaptive response to cardiomyocyte stress that occurs during ischemia. Nevertheless, its actions extend well beyond its energy-regulating role and it appears to possess an essential role in regulating fibrosis of the myocardium. In this review paper, we will summarize the main elements and crucial players of cardiac fibrosis. In addition, we will provide an overview of the diverse roles of AMPK in the heart and discuss in detail its implication in cardiac fibrosis. Lastly, we will highlight the recently published literature concerning AMPK-targeting current therapy and novel strategies aiming to attenuate fibrosis.

  10. Caffeine enhances endothelial repair by an AMPK-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Spyridopoulos, Ioakim; Fichtlscherer, Stephan; Popp, Rüdiger; Toennes, Stefan W; Fisslthaler, Beate; Trepels, Thomas; Zernecke, Alma; Liehn, Elisa A; Weber, Christian; Zeiher, Andreas M; Dimmeler, Stefanie; Haendeler, Judith

    2008-11-01

    Migratory capacity of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and mature endothelial cells (ECs) is a key prerequisite for endothelial repair after denuding injury or endothelial damage. We demonstrate that caffeine in physiologically relevant concentrations (50 to 100 micromol/L) induces migration of human EPCs as well as mature ECs. In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), caffeinated coffee increased caffeine serum concentration from 2 micromol/L to 23 micromol/L, coinciding with a significant increase in migratory activity of patient-derived EPCs. Decaffeinated coffee neither affected caffeine serum levels nor migratory capacity of EPCs. Treatment with caffeine for 7 to 10 days in a mouse-model improved endothelial repair after denudation of the carotid artery. The enhancement of reendothelialization by caffeine was significantly reduced in AMPK knockout mice compared to wild-type animals. Transplantation of wild-type and AMPK(-/-) bone marrow into wild-type mice revealed no difference in caffeine challenged reendothelialization. ECs which were depleted of mitochondrial DNA did not migrate when challenged with caffeine, suggesting a potential role for mitochondria in caffeine-dependent migration. These results provide evidence that caffeine enhances endothelial cell migration and reendothelialization in part through an AMPK-dependent mechanism, suggesting a beneficial role for caffeine in endothelial repair.

  11. Potential AMPK activators of cucurbitane triterpenoids from Siraitia grosvenorii Swingle.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu-bing; Zhuang, Jing-jing; Liu, Jun-hua; Lei, Min; Ma, Lei; Chen, Jing; Shen, Xu; Hu, Li-hong

    2011-10-01

    AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) as a key controller in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis, plays an important role in protecting the body from metabolic diseases. Recently, improved glucose, lipid utility and increased insulin sensitivity were observed on several diabetic rodent models treated with crude mogrosides isolated from the fruit of Siraitia grosvenorii Swingle, but the precise active compounds responsible for the anti-diabetic activity of this plant have not been clearly identified. In our current work, acid hydrolysis of crude mogrosides provided five new cucurbitane triterpenoids (1-4, 8), along with three known ones (5-7). The main aglycone mogrol (7) and compounds 4 and 8 were found to be potent AMPK activators in the HepG2 cell line. This result suggested AMPK activation by the mogroside aglycones 7 and 8 was proved to contribute at least partially to the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-lipidemic properties in vivo of S. grosvenorii. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hop derived flavonoid xanthohumol inhibits endothelial cell functions via AMPK activation

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Cristina; Dallaglio, Katiuscia; Bassani, Barbara; Rossi, Teresa; Rossello, Armando; Noonan, Douglas M.; D'Uva, Gabriele; Bruno, Antonino; Albini, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis, a process characterized by the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, is a crucial step in tumor growth and dissemination. Recently, increased attention has been addressed to the ability of flavonoids to prevent cancer by suppressing angiogenesis, strategy that we named “angioprevention”. Several natural compounds exert their anti-tumor properties by activating 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key regulator of metabolism in cancer cells. Drugs with angiopreventive activities, in particular metformin, regulate AMPK in endothelial cells. Here we investigated the involvement of AMPK in the anti-angiogenic effects of xanthohumol (XN), the major prenylated flavonoid of the hop plant, and mechanisms of action. The anti-angiogenic activity of XN was more potent than epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Treatment of endothelial cells with XN led to increased AMPK phosphorylation and activity. Functional studies using biochemical approaches confirmed that AMPK mediates XN anti-angiogenic activity. AMPK activation by XN was mediated by CAMMKβ, but not LKB1. Analysis of the downstream mechanisms showed that XN-induced AMPK activation reduced nitric oxide (NO) levels in endothelial cells by decreasing eNOS phosphorylation. Finally, AKT pathway was inactivated by XN as part of its anti-angiogenic activity, but independently from AMPK, suggesting that these two signaling pathways proceed autonomously. Our study dissects the molecular mechanism by which XN exerts its potent anti-angiogenic activity, pointing out AMPK as a crucial signal transducer. PMID:27494895

  13. [Recent advances in the study of AMPK and inflammatory pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Xuan, Ling-Ling; Hou, Qi

    2014-08-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important regulator of cellular energy homeostasis. Recent studies demonstrated that AMPK is a novel signaling molecule modulating inflammatory responses and oxidative stress which are involved in inflammatory pulmonary diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary infectious diseases and pulmonary fibrosis. AMPK attenuates inflammatory lung injury by phosphorylating its downstream targets, such as sirtuin1 (SIRT1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha), p53 and forkhead box O3a (FoxO3a). This review summarized the relationship between AMPK and the development of inflammatory pulmonary diseases.

  14. Hop derived flavonoid xanthohumol inhibits endothelial cell functions via AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Cristina; Dallaglio, Katiuscia; Bassani, Barbara; Rossi, Teresa; Rossello, Armando; Noonan, Douglas M; D'Uva, Gabriele; Bruno, Antonino; Albini, Adriana

    2016-09-13

    Angiogenesis, a process characterized by the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, is a crucial step in tumor growth and dissemination. Recently, increased attention has been addressed to the ability of flavonoids to prevent cancer by suppressing angiogenesis, strategy that we named "angioprevention". Several natural compounds exert their anti-tumor properties by activating 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key regulator of metabolism in cancer cells. Drugs with angiopreventive activities, in particular metformin, regulate AMPK in endothelial cells. Here we investigated the involvement of AMPK in the anti-angiogenic effects of xanthohumol (XN), the major prenylated flavonoid of the hop plant, and mechanisms of action. The anti-angiogenic activity of XN was more potent than epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Treatment of endothelial cells with XN led to increased AMPK phosphorylation and activity. Functional studies using biochemical approaches confirmed that AMPK mediates XN anti-angiogenic activity. AMPK activation by XN was mediated by CAMMKβ, but not LKB1. Analysis of the downstream mechanisms showed that XN-induced AMPK activation reduced nitric oxide (NO) levels in endothelial cells by decreasing eNOS phosphorylation. Finally, AKT pathway was inactivated by XN as part of its anti-angiogenic activity, but independently from AMPK, suggesting that these two signaling pathways proceed autonomously. Our study dissects the molecular mechanism by which XN exerts its potent anti-angiogenic activity, pointing out AMPK as a crucial signal transducer.

  15. Fyn-phosphorylated PIKE-A binds and inhibits AMPK signaling, blocking its tumor suppressive activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Qi, Q; Chan, C B; Zhou, W; Chen, J; Luo, H R; Appin, C; Brat, D J; Ye, K

    2016-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase, a key regulator of energy homeostasis, has a critical role in metabolic disorders and cancers. AMPK is mainly regulated by cellular AMP and phosphorylation by upstream kinases. Here, we show that PIKE-A binds to AMPK and blocks its tumor suppressive actions, which are mediated by tyrosine kinase Fyn. PIKE-A directly interacts with AMPK catalytic alpha subunit and impairs T172 phosphorylation, leading to repression of its kinase activity on the downstream targets. Mutation of Fyn phosphorylation sites on PIKE-A, depletion of Fyn, or pharmacological inhibition of Fyn blunts the association between PIKE-A and AMPK, resulting in loss of its inhibitory effect on AMPK. Cell proliferation and oncogenic assays demonstrate that PIKE-A antagonizes tumor suppressive actions of AMPK. In human glioblastoma samples, PIKE-A expression inversely correlates with the p-AMPK levels, supporting that PIKE-A negatively regulates AMPK activity in cancers. Thus, our findings provide additional layer of molecular regulation of the AMPK signaling pathway in cancer progression.

  16. The LKB1-AMPK pathway: metabolism and growth control in tumour suppression.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, David B; Shaw, Reuben J

    2009-08-01

    In the past decade, studies of the human tumour suppressor LKB1 have uncovered a novel signalling pathway that links cell metabolism to growth control and cell polarity. LKB1 encodes a serine-threonine kinase that directly phosphorylates and activates AMPK, a central metabolic sensor. AMPK regulates lipid, cholesterol and glucose metabolism in specialized metabolic tissues, such as liver, muscle and adipose tissue. This function has made AMPK a key therapeutic target in patients with diabetes. The connection of AMPK with several tumour suppressors suggests that therapeutic manipulation of this pathway using established diabetes drugs warrants further investigation in patients with cancer.

  17. Development of a Novel Phosphorylated AMPK Protection Assay for High-Throughput Screening Using TR-FRET Assay.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yazhou; Wang, Yunjie; Xu, Yuan; Li, Jia; Liao, Hong; Zhang, Luyong; Pang, Tao

    2015-08-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a conserved heterotrimeric kinase, serves as an energy sensor maintaining energy balance at both cellular and whole-body levels and plays multiple beneficial roles in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, which makes AMPK an attractive target for diabetes and other metabolic disorders. To date, establishment of the physiologically relevant biochemical assay for AMPK has not been reported. Here we developed a phosphorylated AMPK protection assay based on a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assay, using the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) to dephosphorylate AMPK. The partially dephosphorylated AMPK by PP2A had lower activity than phosphorylated AMPK. This specific TR-FRET assay for AMPK was optimized in the 384-well format and produced similar EC(50) values for AMPK activators AMP and A769662 and a similar IC(50) value for AMPK inhibitor compound C, as previously reported. Under the optimized conditions, the assay Z' factor calculated over 160 data points has an optimal value greater than 0.5, which is suitable for high-throughput screening. In conclusion, this phosphorylated AMPK protection assay we developed is very robust, sensitive, and simple to perform and may be useful as a high-throughput assay for identifying AMPK activators with the ability of preventing activated AMPK against dephosphorylation by phosphatase in the physiological conditions.

  18. Role of estradiol in intrinsic hindbrain AMPK regulation of hypothalamic AMPK, metabolic neuropeptide, and norepinephrine activity and food intake in the female rat.

    PubMed

    Alenazi, F S H; Ibrahim, B A; Al-Hamami, H; Shakiya, M; Briski, K P

    2016-02-09

    This study addressed the hypothesis that dorsomedial hindbrain adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) imposes inherent estradiol-dependent control of hypothalamic AMPK, neuropeptide, and norepinephrine (NE) activity and feeding in the female rat. Estradiol (E)- or oil (O)-implanted ovariectomized rats were injected with the AMPK inhibitor compound c (Cc) or vehicle into the caudal fourth ventricle (CV4) prior to micropunch-dissection of individual hypothalamic metabolic loci or assessment of food intake. Cc decreased hindbrain dorsal vagal complex phosphoAMPK (pAMPK) in both E and O; tissue ATP levels were reduced by this treatment in O only. In E/Cc, pAMPK expression was diminished in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and ventromedial (VMH) and paraventricular (PVH) nuclei; only PVH pAMPK was suppressed by this treatment in O/Cc. Cc decreased PVH corticotropin-releasing hormone and arcuate (ARH) proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and neuropeptide Y in O, but suppressed only POMC in E. O/Cc exhibited both augmented (PVH, VMH) and decreased (LHA, ARH) hypothalamic NE content, whereas Cc treatment of E elevated preoptic and dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus NE. Cc completely or incompletely repressed feeding in E versus O, respectively. Results implicate dorsomedial hindbrain AMPK in physiological stimulus-induced feeding in females. Excepting POMC, hypothalamic neuropeptide responses to this sensor may be contingent on estrogen. Estradiol likely designates hypothalamic targets of altered NE signaling due to hindbrain AMPK activation. Divergent changes in NE content of hypothalamic loci in O/Cc uniquely demonstrate sensor-induced bimodal catecholamine signaling to those sites. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Predominant α2/β2/γ3 AMPK activation during exercise in human skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Birk, J B; Wojtaszewski, J F P

    2006-01-01

    5′AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of cellular metabolism and is regulated in muscle during exercise. We have previously established that only three of 12 possible AMPK α/β/γ-heterotrimers are present in human skeletal muscle. Previous studies describe discrepancies between total AMPK activity and regulation of its target acetyl-CoA-carboxylase (ACC)β. Also, exercise training decreases expression of the regulatory γ3 AMPK subunit and attenuates α2 AMPK activity during exercise. We hypothesize that these observations reflect a differential regulation of the AMPK heterotrimers. We provide evidence here that only the α2/β2/γ3 subunit is phosphorylated and activated during high-intensity exercise in vivo. The activity associated with the remaining two AMPK heterotrimers, α1/β2/γ1 and α2/β2/γ1, is either unchanged (20 min, 80% maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2,peak)) or decreased (30 or 120 s sprint-exercise). The differential activity of the heterotrimers leads to a total α-AMPK activity, that is decreased (30 s trial), unchanged (120 s trial) and increased (20 min trial). AMPK activity associated with the α2/β2/γ3 heterotrimer was strongly correlated to γ3-associated α-Thr-172 AMPK phosphorylation (r2 = 0.84, P < 0.001) and to ACCβ Ser-221 phosphorylation (r2 = 0.65, P < 0.001). These data single out the α2/β2/γ3 heterotrimer as an important actor in exercise-regulated AMPK signalling in human skeletal muscle, probably mediating phosphorylation of ACCβ. PMID:17038425

  20. AMP-Activated Kinase AMPK Is Expressed in Boar Spermatozoa and Regulates Motility

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado de Llera, Ana; Martin-Hidalgo, David; Gil, María C.

    2012-01-01

    The main functions of spermatozoa required for fertilization are dependent on the energy status and metabolism. AMP-activated kinase, AMPK, acts a sensor and regulator of cell metabolism. As AMPK studies have been focused on somatic cells, our aim was to investigate the expression of AMPK protein in spermatozoa and its possible role in regulating motility. Spermatozoa from boar ejaculates were isolated and incubated under different conditions (38,5°C or 17°C, basal medium TBM or medium with Ca2+ and bicarbonate TCM, time from 1–24 hours) in presence or absence of AMPK inhibitor, compound C (CC, 30 µM). Western blotting reveals that AMPK is expressed in boar spermatozoa at relatively higher levels than in somatic cells. AMPK phosphorylation (activation) in spermatozoa is temperature-dependent, as it is undetectable at semen preservation temperature (17°C) and increases at 38,5°C in a time-dependent manner. AMPK phosphorylation is independent of the presence of Ca2+ and/or bicarbonate in the medium. We confirm that CC effectively blocks AMPK phosphorylation in boar spermatozoa. Analysis of spermatozoa motility by CASA shows that CC treatment either in TBM or in TCM causes a significant reduction of any spermatozoa motility parameter in a time-dependent manner. Thus, AMPK inhibition significantly decreases the percentages of motile and rapid spermatozoa, significantly reduces spermatozoa velocities VAP, VCL and affects other motility parameters and coefficients. CC treatment does not cause additional side effects in spermatozoa that might lead to a lower viability even at 24 h incubation. Our results show that AMPK is expressed in spermatozoa at high levels and is phosphorylated under physiological conditions. Moreover, our study suggests that AMPK regulates a relevant function of spermatozoa, motility, which is essential for their ultimate role of fertilization. PMID:22719961

  1. AMPK induces vascular smooth muscle cell senescence via LKB1 dependent pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, Jin Young; Woo, Chang-Hoon; Kang, Young Jin; Lee, Kwang Youn; Choi, Hyoung Chul

    2011-09-16

    Highlights: {yields} An aging model was established by stimulating VSMC with adriamycin. {yields} Adriamycin increased p-LKB1, p-AMPK, p53 and p21 expressions. {yields} Inhibition of AMPK diminished SA-{beta}-gal staining and restored VSMC proliferation. {yields} p53 and p21 siRNA attenuated adriamycin-induced SA-{beta}-gal staining in VSMC. {yields} p53-p21 pathway is a mediator of LKB1/AMPK induced VSMC senescence. -- Abstract: Vascular cells have a limited lifespan with limited cell proliferation and undergo cellular senescence. The functional changes associated with cellular senescence are thought to contribute to age-related vascular disorders. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been discussed in terms of beneficial or harmful effects for aging-related diseases. However, the detailed functional mechanisms of AMPK are largely unclear. An aging model was established by stimulating vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) with adriamycin. Adriamycin progressively increased the mRNA and protein expressions of AMPK. The phosphorylation levels of LKB1 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), the upstream and downstream of AMPK, were dramatically increased by adriamycin stimulation. The expressions of p53 and p21, which contribute to vascular senescence, were also increased. Inhibition of AMPK diminished senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-gal) staining, and restored VSMC proliferation. Cytosolic translocation of LKB1 by adriamycin could be a mechanism for AMPK activation in senescence. Furthermore, p53 siRNA and p21 siRNA transfection attenuated adriamycin-induced SA-{beta}-gal staining. These results suggest that LKB1 dependent AMPK activation elicits VSMC senescence and p53-p21 pathway is a mediator of LKB1/AMPK-induced senescence.

  2. Novel small-molecule AMPK activator orally exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Yu, Li-Fang; Zhang, Li-Na; Qiu, Bei-Ying; Su, Ming-Bo; Wu, Fang; Chen, Da-Kai; Pang, Tao; Gu, Min; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Wei-Ping; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Li, Jing-Ya Nan, Fa-Jun Li, Jia

    2013-12-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a pivotal guardian of whole-body energy metabolism, has become an attractive therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome. Previously, using a homogeneous scintillation proximity assay, we identified the small-molecule AMPK activator C24 from an optimization based on the original allosteric activator PT1. In this paper, the AMPK activation mechanism of C24 and its potential beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism on db/db mice were investigated. C24 allosterically stimulated inactive AMPK α subunit truncations and activated AMPK heterotrimers by antagonizing autoinhibition. In primary hepatocytes, C24 increased the phosphorylation of AMPK downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase dose-dependently without changing intracellular AMP/ATP ratio, indicating its allosteric activation in cells. Through activating AMPK, C24 decreased glucose output by down-regulating mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in primary hepatocytes. C24 also decreased the triglyceride and cholesterol contents in HepG2 cells. Due to its improved bioavailability, chronic oral treatment with multiple doses of C24 significantly reduced blood glucose and lipid levels in plasma, and improved the glucose tolerance of diabetic db/db mice. The hepatic transcriptional levels of PEPCK and G6Pase were reduced. These results demonstrate that this orally effective activator of AMPK represents a novel approach to the treatment of metabolic syndrome. - Highlights: • C24 activates AMPK through antagonizing autoinhibition within α subunit. • C24 activates AMPK in hepatocytes and decreases glucose output via AMPK. • C24 exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice. • C24 represents a novel therapeutic for treatment of metabolic syndrome.

  3. Leucine Modulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis and SIRT1-AMPK Signaling in C2C12 Myotubes

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chunzi; Curry, Benjamin J.; Brown, Patricia L.; Zemel, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies from this laboratory demonstrate that dietary leucine protects against high fat diet-induced mitochondrial impairments and stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and energy partitioning from adipocytes to muscle cells through SIRT1-mediated mechanisms. Moreover, β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate (HMB), a metabolite of leucine, has been reported to activate AMPK synergistically with resveratrol in C2C12 myotubes. Therefore, we hypothesize that leucine-induced activation of SIRT1 and AMPK is the central event that links the upregulated mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. Thus, C2C12 myotubes were treated with leucine (0.5 mM), alanine (0.5 mM), valine (0.5 mM), EX527 (SIRT1 inhibitor, 25 μM), and Compound C (AMPK inhibitor, 25 μM) alone or in combination to determine the roles of AMPK and SIRT1 in leucine-modulation of energy metabolism. Leucine significantly increased mitochondrial content, mitochondrial biogenesis-related genes expression, fatty acid oxidation, SIRT1 activity and gene expression, and AMPK phosphorylation in C2C12 myotubes compared to the controls, while EX527 and Compound C markedly attenuated these effects. Furthermore, leucine treatment for 24 hours resulted in time-dependent increases in cellular NAD+, SIRT1 activity, and p-AMPK level, with SIRT1 activation preceding that of AMPK, indicating that leucine activation of SIRT1, rather than AMPK, is the primary event. PMID:25400942

  4. Nuclear AMPK regulated CARM1 stabilization impacts autophagy in aged heart.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Yu, Lu; Xue, Han; Yang, Zheng; Yin, Yue; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Mai; Ma, Heng

    2017-04-29

    Senescence-associated autophagy downregulation leads to cardiomyocyte dysfunction. Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) participates in many cellular processes, including autophagy in mammals. However, the effect of CARM1 in aging-related cardiac autophagy decline remains undefined. Moreover, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator in metabolism and autophagy, however, the role of nuclear AMPK in autophagy outcome in aged hearts still unclear. Hers we identify the correlation between nuclear AMPK and CARM1 in aging heart. We found that fasting could promote autophagy in young hearts but not in aged hearts. The CARM1 stabilization is markedly decrease in aged hearts, which impaired nucleus TFEB-CARM1 complex and autophagy flux. Further, S-phase kinase-associated protein 2(SKP2), responsible for CARM1 degradation, was increased in aged hearts. We further validated that AMPK dependent FoxO3 phosphorylation was markedly reduced in nucleus, the decreased nuclear AMPK-FoxO3 activity fails to suppress SKP2-E3 ubiquitin ligase. This loss of repression leads to The CARM1 level and autophagy in aged hearts could be restored through AMPK activation. Taken together, AMPK deficiency results in nuclear CARM1 decrease mediated in part by SKP2, contributing to autophagy dysfunction in aged hearts. Our results identified nuclear AMPK controlled CARM1 stabilization as a new actor that regulates cardiac autophagy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Metformin Prevents Nigrostriatal Dopamine Degeneration Independent of AMPK Activation in Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bayliss, Jacqueline A.; Lemus, Moyra B.; Santos, Vanessa V.; Deo, Minh; Davies, Jeffrey S.; Kemp, Bruce E.; Elsworth, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Metformin is a widely prescribed drug used to treat type-2 diabetes, although recent studies show it has wide ranging effects to treat other diseases. Animal and retrospective human studies indicate that Metformin treatment is neuroprotective in Parkinson’s Disease (PD), although the neuroprotective mechanism is unknown, numerous studies suggest the beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis may be through AMPK activation. In this study we tested whether or not AMPK activation in dopamine neurons was required for the neuroprotective effects of Metformin in PD. We generated transgenic mice in which AMPK activity in dopamine neurons was ablated by removing AMPK beta 1 and beta 2 subunits from dopamine transporter expressing neurons. These AMPK WT and KO mice were then chronically exposed to Metformin in the drinking water then exposed to MPTP, the mouse model of PD. Chronic Metformin treatment significantly attenuated the MPTP-induced loss of Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) neuronal number and volume and TH protein concentration in the nigrostriatal pathway. Additionally, Metformin treatment prevented the MPTP-induced elevation of the DOPAC:DA ratio regardless of genotype. Metformin also prevented MPTP induced gliosis in the Substantia Nigra. These neuroprotective actions were independent of genotype and occurred in both AMPK WT and AMPK KO mice. Overall, our studies suggest that Metformin’s neuroprotective effects are not due to AMPK activation in dopaminergic neurons and that more research is required to determine how metformin acts to restrict the development of PD. PMID:27467571

  6. Nuclear translocation of AMPK-alpha1 potentiates striatal neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Ju, Tz-Chuen; Chen, Hui-Mei; Lin, Jiun-Tsai; Chang, Ching-Pang; Chang, Wei-Cheng; Kang, Jheng-Jie; Sun, Cheng-Pu; Tao, Mi-Hua; Tu, Pang-Hsien; Chang, Chen; Dickson, Dennis W; Chern, Yijuang

    2011-07-25

    Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major energy sensor that maintains cellular energy homeostasis. Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of CAG repeats in the huntingtin (Htt) gene. In this paper, we report that activation of the α1 isoform of AMPK (AMPK-α1) occurred in striatal neurons of humans and mice with HD. Overactivation of AMPK in the striatum caused brain atrophy, facilitated neuronal loss, and increased formation of Htt aggregates in a transgenic mouse model (R6/2) of HD. Such nuclear accumulation of AMPK-α1 was activity dependent. Prevention of nuclear translocation or inactivation of AMPK-α1 ameliorated cell death and down-regulation of Bcl2 caused by mutant Htt (mHtt). Conversely, enhanced expression of Bcl2 protected striatal cells from the toxicity evoked by mHtt and AMPK overactivation. These data demonstrate that aberrant activation of AMPK-α1 in the nuclei of striatal cells represents a new toxic pathway induced by mHtt.

  7. The AMPK-related kinase SNARK regulates muscle mass and myocyte survival

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The maintenance of skeletal muscle mass is critical for sustaining health; however, the mechanisms responsible for muscle loss with aging and chronic diseases, such as diabetes and obesity, are poorly understood. We found that expression of a member of the AMPK-related kinase family, the SNF1-AMPK-r...

  8. Compound K induces apoptosis via CAMK-IV/AMPK pathways in HT-29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Yeon; Park, Min Woo; Yuan, Hai Dan; Lee, Hyo Jung; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Sung Hyun

    2009-11-25

    Although compound K (CK), an intestinal metabolite of ginseng protopanaxadiol saponins, has been known to induce apoptosis in various cancer cells, association of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) with apoptosis in HT-29 colon cancer cells remains unclear. We hypothesized that CK may exert an anticancer activity through modulating the AMPK pathway in HT-29 cells. CK-induced apoptosis was associated with the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, release of apoptogenic factors (cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor) from mitochondria, and cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3, caspase-8, Bid, and PARP proteins. This apoptotic effect of CK on colon cancer cells was found to be initiated by AMPK activation, and AMPK was activated through phosphorylation by Ca2+/calmodulin-activated protein kinase-IV (CAMK-IV). Treatment of HT-29 cells with compound C (AMPK inhibitor) or siRNA for AMPK completely abolished the CK-induced apoptosis. STO-609, CAMKs inhibitor, also attenuated CK-induced AMPK activation and apoptosis. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that CK-mediated cell death of HT-29 colon cancer cells is regulated by CAMK-IV/AMPK pathways, and these findings provide a molecular basis for the anticancer effect of CK.

  9. The AMPK gamma1 R70Q mutant regulates multiple metabolic and growth pathways in neonatal cardiac myocytes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although mutations in the gamma-subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) can result in excessive glycogen accumulation and cardiac hypertrophy, the mechanisms by which this occurs have not been well defined. Because >65% of cardiac AMPK activity is associated with the gamma1-subunit of AMPK, w...

  10. Roles of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in mammalian glucose homoeostasis.

    PubMed Central

    Rutter, Guy A; Da Silva Xavier, Gabriela; Leclerc, Isabelle

    2003-01-01

    AMPK (5'-AMP-activated protein kinase) is emerging as a metabolic master switch, by which cells in both mammals and lower organisms sense and decode changes in energy status. Changes in AMPK activity have been shown to regulate glucose transport in muscle and glucose production by the liver. Moreover, AMPK appears to be a key regulator of at least one transcription factor linked to a monogenic form of diabetes mellitus. As a result, considerable efforts are now under way to explore the usefulness of AMPK as a therapeutic target for other forms of this disease. Here we review this topic, and discuss new findings which suggest that AMPK may play roles in regulating insulin release and the survival of pancreatic islet beta-cells, and nutrient sensing by the brain. PMID:12839490

  11. AMPK: positive and negative regulation, and its role in whole-body energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hardie, D Grahame

    2015-04-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of energy status that, when activated by metabolic stress, maintains cellular energy homeostasis by switching on catabolic pathways and switching off ATP-consuming processes. Recent results suggest that activation of AMPK by the upstream kinase LKB1 in response to nutrient lack occurs at the surface of the lysosome. AMPK is also crucial in regulation of whole body energy balance, particularly by mediating effects of hormones acting on the hypothalamus. Recent crystal structures of complete AMPK heterotrimers have illuminated its complex mechanisms of activation, involving both allosteric activation and increased net phosphorylation mediated by effects on phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Finally, AMPK is negatively regulated by phosphorylation of the 'ST loop' within the catalytic subunit.

  12. Imaging of Metabolic Status in 3D Cultures with an Improved AMPK FRET Biosensor for FLIM

    PubMed Central

    Chennell, George; Willows, Robin J. W.; Warren, Sean C.; Carling, David; French, Paul M. W.; Dunsby, Chris; Sardini, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We describe an approach to non-invasively map spatiotemporal biochemical and physiological changes in 3D cell culture using Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) biosensors expressed in tumour spheroids. In particular, we present an improved Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP) Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) FRET biosensor, mTurquoise2 AMPK Activity Reporter (T2AMPKAR), for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) readouts that we have evaluated in 2D and 3D cultures. Our results in 2D cell culture indicate that replacing the FRET donor, enhanced Cyan Fluorescent Protein (ECFP), in the original FRET biosensor, AMPK activity reporter (AMPKAR), with mTurquoise2 (mTq2FP), increases the dynamic range of the response to activation of AMPK, as demonstrated using the direct AMPK activator, 991. We demonstrated 3D FLIM of this T2AMPKAR FRET biosensor expressed in tumour spheroids using two-photon excitation. PMID:27548185

  13. Synthesis and biological evaluation of arctigenin ester and ether derivatives as activators of AMPK.

    PubMed

    Shen, Sida; Zhuang, Jingjing; Chen, Yijia; Lei, Min; Chen, Jing; Shen, Xu; Hu, Lihong

    2013-07-01

    A series of new arctigenin and 9-deoxy-arctigenin derivatives bearing different ester and ether side chains at the phenolic hydroxyl positions are designed, synthesized, and evaluated for activating AMPK potency in L6 myoblasts. Initial biological evaluation indicates that some alkyl ester and phenethyl ether arctigenin derivatives display potential activities in AMPK phosphorylation improvement. Further structure-activity relationship analysis shows that arctigenin ester derivatives 3a, 3h and 9-deoxy-arctigenin phenethyl ether derivatives 6a, 6c, 6d activate AMPK more potently than arctigenin. Moreover, the 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl ether moiety of 6c has been demonstrated as a potential functional group to improve the effect of AMPK phosphorylation. The structural optimization of arctigenin leads to the identification of 6c as a promising lead compound that exhibits excellent activity in AMPK activation. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Anti-inflammatory effect of AMPK signaling pathway in rat model of diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Hasanvand, Amin; Amini-Khoei, Hossein; Hadian, Mohammad-Reza; Abdollahi, Alireza; Tavangar, Seyed Mohammad; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Semiei, Elika; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei

    2016-10-01

    Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is characterized as Hyperglycemia activates thdisturbed nerve conduction and progressive chronic pain. Inflammatory mediators, particularly cytokines, have a determinant role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. The activity of adenosine monophosphate protein kinase (AMPK), an energy charge sensor with neuroprotective properties, is decreased in diabetes. It has been reported that activation of AMPK reduces the systemic inflammation through inhibition of cytokines. In this study, we aimed to investigate the probable protective effects of AMPK on DN in a rat of diabetes. DN was induced by injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, i.p.). Motor nerve conduction velocities (MNCV) of the sciatic nerve, as an electrophysiological marker for peripheral nerve damage, were measured. Plasma levels of IL-6, TNF-α, CRP were assessed as relevant markers for inflammatory response. Also, the expression of phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK) and non-phosphorylated (non-p-AMPK) was evaluated by western blotting in the dorsal root ganglia. Histopathological assessment was performed to determine the extent of nerve damage in sciatic nerve. Our findings showed that activation of AMPK by metformin (300 mg/kg) significantly increased the MNCV and reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines. In addition, we showed that administration of metformin increased the expression of p-AMPK as well as decline in the level of non p-AMPK. Our results demonstrated that co-administration of dorsomorphin with metformin reversed the beneficial effects of metformin. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrated that the activation of AMPK signaling pathway in diabetic neuropathy might be associated with the anti-inflammatory response.

  15. AMPK Enhances Insulin-Stimulated GLUT4 Regulation via Lowering Membrane Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Habegger, Kirk M.; Hoffman, Nolan J.; Ridenour, Colin M.; Brozinick, Joseph T.

    2012-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) enhances glucose transporter GLUT4 regulation. AMPK also suppresses energy-consuming pathways such as cholesterol synthesis. Interestingly, recent in vitro and in vivo data suggest that excess membrane cholesterol impairs GLUT4 regulation. Therefore, this study tested whether a beneficial, GLUT4-regulatory aspect of AMPK stimulation involved cholesterol lowering. Using L6 myotubes stably expressing an exofacial myc-epitope-tagged-GLUT4, AMPK stimulation by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribonucleoside (AICAR; 45 min, 1 mm) or 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP; 30 min, 200 μm) increased cell surface GLUT4myc labeling by approximately ∼25% (P < 0.05). Insulin (20 min, 100 nm) also increased GLUT4myc labeling by about 50% (P < 0.05), which was further enhanced (∼25%, P < 0.05) by AICAR or DNP. Consistent with AMPK-mediated suppression of cholesterol synthesis, AICAR and DNP decreased membrane cholesterol by 20–25% (P < 0.05). Whereas AMPK knockdown prevented the enhanced basal and insulin-stimulated GLUT4myc labeling by AICAR and DNP, cholesterol replenishment only blocked the AMPK-associated enhancement in insulin action. Cells cultured in a hyperinsulinemic milieu, resembling conditions in vivo that promote the progression/worsening of insulin resistance, displayed an increase in membrane cholesterol. This occurred concomitantly with a loss of cortical filamentous actin (F-actin) and defects in GLUT4 regulation by insulin. These derangements were prevented by AMPK stimulation. Examination of skeletal muscle from insulin-resistant Zucker rats revealed a similar elevation in membrane cholesterol and loss of F-actin. Lowering cholesterol to control levels restored F-actin structure and insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, these data suggest a novel aspect of GLUT4 regulation by AMPK involves membrane cholesterol lowering. Moreover, this AMPK-mediated process protected against hyperinsulinemia-induced insulin resistance. PMID

  16. AMPK enhances insulin-stimulated GLUT4 regulation via lowering membrane cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Habegger, Kirk M; Hoffman, Nolan J; Ridenour, Colin M; Brozinick, Joseph T; Elmendorf, Jeffrey S

    2012-05-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) enhances glucose transporter GLUT4 regulation. AMPK also suppresses energy-consuming pathways such as cholesterol synthesis. Interestingly, recent in vitro and in vivo data suggest that excess membrane cholesterol impairs GLUT4 regulation. Therefore, this study tested whether a beneficial, GLUT4-regulatory aspect of AMPK stimulation involved cholesterol lowering. Using L6 myotubes stably expressing an exofacial myc-epitope-tagged-GLUT4, AMPK stimulation by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribonucleoside (AICAR; 45 min, 1 mm) or 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP; 30 min, 200 μm) increased cell surface GLUT4myc labeling by approximately ≈ 25% (P < 0.05). Insulin (20 min, 100 nm) also increased GLUT4myc labeling by about 50% (P < 0.05), which was further enhanced (≈ 25%, P < 0.05) by AICAR or DNP. Consistent with AMPK-mediated suppression of cholesterol synthesis, AICAR and DNP decreased membrane cholesterol by 20-25% (P < 0.05). Whereas AMPK knockdown prevented the enhanced basal and insulin-stimulated GLUT4myc labeling by AICAR and DNP, cholesterol replenishment only blocked the AMPK-associated enhancement in insulin action. Cells cultured in a hyperinsulinemic milieu, resembling conditions in vivo that promote the progression/worsening of insulin resistance, displayed an increase in membrane cholesterol. This occurred concomitantly with a loss of cortical filamentous actin (F-actin) and defects in GLUT4 regulation by insulin. These derangements were prevented by AMPK stimulation. Examination of skeletal muscle from insulin-resistant Zucker rats revealed a similar elevation in membrane cholesterol and loss of F-actin. Lowering cholesterol to control levels restored F-actin structure and insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, these data suggest a novel aspect of GLUT4 regulation by AMPK involves membrane cholesterol lowering. Moreover, this AMPK-mediated process protected against hyperinsulinemia-induced insulin resistance.

  17. Metformin inhibits inflammatory response via AMPK-PTEN pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Ae; Choi, Hyoung Chul

    2012-09-07

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammation of the coronary arteries. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) stimulated by cytokines and chemokines accelerate the inflammatory response and migrate to the injured endothelium during the progression of atherosclerosis. Activation of AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key sensor maintaining metabolic homeostasis, suppresses the inflammatory response. However, how AMPK regulates the inflammatory response is poorly understood. To identify the mechanism of this response, we focused on phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), which is a negative regulator of inflammation. We investigated that activation of AMPK-induced PTEN expression and suppression of the inflammatory response through the AMPK-PTEN pathway in VSMCs. We treated with the well-known AMPK activator metformin to induce PTEN expression. PTEN was induced by metformin (2mM) and inhibited by compound C (10 μM) and AMPK siRNA. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was used to induce inflammation. The inflammatory response was confirmed by cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Metformin suppressed COX-2 and iNOS mRNA and protein expression dose dependently. Treatment with compound C and bpv (pic) in the presence of metformin, iNOS and COX-2 protein expression increased. NF-κB activation decreased in response to metformin and was restored by inhibiting AMPK and PTEN. Inhibiting AMPK and PTEN restored ROS levels stimulated with TNF-α. Taken together, PTEN could be a possible downstream regulator of AMPK, and the AMPK-PTEN pathway might be important in the regulation of the inflammatory response in VSMCs.

  18. Ghrelin-AMPK Signaling Mediates the Neuroprotective Effects of Calorie Restriction in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bayliss, Jacqueline A.; Lemus, Moyra B.; Stark, Romana; Santos, Vanessa V.; Thompson, Aiysha; Rees, Daniel J.; Galic, Sandra; Elsworth, John D.; Kemp, Bruce E.; Davies, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is neuroprotective in Parkinson's disease (PD) although the mechanisms are unknown. In this study we hypothesized that elevated ghrelin, a gut hormone with neuroprotective properties, during CR prevents neurodegeneration in an 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD. CR attenuated the MPTP-induced loss of substantia nigra (SN) dopamine neurons and striatal dopamine turnover in ghrelin WT but not KO mice, demonstrating that ghrelin mediates CR's neuroprotective effect. CR elevated phosphorylated AMPK and ACC levels in the striatum of WT but not KO mice suggesting that AMPK is a target for ghrelin-induced neuroprotection. Indeed, exogenous ghrelin significantly increased pAMPK in the SN. Genetic deletion of AMPKβ1 and 2 subunits only in dopamine neurons prevented ghrelin-induced AMPK phosphorylation and neuroprotection. Hence, ghrelin signaling through AMPK in SN dopamine neurons mediates CR's neuroprotective effects. We consider targeting AMPK in dopamine neurons may recapitulate neuroprotective effects of CR without requiring dietary intervention. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The neuroprotective mechanisms of calorie restriction (CR) in Parkinson's disease are unknown. Indeed, the difficulty to adhere to CR necessitates an alternative method to recapitulate the neuroprotective benefits of CR while bypassing dietary constraints. Here we show that CR increases plasma ghrelin, which targets substantia nigra dopamine to maintain neuronal survival. Selective deletion on AMPK beta1 and beta2 subunits only in DAT cre-expressing neurons shows that the ghrelin-induced neuroprotection requires activation of AMPK in substantia nigra dopamine neurons. We have discovered ghrelin as a key metabolic signal, and AMPK in dopamine neurons as its target, which links calorie restriction with neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease. Thus, targeting AMPK in dopamine neurons may provide novel neuroprotective benefits in Parkinson's disease. PMID

  19. Calcineurin Antagonizes AMPK to Regulate Lipolysis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanli; Xie, Cangsang; Diao, Zhiqing; Liang, Bin

    2017-06-26

    Calcineurin is a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase, and the target of immunosuppressive agent tacrolimus (TAC). The dysfunction of calcineurin, or clinical applications of tacrolimus, have been reported to be associated with dyslipidemia. The underlying mechanisms of calcineurin and tacrolimus in lipid metabolism are largely unknown. Here, we showed that mutations of tax-6 and cnb-1, which respectively encode the catalytic subunit and the regulatory subunit of calcineurin, together with tacrolimus treatment, consistently led to decreased fat accumulation and delayed growth in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In contrast, disruption of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) encoded by aak-1 and aak-2 reversed the above effects in worms. Moreover, calcineurin deficiency and tacrolimus treatment consistently activated the transcriptional expression of the lipolytic gene atgl-1, encoding triglyceride lipase. Furthermore, RNAi knockdown of atgl-1 recovered the decreased fat accumulation in both calcineurin deficient and tacrolimus treated worms. Collectively, our results reveal that immunosuppressive agent tacrolimus and their target calcineurin may antagonize AMPK to regulate ATGL and lipolysis, thereby providing potential therapy for the application of immunosuppressive agents.

  20. AMPK Signalling and Defective Energy Metabolism in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Perera, Nirma D; Turner, Bradley J

    2016-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by selective loss of upper and lower motor neurons by complex mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Motor neurons are large, highly polarised and excitable cells with unusually high energetic demands to maintain resting membrane potential and propagate action potentials. This leads to higher ATP consumption and mitochondrial metabolism in motor neurons relative to other cells. Here, we review increasing evidence that defective energy metabolism and homeostasis contributes to selective vulnerability and degeneration of motor neurons in ALS. Firstly, we provide a brief overview of major energetic pathways in the CNS, including glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signalling pathway, while highlighting critical metabolic interactions between neurons and astrocytes. Next, we review evidence from ALS patients and transgenic mutant SOD1 mice for weight loss, hypermetabolism, hyperlipidemia and mitochondrial dysfunction in disease onset and progression. Genetic and therapeutic modifiers of energy metabolism in mutant SOD1 mice will also be summarised. We also present evidence that additional ALS-linked proteins, TDP-43 and FUS, lead to energy disruption and mitochondrial defects in motor neurons. Lastly, we review emerging evidence including our own that dysregulation of the AMPK signalling cascade in motor neurons is an early and common event in ALS pathogenesis. We suggest that an imbalance in energy metabolism should be considered an important factor in both progression and potential treatment of ALS.

  1. Metformin inhibits inflammatory response via AMPK-PTEN pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sun Ae; Choi, Hyoung Chul

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTEN was induced by metformin and inhibited by compound C and AMPK siRNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metformin suppressed TNF-{alpha}-induced COX-2 and iNOS mRNA expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compound C and bpv (pic) increased iNOS and COX-2 protein expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NF-{kappa}B activation was restored by inhibiting AMPK and PTEN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AMPK and PTEN regulated TNF-{alpha}-induced ROS production in VSMCs. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammation of the coronary arteries. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) stimulated by cytokines and chemokines accelerate the inflammatory response and migrate to the injured endothelium during the progression of atherosclerosis. Activation of AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key sensor maintaining metabolic homeostasis, suppresses the inflammatory response. However, how AMPK regulates the inflammatory response is poorly understood. To identify the mechanism of this response, we focused on phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), which is a negative regulator of inflammation. We investigated that activation of AMPK-induced PTEN expression and suppression of the inflammatory response through the AMPK-PTEN pathway in VSMCs. We treated with the well-known AMPK activator metformin to induce PTEN expression. PTEN was induced by metformin (2 mM) and inhibited by compound C (10 {mu}M) and AMPK siRNA. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) was used to induce inflammation. The inflammatory response was confirmed by cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B. Metformin suppressed COX-2 and iNOS mRNA and protein expression dose dependently. Treatment with compound C and bpv (pic) in the presence of metformin, iNOS and COX-2 protein expression increased. NF-{kappa}B activation decreased in response to metformin and was restored by inhibiting AMPK

  2. Consequences of interrupted Rheb-to-AMPK feedback signaling in tuberous sclerosis complex and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lacher, Markus D; Pincheira, Roxana J

    2011-01-01

    Rheb is a small GTPase primarily known for activating mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and promoting cell growth in response to insulin and nutrients (amino acids, glucose). Shortage of glucose activates adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which induces catabolic processes that produce ATP and suppresses energy-consuming anabolic reactions. As part of the latter response, AMPK activates the TSC1-TSC2 tumor suppressor complex, which in turn inhibits Rheb, thereby reducing mTORC1 activity and consequently suppressing protein synthesis. We recently identified an mTORC1-independent Rheb-to-AMPK feedback signaling loop in Tsc2-null in vitro models of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC). In addition to activating AMPK, Rheb reduced the nuclear levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27KIP1 (p27). Importantly, Rheb-mediated repression of p27 correlated with activation of Cdk2 and cell proliferation, and with tumor formation by TSC cells. Considering that AMPK was previously reported to regulate stability and subcellular localization of p27, we hypothesize that Rheb regulates p27 in TSC cells by activating AMPK. This article discusses how Rheb-to-AMPK, and p27 signaling may impact on disease progression and treatment of TSC, including sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis (S-LAM) and malignancies. PMID:22145093

  3. AMPK Protects Leukemia-Initiating Cells in Myeloid Leukemias from Metabolic Stress in the Bone Marrow.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yusuke; Chapple, Richard H; Lin, Angelique; Kitano, Ayumi; Nakada, Daisuke

    2015-11-05

    How cancer cells adapt to metabolically adverse conditions in patients and strive to proliferate is a fundamental question in cancer biology. Here we show that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a metabolic checkpoint kinase, confers metabolic stress resistance to leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) and promotes leukemogenesis. Upon dietary restriction, MLL-AF9-induced murine acute myeloid leukemia (AML) activated AMPK and maintained leukemogenic potential. AMPK deletion significantly delayed leukemogenesis and depleted LICs by reducing the expression of glucose transporter 1 (Glut1), compromising glucose flux, and increasing oxidative stress and DNA damage. LICs were particularly dependent on AMPK to suppress oxidative stress in the hypoglycemic bone marrow environment. Strikingly, AMPK inhibition synergized with physiological metabolic stress caused by dietary restriction and profoundly suppressed leukemogenesis. Our results indicate that AMPK protects LICs from metabolic stress and that combining AMPK inhibition with physiological metabolic stress potently suppresses AML by inducing oxidative stress and DNA damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mechanisms of Paradoxical Activation of AMPK by the Kinase Inhibitors SU6656 and Sorafenib.

    PubMed

    Ross, Fiona A; Hawley, Simon A; Auciello, F Romana; Gowans, Graeme J; Atrih, Abdelmadjid; Lamont, Douglas J; Hardie, D Grahame

    2017-07-20

    SU6656, a Src kinase inhibitor, was reported to increase fat oxidation and reduce body weight in mice, with proposed mechanisms involving AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation via inhibition of phosphorylation of either LKB1 or AMPK by the Src kinase, Fyn. However, we report that AMPK activation by SU6656 is independent of Src kinases or tyrosine phosphorylation of LKB1 or AMPK and is not due to decreased cellular energy status or binding at the ADaM site on AMPK. SU6656 is a potent AMPK inhibitor, yet binding at the catalytic site paradoxically promotes phosphorylation of Thr172 by LKB1. This would enhance phosphorylation of downstream targets provided the lifetime of Thr172 phosphorylation was sufficient to allow dissociation of the inhibitor and subsequent catalysis prior to its dephosphorylation. By contrast, sorafenib, a kinase inhibitor in clinical use, activates AMPK indirectly by inhibiting mitochondrial metabolism and increasing cellular AMP:ADP and/or ADP:ATP ratios. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. A novel direct activator of AMPK inhibits prostate cancer growth by blocking lipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zadra, Giorgia; Photopoulos, Cornelia; Tyekucheva, Svitlana; Heidari, Pedram; Weng, Qing Ping; Fedele, Giuseppe; Liu, Hong; Scaglia, Natalia; Priolo, Carmen; Sicinska, Ewa; Mahmood, Umar; Signoretti, Sabina; Birnberg, Neal; Loda, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    5′AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) constitutes a hub for cellular metabolic and growth control, thus representing an ideal therapeutic target for prostate cancers (PCas) characterized by increased lipogenesis and activation of mTORC1 pathway. However, whether AMPK activation itself is sufficient to block cancer cell growth remains to be determined. A small molecule screening was performed and identified MT 63–78, a specific and potent direct AMPK activator. Here, we show that direct activation of AMPK inhibits PCa cell growth in androgen sensitive and castration resistant PCa (CRPC) models, induces mitotic arrest, and apoptosis. In vivo, AMPK activation is sufficient to reduce PCa growth, whereas the allelic loss of its catalytic subunits fosters PCa development. Importantly, despite mTORC1 blockade, the suppression of de novo lipogenesis is the underpinning mechanism responsible for AMPK-mediated PCa growth inhibition, suggesting AMPK as a therapeutic target especially for lipogenesis-driven PCas. Finally, we demonstrate that MT 63–78 enhances the growth inhibitory effect of AR signaling inhibitors MDV3100 and abiraterone. This study thus provides a rationale for their combined use in CRPC treatment. PMID:24497570

  6. Activation of AMPK by metformin inhibits TGF-β-induced collagen production in mouse renal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiamei; Shi, Jianhua; Li, Manxiang; Gui, Baosong; Fu, Rongguo; Yao, Ganglian; Duan, Zhaoyang; Lv, Zhian; Yang, Yanyan; Chen, Zhao; Jia, Lining; Tian, Lifang

    2015-04-15

    To clarify whether activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by metformin inhibits transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)-induced collagen production in primary cultured mouse renal fibroblasts and further to address the molecular mechanisms. Primary cultured mouse renal fibroblasts were stimulated with TGF-β1 and the sequence specific siRNA of Smad3 or connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) was applied to investigate the involvement of these molecular mediators in TGF-β1-induced collagen type I production. Cells were pre-incubated with AMPK agonist metformin or co-incubated with AMPK agonist metformin and AMPK inhibitor Compound C before TGF-β1 stimulation to clarify whether activation of AMPK inhibition of TGF-β1-induced renal fibroblast collagen type I expression. Our results demonstrate that TGF-β1 time- and dose-dependently induced renal fibroblast collagen type I production; TGF-β1 also stimulated Smad3-dependent CTGF expression and caused collagen type I generation; this effect was blocked by knockdown of Smad3 or CTGF. Activation of AMPK by metformin reduced TGF-β1-induced collagen type I production by suppression of Smad3-driven CTGF expression. This study suggests that activation of AMPK might be a novel strategy for the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) partially by inhibition of renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Consequences of interrupted Rheb-to-AMPK feedback signaling in tuberous sclerosis complex and cancer.

    PubMed

    Lacher, Markus D; Pincheira, Roxana J; Castro, Ariel F

    2011-07-01

    Rheb is a small GTPase primarily known for activating mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and promoting cell growth in response to insulin and nutrients (amino acids, glucose). Shortage of glucose activates adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which induces catabolic processes that produce ATP and suppresses energy-consuming anabolic reactions. As part of the latter response, AMPK activates the TSC1-TSC2 tumor suppressor complex, which in turn inhibits Rheb, thereby reducing mTORC1 activity and consequently suppressing protein synthesis. We recently identified an mTORC1-independent Rheb-to-AMPK feedback signaling loop in Tsc2-null in vitro models of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC). In addition to activating AMPK, Rheb reduced the nuclear levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(KIP1) (p27). Importantly, Rheb-mediated repression of p27 correlated with activation of Cdk2 and cell proliferation, and with tumor formation by TSC cells. Considering that AMPK was previously reported to regulate stability and subcellular localization of p27, we hypothesize that Rheb regulates p27 in TSC cells by activating AMPK. This article discusses how Rheb-to-AMPK, and p27 signaling may impact on disease progression and treatment of TSC, including sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis (S-LAM) and malignancies.

  8. Survival Advantage of AMPK Activation to Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer Cells During Energy Stress

    PubMed Central

    Chhipa, Rishi Raj; Wu, Yue; Mohler, James L.; Ip, Clement

    2016-01-01

    Androgen-independent prostate cancer usually develops as a relapse following androgen ablation therapy. Removing androgen systemically causes vascular degeneration and nutrient depletion of the prostate tumor tissue. The fact that the malignancy later evolves to androgen-independence suggests that some cancer cells are able to survive the challenge of energy/nutrient deprivation. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important manager of energy stress. The present study was designed to investigate the role of AMPK in contributing to the survival of the androgen-independent phenotype. Most of the experiments were carried out in the androgen-dependent LNCaP cells and the androgen-independent C4-2 cells. These two cell lines have the same genetic background, since the C4-2 line is derived from the LNCaP line. Glucose deprivation (GD) was instituted to model energy stress encountered by these cells. The key findings are as follows. First, the activation of AMPK by GD was much stronger in C4-2 cells than in LNCaP cells, and the robustness of AMPK activation was correlated favorably with cell viability. Second, the response of AMPK was specific to energy deficiency rather than to amino acid deficiency. The activation of AMPK by GD was functional, as demonstrated by appropriate phosphorylation changes of mTOR and mTOR downstream substrates. Third, blocking AMPK activation by chemical inhibitor or dominant negative AMPK led to increased apoptotic cell death. The observation that similar results were found in other androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines, including CW22Rv1 abd VCaP, provided further assurance that AMPK is a facilitator on the road to androgen-independence of prostate cancer cells. PMID:20570728

  9. Survival advantage of AMPK activation to androgen-independent prostate cancer cells during energy stress.

    PubMed

    Chhipa, Rishi Raj; Wu, Yue; Mohler, James L; Ip, Clement

    2010-10-01

    Androgen-independent prostate cancer usually develops as a relapse following androgen ablation therapy. Removing androgen systemically causes vascular degeneration and nutrient depletion of the prostate tumor tissue. The fact that the malignancy later evolves to androgen-independence suggests that some cancer cells are able to survive the challenge of energy/nutrient deprivation. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important manager of energy stress. The present study was designed to investigate the role of AMPK in contributing to the survival of the androgen-independent phenotype. Most of the experiments were carried out in the androgen-dependent LNCaP cells and the androgen-independent C4-2 cells. These two cell lines have the same genetic background, since the C4-2 line is derived from the LNCaP line. Glucose deprivation (GD) was instituted to model energy stress encountered by these cells. The key findings are as follows. First, the activation of AMPK by GD was much stronger in C4-2 cells than in LNCaP cells, and the robustness of AMPK activation was correlated favorably with cell viability. Second, the response of AMPK was specific to energy deficiency rather than to amino acid deficiency. The activation of AMPK by GD was functional, as demonstrated by appropriate phosphorylation changes of mTOR and mTOR downstream substrates. Third, blocking AMPK activation by chemical inhibitor or dominant negative AMPK led to increased apoptotic cell death. The observation that similar results were found in other androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines, including CW22Rv1 abd VCaP, provided further assurance that AMPK is a facilitator on the road to androgen-independence of prostate cancer cells. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Malondialdehyde inhibits an AMPK-mediated nuclear translocation and repression activity of ALDH2 in transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Ji-Woong; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Cho, Sung-Chun; Ha, Moon-Kyung; Song, Kye-Yong; Youn, Hong-Duk; Park, Sang Chul

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} ALDH2 is an MDA-modified protein in old rat kidney tissues. {yields} AMPK associates with ALDH2 and triggers the nuclear localization of ALDH2. {yields} ALDH2 serves as a general transcriptional repressor by associating with HDACs. {yields} MDA inhibits the AMPK-mediated translocation of ALDH2 and its repression activity. -- Abstract: Aging process results from deleterious damages by reactive oxygen species, in particular, various metabolic aldehydes. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is one of metabolic enzymes detoxifying various aldehydes under oxidative conditions. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in controlling metabolic process. However, little was known about the relationship of ALDH2 with AMPK under oxidative conditions. Here, we, by using MDA-specific monoclonal antibody, screened the tissues of young and old rats for MDA-modified proteins and identified an ALDH2 as a prominent MDA-modified protein band in the old rat kidney tissue. ALDH2 associates with AMPK and is phosphorylated by AMPK. In addition, AICAR, an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase, induces the nuclear translocation of ALDH2. ALDH2 in nucleus is involved in general transcription repression by association with histone deacetylases. Furthermore, MDA modification inhibited the translocation of ALDH2 and the association with AMPK, and ultimately led to de-repression of transcription in the reporter system analysis. In this study, we have demonstrated that ALDH2 acts as a transcriptional repressor in response to AMPK activation, and MDA modifies ALDH2 and inhibits repressive activity of ALDH2 in general transcription. We thus suggest that increasing amount of MDA during aging process may interrupt the nuclear function of ALDH2, modulated by AMPK.

  11. Activation of AMPK by berberine promotes adiponectin multimerization in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Wang, Pengcheng; Zhuang, Yuan; Lin, Huan; Li, Yehua; Liu, Ling; Meng, Qinghang; Cui, Ting; Liu, Jing; Li, Zhen

    2011-06-23

    Adiponectin is assembled into trimer (LMW), hexamer (MMW) and high-molecular-weight (HMW) multimer in adipocytes. The HMW adiponectin is more metabolically active and closely associated with peripheral insulin sensitivity. In this study, we reported that berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid with insulin-sensitizing effect, inhibits the expression of adiponectin, but promotes the assembly of HMW adiponectin and increases the ratio of HMW to total adiponectin. Berberine activates AMPK. Knockdown of AMPKα1 abolishes the effect of berberine. Activation of AMPK by AICAR also increases the level of HMW adiponectin. Our study suggested that activation of AMPK by berberine promotes adiponectin multimerization.

  12. The LKB1-AMPK pathway: metabolism and growth control in tumor suppression

    PubMed Central

    Shackelford, David B.; Shaw, Reuben J.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, studies of the human tumor suppressor LKB1 have uncovered a novel signaling pathway that links cell metabolism to growth control and cell polarity. LKB1 encodes a serine/threonine kinase that directly phosphorylates and activates AMPK, a central metabolic sensor. AMPK regulates lipid, cholesterol and glucose metabolism in specialized metabolic tissues such as liver, muscle, and adipose, a function that has made it a key therapeutic target in patients with diabetes. The connection of AMPK with several tumor suppressors suggests that therapeutic manipulation of this pathway with established diabetes drugs warrants further investigation in patients with cancer. PMID:19629071

  13. Metabolic Roles of AMPK and Metformin in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yeon Kyung; Park, Keun-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    Metformin is one of the most widely used anti-diabetic agents in the world, and a growing body of evidence suggests that it may also be effective as an anti-cancer drug. Observational studies have shown that metformin reduces cancer incidence and cancer-related mortality in multiple types of cancer. These results have drawn attention to the mechanisms underlying metformin’s anti-cancer effects, which may include triggering of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway, resulting in vulnerability to an energy crisis (leading to cell death under conditions of nutrient deprivation) and a reduction in circulating insulin/IGF-1 levels. Clinical trials are currently underway to determine the benefits, appropriate dosage, and tolerability of metformin in the context of cancer therapy. This review highlights fundamental aspects of the molecular mechanisms underlying metformin’s anti-cancer effects, describes the epidemiological evidence and ongoing clinical challenges, and proposes directions for future translational research. PMID:23794020

  14. A novel MEK-ERK-AMPK signaling axis controls chemokine receptor CCR7-dependent survival in human mature dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    López-Cotarelo, Pilar; Escribano-Díaz, Cristina; González-Bethencourt, Ivan Luis; Gómez-Moreira, Carolina; Deguiz, María Laura; Torres-Bacete, Jesús; Gómez-Cabañas, Laura; Fernández-Barrera, Jaime; Delgado-Martín, Cristina; Mellado, Mario; Regueiro, José Ramón; Miranda-Carús, María Eugenia; Rodríguez-Fernández, José Luis

    2015-01-09

    Chemokine receptor CCR7 directs mature dendritic cells (mDCs) to secondary lymph nodes where these cells regulate the activation of T cells. CCR7 also promotes survival in mDCs, which is believed to take place largely through Akt-dependent signaling mechanisms. We have analyzed the involvement of the AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) in the control of CCR7-dependent survival. A pro-apoptotic role for AMPK is suggested by the finding that pharmacological activators induce apoptosis, whereas knocking down of AMPK with siRNA extends mDC survival. Pharmacological activation of AMPK also induces apoptosis of mDCs in the lymph nodes. Stimulation of CCR7 leads to inhibition of AMPK, through phosphorylation of Ser-485, which was mediated by G(i)/Gβγ, but not by Akt or S6K, two kinases that control the phosphorylation of AMPK on Ser-485 in other settings. Using selective pharmacological inhibitors, we show that CCR7-induced phosphorylation of AMPK on Ser-485 is mediated by MEK and ERK. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis and proximity ligation assays indicate that AMPK associates with ERK, but not with MEK. These results suggest that in addition to Akt-dependent signaling mechanisms, CCR7 can also promote survival of mDCs through a novel MEK1/2-ERK1/2-AMPK signaling axis. The data also suggest that AMPK may be a potential target to modulate mDC lifespan and the immune response.

  15. A Novel MEK-ERK-AMPK Signaling Axis Controls Chemokine Receptor CCR7-dependent Survival in Human Mature Dendritic Cells*

    PubMed Central

    López-Cotarelo, Pilar; Escribano-Díaz, Cristina; González-Bethencourt, Ivan Luis; Gómez-Moreira, Carolina; Deguiz, María Laura; Torres-Bacete, Jesús; Gómez-Cabañas, Laura; Fernández-Barrera, Jaime; Delgado-Martín, Cristina; Mellado, Mario; Regueiro, José Ramón; Miranda-Carús, María Eugenia; Rodríguez-Fernández, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Chemokine receptor CCR7 directs mature dendritic cells (mDCs) to secondary lymph nodes where these cells regulate the activation of T cells. CCR7 also promotes survival in mDCs, which is believed to take place largely through Akt-dependent signaling mechanisms. We have analyzed the involvement of the AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) in the control of CCR7-dependent survival. A pro-apoptotic role for AMPK is suggested by the finding that pharmacological activators induce apoptosis, whereas knocking down of AMPK with siRNA extends mDC survival. Pharmacological activation of AMPK also induces apoptosis of mDCs in the lymph nodes. Stimulation of CCR7 leads to inhibition of AMPK, through phosphorylation of Ser-485, which was mediated by Gi/Gβγ, but not by Akt or S6K, two kinases that control the phosphorylation of AMPK on Ser-485 in other settings. Using selective pharmacological inhibitors, we show that CCR7-induced phosphorylation of AMPK on Ser-485 is mediated by MEK and ERK. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis and proximity ligation assays indicate that AMPK associates with ERK, but not with MEK. These results suggest that in addition to Akt-dependent signaling mechanisms, CCR7 can also promote survival of mDCs through a novel MEK1/2-ERK1/2-AMPK signaling axis. The data also suggest that AMPK may be a potential target to modulate mDC lifespan and the immune response. PMID:25425646

  16. Reduced expression of AMPK-β1 during tumor progression enhances the oncogenic capacity of advanced ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key energy sensor that is involved in regulating cell metabolism. Our previous study revealed that the subunits of the heterotimeric AMPK enzyme are diversely expressed during ovarian cancer progression. However, the impact of the variable expression of these AMPK subunits in ovarian cancer oncogenesis remains obscure. Here, we provide evidence to show that reduced expression of the AMPK-β1 subunit during tumor progression is associated with the increased oncogenic capacity of advanced ovarian cancer cells. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that AMPK-β1 levels were reduced in advanced-stage (P = 0.008), high-grade (P = 0.013) and metastatic ovarian cancers (P = 0.008). Intriguingly, down-regulation of AMPK-β1 was progressively reduced from tumor stages 1 to 3 of ovarian cancer. Functionally, enforced expression of AMPK-β1 inhibited ovarian-cancer-cell proliferation, anchorage-independent cell growth, cell migration and invasion. Conversely, depletion of AMPK-β1 by siRNA enhanced the oncogenic capacities of ovarian cancer cells, suggesting that the loss of AMPK-β1 favors the aggressiveness of ovarian cancer. Mechanistically, enforced expression of AMPK-β1 increased AMPK activity, which, in turn, induced cell-cycle arrest via inhibition of AKT/ERK signaling activity as well as impaired cell migration/invasion through the suppression of JNK signaling in ovarian cancer cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that the reduced expression of AMPK-β1 confers lower AMPK activity, which enhances the oncogenic capacity of advanced-stage ovarian cancer. PMID:24602453

  17. AMPK activity regulates trafficking of mitochondria to the leading edge during cell migration and matrix invasion

    PubMed Central

    Cunniff, Brian; McKenzie, Andrew J.; Heintz, Nicholas H.; Howe, Alan K.

    2016-01-01

    Cell migration is a complex behavior involving many energy-expensive biochemical events that iteratively alter cell shape and location. Mitochondria, the principal producers of cellular ATP, are dynamic organelles that fuse, divide, and relocate to respond to cellular metabolic demands. Using ovarian cancer cells as a model, we show that mitochondria actively infiltrate leading edge lamellipodia, thereby increasing local mitochondrial mass and relative ATP concentration and supporting a localized reversal of the Warburg shift toward aerobic glycolysis. This correlates with increased pseudopodial activity of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a critically important cellular energy sensor and metabolic regulator. Furthermore, localized pharmacological activation of AMPK increases leading edge mitochondrial flux, ATP content, and cytoskeletal dynamics, whereas optogenetic inhibition of AMPK halts mitochondrial trafficking during both migration and the invasion of three-dimensional extracellular matrix. These observations indicate that AMPK couples local energy demands to subcellular targeting of mitochondria during cell migration and invasion. PMID:27385336

  18. Metformin: Insights into its anticancer potential with special reference to AMPK dependent and independent pathways.

    PubMed

    Ikhlas, Shoeb; Ahmad, Masood

    2017-09-15

    Metformin has been known for its antidiabetic effects for decades and is used as a first line therapy in type 2 diabetes. But recently its anticancer potential has also been discovered. Metformin targets many pathways that play an important role in cancer cell proliferation and angiogenesis, mTORC1 signaling is a crucial pathway among them. Metformin inhibits mTORC1 via AMPK dependent and AMPK independent pathways, thereby inhibiting cancer cell growth and development. Encouraged by positive results of numerous preclinical studies on various types of cancer, many clinical trials are underway to study metformin's effect in chemoprevention and treatment of cancers in humans. Nowadays, applications of novel metformin analogues and nanotechnology based targeting have further enhanced the potential of metformin anticancer therapy. Here, we review both AMPK dependent and AMPK independent mechanisms involved in anticancer activity of metformin along with the outcome of preclinical and clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. AMPK-mediated regulation of neuronal metabolism and function in brain diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Ju; Chern, Yijuang

    2015-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine kinase that functions as a key energy sensor in a wide variety of tissues. This kinase has been a major drug target for metabolic diseases (e.g., type 2 diabetes) and cancers. For example, metformin (an activator of AMPK) is a first-line diabetes drug that protects against cancers. Abnormal regulation of AMPK has been implicated in several brain diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and stroke. Given the emerging importance of neurodegenerative diseases in our aging societies, this review features the recent studies that have delineated the functions of AMPK in brain diseases and discusses their potential clinical implications or roles as drug targets in brain diseases.

  20. Leishmania infantum Modulates Host Macrophage Mitochondrial Metabolism by Hijacking the SIRT1-AMPK Axis

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Diana; Rodrigues, Vasco; Abengozar, Maria; Rivas, Luis; Rial, Eduardo; Laforge, Mireille; Li, Xiaoling; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit; Estaquier, Jérôme; Cordeiro da Silva, Anabela; Silvestre, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic manipulation of host cells by intracellular pathogens is currently recognized to play an important role in the pathology of infection. Nevertheless, little information is available regarding mitochondrial energy metabolism in Leishmania infected macrophages. Here, we demonstrate that during L. infantum infection, macrophages switch from an early glycolytic metabolism to an oxidative phosphorylation, and this metabolic deviation requires SIRT1 and LKB1/AMPK. SIRT1 or LBK1 deficient macrophages infected with L. infantum failed to activate AMPK and up-regulate its targets such as Slc2a4 and Ppargc1a, which are essential for parasite growth. As a result, impairment of metabolic switch caused by SIRT1 or AMPK deficiency reduces parasite load in vitro and in vivo. Overall, our work demonstrates the importance of SIRT1 and AMPK energetic sensors for parasite intracellular survival and proliferation, highlighting the modulation of these proteins as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:25738568

  1. Leishmania infantum modulates host macrophage mitochondrial metabolism by hijacking the SIRT1-AMPK axis.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Diana; Rodrigues, Vasco; Abengozar, Maria; Rivas, Luis; Rial, Eduardo; Laforge, Mireille; Li, Xiaoling; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit; Estaquier, Jérôme; Cordeiro da Silva, Anabela; Silvestre, Ricardo

    2015-03-01

    Metabolic manipulation of host cells by intracellular pathogens is currently recognized to play an important role in the pathology of infection. Nevertheless, little information is available regarding mitochondrial energy metabolism in Leishmania infected macrophages. Here, we demonstrate that during L. infantum infection, macrophages switch from an early glycolytic metabolism to an oxidative phosphorylation, and this metabolic deviation requires SIRT1 and LKB1/AMPK. SIRT1 or LBK1 deficient macrophages infected with L. infantum failed to activate AMPK and up-regulate its targets such as Slc2a4 and Ppargc1a, which are essential for parasite growth. As a result, impairment of metabolic switch caused by SIRT1 or AMPK deficiency reduces parasite load in vitro and in vivo. Overall, our work demonstrates the importance of SIRT1 and AMPK energetic sensors for parasite intracellular survival and proliferation, highlighting the modulation of these proteins as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  2. 5'-Monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) improves autophagic activity in diabetes and diabetic complications.

    PubMed

    Yao, Fan; Zhang, Ming; Chen, Li

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM), an endocrine disorder, will be one of the leading causes of death world-wide in about two decades. Cellular injuries and disorders of energy metabolism are two key factors in the pathogenesis of diabetes, which also become the important causes for the process of diabetic complications. AMPK is a key enzyme in maintaining metabolic homeostasis and has been implicated in the activation of autophagy in distinct tissues. An increasing number of researchers have confirmed that autophagy is a potential factor to affect or induce diabetes and its complications nowadays, which could remove cytotoxic proteins and dysfunctional organelles. This review will summarize the regulation of autophagy and AMPK in diabetes and its complications, and explore how AMPK stimulates autophagy in different diabetic syndromes. A deeper understanding of the regulation and activity of AMPK in autophagy would enhance its development as a promising therapeutic target for diabetes treatment.

  3. Cellular energy stress induces AMPK-mediated regulation of YAP and the Hippo pathway.

    PubMed

    Mo, Jung-Soon; Meng, Zhipeng; Kim, Young Chul; Park, Hyun Woo; Hansen, Carsten Gram; Kim, Soohyun; Lim, Dae-Sik; Guan, Kun-Liang

    2015-04-01

    YAP (Yes-associated protein) is a transcription co-activator in the Hippo tumour suppressor pathway and controls cell growth, tissue homeostasis and organ size. YAP is inhibited by the kinase Lats, which phosphorylates YAP to induce its cytoplasmic localization and proteasomal degradation. YAP induces gene expression by binding to the TEAD family transcription factors. Dysregulation of the Hippo-YAP pathway is frequently observed in human cancers. Here we show that cellular energy stress induces YAP phosphorylation, in part due to AMPK-dependent Lats activation, thereby inhibiting YAP activity. Moreover, AMPK directly phosphorylates YAP Ser 94, a residue essential for the interaction with TEAD, thus disrupting the YAP-TEAD interaction. AMPK-induced YAP inhibition can suppress oncogenic transformation of Lats-null cells with high YAP activity. Our study establishes a molecular mechanism and functional significance of AMPK in linking cellular energy status to the Hippo-YAP pathway.

  4. Cellular energy stress induces AMPK-mediated regulation of YAP and the Hippo pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Jung-Soon; Meng, Zhipeng; Kim, Young Chul; Park, Hyun Woo; Hansen, Carsten Gram; Kim, Soohyun; Lim, Dae-Sik; Guan, Kun-Liang

    2015-01-01

    YAP (Yes-associated protein) is a transcription co-activator in the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway and controls cell growth, tissue homeostasis, and organ size. YAP is inhibited by the kinase Lats, which phosphorylates YAP to induce its cytoplasmic localization and proteasomal degradation. YAP induces gene expression by binding to the TEAD family transcription factors. Dysregulation of the Hippo-YAP pathway is frequently observed in human cancers. Here we show that cellular energy stress induces YAP phosphorylation, in part due to AMPK-dependent Lats activation, thereby inhibiting YAP activity. Moreover, AMPK directly phosphorylates YAP S94, a residue essential for the interaction with TEAD, thus disrupting the YAP-TEAD interaction. AMPK-induced YAP inhibition can suppress oncogenic transformation of Lats-null cells with high YAP activity. Our study establishes a molecular mechanism and functional significance of AMPK in linking cellular energy status to the Hippo-YAP pathway. PMID:25751140

  5. Interdependence of AMPK and SIRT1 for metabolic adaptation to fasting and exercise in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cantó, Carles; Jiang, Lake Q.; Deshmukh, Atul S.; Mataki, Chikage; Coste, Agnes; Lagouge, Marie; Zierath, Juleen R.; Auwerx, Johan

    2013-01-01

    During fasting and after exercise, skeletal muscle efficiently switches from carbohydrate to lipid as the main energy source to preserve glycogen stores and blood glucose levels for glucose-dependent tissues. Skeletal muscle cells sense this limitation in glucose availability and transform this information into transcriptional and metabolic adaptations. Here we demonstrate that AMPK acts as the prime initial sensor that translates this information into SIRT1-dependent deacetylation of the transcriptional regulators PGC-1α and FOXO1, culminating in the transcriptional modulation of mitochondrial and lipid utilization genes. Deficient AMPK activity compromises SIRT1-dependent responses to exercise and fasting, resulting in impaired PGC-1α deacetylation and blunted induction of mitochondrial gene expression. Thus, we conclude that AMPK acts as the primordial trigger for fasting- and exercise-induced adaptations in skeletal muscle and that activation of SIRT1 and its downstream signalling pathways are improperly triggered in AMPK deficient states. PMID:20197054

  6. AMPK Activation Protects Against Sepsis-Induced Organ Injury and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Daniel A.; Botero-Quintero, Ana M.; Kautza, Benjamin C.; Luciano, Jason; Loughran, Patricia; Darwiche, Sophie; Rosengart, Matthew R.; Zuckerbraun, Brian S.; Gomez, Hernando

    2014-01-01

    Background Mortality in sepsis is most often attributed to the development of multiple organ failure. In sepsis, inflammation-mediated endothelial activation, defined as a proinflammatory and procoagulant state of the endothelial cells, has been associated with severity of disease. Thus, the objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that AMPK activation limits inflammation and endothelium activation to protect against organ injury in sepsis. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR), which is an AMP analogue, has been used to upregulate activity of AMPK. Compound C is a cell-permeable pyrrazolopyrimidine compound that inhibits AMPK activity. Methods Wild-type mice underwent CLP or Sham surgery. Mice were randomized to vehicle, AICAR, or Compound C. Mouse kidney endothelial cells were used for in vitro experiments. Renal and liver function, were determined by serum Cystatin C, BUN, creatinine, and ALT. Serum cytokines were measured by ELISA. Microvascular injury was determined using Evan’s blue dye and electron microscopy. Immunohistochemistry was used to measure protein levels of p-AMPK, LC3, and ICAM. LC3 levels were used as a measure of autophagosome formation. Results AICAR decreased liver, and kidney injury induced by CLP and minimized cytokine elevation, in vivo and in vitro. CLP increased renal and hepatic phosphorylation of AMPK and autophagic signaling as determined by LC3. Inhibition of AMPK with Compound C prevented CLP-induced autophagy and exacerbated tissue injury. Additionally, CLP led to endothelial injury as determined by electron microscopy and Evan’s blue dye extravasation, and AICAR limited this injury. Furthermore, AICAR limited CLP and LPS induced upregulation of ICAM in vivo and in vitro, and decreased LPS induced neutrophil adhesion in vitro. Conclusion In this model, activation of AMPK was protective and AICAR minimized organ injury by decreasing inflammatory cytokines and endothelial activation. These data suggest

  7. Effect of Acute Exercise on AMPK Signaling in Skeletal Muscle of Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Coletta, Dawn K.; Wajcberg, Estela; Balbontin, Gabriela B.; Reyna, Sara M.; Barrientes, John; Eagan, Phyllis A.; Jenkinson, Christopher P.; Cersosimo, Eugenio; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Sakamoto, Kei; Musi, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by exercise induces several cellular processes in muscle. Exercise activation of AMPK is unaffected in lean (BMI ~25 kg/m2) subjects with type 2 diabetes. However, most type 2 diabetic subjects are obese (BMI >30 kg/m2), and exercise stimulation of AMPK is blunted in obese rodents. We examined whether obese type 2 diabetic subjects have impaired exercise stimulation of AMPK, at different signaling levels, spanning from the upstream kinase, LKB1, to the putative AMPK targets, AS160 and peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor coactivator (PGC)-1α, involved in glucose transport regulation and mitochondrial biogenesis, respectively. Twelve type 2 diabetic, eight obese, and eight lean subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer for 40 min. Muscle biopsies were done before, during, and after exercise. Subjects underwent this protocol on two occasions, at low (50% VO2max) and moderate (70% VO2max) intensities, with a 4–6 week interval. Exercise had no effect on LKB1 activity. Exercise had a time- and intensity-dependent effect to increase AMPK activity and AS160 phosphorylation. Obese and type 2 diabetic subjects had attenuated exercise-stimulated AMPK activity and AS160 phosphorylation. Type 2 diabetic subjects had reduced basal PGC-1 gene expression but normal exercise-induced increases in PGC-1 expression. Our findings suggest that obese type 2 diabetic subjects may need to exercise at higher intensity to stimulate the AMPK-AS160 axis to the same level as lean subjects. PMID:17327455

  8. Differential regulation of AMPK activation in leptin- and creatine-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Stockebrand, Malte; Sauter, Kathrin; Neu, Axel; Isbrandt, Dirk; Choe, Chi-un

    2013-10-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key sensor and regulator of energy homeostasis. Previously, we demonstrated that intracellular energy depletion by L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) deficiency resulted in AMPK activation and protected from metabolic syndrome. In the present study, we show tissue-specific leptin dependence of AMPK activation by energy depletion. We investigated leptin-dependent AMPK regulation in AGAT- and leptin-deficient (d/d ob/ob) mice. Like ob/ob mice, but unlike d/d mice, d/d ob/ob mice were obese and glucose intolerant. Therefore, leptin is a prerequisite for resistance to metabolic syndrome in AGAT-deficient mice. Quantitative Western blots revealed a 4-fold increase in AMPK activation in skeletal muscle of d/d ob/ob mice (P<0.001). However, AMPK activation was absent in white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver. Compared with blood glucose levels in ob/ob mice, fasting levels were still reduced and therefore did not show leptin dependence (wild-type, 79.4±3.9 mg/dl; d/d, 68.4±3.2 mg/dl; P<0.05). In ob/ob mice and wild-type mice, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), in combination with leptin, augmented glucose tolerance compared with AICAR alone, whereas no improvement was found under conditions of high-fat-diet feeding. These findings reveal a previously unknown synergistic AMPK activation by leptin and intracellular energy depletion, suggesting that AMPK activation can be therapeutically effective in metabolic syndrome only if leptin sensitivity is preserved.

  9. Skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction is regulated by nitric oxide and ROS independently of AMPK.

    PubMed

    Merry, Troy L; Steinberg, Gregory R; Lynch, Gordon S; McConell, Glenn K

    2010-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) have been implicated in the regulation of skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction, and there is evidence that they do so via interaction with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that ROS and NO regulate skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction via an AMPK-independent mechanism. Isolated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles from mice that expressed a muscle-specific kinase dead AMPKalpha2 isoform (AMPK-KD) and wild-type litter mates (WT) were stimulated to contract, and glucose uptake was measured in the presence or absence of the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) or the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA). Contraction increased AMPKalpha2 activity in WT but not AMPK-KD EDL muscles. However, contraction increased glucose uptake in the EDL and soleus muscles of AMPK-KD and WT mice to a similar extent. In EDL muscles, NAC and l-NMMA prevented contraction-stimulated increases in oxidant levels (dichloroflourescein fluorescence) and NOS activity, respectively, and attenuated contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in both genotypes to a similar extent. In soleus muscles of AMPK-KD and WT mice, NAC prevented contraction-stimulated glucose uptake and l-NMMA had no effect. This is likely attributed to the relative lack of neuronal NOS in the soleus muscles compared with EDL muscles. Contraction increased AMPKalpha Thr(172) phosphorylation in EDL and soleus muscles of WT but not AMPK-KD mice, and this was not affected by NAC or l-NMMA treatment. In conclusion, ROS and NO are involved in regulating skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction via an AMPK-independent mechanism.

  10. Role of angiotensin II-mediated AMPK inactivation on obesity-related salt-sensitive hypertension.

    PubMed

    Deji, Naoko; Kume, Shinji; Araki, Shin-ichi; Isshiki, Keiji; Araki, Hisazumi; Chin-Kanasaki, Masami; Tanaka, Yuki; Nishiyama, Akira; Koya, Daisuke; Haneda, Masakazu; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Uzu, Takashi

    2012-02-17

    Salt-sensitive hypertension is a characteristic of the metabolic syndrome. Given the links to cardiovascular events, the mechanisms underlying sodium metabolism may represent an important therapeutic target for this disorder. Angiotensin II (AII) is a key peptide underlying sodium retention. However, 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has also been reported to participate in the regulation of ion transport. In this study we examined the relationship between AII and AMPK on the development of hypertension in two salt-sensitive mouse models. In the first model, the mice were maintained on a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks, in order to develop features similar to the metabolic syndrome, including salt-sensitive hypertension. HFD-induced obese mice showed elevated systolic blood pressure and lower sodium excretion in response to salt loading, along with an increase in AII contents and inactivation of AMPK in the kidney, which were significantly improved by the treatment of an angiotensin II antagonist, losartan, for 2 weeks. To clarify the effects of AII, a second group of mice was infused with AII via an osmotic pump, which led to higher systolic blood pressure, and decreases in urinary sodium excretion and the expression of AMPK, in a manner similar to those observed in the HFD mice. However, treatment with an AMPK activator, metformin, improved the changes induced by the AII, suggesting that AII induced sodium retention works by acting on AMPK activity. Finally, we evaluated the changes in salt-sensitivity by performing 2-week salt loading experiments with or without metformin. AII infusion elevated blood pressure by salt loading but metformin prevented it. These findings indicate that AII suppresses AMPK activity in the kidney, leading to sodium retention and enhanced salt-sensitivity, and that AMPK activation may represent a new therapeutic target for obesity-related salt-sensitive hypertension. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sestrin2 Protects Dopaminergic Cells against Rotenone Toxicity through AMPK-Dependent Autophagy Activation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yi-Sheng; Guan, Jun-Jie; Xu, Hai-Dong; Wu, Feng; Sheng, Rui; Qin, Zheng-Hong

    2015-08-01

    Dysfunction of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway (ALP) and the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) was thought to be an important pathogenic mechanism in synuclein pathology and Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, we investigated the role of sestrin2 in autophagic degradation of α-synuclein and preservation of cell viability in a rotenone-induced cellular model of PD. We speculated that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was involved in regulation of autophagy and protection of dopaminergic cells against rotenone toxicity by sestrin2. The results showed that both the mRNA and protein levels of sestrin2 were increased in a TP53-dependent manner in Mes 23.5 cells after treatment with rotenone. Genetic knockdown of sestrin2 compromised the autophagy induction in response to rotenone, while overexpression of sestrin2 increased the basal autophagy activity. Sestrin2 presumably enhanced autophagy in an AMPK-dependent fashion, as sestrin2 overexpression activated AMPK, and genetic knockdown of AMPK abrogated autophagy induction by rotenone. Restoration of AMPK activity by metformin after sestrin2 knockdown recovered the autophagy activity. Sestrin2 overexpression ameliorated α-synuclein accumulation, inhibited caspase 3 activation, and reduced the cytotoxicity of rotenone. These results suggest that sestrin2 upregulation attempts to maintain autophagy activity and suppress rotenone cytotoxicity through activation of AMPK, and that sestrin2 exerts a protective effect on dopaminergic cells. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Sestrin2 Protects Dopaminergic Cells against Rotenone Toxicity through AMPK-Dependent Autophagy Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yi-Sheng; Guan, Jun-Jie; Xu, Hai-Dong; Wu, Feng; Sheng, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunction of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway (ALP) and the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) was thought to be an important pathogenic mechanism in synuclein pathology and Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, we investigated the role of sestrin2 in autophagic degradation of α-synuclein and preservation of cell viability in a rotenone-induced cellular model of PD. We speculated that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was involved in regulation of autophagy and protection of dopaminergic cells against rotenone toxicity by sestrin2. The results showed that both the mRNA and protein levels of sestrin2 were increased in a TP53-dependent manner in Mes 23.5 cells after treatment with rotenone. Genetic knockdown of sestrin2 compromised the autophagy induction in response to rotenone, while overexpression of sestrin2 increased the basal autophagy activity. Sestrin2 presumably enhanced autophagy in an AMPK-dependent fashion, as sestrin2 overexpression activated AMPK, and genetic knockdown of AMPK abrogated autophagy induction by rotenone. Restoration of AMPK activity by metformin after sestrin2 knockdown recovered the autophagy activity. Sestrin2 overexpression ameliorated α-synuclein accumulation, inhibited caspase 3 activation, and reduced the cytotoxicity of rotenone. These results suggest that sestrin2 upregulation attempts to maintain autophagy activity and suppress rotenone cytotoxicity through activation of AMPK, and that sestrin2 exerts a protective effect on dopaminergic cells. PMID:26031332

  13. UCF-101 mitigates streptozotocin-induced cardiomyocyte dysfunction: role of AMPK

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qun; Li, Ji

    2009-01-01

    Diabetic heart disease contributes to the high mortality in diabetics, although effective clinical management is lacking. The protease inhibitor 5-[5-(2-nitrophenyl) furfuryliodine]-1,3-diphenyl-2-thiobarbituric acid (UCF-101) was reported to protect the hearts against ischemic injury. This study examined the role of UCF-101 on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic heart defect. Vehicle or UCF-101 was administrated to STZ diabetic mice, and cardiomyocyte mechanical properties were analyzed. UCF-101 reduced STZ-induced hyperglycemia and alleviated STZ-induced aberration in cardiomyocyte contractile mechanics. Diabetes dramatically decreased AMPK phosphorylation at Thr172 of catalytic α-subunit, which was restored by UCF-101. Neither diabetes nor UCF-101 affected the expression of HtrA2/Omi and XIAP or caspase-3 activity. The AMPK activator resveratrol mimicked the UCF-101-induced beneficial effect against diabetic cardiac dysfunction. Mechanical properties in cardiomyocytes from the AMPK-kinase-dead (KD) mice displayed markedly impaired contractile function reminiscent of diabetes. STZ injection in AMPK-KD mice failed to elicit any additional cardiomyocyte contractile defect. UCF-101 significantly downregulated the AMPK-degrading enzymes PP2A and PP2C, the effect of which was mimicked by resveratrol. Taken together, these results indicate that UCF-101 protects against STZ-induced cardiac dysfunction, possibly through AMPK signaling. PMID:19690068

  14. Piperine regulates UCP1 through the AMPK pathway by generating intracellular lactate production in muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nami; Nam, Miso; Kang, Mi Sun; Lee, Jung Ok; Lee, Yong Woo; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Kim, Hyeon Soo

    2017-01-01

    This study characterizes the human metabolic response to piperine, a curcumin extract, and the details of its underlying molecular mechanism. Using 1H-NMR-based metabolome analysis, we showed the metabolic effect of piperine on skeletal muscle and found that piperine increased the level of intracellular lactate, an important metabolic intermediate that controls expression of several genes involved in mitochondrial activity. Piperine also induced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its downstream target, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), while additionally stimulating glucose uptake in an AMPK dependent manner. Piperine also stimulates the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), an effect that was reversed by pretreatment with compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. Inhibition of p38 MAPK resulted in no piperine-induced glucose uptake. Increased level of lactate resulted in increased expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which regulates energy expenditure, thermogenesis, and fat browning. Knock-down of AMPK blocked piperine-induced UCP1 up-regulation, demonstrating the required role of AMPK in this effect. Taken together, these results suggest that piperine leads to benign metabolic effects by activating the AMPK-p38 MAPK signaling pathway and UCP1 expression by activating intracellular lactate production in skeletal muscle. PMID:28117414

  15. A systems study reveals concurrent activation of AMPK and mTOR by amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Pezze, Piero Dalle; Ruf, Stefanie; Sonntag, Annika G.; Langelaar-Makkinje, Miriam; Hall, Philip; Heberle, Alexander M.; Navas, Patricia Razquin; van Eunen, Karen; Tölle, Regine C.; Schwarz, Jennifer J.; Wiese, Heike; Warscheid, Bettina; Deitersen, Jana; Stork, Björn; Fäßler, Erik; Schäuble, Sascha; Hahn, Udo; Horvatovich, Peter; Shanley, Daryl P.; Thedieck, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids (aa) are not only building blocks for proteins, but also signalling molecules, with the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) acting as a key mediator. However, little is known about whether aa, independently of mTORC1, activate other kinases of the mTOR signalling network. To delineate aa-stimulated mTOR network dynamics, we here combine a computational–experimental approach with text mining-enhanced quantitative proteomics. We report that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) are acutely activated by aa-readdition in an mTORC1-independent manner. AMPK activation by aa is mediated by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ). In response, AMPK impinges on the autophagy regulators Unc-51-like kinase-1 (ULK1) and c-Jun. AMPK is widely recognized as an mTORC1 antagonist that is activated by starvation. We find that aa acutely activate AMPK concurrently with mTOR. We show that AMPK under aa sufficiency acts to sustain autophagy. This may be required to maintain protein homoeostasis and deliver metabolite intermediates for biosynthetic processes. PMID:27869123

  16. Macropinocytosis is decreased in diabetic mouse macrophages and is regulated by AMPK

    PubMed Central

    Guest, Christopher B; Chakour, Kenneth S; Freund, Gregory G

    2008-01-01

    Background Macrophages (MΦs) utilize macropinocytosis to integrate immune and metabolic signals in order to initiate an effective immune response. Diabetes is characterized by metabolic abnormalities and altered immune function. Here we examine the influence of diabetes on macropinocytosis in primary mouse macrophages and in an in vitro diabetes model. Results The data demonstrate that peritoneal MΦs from diabetic (db/db) mice had reduced macropinocytosis when compared to MΦs from non-diabetic (db/+) mice. Additionally, MΦs cultured in hyperglycemic conditions were less adept at macropinocytosis than those cultured in low glucose. Notably, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity was decreased in MΦs cultured in hyperglycemic conditions. Activation of AMPK with leptin or 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-riboside (AICAR) increased macropinocytosis and inhibition of AMPK with compound C decreased macropinocytosis. Conclusion Taken together, these findings indicate that MΦs from diabetic mice have decreased macropinocytosis. This decrease appears dependent on reduced AMPK activity. These results demonstrate a previously unrealized role for AMPK in MΦs and suggest that increasing AMPK activity in diabetic MΦs could improve innate immunity and decrease susceptibility to infection. PMID:18667079

  17. Genistein-induced LKB1-AMPK activation inhibits senescence of VSMC through autophagy induction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Young; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Choi, Hyoung Chul

    2016-06-01

    Genistein, the primary isoflavone from soy products, enhances antioxidant enzyme activities and inhibits tyrosine kinase. However, the mechanisms underlying genistein-induced autophagy are not yet completely understood. Autophagy refers to a regulated cellular process for the lysosomal-dependent turnover of organelles and proteins. During starvation or nutrient deficiency, autophagy provides an endogenous mechanism for prolonging survival. Here, we investigated whether genistein exerts autophagic effects through the activation of LKB1-AMPK signaling in VSMCs. Genistein dose- and time-dependently increased the phosphorylation of LKB1 and AMPK in VSMCs. LKB1 and AMPK induced autophagy through the downregulation of mTOR in VSMCs. Genistein-induced autophagy was inhibited in dominant-negative AMPK-transfected cells, whereas it was accelerated in cells transfected with the constitutively active form of AMPK. Increased autophagosome activity was confirmed by a concentration-dependent increase in LC3-II formation on Western blots and by increased perinuclear LC3-II puncta in genistein-treated VSMCs. Furthermore, genistein-induced autophagy attenuated adriamycin-induced SA-b-gal staining. These results suggest that genistein-dependent autophagy diminishes VSMC senescence and genistein may attenuate the VSMC senescence via an LKB1-AMPK-dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Desmoplasia suppression by metformin-mediated AMPK activation inhibits pancreatic cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Duan, Wanxing; Chen, Ke; Jiang, Zhengdong; Chen, Xin; Sun, Liankang; Li, Jiahui; Lei, Jianjun; Xu, Qinhong; Ma, Jiguang; Li, Xuqi; Han, Liang; Wang, Zheng; Wu, Zheng; Wang, Fengfei; Wu, Erxi; Ma, Qingyong; Ma, Zhenhua

    2017-01-28

    Emerging evidence suggests that metformin, an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), may be useful in preventing and treating pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, whether metformin has an effect on the stromal reaction of PDAC remains unknown. In this study, we first evaluated the expression of AMPK and phosphorylated-AMPK (P-AMPK) in normal and PDAC tissues, our data indicate that reduced P-AMPK expression is a frequent event in PDAC and correlated with poor prognosis and the dense stromal reaction. We then determined the efficacy of metformin on PDAC growth in vitro and in vivo. We reveal that metformin reduces the production of fibrogenic cytokines from pancreatic cancer cells (PCs) and inhibits paracrine-mediated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) activation under PCsPSCs co-culture conditions. By using a xenograft PDAC mouse model, we show that metformin intervention prevents tumor growth and enhances the antitumor effect of gemcitabine via suppression of desmoplastic reaction. Taken together, these results suggest that induction of AMPK activation by metformin represents a novel therapeutic approach for treating advanced PDAC through reducing the desmoplastic reaction in PDAC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fenofibrate activates AMPK and increases eNOS phosphorylation in HUVEC

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Hisashi; Murakami, Ryuichiro . E-mail: ryuichi@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Kambe, Fukushi; Cao, Xia; Takahashi, Ryotaro; Asai, Toru; Hirai, Toshihisa; Numaguchi, Yasushi; Okumura, Kenji; Seo, Hisao; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2006-03-24

    Fenofibrate improves endothelial function by lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory effects. Additionally, fenofibrate has been demonstrated to upregulate endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been reported to phosphorylate eNOS at Ser-1177 and stimulate vascular endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) production. We report here that fenofibrate activates AMPK and increases eNOS phosphorylation and NO production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Incubation of HUVEC with fenofibrate increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Fenofibrate simultaneously increased eNOS phosphorylation and NO production. Inhibitors of protein kinase A and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase failed to suppress the fenofibrate-induced eNOS phosphorylation. Neither bezafibrate nor WY-14643 activated AMPK in HUVEC. Furthermore, fenofibrate activated AMPK without requiring any transcriptional activities. These results indicate that fenofibrate stimulates eNOS phosphorylation and NO production through AMPK activation, which is suggested to be a novel characteristic of this agonist and unrelated to its effects on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha}.

  20. Pleiotropic effects of acarbose on atherosclerosis development in rabbits are mediated via upregulating AMPK signals

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kuei-Chuan; Yu, Meng-Hsun; Lin, Ming-Cheng; Huang, Chien-Ning; Chung, Dai-Jung; Lee, Yi-Ju; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Acarbose, an α-glucosidase inhibitor, is reported to reduce the incidence of silent myocardial infarction and slow the progression of intima-media thickening in patients with glucose intolerance. Here we investigate other impacts of acarbose on atherosclerosis development and the underlying mechanisms of atherosclerosis initiation and progression in vivo and in vitro. Rabbits fed a high cholesterol diet (HCD) were treated with acarbose (2.5–5.0 mg kg−1). Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Ras, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), IL-6, β-galactosidase, and p-AMPK in atherosclerotic lesions. Treatment with acarbose in HCD-fed rabbits was found to significantly reduce the severity of aortic atheroma and neointimal expression of α-actin, PCNA, IL-6, TNF-α, Ras, and β-galactosidase; to significantly increase expression of iNOS and p-AMPK, but not to affect serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and LDL. Western blot analysis showed acarbose dose-dependently decreased β-galactosidase and Ras expression and increased p-AMPK expression in TNF-α-treated A7r5 cells. In addition, acarbose restored p-AMPK and iNOS levels in AMPK inhibitor- and iNOS inhibitor-treated A7r5 cells, respectively. In conclusion, acarbose can pleiotropically inhibit rabbit atherosclerosis by reducing inflammation, senescence, and VSMCs proliferation/migration via upregulating AMPK signals. PMID:27924924

  1. A pharmacological activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) induces astrocyte stellation

    PubMed Central

    Favero, Carlita B; Mandell, James W

    2007-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) represents a key energy-sensing molecule in many cell types. Because astrocytes are key mediators of metabolic signaling in the brain, we have initiated studies on the expression and activation of AMPK in these cells. Treatment of cultured rat cortical astrocytes with a pharmacological AMPK activator, AICA-riboside (AICAR) resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent increase in phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), a direct substrate. AICAR treatment also induced a transition from epithelioid to stellate morphology in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. As stellation is indicative of actin cytoskeletal reorganization, the formation of stress fibers and focal adhesions in response to AICAR was assessed. AICAR-induced stellation correlated with F-actin disassembly and focal adhesion dispersal. Furthermore, transient transfection of an activated RhoA construct prevented AICAR-induced stellation, indicating a mechanism upstream of RhoA. Use of pharmacological inhibitor compound C prevented AICAR-induced stellation demonstrating necessity of AMPK activity for the response. Our findings suggest that AMPK mediates morphological alterations of astrocytes in response to energy depletion. PMID:17706943

  2. The stress polarity pathway: AMPK ‘GIV’-es protection against metabolic insults

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Pradipta

    2017-01-01

    Loss of cell polarity impairs organ development and function; it can also serve as one of the first triggers for oncogenesis. In 2006-2007 two groups simultaneously reported the existence of a special pathway for maintaining epithelial polarity in the face of environmental stressors. In this pathway, AMPK, a key sensor of metabolic stress stabilizes tight junctions, preserves cell polarity, and thereby, maintains epithelial barrier functions. Accumulating evidence since has shown that pharmacologic activation of AMPK by Metformin protects the epithelial barrier against multiple environmental and pathological stressful states and suppresses tumorigenesis. How AMPK protects the epithelium remained unknown until recently Aznar et al. identified GIV/Girdin as a novel effector of AMPK at the cell-cell junctions; phosphorylation of GIV at a single site by AMPK appears to be both necessary and sufficient for strengthening tight junctions and preserving cell polarity and epithelial barrier function in the face of energetic stress. Here we review the fundamentals of this specialized signaling pathway that buttresses cell-cell junctions against stress-induced collapse and discuss its pathophysiologic relevance in the context of a variety of diseases, including cancers, diabetes, aging, and the growing list of beneficial effects of the AMPK-activator, Metformin. PMID:28209925

  3. Upregulation of SIRT1-AMPK by thymoquinone in hepatic stellate cells ameliorates liver injury.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Bai, Ting; Yao, You-Li; Zhang, De-Quan; Wu, Yan-Ling; Lian, Li-Hua; Nan, Ji-Xing

    2016-11-16

    Thymoquinone (TQ) is a biologically active compound isolated from the seeds of Nigella sativa L. (Ranuculaceae). This study investigated the hepato-protective effect of TQ on liver injury through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). In vitro, TGF-β time-dependently attenuated liver kinase B-1 (LKB1) and AMPK phosphorylation, which were blocked by pretreatment with TQ and AICAR (an activator of AMPK). TQ significantly inhibited collagen-Ι, α-SMA, TIMP-1 and enhanced MMP-13 expression, contributing to prevent TGF-β-induced human HSCs activation. Moreover, TQ induced peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) expression, which was inhibited by genetic deletion of AMPK. In vivo, C57BL/6 mice were fed with ethanol diet for 10 days, then administering a single dose of ethanol (5g/kg body weight) via gavage. TQ (20 or 40mg/kg) were given by gavage every day. TQ attenuated the increases in serum aminotransferase and hepatic triglyceride in mice fed with ethanol, while significantly activated LKB1 and AMPK phosphorylation. In addition, TQ enhanced the sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression. In conclusion, we demonstrate that AMPK pathway is a key therapeutic target for controlling liver injury and TQ confers hepato-protection against TGF-β-induced the activation of HSCs and ethanol-induced liver injury.

  4. lncRNA NBR2 engages a metabolic checkpoint by regulating AMPK under energy stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaowen; Xiao, Zhen-Dong; Han, Leng; Zhang, Jiexin; Lee, Szu-Wei; Wang, Wenqi; Lee, Hyemin; Zhuang, Li; Chen, Junjie; Lin, Hui-Kuan; Wang, Jing; Liang, Han; Gan, Boyi

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as critical regulators in various cellular processes. However, the potential involvement of lncRNAs in kinase signaling remains largely unknown. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acts as a critical sensor of cellular energy status. Here we show that lncRNA NBR2 (neighbor of BRCA1 gene 2) is induced by the LKB1-AMPK pathway under energy stress. Upon energy stress, NBR2 in turn interacts with AMPK and promotes AMPK kinase activity, thus forming a feed-forward loop to potentiate AMPK activation during energy stress. Depletion of NBR2 attenuates energy stress-induced AMPK activation, resulting in unchecked cell cycling, altered apoptosis/autophagy response, and increased tumor development in vivo. NBR2 is down-regulated and its low expression correlates with poor clinical outcomes in some human cancers. Together, our study uncovers a mechanism coupling lncRNAs with metabolic stress response, and provides a broad framework to further understand the regulation of kinase signaling by lncRNAs. PMID:26999735

  5. AMPK activation regulates apoptosis, adipogenesis, and lipolysis by eIF2{alpha} in adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Dagon, Yossi; Avraham, Yosefa; Berry, Elliot M. . E-mail: Berry@md.huji.ac.il

    2006-02-03

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic master switch regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. Recently, AMPK has been implicated in the control of adipose tissue content. Yet, the nature of this action is controversial. We examined the effect on F442a adipocytes of the AMPK activator-AICAR. Activation of AMPK induced dose-dependent apoptotic cell death, inhibition of lipolysis, and downregulatation key adipogenic genes, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR{gamma}) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBP{alpha}). We have identified the {alpha}-subunit of the eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF2{alpha}) as a target gene which is phosphorylated following AICAR treatment. Such phosphorylation is one of the best-characterized mechanisms for downregulating protein synthesis. 2-Aminopurine (2-AP), an inhibitor of eIF2{alpha} kinases, could overcome the apoptotic effect of AICAR, abolishing the reduction of PPAR{gamma} and C/EBP{alpha} and the lipolytic properties of AMPK. Thus, AMPK may diminish adiposity via reduction of fat cell number through eIF2{alpha}-dependent translation shutdown.

  6. Berberine regulates neurite outgrowth through AMPK-dependent pathways by lowering energy status

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jiaqi; Cao, Yuanzhao; Cheng, Kuoyuan; Xu, Bo; Wang, Tianchang; Yang, Qi; Yang, Qin; Feng, Xudong; Xia, Qing

    2015-06-10

    As a widely used anti-bacterial agent and a metabolic inhibitor as well as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, berberine (BBR) has been shown to cross the blood–brain barrier. Its efficacy has been investigated in various disease models of the central nervous system. Neurite outgrowth is critical for nervous system development and is a highly energy-dependent process regulated by AMPK-related pathways. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of BBR on AMPK activation and neurite outgrowth in neurons. The neurite outgrowth of primary rat cortical neurons at different stages of polarization was monitored after exposure of BBR. Intracellular energy level, AMPK activation and polarity-related pathways were also inspected. The results showed that BBR suppressed neurite outgrowth and affected cytoskeleton stability in the early stages of neuronal polarization, which was mediated by lowered energy status and AMPK activation. Liver kinase B1 and PI3K–Akt–GSK3β signaling pathways were also involved. In addition, mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress contributed to the lowered energy status induced by BBR. This study highlighted the knowledge of the complex activities of BBR in neurons and corroborated the significance of energy status during the neuronal polarization. - Highlights: • BBR inhibited neurite outgrowth in early stages of neuronal development. • Lowered neuronal energy status was induced by BBR treatment. • Neuronal energy stress induced by BBR activated AMPK-related pathways. • BBR induced mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

  7. Estradiol effects on hypothalamic AMPK and BAT thermogenesis: A gateway for obesity treatment?

    PubMed

    López, Miguel; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2017-10-01

    In addition to their prominent roles in the control of reproduction, estrogens are important modulators of energy balance, as evident in conditions of deficiency of estrogens, which are characterized by increased feeding and decreased energy expenditure, leading to obesity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a ubiquitous cellular energy gauge that is activated under conditions of low energy, increasing energy production and reducing energy wasting. Centrally, the AMPK pathway is a canonical route regulating energy homeostasis, by integrating peripheral signals, such as hormones and metabolites, with neuronal networks. As a result of those actions, hypothalamic AMPK modulates feeding, as well as brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). Here, we will review the central actions of estrogens on energy balance, with particular focus on hypothalamic AMPK. The relevance of this interaction is noteworthy, because some agents with known actions on metabolic homeostasis, such as nicotine, metformin, liraglutide, olanzapine and also natural molecules, such as resveratrol and flavonoids, exert their actions by modulating AMPK. This evidence highlights the possibility that hypothalamic AMPK might be a potential target for the treatment of obesity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Combined cancer therapy with non-conventional drugs: all roads lead to AMPK.

    PubMed

    Chen, Suning; Zhu, Xingmei; Lai, Xiaofeng; Xiao, Tian; Wen, Aidong; Zhang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key energy sensor that regulates cellular energy homeostasis. AMPK activation is associated with decreased phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and S6 kinase and causes a general reduction in mRNA translation and protein synthesis. Therefore, AMPK is a novel target for anticancer therapy. Metformin and aspirin are two traditional drugs that are widely used as anti-diabetes and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), respectively. Much evidence has confirmed that these two drugs demonstrated encouraging anti-cancer properties. Most importantly, both inhibited tumor proliferation and were mainly dependent on the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway. In addition, several other drugs, such as resveratrol, berberine, statins, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and capsaicin, have provided a similar capacity for tumor inhibition, and the anti-cancer effects of most of them were mainly the result of AMPK activation. In the current review, we summarize the literature on combination therapy based on these non-classical drugs and their potential mechanisms for activating AMPK. Combinations of these drugs will provide a novel cancer therapeutic regimen.

  9. AMPK phosphorylation by Ssp1 is required for proper sexual differentiation in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Valbuena, Noelia; Moreno, Sergio

    2012-06-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of cellular energy homeostasis, which, in response to a fall in intracellular ATP levels, activates energy-producing pathways and inhibits energy-consuming processes. Here, we report that fission yeast cells lacking AMPK activity are unable to advance entry into mitosis in response to nitrogen starvation and cannot undergo proper G1 arrest and cell differentiation. We also show that AMPK is important in the promotion of the nuclear localization and accumulation of the Ste11 transcription factor. As in animal cells, the fission yeast CaMKK ortholog (Ssp1) phosphorylates and activates the catalytic subunit of AMPK (Ssp2) in its activation loop (Thr189) when cells are starved for nitrogen or glucose. Interestingly, we found that the phosphorylation of Ssp2 on Thr189 is required for nuclear accumulation of AMPK. Our data demonstrate the existence of a signal transduction pathway activated by nutrient starvation that triggers Ssp2 phosphorylation and AMPK redistribution from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. This pathway is important to advance fission cells into mitosis and to establish a timely pre-Start G1 cell cycle arrest for mating.

  10. Mutation of Fnip1 is associated with B-cell deficiency, cardiomyopathy, and elevated AMPK activity

    PubMed Central

    Siggs, Owen M.; Stockenhuber, Alexander; Deobagkar-Lele, Mukta; Bull, Katherine R.; Crockford, Tanya L.; Kingston, Bethany L.; Crawford, Greg; Anzilotti, Consuelo; Steeples, Violetta; Ghaffari, Sahar; Czibik, Gabor; Bellahcene, Mohamed; Watkins, Hugh; Ashrafian, Houman; Davies, Benjamin; Woods, Angela; Carling, David; Yavari, Arash; Beutler, Bruce; Cornall, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Folliculin (FLCN) is a tumor-suppressor protein mutated in the Birt–Hogg–Dubé (BHD) syndrome, which associates with two paralogous proteins, folliculin-interacting protein (FNIP)1 and FNIP2, forming a complex that interacts with the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Although it is clear that this complex influences AMPK and other metabolic regulators, reports of its effects have been inconsistent. To address this issue, we created a recessive loss-of-function variant of Fnip1. Homozygous FNIP1 deficiency resulted in profound B-cell deficiency, partially restored by overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein BCL2, whereas heterozygous deficiency caused a loss of marginal zone B cells. FNIP1-deficient mice developed cardiomyopathy characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and glycogen accumulation, with close parallels to mice and humans bearing gain-of-function mutations in the γ2 subunit of AMPK. Concordantly, γ2-specific AMPK activity was elevated in neonatal FNIP1-deficient myocardium, whereas AMPK-dependent unc-51–like autophagy activating kinase 1 (ULK1) phosphorylation and autophagy were increased in FNIP1-deficient B-cell progenitors. These data support a role for FNIP1 as a negative regulator of AMPK. PMID:27303042

  11. Irisin, a Novel Myokine, Regulates Glucose Uptake in Skeletal Muscle Cells via AMPK

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Jeong; Lee, Jung Ok; Kim, Nami; Kim, Joong Kwan; Kim, Hyung Ip; Lee, Yong Woo; Kim, Su Jin; Choi, Jong-Il; Oh, Yoonji; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Hwang, Suyeon-; Park, Sun Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Irisin is a novel myokine produced by skeletal muscle. However, its metabolic role is poorly understood. In the present study, irisin induced glucose uptake in differentiated skeletal muscle cells. It increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and the inhibition of AMPK blocked glucose uptake. It also increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. N-acetyl cysteine, a ROS scavenger, blocked irisin-induced AMPK phosphorylation. Moreover, irisin activated p38 MAPK in an AMPK-dependent manner. The inhibition and knockdown of p38 MAPK blocked irisin-induced glucose uptake. A colorimetric absorbance assay showed that irisin stimulated the translocation of glucose transporter type 4 to the plasma membrane and that this effect was suppressed in cells pretreated with a p38 MAPK inhibitor or p38 MAPK small interfering RNA. In primary cultured myoblast cells, irisin increased the concentration of intracellular calcium. STO-609, a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase inhibitor, blocked irisin-induced AMPK phosphorylation, implying that calcium is involved in irisin-mediated signaling. Our results suggest that irisin plays an important role in glucose metabolism via the ROS-mediated AMPK pathway in skeletal muscle cells. PMID:25826445

  12. Activation of AMPK Inhibits Cholera Toxin Stimulated Chloride Secretion in Human and Murine Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Hoekstra, Nadia; Collins, Danielle; Collaco, Anne; Baird, Alan W.; Winter, Desmond C.; Ameen, Nadia; Geibel, John P.; Kopic, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Increased intestinal chloride secretion through chloride channels, such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), is one of the major molecular mechanisms underlying enterotoxigenic diarrhea. It has been demonstrated in the past that the intracellular energy sensing kinase, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), can inhibit CFTR opening. We hypothesized that pharmacological activation of AMPK can abrogate the increased chloride flux through CFTR occurring during cholera toxin (CTX) mediated diarrhea. Chloride efflux was measured in isolated rat colonic crypts using real-time fluorescence imaging. AICAR and metformin were used to activate AMPK in the presence of the secretagogues CTX or forskolin (FSK). In order to substantiate our findings on the whole tissue level, short-circuit current (SCC) was monitored in human and murine colonic mucosa using Ussing chambers. Furthermore, fluid accumulation was measured in excised intestinal loops. CTX and forskolin (FSK) significantly increased chloride efflux in isolated colonic crypts. The increase in chloride efflux could be offset by using the AMPK activators AICAR and metformin. In human and mouse mucosal sheets, CTX and FSK increased SCC. AICAR and metformin inhibited the secretagogue induced rise in SCC, thereby confirming the findings made in isolated crypts. Moreover, AICAR decreased CTX stimulated fluid accumulation in excised intestinal segments. The present study suggests that pharmacological activation of AMPK effectively reduces CTX mediated increases in intestinal chloride secretion, which is a key factor for intestinal water accumulation. AMPK activators may therefore represent a supplemental treatment strategy for acute diarrheal illness. PMID:23935921

  13. Comparing and Contrasting the Roles of AMPK and SIRT1 in Metabolic Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Fulco, Marcella; Sartorelli, Vittorio

    2008-01-01

    The ability to adapt and respond to nutrients is an ancient cellular function, conserved from unicellular to the most complex multicellular organisms, including mammals. Mammals adapt to changes in nutritional status through the modulation of tissue-specific metabolic pathways so as to maintain energy homeostasis. At least two proteins are activated in response to reduced nutrient availability: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and NAD+-dependent deacetylase SIRT1. AMPK functions as a sensor of cellular energy status and as a master regulator of metabolism. When ATP levels decrease, AMPK is activated to boost ATP production and to inhibit ATP usage, thus restoring energy balance. Similarly, SIRT1 is activated in response to changes in the energy status to promote transcription of genes that mediate the metabolic response to stress, starvation, or calorie restriction. Several observations support a model where, in response to stress and reduced nutrients, a metabolic pathway is activated within which AMPK and SIRT1 concordantly function to ensure an appropriate cellular response and adaptation to environmental modifications. In this perspective, we compare and contrast the roles of SIRT1 and AMPK in several metabolic tissues and propose a working model of how the AMPK-SIRT1 axis may be regulated to control functions relevant to organismal physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:19029811

  14. AMPK interacts with β-catenin in the regulation of hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and survival with selenium treatment.

    PubMed

    Park, Song Yi; Lee, Yun-Kyoung; Kim, Hyun Jung; Park, Ock Jin; Kim, Young Min

    2016-03-01

    Selenium has received much attention as an anticancer agent, although the mechanisms of action underlying its pro-apoptotic properties remain unclear. Tumors that respond well to antioxidant treatments, such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), may benefit from treatment with selenium as this compound also has antioxidant properties. Furthermore, a major oncogenic driver in HCC is the nuclear transcription co-activator, β-catenin. In the present study, we examined the mechanism by which selenium reduces survival of HCC cells, and whether this was associated with modulation of the β-catenin pathway. Hep3B cell lines and cancer cell xenografted animals were treated with selenium, and apoptotic events or signals such as AMPK, β-catenin and GSK3β were determined. Further interactions among β-catenin, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), and AMPK were explored by applying AMPK small interfering RNA (siRNA) or GSK3β siRNA with western blotting or immunofluorescence microscopic observation. Selenium activated AMPK, which in turn suppressed β-catenin. Selenium induced the translocation of AMPK into the nucleus and prevented the accumulation of β-catenin therein. Upon inactivation of AMPK by AMPK siRNA, selenium no longer modulated β-catenin, implying that AMPK is an upstream signal for β-catenin. We found that the binding between AMPK and β-catenin occurs in the cytosolic fraction, and therefore concluded that the cancer cell antiproliferative effects of selenium are mediated by a GSK3β-independent AMPK/β-catenin pathway, although AMPK-mediated GSK3β regulation was also observed. We primarily discovered that AMPK is a crucial regulator initiating selenium-induced inhibition of β-catenin expression. Taken together, these novel findings help to illuminate the molecular mechanisms underlying the anticancer effect of selenium and highlight the regulation of β-catenin by selenium.

  15. Belinostat-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition in pancreatic cancer cells involve activation of TAK1-AMPK signaling axis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bing Wang, Xin-bao; Chen, Li-yu; Huang, Ling; Dong, Rui-zen

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •Belinostat activates AMPK in cultured pancreatic cancer cells. •Activation of AMPK is important for belinostat-induced cytotoxic effects. •ROS and TAK1 are involved in belinostat-induced AMPK activation. •AMPK activation mediates mTOR inhibition by belinostat. -- Abstract: Pancreatic cancer accounts for more than 250,000 deaths worldwide each year. Recent studies have shown that belinostat, a novel pan histone deacetylases inhibitor (HDACi) induces apoptosis and growth inhibition in pancreatic cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In the current study, we found that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation was required for belinostat-induced apoptosis and anti-proliferation in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. A significant AMPK activation was induced by belinostat in PANC-1 cells. Inhibition of AMPK by RNAi knockdown or dominant negative (DN) mutation significantly inhibited belinostat-induced apoptosis in PANC-1 cells. Reversely, AMPK activator AICAR and A-769662 exerted strong cytotoxicity in PANC-1 cells. Belinostat promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in PANC-1 cells, increased ROS induced transforming growth factor-β-activating kinase 1 (TAK1)/AMPK association to activate AMPK. Meanwhile, anti-oxidants N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC) and MnTBAP as well as TAK1 shRNA knockdown suppressed belinostat-induced AMPK activation and PANC-1 cell apoptosis. In conclusion, we propose that belinostat-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition require the activation of ROS-TAK1-AMPK signaling axis in cultured pancreatic cancer cells.

  16. AMPK Causes Cell Cycle Arrest in LKB1-deficient Cells via Activation of CAMKK2

    PubMed Central

    Fogarty, Sarah; Ross, Fiona A.; Ciruelos, Diana Vara; Gray, Alexander; Gowans, Graeme J.; Hardie, D. Grahame

    2017-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated by phosphorylation at Thr172, either by the tumor suppressor kinase LKB1 or by an alternate pathway involving the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase, CAMKK2. Increases in AMP:ATP and ADP:ATP ratios, signifying energy deficit, promote allosteric activation and net Thr172 phosphorylation mediated by LKB1, so that the LKB1-AMPK pathway acts as an energy sensor. Many tumor cells carry loss-of-function mutations in the STK11 gene encoding LKB1, but LKB1 re-expression in these cells causes cell cycle arrest. Therefore, it was investigated as to whether arrest by LKB1 is caused by activation of AMPK or of one of the AMPK-related kinases, which are also dependent on LKB1 but are not activated by CAMKK2. In three LKB1-null tumor cell lines, treatment with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 caused a G1-arrest that correlated with AMPK activation and Thr172 phosphorylation. In G361 cells, expression of a truncated, CAMKK2 mutant also caused G1-arrest similar to that caused by expression of LKB1, while expression of a dominant negative AMPK mutant, or a double knockout of both AMPK-α subunits, also prevented the cell cycle arrest caused by A23187. These mechanistic findings confirm that AMPK activation triggers cell cycle arrest, and also suggest that the rapid proliferation of LKB1-null tumor cells is due to lack of the restraining influence of AMPK. However, cell cycle arrest can be restored by re-expressing LKB1 or a constitutively active CAMKK2, or by pharmacological agents that increase intracellular Ca2+ and thus activate endogenous CAMKK2. Implications Evidence here reveals that the rapid growth and proliferation of cancer cells lacking the tumor suppressor LKB1 is due to reduced activity of AMPK, and suggests a therapeutic approach by which this block might be circumvented. PMID:27141100

  17. Atrial natriuretic peptide regulates lipid mobilization and oxygen consumption in human adipocytes by activating AMPK

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, Sandra C.; Chau, Mary D.L.; Yang, Qing; Gauthier, Marie-Soleil; Clairmont, Kevin B.; Wu, Zhidan; Gromada, Jesper; Dole, William P.

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} Treatment of differentiated human adipocytes with atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) increased lipolysis and oxygen consumption by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). {yields} ANP stimulated lipid mobilization by selective activation of the alpha2 subunit of AMPK and increased energy utilization through activation of both the alpha1 and alpha2 subunits of AMPK. {yields} ANP enhanced adipocyte mitochondrial oxidative capacity as evidenced by induction of oxidative mitochondrial genes and increase in oxygen consumption. {yields} Exposure of human adipocytes to fatty acids and (TNF{alpha}) induced insulin resistance and decreased expression of mitochondrial genes which was restored to normal by ANP. -- Abstract: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) has been shown to regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism providing a possible link between cardiovascular function and metabolism by mediating the switch from carbohydrate to lipid mobilization and oxidation. ANP exerts a potent lipolytic effect via cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK)-I mediated-stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Activation of the ANP/cGK signaling cascade also promotes muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and fat oxidation. Here we demonstrate that ANP regulates lipid metabolism and oxygen utilization in differentiated human adipocytes by activating the alpha2 subunit of AMPK. ANP treatment increased lipolysis by seven fold and oxygen consumption by two fold, both of which were attenuated by inhibition of AMPK activity. ANP-induced lipolysis was shown to be mediated by the alpha2 subunit of AMPK as introduction of dominant-negative alpha2 subunit of AMPK attenuated ANP effects on lipolysis. ANP-induced activation of AMPK enhanced mitochondrial oxidative capacity as evidenced by a two fold increase in oxygen consumption and induction of mitochondrial genes, including carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1a) by 1.4-fold, cytochrome C (CytC) by 1.3-fold, and

  18. The effects of age and muscle contraction on AMPK activity and heterotrimer composition.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Shalene E; Hall, Derrick E; Cabrera, Alyssa J; Hancock, Chad R; Thomson, David M

    2014-07-01

    Sarcopenia is characterized by increased skeletal muscle atrophy due in part to alterations in muscle metabolism. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator of skeletal muscle metabolic pathways which regulate many cellular processes that are disrupted in old-age. Functional AMPK is a heterotrimer composed of α, β and γ subunits, and each subunit can be represented in the heterotrimer by one of two (α1/α2, β1/β2) or three (γ1/γ2/γ3) isoforms. Altered isoform composition affects AMPK localization and function. Previous work has shown that overall AMPK activation with endurance-type exercise is blunted in old vs. young skeletal muscle. However, details regarding the activation of the specific isoforms of AMPK, as well as the heterotrimeric composition of AMPK in old skeletal muscle, are unknown. Our purpose here, therefore, was to determine the effect of old-age on 1) the activation of the α1 and α2 catalytic subunits of AMPK in skeletal muscle by a continuous contraction bout, and 2) the heterotrimeric composition of skeletal muscle AMPK. We studied gastrocnemius (GAST) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles from young adult (YA; 8months old) and old (O; 30months old) male Fischer344×Brown Norway F1 hybrid rats after an in situ bout of endurance-type contractions produced via electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve (STIM). AMPKα phosphorylation and AMPKα1 and α2 activities were unaffected by age at rest. However, AMPKα phosphorylation and AMPKα2 protein content and activity were lower in O vs. YA after STIM. Conversely, AMPKα1 content was greater in O vs. YA muscle, and α1 activity increased with STIM in O but not YA muscles. AMPKγ3 overall concentration and its association with AMPKα1 and α2 were lower in O vs. YA GAST. We conclude that activation of AMPKα1 is enhanced, while activation of α2 is suppressed immediately after repeated skeletal muscle contractions in O vs. YA skeletal muscle. These changes are associated with

  19. The effects of age and muscle contraction on AMPK activity and heterotrimer composition

    PubMed Central

    Hardman, Shalene E.; Hall, Derrick E.; Cabrera, Alyssa J.; Hancock, Chad R.; Thomson, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Sarcopenia is characterized by increased skeletal muscle atrophy due in part to alterations in muscle metabolism. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator of skeletal muscle metabolic pathways which regulate many cellular processes that are disrupted in old-age. Functional AMPK is a heterotrimer composed of alpha, beta and gamma subunits, and each subunit can be represented in the heterotrimer by one of two (α1/α2, β1/β2) or three (γ1/γ2/γ3) isoforms. Altered isoform composition affects AMPK localization and function. Previous work has shown that overall AMPK activation with endurance-type exercise is blunted in old vs. young skeletal muscle. However, details regarding the activation of the specific isoforms of AMPK, as well as the heterotrimeric composition of AMPK in old skeletal muscle are unknown. Our purpose here, therefore, was to determine the effect of old-age on 1) the activation of the α1 and α2 catalytic subunits of AMPK in skeletal muscle by a continuous contraction bout, and 2) the heterotrimeric composition of skeletal muscle AMPK. We studied gastrocnemius (GAST) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles from young adult (YA; 8 mo old) and old (O; 30 mo old) male Fischer344 x Brown Norway F1 hybrid rats after an in situ bout of endurance-type contractions produced via electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve (STIM). AMPKα phosphorylation and AMPKα1 and α2 activities were unaffected by age at rest. However, AMPKα phosphorylation and AMPKα2 protein content and activity were lower in O vs. YA after STIM. Conversely, AMPKα1 content was greater in O vs. YA muscle, and α1 activity increased with STIM in O but not YA muscles. AMPKγ3 overall concentration and its association with AMPKα1 and α2 was lower in O vs. YA GAST. We conclude that activation of AMPKα1 is enhanced, while activation of α2 is suppressed immediately after repeated skeletal muscle contractions in O vs. YA skeletal muscle. These changes are associated with

  20. AMPK regulates lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle cells through FTO-dependent demethylation of N(6)-methyladenosine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weiche; Feng, Jie; Jiang, Denghu; Zhou, Xihong; Jiang, Qin; Cai, Min; Wang, Xinxia; Shan, Tizhong; Wang, Yizhen

    2017-02-08

    Skeletal muscle plays important roles in whole-body energy homeostasis. Excessive skeletal muscle lipid accumulation is associated with some metabolic diseases such as obesity and Type 2 Diabetes. The energy sensor AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) is a key regulator of skeletal muscle lipid metabolism, but the precise regulatory mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here, we provide a novel mechanism by which AMPK regulates skeletal muscle lipid accumulation through fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO)-dependent demethylation of N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A). We confirmed an inverse correlation between AMPK and skeletal muscle lipid content. Moreover, inhibition of AMPK enhanced lipid accumulation, while activation of AMPK reduced lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle cells. Notably, we found that mRNA m(6)A methylation levels were inversely correlated with lipid content in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, AMPK positively regulated the m(6)A methylation levels of mRNA, which could negatively regulate lipid accumulation in C2C12. At the molecular level, we demonstrated that AMPK regulated lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle cells by regulating FTO expression and FTO-dependent demethylation of m(6)A. Together, these results provide a novel regulatory mechanism of AMPK on lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle cells and suggest the possibility of controlling skeletal muscle lipid deposition by targeting AMPK or using m(6)A related drugs.

  1. Induction of AMPK activity corrects early pathophysiological alterations in the subtotal nephrectomy model of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Satriano, Joseph; Sharma, Kumar; Blantz, Roland C; Deng, Aihua

    2013-09-01

    The rat kidney ablation and infarction (A/I) model of subtotal or 5/6th nephrectomy is the most commonly studied model of nondiabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD). The A/I kidney at 1 wk exhibits reductions in kidney function, as determined by glomerular filtration rate, and diminished metabolic efficiency as determined by oxygen consumption per sodium transport (QO2/TNa). As renoprotective AMPK activity is affected by metabolic changes and cellular stress, we evaluated AMPK activity in this model system. We show that these early pathophysiological changes are accompanied by a paradoxical decrease in AMPK activity. Over time, these kidney parameters progressively worsen with extensive kidney structural, functional, metabolic, and fibrotic changes observed at 4 wk after A/I. We show that induction of AMPK activity with either metformin or 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide increases AMPK activity in this model and also corrects kidney metabolic inefficiency, improves kidney function, and ameliorates kidney fibrosis and structural alterations. We conclude that AMPK activity is reduced in the subtotal nephrectomy model of nondiabetic CKD, that altered regulation of AMPK is coincident with the progression of disease parameters, and that restoration of AMPK activity can suppress the progressive loss of function characteristic of this model. We propose that induction of AMPK activity may prove an effective therapeutic target for the treatment of nondiabetic CKD.

  2. Glutaredoxins concomitant with optimal ROS activate AMPK through S-glutathionylation to improve glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Kelei; Wu, Meiling; Liu, Xiaomin; Huang, Yanjie; Zhang, Dongyang; Wang, Yiting; Yan, Liang-Jun; Shi, Dongyun

    2016-12-01

    AMPK dysregulation contributes to the onset and development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). AMPK is known to be activated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant interference. However the mechanism by which redox state mediates such contradictory result remains largely unknown. Here we used streptozotocin-high fat diet (STZ-HFD) induced-type 2 diabetic rats and cells lines (L02 and HEK 293) to explore the mechanism of redox-mediated AMPK activation. We show glutaredoxins (Grxs) concomitant with optimal ROS act as an essential mediator for AMPK activation. ROS level results in different mechanisms for AMPK activation. Under low ROS microenvironment, Grxs-mediated S-glutathionylation on AMPK-α catalytic subunit activates AMPK to improve glucose transportation and degradation while inhibiting glycogen synthesis and keeping redox balance. While, under high ROS microenvironment, AMPK is activated by an AMP-dependent mechanism, however sustained high level ROS also causes loss of AMPK protein. This finding provides evidence for a new approach to diabetes treatment by individual doses of ROS or antioxidant calibrated against the actual redox level in vivo. Moreover, the novel function of Grxs in promoting glucose metabolism may provide new target for T2DM treatment.

  3. AMPK Suppresses Connexin43 Expression in the Bladder and Ameliorates Voiding Dysfunction in Cyclophosphamide-induced Mouse Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiling; Yao, Jian; Gao, Kun; Chi, Yuan; Mitsui, Takahiko; Ihara, Tatsuya; Sawada, Norifumi; Kamiyama, Manabu; Fan, Jianglin; Takeda, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Bladder voiding dysfunction is closely related to local oxidation, inflammation, and enhanced channel activities. Given that the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and channel-inhibiting properties, we examined whether and how AMPK affected bladder activity. AMPK activation in rat bladder smooth muscle cells (BSMCs) using three different AMPK agonists resulted in a decrease in connexin43 (Cx43) expression and function, which was associated with reduced CREB phosphorylation, Cx43 promoter activity and mRNA expression, but not Cx43 degradation. Downregulation of CREB with siRNA increased Cx43 expression. A functional analysis revealed that AMPK weakened BSMC contraction and bladder capacity. AMPK also counteracted the IL-1β- and TNFα-induced increase in Cx43 in BSMCs. In vivo administration of the AMPK agonist AICAR attenuated cyclophosphamide-initiated bladder oxidation, inflammation, Cx43 expression and voiding dysfunction. Further analysis comparing the responses of the wild-type (Cx43+/+) and heterozygous (Cx43+/−) Cx43 mice to cyclophosphamide revealed that the Cx43+/− mice retained a relatively normal micturition pattern compared to the Cx43+/+ mice. Taken together, our results indicate that AMPK inhibits Cx43 in BSMCs and improves bladder activity under pathological conditions. We propose that strategies that target AMPK can be developed as novel therapeutic approaches for treating bladder dysfunction. PMID:26806558

  4. AMPK activation protects cells from oxidative stress-induced senescence via autophagic flux restoration and intracellular NAD(+) elevation.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaojuan; Tai, Haoran; Wang, Xiaobo; Wang, Zhe; Zhou, Jiao; Wei, Xiawei; Ding, Yi; Gong, Hui; Mo, Chunfen; Zhang, Jie; Qin, Jianqiong; Ma, Yuanji; Huang, Ning; Xiang, Rong; Xiao, Hengyi

    2016-06-01

    AMPK activation is beneficial for cellular homeostasis and senescence prevention. However, the molecular events involved in AMPK activation are not well defined. In this study, we addressed the mechanism underlying the protective effect of AMPK on oxidative stress-induced senescence. The results showed that AMPK was inactivated in senescent cells. However, pharmacological activation of AMPK by metformin and berberine significantly prevented the development of senescence and, accordingly, inhibition of AMPK by Compound C was accelerated. Importantly, AMPK activation prevented hydrogen peroxide-induced impairment of the autophagic flux in senescent cells, evidenced by the decreased p62 degradation, GFP-RFP-LC3 cancellation, and activity of lysosomal hydrolases. We also found that AMPK activation restored the NAD(+) levels in the senescent cells via a mechanism involving mostly the salvage pathway for NAD(+) synthesis. In addition, the mechanistic relationship of autophagic flux and NAD(+) synthesis and the involvement of mTOR and Sirt1 activities were assessed. In summary, our results suggest that AMPK prevents oxidative stress-induced senescence by improving autophagic flux and NAD(+) homeostasis. This study provides a new insight for exploring the mechanisms of aging, autophagy and NAD(+) homeostasis, and it is also valuable in the development of innovative strategies to combat aging.

  5. Hypoxic preconditioning protects cardiomyocytes against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury through AMPK/eNOS/PGC-1α signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Liang; Zhou, Lu; Wu, Xiaowei; Liu, Chao; Fan, Yue; Li, Qingping

    2014-01-01

    Objective: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important regulator of multiple cellular pathways in the setting of energetic stress. Whether AMPK plays a critical role in hypoxic preconditioning (HPC), protecting cardiomyocytes against hypoxia reoxygenation (H/R) injury remains uncertain. Methods: H9c2 cells were preconditioned by exposing to 10 min of hypoxia and 30 min of reoxygenation. Then, the preconditioned and non-preconditioned cardiomyocytes were exposed to 90 min of hypoxia followed by 120 min of reoxygenation. Results: HPC protected H9c2 cells against H/R injury, the AMPK inhibitor or eNOS inhibitor abolished the effect of HPC. Compared with H/R group, HPC significantly increased the expression of p-AMPK (Thr172). HPC also markedly increased p-eNOS (Ser1177) expression, which was abolished by AMPK inhibition. HPC significantly increased PGC-1α expression, which were nullified by AMPK inhibition or eNOS inhibition. HPC attenuated the oxidative stress by increasing the SOD activity and decreasing the MDA and ROS level, which were abolished by AMPK inhibition or eNOS inhibition. Interestingly, the AMPK activator metformin mimicked the effects of HPC in part. Conclusions: These results indicated that HPC protects H9c2 cells against H/R injury by reducing oxidative stress partly via AMPK/eNOS/PGC-1α signaling pathway. PMID:25550773

  6. Activated AMPK boosts the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling axis—A role for the unfolded protein response

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Kristin; Baldinger, Johannes; Mayerhofer, Barbara; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Dirsch, Verena M.; Heiss, Elke H.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the emerging interplay between redox and metabolic signaling pathways we investigated the potential cross talk between nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), central regulators of the cellular redox and energy balance, respectively. Making use of xanthohumol (XN) as an activator of both the AMPK and the Nrf2 signaling pathway we show that AMPK exerts a positive influence on Nrf2/heme oxygenase (HO)-1 signaling in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Genetic ablation and pharmacological inhibition of AMPK blunts Nrf2-dependent HO-1 expression by XN already at the mRNA level. XN leads to AMPK activation via interference with mitochondrial function and activation of liver kinase B1 as upstream AMPK kinase. The subsequent AMPK-mediated enhancement of the Nrf2/HO-1 response does not depend on inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin, inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β, or altered abundance of Nrf2 (total and nuclear). However, reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress was identified and elaborated as a step in the AMPK-augmented Nrf2/HO-1 response. Overall, we shed more light on the hitherto incompletely understood cross talk between the LKB1/AMPK and the Nrf2/HO-1 axis revealing for the first time involvement of the unfolded protein response as an additional player and suggesting tight cooperation between signaling pathways controlling cellular redox, energy, or protein homeostasis. PMID:25843659

  7. AMPK regulates lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle cells through FTO-dependent demethylation of N6-methyladenosine

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weiche; Feng, Jie; Jiang, Denghu; Zhou, Xihong; Jiang, Qin; Cai, Min; Wang, Xinxia; Shan, Tizhong; Wang, Yizhen

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle plays important roles in whole-body energy homeostasis. Excessive skeletal muscle lipid accumulation is associated with some metabolic diseases such as obesity and Type 2 Diabetes. The energy sensor AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) is a key regulator of skeletal muscle lipid metabolism, but the precise regulatory mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here, we provide a novel mechanism by which AMPK regulates skeletal muscle lipid accumulation through fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO)-dependent demethylation of N6-methyladenosine (m6A). We confirmed an inverse correlation between AMPK and skeletal muscle lipid content. Moreover, inhibition of AMPK enhanced lipid accumulation, while activation of AMPK reduced lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle cells. Notably, we found that mRNA m6A methylation levels were inversely correlated with lipid content in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, AMPK positively regulated the m6A methylation levels of mRNA, which could negatively regulate lipid accumulation in C2C12. At the molecular level, we demonstrated that AMPK regulated lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle cells by regulating FTO expression and FTO-dependent demethylation of m6A. Together, these results provide a novel regulatory mechanism of AMPK on lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle cells and suggest the possibility of controlling skeletal muscle lipid deposition by targeting AMPK or using m6A related drugs. PMID:28176824

  8. mir-101-3p is a key regulator of tumor metabolism in triple negative breast cancer targeting AMPK

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xing; Tang, Hailin; Li, Shuaijie; Huang, Xiaojia; Song, Cailu; Wei, Weidong; Xie, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    mir-101-3p has been reported to be a tumor suppressor and a promising therapeutic target in cancer. Recently, AMPK dysfunction has been highlighted in cancers, including breast cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the biological roles of mir-101-3p and AMPK in breast cancer. Our research demonstrated that AMPK was up-regulated in breast cancer tissues and cell lines, especially in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). High-expression of AMPK correlated with poor outcome in both total breast cancer and TNBC patients. Ectopic expression of AMPK improved glucose uptake, glycolysis, proliferation of TNBC cells in vitro and its tumorigenicity in vivo. AMPK was predicted to be a direct target of mir-101-3p. The luciferase reporter assay was performed to certificate this prediction. The expression of AMPK was suppressed by transfection of mir-101-3p in TNBC cells. Over-expression of mir-101-3p or knock-down of AMPK inhibited glucose metabolism and proliferation of TNBC cells in vitro. Our study provides evidence that mir-101-3p- AMPK axis could be a promising therapeutic target in TNBC targeting tumor metabolism. PMID:27145268

  9. 5′-AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Supports the Growth of Aggressive Experimental Human Breast Cancer Tumors*

    PubMed Central

    Laderoute, Keith R.; Calaoagan, Joy M.; Chao, Wan-ru; Dinh, Dominc; Denko, Nicholas; Duellman, Sarah; Kalra, Jessica; Liu, Xiaohe; Papandreou, Ioanna; Sambucetti, Lidia; Boros, Laszlo G.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid tumor growth can establish metabolically stressed microenvironments that activate 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a ubiquitous regulator of ATP homeostasis. Previously, we investigated the importance of AMPK for the growth of experimental tumors prepared from HRAS-transformed mouse embryo fibroblasts and for primary brain tumor development in a rat model of neurocarcinogenesis. Here, we used triple-negative human breast cancer cells in which AMPK activity had been knocked down to investigate the contribution of AMPK to experimental tumor growth and core glucose metabolism. We found that AMPK supports the growth of fast-growing orthotopic tumors prepared from MDA-MB-231 and DU4475 breast cancer cells but had no effect on the proliferation or survival of these cells in culture. We used in vitro and in vivo metabolic profiling with [13C]glucose tracers to investigate the contribution of AMPK to core glucose metabolism in MDA-MB-231 cells, which have a Warburg metabolic phenotype; these experiments indicated that AMPK supports tumor glucose metabolism in part through positive regulation of glycolysis and the nonoxidative pentose phosphate cycle. We also found that AMPK activity in the MDA-MB-231 tumors could systemically perturb glucose homeostasis in sensitive normal tissues (liver and pancreas). Overall, our findings suggest that the contribution of AMPK to the growth of aggressive experimental tumors has a critical microenvironmental component that involves specific regulation of core glucose metabolism. PMID:24993821

  10. AMPK and SIRT1 activation contribute to inhibition of neuroinflammation by thymoquinone in BV2 microglia.

    PubMed

    Velagapudi, Ravikanth; El-Bakoush, Abdelmeneim; Lepiarz, Izabela; Ogunrinade, Folashade; Olajide, Olumayokun A

    2017-05-27

    Thymoquinone is a known inhibitor of neuroinflammation. However, the mechanism(s) involved in its action remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the roles of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in the anti-neuroinflammatory activity of thymoquinone. We investigated effects of the compound on ROS generation in LPS-activated microglia using the fluorescent 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFDA)-cellular ROS detection. Immunoblotting was used to detect protein levels of p40(phox), gp91(phox), AMPK, LKB1 and SIRT1. Additionally, ELISA and immunofluorescence were used to detect nuclear accumulation of SIRT1. NAD(+)/NADH assay was also performed. The roles of AMPK and SIRT1 in anti-inflammatory activity of thymoquinone were investigated using RNAi and pharmacological inhibition. Our results show that thymoquinone reduced cellular ROS generation, possibly through inhibition of p40(phox) and gp91(phox) protein. Treatment of BV2 microglia with thymoquinone also resulted in elevation in the levels of LKB1 and phospho-AMPK proteins. We further observed that thymoquinone reduced cytoplasmic levels and increased nuclear accumulation of SIRT1 protein and increased levels of NAD(+). Results also show that the anti-inflammatory activity of thymoquinone was abolished when the expressions of AMPK and SIRT1 were suppressed by RNAi or pharmacological antagonists. Pharmacological antagonism of AMPK reversed thymoquinone-induced increase in SIRT1. Taken together, we propose that thymoquinone inhibits cellular ROS generation in LPS-activated BV2 microglia. It is also suggested that activation of both AMPK and NAD(+)/SIRT1 may contribute to the anti-inflammatory, but not antioxidant activity of the compound in BV2 microglia.

  11. AMPK-NF-κB Axis in the Photoreceptor Disorder during Retinal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kamoshita, Mamoru; Ozawa, Yoko; Kubota, Shunsuke; Miyake, Seiji; Tsuda, Chiduru; Nagai, Norihiro; Yuki, Kenya; Shimmura, Shigeto; Umezawa, Kazuo; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in molecular analysis has revealed the possible involvement of multiple inflammatory signaling pathways in pathogenesis of retinal degeneration. However, how aberrant signaling pathways cause tissue damage and dysfunction is still being elucidated. Here, we focus on 5′-adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), originally recognized as a key regulator of energy homeostasis. AMPK is also modulated in response to inflammatory signals, although its functions in inflamed tissue are obscure. We investigated the role of activated AMPK in the retinal neural damage and visual function impairment caused by inflammation. For this purpose, we used a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in the retina, and examined the effects of an AMPK activator, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR). During inflammation, activated AMPK in the neural retina was decreased, but AICAR treatment prevented this change. Moreover, the electroretinogram (ERG) a-wave response, representing photoreceptor function, showed visual dysfunction in this model that was prevented by AICAR. Consistently, the model showed shortened photoreceptor outer segments (OSs) with reduced levels of rhodopsin, a visual pigment concentrated in the OSs, in a post-transcriptional manner, and these effects were also prevented by AICAR. In parallel, the level of activated NF-κB increased in the retina during inflammation, and this increase was suppressed by AICAR. Treatment with an NF-κB inhibitor, dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ) preserved the rhodopsin level during inflammation, suppressing NF-κB. These findings indicated that AMPK activation by AICAR and subsequent NF-κB inhibition had a protective effect on visual function, and that AMPK activation played a neuroprotective role during retinal inflammation. PMID:25048039

  12. Chronic elevated calcium blocks AMPK-induced GLUT-4 expression in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Park, S; Scheffler, T L; Gunawan, A M; Shi, H; Zeng, C; Hannon, K M; Grant, A L; Gerrard, D E

    2009-01-01

    Muscle contraction stimulates glucose transport independent of insulin. Glucose uptake into muscle cells is positively related to skeletal muscle-specific glucose transporter (GLUT-4) expression. Therefore, our objective was to determine the effects of the contraction-mediated signals, calcium and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), on glucose uptake and GLUT-4 expression under acute and chronic conditions. To accomplish this, we used pharmacological agents, cell culture, and pigs possessing genetic mutations for increased cytosolic calcium and constitutively active AMPK. In C2C12 myotubes, caffeine, a sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-releasing agent, had a biphasic effect on GLUT-4 expression and glucose uptake. Low-concentration (1.25 to 2 mM) or short-term (4 h) caffeine treatment together with the AMPK activator, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribonucleoside (AICAR), had an additive effect on GLUT-4 expression. However, high-concentration (2.5 to 5 mM) or long-term (4 to 30 h) caffeine treatment decreased AMPK-induced GLUT-4 expression without affecting cell viability. The negative effect of caffeine on AICAR-induced GLUT-4 expression was reduced by dantrolene, which desensitizes the ryanodine receptor. Consistent with cell culture data, increases in GLUT-4 mRNA and protein expression induced by AMPK were blunted in pigs possessing genetic mutations for both increased cytosolic calcium and constitutively active AMPK. Altogether, these data suggest that chronic exposure to elevated cytosolic calcium concentration blocks AMPK-induced GLUT-4 expression in skeletal muscle.

  13. Lipid Accumulation in HepG2 Cells Is Attenuated by Strawberry Extract through AMPK Activation.

    PubMed

    Forbes-Hernández, Tamara Y; Giampieri, Francesca; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Afrin, Sadia; Mazzoni, Luca; Cordero, Mario D; Mezzetti, Bruno; Quiles, José L; Battino, Maurizio

    2017-06-16

    Regulation of lipid metabolism is essential for treatment and prevention of several chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, which are responsible for most deaths worldwide. It has been demonstrated that the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has a direct impact on lipid metabolism by modulating several downstream-signaling components. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate the in vitro effect of a methanolic strawberry extract on AMPK and its possible repercussion on lipid metabolism in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). For such purpose, the lipid profile and the expression of proteins metabolically related to AMPK were determined on cells lysates. The results demonstrated that strawberry methanolic extract decreased total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and triglycerides levels (up to 0.50-, 0.30-, and 0.40-fold, respectively) while it stimulated the p-AMPK/AMPK expression (up to 3.06-fold), compared to the control. AMPK stimulation led to the phosphorylation and consequent inactivation of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) and inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), the major regulators of fatty acids and cholesterol synthesis, respectively. Strawberry treatment also entailed a 4.34-, 2.37-, and 2.47-fold overexpression of LDL receptor, sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), and the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), respectively, compared to control. The observed results were counteracted by treatment with compound C, an AMPK pharmacological inhibitor, confirming that multiple effects of strawberries on lipid metabolism are mediated by the activation of this protein.

  14. LKB1 regulates lipid oxidation during exercise independently of AMPK.

    PubMed

    Jeppesen, Jacob; Maarbjerg, Stine J; Jordy, Andreas B; Fritzen, Andreas M; Pehmøller, Christian; Sylow, Lykke; Serup, Annette Karen; Jessen, Niels; Thorsen, Kasper; Prats, Clara; Qvortrup, Klaus; Dyck, Jason R B; Hunter, Roger W; Sakamoto, Kei; Thomson, David M; Schjerling, Peter; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Richter, Erik A; Kiens, Bente

    2013-05-01

    Lipid metabolism is important for health and insulin action, yet the fundamental process of regulating lipid metabolism during muscle contraction is incompletely understood. Here, we show that liver kinase B1 (LKB1) muscle-specific knockout (LKB1 MKO) mice display decreased fatty acid (FA) oxidation during treadmill exercise. LKB1 MKO mice also show decreased muscle SIK3 activity, increased histone deacetylase 4 expression, decreased NAD⁺ concentration and SIRT1 activity, and decreased expression of genes involved in FA oxidation. In AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)α2 KO mice, substrate use was similar to that in WT mice, which excluded that decreased FA oxidation in LKB1 MKO mice was due to decreased AMPKα2 activity. Additionally, LKB1 MKO muscle demonstrated decreased FA oxidation in vitro. A markedly decreased phosphorylation of TBC1D1, a proposed regulator of FA transport, and a low CoA content could contribute to the low FA oxidation in LKB1 MKO. LKB1 deficiency did not reduce muscle glucose uptake or oxidation during exercise in vivo, excluding a general impairment of substrate use during exercise in LKB1 MKO mice. Our findings demonstrate that LKB1 is a novel molecular regulator of major importance for FA oxidation but not glucose uptake in muscle during exercise.

  15. LKB1 Regulates Lipid Oxidation During Exercise Independently of AMPK

    PubMed Central

    Jeppesen, Jacob; Maarbjerg, Stine J.; Jordy, Andreas B.; Fritzen, Andreas M.; Pehmøller, Christian; Sylow, Lykke; Serup, Annette Karen; Jessen, Niels; Thorsen, Kasper; Prats, Clara; Qvortrup, Klaus; Dyck, Jason R.B.; Hunter, Roger W.; Sakamoto, Kei; Thomson, David M.; Schjerling, Peter; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F.P.; Richter, Erik A.; Kiens, Bente

    2013-01-01

    Lipid metabolism is important for health and insulin action, yet the fundamental process of regulating lipid metabolism during muscle contraction is incompletely understood. Here, we show that liver kinase B1 (LKB1) muscle-specific knockout (LKB1 MKO) mice display decreased fatty acid (FA) oxidation during treadmill exercise. LKB1 MKO mice also show decreased muscle SIK3 activity, increased histone deacetylase 4 expression, decreased NAD+ concentration and SIRT1 activity, and decreased expression of genes involved in FA oxidation. In AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)α2 KO mice, substrate use was similar to that in WT mice, which excluded that decreased FA oxidation in LKB1 MKO mice was due to decreased AMPKα2 activity. Additionally, LKB1 MKO muscle demonstrated decreased FA oxidation in vitro. A markedly decreased phosphorylation of TBC1D1, a proposed regulator of FA transport, and a low CoA content could contribute to the low FA oxidation in LKB1 MKO. LKB1 deficiency did not reduce muscle glucose uptake or oxidation during exercise in vivo, excluding a general impairment of substrate use during exercise in LKB1 MKO mice. Our findings demonstrate that LKB1 is a novel molecular regulator of major importance for FA oxidation but not glucose uptake in muscle during exercise. PMID:23349504

  16. Nitrogen Regulates AMPK to Control TORC1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Davie, Elizabeth; Forte, Gabriella M.A.; Petersen, Janni

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Cell growth and cell-cycle progression are tightly coordinated to enable cells to adjust their size (timing of division) to the demands of proliferation in varying nutritional environments. In fission yeast, nitrogen stress results in sustained proliferation at a reduced size. Results Here, we show that cells can sense nitrogen stress to reduce target of rapamycin complex-1 (TORC1) activity. Nitrogen-stress-induced TORC1 inhibition differs from amino-acid-dependent control of TORC1 and requires the Ssp2 (AMPKα) kinase, the Tsc1/2 complex, and Rhb1 GTPase. Importantly, the β and γ regulatory subunits of AMPK are not required to control cell division in response to nitrogen stress, providing evidence for a nitrogen-sensing mechanism that is independent of changes in intracellular ATP/AMP levels. The CaMKK homolog Ssp1 is constitutively required for phosphorylation of the AMPKαSsp2 T loop. However, we find that a second homolog CaMKKPpk34 is specifically required to stimulate AMPKαSsp2 activation in response to nitrogen stress. Finally, ammonia also controls mTORC1 activity in human cells; mTORC1 is activated upon the addition of ammonium to glutamine-starved Hep3B cancer cells. Conclusions The alternative nitrogen source ammonia can simulate TORC1 activity to support growth and division under challenging nutrient settings, a situation often seen in cancer. PMID:25639242

  17. Betulin inhibits lung carcinoma proliferation through activation of AMPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian-Dong; Zhang, Yi-Jie; Han, Ji-Chang

    2014-11-01

    Betulin (lup-20(29)-ene-3β, 28-diol) is an abundant, naturally occurring triterpene. It is commonly isolated from the bark of birch trees and forms up to 30% of the dry weight of the extractive. In the present study, we revealed its antiproliferative effects and mechanisms using two lung carcinoma cells (A549 and NCI-292). By 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assays, we found that betulin could efficiently inhibit cell growth and proliferation. Besides, several key genes of cell-cycle regulators were also affected by betulin treatment. At the molecular level, our results demonstrated that treatment with betulin was also associated with activation of AMP kinase and inhibition of mTOR/p70S6K/pS6 signaling in these cells. In agreement, inhibition of AMPK signaling largely reversed the antiproliferative roles of betulin. Taken together, these data provide evidence for a mechanism that may contribute to the antineoplastic effects of betulin and justify further work to explore its potential roles in lung cancer prevention and treatment.

  18. Acute renal ischemia rapidly activates the energy sensor AMPK but does not increase phosphorylation of eNOS-Ser1177.

    PubMed

    Mount, Peter F; Hill, Rebecca E; Fraser, Scott A; Levidiotis, Vicki; Katsis, Frosa; Kemp, Bruce E; Power, David A

    2005-11-01

    A fundamental aspect of acute renal ischemia is energy depletion, manifest as a falling level of ATP that is associated with a simultaneous rise in AMP. The energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated by a rising AMP-to-ATP ratio, but its role in acute renal ischemia is unknown. AMPK is activated in the ischemic heart and is reported to phosphorylate both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. To study activation of AMPK in acute renal ischemia, the renal pedicle of anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats was cross-clamped for increasing time intervals. AMPK was strongly activated within 1 min and remained so after 30 min. However, despite the robust activation of AMPK, acute renal ischemia did not increase phosphorylation of the AMPK phosphorylation sites eNOS-Ser(1177) or acetyl-CoA carboxylase-Ser(79). Activation of AMPK in bovine aortic endothelial cells by the ATP-depleting agent antimycin A and the antidiabetic drug phenformin also did not increase phosphorylation of eNOS-Ser(1177), confirming that AMPK activation and phosphorylation of eNOS are dissociated in some situations. Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that the dissociation between AMPK activation and phosphorylation of eNOS-Ser(1177) was not due to changes in the physical associations between AMPK, eNOS, or heat shock protein 90. In conclusion, acute renal ischemia rapidly activates the energy sensor AMPK, which is known to maintain ATP reserves during energy stress. The substrates it phosphorylates, however, are different from those in other organs such as the heart.

  19. Long-term ethanol exposure inhibits glucose transporter 4 expression via an AMPK-dependent pathway in adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Li; Song, Yong-feng; Guan, Qing-bo; Liu, Hong-jun; Ban, Bo; Dong, Hai-xin; Hou, Xiao-lei; Lee, Kok-onn; Gao, Ling; Zhao, Jia-jun

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The roles of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and myocyte enhancer factor 2 isoforms (MEF2A, D) as mediators of the effects of ethanol on glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression are unclear. We studied the effects of ethanol in adipocytes in vivo and in vitro. Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into three groups and given ethanol in a single daily dose of 0, 0.5, or 5 g/kg for 22 weeks. The expression of AMPK, MEF2 isoforms A and D, and GLUT4 was measured and compared in the three groups. The existence of the AMPK/MEF2/GLUT4 pathway in adipocytes and the effects of ethanol on this pathway were studied in (a) epididymal adipose tissue from six male Wistar rats subcutaneously injected with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR, an AMPK activator) or with 0.9% NaCl (control); and (b) isolated rat and human adipocytes treated with or without ethanol, AICAR, and compound C (a selective AMPK inhibitor). Expression of AMPK, MEF2, and GLUT4 was measured by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Results: (1) Long-term ethanol exposure decreased activated AMPK, MEF2A, MEF2D, and GLUT4 expression in rat adipose tissue. (2) In rat and human adipocytes, AICAR-induced AMPK activation, with subsequent elevation of MEF2 and GLUT4 expression, was inhibited by compound C. (3) In vitro ethanol-treatment suppressed the AMPK/MEF2/GLUT4 pathway. Conclusion: The AMPK/MEF2/GLUT4 pathway exists in both rat and human adipocytes, and activated AMPK may positively regulate MEF2 and GLUT4 expression. Ethanol inhibition of this pathway leads to decreased GLUT4 expression, thus reducing insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. PMID:20173759

  20. Nitric oxide increases GLUT4 expression and regulates AMPK signaling in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Lira, Vitor A; Soltow, Quinlyn A; Long, Jodi H D; Betters, Jenna L; Sellman, Jeff E; Criswell, David S

    2007-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are involved in glucose transport and mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. Here, we examined whether NO regulates the expression of the major glucose transporter in muscle (GLUT4) and whether it influences AMPK-induced upregulation of GLUT4. At low levels, the NO donor S-nitroso-N-penicillamine (SNAP, 1 and 10 microM) significantly increased GLUT4 mRNA ( approximately 3-fold; P < 0.05) in L6 myotubes, and cotreatment with the AMPK inhibitor compound C ablated this effect. The cGMP analog 8-bromo-cGMP (8-Br-cGMP, 2 mM) increased GLUT4 mRNA by approximately 50% (P < 0.05). GLUT4 protein expression was elevated 40% by 2 days treatment with 8-Br-cGMP, whereas 6 days treatment with 10 microM SNAP increased GLUT4 expression by 65%. Cotreatment of cultures with the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3,-a]quinoxalin-1-one prevented the SNAP-induced increase in GLUT4 protein. SNAP (10 microM) also induced significant phosphorylation of alpha-AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase and translocation of phosphorylated alpha-AMPK to the nucleus. Furthermore, L6 myotubes exposed to 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) for 16 h presented an approximately ninefold increase in GLUT4 mRNA, whereas cotreatment with the non-isoform-specific NOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, prevented approximately 70% of this effect. In vivo, GLUT4 mRNA was increased 1.8-fold in the rat plantaris muscle 12 h after AICAR injection, and this induction was reduced by approximately 50% in animals cotreated with the neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthases selective inhibitor 1-(2-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-imidazole. We conclude that, in skeletal muscle, NO increases GLUT4 expression via a cGMP- and AMPK-dependent mechanism. The data are consistent with a role for NO in the regulation of AMPK, possibly via control of cellular activity of AMPK kinases and/or AMPK phosphatases.

  1. Salmonella Typhimurium disrupts Sirt1/AMPK checkpoint control of mTOR to impair autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Raja; Hos, Nina Judith; Gutierrez, Saray; Fischer, Julia; Stepek, Joanna Magdalena; Daglidu, Evmorphia; Krönke, Martin

    2017-01-01

    During intracellular infections, autophagy significantly contributes to the elimination of pathogens, regulation of pro-inflammatory signaling, secretion of immune mediators and in coordinating the adaptive immune system. Intracellular pathogens such as S. Typhimurium have evolved mechanisms to circumvent autophagy. However, the regulatory mechanisms targeted by S. Typhimurium to modulate autophagy have not been fully resolved. Here we report that cytosolic energy loss during S. Typhimurium infection triggers transient activation of AMPK, an important checkpoint of mTOR activity and autophagy. The activation of AMPK is regulated by LKB1 in a cytosolic complex containing Sirt1 and LKB1, where Sirt1 is required for deacetylation and subsequent activation of LKB1. S. Typhimurium infection targets Sirt1, LKB1 and AMPK to lysosomes for rapid degradation resulting in the disruption of the AMPK-mediated regulation of mTOR and autophagy. The degradation of cytosolic Sirt1/LKB1/AMPK complex was not observed with two mutant strains of S. Typhimurium, ΔssrB and ΔssaV, both compromising the pathogenicity island 2 (SPI2). The results highlight virulence factor-dependent degradation of host cell proteins as a previously unrecognized strategy of S. Typhimurium to evade autophagy. PMID:28192515

  2. Metformin interferes with bile acid homeostasis through AMPK-FXR crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Fleur; Berthier, Alexandre; Bouchaert, Emmanuel; Gheeraert, Céline; Alexandre, Jeremy; Porez, Geoffrey; Prawitt, Janne; Dehondt, Hélène; Ploton, Maheul; Colin, Sophie; Lucas, Anthony; Patrice, Alexandre; Pattou, François; Diemer, Hélène; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Rachez, Christophe; Kamilic, Jelena; Groen, Albert K.; Staels, Bart; Lefebvre, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is an important transcriptional regulator of bile acid, lipid, and glucose metabolism. FXR is highly expressed in the liver and intestine and controls the synthesis and enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. However, little is known about FXR-associated proteins that contribute to metabolic regulation. Here, we performed a mass spectrometry–based search for FXR-interacting proteins in human hepatoma cells and identified AMPK as a coregulator of FXR. FXR interacted with the nutrient-sensitive kinase AMPK in the cytoplasm of target cells and was phosphorylated in its hinge domain. In cultured human and murine hepatocytes and enterocytes, pharmacological activation of AMPK inhibited FXR transcriptional activity and prevented FXR coactivator recruitment to promoters of FXR-regulated genes. Furthermore, treatment with AMPK activators, including the antidiabetic biguanide metformin, inhibited FXR agonist induction of FXR target genes in mouse liver and intestine. In a mouse model of intrahepatic cholestasis, metformin treatment induced FXR phosphorylation, perturbed bile acid homeostasis, and worsened liver injury. Together, our data indicate that AMPK directly phosphorylates and regulates FXR transcriptional activity to precipitate liver injury under conditions favoring cholestasis. PMID:24531544

  3. Current evidence for AMPK activation involvement on resveratrol-induced neuroprotection in cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Pineda-Ramírez, Narayana; Gutiérrez Aguilar, Germán Fernando; Espinoza-Rojo, Mónica; Aguilera, Penélope

    2017-02-14

    Cerebral ischemia is a neurological condition in which energetics and oxidative stress are dysregulated. Resveratrol is a stilbene with potent pharmacological effects associated with its antioxidant properties. In the brain, resveratrol produces protective responses against ischemia, decreases infarct volume and improves neurological function. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cellular sensor that acts as a switch to initiate adaptive changes in response to fluctuations in energy metabolism. In ischemia, AMPK is activated, nevertheless conflicting results about its contribution to protection have become apparent, and this matter continues without resolution. Interestingly, AMPK activation by resveratrol has been implicated in regulating cell survival in different experimental models. Although resveratrol's ability to regulate AMPK directly or after signaling is only beginning to be understood, targeting this enzyme by resveratrol in brain suggest that it could contribute to the amelioration of some pathologic features induced after an energetic deficit. The present review discusses the potential role of resveratrol in regulating AMPK activity on brain before, during, or after ischemia and offer suggestions for feasible future studies.

  4. Galangin potentiates human breast cancer to apoptosis induced by TRAIL through activating AMPK.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Yan, Chong-Yang; Zhou, Qian-Qian; Zhen, Lin-Lin

    2017-03-06

    Breast cancer is reported as the most frequent tumor with limited treatments among the female worldwide. Galangin, a natural active compound 3, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone, is a type of bioflavonoid isolated from the Alpinia galangal root and suggested to induce apoptosis in various cancers. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is an effective anti-tumor agent for human breast cancer. Promoted expression of CHOP, a down-streaming transcription factor for endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress), enhanced death factor 4 (DR4) activity and accelerated reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as cell death. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is crucial for various cancers mortality. In the present study, galangin regulated ER stress to augment CHOP and DR4 expression levels, sensitizing TRAIL activity, leading to human breast cancer cell apoptosis through Caspase-3 activation, which was associated with AMPK phosphorylation. In addition, AMPK inhibition and silence reduced anti-cancer activity of galangin and TRAIL in combinational treatment. Hence, our study indicated that galangin could effectively stimulate human breast cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through TRAIL/Caspase-3/AMPK signaling pathway. AMPK signaling pathway activation by galangin might be of benefit for promoting the effects of TRAIL-regulated anti-tumor therapeutic strategy.

  5. Contraction-induced skeletal muscle FAT/CD36 trafficking and FA uptake is AMPK independent.

    PubMed

    Jeppesen, J; Albers, P H; Rose, A J; Birk, J B; Schjerling, P; Dzamko, N; Steinberg, G R; Kiens, B

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms regulating FA translocase CD36 (FAT/CD36) translocation and FA uptake in skeletal muscle during contractions. In one model, wild-type (WT) and AMP-dependent protein kinase kinase dead (AMPK KD) mice were exercised or extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles were contracted, ex vivo. In separate studies, FAT/CD36 translocation and FA uptake in response to muscle contractions were investigated in the perfused rat hindlimb. Exercise induced a similar increase in skeletal muscle cell surface membrane FAT/CD36 content in WT (+34%) and AMPK KD (+37%) mice. In contrast, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside only induced an increase in cell surface FAT/CD36 content in WT (+29%) mice. Furthermore, in the perfused rat hindlimb, muscle contraction induced a rapid (1 min, +15%) and sustained (10 min, +24%) FAT/CD36 relocation to cell surface membranes. The increase in cell surface FAT/CD36 protein content with muscle contractions was associated with increased FA uptake, both in EDL and SOL muscle from WT and AMPK KD mice and in the perfused rat hindlimb. This suggests that AMPK is not essential in regulation of FAT/CD36 translocation and FA uptake in skeletal muscle during contractions. However, AMPK could be important in regulation of FAT/CD36 distribution in other physiological situations.

  6. Contraction-induced skeletal muscle FAT/CD36 trafficking and FA uptake is AMPK independent

    PubMed Central

    Jeppesen, J.; Albers, P. H.; Rose, A. J.; Birk, J. B.; Schjerling, P.; Dzamko, N.; Steinberg, G. R.; Kiens, B.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms regulating FA translocase CD36 (FAT/CD36) translocation and FA uptake in skeletal muscle during contractions. In one model, wild-type (WT) and AMP-dependent protein kinase kinase dead (AMPK KD) mice were exercised or extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles were contracted, ex vivo. In separate studies, FAT/CD36 translocation and FA uptake in response to muscle contractions were investigated in the perfused rat hindlimb. Exercise induced a similar increase in skeletal muscle cell surface membrane FAT/CD36 content in WT (+34%) and AMPK KD (+37%) mice. In contrast, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside only induced an increase in cell surface FAT/CD36 content in WT (+29%) mice. Furthermore, in the perfused rat hindlimb, muscle contraction induced a rapid (1 min, +15%) and sustained (10 min, +24%) FAT/CD36 relocation to cell surface membranes. The increase in cell surface FAT/CD36 protein content with muscle contractions was associated with increased FA uptake, both in EDL and SOL muscle from WT and AMPK KD mice and in the perfused rat hindlimb. This suggests that AMPK is not essential in regulation of FAT/CD36 translocation and FA uptake in skeletal muscle during contractions. However, AMPK could be important in regulation of FAT/CD36 distribution in other physiological situations. PMID:21297178

  7. The AMPK β2 subunit is required for energy homeostasis during metabolic stress.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Biplab; Ju, Jeong Sun; Sasaki, Yo; Liu, Xiaona; Jung, Su-Ryun; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Lindquist, Diana; Milbrandt, Jeffrey

    2012-07-01

    AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in the regulatory network responsible for maintaining systemic energy homeostasis during exercise or nutrient deprivation. To understand the function of the regulatory β2 subunit of AMPK in systemic energy metabolism, we characterized β2 subunit-deficient mice. Using these mutant mice, we demonstrated that the β2 subunit plays an important role in regulating glucose, glycogen, and lipid metabolism during metabolic stress. The β2 mutant animals failed to maintain euglycemia and muscle ATP levels during fasting. In addition, β2-deficient animals showed classic symptoms of metabolic syndrome, including hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance when maintained on a high-fat diet (HFD), and were unable to maintain muscle ATP levels during exercise. Cell surface-associated glucose transporter levels were reduced in skeletal muscle from β2 mutant animals on an HFD. In addition, they displayed poor exercise performance and impaired muscle glycogen metabolism. These mutant mice had decreased activation of AMPK and deficits in PGC1α-mediated transcription in skeletal muscle. Our results highlight specific roles of AMPK complexes containing the β2 subunit and suggest the potential utility of AMPK isoform-specific pharmacological modulators for treatment of metabolic, cardiac, and neurological disorders.

  8. Diacylglycerol kinase-δ regulates AMPK signaling, lipid metabolism, and skeletal muscle energetics

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lake Q.; de Castro Barbosa, Thais; Massart, Julie; Deshmukh, Atul S.; Löfgren, Lars; Duque-Guimaraes, Daniella E.; Ozilgen, Arda; Osler, Megan E.; Chibalin, Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    Decrease of AMPK-related signal transduction and insufficient lipid oxidation contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Previously, we identified that diacylglycerol kinase-δ (DGKδ), an enzyme involved in triglyceride biosynthesis, is reduced in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetic patients. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DGKδ plays a role in maintaining appropriate AMPK action in skeletal muscle and energetic aspects of contraction. Voluntary running activity was reduced in DGKδ+/− mice, but glycogen content and mitochondrial markers were unaltered, suggesting that DGKδ deficiency affects skeletal muscle energetics but not mitochondrial protein abundance. We next determined the role of DGKδ in AMPK-related signal transduction and lipid metabolism in isolated skeletal muscle. AMPK activation and signaling were reduced in DGKδ+/− mice, concomitant with impaired lipid oxidation and elevated incorporation of free fatty acids into triglycerides. Strikingly, DGKδ deficiency impaired work performance, as evident by altered force production and relaxation dynamics in response to repeated contractions. In conclusion, DGKδ deficiency impairs AMPK signaling and lipid metabolism, thereby highlighting the deleterious role of excessive lipid metabolites in the development of peripheral insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes pathogenesis. DGKδ deficiency also influences skeletal muscle energetics, which may lead to low physical activity levels in type 2 diabetes. PMID:26530149

  9. CK2 inhibition induced PDK4-AMPK axis regulates metabolic adaptation and survival responses in glioma.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Deobrat; Ahmad, Fahim; Ghildiyal, Ruchi; Joshi, Shanker Datt; Sen, Ellora

    2016-05-15

    Understanding mechanisms that link aberrant metabolic adaptation and pro-survival responses in glioma cells is crucial towards the development of new anti-glioma therapies. As we have previously reported that CK2 is associated with glioma cell survival, we evaluated its involvement in the regulation of glucose metabolism. Inhibition of CK2 increased the expression of metabolic regulators, PDK4 and AMPK along with the key cellular energy sensor CREB. This increase was concomitant with altered metabolic profile as characterized by decreased glucose uptake in a PDK4 and AMPK dependent manner. Increased PDK4 expression was CREB dependent, as exogenous inhibition of CREB functions abrogated CK2 inhibitor mediated increase in PDK4 expression. Interestingly, PDK4 regulated AMPK phosphorylation which in turn affected cell viability in CK2 inhibitor treated glioma cells. CK2 inhibitor 4,5,6,7-Tetrabromobenzotriazole (TBB) significantly retarded the growth of glioma xenografts in athymic nude mouse model. Coherent with the in vitro findings, elevated senescence, pAMPK and PDK4 levels were also observed in TBB-treated xenograft tissue. Taken together, CK2 inhibition in glioma cells drives the PDK4-AMPK axis to affect metabolic profile that has a strong bearing on their survival.

  10. AMPK modulates tissue and organismal aging in a cell-non-autonomous manner

    PubMed Central

    Ulgherait, Matthew; Rana, Anil; Rera, Michael; Graniel, Jacqueline; Walker, David W.

    2014-01-01

    AMPK exerts pro-longevity effects in diverse species; however, the tissue-specific mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here, we show that up-regulation of AMPK in the adult Drosophila nervous system induces autophagy both in the brain and also in the intestinal epithelium. Induction of autophagy is linked to improved intestinal homeostasis during aging and extended lifespan. Neuronal up-regulation of the autophagy-specific protein kinase Atg1 is both necessary and sufficient to induce these inter-tissue effects during aging and to prolong lifespan. Furthermore, up-regulation of AMPK in the adult intestine induces autophagy both cell autonomously and non-autonomously in the brain, slows systemic aging and prolongs lifespan. We show that the organism-wide response to tissue-specific AMPK/Atg1 activation is linked to reduced insulin-like peptide levels in the brain and a systemic increase in 4E-BP expression. Together, these results reveal that localized activation of AMPK and/or Atg1 in key tissues can slow aging in a cell-non-autonomous manner. PMID:25199830

  11. Differential regulation of baicalin and scutellarin on AMPK and Akt in promoting adipose cell glucose disposal.

    PubMed

    Yang, Le-Le; Xiao, Na; Liu, Jinfeng; Liu, Kang; Liu, Baolin; Li, Ping; Qi, Lian-Wen

    2017-02-01

    Baicalin and scutellarin, two flavonoid glucuronic acids isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis, exhibit beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. Baicalin and scutellarin are similar in structure except scutellarin has an additional hydroxyl at composition C-4'. In this work, we observed that baicalin and scutellarin promoted glucose disposal in mice and in adipocytes. Baicalin selectively increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), while scutellarin selectively enhanced Akt phosphorylation. Both of them increased AS160 phosphorylation and glucose uptake in basal condition. AMPK inhibitor or knockdown of AMPK by siRNA blocked baicalin-induced AS160 phosphorylation and glucose uptake, but showed no effects on scutellarin. In contrast, Akt inhibitor and knockdown of Akt with siRNA decreased scutellarin-stimulated glucose uptake but had no effects on baicalin. The molecular dynamic simulations analysis showed that the binding energy of baicalin to AMPK (-34.30kcal/mol) was more favorable than scutellarin (-21.27kcal/mol), while the binding energy of scutellarin (-29.81kcal/mol) to Akt was much more favorable than baicalin (4.04kcal/mol). Interestingly, a combined treatment with baicalin and scutellarin acted synergistically to enhance glucose uptake in adipocytes (combination index: 0.94-0.046). In conclusion, baicalin and scutellarin, though structurally similar, promoted glucose disposal in adipocytes by differential regulation on AMPK and Akt activity. Our data provide insight that multicomponent herbal medicines may act synergistically on multiple targets.

  12. Increased skeletal muscle glucose uptake by rosemary extract through AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Naimi, Madina; Tsakiridis, Theodoros; Stamatatos, Theocharis C; Alexandropoulos, Dimitris I; Tsiani, Evangelia

    2015-04-01

    Stimulation of the energy sensor AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) has been viewed as a targeted approach to increase glucose uptake by skeletal muscle and control blood glucose homeostasis. Rosemary extract (RE) has been reported to activate AMPK in hepatocytes and reduce blood glucose levels in vivo but its effects on skeletal muscle are not known. In the present study, we examined the effects of RE and the mechanism of regulation of glucose uptake in muscle cells. RE stimulated glucose uptake in L6 myotubes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Maximum stimulation was seen with 5 μg/mL of RE for 4 h (184% ± 5.07% of control, p < 0.001), a response comparable to maximum insulin (207% ± 5.26%, p < 0.001) and metformin (216% ± 8.77%, p < 0.001) stimulation. RE did not affect insulin receptor substrate 1 and Akt phosphorylation but significantly increased AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation. Furthermore, the RE-stimulated glucose uptake was significantly reduced by the AMPK inhibitor compound C, but remained unchanged by the PI3K inhibitor, wortmannin. RE did not affect GLUT4 or GLUT1 glucose transporter translocation in contrast with a significant translocation of both transporters seen with insulin or metformin treatment. Our study is the first to show a direct effect of RE on muscle cell glucose uptake by a mechanism that involves AMPK activation.

  13. AMPK-independent inhibition of human macrophage ER stress response by AICAR

    PubMed Central

    Boß, Marcel; Newbatt, Yvette; Gupta, Sahil; Collins, Ian; Brüne, Bernhard; Namgaladze, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Obesity-associated insulin resistance is driven by inflammatory processes in response to metabolic overload. Obesity-associated inflammation can be recapitulated in cell culture by exposing macrophages to saturated fatty acids (SFA), and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses essentially contribute to pro-inflammatory signalling. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central metabolic regulator with established anti-inflammatory actions. Whether pharmacological AMPK activation suppresses SFA-induced inflammation in a human system is unclear. In a setting of hypoxia-potentiated inflammation induced by SFA palmitate, we found that the AMP-mimetic AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) potently suppressed upregulation of ER stress marker mRNAs and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, AICAR inhibited macrophage ER stress responses triggered by ER-stressors thapsigargin or tunicamycin. Surprisingly, AICAR acted independent of AMPK or AICAR conversion to 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl monophosphate (ZMP) while requiring intracellular uptake via the equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) ENT1 or the concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) CNT3. AICAR did not affect the initiation of the ER stress response, but inhibited the expression of major ER stress transcriptional effectors. Furthermore, AICAR inhibited autophosphorylation of the ER stress sensor inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α), while activating its endoribonuclease activity in vitro. Our results suggest that AMPK-independent inhibition of ER stress responses contributes to anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects of AICAR. PMID:27562249

  14. AMPK, a metabolic sensor, is involved in isoeugenol-induced glucose uptake in muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nami; Lee, Jung Ok; Lee, Hye Jeong; Lee, Yong Woo; Kim, Hyung Ip; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Sun Hwa; Lee, Chul Su; Ryoo, Sun Woo; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Kim, Hyeon Soo

    2016-01-01

    Isoeugenol exerts various beneficial effects on human health. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly understood. In this study, we observed that isoeugenol activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and increased glucose uptake in rat L6 myotubes. Isoeugenol-induced increase in intracellular calcium concentration and glucose uptake was inhibited by STO-609, an inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK). Isoeugenol also increased the phosphorylation of protein kinase C-α (PKCα). Chelation of calcium with BAPTA-AM blocked isoeugenol-induced AMPK phosphorylation and glucose uptake. Isoeugenol stimulated p38MAPK phosphorylation that was inhibited after pretreatment with compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. Isoeugenol also increased glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) expression and its translocation to the plasma membrane. GLUT4 translocation was not observed after the inhibition of AMPK and CaMKK. In addition, isoeugenol activated the Akt substrate 160 (AS160) pathway, which is downstream of the p38MAPK pathway. Knockdown of the gene encoding AS160 inhibited isoeugenol-induced glucose uptake. Together, these results indicate that isoeugenol exerts beneficial health effects by activating the AMPK/p38MAPK/AS160 pathways in skeletal muscle. PMID:26585419

  15. Use of cells expressing gamma subunit variants to identify diverse mechanisms of AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Simon A; Ross, Fiona A; Chevtzoff, Cyrille; Green, Kevin A; Evans, Ashleigh; Fogarty, Sarah; Towler, Mhairi C; Brown, Laura J; Ogunbayo, Oluseye A; Evans, A Mark; Hardie, D Grahame

    2010-06-09

    A wide variety of agents activate AMPK, but in many cases the mechanisms remain unclear. We generated isogenic cell lines stably expressing AMPK complexes containing AMP-sensitive (wild-type, WT) or AMP-insensitive (R531G) gamma2 variants. Mitochondrial poisons such as oligomycin and dinitrophenol only activated AMPK in WT cells, as did AICAR, 2-deoxyglucose, hydrogen peroxide, metformin, phenformin, galegine, troglitazone, phenobarbital, resveratrol, and berberine. Excluding AICAR, all of these also inhibited cellular energy metabolism, shown by increases in ADP:ATP ratio and/or by decreases in cellular oxygen uptake measured using an extracellular flux analyzer. By contrast, A769662, the Ca(2+) ionophore, A23187, osmotic stress, and quercetin activated both variants to varying extents. A23187 and osmotic stress also increased cytoplasmic Ca(2+), and their effects were inhibited by STO609, a CaMKK inhibitor. Our approaches distinguish at least six different mechanisms for AMPK activation and confirm that the widely used antidiabetic drug metformin activates AMPK by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration.

  16. Chromatin recruitment of activated AMPK drives fasting response genes co-controlled by GR and PPARα

    PubMed Central

    Ratman, Dariusz; Mylka, Viacheslav; Bougarne, Nadia; Pawlak, Michal; Caron, Sandrine; Hennuyer, Nathalie; Paumelle, Réjane; De Cauwer, Lode; Thommis, Jonathan; Rider, Mark H.; Libert, Claude; Lievens, Sam; Tavernier, Jan; Staels, Bart; De Bosscher, Karolien

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation to fasting involves both Glucocorticoid Receptor (GRα) and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α (PPARα) activation. Given both receptors can physically interact we investigated the possibility of a genome-wide cross-talk between activated GR and PPARα, using ChIP- and RNA-seq in primary hepatocytes. Our data reveal extensive chromatin co-localization of both factors with cooperative induction of genes controlling lipid/glucose metabolism. Key GR/PPAR co-controlled genes switched from transcriptional antagonism to cooperativity when moving from short to prolonged hepatocyte fasting, a phenomenon coinciding with gene promoter recruitment of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and blocked by its pharmacological inhibition. In vitro interaction studies support trimeric complex formation between GR, PPARα and phospho-AMPK. Long-term fasting in mice showed enhanced phosphorylation of liver AMPK and GRα Ser211. Phospho-AMPK chromatin recruitment at liver target genes, observed upon prolonged fasting in mice, is dampened by refeeding. Taken together, our results identify phospho-AMPK as a molecular switch able to cooperate with nuclear receptors at the chromatin level and reveal a novel adaptation mechanism to prolonged fasting. PMID:27576532

  17. The AMPK β2 Subunit Is Required for Energy Homeostasis during Metabolic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Jeong Sun; Sasaki, Yo; Liu, Xiaona; Jung, Su-Ryun; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Lindquist, Diana

    2012-01-01

    AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in the regulatory network responsible for maintaining systemic energy homeostasis during exercise or nutrient deprivation. To understand the function of the regulatory β2 subunit of AMPK in systemic energy metabolism, we characterized β2 subunit-deficient mice. Using these mutant mice, we demonstrated that the β2 subunit plays an important role in regulating glucose, glycogen, and lipid metabolism during metabolic stress. The β2 mutant animals failed to maintain euglycemia and muscle ATP levels during fasting. In addition, β2-deficient animals showed classic symptoms of metabolic syndrome, including hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance when maintained on a high-fat diet (HFD), and were unable to maintain muscle ATP levels during exercise. Cell surface-associated glucose transporter levels were reduced in skeletal muscle from β2 mutant animals on an HFD. In addition, they displayed poor exercise performance and impaired muscle glycogen metabolism. These mutant mice had decreased activation of AMPK and deficits in PGC1α-mediated transcription in skeletal muscle. Our results highlight specific roles of AMPK complexes containing the β2 subunit and suggest the potential utility of AMPK isoform-specific pharmacological modulators for treatment of metabolic, cardiac, and neurological disorders. PMID:22586267

  18. Metformin and salicylate synergistically activate liver AMPK, inhibit lipogenesis and improve insulin sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Rebecca J.; Fullerton, Morgan D.; Pinkosky, Stephen L.; Day, Emily A.; Scott, John W.; Oakhill, Jonathan S.; Bujak, Adam L.; Smith, Brennan K.; Crane, Justin D.; Blumer, Regje M.; Marcinko, Katarina; Kemp, Bruce E.; Gerstein, Hertzel C.; Steinberg, Gregory R.

    2017-01-01

    Metformin is the mainstay therapy for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and many patients also take salicylate-based drugs [i.e., aspirin (ASA)] for cardioprotection. Metformin and salicylate both increase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity but by distinct mechanisms, with metformin altering cellular adenylate charge (increasing AMP) and salicylate interacting directly at the AMPK β1 drug-binding site. AMPK activation by both drugs results in phosphorylation of ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase; P-ACC) and inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), the rate limiting enzyme controlling fatty acid synthesis (lipogenesis). We find doses of metformin and salicylate used clinically synergistically activate AMPK in vitro and in vivo, resulting in reduced liver lipogenesis, lower liver lipid levels and improved insulin sensitivity in mice. Synergism occurs in cell-free assays and is specific for the AMPK β1 subunit. These effects are also observed in primary human hepatocytes and patients with dysglycaemia exhibit additional improvements in a marker of insulin resistance (proinsulin) when treated with ASA and metformin compared with either drug alone. These data indicate that metformin–salicylate combination therapy may be efficacious for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and T2D. PMID:25742316

  19. Promotion of adiponectin multimerization by emodin: a novel AMPK activator with PPARγ-agonist activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhifen; Zhang, Lu; Yi, Junyang; Yang, Zhuanbo; Zhang, Zhijie; Li, Zhen

    2012-11-01

    Adiponectin is an important insulin-sensitizing adipokine with multiple beneficial effects on obesity-associated medical complications. It is secreted from adipocytes into circulation as high, medium, and low molecular weight forms (HMW, MMW, and LMW). Each oligomeric form of adiponectin exerts non-overlapping biological functions, with the HMW oligomer possessing the most potent insulin-sensitizing activity. In this study, we reported that emodin, a natural product and active ingredient of various Chinese herbs, activates AMPK in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and 293T cells. Activation of AMPK by emodin promotes the assembly of HMW adiponectin and increases the ratio of HMW adiponectin to total adiponectin in 3T1-L1 adipocytes. Emodin might activate AMPK by an indirect mechanism similar to berberine. We also found that emodin activates PPARγ and promotes differentiation and adiponectin expression during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Therefore, emodin is a novel AMPK activator with PPARγ-agonist activity. Our results demonstrate that the effects of emodin on adiponectin expression and multimerization are the ultimate effects resulting from both AMPK activation and PPARγ activation. The dual-activity makes emodin or the derivatives potential drug candidates for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and other obesity-related metabolic diseases.

  20. Regulation of ion channels and transporters by AMP-activated kinase (AMPK)

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Florian; Föller, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The energy-sensing AMP-activated kinase AMPK ensures survival of energy-depleted cells by stimulating ATP production and limiting ATP utilization. Both energy production and energy consumption are profoundly influenced by transport processes across the cell membane including channels, carriers and pumps. Accordingly, AMPK is a powerful regulator of transport across the cell membrane. AMPK regulates diverse K+ channels, Na+ channels, Ca2+ release activated Ca2+ channels, Cl- channels, gap junctional channels, glucose carriers, Na+/H+-exchanger, monocarboxylate-, phosphate-, creatine-, amino acid-, peptide- and osmolyte-transporters, Na+/Ca2+-exchanger, H+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase. AMPK activates ubiquitin ligase Nedd4–2, which labels several plasma membrane proteins for degradation. AMPK further regulates transport proteins by inhibition of Rab GTPase activating protein (GAP) TBC1D1. It stimulates phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinase PIKfyve and inhibits phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) via glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). Moreover, it stabilizes F-actin as well as downregulates transcription factor NF-κB. All those cellular effects serve to regulate transport proteins. PMID:24366036

  1. Alpha-lipoic acid impairs body weight gain of young broiler chicks via modulating peripheral AMPK.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufeng; Everaert, Nadia; Song, Zhigang; Decuypere, Eddy; Vermeulen, Daniel; Buyse, Johan

    2017-09-01

    In mammals, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways in the central and peripheral tissues coordinately integrate inputs from multiple sources to regulate energy balance. The present study was aimed to explore the potential role of hepatic AMPK in the energy homeostasis of broiler chickens. Diets with 0, 0.05% or 0.1% alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA), a known AMPK inhibitor were provided to broiler chicks for 7days. As a result, α-LA supplementation decreased the relative growth rate of broiler chicks. Hepatic AMPKα2 mRNA levels were significantly upregulated by dietary α-LA, in concert with the increased phosphorylated AMPKα protein levels. In addition, hepatic FAS mRNA levels together with the malonyl-CoA to total CoA ester ratio were reduced by α-LA supplementation. Moreover, the hepatic phosphorylated glycogen synthase levels were increased resulting in a markedly decreased hepatic glycogen content. In conclusion, dietary α-LA supplementation decreased the in vivo hepatic glycogenesis and lipogenesis via stimulating hepatic AMPKα mRNA levels and the phosphorylated gene product. The stimulatory effect of α-LA on hepatic AMPK mRNA and pAMPKα protein levels together with our previous observations regarding its inhibitory effect on hypothalamic AMPK may have altered the energy balance and hence impaired body weight gain of broiler chicks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. AMPK Represses TOP mRNA Translation But Not Global Protein Synthesis in Liver

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Ali K.; Bolster, Douglas R.; Crozier, Stephen J.; Kimball, Scot R.; Jefferson, Leonard S.

    2008-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) represses signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). In muscle, repression of mTORC1 leads to a reduction in global protein synthesis. In contrast, repression of mTORC1 in the liver has no immediate effect on global protein synthesis. In the present study, signaling through mTORC1 and translation of specific mRNAs such as those bearing a 5’-terminal oligopyrimidine (TOP) tract and were examined in rat liver following activation of AMPK after treadmill running. Activation of AMPK repressed translation of the TOP mRNAs encoding rpS6, rpS8, and eEF1α. In contrast, neither global protein synthesis nor translation of mRNAs encoding GAPDH or β-actin was changed. Basal phosphorylation of the mTORC1 target 4E-BP1, but not S6K1 or rpS6, was reduced following activation of AMPK. Thus, in liver, AMPK activation repressed translation of TOP mRNAs through a mechanism distinct from downregulated phosphorylation of S6K1 or rpS6. PMID:18638456

  3. Lifespan extension induced by AMPK and calcineurin is mediated by CRTC-1 and CREB

    PubMed Central

    Mair, William; Morantte, Ianessa; Rodrigues, Ana P. C.; Manning, Gerard; Montminy, Marc; Shaw, Reuben J.; Dillin, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Activating AMPK or inactivating calcineurin slows ageing in Caenorhabditis elegans1,2 and both have been implicated as therapeutic targets for age-related pathology in mammals3–5. However, the direct targets that mediate their effects on longevity remain unclear. In mammals, CREB-regulated transcriptional coactivators (CRTCs)6 are a family of cofactors involved in diverse physiological processes including energy homeostasis7–9, cancer10 and endoplasmic reticulum stress11. Here we show that both AMPK and calcineurin modulate longevity exclusively through post-translational modification of CRTC-1, the sole C. elegans CRTC. We demonstrate that CRTC-1 is a direct AMPK target, and interacts with the CREB homologue-1 (CRH-1) transcription factor in vivo. The pro-longevity effects of activating AMPK or deactivating calcineurin decrease CRTC-1 and CRH-1 activity and induce transcriptional responses similar to those of CRH-1 null worms. Downregulation of crtc-1 increases lifespan in a crh-1-dependent manner and directly reducing crh-1 expression increases longevity, substantiating a role for CRTCs and CREB in ageing. Together, these findings indicate a novel role for CRTCs and CREB in determining lifespan downstream of AMPK and calcineurin, and illustrate the molecular mechanisms by which an evolutionarily conserved pathway responds to low energy to increase longevity. PMID:21331044

  4. Selective Activation of AMPK b1-containing Isoforms Improves Kidney Function in a Rat Model of Diabetic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Salatto, Christopher T; Miller, Russell A; Cameron, Kimberly O; Cokorinos, Emily; Reyes, Allan; Ward, Jessica; Calabrese, Matt; Kurumbail, Ravi; Rajamohan, Francis; Kalgutkar, Amit S; Tess, David A; Shavnya, Andre; Genung, Nathan E; Edmonds, David J; Jatkar, Aditi; Maciejewski, Benjamin S; Amaro, Marina; Gandhok, Harmeet; Monetti, Mara; Cialdea, Katherine; Bollinger, Eliza; Kreeger, John M; Coskran, Timothy M; Opsahl, Alan C; Boucher, Germaine G; Birnbaum, Morris J; DaSilva-Jardine, Paul; Rolph, Tim

    2017-03-13

    Diabetic nephropathy remains an area of high unmet medical need, with current therapies slowing, but not preventing the progression of disease. A reduced phosphorylation state of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been correlated with diminished kidney function in both human subjects and animal models of kidney disease. Here, we describe the identification of novel, potent, small molecule activators of AMPK that selectively activate AMPK heterotrimers containing the β1 subunit. After confirming that human and rodent kidney predominately express AMPK β1, we explore the effects of pharmacologic activation of AMPK in the ZSF-1 rat model of diabetic nephropathy. Chronic administration of these direct activators elevate the phosphorylation of AMPK in the kidney, without impacting blood glucose levels, and reduce the progression of proteinuria to a greater degree than the ACE-inhibitor ramipril. Further analysis of urine biomarkers and kidney tissue gene expression reveal AMPK activation leads to the modulation of multiple pathways implicated in kidney injury, including cellular hypertrophy, fibrosis, and oxidative stress. These results support the need for further investigation into the potential beneficial effects of AMPK activation in kidney disease.

  5. Resveratrol via activation of LKB1-AMPK signaling suppresses oxidative stress to prevent endothelial dysfunction in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Min; Liu, Bo

    Resveratrol, a phytoalexin, is reported to activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in vascular cells. Whether resveratrol via activation of AMPK improves endothelial dysfunction in diabetes remains unknown. Here, we reported that activation of AMPK is required for resveratrol-induced improvement of endothelial function in diabetic mice. AMPK phosphorylation and activity, productions of reactive oxygen species, endothelium-dependent/independent relaxation were determined in vitro or in vivo. Exposure of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to resveratrol activates AMPK by increasing the thr172 phosphorylation and its activities in time/dose-dependent manner. Loss function of liver kinase B1 by siRNA or mutant abolished resveratrol-induced AMPK activation. Incubation of endothelial cells with high glucose (HG) markedly induced oxidative stress of HUVECs, which was abolished by resveratrol in AMPK-dependent manner. In isolated mice aortas, resveratrol, AICAR or apocynin improved endothelium-dependent relaxation impaired by HG. In animal studies, streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia dramatically increased oxidative stress and caused endothelial dysfunction, which were reversed by administration of resveratrol. We conclude that AMPK activation is required for resveratrol to improve endothelial function in diabetic mice.

  6. Inactivation of the LKB1-AMPK signaling pathway does not contribute to salivary gland tumor development - a short report.

    PubMed

    Cidlinsky, Natascha; Dogliotti, Giada; Pukrop, Tobias; Jung, Rudolf; Weber, Florian; Krahn, Michael P

    2016-08-01

    Activation of AMPK by the tumor suppressor LKB1 represents an essential gatekeeping step for cells under energetic stress to prevent their growth and proliferation by inhibiting mTOR activation, until the energy supply normalizes. The LKB1/AMPK pathway is frequently downregulated in various types of cancer, thereby uncoupling tumor cell growth and proliferation from energy supply. As yet, little information is available on the role of the LKB1/AMPK pathway in tumors derived from salivary gland tissues. We performed LKB1 protein expression and AMPK and mTOR activation analyses in several salivary gland tumor types and their respective healthy control tissues using immunohistochemistry. No significant downregulation of LKB1 expression or decreased activation of AMPK or mTOR were observed in any of the salivary gland tumors tested. In contrast, we found that the salivary gland tumors exhibited an increased rather than a decreased AMPK activation. Although the PI3K/Akt pathway was found to be activated in most of the analyzed tumor samples, the unchanged robust activity of LKB1/AMPK likely prevents (over)activation of mTOR. In contrast to many other types of cancer, inactivation or downregulation of the LKB1/AMPK pathway does not substantially contribute to the pathogenesis of salivary gland tumors.

  7. AMPK Phosphorylates Desnutrin/ATGL and Hormone-Sensitive Lipase To Regulate Lipolysis and Fatty Acid Oxidation within Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Joong; Tang, Tianyi; Abbott, Marcia; Viscarra, Jose A.; Wang, Yuhui

    2016-01-01

    The role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in promoting fatty acid (FA) oxidation in various tissues, such as liver and muscle, has been well understood. However, the role of AMPK in lipolysis and FA metabolism in adipose tissue has been controversial. To investigate the role of AMPK in the regulation of adipose lipolysis in vivo, we generated mice with adipose-tissue-specific knockout of both the α1 and α2 catalytic subunits of AMPK (AMPK-ASKO mice) by using aP2-Cre and adiponectin-Cre. Both models of AMPK-ASKO ablation show no changes in desnutrin/ATGL levels but have defective phosphorylation of desnutrin/ATGL at S406 to decrease its triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolase activity, lowering basal lipolysis in adipose tissue. These mice also show defective phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) at S565, with higher phosphorylation at protein kinase A sites S563 and S660, increasing its hydrolase activity and isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis. With higher overall adipose lipolysis, both models of AMPK-ASKO mice are lean, having smaller adipocytes with lower TAG and higher intracellular free-FA levels. Moreover, FAs from higher lipolysis activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta to induce FA oxidative genes and increase FA oxidation and energy expenditure. Overall, for the first time, we provide in vivo evidence of the role of AMPK in the phosphorylation and regulation of desnutrin/ATGL and HSL and thus adipose lipolysis. PMID:27185873

  8. AMPK Mediates Glucocorticoids Stress-Induced Downregulation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor in Cultured Rat Prefrontal Cortical Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wei; Zhou, Hai-Yun; Long, Li-Hong; Hu, Zhuang-Li; Ni, Lan; Wang, Yi; Chen, Jian-Guo; Wang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress induces altered energy metabolism and plays important roles in the etiology of depression, in which the glucocorticoid negative feedback is disrupted due to imbalanced glucocorticoid receptor (GR) functions. The mechanism underlying the dysregulation of GR by chronic stress remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the key enzyme regulating cellular energy metabolism, and related signaling pathways in chronic stress-induced GR dysregulation. In cultured rat cortical astrocytes, glucocorticoid treatment decreased the level, which was accompanied by the decreased expression of liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and reduced phosphorylation of AMPK. Glucocorticoid-induced effects were attenuated by glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) inhibitor GSK650394, which also inhibited glucocorticoid induced phosphorylation of Forkhead box O3a (FOXO3a). Furthermore, glucocorticoid-induced down-regulation of GR was mimicked by the inhibition of AMPK and abolished by the AMPK activators or the histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) inhibitors. In line with the role of AMPK in GR expression, AMPK activator metformin reversed glucocorticoid-induced reduction of AMPK phosphorylation and GR expression as well as behavioral alteration of rats. Taken together, these results suggest that chronic stress activates SGK1 and suppresses the expression of LKB1 via inhibitory phosphorylation of FOXO3a. Downregulated LKB1 contributes to reduced activation of AMPK, leading to the dephosphorylation of HDAC5 and the suppression of transcription of GR. PMID:27513844

  9. Influence of laser light on AMPK as a factor in the laser therapy of diabetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makela, A. M.

    2006-02-01

    The use of light and laser in the treatment of diabetes has been under research and some controversy. The following paper explores some of the mechanisms involved in glucose level regulation in connection to light. Several researchers have found that laser irradiation can activate ATP production, influence redox values within cells, and have other effects which can (in)directly activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The activation of AMPK plays an important, albeit not an exclusive, role in the induction of GLUT4 recruitment to the plasma membrane. In addition, there is some demonstration that AMPK may regulate glucose transport through GLUT1. Increased glucose uptake will result in an increase in glycolysis and ATP production.

  10. Molecular mechanisms of appetite and obesity: a role for brain AMPK.

    PubMed

    Martínez de Morentin, Pablo B; Urisarri, Adela; Couce, María L; López, Miguel

    2016-10-01

    Feeding behaviour and energy storage are both crucial aspects of survival. Thus, it is of fundamental importance to understand the molecular mechanisms regulating these basic processes. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been revealed as one of the key molecules modulating energy homoeostasis. Indeed, AMPK appears to be essential for translating nutritional and energy requirements into generation of an adequate neuronal response, particularly in two areas of the brain, the hypothalamus and the hindbrain. Failure of this physiological response can lead to energy imbalance, ultimately with extreme consequences, such as leanness or obesity. Here, we will review the data that put brain AMPK in the spotlight as a regulator of appetite. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  11. MnSOD upregulation sustains the Warburg effect via mitochondrial ROS and AMPK-dependent signaling in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Peter C.; Mao, Mao; de Abreu, Andre Luelsdorf; Ansenberger-Fricano, Kristine; Ekoue, Dede N.; Ganini, Douglas; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Diamond, Alan M.; Minshall, Richard D.; Consolaro, Marcia E. L.; Santos, Janine H.; Bonini, Marcelo G.

    2014-01-01

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD/SOD2) is a mitochondria-resident enzyme that governs the types of reactive oxygen species egressing from the organelle to affect cellular signaling. Here, we demonstrate that MnSOD upregulation in cancer cells establishes a steady flow of H2O2 originating from mitochondria that sustains AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) activation and the metabolic shift to glycolysis. Restricting MnSOD expression or inhibiting AMPK suppress the metabolic switch and dampens the viability of transformed cells indicating that the MnSOD/AMPK axis is critical in support cancer cell bioenergetics. Recapitulating in vitro findings, clinical and epidemiologic analyses of MnSOD expression and AMPK activation indicated that the MnSOD/AMPK pathway is most active in advanced stage and aggressive breast cancer subtypes. Taken together, our results indicate that MnSOD serves as a biomarker of cancer progression and acts as critical regulator of tumor cell metabolism. PMID:25651975

  12. AMPK maintains energy homeostasis and survival in cancer cells via regulating p38/PGC-1α-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chaube, B; Malvi, P; Singh, S V; Mohammad, N; Viollet, B; Bhat, M K

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells exhibit unique metabolic response and adaptation to the fluctuating microenvironment, yet molecular and biochemical events imprinting this phenomenon are unclear. Here, we show that metabolic homeostasis and adaptation to metabolic stress in cancer cells are primarily achieved by an integrated response exerted by the activation of AMPK. We provide evidence that AMPK-p38-PGC-1α axis, by regulating energy homeostasis, maintains survival in cancer cells under glucose-limiting conditions. Functioning as a molecular switch, AMPK promotes glycolysis by activating PFK2, and facilitates mitochondrial metabolism of non-glucose carbon sources thereby maintaining cellular ATP level. Interestingly, we noted that AMPK can promote oxidative metabolism via increasing mitochondrial biogenesis and OXPHOS capacity via regulating expression of PGC-1α through p38MAPK activation. Taken together, our study signifies the fundamental role of AMPK in controlling cellular bioenergetics and mitochondrial biogenesis in cancer cells. PMID:27551487

  13. Structural basis of allosteric and synergistic activation of AMPK by furan-2-phosphonic derivative C2 binding

    PubMed Central

    Langendorf, Christopher G.; Ngoei, Kevin R. W.; Scott, John W.; Ling, Naomi X. Y.; Issa, Sam M. A.; Gorman, Michael A.; Parker, Michael W.; Sakamoto, Kei; Oakhill, Jonathan S.; Kemp, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic stress-sensing enzyme AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is responsible for regulating metabolism in response to energy supply and demand. Drugs that activate AMPK may be useful in the treatment of metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes. We have determined the crystal structure of AMPK in complex with its activator 5-(5-hydroxyl-isoxazol-3-yl)-furan-2-phosphonic acid (C2), revealing two C2-binding sites in the γ-subunit distinct from nucleotide sites. C2 acts synergistically with the drug A769662 to activate AMPK α1-containing complexes independent of upstream kinases. Our results show that dual drug therapies could be effective AMPK-targeting strategies to treat metabolic diseases. PMID:26952388

  14. An evolutionary perspective of AMPK-TOR signaling in the three domains of life.

    PubMed

    Roustan, Valentin; Jain, Arpit; Teige, Markus; Ebersberger, Ingo; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2016-06-01

    AMPK and TOR protein kinases are the major control points of energy signaling in eukaryotic cells and organisms. They form the core of a complex regulatory network to co-ordinate metabolic activities in the cytosol with those in the mitochondria and plastids. Despite its relevance, it is still unclear when and how this regulatory pathway was formed during evolution, and to what extent its representations in the major eukaryotic lineages resemble each other. Here we have traced 153 essential proteins forming the human AMPK-TOR pathways across 412 species representing all three domains of life-prokaryotes (bacteria, archaea) and eukaryotes-and reconstructed their evolutionary history. The resulting phylogenetic profiles indicate the presence of primordial core pathways including seven proto-kinases in the last eukaryotic common ancestor. The evolutionary origins of the oldest components of the AMPK pathway, however, extend into the pre-eukaryotic era, and descendants of these ancient proteins can still be found in contemporary prokaryotes. The TOR complex in turn appears as a eukaryotic invention, possibly to aid in retrograde signaling between the mitochondria and the remainder of the cell. Within the eukaryotes, AMPK/TOR showed both a highly conserved core structure and a considerable plasticity. Most notably, KING1, a protein originally assigned as the γ subunit of AMPK in plants, is more closely related to the yeast SDS23 gene family than to the γ subunits in animals or fungi. This suggests its functional difference from a canonical AMPK γ subunit. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. AMPK-mediated autophagy inhibits apoptosis in cisplatin-treated tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Harhaji-Trajkovic, L; Vilimanovich, U; Kravic-Stevovic, T; Bumbasirevic, V; Trajkovic, V

    2009-09-01

    The role of autophagy in cisplatin anticancer action was investigated using human U251 glioma, rat C6 glioma and mouse L929 fibrosarcoma cell lines. A dose- and time-dependent induction of autophagy was observed in tumour cells following cisplatin treatment, as demonstrated by up-regulation of autophagy-inducing protein beclin-1 and subsequent appearance of acridine orange-stained acidic autophagic vesicles. The presence of autophagosomes in cisplatin-treated cells was also confirmed by electron microscopy. Inhibition of autophagy with lysosomal inhibitors bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine, or a PI3 kinase inhibitor wortmannin, markedly augmented cisplatin-triggered oxidative stress and caspase activation, leading to an increase in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cell death. The mechanisms underlying the protective effect of autophagy apparently involved the interference with cisplatin-induced modulation of Bcl-2 family proteins, as inhibition of autophagy potentiated cisplatin-mediated up-regulation of proapoptotic Bax and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Autophagy induction in cisplatin-treated cells was preceded by activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and concomitant down-regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-mediated phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase. The ability of cisplatin to trigger autophagy was reduced by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated AMPK silencing, while transfection with mTOR siRNA was sufficient to trigger autophagy in tumour cells. Finally, siRNA-mediated AMPK down-regulation and AMPK inhibitor compound C increased cisplatin-induced tumour cell death, while mTOR siRNA and AMPK activator metformin protected tumour cells from cisplatin. Taken together, these data suggest that cisplatin-triggered activation of AMPK and subsequent suppression of mTOR activity can induce an autophagic response that protects tumour cells from cisplatin-mediated apoptotic death.

  16. Resveratrol prevents norepinephrine induced hypertrophy in adult rat cardiomyocytes, by activating NO-AMPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Thandapilly, Sijo J; Louis, Xavier L; Yang, Tonghua; Stringer, Danielle M; Yu, Liping; Zhang, Shetuan; Wigle, Jeffrey; Kardami, Elissavet; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla; Anderson, Hope D; Netticadan, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    Increased adrenergic drive is a major factor influencing the development of pathological cardiac hypertrophy, a stage which precedes overt heart failure. We examined the effect of resveratrol, a polyphenol (found predominantly in grapes), in preventing norepinephrine induced hypertrophy of adult cardiomyocyte, and the role of nitric oxide (NO) and adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK) in the effects of resveratrol. Cardiomyocytes isolated from adult rats were pretreated, or not, with resveratrol and then exposed to norepinephrine for 24h. In other experiments cardiomyocytes were also treated with different pharmacological inhibitors of NO synthase, AMPK and sirtuin for elucidating the signaling pathways underlying the effect of resveratrol. In order to validate the role of these signaling molecules in the in vivo settings, we also examined hearts from resveratrol treated spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a genetic model of essential hypertension. Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was determined by morphometry and (3)H-phenylalanine incorporation assay. NO levels and AMPK activity were measured using a specific assay kit and western blot analysis respectively. In vitro, resveratrol prevented the norepinephrine-induced increase in cardiomyocytes size and protein synthesis. Pharmacological inhibition of NO-AMPK signaling abolished the anti-hypertrophic action of resveratrol. Consistent with the in vitro findings, the anti-hypertrophic effect of resveratrol in the SHR model was associated with increases in NO and AMPK activity. This study demonstrates that NO-AMPK signaling is linked to the anti-hypertrophic effect of resveratrol in adult cardiomyocytes in vitro, and in the SHR model in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Irisin improves endothelial function in obese mice through the AMPK-eNOS pathway.

    PubMed

    Han, Fang; Zhang, Shuxian; Hou, Ningning; Wang, Di; Sun, Xiaodong

    2015-11-01

    Irisin is a novel hormone secreted by myocytes. Lower levels of irisin are independently associated with endothelial dysfunction in obese subjects. The objective of this study was to explore whether irisin exerts a direct vascular protective effect on endothelial function in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were given chow or a high-fat diet with or without treatment with irisin. Aortic endothelial function was determined by measuring endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDV). Nitric oxide (NO) in the aorta was determined. The effect of irisin on the levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), Akt, and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation in endothelial cells was determined. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were used to study the role of irisin in the AMPK-eNOS pathway. Acetylcholine-stimulated EDV was significantly lower in obese mice compared with control mice. Treatment of obese mice with irisin significantly enhanced EDV and improved endothelial function. This beneficial effect of irisin was partly attenuated in the presence of inhibitors of AMPK, Akt, and eNOS. Treatment of obese mice with irisin enhanced NO production and phosphorylation of AMPK, Akt, and eNOS in endothelial cells. These factors were also enhanced by irisin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro. Suppression of AMPK expression by small interfering RNA blocked irisin-induced eNOS and Akt phosphorylation and NO production. We have provided the first evidence that irisin improves endothelial function in aortas of high-fat-diet-induced obese mice. The mechanism for this protective effect is related to the activation of the AMPK-eNOS signaling pathway.

  18. Prognostic significance of AMPK in human malignancies: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ji; Shuai, Xiaoming; Gao, Jinbo; Cai, Ming; Wang, Guobin; Tao, Kaixiong

    2016-01-01

    Background AMPK is a well-investigated kinase mediating cellular metabolism and stress responses. However, its indicative role in survival prognosis remains ill-defined. Therefore we performed this meta-analysis in order to clarify the prognostic impact of AMPK expression in human malignancies. Methods Literatures were retrieved via searching databases of PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and Cochrane Library. Studies comparing the prognostic significance between different AMPK levels among human malignancies were included into the pooled analysis. The statistical procedures were conducted by Review Manager 5.3 and the effect size was displayed by model of odds ratio. Subgroup analyses were additionally implemented to disclose the potential confounding elements. The outcome stability was examined by sensitivity analysis, and both Begg's test and Egger's test were utilized to detect the publication bias across the included studies. Results 21 retrospective cohorts were eventually obtained with a total sample-size of 9987 participants. Patients with higher AMPK expression had better outcomes of 3-year overall survival (P<0.0001), 5-year overall survival (P<0.0001), 10-year overall survival (P<0.0001), 3-year disease free survival (P<0.0001), 5-year disease free survival (P=0.002) and 10-year disease free survival (P=0.0004). Moreover, the majority of subgroup results also verified the favorably prognostic significance of AMPK over-expression. The outcome stability was confirmed by sensitivity analysis. Results of Begg's (P=0.76) and Egger's test (P=0.09) suggested that there was no publication bias within the included trials. Conclusions Higher expression of AMPK significantly indicates better prognosis in human malignancies. PMID:27716618

  19. AMPK controls exercise endurance, mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and skeletal muscle integrity.

    PubMed

    Lantier, Louise; Fentz, Joachim; Mounier, Rémi; Leclerc, Jocelyne; Treebak, Jonas T; Pehmøller, Christian; Sanz, Nieves; Sakakibara, Iori; Saint-Amand, Emmanuelle; Rimbaud, Stéphanie; Maire, Pascal; Marette, André; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Ferry, Arnaud; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit

    2014-07-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status that plays a central role in skeletal muscle metabolism. We used skeletal muscle-specific AMPKα1α2 double-knockout (mdKO) mice to provide direct genetic evidence of the physiological importance of AMPK in regulating muscle exercise capacity, mitochondrial function, and contraction-stimulated glucose uptake. Exercise performance was significantly reduced in the mdKO mice, with a reduction in maximal force production and fatigue resistance. An increase in the proportion of myofibers with centralized nuclei was noted, as well as an elevated expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6) mRNA, possibly consistent with mild skeletal muscle injury. Notably, we found that AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 isoforms are dispensable for contraction-induced skeletal muscle glucose transport, except for male soleus muscle. However, the lack of skeletal muscle AMPK diminished maximal ADP-stimulated mitochondrial respiration, showing an impairment at complex I. This effect was not accompanied by changes in mitochondrial number, indicating that AMPK regulates muscle metabolic adaptation through the regulation of muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity and mitochondrial substrate utilization but not baseline mitochondrial muscle content. Together, these results demonstrate that skeletal muscle AMPK has an unexpected role in the regulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation that contributes to the energy demands of the exercising muscle.-Lantier, L., Fentz, J., Mounier, R., Leclerc, J., Treebak, J. T., Pehmøller, C., Sanz, N., Sakakibara, I., Saint-Amand, E., Rimbaud, S., Maire, P., Marette, A., Ventura-Clapier, R., Ferry, A., Wojtaszewski, J. F. P., Foretz, M., Viollet, B. AMPK controls exercise endurance, mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and skeletal muscle integrity. © FASEB.

  20. The emerging role of AMPK in the regulation of breathing and oxygen supply

    PubMed Central

    Evans, A. Mark; Mahmoud, Amira D.; Moral-Sanz, Javier; Hartmann, Sandy

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of breathing is critical to our capacity to accommodate deficits in oxygen availability and demand during, for example, sleep and ascent to altitude. It is generally accepted that a fall in arterial oxygen increases afferent discharge from the carotid bodies to the brainstem and thus delivers increased ventilatory drive, which restores oxygen supply and protects against hypoventilation and apnoea. However, the precise molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. We recently identified as critical to this process the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is key to the cell-autonomous regulation of metabolic homoeostasis. This observation is significant for many reasons, not least because recent studies suggest that the gene for the AMPK-α1 catalytic subunit has been subjected to natural selection in high-altitude populations. It would appear, therefore, that evolutionary pressures have led to AMPK being utilized to regulate oxygen delivery and thus energy supply to the body in the short, medium and longer term. Contrary to current consensus, however, our findings suggest that AMPK regulates ventilation at the level of the caudal brainstem, even when afferent input responses from the carotid body are normal. We therefore hypothesize that AMPK integrates local hypoxic stress at defined loci within the brainstem respiratory network with an index of peripheral hypoxic status, namely afferent chemosensory inputs. Allied to this, AMPK is critical to the control of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and thus ventilation–perfusion matching at the lungs and may also determine oxygen supply to the foetus by, for example, modulating utero-placental blood flow. PMID:27574022

  1. Sodium caprate augments the hypoglycemic effect of berberine via AMPK in inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Lv, Xiaoyan; Li, Jing; Meng, Zhaojie; Wang, Qiujing; Chang, WenGuang; Li, Wei; Chen, Li; Liu, Yanjun

    2012-11-05

    Berberine (BER), a natural product and active ingredient of genera Berberis and Coptis, has been demonstrated to possess anti-diabetic activities. However, the poor bioavailability of this agent greatly limits its clinical application. In our previous study, we demonstrated that co-administration of sodium caprate, an absorption enhancer, with BER could significantly increase the bioavailability of BER without any serious mucosal damage. Here, we investigated the effects of BER on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/gluconeogenesis pathway and the effects of sodium caprate on hypoglycemic action of BER. The ability of BER co-administered with sodium caprate to reduce insulin resistance was investigated in diabetic rat model induced by high-fat diet and low dose STZ. Western blot was performed to evaluate effects of BER on AMPK signaling proteins involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis in diabetic rat and HepG2 hepatocytes. BER reduced body weight and caused a significant improvement in glucose tolerance without altering food intake in diabetic rats. Similarly, BER reduced plasma triglycerides and improved insulin action in diabetic rats. BER down-regulated the elevated expressions of gluconeogenesis key enzymes PEPCK and G6Pase, inhibited the translocation of TORC2 from cytoplasm to nucleus and increased AMPK activity in liver tissues. The effect of BER was higher when co-administered with sodium caprate. BER treatment resulted in reduced glucose production in HepG2 hepatocytes. BER increased AMPK activity, reduced the expression of PEPCK, and the nuclear transcription factors PGC-1, HNF-4α and FOXO1. The effect of BER on gluconeogenesis could be partly blocked by AMPK inhibitor, Compound C. BER could suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis in rat model of diabetes at least in part via stimulation of AMPK activity and this action of BER is augmented by sodium caprate.

  2. Benzimidazole derivative small-molecule 991 enhances AMPK activity and glucose uptake induced by AICAR or contraction in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Bultot, Laurent; Jensen, Thomas E.; Lai, Yu-Chiang; Madsen, Agnete L. B.; Collodet, Caterina; Kviklyte, Samanta; Deak, Maria; Yavari, Arash; Foretz, Marc; Ghaffari, Sahar; Bellahcene, Mohamed; Ashrafian, Houman; Rider, Mark H.; Richter, Erik A.

    2016-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays diverse roles and coordinates complex metabolic pathways for maintenance of energy homeostasis. This could be explained by the fact that AMPK exists as multiple heterotrimer complexes comprising a catalytic α-subunit (α1 and α2) and regulatory β (β1 and β2)- and γ (γ1, γ2, γ3)-subunits, which are uniquely distributed across different cell types. There has been keen interest in developing specific and isoform-selective AMPK-activating drugs for therapeutic use and also as research tools. Moreover, establishing ways of enhancing cellular AMPK activity would be beneficial for both purposes. Here, we investigated if a recently described potent AMPK activator called 991, in combination with the commonly used activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside or contraction, further enhances AMPK activity and glucose transport in mouse skeletal muscle ex vivo. Given that the γ3-subunit is exclusively expressed in skeletal muscle and has been implicated in contraction-induced glucose transport, we measured the activity of AMPKγ3 as well as ubiquitously expressed γ1-containing complexes. We initially validated the specificity of the antibodies for the assessment of isoform-specific AMPK activity using AMPK-deficient mouse models. We observed that a low dose of 991 (5 μM) stimulated a modest or negligible activity of both γ1- and γ3-containing AMPK complexes. Strikingly, dual treatment with 991 and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside or 991 and contraction profoundly enhanced AMPKγ1/γ3 complex activation and glucose transport compared with any of the single treatments. The study demonstrates the utility of a dual activator approach to achieve a greater activation of AMPK and downstream physiological responses in various cell types, including skeletal muscle. PMID:27577855

  3. AMPK activation protects from neuronal dysfunction and vulnerability across nematode, cellular and mouse models of Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Manrique, Rafael P.; Farina, Francesca; Cambon, Karine; Dolores Sequedo, María; Parker, Alex J.; Millán, José María; Weiss, Andreas; Déglon, Nicole; Neri, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The adenosine monophosphate activated kinase protein (AMPK) is an evolutionary-conserved protein important for cell survival and organismal longevity through the modulation of energy homeostasis. Several studies suggested that AMPK activation may improve energy metabolism and protein clearance in the brains of patients with vascular injury or neurodegenerative disease. However, in Huntington's disease (HD), AMPK may be activated in the striatum of HD mice at a late, post-symptomatic phase of the disease, and high-dose regiments of the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide may worsen neuropathological and behavioural phenotypes. Here, we revisited the role of AMPK in HD using models that recapitulate the early features of the disease, including Caenorhabditis elegans neuron dysfunction before cell death and mouse striatal cell vulnerability. Genetic and pharmacological manipulation of aak-2/AMPKα shows that AMPK activation protects C. elegans neurons from the dysfunction induced by human exon-1 huntingtin (Htt) expression, in a daf-16/forkhead box O-dependent manner. Similarly, AMPK activation using genetic manipulation and low-dose metformin treatment protects mouse striatal cells expressing full-length mutant Htt (mHtt), counteracting their vulnerability to stress, with reduction of soluble mHtt levels by metformin and compensation of cytotoxicity by AMPKα1. Furthermore, AMPK protection is active in the mouse brain as delivery of gain-of-function AMPK-γ1 to mouse striata slows down the neurodegenerative effects of mHtt. Collectively, these data highlight the importance of considering the dynamic of HD for assessing the therapeutic potential of stress-response targets in the disease. We postulate that AMPK activation is a compensatory response and valid approach for protecting dysfunctional and vulnerable neurons in HD. PMID:26681807

  4. Human muscle fibre type-specific regulation of AMPK and downstream targets by exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Dorte E; Albers, Peter H; Prats, Clara; Baba, Otto; Birk, Jesper B; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P

    2015-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a regulator of energy homeostasis during exercise. Studies suggest muscle fibre type-specific AMPK expression. However, fibre type-specific regulation of AMPK and downstream targets during exercise has not been demonstrated. We hypothesized that AMPK subunits are expressed in a fibre type-dependent manner and that fibre type-specific activation of AMPK and downstream targets is dependent on exercise intensity. Pools of type I and II fibres were prepared from biopsies of vastus lateralis muscle from healthy men before and after two exercise trials: (1) continuous cycling (CON) for 30 min at 69 ± 1% peak rate of O2 consumption () or (2) interval cycling (INT) for 30 min with 6 × 1.5 min high-intensity bouts peaking at 95 ± 2% . In type I vs. II fibres a higher β1 AMPK (+215%) and lower γ3 AMPK expression (−71%) was found. α1, α2, β2 and γ1 AMPK expression was similar between fibre types. In type I vs. II fibres phosphoregulation after CON was similar (AMPKThr172, ACCSer221, TBC1D1Ser231 and GS2+2a) or lower (TBC1D4Ser704). Following INT, phosphoregulation in type I vs. II fibres was lower (AMPKThr172, TBC1D1Ser231, TBC1D4Ser704 and ACCSer221) or higher (GS2+2a). Exercise-induced glycogen degradation in type I vs. II fibres was similar (CON) or lower (INT). In conclusion, a differentiated response to exercise of metabolic signalling/effector proteins in human type I and II fibres was evident during interval exercise. This could be important for exercise type-specific adaptations, i.e. insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial density, and highlights the potential for new discoveries when investigating fibre type-specific signalling. PMID:25640469

  5. Dialogue between LKB1 and AMPK: a hot topic at the cellular pole.

    PubMed

    Forcet, Christelle; Billaud, Marc

    2007-09-18

    Disruption of cell architecture and change of energy metabolism are two traits of malignant cells. Yet, there was scant evidence that these two cancer hallmarks involved perturbations of a common signaling pathway. Enter LKB1, a kinase that is a tumor suppressor and that is an upstream activator of the adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key sensor of cellular energy status. Four studies now reveal that LKB1 signals through AMPK to facilitate the formation of tight junctions and to maintain epithelial polarity. Thus, LKB1 appears to be a novel class of tumor suppressor that acts as an energy-sensing and polarity checkpoint.

  6. Effects of alpha-AMPK knockout on exercise-induced gene activation in mouse skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Sebastian B; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Viollet, Benoit; Andreelli, Fabrizio; Birk, Jesper B; Hellsten, Ylva; Schjerling, Peter; Vaulont, Sophie; Neufer, P Darrell; Richter, Erik A; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2005-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis that 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in regulating the acute, exercise-induced activation of metabolic genes in skeletal muscle, which were dissected from whole-body alpha2- and alpha1-AMPK knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice at rest, after treadmill running (90 min), and in recovery. Running increased alpha1-AMPK kinase activity, phosphorylation (P) of AMPK, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)beta in alpha2-WT and alpha2-KO muscles and increased alpha2-AMPK kinase activity in alpha2-WT. In alpha2-KO muscles, AMPK-P and ACCbeta-P were markedly lower compared with alpha2-WT. However, in alpha1-WT and alpha1-KO muscles, AMPK-P and ACCbeta-P levels were identical at rest and increased similarly during exercise in the two genotypes. The alpha2-KO decreased peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC)-1alpha, uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3), and hexokinase II (HKII) transcription at rest but did not affect exercise-induced transcription. Exercise increased the mRNA content of PGC-1alpha, Forkhead box class O (FOXO)1, HKII, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) similarly in alpha2-WT and alpha2-KO mice, whereas glucose transporter GLUT 4, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPTI), lipoprotein lipase, and UCP3 mRNA were unchanged by exercise in both genotypes. CPTI mRNA was lower in alpha2-KO muscles than in alpha2-WT muscles at all time-points. In alpha1-WT and alpha1-KO muscles, running increased the mRNA content of PGC-1alpha and FOXO1 similarly. The alpha2-KO was associated with lower muscle adenosine 5'-triphosphate content, and the inosine monophosphate content increased substantially at the end of exercise only in alpha2-KO muscles. In addition, subcutaneous injection of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR) increased the mRNA content of PGC-1alpha, HKII, FOXO1, PDK4, and UCP3, and alpha2-KO abolished the AICAR-induced increases in PGC-1alpha and HKII mRNA. In

  7. Activation of AMPK improves inflammation and insulin resistance in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle from pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Liong, Stella; Lappas, Martha

    2015-12-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is characterised by maternal peripheral insulin resistance and inflammation. Sterile inflammation and bacterial infection are key mediators of this enhanced inflammatory response. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated kinase (AMPK), which is decreased in insulin resistant states, possesses potent pro-inflammatory actions. There are, however, no studies on the role of AMPK in pregnancies complicated by GDM. Thus, the aims of this study were (i) to compare the expression of AMPK in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle from women with GDM and normal glucose-tolerant (NGT) pregnant women; and (ii) to investigate the effect of AMPK activation on inflammation and insulin resistance induced by the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. When compared to NGT pregnant women, AMPKα activity was significantly lower in women with GDM as evidenced by a decrease in threonine phosphorylation of AMPKα. Activation of AMPK, using two pharmacologically distinct compounds, AICAR or phenformin, significantly suppressed LPS- or IL-1β-induced gene expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, the chemokines IL-8 and MCP-1, and COX-2 and subsequent prostaglandin release from adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. In addition, activators of AMPK decreased skeletal muscle insulin resistance induced by LPS or IL-1β as evidenced by increased insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IRS-1, GLUT-4 expression and glucose uptake. These findings suggest that AMPK may play an important role in inflammation and insulin resistance.

  8. Resveratrol attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced dysfunction of blood-brain barrier in endothelial cells via AMPK activation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol, a phytoalexin, is reported to activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in vascular cells. The blood-brain barrier (BBB), formed by specialized brain endothelial cells that are interconnected by tight junctions, strictly regulates paracellular permeability to maintain an optimal extracellular environment for brain homeostasis. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of resveratrol and the role of AMPK in BBB dysfunction induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exposure of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) to LPS (1 µg/ml) for 4 to 24 hours week dramatically increased the permeability of the BBB in parallel with lowered expression levels of occluding and claudin-5, which are essential to maintain tight junctions in HBMECs. In addition, LPS significantly increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) productions. All effects induced by LPS in HBVMCs were reversed by adenoviral overexpression of superoxide dismutase, inhibition of NAD(P) H oxidase by apocynin or gain-function of AMPK by adenoviral overexpression of constitutively active mutant (AMPK-CA) or by resveratrol. Finally, upregulation of AMPK by either AMPK-CA or resveratrol abolished the levels of LPS-enhanced NAD(P)H oxidase subunits protein expressions. We conclude that AMPK activation by resveratrol improves the integrity of the BBB disrupted by LPS through suppressing the induction of NAD(P)H oxidase-derived ROS in HBMECs. PMID:27382348

  9. The Na+/Glucose Cotransporter Inhibitor Canagliflozin Activates AMPK by Inhibiting Mitochondrial Function and Increasing Cellular AMP Levels.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Simon A; Ford, Rebecca J; Smith, Brennan K; Gowans, Graeme J; Mancini, Sarah J; Pitt, Ryan D; Day, Emily A; Salt, Ian P; Steinberg, Gregory R; Hardie, D Grahame

    2016-09-01

    Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin, all recently approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes, were derived from the natural product phlorizin. They reduce hyperglycemia by inhibiting glucose reuptake by sodium/glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 in the kidney, without affecting intestinal glucose uptake by SGLT1. We now report that canagliflozin also activates AMPK, an effect also seen with phloretin (the aglycone breakdown product of phlorizin), but not to any significant extent with dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, or phlorizin. AMPK activation occurred at canagliflozin concentrations measured in human plasma in clinical trials and was caused by inhibition of Complex I of the respiratory chain, leading to increases in cellular AMP or ADP. Although canagliflozin also inhibited cellular glucose uptake independently of SGLT2, this did not account for AMPK activation. Canagliflozin also inhibited lipid synthesis, an effect that was absent in AMPK knockout cells and that required phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) 1 and/or ACC2 at the AMPK sites. Oral administration of canagliflozin activated AMPK in mouse liver, although not in muscle, adipose tissue, or spleen. Because phosphorylation of ACC by AMPK is known to lower liver lipid content, these data suggest a potential additional benefit of canagliflozin therapy compared with other SGLT2 inhibitors. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  10. Involvement of AMPK in regulating the degradation of MAD2B under high glucose in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xianfang; Chu, Guangpin; Ye, Chen; Tang, Hui; Qiu, Ping; Hu, Yue; Li, Man; Zhang, Chun

    2016-12-13

    Although our recent study has demonstrated that mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint protein (MAD2B) mediates high glucose-induced neuronal apoptosis, the mechanisms for MAD2B degradation under hyperglycaemia have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we first found that the activation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was decreased in neurons, accompanied with the increased expression of MAD2B. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that activation of AMPK with its activators such as AICAR and metformin decreased the expression of MAD2B, indicating a role of AMPK in regulating the expression of MAD2B. Moreover, activation of AMPK prevented neuronal cells from high glucose-induced injury as demonstrated by the reduced expression of cyclin B1 and percentage of apoptosis as detected by TUNEL. We further found that when total protein synthesis was suppressed by chlorhexidine, the degradation of MAD2B was slower in high glucose-treated neurons and was mainly dependent on the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Finally, it was indicated that high glucose inhibited the ubiquitination of MAD2B, which could be reversed by activation of AMPK. Collectively, this study demonstrates that AMPK acts as a key regulator of MAD2B expression, suggesting that activation of AMPK signalling might be crucial for the treatment of high glucose-induced neuronal injury.

  11. LKB1/AMPK inhibits TGF-β1 production and the TGF-β signaling pathway in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Nian-Shuang; Zou, Jun-Rong; Lin, Hui; Ke, Rong; He, Xiao-Ling; Xiao, Lu; Huang, Deqiang; Luo, Lingyu; Lv, Nonghua; Luo, Zhijun

    2016-06-01

    Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acts as a fuel gauge that maintains energy homeostasis in both normal and cancerous cells, and has emerged as a tumor suppressor. The present study aims to delineate the functional relationship between AMPK and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β). Our results showed that expression of liver kinase B1 (LKB1), an upstream kinase of AMPK, impeded TGF-β-induced Smad phosphorylation and their transcriptional activity in breast cancer cells, whereas knockdown of LKB1 or AMPKα1 subunit by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) enhanced the effect of TGF-β. Furthermore, AMPK activation reduced the promoter activity of TGF-β1. In accordance, type 2 diabetic patients taking metformin displayed a trend of reduction of serum TGF-β1, as compared with those without metformin. A significant reduction of serum TGF-β1 was found in mice after treatment with metformin. These results suggest that AMPK inhibits the transcription of TGF-β1, leading to reduction of its concentration in serum. Finally, metformin suppressed epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of mammary epithelial cells. Taken together, our study demonstrates that AMPK exerts multiple actions on TGF-β signaling and supports that AMPK can serve as a therapeutic drug target for breast cancer.

  12. FLCN and AMPK Confer Resistance to Hyperosmotic Stress via Remodeling of Glycogen Stores

    PubMed Central

    Possik, Elite; Ajisebutu, Andrew; Manteghi, Sanaz; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Vijayaraghavan, Tarika; Flamand, Mathieu; Coull, Barry; Schmeisser, Kathrin; Duchaine, Thomas; van Steensel, Maurice; Hall, David H.; Pause, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of adaptation to environmental changes in osmolarity are fundamental for cellular and organismal survival. Here we identify a novel osmotic stress resistance pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), which is dependent on the metabolic master regulator 5’-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its negative regulator Folliculin (FLCN). FLCN-1 is the nematode ortholog of the tumor suppressor FLCN, responsible for the Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) tumor syndrome. We show that flcn-1 mutants exhibit increased resistance to hyperosmotic stress via constitutive AMPK-dependent accumulation of glycogen reserves. Upon hyperosmotic stress exposure, glycogen stores are rapidly degraded, leading to a significant accumulation of the organic osmolyte glycerol through transcriptional upregulation of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase enzymes (gpdh-1 and gpdh-2). Importantly, the hyperosmotic stress resistance in flcn-1 mutant and wild-type animals is strongly suppressed by loss of AMPK, glycogen synthase, glycogen phosphorylase, or simultaneous loss of gpdh-1 and gpdh-2 enzymes. Our studies show for the first time that animals normally exhibit AMPK-dependent glycogen stores, which can be utilized for rapid adaptation to either energy stress or hyperosmotic stress. Importantly, we show that glycogen accumulates in kidneys from mice lacking FLCN and in renal tumors from a BHD patient. Our findings suggest a dual role for glycogen, acting as a reservoir for energy supply and osmolyte production, and both processes might be supporting tumorigenesis. PMID:26439621

  13. AICAR induces mitochondrial apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells through an AMPK-dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Masayuki; Kawamoto, Teruya; Hara, Hitomi; Onishi, Yasuo; Ueha, Takeshi; Minoda, Masaya; Katayama, Etsuko; Takemori, Toshiyuki; Fukase, Naomasa; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Akisue, Toshihiro

    2017-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) modulates cellular energy metabolism, and promotes mitochondrial proliferation and apoptosis. Previous studies have shown that AICAR has anticancer effects in various cancers, however the roles of AMPK and/or the effects of AICAR on osteosarcoma have not been reported. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of AICAR on tumor growth and mitochondrial apoptosis in human osteosarcoma both in vitro and in vivo. For in vitro experiments, two human osteosarcoma cell lines, MG63 and KHOS, were treated with AICAR, and the effects of AICAR on cell growth and mitochondrial apoptosis were assessed by WST assays, TUNEL staining, and immunoblot analyses. In vivo, human osteosarcoma-bearing mice were treated with AICAR, and the mitochondrial proliferation and apoptotic activity in treated tumors were assessed. In vitro experiments revealed that AICAR activated AMPK, inhibited cell growth, and induced mitochondrial apoptosis in both osteosarcoma cell lines. In vivo, AICAR significantly reduced osteosarcoma growth without apparent body weight loss and AICAR increased both mitochondrial proliferation and apoptotic activity in treated tumor tissues. AICAR showed anticancer effects in osteosarcoma cells through an AMPK-dependent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α)/mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM)/mitochondrial pathway. The findings in this study strongly suggest that AICAR could be considered as a potent therapeutic agent for the treatment of human osteosarcoma. PMID:27878239

  14. AMPK Agonist AICAR Improves Cognition and Motor Coordination in Young and Aged Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilo, Tali; Guerrieri, Davide; Zhang, Yongqing; Collica, Sarah C.; Becker, Kevin G.; van Praag, Henriette

    2014-01-01

    Normal aging can result in a decline of memory and muscle function. Exercise may prevent or delay these changes. However, aging-associated frailty can preclude physical activity. In young sedentary animals, pharmacological activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a transcriptional regulator important for muscle physiology, enhanced…

  15. Resveratrol protects cardiomyocytes from doxorubicin-induced apoptosis through the AMPK/P53 pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mi-Hua; Lin, Xiao-Long; Guo, Dong-Ming; Zhang, Yuan; Yuan, Cong; Tan, Tian-Ping; Chen, Yu-Dan; Wu, Shao-Jian; Ye, Zu-Feng; He, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an efficient drug used in cancer therapy; however, it has severe cardiotoxic side effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol on the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/P53 pathway in mediating DOX-induced cytotoxicity. H9c2 cells were exposed to 5 µM DOX for 24 h to establish a model of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. DOX administration amplified P53 and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein (Bax) expression and decreased Bcl-2 expression in H9c2 cells. Resveratrol increased the cell viability and decreased the apoptotic rate. In addition, resveratrol markedly increased the phosphorylation of AMPK. Of note, resveratrol protected against DOX-induced increases of P53 and Bax and also prevented the downregulation of Bcl-2 in H9c2 cells. Furthermore, AMPK inhibitor Compound C abolished the protective effects of resveratrol. The results of the present study therefore indicated that resveratrol protected H9c2 cells from DOX-induced apoptosis via the AMPK/P53 pathway.

  16. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α2 subunit mediates glycolysis in postmortem skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Liang, Junfang; Yang, Qiyuan; Zhu, Mei-Jun; Jin, Ye; Du, Min

    2013-11-01

    Postmortem glycolysis is directly linked to the incidences of PSE (pale, soft and exudative) and DFD (dark, firm and dry) meats which cause significant loss to meat industry. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major regulator of postmortem glycolysis. However, there are two isoforms of the AMPKα catalytic subunit, and their roles in glycolysis of postmortem muscle remain unclear. The objective was to identify the isoform specific roles of AMPK in postmortem glycolysis. Wild type, AMPKα1, and AMPKα2 knockout (KO) mice were used in the current study. AMPK in Longissimus muscle was activated shortly after death. AMPKα2 but not AMPKα1 KO abolished the activity of AMPK in postmortem muscle. In addition, AMPKα2 KO reduced postmortem pH decline and the generation of lactate, while AMPKα1 KO had no significant effect. Finally, the glycogen content of skeletal muscle was reduced in AMPKα2 KO but not AMPKα1 KO mice. Data clearly demonstrate that AMPKα2 catalytic subunit mainly regulates postmortem glycolysis in muscle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of AMPK activation on lipolysis in primary rat adipocytes: studies at different glucose concentrations.

    PubMed

    Szkudelski, Tomasz; Szkudelska, Katarzyna

    2017-02-01

    Adipose tissue plays a key role in energy homeostasis. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important intracellular energy sensor. Effects of activation of AMPK by aminomidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) on lipolysis in the rat adipocytes were determined in the presence of 3 or 12 mM glucose. Response to epinephrine or dibutyryl-cAMP was higher in the presence of 12 mM glucose. AICAR decreased lipolysis, also when glucose was replaced by alanine or succinate and without decrease in cAMP levels. AICAR attenuated epinephrine-induced decrease in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, reduced glucose uptake and lactate release. These results indicate that short-term activation of AMPK by AICAR in the rat adipocytes inhibits lipolysis, due to changes in the final, followed by protein kinase A (PKA), steps of the lipolytic cascade and improves intracellular energy status. Similar effects of AICAR were observed in the presence of 3 and 12 mM glucose, which indicates that the AMPK system is operative at high glucose concentrations.

  18. Metformin-treated cancer cells modulate macrophage polarization through AMPK-NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chi-Fu; Chao, Ting-Ting; Su, Yu-Fu; Hsu, Chia-Chen; Chien, Chu-Yen; Chiu, Kuo-Chou; Shiah, Shine-Gwo; Lee, Chien-Hsing; Liu, Shyun-Yeu; Shieh, Yi-Shing

    2017-03-28

    Accumulating evidence is indicating metformin to possess the potential ability in preventing tumor development and suppressing cancer growth. However, the exact mechanism of its antitumorigenic effects is still not clear. We found that metformin suppressed the ability of cancer to skew macrophage toward M2 phenotype. Metformin treated cancer cells increased macrophage expression of M1-related cytokines IL-12 and TNF-α and attenuated M2-related cytokines IL-8, IL-10, and TGF-β expression. Furthermore, metformin treated cancer cells displayed inhibited secretion of IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13; cytokines important for inducing M2 macrophages. Conversely, M1 inducing cytokine IFN-γ was upper-regulated in cancer cells. Additionally, through increasing AMPK and p65 phosphorylation, metformin treatment activated AMPK-NF-κB signaling of cancer cells that participate in regulating M1 and M2 inducing cytokines expression. Moreover, Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, significantly increased IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 expression while BAY-117082, an NF-κB inhibitor, decreased expression. In metformin-treated tumor tissue, the percentage of M2-like macrophages decreased while M1-like macrophages increased. These findings suggest that metformin activates cancer AMPK-NF-κB signaling, a pathway involved in regulating M1/M2 expression and inducing genes for macrophage polarization to anti-tumor phenotype.

  19. Ginkgolide C Suppresses Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes via the AMPK Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Chian-Jiun; Lai, Xuan-Yu; Chen, Ya-Ling; Wang, Chia-Ling; Wei, Ciao-Han; Huang, Wen-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgolide C, isolated from Ginkgo biloba leaves, is a flavone reported to have multiple biological functions, from decreased platelet aggregation to ameliorating Alzheimer disease. The study aim was to evaluate the antiadipogenic effect of ginkgolide C in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Ginkgolide C was used to treat differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Cell supernatant was collected to assay glycerol release, and cells were lysed to measure protein and gene expression related to adipogenesis and lipolysis by western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. Ginkgolide C significantly suppressed lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes. It also decreased adipogenesis-related transcription factor expression, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein. Furthermore, ginkgolide C enhanced adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase production for lipolysis and increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), resulting in decreased activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase for fatty acid synthesis. In coculture with an AMPK inhibitor (compound C), ginkgolide C also improved activation of sirtuin 1 and phosphorylation of AMPK in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. The results suggest that ginkgolide C is an effective flavone for increasing lipolysis and inhibiting adipogenesis in adipocytes through the activated AMPK pathway. PMID:26413119

  20. p-Synephrine stimulates glucose consumption via AMPK in L6 skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Hong, Na-Young; Cui, Zhi-Gang; Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Lee, Dae-Ho; Lee, Young-Ki; Park, Deok-Bae

    2012-02-24

    Interest in p-synephrine, the primary protoalkaloid in the extract of bitter orange and other citrus species, has increased due to its various pharmacological effects and related adverse effects. The lipolytic activity of p-synephrine has been repeatedly revealed by in vitro and in vivo studies and p-synephrine is currently marketed as a dietary supplement for weight loss. The present study investigated the effect of p-synephrine on glucose consumption and its action mechanism in L6 skeletal muscle cells. Treatment of L6 skeletal muscle cells with p-synephrine (0-100μM) did not affect cell viability and increased basal glucose consumption up to 50% over the control in a dose-dependent manner. The basal- or insulin-stimulated lactic acid production as well as glucose consumption was significantly increased by the addition of p-synephrine. p-Synephrine stimulated the phosphorylation of AMPK but not of Akt. p-Synephrine-induced glucose consumption was sensitive to the inhibition of AMPK but not to the inhibition of PI3 kinase. p-Synephrine also stimulated the translocation of Glut4 from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane; this stimulation was suppressed by the inhibition of AMPK, but not of PI3 kinase. Taken together, p-synephrine can stimulate glucose consumption (Glut4-dependent glucose uptake) by stimulating AMPK activity, regardless of insulin-stimulated PI3 kinase-Akt activity in L6 skeletal muscle cells.

  1. Perspectives of the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) signalling pathway in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Bruno Moulin; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2014-04-01

    Approximately 90% of non-medullary thyroid malignancies originate from the follicular cell and are classified as papillary or follicular (well-differentiated) thyroid carcinomas, showing an overall favourable prognosis. However, recurrence or persistence of the disease occurs in some cases associated with the presence of loco-regional or distant metastatic lesions that generally become resistant to radioiodine therapy, while glucose uptake and metabolism are increased. Recent advances in the field of tumor progression have shown that CTC (circulating tumour cells) are metabolic and genetically heterogeneous. There is now special interest in unravelling the mechanisms that allow the reminiscence of dormant tumour lesions that might be related to late disease progression and increased risk of recurrence. AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) is activated by the depletion in cellular energy levels and allows adaptive changes in cell metabolism that are fundamental for cell survival in a stressful environment; nevertheless, the activation of this kinase also decreases cell proliferation rate and induces tumour cell apoptosis. In the thyroid field, AMPK emerged as a novel important intracellular pathway, since it regulates both iodide and glucose uptakes in normal thyroid cells. Furthermore, it has recently been demonstrated that the AMPK pathway is highly activated in papillary thyroid carcinomas, although the clinical significance of these findings remains elusive. Herein we review the current knowledge about the role of AMPK activation in thyroid physiology and pathophysiology, with special focus on thyroid cancer.

  2. Perspectives of the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) signalling pathway in thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Bruno Moulin; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 90% of non-medullary thyroid malignancies originate from the follicular cell and are classified as papillary or follicular (well-differentiated) thyroid carcinomas, showing an overall favourable prognosis. However, recurrence or persistence of the disease occurs in some cases associated with the presence of loco-regional or distant metastatic lesions that generally become resistant to radioiodine therapy, while glucose uptake and metabolism are increased. Recent advances in the field of tumor progression have shown that CTC (circulating tumour cells) are metabolic and genetically heterogeneous. There is now special interest in unravelling the mechanisms that allow the reminiscence of dormant tumour lesions that might be related to late disease progression and increased risk of recurrence. AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) is activated by the depletion in cellular energy levels and allows adaptive changes in cell metabolism that are fundamental for cell survival in a stressful environment; nevertheless, the activation of this kinase also decreases cell proliferation rate and induces tumour cell apoptosis. In the thyroid field, AMPK emerged as a novel important intracellular pathway, since it regulates both iodide and glucose uptakes in normal thyroid cells. Furthermore, it has recently been demonstrated that the AMPK pathway is highly activated in papillary thyroid carcinomas, although the clinical significance of these findings remains elusive. Herein we review the current knowledge about the role of AMPK activation in thyroid physiology and pathophysiology, with special focus on thyroid cancer. PMID:27919039

  3. Tumor Metabolism: MAGE-A Proteins Help TRIM Turn Over AMPK.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Reuben J

    2015-05-18

    MAGE-A proteins are testis-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase components whose expression is upregulated in many cancers. MAGE-A3 and -A6 act as oncogenes and recent work now shows that they degrade the central metabolic regulator AMPK, providing a novel mechanism for rewiring cancer metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The soluble epoxide hydrolase determines cholesterol homeostasis by regulating AMPK and SREBP activity.

    PubMed

    Mangels, Nicole; Awwad, Khader; Wettenmann, Annika; Dos Santos, Laila Romagueira Bichara; Frömel, Timo; Fleming, Ingrid

    2016-09-01

    Inhibition or deletion of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been linked to reduced cholesterol and protection against atherosclerosis. This study set out to identify sEH substrate(s) or product(s), altered in livers from sEH(-/-) mice that contribute to these beneficial effects. In livers and isolated hepatocytes, deletion of sEH decreased expression of HMG CoA reductase, fatty acid synthase and low density lipoprotein receptor. Sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) regulate the expression of all three enzymes and SREBP activation was attenuated in the absence of sEH. The effect was attributed to the AMPK-activated protein kinase (AMPK) which was activated in the absence of sEH. Livers from wild-type versus sEH(-/-) littermates contained significantly higher levels of the sEH substrate 12,13-epoxyoctadecenoic acid, which elicited AMPK activation, while the corresponding sEH product was inactive. Thus, AMPK activation and subsequent inhibition of SREBP can account for the altered expression of lipid metabolizing enzymes in sEH(-/-) mice.

  5. AMPK Agonist AICAR Improves Cognition and Motor Coordination in Young and Aged Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilo, Tali; Guerrieri, Davide; Zhang, Yongqing; Collica, Sarah C.; Becker, Kevin G.; van Praag, Henriette

    2014-01-01

    Normal aging can result in a decline of memory and muscle function. Exercise may prevent or delay these changes. However, aging-associated frailty can preclude physical activity. In young sedentary animals, pharmacological activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a transcriptional regulator important for muscle physiology, enhanced…

  6. Oleuropein aglycone induces autophagy via the AMPK/mTOR signalling pathway: a mechanistic insight

    PubMed Central

    Nediani, Chiara; Berti, Andrea; Cascella, Roberta; Pantano, Daniela; Nardiello, Pamela; Luccarini, Ilaria; Casamenti, Fiorella; Stefani, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The healthy effects of plant polyphenols, some of which characterize the so-called Mediterranean diet, have been shown to arise from epigenetic and biological modifications resulting, among others, in autophagy stimulation. Our previous work highlighted the beneficial effects of oleuropein aglycone (OLE), the main polyphenol found in the extra virgin olive oil, against neurodegeneration both in cultured cells and in model organisms, focusing, in particular, autophagy activation. In this study we investigated more in depth the molecular and cellular mechanisms of autophagy induction by OLE using cultured neuroblastoma cells and an OLE-fed mouse model of amylod beta (Aβ) deposition. We found that OLE triggers autophagy in cultured cells through the Ca2+-CAMKKβ–AMPK axis. In particular, in these cells OLE induces a rapid release of Ca2+ from the SR stores which, in turn, activates CAMKKβ, with subsequent phosphorylation and activation of AMPK. The link between AMPK activation and mTOR inhibition was shown in the OLE-fed animal model in which we found that decreased phospho-mTOR immunoreactivity and phosphorylated mTOR substrate p70 S6K levels match enhanced phospho-AMPK levels, supporting the idea that autophagy activation by OLE proceeds through mTOR inhibition. Our results agree with those reported for other plant polyphenols, suggesting a shared molecular mechanism underlying the healthy effects of these substances against ageing, neurodegeneration, cancer, diabetes and other diseases implying autophagy dysfunction. PMID:26474288

  7. Mitochondria related peptide MOTS-c suppresses ovariectomy-induced bone loss via AMPK activation

    SciTech Connect

    Ming, Wei; Lu, Gan; Xin, Sha; Huanyu, Lu; Yinghao, Jiang; Xiaoying, Lei; Chengming, Xu; Banjun, Ruan; Li, Wang; and others

    2016-08-05

    Therapeutic targeting bone loss has been the focus of the study in osteoporosis. The present study is intended to evaluate whether MOTS-c, a novel mitochondria related 16 aa peptide, can protect mice from ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. After ovary removal, the mice were injected with MOTS-c at a dose of 5 mg/kg once a day for 12 weeks. Our results showed that MOTS-c treatment significantly alleviated bone loss, as determined by micro-CT examination. Mechanistically, we found that the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) induced osteoclast differentiation was remarkably inhibited by MOTS-c. Moreover, MOTS-c increased phosphorylated AMPK levels, and compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, could partially abrogate the effects of the MOTS-c on osteoclastogenesis. Thus, our findings provide evidence that MOTS-c may exert as an inhibitor of osteoporosis via AMPK dependent inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. -- Highlights: •MOTS-c decreases OVX-induced bone loss in vivo. •MOTS-c inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast formation. •MOTS-c inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast-specific gene expression. •MOTS-c represses osteoclast differentiation via the activation of AMPK.

  8. AICAR induces mitochondrial apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells through an AMPK-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Masayuki; Kawamoto, Teruya; Hara, Hitomi; Onishi, Yasuo; Ueha, Takeshi; Minoda, Masaya; Katayama, Etsuko; Takemori, Toshiyuki; Fukase, Naomasa; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Akisue, Toshihiro

    2017-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) modulates cellular energy metabolism, and promotes mitochondrial proliferation and apoptosis. Previous studies have shown that AICAR has anticancer effects in various cancers, however the roles of AMPK and/or the effects of AICAR on osteosarcoma have not been reported. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of AICAR on tumor growth and mitochondrial apoptosis in human osteosarcoma both in vitro and in vivo. For in vitro experiments, two human osteosarcoma cell lines, MG63 and KHOS, were treated with AICAR, and the effects of AICAR on cell growth and mitochondrial apoptosis were assessed by WST assays, TUNEL staining, and immunoblot analyses. In vivo, human osteosarcoma-bearing mice were treated with AICAR, and the mitochondrial proliferation and apoptotic activity in treated tumors were assessed. In vitro experiments revealed that AICAR activated AMPK, inhibited cell growth, and induced mitochondrial apoptosis in both osteosarcoma cell lines. In vivo, AICAR significantly reduced osteosarcoma growth without apparent body weight loss and AICAR increased both mitochondrial proliferation and apoptotic activity in treated tumor tissues. AICAR showed anticancer effects in osteosarcoma cells through an AMPK-dependent peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α)/mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM)/mitochondrial pathway. The findings in this study strongly suggest that AICAR could be considered as a potent therapeutic agent for the treatment of human osteosarcoma.

  9. Neutrophil-Derived MMP-8 Drives AMPK-Dependent Matrix Destruction in Human Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Catherine W. M.; Elkington, Paul T.; Brilha, Sara; Ugarte-Gil, Cesar; Tome-Esteban, Maite T.; Tezera, Liku B.; Pabisiak, Przemyslaw J.; Moores, Rachel C.; Sathyamoorthy, Tarangini; Patel, Vimal; Gilman, Robert H.; Porter, Joanna C.; Friedland, Jon S.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary cavities, the hallmark of tuberculosis (TB), are characterized by high mycobacterial load and perpetuate the spread of M. tuberculosis. The mechanism of matrix destruction resulting in cavitation is not well defined. Neutrophils are emerging as key mediators of TB immunopathology and their influx are associated with poor outcomes. We investigated neutrophil-dependent mechanisms involved in TB-associated matrix destruction using a cellular model, a cohort of 108 patients, and in separate patient lung biopsies. Neutrophil-derived NF-kB-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) secretion was up-regulated in TB and caused matrix destruction both in vitro and in respiratory samples of TB patients. Collagen destruction induced by TB infection was abolished by doxycycline, a licensed MMP inhibitor. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contain MMP-8 and are increased in samples from TB patients. Neutrophils lined the circumference of human pulmonary TB cavities and sputum MMP-8 concentrations reflected TB radiological and clinical disease severity. AMPK, a central regulator of catabolism, drove neutrophil MMP-8 secretion and neutrophils from AMPK-deficient patients secrete lower MMP-8 concentrations. AMPK-expressing neutrophils are present in human TB lung biopsies with phospho-AMPK detected in nuclei. These data demonstrate that neutrophil-derived MMP-8 has a key role in the immunopathology of TB and is a potential target for host-directed therapy in this infectious disease. PMID:25996154

  10. Neutrophil-Derived MMP-8 Drives AMPK-Dependent Matrix Destruction in Human Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ong, Catherine W M; Elkington, Paul T; Brilha, Sara; Ugarte-Gil, Cesar; Tome-Esteban, Maite T; Tezera, Liku B; Pabisiak, Przemyslaw J; Moores, Rachel C; Sathyamoorthy, Tarangini; Patel, Vimal; Gilman, Robert H; Porter, Joanna C; Friedland, Jon S

    2015-05-01

    Pulmonary cavities, the hallmark of tuberculosis (TB), are characterized by high mycobacterial load and perpetuate the spread of M. tuberculosis. The mechanism of matrix destruction resulting in cavitation is not well defined. Neutrophils are emerging as key mediators of TB immunopathology and their influx are associated with poor outcomes. We investigated neutrophil-dependent mechanisms involved in TB-associated matrix destruction using a cellular model, a cohort of 108 patients, and in separate patient lung biopsies. Neutrophil-derived NF-kB-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) secretion was up-regulated in TB and caused matrix destruction both in vitro and in respiratory samples of TB patients. Collagen destruction induced by TB infection was abolished by doxycycline, a licensed MMP inhibitor. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contain MMP-8 and are increased in samples from TB patients. Neutrophils lined the circumference of human pulmonary TB cavities and sputum MMP-8 concentrations reflected TB radiological and clinical disease severity. AMPK, a central regulator of catabolism, drove neutrophil MMP-8 secretion and neutrophils from AMPK-deficient patients secrete lower MMP-8 concentrations. AMPK-expressing neutrophils are present in human TB lung biopsies with phospho-AMPK detected in nuclei. These data demonstrate that neutrophil-derived MMP-8 has a key role in the immunopathology of TB and is a potential target for host-directed therapy in this infectious disease.

  11. Glucocorticoids induced high fat diet preference via activating hypothalamic AMPK signaling in chicks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Wang, Xiaojuan; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai

    2017-03-02

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) stimulate appetite, contributing to enhanced fat deposition. Our present study was conducted to determine whether GCs could evoke an appetite specifically for fat-rich diets in chicks. Chicks were subjected to a subcutaneous injection of corticosterone (CORT, 2mg/kg body weight/day) or corn oil (control), and food preference was tested. The results showed that CORT-chicks consumed more high-fat diet (HFD) compared with controls. In HFD-fed chicks, hypothalamic phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA levels were increased by CORT treatment. Activating AMPK with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside, an AMPK activator, via intracerebroventricular injection further enhanced the CORT-induced HFD consumption and concurrently up-regulated NPY mRNA levels and phosphorylated AMPKα and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase levels. The dramatic increase in HFD consumption and upregulation of NPY mRNA levels and phospho-AMPKα levels induced by peripheral CORT injection was not altered by intracerebroventricular infusion of compound C (4-16μg), an AMPK inhibitor. In conclusion, CORT challenge caused a HFD preference by enhancing the AMPK pathway in the hypothalamus.

  12. Irisin Inhibits Hepatic Cholesterol Synthesis via AMPK-SREBP2 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hong; Yu, Ruili; Liu, Shiying; Huwatibieke, Bahetiyaer; Li, Ziru; Zhang, Weizhen

    2016-04-01

    Irisin, a myokine released during exercise, promotes browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue and regulates energy homeostasis. Although exercise constantly reduces blood cholesterol, whether irisin is involved in the regulation of cholesterol remains largely unknown. In the present study, subcutaneous infusion of irisin for 2weeks induced a reduction in plasma and hepatic cholesterol in high fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. These alterations were associated with an activation of 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibition of sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 2 (SREBP2) transcription and nuclear translocation. In primary hepatocytes from either lean or DIO mice, irisin significantly decreased cholesterol content via sequential activation of AMPK and inhibition of SREBP2. Suppression of AMPK by compound C or AMPKα1 siRNA blocked irisin-induced alterations in cholesterol contents and SREBP2. In conclusion, irisin could suppress hepatic cholesterol production via a mechanism dependent of AMPK and SREBP2 signaling. These findings suggest that irisin is a promising therapeutic target for treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

  13. Compound C inhibits macrophage chemotaxis through an AMPK-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngyi; Park, Byung-Hyun; Bae, Eun Ju

    2016-01-15

    Macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue is a well-established cause of obesity-linked insulin resistance. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in peripheral tissues such as adipose tissue has beneficial effects on the protection against obesity-induced insulin resistance, which is mainly mediated by prevention of adipose tissue macrophage infiltration and inflammation. In examining the role of AMPK on adipose tissue inflammation, we unexpectedly found that compound C (CC), despite its inhibition of AMPK, robustly inhibited macrophage chemotaxis in RAW 264.7 cells when adipocyte conditioned medium (CM) was used as a chemoattractant. Here, we report that CC inhibition of macrophage migration occurred independently of AMPK. Mechanistically, this inhibitory effect of cell migration by CC was mediated by inhibition of the focal adhesion kinase, AKT, nuclear factor κB pathways. Moreover, the expression of chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and pro-inflammatory genes such as tumor necrosis factor α and inducible nitric oxide synthase were prevented by CC treatment in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with either adipocyte CM or lipopolysaccharide. Lastly, in accord with the findings of the anti-inflammatory effect of CC, we demonstrated that CC functioned as a repressor of macrophage CM-mediated insulin resistance in adipocytes. Taken together, our results suggest that CC serves as a useful inhibitory molecule against macrophage chemotaxis into adipose tissue and thus might have therapeutic potential for the treatment of obesity-linked adipose inflammation.

  14. Possible involvement of LKB1-AMPK signaling in non-homologous end joining.

    PubMed

    Ui, A; Ogiwara, H; Nakajima, S; Kanno, S; Watanabe, R; Harata, M; Okayama, H; Harris, C C; Yokota, J; Yasui, A; Kohno, T

    2014-03-27

    LKB1/STK11 is a tumor suppressor gene responsible for Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, an inherited cancer disorder associated with genome instability. The LKB1 protein functions in the regulation of cell proliferation, polarization and differentiation. Here, we suggest a role of LKB1 in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), a major DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway. LKB1 localized to DNA ends upon the generation of micro-irradiation and I-SceI endonuclease-induced DSBs. LKB1 inactivation either by RNA interference or by kinase-dead mutation compromised NHEJ-mediated DNA repair by suppressing the accumulation of BRM, a catalytic subunit of the SWI/SNF complex, at DSB sites, which promotes the recruitment of an essential NHEJ factor, KU70. AMPK2, a major substrate of LKB1 and a histone H2B kinase, was recruited to DSBs in an LKB1-dependent manner. AMPK2 depletion and a mutation of H2B that disrupted the AMPK2 phoshorylation site impaired KU70 and BRM recruitment to DSB sites. LKB1 depletion induced the formation of chromosome breaks and radials. These results suggest that LKB1-AMPK signaling controls NHEJ and contributes to genome stability.

  15. Mechanisms of regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Crozet, Pierre; Margalha, Leonor; Confraria, Ana; Rodrigues, Américo; Martinho, Cláudia; Adamo, Mattia; Elias, Carlos A.; Baena-González, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The SNF1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1)-related protein kinases 1 (SnRKs1) are the plant orthologs of the budding yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). These evolutionarily conserved kinases are metabolic sensors that undergo activation in response to declining energy levels. Upon activation, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases trigger a vast transcriptional and metabolic reprograming that restores energy homeostasis and promotes tolerance to adverse conditions, partly through an induction of catabolic processes and a general repression of anabolism. These kinases typically function as a heterotrimeric complex composed of two regulatory subunits, β and γ, and an α-catalytic subunit, which requires phosphorylation of a conserved activation loop residue for activity. Additionally, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases are controlled by multiple mechanisms that have an impact on kinase activity, stability, and/or subcellular localization. Here we will review current knowledge on the regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 by upstream components, post-translational modifications, various metabolites, hormones, and others, in an attempt to highlight both the commonalities of these essential eukaryotic kinases and the divergences that have evolved to cope with the particularities of each one of these systems. PMID:24904600

  16. Mechanisms of regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Crozet, Pierre; Margalha, Leonor; Confraria, Ana; Rodrigues, Américo; Martinho, Cláudia; Adamo, Mattia; Elias, Carlos A; Baena-González, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The SNF1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1)-related protein kinases 1 (SnRKs1) are the plant orthologs of the budding yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). These evolutionarily conserved kinases are metabolic sensors that undergo activation in response to declining energy levels. Upon activation, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases trigger a vast transcriptional and metabolic reprograming that restores energy homeostasis and promotes tolerance to adverse conditions, partly through an induction of catabolic processes and a general repression of anabolism. These kinases typically function as a heterotrimeric complex composed of two regulatory subunits, β and γ, and an α-catalytic subunit, which requires phosphorylation of a conserved activation loop residue for activity. Additionally, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases are controlled by multiple mechanisms that have an impact on kinase activity, stability, and/or subcellular localization. Here we will review current knowledge on the regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 by upstream components, post-translational modifications, various metabolites, hormones, and others, in an attempt to highlight both the commonalities of these essential eukaryotic kinases and the divergences that have evolved to cope with the particularities of each one of these systems.

  17. Irisin Inhibits Hepatic Cholesterol Synthesis via AMPK-SREBP2 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hong; Yu, Ruili; Liu, Shiying; Huwatibieke, Bahetiyaer; Li, Ziru; Zhang, Weizhen

    2016-01-01

    Irisin, a myokine released during exercise, promotes browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue and regulates energy homeostasis. Although exercise constantly reduces blood cholesterol, whether irisin is involved in the regulation of cholesterol remains largely unknown. In the present study, subcutaneous infusion of irisin for 2 weeks induced a reduction in plasma and hepatic cholesterol in high fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. These alterations were associated with an activation of 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibition of sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 2 (SREBP2) transcription and nuclear translocation. In primary hepatocytes from either lean or DIO mice, irisin significantly decreased cholesterol content via sequential activation of AMPK and inhibition of SREBP2. Suppression of AMPK by compound C or AMPKα1 siRNA blocked irisin-induced alterations in cholesterol contents and SREBP2. In conclusion, irisin could suppress hepatic cholesterol production via a mechanism dependent of AMPK and SREBP2 signaling. These findings suggest that irisin is a promising therapeutic target for treatment of hypercholesterolemia. PMID:27211556

  18. AMPK dysregulation promotes diabetes-related reduction of superoxide and mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Laura L; You, Young-Hyun; Ali, Sameh S; Diamond-Stanic, Maggie; Miyamoto, Satoshi; DeCleves, Anne-Emilie; Andreyev, Aleksander; Quach, Tammy; Ly, San; Shekhtman, Grigory; Nguyen, William; Chepetan, Andre; Le, Thuy P; Wang, Lin; Xu, Ming; Paik, Kacie P; Fogo, Agnes; Viollet, Benoit; Murphy, Anne; Brosius, Frank; Naviaux, Robert K; Sharma, Kumar

    2013-11-01

    Diabetic microvascular complications have been considered to be mediated by a glucose-driven increase in mitochondrial superoxide anion production. Here, we report that superoxide production was reduced in the kidneys of a steptozotocin-induced mouse model of type 1 diabetes, as assessed by in vivo real-time transcutaneous fluorescence, confocal microscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance analysis. Reduction of mitochondrial biogenesis and phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) were observed in kidneys from diabetic mice. These observations were consistent with an overall reduction of mitochondrial glucose oxidation. Activity of AMPK, the major energy-sensing enzyme, was reduced in kidneys from both diabetic mice and humans. Mitochondrial biogenesis, PDH activity, and mitochondrial complex activity were rescued by treatment with the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR). AICAR treatment induced superoxide production and was linked with glomerular matrix and albuminuria reduction in the diabetic kidney. Furthermore, diabetic heterozygous superoxide dismutase 2 (Sod2(+/-)) mice had no evidence of increased renal disease, and Ampka2(-/-) mice had increased albuminuria that was not reduced with AICAR treatment. Reduction of mitochondrial superoxide production with rotenone was sufficient to reduce AMPK phosphorylation in mouse kidneys. Taken together, these results demonstrate that diabetic kidneys have reduced superoxide and mitochondrial biogenesis and activation of AMPK enhances superoxide production and mitochondrial function while reducing disease activity.

  19. Multiple AMPK activators inhibit l-carnitine uptake in C2C12 skeletal muscle myotubes.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Andy; Jeromson, Stewart; Watterson, Kenneth R; Pediani, John D; Gallagher, Iain J; Whalley, Tim; Dreczkowski, Gillian; Brooks, Naomi; Galloway, Stuart D; Hamilton, D Lee

    2017-06-01

    Mutations in the gene that encodes the principal l-carnitine transporter, OCTN2, can lead to a reduced intracellular l-carnitine pool and the disease Primary Carnitine Deficiency. l-Carnitine supplementation is used therapeutically to increase intracellular l-carnitine. As AMPK and insulin regulate fat metabolism and substrate uptake, we hypothesized that AMPK-activating compounds and insulin would increase l-carnitine uptake in C2C12 myotubes. The cells express all three OCTN transporters at the mRNA level, and immunohistochemistry confirmed expression at the protein level. Contrary to our hypothesis, despite significant activation of PKB and 2DG uptake, insulin did not increase l-carnitine uptake at 100 nM. However, l-carnitine uptake was modestly increased at a dose of 150 nM insulin. A range of AMPK activators that increase intracellular calcium content [caffeine (10 mM, 5 mM, 1 mM, 0.5 mM), A23187 (10 μM)], inhibit mitochondrial function [sodium azide (75 μM), rotenone (1 μM), berberine (100 μM), DNP (500 μM)], or directly activate AMPK [AICAR (250 μM)] were assessed for their ability to regulate l-carnitine uptake. All compounds tested significantly inhibited l-carnitine uptake. Inhibition by caffeine was not dantrolene (10 μM) sensitive despite dantrolene inhibiting caffeine-mediated calcium release. Saturation curve analysis suggested that caffeine did not competitively inhibit l-carnitine transport. To assess the potential role of AMPK in this process, we assessed the ability of the AMPK inhibitor Compound C (10 μM) to rescue the effect of caffeine. Compound C offered a partial rescue of l-carnitine uptake with 0.5 mM caffeine, suggesting that AMPK may play a role in the inhibitory effects of caffeine. However, caffeine likely inhibits l-carnitine uptake by alternative mechanisms independently of calcium release. PKA activation or direct interference with transporter function may play a role. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Activation of AMPK in human fetal membranes alleviates infection-induced expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-labour mediators.

    PubMed

    Lim, R; Barker, G; Lappas, M

    2015-04-01

    In non-gestational tissues, the activation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated kinase (AMPK) is associated with potent anti-inflammatory actions. Infection and/or inflammation, by stimulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, play a central role in the rupture of fetal membranes. However, no studies have examined the role of AMPK in human labour. Fetal membranes, from term and preterm, were obtained from non-labouring and labouring women, and after preterm pre-labour rupture of membranes (PPROM). AMPK activity was assessed by Western blotting of phosphorylated AMPK expression. To determine the effect of AMPK activators on pro-inflammatory cytokines, fetal membranes were pre-treated with AMPK activators then stimulated with bacterial products LPS and flagellin or viral dsDNA analogue poly(I:C). Primary amnion cells were used to determine the effect of AMPK activators on IL-1β-stimulated MMP-9 expression. AMPK activity was decreased with term labour. There was no effect of preterm labour. AMPK activity was also decreased in preterm fetal membranes, in the absence of labour, with PROM compared to intact membranes. AMPK activators AICAR, phenformin and A769662 significantly decreased IL-6 and IL-8 stimulated by LPS, flagellin and poly(I:C). Primary amnion cells treated with AMPK activators significantly decreased IL-1β-induced MMP-9 expression. The decrease in AMPK activity in fetal membranes after spontaneous term labour and PPROM indicates an anti-inflammatory role for AMPK in human labour and delivery. The use of AMPK activators as possible therapeutics for threatened preterm labour would be an exciting future avenue of research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Activation of AMPK protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced osteoblast apoptosis through autophagy induction and NADPH maintenance: new implications for osteonecrosis treatment?

    PubMed

    She, Chang; Zhu, Lun-qing; Zhen, Yun-fang; Wang, Xiao-dong; Dong, Qi-rong

    2014-01-01

    Elevated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) causes osteoblast dysfunction and apoptosis, serving as an important contributor to the development of osteonecrosis. Here we aimed to understand the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the process. We observed a high level of AMPK activation in surgery isolated patients' osteonecrosis tissues. In cultured osteoblastoma MG63 cells, H2O2 stimulation induced significant AMPK activation, oxidative stress, cell death and apoptosis. Inhibition of AMPK by its inhibitor (compound C) or by shRNA-mediated knockdown dramatically enhanced H2O2-induced MG63 cell apoptosis, while over-expression of AMPK in HEK-293 cells alleviated H2O2-induced cell damage. These results confirmed that H2O2-activated AMPK is pro-cell survival. We observed that H2O2 induced protective autophagy in MG63 cells, and AMPK-dependent Ulk1 activation and mTORC1 (mTOR complex 1) inactivation might involve autophagy activation. Further, AMPK activation inhibited H2O2-induced oxidative stress, probably through inhibiting NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) depletion, since more NADPH depletion and oxidative stress were induced by H2O2 in AMPK deficient MG63 cells. Finally, we observed a significant AMPK activation in H2O2-treated primary cultured and transformed (MC3T3-E1) osteoblasts, and AMPK inhibitor compound C enhanced death by H2O2 in these cells. Based on these results, we concluded that H2O2-induced AMPK activation is pro-survival and anti-apoptosis in osteoblasts. Autophagy induction and NADPH maintenance are involved in AMPK-mediated pro-survival effects. AMPK might represent a novel molecular target for osteonecrosis treatment.

  2. The AMPK-PPARGC1A pathway is required for antimicrobial host defense through activation of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chul-Su; Kim, Jwa-Jin; Lee, Hye-Mi; Jin, Hyo Sun; Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Soung Jung; Kim, Jin-Man; Han, Yong-Mahn; Lee, Myung-Shik; Kweon, Gi Ryang; Shong, Minho; Jo, Eun-Kyeong

    2014-05-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial energy sensor and plays a key role in integration of cellular functions to maintain homeostasis. Despite this, it is largely unknown whether targeting the AMPK pathway can be used as a therapeutic strategy for infectious diseases. Herein, we show that AMPK activation robustly induces antibacterial autophagy, which contributes to antimicrobial defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). AMPK activation led to inhibition of Mtb-induced phosphorylation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) in macrophages. In addition, AMPK activation increased the genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial ATP production, and biogenesis in Mtb-infected macrophages. Notably, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, coactivator 1α (PPARGC1A) was required for AMPK-mediated antimicrobial activity, as well as enhancement of mitochondrial function and biogenesis, in macrophages. Further, the AMPK-PPARGC1A pathway was involved in the upregulation of multiple autophagy-related genes via CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), β (CEBPB). PPARGC1A knockdown inhibited the AMPK-mediated induction of autophagy and impaired the fusion of phagosomes with MAP1LC3B (LC3B) autophagosomes in Mtb-infected macrophages. The link between autophagy, mitochondrial function, and antimicrobial activity was further demonstrated by studying LysMCre-mediated knockout of atg7, demonstrating mitochondrial ultrastructural defects and dysfunction, as well as blockade of antimicrobial activity against mycobacteria. Collectively, our results identify the AMPK-PPARGC1A axis as contributing to autophagy activation leading to an antimicrobial response, as a novel host defense mechanism.

  3. Insulin Resistance Prevents AMPK-induced Tau Dephosphorylation through Akt-mediated Increase in AMPKSer-485 Phosphorylation*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bhumsoo; Figueroa-Romero, Claudia; Pacut, Crystal; Backus, Carey; Feldman, Eva L.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors including obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance (IR) is the central feature of MetS. Recent studies suggest that MetS is a risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD). AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved fuel-sensing enzyme and a key player in regulating energy metabolism. In this report, we examined the role of IR on the regulation of AMPK phosphorylation and AMPK-mediated Tau phosphorylation. We found that AMPKSer-485, but not AMPKThr-172, phosphorylation is increased in the cortex of db/db and high fat diet-fed obese mice, two mouse models of IR. In vitro, treatment of human cortical stem cell line (HK-5320) and primary mouse embryonic cortical neurons with the AMPK activator, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR), induced AMPK phosphorylation at both Thr-172 and Ser-485. AMPK activation also triggered Tau dephosphorylation. When IR was mimicked in vitro by chronically treating the cells with insulin, AICAR specifically induced AMPKSer-485, but not AMPKThr-172, hyperphosphorylation whereas AICAR-induced Tau dephosphorylation was inhibited. IR also resulted in the overactivation of Akt by AICAR treatment; however, preventing Akt overactivation during IR prevented AMPKSer-485 hyperphosphorylation and restored AMPK-mediated Tau dephosphorylation. Transfection of AMPKS485A mutant caused similar results. Therefore, our results suggest the following mechanism for the adverse effect of IR on AD pathology: IR → chronic overactivation of Akt → AMPKSer-485 hyperphosphorylation → inhibition of AMPK-mediated Tau dephosphorylation. Together, our results show for the first time a possible contribution of IR-induced AMPKSer-485 phosphorylation to the increased risk of AD in obesity and diabetes. PMID:26100639

  4. AMPK Activation Prevents and Reverses Drug-Induced Mitochondrial and Hepatocyte Injury by Promoting Mitochondrial Fusion and Function

    PubMed Central

    Taniane, Caitlin; Farrell, Geoffrey; Arias, Irwin M.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Fu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial damage is the major factor underlying drug-induced liver disease but whether conditions that thwart mitochondrial injury can prevent or reverse drug-induced liver damage is unclear. A key molecule regulating mitochondria quality control is AMP activated kinase (AMPK). When activated, AMPK causes mitochondria to elongate/fuse and proliferate, with mitochondria now producing more ATP and less reactive oxygen species. Autophagy is also triggered, a process capable of removing damaged/defective mitochondria. To explore whether AMPK activation could potentially prevent or reverse the effects of drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage, we added an AMPK activator to collagen sandwich cultures of rat and human hepatocytes exposed to the hepatotoxic drugs, acetaminophen or diclofenac. In the absence of AMPK activation, the drugs caused hepatocytes to lose polarized morphology and have significantly decreased ATP levels and viability. At the subcellular level, mitochondria underwent fragmentation and had decreased membrane potential due to decreased expression of the mitochondrial fusion proteins Mfn1, 2 and/or Opa1. Adding AICAR, a specific AMPK activator, at the time of drug exposure prevented and reversed these effects. The mitochondria became highly fused and ATP production increased, and hepatocytes maintained polarized morphology. In exploring the mechanism responsible for this preventive and reversal effect, we found that AMPK activation prevented drug-mediated decreases in Mfn1, 2 and Opa1. AMPK activation also stimulated autophagy/mitophagy, most significantly in acetaminophen-treated cells. These results suggest that activation of AMPK prevents/reverses drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through regulation of mitochondrial fusion and autophagy, making it a potentially valuable approach for treatment of drug-induced liver injury. PMID:27792760

  5. The AMPK-PPARGC1A pathway is required for antimicrobial host defense through activation of autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chul-Su; Kim, Jwa-Jin; Lee, Hye-Mi; Jin, Hyo Sun; Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Soung Jung; Kim, Jin-Man; Han, Yong-Mahn; Lee, Myung-Shik; Kweon, Gi Ryang; Shong, Minho; Jo, Eun-Kyeong

    2014-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial energy sensor and plays a key role in integration of cellular functions to maintain homeostasis. Despite this, it is largely unknown whether targeting the AMPK pathway can be used as a therapeutic strategy for infectious diseases. Herein, we show that AMPK activation robustly induces antibacterial autophagy, which contributes to antimicrobial defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). AMPK activation led to inhibition of Mtb-induced phosphorylation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) in macrophages. In addition, AMPK activation increased the genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial ATP production, and biogenesis in Mtb-infected macrophages. Notably, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, coactivator 1α (PPARGC1A) was required for AMPK-mediated antimicrobial activity, as well as enhancement of mitochondrial function and biogenesis, in macrophages. Further, the AMPK-PPARGC1A pathway was involved in the upregulation of multiple autophagy-related genes via CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), β (CEBPB). PPARGC1A knockdown inhibited the AMPK-mediated induction of autophagy and impaired the fusion of phagosomes with MAP1LC3B (LC3B) autophagosomes in Mtb-infected macrophages. The link between autophagy, mitochondrial function, and antimicrobial activity was further demonstrated by studying LysMCre-mediated knockout of atg7, demonstrating mitochondrial ultrastructural defects and dysfunction, as well as blockade of antimicrobial activity against mycobacteria. Collectively, our results identify the AMPK-PPARGC1A axis as contributing to autophagy activation leading to an antimicrobial response, as a novel host defense mechanism. PMID:24598403

  6. Folic acid supplementation during high-fat diet feeding restores AMPK activation via an AMP-LKB1-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Sid, Victoria; Wu, Nan; Sarna, Lindsei K.; Siow, Yaw L.; House, James D.

    2015-01-01

    AMPK is an endogenous energy sensor that regulates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is regarded as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome with impaired lipid and glucose metabolism and increased oxidative stress. Our recent study showed that folic acid supplementation attenuated hepatic oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in high-fat diet-fed mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of folic acid on hepatic AMPK during high-fat diet feeding and the mechanisms involved. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a control diet (10% kcal fat), a high-fat diet (60% kcal fat), or a high-fat diet supplemented with folic acid (26 mg/kg diet) for 5 wk. Mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited hyperglycemia, hepatic cholesterol accumulation, and reduced hepatic AMPK phosphorylation. Folic acid supplementation restored AMPK phosphorylation (activation) and reduced blood glucose and hepatic cholesterol levels. Activation of AMPK by folic acid was mediated through an elevation of its allosteric activator AMP and activation of its upstream kinase, namely, liver kinase B1 (LKB1) in the liver. Consistent with in vivo findings, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (bioactive form of folate) restored phosphorylation (activation) of both AMPK and LKB1 in palmitic acid-treated HepG2 cells. Activation of AMPK by folic acid might be responsible for AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of HMG-CoA reductase, leading to reduced hepatic cholesterol synthesis during high-fat diet feeding. These results suggest that folic acid supplementation may improve cholesterol and glucose metabolism by restoration of AMPK activation in the liver. PMID:26400185

  7. Two weeks of metformin treatment enhances mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle of AMPK kinase dead but not wild type mice.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Jonas M; Larsen, Steen; Helge, Jørn W; Dela, Flemming; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P

    2013-01-01

    Metformin is used as an anti-diabetic drug. Metformin ameliorates insulin resistance by improving insulin sensitivity in liver and skeletal muscle. Reduced mitochondrial content has been reported in type 2 diabetic muscles and it may contribute to decreased insulin sensitivity characteristic for diabetic muscles. The molecular mechanism behind the effect of metformin is not fully clarified but inhibition of complex I in the mitochondria and also activation of the 5'AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been reported in muscle. Furthermore, both AMPK activation and metformin treatment have been associated with stimulation of mitochondrial function and biogenesis. However, a causal relationship in skeletal muscle has not been investigated. We hypothesized that potential effects of in vivo metformin treatment on mitochondrial function and protein expressions in skeletal muscle are dependent upon AMPK signaling. We investigated this by two weeks of oral metformin treatment of muscle specific kinase dead α(2) (KD) AMPK mice and wild type (WT) littermates. We measured mitochondrial respiration and protein activity and expressions of key enzymes involved in mitochondrial carbohydrate and fat metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial respiration, HAD and CS activity, PDH and complex I-V and cytochrome c protein expression were all reduced in AMPK KD compared to WT tibialis anterior muscles. Surprisingly, metformin treatment only enhanced respiration in AMPK KD mice and thereby rescued the respiration defect compared to the WT mice. Metformin did not influence protein activities or expressions in either WT or AMPK KD mice.We conclude that two weeks of in vivo metformin treatment enhances mitochondrial respiration in the mitochondrial deficient AMPK KD but not WT mice. The improvement seems to be unrelated to AMPK, and does not involve changes in key mitochondrial proteins.

  8. Two Weeks of Metformin Treatment Enhances Mitochondrial Respiration in Skeletal Muscle of AMPK Kinase Dead but Not Wild Type Mice

    PubMed Central

    Helge, Jørn W.; Dela, Flemming; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F. P.

    2013-01-01

    Metformin is used as an anti-diabetic drug. Metformin ameliorates insulin resistance by improving insulin sensitivity in liver and skeletal muscle. Reduced mitochondrial content has been reported in type 2 diabetic muscles and it may contribute to decreased insulin sensitivity characteristic for diabetic muscles. The molecular mechanism behind the effect of metformin is not fully clarified but inhibition of complex I in the mitochondria and also activation of the 5′AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been reported in muscle. Furthermore, both AMPK activation and metformin treatment have been associated with stimulation of mitochondrial function and biogenesis. However, a causal relationship in skeletal muscle has not been investigated. We hypothesized that potential effects of in vivo metformin treatment on mitochondrial function and protein expressions in skeletal muscle are dependent upon AMPK signaling. We investigated this by two weeks of oral metformin treatment of muscle specific kinase dead α2 (KD) AMPK mice and wild type (WT) littermates. We measured mitochondrial respiration and protein activity and expressions of key enzymes involved in mitochondrial carbohydrate and fat metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial respiration, HAD and CS activity, PDH and complex I-V and cytochrome c protein expression were all reduced in AMPK KD compared to WT tibialis anterior muscles. Surprisingly, metformin treatment only enhanced respiration in AMPK KD mice and thereby rescued the respiration defect compared to the WT mice. Metformin did not influence protein activities or expressions in either WT or AMPK KD mice. We conclude that two weeks of in vivo metformin treatment enhances mitochondrial respiration in the mitochondrial deficient AMPK KD but not WT mice. The improvement seems to be unrelated to AMPK, and does not involve changes in key mitochondrial proteins. PMID:23341947

  9. Folic acid supplementation during high-fat diet feeding restores AMPK activation via an AMP-LKB1-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sid, Victoria; Wu, Nan; Sarna, Lindsei K; Siow, Yaw L; House, James D; O, Karmin

    2015-11-15

    AMPK is an endogenous energy sensor that regulates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is regarded as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome with impaired lipid and glucose metabolism and increased oxidative stress. Our recent study showed that folic acid supplementation attenuated hepatic oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in high-fat diet-fed mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of folic acid on hepatic AMPK during high-fat diet feeding and the mechanisms involved. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a control diet (10% kcal fat), a high-fat diet (60% kcal fat), or a high-fat diet supplemented with folic acid (26 mg/kg diet) for 5 wk. Mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited hyperglycemia, hepatic cholesterol accumulation, and reduced hepatic AMPK phosphorylation. Folic acid supplementation restored AMPK phosphorylation (activation) and reduced blood glucose and hepatic cholesterol levels. Activation of AMPK by folic acid was mediated through an elevation of its allosteric activator AMP and activation of its upstream kinase, namely, liver kinase B1 (LKB1) in the liver. Consistent with in vivo findings, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (bioactive form of folate) restored phosphorylation (activation) of both AMPK and LKB1 in palmitic acid-treated HepG2 cells. Activation of AMPK by folic acid might be responsible for AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of HMG-CoA reductase, leading to reduced hepatic cholesterol synthesis during high-fat diet feeding. These results suggest that folic acid supplementation may improve cholesterol and glucose metabolism by restoration of AMPK activation in the liver.

  10. AMPK deficiency in cardiac muscle results in dilated cardiomyopathy in the absence of changes in energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Miranda M.; Zordoky, Beshay N.; Bujak, Adam L.; Lally, James S.V.; Fung, David; Young, Martin E.; Horman, Sandrine; Miller, Edward J.; Light, Peter E.; Kemp, Bruce E.; Steinberg, Gregory R.; Dyck, Jason R.B.

    2015-01-01

    Aims AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is thought to be a central player in regulating myocardial metabolism and its activation has been shown to inhibit cardiac hypertrophy. Recently, mice with muscle-specific deletion of AMPK β1/β2 subunits (AMPKβ1β2-deficient mice, β1β2M-KO) have been generated and possess <10% of normal AMPK activity in muscle. However, how/if dramatic AMPK deficiency alters cardiac metabolism, function, or morphology has not been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether a significant loss of AMPK activity alters cardiac function, metabolism, and hypertrophy, and whether this may play a role in the pathogenesis of heart failure. Methods and results β1β2M-KO mice exhibit an approximate 25% reduction in systolic and diastolic function compared with wild-type (WT) littermates. Despite the well-documented role of AMPK in controlling myocardial energy metabolism, there was no difference in basal glucose and fatty acid oxidation rates between β1β2M-KO and WT mice. However, there was reduced AMPK-mediated phosphorylation of troponin I in β1β2M-KO and reduced ventricular cell shortening in the presence of low Ca2+, which may explain the impaired cardiac function in these mice. Interestingly, β1β2M-KO mice did not display any signs of compensatory cardiac hypertrophy, which could be attributed to impaired activation of p38 MAPK. Conclusions β1β2M-KO mice display evidence of dilated cardiomyopathy. This is the first mouse model of AMPK deficiency that demonstrates cardiac dysfunction in the absence of pathological stress and provides insights into the role of AMPK in regulating myocardial function, metabolism, hypertrophy, and the progression to heart failure. PMID:26023060

  11. Na,K-ATPase activity in mouse muscle is regulated by AMPK and PGC-1α.

    PubMed

    Ingwersen, Maria S; Kristensen, Michael; Pilegaard, Henriette; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Richter, Erik A; Juel, Carsten

    2011-07-01

    Na,K-ATPase activity, which is crucial for skeletal muscle function, undergoes acute and long-term regulation in response to muscle activity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that AMP kinase (AMPK) and the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α are underlying factors in long-term regulation of Na,K-ATPase isoform (α,β and PLM) abundance and Na(+) affinity. Repeated treatment of mice with the AMPK activator AICAR decreased total PLM protein content but increased PLM phosphorylation, whereas the number of α- and β-subunits remained unchanged. The K(m) for Na(+) stimulation of Na,K-ATPase was reduced (higher affinity) after AICAR treatment. PLM abundance was increased in AMPK kinase-dead mice compared with control mice, but PLM phosphorylation and Na,K-ATPase Na(+) affinity remained unchanged. Na,K-ATPase activity and subunit distribution were also measured in mice with different degrees of PGC-1α expression. Protein abundances of α1 and α2 were reduced in PGC-1α +/- and -/- mice, and the β(1)/β(2) ratio was increased with PGC-1α overexpression (TG mice). PLM protein abundance was decreased in TG mice, but phosphorylation status was unchanged. Na,K-ATPase V (max) was decreased in PCG-1α TG and KO mice. Experimentally in vitro induced phosphorylation of PLM increased Na,K-ATPase Na(+) affinity, confirming that PLM phosphorylation is important for Na,K-ATPase function. In conclusion, both AMPK and PGC-1α regulate PLM abundance, AMPK regulates PLM phosphorylation and PGC-1α expression influences Na,K-ATPase α(1) and α(2) content and β(1)/β(2) isoform ratio. Phosphorylation of the Na,K-ATPase subunit PLM is an important regulatory mechanism.

  12. AMPK agonists ameliorate sodium and fluid transport and inflammation in cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Myerburg, Michael M; King, J Darwin; Oyster, Nicholas M; Fitch, Adam C; Magill, Amy; Baty, Catherine J; Watkins, Simon C; Kolls, Jay K; Pilewski, Joseph M; Hallows, Kenneth R

    2010-06-01

    The metabolic sensor AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) inhibits both the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel and epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC), and may inhibit secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in epithelia. Here we have tested in primary polarized CF and non-CF human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells the effects of AMPK activators, metformin and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-riboside (AICAR), on various parameters that contribute to CF lung disease: ENaC-dependent short-circuit currents (I(sc)), airway surface liquid (ASL) height, and proinflammatory cytokine secretion. AMPK activation after overnight treatment with either metformin (2-5 mM) or AICAR (1 mM) substantially inhibited ENaC-dependent I(sc) in both CF and non-CF airway cultures. Live-cell confocal images acquired 60 minutes after apical addition of Texas Red-dextran-containing fluid revealed significantly greater ASL heights after AICAR and metformin treatment relative to controls, suggesting that AMPK-dependent ENaC inhibition slows apical fluid reabsorption. Both metformin and AICAR decreased secretion of various proinflammatory cytokines, both with and without prior LPS stimulation. Finally, prolonged exposure to more physiologically relevant concentrations of metformin (0.03-1 mM) inhibited ENaC currents and decreased proinflammatory cytokine levels in CF HBE cells in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that novel therapies to activate AMPK in the CF airway may be beneficial by blunting excessive sodium and ASL absorption and by reducing excessive airway inflammation, which are major contributors to CF lung disease.

  13. The impact of endurance exercise on global and AMPK gene-specific DNA methylation

    SciTech Connect

    King-Himmelreich, Tanya S.; Schramm, Stefanie; Wolters, Miriam C.; Schmetzer, Julia; Möser, Christine V.; Knothe, Claudia; Geisslinger, Gerd

    2016-05-27

    Alterations in gene expression as a consequence of physical exercise are frequently described. The mechanism of these regulations might depend on epigenetic changes in global or gene-specific DNA methylation levels. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in maintenance of energy homeostasis and is activated by increases in the AMP/ATP ratio as occurring in skeletal muscles after sporting activity. To analyze whether exercise has an impact on the methylation status of the AMPK promoter, we determined the AMPK methylation status in human blood samples from patients before and after sporting activity in the context of rehabilitation as well as in skeletal muscles of trained and untrained mice. Further, we examined long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1) as indicator of global DNA methylation changes. Our results revealed that light sporting activity in mice and humans does not alter global DNA methylation but has an effect on methylation of specific CpG sites in the AMPKα2 gene. These regulations were associated with a reduced AMPKα2 mRNA and protein expression in muscle tissue, pointing at a contribution of the methylation status to AMPK expression. Taken together, these results suggest that exercise influences AMPKα2 gene methylation in human blood and eminently in the skeletal muscle of mice and therefore might repress AMPKα2 gene expression. -- Highlights: •AMPK gene methylation increases after moderate endurance exercise in humans and mice. •AMPKα mRNA and protein decrease after moderate endurance exercise in mice. •Global DNA methylation is not affected under the same conditions.

  14. Gallic acid regulates body weight and glucose homeostasis through AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Doan, Khanh V; Ko, Chang Mann; Kinyua, Ann W; Yang, Dong Joo; Choi, Yun-Hee; Oh, In Young; Nguyen, Nguyen Minh; Ko, Ara; Choi, Jae Won; Jeong, Yangsik; Jung, Min Ho; Cho, Won Gil; Xu, Shanhua; Park, Kyu Sang; Park, Woo Jin; Choi, Soo Yong; Kim, Hyoung Shik; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Ki Woo

    2015-01-01

    Gallic acid [3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (GA)], a natural phytochemical, is known to have a variety of cellular functions including beneficial effects on metabolic syndromes. However, the molecular mechanism by which GA exerts its beneficial effects is not known. Here we report that GA plays its role through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and by regulating mitochondrial function via the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator1α (PGC1α). Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) knockdown significantly blunted GA's effect on PGC1α activation and downstream genes, suggesting a critical role of the AMPK/Sirt1/PGC1α pathway in GA's action. Moreover, diet-induced obese mice treated with GA showed significantly improved glucose and insulin homeostasis. In addition, the administration of GA protected diet-induced body weight gain without a change in food intake. Biochemical analyses revealed a marked activation of AMPK in the liver, muscle, and interscapular brown adipose tissue of the GA-treated mice. Moreover, uncoupling protein 1 together with other genes related to energy expenditure was significantly elevated in the interscapular brown adipose tissue. Taken together, these results indicate that GA plays its beneficial metabolic roles by activating the AMPK/Sirt1/PGC1α pathway and by changing the interscapular brown adipose tissue genes related to thermogenesis. Our study points out that targeting the activation of the AMPK/Sirt1/PGC1α pathway by GA or its derivatives might be a potential therapeutic intervention for insulin resistance in metabolic diseases.

  15. AMPK Agonists Ameliorate Sodium and Fluid Transport and Inflammation in Cystic Fibrosis Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Myerburg, Michael M.; King, J Darwin; Oyster, Nicholas M.; Fitch, Adam C.; Magill, Amy; Baty, Catherine J.; Watkins, Simon C.; Kolls, Jay K.; Pilewski, Joseph M.; Hallows, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    The metabolic sensor AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) inhibits both the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel and epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC), and may inhibit secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in epithelia. Here we have tested in primary polarized CF and non-CF human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells the effects of AMPK activators, metformin and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-riboside (AICAR), on various parameters that contribute to CF lung disease: ENaC-dependent short-circuit currents (Isc), airway surface liquid (ASL) height, and proinflammatory cytokine secretion. AMPK activation after overnight treatment with either metformin (2–5 mM) or AICAR (1 mM) substantially inhibited ENaC-dependent Isc in both CF and non-CF airway cultures. Live-cell confocal images acquired 60 minutes after apical addition of Texas Red–dextran-containing fluid revealed significantly greater ASL heights after AICAR and metformin treatment relative to controls, suggesting that AMPK-dependent ENaC inhibition slows apical fluid reabsorption. Both metformin and AICAR decreased secretion of various proinflammatory cytokines, both with and without prior LPS stimulation. Finally, prolonged exposure to more physiologically relevant concentrations of metformin (0.03–1 mM) inhibited ENaC currents and decreased proinflammatory cytokine levels in CF HBE cells in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that novel therapies to activate AMPK in the CF airway may be beneficial by blunting excessive sodium and ASL absorption and by reducing excessive airway inflammation, which are major contributors to CF lung disease. PMID:19617399

  16. Nutrient deprivation induces the Warburg effect through ROS/AMPK-dependent activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-An; Chao, Yee; Shiah, Shine-Gwo; Lin, Wan-Wan

    2013-05-01

    The Warburg effect is known to be crucial for cancer cells to acquire energy. Nutrient deficiencies are an important phenomenon in solid tumors, but the effect on cancer cell metabolism is not yet clear. In this study, we demonstrate that starvation of HeLa cells by incubation with Hank's buffered salt solution (HBSS) induced cell apoptosis, which was accompanied by the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation. Notably, HBSS starvation increased lactate production, cytoplasmic pyruvate content and decreased oxygen consumption, but failed to change the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity or the glucose uptake. We found that HBSS starvation rapidly induced pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) activation and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) phosphorylation, both of which were inhibited by compound C (an AMPK inhibitor), NAC (a ROS scavenger), and the dominant negative mutant of AMPK. Our data further revealed the involvement of ROS production in AMPK activation. Moreover, DCA (a PDK inhibitor), NAC, and compound C all significantly decreased HBSS starvation-induced lactate production accompanied by enhancement of HBSS starvation-induced cell apoptosis. Not only in HeLa cells, HBSS-induced lactate production and PDH phosphorylation were also observed in CL1.5, A431 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Taken together, we for the first time demonstrated that a low-nutrient condition drives cancer cells to utilize glycolysis to produce ATP, and this increases the Warburg effect through a novel mechanism involving ROS/AMPK-dependent activation of PDK. Such an event contributes to protecting cells from apoptosis upon nutrient deprivation.

  17. Involvement of AMPK in Alcohol Dehydrogenase Accentuated Myocardial Dysfunction Following Acute Ethanol Challenge in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rui; Scott, Glenda I.; Ren, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Binge alcohol drinking often triggers myocardial contractile dysfunction although the underlying mechanism is not fully clear. This study was designed to examine the impact of cardiac-specific overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) on ethanol-induced change in cardiac contractile function, intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, insulin and AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) signaling. Methods ADH transgenic and wild-type FVB mice were acutely challenged with ethanol (3 g/kg/d, i.p.) for 3 days. Oral glucose tolerance test, cardiac AMP/ATP levels, cardiac contractile function, intracellular Ca2+ handling and AMPK signaling (including ACC and LKB1) were examined. Results Ethanol exposure led to glucose intolerance, elevated plasma insulin, compromised cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca2+ properties, downregulated protein phosphatase PP2A subunit and PPAR-γ, as well as phosphorylation of AMPK, ACC and LKB1, all of which except plasma insulin were overtly accentuated by ADH transgene. Interestingly, myocardium from ethanol-treated FVB mice displayed enhanced expression of PP2Cα and PGC-1α, decreased insulin receptor expression as well as unchanged expression of Glut4, the response of which was unaffected by ADH. Cardiac AMP-to-ATP ratio was significantly enhanced by ethanol exposure with a more pronounced increase in ADH mice. In addition, the AMPK inhibitor compound C (10 µM) abrogated acute ethanol exposure-elicited cardiomyocyte mechanical dysfunction. Conclusions In summary, these data suggest that the ADH transgene exacerbated acute ethanol toxicity-induced myocardial contractile dysfunction, intracellular Ca2+ mishandling and glucose intolerance, indicating a role of ADH in acute ethanol toxicity-induced cardiac dysfunction possibly related to altered cellular fuel AMPK signaling cascade. PMID:20585647

  18. Regulation of Hepatic Lipin-1 by Ethanol: Role of AMPK-SREBP-1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ming; Wang, Fengming; Li, Xin; Rogers, Christopher Q.; Liang, Xiaomei; Finck, Brian N.; Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Zhang, Ray; Mitchell, Dave A.; You, Min

    2011-01-01

    Lipin-1 is a protein that exhibits dual functions as a phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase (PAP) enzyme in the triglyceride synthesis pathways and a transcriptional co-regulator. Our previous studies have shown that ethanol causes fatty liver by activation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) and inhibition of hepatic AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) in mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that AMPK-SREBP-1 signaling may be involved in ethanol-mediated up-regulation of lipin-1 gene expression. The effects of ethanol on lipin-1 were investigated in cultured hepatic cells and in the livers of chronic ethanol-fed mice. Ethanol exposure robustly induced activity of a mouse lipin-1 promoter, promoted cytoplasmic localization of lipin-1 and caused excess lipid accumulation both in cultured hepatic cells and in mouse livers. Mechanistic studies showed that ethanol-mediated induction of lipin-1 gene expression was inhibited by a known activator of AMPK or overexpression of a constitutively active form of AMPK. Importantly, overexpression of processed nuclear form of SREBP-1c (nSREBP-1c) abolished the ability of AICAR to suppress ethanol-mediated induction of lipin-1 gene expression level. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays further revealed that ethanol exposure significantly increased association of acetylated Histone H3 at lysine 9 (Lys9) with the SRE-containing region in the promoter of the lipin-1 gene. In conclusion, ethanol-induced up-regulation of lipin-1 gene expression is mediated through inhibition of AMPK and activation of SREBP-1. PMID:21953514

  19. Hydrogen sulfide reduces serum triglyceride by activating liver autophagy via the AMPK-mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Zhang, Song; Yu, Chengyuan; Pan, Zhenwei; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Xiaoyu; Yun, Fengxiang; Zhao, Hongwei; Yan, Sen; Yuan, Yue; Wang, Dingyu; Ding, Xue; Liu, Guangzhong; Li, Wenpeng; Zhao, Xuezhu; Liu, Zhaorui; Li, Yue

    2015-12-01

    Autophagy plays an important role in liver triglyceride (TG) metabolism. Inhibition of autophagy could reduce the clearance of TG in the liver. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a potent stimulator of autophagic flux. Recent studies showed H2S is protective against hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) and noalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), while the mechanism remains to be explored. Here, we tested the hypothesis that H2S reduces serum TG level and ameliorates NAFLD by stimulating liver autophagic flux by the AMPK-mTOR pathway. The level of serum H2S in patients with HTG was lower than that of control subjects. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, H2S donor) markedly reduced serum TG levels of male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), which was abolished by coadministration of chloroquine (CQ), an inhibitor of autophagic flux. In HFD mice, administration of NaSH increased the LC3BII-to-LC3BI ratio and decreased the p62 protein level. Meanwhile, NaSH increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and thus reduced the phosphorylation of mTOR in a Western blot study. In cultured LO2 cells, high-fat treatment reduced the ratio of LC3BII to LC3BI and the phosphorylation of AMPK, which were reversed by the coadministration of NaSH. Knockdown of AMPK by siRNA in LO2 cells blocked the autophagic enhancing effects of NaSH. The same qualitative effect was observed in AMPKα2(-/-) mice. These results for the first time demonstrated that H2S could reduce serum TG level and ameliorate NAFLD by activating liver autophagy via the AMPK-mTOR pathway.

  20. Honokiol activates the LKB1-AMPK signaling pathway and attenuates the lipid accumulation in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Seo, Min Suk; Kim, Jung Hwan; Kim, Hye Jung; Chang, Ki Churl; Park, Sang Won

    2015-04-15

    Honokiol is a bioactive neolignan compound isolated from the species of Magnolia. This study was designed to elucidate the cellular mechanism by which honokiol alleviates the development of non-alcoholic steatosis. HepG2 cells were treated with honokiol for 1h, and then exposed to 1mM free fatty acid (FFA) for 24h to simulate non-alcoholic steatosis in vitro. C57BL/6 mice were fed with a high-fat diet for 28days, and honokiol (10mg/kg/day) was daily treated. Honokiol concentration-dependently attenuated intracellular fat overloading and triglyceride (TG) accumulation in FFA-exposed HepG2 cells. These effects were blocked by pretreatment with an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor. Honokiol significantly inhibited sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) maturation and the induction of lipogenic proteins, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in FFA-exposed HepG2 cells, but these effects were blocked by pretreatment of an AMPK inhibitor. Honokiol induced AMPK phosphorylation and subsequent acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation, which were inhibited by genetic deletion of liver kinase B1 (LKB1). Honokiol stimulated LKB1 phosphorylation, and genetic deletion of LKB1 blocked the effect of honokiol on SREBP-1c maturation and the induction of SCD-1 and FAS proteins in FFA-exposed HepG2 cells. Honokiol attenuated the increases in hepatic TG and lipogenic protein levels and fat accumulation in the mice fed with high-fat diet, while significantly induced LKB1 and AMPK phosphorylation. Taken together, our findings suggest that honokiol has an anti-lipogenic effect in hepatocytes, and this effect may be mediated by the LKB1-AMPK signaling pathway, which induces ACC phosphorylation and inhibits SREBP-1c maturation in hepatocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibition of cereblon by fenofibrate ameliorates alcoholic liver disease by enhancing AMPK.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Deuk; Lee, Kwang Min; Hwang, Seung-Lark; Chang, Hyeun Wook; Kim, Keuk-Jun; Harris, Robert A; Choi, Hueng-Sik; Choi, Won-Sik; Lee, Sung-Eun; Park, Chul-Seung

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol consumption exacerbates alcoholic liver disease by attenuating the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is activated by fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist, and inhibited by direct interaction with cereblon (CRBN), a component of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Based on these preliminary findings, we investigated that CRBN would be up-regulated in the liver by alcohol consumption and that CRBN deficiency would ameliorate hepatic steatosis and pro-inflammatory responses in alcohol-fed mice by increasing AMPK activity. Wild-type, CRBN and PPARα null mice were fed an alcohol-containing liquid diet and administered with fenofibrate. Gene expression profiles and metabolic changes were measured in the liver and blood of these mice. Expression of CRBN, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), lipogenic genes, pro-inflammatory cytokines, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were increased in the Lieber-DeCarli alcohol-challenged mice. Fenofibrate attenuated the induction of CRBN and reduced hepatic steatosis and pro-inflammatory markers in these mice. Ablation of the gene encoding CRBN produced the same effect as fenofibrate. The increase in CRBN gene expression by alcohol and the reduction of CRBN expression by fenofibrate were negated in PPARα null mice. Fenofibrate increased the recruitment of PPARα on CRBN gene promoter in WT mice but not in PPARα null mice. Silencing of AMPK prevented the beneficial effects of fenofibrate. These results demonstrate that activation of PPARα by fenofibrate alleviates alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation by reducing the inhibition of AMPK by CRBN. CRBN is a potential therapeutic target for the alcoholic liver disease.

  2. Intensified exercise training does not alter AMPK signaling in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Clark, S A; Chen, Z-P; Murphy, K T; Aughey, R J; McKenna, M J; Kemp, B E; Hawley, J A

    2004-05-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) cascade has been linked to many of the acute effects of exercise on skeletal muscle substrate metabolism, as well as to some of the chronic training-induced adaptations. We determined the effect of 3 wk of intensified training (HIT; 7 sessions of 8 x 5 min at 85% Vo2 peak) in skeletal muscle from well-trained athletes on AMPK responsiveness to exercise. Rates of whole body substrate oxidation were determined during a 90-min steady-state ride (SS) pre- and post-HIT. Muscle metabolites and AMPK signaling were determined from biopsies taken at rest and immediately after exercise during the first and seventh HIT sessions, performed at the same (absolute) pre-HIT work rate. HIT decreased rates of whole body carbohydrate oxidation (P < 0.05) and increased rates of fat oxidation (P < 0.05) during SS. Resting muscle glycogen and its utilization during intense exercise were unaffected by HIT. However, HIT induced a twofold decrease in muscle [lactate] (P < 0.05) and resulted in tighter metabolic regulation, i.e., attenuation of the decrease in the PCr/(PCr + Cr) ratio and of the increase in [AMPfree]/ATP. Resting activities of AMPKalpha1 and -alpha2 were similar post-HIT, with the magnitude of the rise in response to exercise similar pre- and post-HIT. AMPK phosphorylation at Thr172 on both the alpha1 and alpha2 subunits increased in response to exercise, with the magnitude of this rise being similar post-HIT. Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase-beta phosphorylation was similar at rest and, despite HIT-induced increases in whole body rates of fat oxidation, did not increase post-HIT. Our results indicate that, in well-trained individuals, short-term HIT improves metabolic control but does not blunt AMPK signaling in response to intense exercise.

  3. Compound C inhibits macrophage chemotaxis through an AMPK-independent mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Youngyi; Park, Byung-Hyun; Bae, Eun Ju

    2016-01-15

    Macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue is a well-established cause of obesity-linked insulin resistance. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in peripheral tissues such as adipose tissue has beneficial effects on the protection against obesity-induced insulin resistance, which is mainly mediated by prevention of adipose tissue macrophage infiltration and inflammation. In examining the role of AMPK on adipose tissue inflammation, we unexpectedly found that compound C (CC), despite its inhibition of AMPK, robustly inhibited macrophage chemotaxis in RAW 264.7 cells when adipocyte conditioned medium (CM) was used as a chemoattractant. Here, we report that CC inhibition of macrophage migration occurred independently of AMPK. Mechanistically, this inhibitory effect of cell migration by CC was mediated by inhibition of the focal adhesion kinase, AKT, nuclear factor κB pathways. Moreover, the expression of chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and pro-inflammatory genes such as tumor necrosis factor α and inducible nitric oxide synthase were prevented by CC treatment in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with either adipocyte CM or lipopolysaccharide. Lastly, in accord with the findings of the anti-inflammatory effect of CC, we demonstrated that CC functioned as a repressor of macrophage CM-mediated insulin resistance in adipocytes. Taken together, our results suggest that CC serves as a useful inhibitory molecule against macrophage chemotaxis into adipose tissue and thus might have therapeutic potential for the treatment of obesity-linked adipose inflammation. - Highlights: • Compound C (CC) inhibits macrophage chemotaxis regardless of AMPK suppression. • CC enhances insulin sensitivity in adipocytes. • CC inhibits focal adhesion kinase, AKT, and NF-κB signaling in RAW 264.7 cells.

  4. Involvement of AMPK in alcohol dehydrogenase accentuated myocardial dysfunction following acute ethanol challenge in mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Scott, Glenda I; Ren, Jun

    2010-06-23

    Binge alcohol drinking often triggers myocardial contractile dysfunction although the underlying mechanism is not fully clear. This study was designed to examine the impact of cardiac-specific overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) on ethanol-induced change in cardiac contractile function, intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, insulin and AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) signaling. ADH transgenic and wild-type FVB mice were acutely challenged with ethanol (3 g/kg/d, i.p.) for 3 days. Oral glucose tolerance test, cardiac AMP/ATP levels, cardiac contractile function, intracellular Ca(2+) handling and AMPK signaling (including ACC and LKB1) were examined. Ethanol exposure led to glucose intolerance, elevated plasma insulin, compromised cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties, downregulated protein phosphatase PP2A subunit and PPAR-gamma, as well as phosphorylation of AMPK, ACC and LKB1, all of which except plasma insulin were overtly accentuated by ADH transgene. Interestingly, myocardium from ethanol-treated FVB mice displayed enhanced expression of PP2Calpha and PGC-1alpha, decreased insulin receptor expression as well as unchanged expression of Glut4, the response of which was unaffected by ADH. Cardiac AMP-to-ATP ratio was significantly enhanced by ethanol exposure with a more pronounced increase in ADH mice. In addition, the AMPK inhibitor compound C (10 microM) abrogated acute ethanol exposure-elicited cardiomyocyte mechanical dysfunction. In summary, these data suggest that the ADH transgene exacerbated acute ethanol toxicity-induced myocardial contractile dysfunction, intracellular Ca(2+) mishandling and glucose intolerance, indicating a role of ADH in acute ethanol toxicity-induced cardiac dysfunction possibly related to altered cellular fuel AMPK signaling cascade.

  5. GLP-1 analogue improves hepatic lipid accumulation by inducing autophagy via AMPK/mTOR pathway

    SciTech Connect

    He, Qin; Sha, Sha; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Jing; Dong, Ming

    2016-08-05

    The incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) keeps rising year by year, and NAFLD is rapidly becoming the most common liver disease worldwide. Clinical studies have found that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, liraglutide (LRG), cannot only reduce glucose levels, but also improve hepatic lipase, especially in patients also with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In addition, enhancing autophagy decreases lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. The aim of the present study is to explore the effect of LRG on hepatocyte steatosis and the possible role of autophagy. We set up an obesity mouse model with a high-fat diet (HFD) and induced hepatocyte steatosis with free fatty acids (FFA) in human L-O2 cells. LRG and two inhibitors of autophagy, Chloroquine (CQ) and bafilomycin A1 (Baf), were added into each group, respectively. The lipid profiles and morphological modifications of each group were tested. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to measure autophagy in this study. The autophagy protein expression of SQSTM1 (P62), and LC3B, along with the signaling pathway proteins of mTOR, phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR), AMPK, phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK) and Beclin1, were evaluated by western blot. Our results showed that LRG improved hepatocyte steatosis by inducing autophagy, and the AMPK/mTOR pathway is involved. These findings suggest an important mechanism for the positive effects of LRG on hepatic steatosis, and provide new evidence for clinical use of LRG in NAFLD. -- Highlights: •Liraglutide reduces lipid accumulation in hepatic steatosis both in vivo and in vitro. •Autophagy was involved in relieving effects of liraglutide on hepatic steatosis. •AMPK/mTOR pathway was involved in liraglutide-induced autophagy.

  6. Shizukaol D Isolated from Chloranthus japonicas Inhibits AMPK-Dependent Lipid Content in Hepatic Cells by Inducing Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rongkuan; Yan, Huan; Hao, Xiaojiang; Liu, Haiyang; Wu, Jiarui

    2013-01-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate that shizukaol D, a natural compound isolated from Chloranthusjaponicus, can activate AMP- activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key sensor and regulator of intracellular energy metabolism, leading to a decrease in triglyceride and cholesterol levels in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, we found that shizukaol D induces mitochondrial dysfunction by depolarizing the mitochondrial membrane and suppressing energy production, which may result in AMPK activation. Our results provide a possible link between mitochondrial dysfunction and AMPK activation and suggest that shizukaol D might be used to treat metabolic syndrome. PMID:23967345

  7. Shizukaol D isolated from Chloranthus japonicas inhibits AMPK-dependent lipid content in hepatic cells by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rongkuan; Yan, Huan; Hao, Xiaojiang; Liu, Haiyang; Wu, Jiarui

    2013-01-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate that shizukaol D, a natural compound isolated from Chloranthusjaponicus, can activate AMP- activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key sensor and regulator of intracellular energy metabolism, leading to a decrease in triglyceride and cholesterol levels in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, we found that shizukaol D induces mitochondrial dysfunction by depolarizing the mitochondrial membrane and suppressing energy production, which may result in AMPK activation. Our results provide a possible link between mitochondrial dysfunction and AMPK activation and suggest that shizukaol D might be used to treat metabolic syndrome.

  8. Olanzapine-activated AMPK signaling in the dorsal vagal complex is attenuated by histamine H1 receptor agonist in female rats.

    PubMed

    He, Meng; Zhang, Qingsheng; Deng, Chao; Wang, Hongqin; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2014-12-01

    Weight gain and its related metabolic disorders are major side effects associated with second generation antipsychotic drug treatment. The dorsal vagal complex (DVC) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are implicated in the regulation of food intake and body weight. Blocking the histamine H1 receptor contributes to antipsychotic-induced weight gain. The present study investigated the time-dependent effect of olanzapine treatment (8, 16, and 36 d) on DVC AMPK signaling in olanzapine-induced weight gain and whether these changes are associated with olanzapine-induced H1 receptor antagonism. During the 8-day olanzapine treatment, the rats were hyperphagic and rapidly gained weight. The phosphorylation of AMPK (pAMPK) (activated AMPK) as well as its directly downstream phospho-acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase was significantly increased. The pAMPK/AMPK ratio, an indicator of AMPK activity, was significantly positively correlated with feeding efficiency and weight gain. As treatment was prolonged (16 and 36 d of olanzapine treatment), the rats were no longer hyperphagic, and there were no longer any changes in DVC AMPK signaling. Although the DVC H1 receptor protein expression was not significantly altered by olanzapine, the pAMPK expression was significantly positively correlated with the H1 receptor level after the 8-, 16-, and 36-day olanzapine treatments. Moreover, we showed that an H1 receptor agonist, 2-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) histamine, significantly inhibited the olanzapine-induced hyperphagia and DVC AMPK activation in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest a time-dependent role of DVC AMPK in olanzapine-induced obesity. Thus, olanzapine-induced DVC AMPK activation may be at least partially related to olanzapine's antagonistic effect on the H1 receptor.

  9. Differential AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Recognition Mechanism of Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase Isoforms.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yuya; Kawaguchi, Yoshinori; Fujimoto, Tomohito; Kanayama, Naoki; Magari, Masaki; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi

    2016-06-24

    Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ) is a known activating kinase for AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In vitro, CaMKKβ phosphorylates Thr(172) in the AMPKα subunit more efficiently than CaMKKα, with a lower Km (∼2 μm) for AMPK, whereas the CaMKIα phosphorylation efficiencies by both CaMKKs are indistinguishable. Here we found that subdomain VIII of CaMKK is involved in the discrimination of AMPK as a native substrate by measuring the activities of various CaMKKα/CaMKKβ chimera mutants. Site-directed mutagenesis analysis revealed that Leu(358) in CaMKKβ/Ile(322) in CaMKKα confer, at least in part, a distinct recognition of AMPK but not of CaMKIα.

  10. Activated AMPK explains hypolipidemic effects of sulfated low molecular weight guluronate on HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Hao, Jie-Jie; Zhang, Li-Juan; Zhao, Xia; He, Xiao-Xi; Li, Miao-Miao; Zhao, Xiao-Liang; Wu, Jian-Dong; Qiu, Pei-Ju; Yu, Guang-Li

    2014-10-06

    Low molecular weight and sulfated low molecular weight guluronate (LMG and SLMG) were prepared and hypolipidemic effects were studied in a human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line. Both compounds decreased total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) and inhibited 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) activity in HepG2 cells. In general, SLMG had greater effects than LMG. Activation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP-2), low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and AMPK's downstream targets were evidenced by increased phosphorylation of AMPK, HMGCR, and acetyl-CoA-carboxylase (ACC), which decreased HMGRC and ACC activity. We further demonstrated that activated AMPK was linked to down-regulated SREBP-1 and up-regulated cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Metformin activation of AMPK suppresses AGE-induced inflammatory response in hNSCs.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ming-Min; Nicol, Christopher J; Cheng, Yi-Chuan; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Chen, Yen-Lin; Pei, Dee; Lin, Chien-Hung; Shih, Yi-Nuo; Yen, Chia-Hui; Chen, Shiang-Jiuun; Huang, Rong-Nan; Chiang, Ming-Chang

    2017-03-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the precise mechanisms remain unclear, T2DM may exacerbate neurodegenerative processes. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling is an evolutionary preserved pathway that is important during homeostatic energy biogenesis responses at both the cellular and whole-body levels. Metformin, a ubiquitously prescribed anti-diabetic drug, exerts its effects by AMPK activation. However, while the roles of AMPK as a metabolic mediator are generally well understood, its performance in neuroprotection and neurodegeneration are not yet well defined. Given hyperglycemia is accompanied by an accelerated rate of advanced glycosylation end product (AGE) formation, which is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetic neuronal impairment and, inflammatory response, clarification of the role of AMPK signaling in these processes is needed. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that metformin, an AMPK activator, protects against diabetic AGE induced neuronal impairment in human neural stem cells (hNSCs). In the present study, hNSCs exposed to AGE had significantly reduced cell viability, which correlated with elevated inflammatory cytokine expression, such as IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α. Co-treatment with metformin significantly abrogated the AGE-mediated effects in hNSCs. In addition, metformin rescued the transcript and protein expression levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and inhibitory kappa B kinase (IKK) in AGE-treated hNSCs. NF-κB is a transcription factor with a key role in the expression of a variety of genes involved in inflammatory responses, and metformin did prevent the AGE-mediated increase in NF-κB mRNA and protein levels in the hNSCs exposed to AGE. Indeed, co-treatment with metformin significantly restored inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels in AGE-treated h

  12. SIRT1 and AMPK pathways are essential for the proliferation and survival of primary effusion lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    He, Meilan; Tan, Brandon; Vasan, Karthik; Yuan, Hongfeng; Cheng, Fan; Ramos da Silva, Suzane; Lu, Chun; Gao, Shou-Jiang

    2017-07-01

    Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare and aggressive B-cell lymphoma with a dismal prognosis caused by infection of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Despite the findings that numerous viral genes and cellular pathways are essential for the proliferation and survival of PEL cells, there is currently no effective therapeutic treatment for PEL. Here, we report that the metabolic sensor SIRT1 is functionally required for sustaining the proliferation and survival of PEL cells. Knockdown of SIRT1 with specific shRNAs or inhibition of SIRT1 with an inhibitor (tenovin-6) induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in PEL cells. We detected high levels of AMPK activation in PEL cells, reflected in AMPKα1 phosphorylation at T174. Knockdown or inhibition of SIRT1 reduced AMPK activation, indicating that SIRT1 was required for AMPK activation. Interestingly, knockdown of AMPK with specific shRNAs or inhibition of AMPK with the inhibitor compound C recapitulated the phenotype of SIRT1, and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, whereas overexpression of a constitutively active AMPK construct rescued the cytotoxic effect of SIRT1 knockdown. Remarkably, treatment with tenovin-6 effectively inhibited the initiation and progression of PEL, and significantly extended the survival of mice in a murine PEL model. Taken together, these results illustrate that the SIRT1-AMPK axis is essential for maintaining the proliferation and survival of PEL and identify SIRT1 and AMPK as potential therapeutic targets, and tenovin-6 as a candidate therapeutic agent for PEL patients. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Hindbrain lactostasis regulates hypothalamic AMPK activity and metabolic neurotransmitter mRNA and protein responses to hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Gujar, Amit D; Ibrahim, Baher A; Tamrakar, Pratistha; Cherian, Ajeesh Koshy; Briski, Karen P

    2014-04-01

    Nerve cell metabolic activity is monitored in multiple brain regions, including the hypothalamus and hindbrain dorsal vagal complex (DVC), but it is unclear if individual metabolosensory loci operate autonomously or interact to coordinate central nervous system (CNS) reactivity to energy imbalance. This research addressed the hypothesis that hypoglycemia-associated DVC lactoprivation stimulates hypothalamic AMPK activity and metabolic neurotransmitter expression. As DVC catecholaminergic neurons express biomarkers for metabolic monitoring, we investigated whether these cells are a source of lactate deficit signaling to the hypothalamus. Caudal fourth ventricle (CV4) infusion of the glucose metabolite l-lactate during insulin-induced hypoglycemia reversed changes in DVC A2 noradrenergic, arcuate neuropeptide Y (NPY) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), and lateral hypothalamic orexin-A (ORX) neuronal AMPK activity, coincident with exacerbation of hypoglycemia. Hindbrain lactate repletion also blunted hypoglycemic upregulation of arcuate NPY mRNA and protein. This treatment did not alter hypoglycemic paraventricular oxytocin (OT) and lateral hypothalamic ORX mRNA profiles, but exacerbated or reversed adjustments in OT and ORX neuropeptide synthesis, respectively. CV4 delivery of the monocarboxylate transporter inhibitor, 4-CIN, increased A2 phosphoAMPK (pAMPK), elevated circulating glucose, and stimulated feeding, responses that were attenuated by 6-hydroxydopamine pretreatment. 4-CIN-infused rats exhibited increased (NPY, ORX neurons) or decreased (POMC neurons) pAMPK concurrent with hyperglycemia. These data show that hindbrain lactoprivic signaling regulates hypothalamic AMPK and key effector neurotransmitter responses to hypoglycemia. Evidence that A2 AMPK activity is lactate-dependent, and that DVC catecholamine cells are critical for lactoprivic control of glucose, feeding, and hypothalamic AMPK, implies A2 derivation of this metabolic regulatory stimulus.

  14. The AMP-Related Kinase (AMPK) Induces Ca(2+)-Independent Dilation of Resistance Arteries by Interfering With Actin Filament Formation.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Kai Michael; Qiu, Jiehua; Blodow, Stephanie; Wiedenmann, Margarethe; Lubomirov, Lubomir T; Pfitzer, Gabriele; Pohl, Ulrich; Schneider, Holger

    2017-07-07

    Decreasing Ca(2+) sensitivity of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) allows for vasodilation without lowering of cytosolic Ca(2+). This may be particularly important in states requiring maintained dilation, such as hypoxia. AMP-related kinase (AMPK) is an important cellular energy sensor in VSM. Regulation of Ca(2+) sensitivity usually is attributed to myosin light chain phosphatase activity, but findings in non-VSM identified changes in the actin cytoskeleton. The potential role of AMPK in this setting is widely unknown. To assess the influence of AMPK on the actin cytoskeleton in VSM of resistance arteries with regard to potential Ca(2+) desensitization of VSM contractile apparatus. AMPK induced a slowly developing dilation at unchanged cytosolic Ca(2+) levels in potassium chloride-constricted intact arteries isolated from mouse mesenteric tissue. This dilation was not associated with changes in phosphorylation of myosin light chain or of myosin light chain phosphatase regulatory subunit. Using ultracentrifugation and confocal microscopy, we found that AMPK induced depolymerization of F-actin (filamentous actin). Imaging of arteries from LifeAct mice showed F-actin rarefaction in the midcellular portion of VSM. Immunoblotting revealed that this was associated with activation of the actin severing factor cofilin. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicated that AMPK leads to the liberation of cofilin from 14-3-3 protein. AMPK induces actin depolymerization, which reduces vascular tone and the response to vasoconstrictors. Our findings demonstrate a new role of AMPK in the control of actin cytoskeletal dynamics, potentially allowing for long-term dilation of microvessels without substantial changes in cytosolic Ca(2+). © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Modulation of the AMPK/Sirt1 axis during neuronal infection by herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Martin, Carolina; Leyton, Luis; Arancibia, Yennyfer; Cuevas, Alexei; Zambrano, Angara; Concha, Margarita I; Otth, Carola

    2014-01-01

    Currently, it is unclear whether a neuron that undergoes viral reactivation and produces infectious particles survives and resumes latency or is killed, which is intriguing even if still unanswered. Previous reports have shown that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) inhibits apoptosis during early infection, but is pro-apoptotic during productive infection. Taking in consideration that the stress sensors AMPK and Sirt1 are involved in neuronal survival and neuroprotection, we hypothesized that HSV-1 could activate the AMPK/Sirt1 axis as a strategy to establish latency through inhibition of apoptosis and restoration of the energy status. These effects could be accomplished through deacetylation of pro-apoptotic protein p53 and regulation of the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and function PGC-1α and its target gene TFAM. Accordingly, we evaluated the AMPK/Sirt1 axis and its targets p53, PGC-1α, and acetyl CoA carboxylase in mice neuronal cultures infected with HSV-1 by western blot, RT-qPCR, and immunofluorescence analyses. Herein, we show that HSV-1 differentially modulates the AMPK/Sirt1 axis during the course of infection. In fact, during early infection (2 hpi) activated AMPK (p-AMPK) was down-regulated, but thereafter recovered gradually. In contrast, the levels of acetylated-p53 increased during the first hours post infection, but afterwards were reduced in parallel with the activation of Sirt1. However, acetylated-p53 peaked again at 18 hpi during productive infection, suggesting an activation of apoptosis. Strikingly, acetylated-p53, Sirt1, and p-AMPK apparently translocate from the nucleus to the cytoplasm after 4 hpi, where they accumulate in discrete foci in the perinuclear region. These results suggest that HSV-1 modulates the AMPK/Sirt1 axis differentially during the course of infection interfering with pro-apoptotic signaling and regulating mitochondrial biogenesis.

  16. Activation of AMPK by berberine induces hepatic lipid accumulation by upregulation of fatty acid translocase CD36 in mice.

    PubMed

    Choi, You-Jin; Lee, Kang-Yo; Jung, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Hyung Sik; Shim, Gayong; Kim, Mi-Gyeong; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Oh, Seon-Hee; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Byung-Hoon

    2017-02-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that berberine has a protective effect against metabolic syndrome such as obesity and type II diabetes mellitus by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK induces CD36 trafficking to the sarcolemma for fatty acid uptake and oxidation in contracting muscle. However, little is known about the effects of AMPK on CD36 regulation in the liver. We investigated whether AMPK activation by berberine affects CD36 expression and fatty acid uptake in hepatocytes and whether it is linked to hepatic lipid accumulation. Activation of AMPK by berberine or transduction with adenoviral vectors encoding constitutively active AMPK in HepG2 and mouse primary hepatocytes increased the expression and membrane translocation of CD36, resulting in enhanced fatty acid uptake and lipid accumulation as determined by BODIPY-C16 and Nile red fluorescence, respectively. Activation of AMPK by berberine induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and subsequently induced CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) binding to the C/EBP-response element in the CD36 promoter in hepatocytes. In addition, hepatic CD36 expression and triglyceride levels were increased in normal diet-fed mice treated with berberine, but completely prevented when hepatic CD36 was silenced with adenovirus containing CD36-specific shRNA. Taken together, prolonged activation of AMPK by berberine increased CD36 expression in hepatocytes, resulting in fatty acid uptake via processes linked to hepatocellular lipid accumulation and fatty liver. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. AMPK and PKA interaction in the regulation of survival of liver cancer cells subjected to glucose starvation

    PubMed Central

    Ferretti, Anabela C.; Tonucci, Facundo M.; Hidalgo, Florencia; Almada, Evangelina; Larocca, Maria C.; Favre, Cristián

    2016-01-01

    The signaling pathways that govern survival response in hepatic cancer cells subjected to nutritional restriction have not been clarified yet. In this study we showed that liver cancer cells undergoing glucose deprivation both arrested in G0/G1 and died mainly by apoptosis. Treatment with the AMPK activator AICAR phenocopied the effect of glucose deprivation on cell survival, whereas AMPK silencing in HepG2/C3A, HuH-7 or SK-Hep-1 cells blocked the cell cycle arrest and the increase in apoptotic death induced by glucose starvation. Both AMPK and PKA were promptly activated after glucose withdrawal. PKA signaling had a dual role during glucose starvation: whereas it elicited an early decreased in cell viability, it later improved this parameter. We detected AMPK phosphorylation (AMPKα(Ser173)) by PKA, which was increased in glucose starved cells and was associated with diminution of AMPK activation. To better explore this inhibitory effect, we constructed a hepatocarcinoma derived cell line which stably expressed an AMPK mutant lacking that PKA phosphorylation site: AMPKα1(S173C). Expression of this mutant significantly decreased viability in cells undergoing glucose starvation. Furthermore, after 36 h of glucose deprivation, the index of AMPKα1(S173C) apoptotic cells doubled the apoptotic index observed in control cells. Two main remarks arise: 1. AMPK is the central signaling kinase in the scenario of cell cycle arrest and death induced by glucose starvation in hepatic cancer cells; 2. PKA phosphorylation of Ser173 comes out as a strong control point that limits the antitumor effects of AMPK in this situation. PMID:26894973

  18. Restoring diabetes-induced autophagic flux arrest in ischemic/reperfused heart by ADIPOR (adiponectin receptor) activation involves both AMPK-dependent and AMPK-independent signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yajing; Liang, Bin; Lau, Wayne Bond; Du, Yunhui; Guo, Rui; Yan, Zheyi; Gan, Lu; Yan, Wenjun; Zhao, Jianli; Gao, Erhe; Koch, Walter; Ma, Xin-Liang

    2017-08-21

    Macroautophagy/autophagy is increasingly recognized as an important regulator of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI-R) injury. However, whether and how diabetes may alter autophagy in response to MI-R remains unknown. Deficiency of ADIPOQ, a cardioprotective molecule, markedly increases MI-R injury. However, the role of diabetic hypoadiponectinemia in cardiac autophagy alteration after MI-R is unclear. Utilizing normal control (NC), high-fat-diet-induced diabetes, and Adipoq knockout (adipoq(-/-)) mice, we demonstrated that autophagosome formation was modestly inhibited and autophagosome clearance was markedly impaired in the diabetic heart subjected to MI-R. adipoq(-/-) largely reproduced the phenotypic alterations observed in the ischemic-reperfused diabetic heart. Treatment of diabetic and adipoq(-/-) mice with AdipoRon, a novel ADIPOR (adiponectin receptor) agonist, stimulated autophagosome formation, markedly increased autophagosome clearance, reduced infarct size, and improved cardiac function (P < 0.01 vs vehicle). Mechanistically, AdipoRon caused significant phosphorylation of AMPK-BECN1 (Ser93/Thr119)-class III PtdIns3K (Ser164) and enhanced lysosome protein LAMP2 expression both in vivo and in isolated adult cardiomyocytes. Pharmacological AMPK inhibition or genetic Prkaa2 mutation abolished AdipoRon-induced BECN1 (Ser93/Thr119)-PtdIns3K (Ser164) phosphorylation and AdipoRon-stimulated autophagosome formation. However, AdipoRon-induced LAMP2 expression, AdipoRon-stimulated autophagosome clearance, and AdipoRon-suppressed superoxide generation were not affected by AMPK inhibition. Treatment with MnTMPyP (a superoxide scavenger) increased LAMP2 expression and stimulated autophagosome clearance in simulated ischemic-reperfused cardiomyocytes. However, no additive effect between AdipoRon and MnTMPyP was observed. Collectively, these results demonstrate that hypoadiponectinemia impairs autophagic flux, contributing to enhanced MI-R injury in the diabetic

  19. AMPK Activation by Metformin Suppresses Abnormal Extracellular Matrix Remodeling in Adipose Tissue and Ameliorates Insulin Resistance in Obesity.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ting; Nocon, Allison; Fry, Jessica; Sherban, Alex; Rui, Xianliang; Jiang, Bingbing; Xu, X Julia; Han, Jingyan; Yan, Yun; Yang, Qin; Li, Qifu; Zang, Mengwei

    2016-08-01

    Fibrosis is emerging as a hallmark of metabolically dysregulated white adipose tissue (WAT) in obesity. Although adipose tissue fibrosis impairs adipocyte plasticity, little is known about how aberrant extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling of WAT is initiated during the development of obesity. Here we show that treatment with the antidiabetic drug metformin inhibits excessive ECM deposition in WAT of ob/ob mice and mice with diet-induced obesity, as evidenced by decreased collagen deposition surrounding adipocytes and expression of fibrotic genes including the collagen cross-linking regulator LOX Inhibition of interstitial fibrosis by metformin is likely attributable to the activation of AMPK and the suppression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/Smad3 signaling, leading to enhanced systemic insulin sensitivity. The ability of metformin to repress TGF-β1-induced fibrogenesis is abolished by the dominant negative AMPK in primary cells from the stromal vascular fraction. TGF-β1-induced insulin resistance is suppressed by AMPK agonists and the constitutively active AMPK in 3T3L1 adipocytes. In omental fat depots of obese humans, interstitial fibrosis is also associated with AMPK inactivation, TGF-β1/Smad3 induction, aberrant ECM production, myofibroblast activation, and adipocyte apoptosis. Collectively, integrated AMPK activation and TGF-β1/Smad3 inhibition may provide a potential therapeutic approach to maintain ECM flexibility and combat chronically uncontrolled adipose tissue expansion in obesity.

  20. Metformin and caloric restriction induce an AMPK-dependent restoration of mitochondrial dysfunction in fibroblasts from Fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    Alcocer-Gómez, Elísabet; Garrido-Maraver, Juan; Bullón, Pedro; Marín-Aguilar, Fabiola; Cotán, David; Carrión, Angel M; Alvarez-Suarez, José Miguel; Giampieri, Francesca; Sánchez-Alcazar, José Antonio; Battino, Maurizio; Cordero, Mario D

    2015-07-01

    Impaired AMPK is associated with a wide spectrum of clinical and pathological conditions, ranging from obesity, altered responses to exercise or metabolic syndrome, to inflammation, disturbed mitochondrial biogenesis and defective response to energy stress. Fibromyalgia (FM) is a world-wide diffused musculoskeletal chronic pain condition that affects up to 5% of the general population and comprises all the above mentioned pathophysiological states. Here, we tested the involvement of AMPK activation in fibroblasts derived from FM patients. AMPK was not phosphorylated in fibroblasts from FM patients and was associated with decreased mitochondrial biogenesis, reduced oxygen consumption, decreased antioxidant enzymes expression levels and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, mtDNA sequencing analysis did not show any important alterations which could justify the mitochondrial defects. AMPK activation in FM fibroblast was impaired in response to moderate oxidative stress. In contrast, AMPK activation by metformin or incubation with serum from caloric restricted mice improved the response to moderate oxidative stress and mitochondrial metabolism in FM fibroblasts. These results suggest that AMPK plays an essential role in FM pathophysiology and could represent the basis for a valuable new therapeutic target/strategy. Furthermore, both metformin and caloric restriction could be an interesting therapeutic approach in FM.

  1. miR-135b-5p inhibits LPS-induced TNFα production via silencing AMPK phosphatase Ppm1e

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Fan, Jian-bo; Gao, Yanxia; Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Li; Yang, Ning; Zhao, Xiaojing

    2016-01-01

    AMPK activation in monocytes could suppress lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tissue-damaging TNFa production. We are set to provoke AMPK activation via microRNA (“miRNA”) downregulating its phosphatase Ppm1e. In human U937 and THP-1 monocytes, forced expression of microRNA-135b-5p (“miR-135b-5p”) downregulated Ppm1e and activated AMPK signaling. Further, LPS-induced TNFα production in above cells was dramatically attenuated. Ppm1e shRNA knockdown in U937 cells also activated AMPK and inhibited TNFα production by LPS. AMPK activation is required for miR-135b-induced actions in monocytes, AMPKα shRNA knockdown or T172A dominant negative mutation almost abolished miR-135b-5p's suppression on LPS-induced TNFα production. Significantly, miR-135b-5p inhibited LPS-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, NFκB activation and TNFα mRNA expression in human macrophages. AMPKα knockdown or mutation again abolished above actions by miR-135b-5p. We conclude that miR-135b-5p expression downregulates Ppm1e to activate AMPK signaling, which inhibits LPS-induced TNFα production via suppressing ROS production and NFκB activation. PMID:27793001

  2. Bitter melon extract attenuating hepatic steatosis may be mediated by FGF21 and AMPK/Sirt1 signaling in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yongmei; Zhang, Xian H.; Ebersole, Blake; Ribnicky, David; Wang, Zhong Q.

    2013-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon, BM) extract on insulin sensitivity, NAFLD, hepatic FGF21 and AMPK signaling in mice fed a high-fat diet. Male C57/B6 mice were randomly divided into HFD and HFD supplementation with BM for 12 week. Body weight, plasma glucose, FGF21 and insulin levels, hepatic FGF21 and AMPK signaling proteins were measured. The results showed that plasma FGF21 and insulin concentrations were significantly decreased and hepatic FGF21 content was significantly down-regulated, while FGF receptors 1, 3 and 4 (FGFR1, FGFR3 and FGFR4) were greatly up-regulated in BM group compared to the HFD group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). BM also significantly increased hepatic AMPK p, AMPK α1 AMPK α2 and Sirt1 content compared to the HFD mice. We, for the first time, demonstrated that BM extract attenuated hepatic steatosis in mice by enhancing hepatic FGF21 and AMPK/Sirt1 signaling. PMID:24189525

  3. Bitter melon extract attenuating hepatic steatosis may be mediated by FGF21 and AMPK/Sirt1 signaling in mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yongmei; Zhang, Xian H; Ebersole, Blake; Ribnicky, David; Wang, Zhong Q

    2013-11-05

    We sought to evaluate the effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon, BM) extract on insulin sensitivity, NAFLD, hepatic FGF21 and AMPK signaling in mice fed a high-fat diet. Male C57/B6 mice were randomly divided into HFD and HFD supplementation with BM for 12 week. Body weight, plasma glucose, FGF21 and insulin levels, hepatic FGF21 and AMPK signaling proteins were measured. The results showed that plasma FGF21 and insulin concentrations were significantly decreased and hepatic FGF21 content was significantly down-regulated, while FGF receptors 1, 3 and 4 (FGFR1, FGFR3 and FGFR4) were greatly up-regulated in BM group compared to the HFD group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). BM also significantly increased hepatic AMPK p, AMPK α1 AMPK α2 and Sirt1 content compared to the HFD mice. We, for the first time, demonstrated that BM extract attenuated hepatic steatosis in mice by enhancing hepatic FGF21 and AMPK/Sirt1 signaling.

  4. Salsalate (Salicylate) Uncouples Mitochondria, Improves Glucose Homeostasis, and Reduces Liver Lipids Independent of AMPK-β1

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Brennan K.; Ford, Rebecca J.; Desjardins, Eric M.; Green, Alex E.; Hughes, Meghan C.; Houde, Vanessa P.; Day, Emily A.; Marcinko, Katarina; Crane, Justin D.; Mottillo, Emilio P.; Perry, Christopher G.R.; Kemp, Bruce E.; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.; Steinberg, Gregory R.

    2017-01-01

    Salsalate is a prodrug of salicylate that lowers blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and reduces nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in animal models; however, the mechanism mediating these effects is unclear. Salicylate directly activates AMPK via the β1 subunit, but whether salsalate requires AMPK-β1 to improve T2D and NAFLD has not been examined. Therefore, wild-type (WT) and AMPK-β1–knockout (AMPK-β1KO) mice were treated with a salsalate dose resulting in clinically relevant serum salicylate concentrations (~1 mmol/L). Salsalate treatment increased VO2, lowered fasting glucose, improved glucose tolerance, and led to an ~55% reduction in liver lipid content. These effects were observed in both WT and AMPK-β1KO mice. To explain these AMPK-independent effects, we found that salicylate increases oligomycin-insensitive respiration (state 4o) and directly increases mitochondrial proton conductance at clinical concentrations. This uncoupling effect is tightly correlated with the suppression of de novo lipogenesis. Salicylate is also able to stimulate brown adipose tissue respiration independent of uncoupling protein 1. These data indicate that the primary mechanism by which salsalate improves glucose homeostasis and NAFLD is via salicylate-driven mitochondrial uncoupling. PMID:27554471

  5. Reduced AMPK-ACC and mTOR signaling in muscle from older men, and effect of resistance exercise

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mengyao; Verdijk, Lex B.; Sakamoto, Kei; Ely, Brian; van Loon, Luc J.C.; Musi, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key energy-sensitive enzyme that controls numerous metabolic and cellular processes. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is another energy/nutrient-sensitive kinase that controls protein synthesis and cell growth. In this study we determined whether older versus younger men have alterations in the AMPK and mTOR pathways in skeletal muscle, and examined the effect of a long term resistance type exercise training program on these signaling intermediaries. Older men had decreased AMPKα2 activity and lower phosphorylation of AMPK and its downstream signaling substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). mTOR phosphylation also was reduced in muscle from older men. Exercise training increased AMPKα1 activity in older men, however, AMPKα2 activity, and the phosphorylation of AMPK, ACC and mTOR, were not affected. In conclusion, older men have alterations in the AMPK-ACC and mTOR pathways in muscle. In addition, prolonged resistance type exercise training induces an isoform-selective up regulation of AMPK activity. PMID:23000302

  6. AMPK knockdown in Placental Labyrinthine Progenitor Cells Results in Restriction of Critical Energy Resources and Terminal Differentiation Failure.

    PubMed

    Waker, Christopher A; Albers, Renee E; Pye, Richard L; Doliboa, Savannah R; Wyatt, Christopher N; Brown, Thomas L; Mayes, Debra Ann

    2017-03-23

    Placental abnormalities can cause Pregnancy-Associated Disorders including preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, and placental insufficiency that result in complications for both the mother and fetus. Trophoblast cells within the labyrinthine layer of the placenta facilitate the exchange of nutrients, gases, and waste between mother and fetus; therefore, the development of this cell layer is critical for fetal development. As trophoblast cells differentiate, it is assumed their metabolism changes with their energy requirements. We hypothesize that proper regulation of trophoblast metabolism is a key component of normal placental development; therefore, we examined the role of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK, PRKAA1/2), a sensor of cellular energy status. Our previous studies have shown that AMPK knockdown alters both trophoblast differentiation and nutrient transport. In this study, AMPKα1/2 shRNA was used to investigate the metabolic effects of AMPK knockdown on SM10 placental labyrinthine progenitor cells before and after differentiation. Extracellular flux analysis confirmed that AMPK knockdown was sufficient to reduce trophoblast glycolysis, mitochondrial respiration, and ATP coupling efficiency. A reduction in AMPK in differentiated trophoblasts also resulted in increased mitochondrial volume. These data indicate that a reduction in AMPK disrupts cellular metabolism in both progenitors and differentiated placental trophoblasts. This disruption correlates to abortive trophoblast differentiation that may contribute to the development of Pregnancy-Associated Disorders.

  7. Enhanced amino acid utilization sustains growth of cells lacking Snf1/AMPK.

    PubMed

    Nicastro, Raffaele; Tripodi, Farida; Guzzi, Cinzia; Reghellin, Veronica; Khoomrung, Sakda; Capusoni, Claudia; Compagno, Concetta; Airoldi, Cristina; Nielsen, Jens; Alberghina, Lilia; Coccetti, Paola

    2015-07-01

    The metabolism of proliferating cells shows common features even in evolutionary distant organisms such as mammals and yeasts, for example the requirement for anabolic processes under tight control of signaling pathways. Analysis of the rewiring of metabolism, which occurs following the dysregulation of signaling pathways, provides new knowledge about the mechanisms underlying cell proliferation. The key energy regulator in yeast Snf1 and its mammalian ortholog AMPK have earlier been shown to have similar functions at glucose limited conditions and here we show that they also have analogies when grown with glucose excess. We show that loss of Snf1 in cells growing in 2% glucose induces an extensive transcriptional reprogramming, enhances glycolytic activity, fatty acid accumulation and reliance on amino acid utilization for growth. Strikingly, we demonstrate that Snf1/AMPK-deficient cells remodel their metabolism fueling mitochondria and show glucose and amino acids addiction, a typical hallmark of cancer cells.

  8. Sulforaphane induced adipolysis via hormone sensitive lipase activation, regulated by AMPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Hee; Moon, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Park, Yang-Gyu; Lee, You-Jin; Seol, Jae-Won; Park, Sang-Youel

    2012-10-05

    Sulforaphane, an aliphatic isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, is known for its antidiabetic properties. The effects of sulforaphane on lipid metabolism in adipocytes are not clearly understood. Here, we investigated whether sulforaphane stimulates lipolysis. Mature adipocytes were incubated with sulforaphane for 24h and analyzed using a lipolysis assay which quantified glycerol released into the medium. We investigated gene expression of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), and levels of HSL phosphorylation and AMP-activated protein kinase on sulforaphane-mediated lipolysis in adipocytes. Sulforaphane promoted lipolysis and increased both HSL gene expression and HSL activation. Sulforaphane suppressed AMPK phosphorylation at Thr-172 in a dose-dependent manner, which was associated with a decrease in HSL phosphorylation at Ser-565, enhancing the phosphorylation of HSL Ser-563. Taken together, these results suggest that sulforaphane promotes lipolysis via hormone sensitive lipase activation mediated by decreasing AMPK signal activation in adipocytes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Quercetin induces bladder cancer cells apoptosis by activation of AMPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Su, Qiongli; Peng, Mei; Zhang, Yuqing; Xu, Wanjun; Darko, Kwame Oteng; Tao, Ting; Huang, Yanjun; Tao, Xiaojun; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin, a natural existing polyphenol compound, has shown anticancer capacity for liver, breast, nasopharyngeal and prostate carcinoma but has not been clinically approved yet. This might be due to lack of clear mechanistic picture. Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers of the urinary tract in the world. In China, bladder cancer has the highest rate of incidence out of all malignancies of the urinary system. The anticancer application of quercetin on bladder cancer has not been investigated either. This study was aimed to examine the mechanisms of quercetin on inhibition of bladder cancer. First, two human and one murine bladder cancer cell lines were tested in vitro for inhibitory sensitivity by MTT and cologenic assays. Second, AMPK pathway including 4E-BP1 and S6K were examined by western blot. Quercetin induces apoptosis and inhibits migration. We are the first to show that quercetin displays potent inhibition on bladder cancer cells via activation of AMPK pathway.

  10. PKC and AMPK regulation of Kv1.5 potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Martin Nybo; Skibsbye, Lasse; Tang, Chuyi; Petersen, Frederic; MacAulay, Nanna; Rasmussen, Hanne Borger; Jespersen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The voltage-gated Kv1.5 potassium channel, conducting the ultra-rapid rectifier K+ current (IKur), is regulated through several pathways. Here we investigate if Kv1.5 surface expression is controlled by the 2 kinases PKC and AMPK, using Xenopus oocytes, MDCK cells and atrial derived HL-1 cells. By confocal microscopy combined with electrophysiology we demonstrate that PKC activation reduces Kv1.5 current, through a decrease in membrane expressed channels. AMPK activation was found to decrease the membrane expression in MDCK cells, but not in HL-1 cells and was furthermore shown to be dependent on co-expression of Nedd4–2 in Xenopus oocytes. These results indicate that Kv1.5 channels are regulated by both kinases, although through different molecular mechanisms in different cell systems. PMID:26043299

  11. Oncogenic MAGEA-TRIM28 ubiquitin ligase downregulates autophagy by ubiquitinating and degrading AMPK in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pineda, Carlos T; Potts, Patrick Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is commonly altered in cancer and has a complicated, but important role in regulation of tumor growth. Autophagy is often tumor suppressive in the early stages of cancer development, but contributes to the late stages of tumor growth. Because of this, putative oncogenes that modulate autophagy signaling are especially interesting. Here we discuss our recent work detailing the function of the MAGEA-TRIM28 ubiquitin ligase as an oncogene product that targets PRKAA1/AMPKα1 for ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation. Degradation of AMPK, a master cellular energy sensor and regulator, by MAGEA-TRIM28 results in significantly reduced autophagy and changes in cellular metabolism, including upregulation of MTOR signaling. Overall, expression of MAGEA3 (or MAGEA6) and degradation of AMPK is sufficient to induce transformation of normal cells and promote multiple hallmarks of cancer. PMID:25945414

  12. The hypotriglyceridemic effect of biotin supplementation involves increased levels of cGMP and AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Aguilera-Méndez, Asdrúbal; Fernández-Mejía, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In addition to its role as a carboxylase cofactor, biotin modifies gene expression and has manifold effects on systemic processes. Several studies have shown that biotin supplementation reduces hypertriglyceridemia. We have previously reported that this effect is related to decreased expression of lipogenic genes. In the present work, we analyzed signaling pathways and posttranscriptional mechanisms involved in the hypotriglyceridemic effects of biotin. Male BALB/cAnN Hsd mice were fed a control or a biotin-supplemented diet (1.76 or 97.7 mg of free biotin/kg diet, respectively for 8 weeks after weaning. The abundance of mature sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP-1c), fatty-acid synthase (FAS), total acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC-1) and its phosphorylated form, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were evaluated in the liver. We also determined the serum triglyceride concentrations and the hepatic levels of triglycerides and cyclic GMP (cGMP). Compared to the control group, biotin-supplemented mice had lower serum and hepatic triglyceride concentrations. Biotin supplementation increased the levels of cGMP and the phosphorylated forms of AMPK and ACC-1 and decreased the abundance of the mature form of SREBP-1c and FAS. These data provide evidence that the mechanisms by which biotin supplementation reduces lipogenesis involve increased cGMP content and AMPK activation. In turn, these changes lead to augmented ACC-1 phosphorylation and decreased expression of both the mature form of SREBP-1c and FAS. Our results demonstrate for the first time that AMPK is involved in the effects of biotin supplementation and offer new insights into the mechanisms of biotin-mediated hypotriglyceridemic effects.

  13. Activation of AMPK-induced autophagy ameliorates Huntington disease pathology in vitro.

    PubMed

    Walter, Carolin; Clemens, Laura E; Müller, Amelie J; Fallier-Becker, Petra; Proikas-Cezanne, Tassula; Riess, Olaf; Metzger, Silke; Nguyen, Huu Phuc

    2016-09-01

    The expansion of a polyglutamine repeat in huntingtin (HTT) causes Huntington disease (HD). Although the exact pathogenesis is not entirely understood, mutant huntingtin (mHTT) causes disruption of various cellular functions, formation of aggregates and ultimately cell death. The process of autophagy is the main degradation pathway for mHTT, and various studies have demonstrated that the induction of autophagy leads to an amelioration of aggregate formation and an increase in cell viability. Commonly, this is achieved by inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a prominent regulator of cell metabolism. Alternatively, non-canonical AMPK or mTOR-independent autophagy regulation has been recognized. Given mTOR's involvement in major cellular pathways besides autophagy, its inhibition may come with potentially detrimental effects. Here, we investigated if AMPK activation may provide a target for the induction of autophagy in an mTOR-independent manner. We demonstrate that activation of AMPK by A769662 and overexpression of a constitutively active form of AMPKα in STHdh cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), leads to increased expression of the autophagosomal markers LC3 and p62, suggesting efficient autophagy induction. The induction of autophagy was independent of mTOR, and accompanied by a decrease of mHTT-containing aggregates as well as improved cell viability. Therefore, we validated AMPK as a promising therapeutic target to treat HD, and identified A769662 as a potential therapeutic compound to facilitate the clearance of mHTT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The KSHV K1 Protein Modulates AMPK Function to Enhance Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Anders, Penny M.; Zhang, Zhigang; Bhende, Prasana M.; Giffin, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) as well as two lymphoproliferative diseases, primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman’s disease. KSHV encodes viral proteins, such as K1, that alter signaling pathways involved in cell survival. Expression of K1 has been reported to transform rodent fibroblasts, and K1 transgenic mice develop multiple tumors, suggesting that K1 has an important role in KSHV pathogenesis. We found that cells infected with a KSHV virus containing a WT K1 gene had a survival advantage under conditions of nutrient deprivation compared to cells infected with KSHV K1 mutant viruses. 5’ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) responds to nutrient deprivation by maintaining energy homeostasis, and AMPK signaling has been shown to promote cell survival in various types of cancers. Under conditions of AMPK inhibition, we also observed that cells infected with KSHV containing a WT K1 gene had a survival advantage compared to KSHV K1 mutant virus infected cells. To explore the underpinnings of this phenotype, we identified K1-associated cellular proteins by tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry. We found that the KSHV K1 protein associates with the gamma subunit of AMPK (AMPKγ1). We corroborated this finding by independently confirming that K1 co-immunoprecipitates with AMPKγ1. Co-immunoprecipitations of wild-type K1 (K1WT) or K1 domain mutants and AMPKγ1, revealed that the K1 N-terminus is important for the association between K1 and AMPKγ1. We propose that the KSHV K1 protein promotes cell survival via its association with AMPKγ1 following exposure to stress. PMID:27829024

  15. Phyllostachys edulis extract induces apoptosis signaling in osteosarcoma cells, associated with AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chi-Wen; Cheng, Ya-Wen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo is distributed worldwide, and its different parts are used as foods or as a traditional herb. Recently, antitumoral effects of bamboo extracts on several tumors have been increasingly reported; however, antitumoral activity of bamboo extracts on osteosarcoma remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated effects of an aqueous Phyllostachys edulis leaf extract (PEE) on osteosarcoma cells and the underlying mechanism of inhibition. The growth of human osteosarcoma cell lines 143 B and MG-63 and lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells was determined by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Apoptosis was demonstrated using TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling) assay and flow cytometric analysis. Phosphorylation and protein levels were determined by immunoblotting. After treatment with PEE, viability of 143 B and MG-63 cells was dose-dependently reduced to 36.3% ± 1.6% of control values, which were similar to AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside) treatments. In parallel, ratios of apoptotic cells and cells in the sub-G1 phase were significantly increased. Further investigation showed that PEE treatments led to activation of caspase cascades and changes of apoptotic mediators Bcl2, Bax, and p53. Consistently, our results revealed that PEE activated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling, and the AMPK activation was associated with the induction of apoptotic signaling. Our results indicated that PEE suppressed the growth of 143 B and MG-63 cells but moderately affected MRC-5 cells. PEE-induced apoptosis may attribute to AMPK activation and the following activation of apoptotic signaling cascades. These findings revealed that PEE possesses antitumoral activity on human osteosarcoma cells by manipulating AMPK signaling, suggesting that PEE alone or combined with regular antitumor drugs may be beneficial as osteosarcoma treatments.

  16. Cucurbitacin E Induces Autophagy via Downregulating mTORC1 Signaling and Upregulating AMPK Activity.

    PubMed

    Zha, Qing-Bing; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Lin, Qiu-Ru; Xu, Li-Hui; Zhao, Gao-Xiang; Pan, Hao; Zhou, Dan; Ouyang, Dong-Yun; Liu, Ze-Huan; He, Xian-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Cucurbitacins, the natural triterpenoids possessing many biological activities, have been reported to suppress the mTORC1/p70S6K pathway and to induce autophagy. However, the correlation between such activities is largely unknown. In this study, we addressed this issue in human cancer cells in response to cucurbitacin E (CuE) treatment. Our results showed that CuE induced autophagy as evidenced by the formation of LC3-II and colocalization of punctate LC3 with the lysosomal marker LAMP2 in HeLa and MCF7 cells. However, CuE induced much lower levels of autophagy in ATG5-knocked down cells and failed to induce autophagy in DU145 cells lacking functional ATG5 expression, suggesting the dependence of CuE-induced autophagy on ATG5. Consistent with autophagy induction, mTORC1 activity (as reflected by p70S6K and ULK1S758 phosphorylation) was inhibited by CuE treatment. The suppression of mTORC1 activity was further confirmed by reduced recruitment of mTOR to the lysosome, which is the activation site of mTORC1. In contrast, CuE rapidly activated AMPK leading to increased phosphorylation of its substrates. AMPK activation contributed to CuE-induced suppression of mTORC1/p70S6K signaling and autophagy induction, since AMPK knockdown diminished these effects. Collectively, our data suggested that CuE induced autophagy in human cancer cells at least partly via downregulation of mTORC1 signaling and upregulation of AMPK activity.

  17. Silencing Nrf2 impairs glioma cell proliferation via AMPK-activated mTOR inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Yue; Wang, Handong; Wang, Qiang; Ding, Hui; Wu, Heming; Pan, Hao

    2016-01-15

    Gliomas are the leading cause of death among adults with primary brain malignancies. Treatment for malignant gliomas remains limited, and targeted therapies have been incompletely explored. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key transcription regulator for antioxidant and detoxification enzymes, is abundantly expressed in cancer cells. In this study, the role and mechanism of Nrf2 in cancer cell proliferation was investigated in multiple glioma cell lines. We first evaluated the expression patterns of Nrf2 in four glioma cell lines and found all four cell lines expressed Nrf2, but the highest level was observed in U251 cells. We further evaluated the biological functions of Nrf2 in U251 glioma cell proliferation by specific inhibition of Nrf2 using short hairpin RNA (shRNA). We found that Nrf2 depletion inhibited glioma cell proliferation. Nrf2 depletion also decreased colony formation in U251 cells stably expressing Nrf2 shRNA compared to scrambled control shRNA. Moreover, suppression of Nrf2 expression could lead to ATP depletion (with concomitant rise in AMP/ATP ratio) and consequently to AMPK-activated mTOR inhibition. Finally, activation of adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase (AMPK) by treated with phenformin, an AMPK agonist, can mimic the inhibitory effect of Nrf2 knockdown in U251 cells. In conclusion, our findings will shed light to the role and mechanism of Nrf2 in regulating glioma proliferation via ATP-depletion-induced AMPK activation and consequent mTOR inhibition, a novel insight into our understanding the role and mechanism of Nrf2 in glioma pathoetiology. To our knowledge, this is also the first report to provide a rationale for the implication of cross-linking between Nrf2 and mTOR signaling.

  18. AMPK/α-Ketoglutarate Axis Regulates Intestinal Water and Ion Homeostasis in Young Pigs.

    PubMed

    He, Liuqin; Huang, Niu; Li, Huan; Tian, Junquan; Zhou, Xihong; Li, Tiejun; Yao, Kang; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2017-03-22

    Water and ion absorption via sensitive aquaporins (AQPs) and ion channels is of critical importance in intestinal health. However, whether α-ketoglutarate (AKG) could improve intestinal water and ion homeostasis in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglets and whether the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway is involved remains largely unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary AKG supplementation on the small intestinal water and ion homeostasis through modulating the AMPK pathway in a piglet diarrhea model. A total of 32 weaned piglets were used in a 2 × 2 factorial design; the major factors were diet (basal diet or 1% AKG diet) and challenge (Escherichia coli LPS or saline). The results showed that LPS challenge increased the diarrhea index and affected the concentrations of serum Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), glucose, and AKG and its metabolites in piglets fed the basal or AKG diet. However, the addition of AKG attenuated diarrhea incidence and reversed these serum parameter concentrations. Most AQPs (e.g., AQP1, AQP3, AQP4, AQP5, AQP8, AQP10, and AQP11) and ion transporters (NHE3, ENaC, and DRA/PAT1) were widely distributed in the duodenum and jejunum of piglets. We also found that AKG up-regulated the expression of intestinal epithelial AQPs while inhibiting the expression of ion transporters. LPS challenge decreased (P < 0.05) the gene and protein expression of the AMPK pathway (AMPKα1, AMPKα2, SIRT1, PGC-1α, ACC, and TORC2) in the jejunum and ileum. Notably, AKG supplementation enhanced the abundance of these proteins in the LPS-challenged piglets. Collectively, AKG plays an important role in increasing water and ion homeostasis through modulating the AMPK pathway. Our novel finding has important implications for the prevention and treatment of gut dysfunction in neonates.

  19. Role of Diet Modulation and AMPK in Ovarian Cancer Progression and Outcome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    nodule formation and the highest tumor score (diaphragm, peritoneum, bowel, liver, kidney , spleen) with higher levels of insulin and leptin in both...reduction in levels of insulin, IGF-1, leptin , MCP-1, VEGF and IL-6 both in serum and ascites, compared to RD or HED fed mice. IHC showed tumors from...the AMPK pathway. The use of metformin in RD and HED mice resulted in a significant reduction in tumor burden in the peritoneum, liver, kidney

  20. Betulin alleviated ethanol-induced alcoholic liver injury via SIRT1/AMPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ting; Yang, Yong; Yao, You-Li; Sun, Peng; Lian, Li-Hua; Wu, Yan-Ling; Nan, Ji-Xing

    2016-03-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of betulin, a triterpene from the bark of Betula platyphylla Suk, against ethanol-induced alcoholic liver injury and its possible underlying mechanisms. In vitro, human hepatic stellate cell line, LX-2 cells were treated with betulin (6.25, 12.5 and 25 μM) prior to ethanol (50mM) for 24h. Cell viability was analyzed by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay, protein expressions were assessed by Western blot. In vivo, we induced alcoholic liver injury in male C57BL/6 mice, placing them on Lieber-DeCarli ethanol-containing diets for 10 days and then administering a single dose of ethanol (5 g/kg body weight) via gavage. Betulin (20 and 50mg/kg) were given by gavage every day. In vitro results showed that betulin effectively decreased LX-2 cell viability, attenuated collagen-I, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) levels, activated liver kinase B-1 (LKB1) and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation. Betulin suppressed the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), and genetic deletion of AMPK blocked the effect of betulin on SREBP-1 in ethanol treated LX-2 cells. In vivo, betulin attenuated the increases in serum aminotransferase and triglyceride levels in the mice fed with chronic-binge ethanol, while significantly inhibited SREBP-1 expression and activated LKB1-AMPK phosphorylation. Additionally, betulin enhanced the sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression mediated by ethanol. Taken together, betulin alleviates alcoholic liver injury possibly through blocking the regulation of SREBP-1 on fatty acid synthesis and activating SIRT1-LKB1-AMPK signaling pathway.

  1. Activation of AMPK by Metformin Improves Left Ventricular Function and Survival in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Gundewar, Susheel; Calvert, John W.; Jha, Saurabh; Toedt-Pingel, Iris; Ji, Sang Yong; Nunez, Denise; Ramachandran, Arun; Anaya-Cisneros, Mauricio; Tian, Rong; Lefer, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Clinical studies have reported that the widely used anti-hyperglycemic drug metformin significantly reduces cardiac risk factors and improves clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure. The mechanisms by which metformin exerts these cardioprotective effects remain unclear and may be independent of anti-hyperglycemic effects. We tested the hypothesis that chronic activation of AMPK with low-dose metformin exerts beneficial effects on cardiac function and survival in in vivo murine models of heart failure. Mice were subjected to permanent left coronary artery (LCA) occlusion or to 60 min LCA occlusion followed by reperfusion for 4 wks. High-resolution, two-dimensional echocardiography was performed at baseline and 4 wk post myocardial infarction to assess left ventricular (LV) dimensions and function. Metformin (125 μg/kg) administered to mice at ischemia and then daily, improved survival by 47% (p < 0.05 vs. vehicle) at 4 wk following permanent LCA occlusion. Additionally, metformin given at reperfusion and then daily, preserved LV dimensions and LV ejection fraction (p < 0.01 vs. vehicle) at 4 wk. The improvement in cardiac structure and function was associated with increases in AMPK and eNOS phosphorylation as well as increased PGC-1α expression in cardiac myocytes. Furthermore, metformin significantly improved myocardial cell mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis compared to vehicle. The cardioprotective effects of metformin were ablated in mice lacking functional AMPK or eNOS. This study demonstrates that metformin significantly improves left ventricular function and survival via activation of AMPK and its downstream mediators, eNOS and PGC-1α in a murine model of heart failure. PMID:19096023

  2. Green tea extract activates AMPK and ameliorates white adipose tissue metabolic dysfunction induced by obesity.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Andréa; Bolin, Anaysa Paola; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Otton, Rosemari

    2016-10-01

    Beneficial effects of green tea (GT) polyphenols against obesity have been reported. However, until this moment the molecular mechanisms of how green tea can modulate obesity and regulates fat metabolism, particularly in adipose tissue, remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of GT extract in the adipose tissue of obese animals and its effect on weight gain, metabolism and function (de novo lipogenesis and lipolysis), and the involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Male Wistar rats were treated with GT by gavage (12 weeks/5 days/week; 500 mg/kg of body weight), and obesity was induced by cafeteria diet (8 weeks). Here, we show that obese rats treated with GT showed a significant reduction in indicators of obesity such as hyperlipidemia, fat synthesis, body weight, and fat depots as compared to those treated with standard control diet. AMPK was induced in adipose tissue in rats that were treated with GT and likely restored insulin sensitivity, increased mRNA expression of GLUT4, reducing the concentrations of plasma and liver lipid content, also stimulating fatty acid oxidation in the same tissue. Importantly, repression of de novo lipogenesis in the adipose tissue, reduced lipid droplets in the liver, and the development of insulin resistance in diet-induced obese rats were accompanied by AMPK activation. Our study identified that metabolic changes caused by GT intake induced AMPK activation and modulate the expression of genes involved in metabolism, particularly in adipose tissue, thus offering a therapeutic strategy to combat insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and obesity in rats.

  3. Oxidative stress improves coronary endothelial function through activation of the pro-survival kinase AMPK

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuhong; Feng, Jun; Cordeiro, Brenda; Lyra, Arthur; Arafah, Mohammed; Yassin-Kassab, Abdulmounem; Zanetti, Arthus V.D.; Clements, Richard T.; Bianchi, Cesario; Benjamin, Laura E.; Sellke, Frank W.; Abid, Ruhul

    2013-01-01

    Age-associated decline in cardiovascular function is believed to occur from the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, failure of recent clinical trials using antioxidants in patients with cardiovascular disease, and the recent findings showing paradoxical role for NADPH oxidase-derived ROS in endothelial function challenge this long-held notion against ROS. Here, we examine the effects of endothelium-specific conditional increase in ROS on coronary endothelial function. We have generated a novel binary (Tet-ON/OFF) conditional transgenic mouse (Tet-Nox2:VE-Cad-tTA) that induces endothelial cell (EC)-specific overexpression of Nox2/gp91 (NADPH oxidase) and 1.8±0.42-fold increase in EC-ROS upon tetracycline withdrawal (Tet-OFF). We examined ROS effects on EC signaling and function. First, we demonstrate that endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation was significantly improved in Tet-OFF Nox2 compared to Tet-ON (control) littermates. Using EC isolated from mouse heart, we show that endogenous ROS increased eNOS activation and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis through activation of the survival kinase AMPK. Coronary vasodilation in Tet-OFF Nox2 animals was CaMKKβ-AMPK-dependent. Finally, we demonstrate that AMPK activation induced autophagy and thus, protected ECs from oxidant-induced cell death. Together, these findings suggest that increased ROS levels, often associated with cardiovascular conditions in advanced age, play a protective role in endothelial homeostasis by inducing AMPK-eNOS axis. PMID:24018842

  4. Impaired Muscle AMPK Activation in the Metabolic Syndrome May Attenuate Improved Insulin Action after Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Layne, Andrew S.; Nasrallah, Sami; South, Mark A.; Howell, Mary E. A.; McCurry, Melanie P.; Ramsey, Michael W.; Stone, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Strength training induces muscle remodeling and may improve insulin responsiveness. Objective: This study will quantify the impact of resistance training on insulin sensitivity in subjects with the metabolic syndrome and correlate this with activation of intramuscular pathways mediating mitochondrial biogenesis and muscle fiber hypertrophy. Design: Ten subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MS) and nine sedentary controls underwent 8 wk of supervised resistance exercise training with pre- and posttraining anthropometric and muscle biochemical assessments. Setting: Resistance exercise training took place in a sports laboratory on a college campus. Main Outcome Measures: Pre- and posttraining insulin responsiveness was quantified using a euglycemic clamp. Changes in expression of muscle 5-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways were quantified using immunoblots. Results: Strength and stamina increased in both groups. Insulin sensitivity increased in controls (steady-state glucose infusion rate = 7.0 ± 2.0 mg/kg · min pretraining training vs. 8.7 ± 3.1 mg/kg · min posttraining; P < 0.01) but did not improve in MS subjects (3.3 ± 1.3 pre vs. 3.1 ± 1.0 post). Muscle glucose transporter 4 increased 67% in controls and 36% in the MS subjects. Control subjects increased muscle phospho-AMPK (43%), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (57%), and ATP synthase (60%), more than MS subjects (8, 28, and 21%, respectively). In contrast, muscle phospho-mTOR increased most in the MS group (57 vs. 32%). Conclusion: Failure of resistance training to improve insulin responsiveness in MS subjects was coincident with diminished phosphorylation of muscle AMPK, but increased phosphorylation of mTOR, suggesting activation of the mTOR pathway could be involved in inhibition of exercise training-related increases in AMPK and its activation and downstream events. PMID:21508135

  5. Regular postexercise cooling enhances mitochondrial biogenesis through AMPK and p38 MAPK in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Ihsan, Mohammed; Markworth, James F; Watson, Greig; Choo, Hui Cheng; Govus, Andrew; Pham, Toan; Hickey, Anthony; Cameron-Smith, David; Abbiss, Chris R

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of regular postexercise cold water immersion (CWI) on muscle aerobic adaptations to endurance training. Eight males performed 3 sessions/wk of endurance training for 4 wk. Following each session, subjects immersed one leg in a cold water bath (10°C; COLD) for 15 min, while the contralateral leg served as a control (CON). Muscle biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis of both CON and COLD legs prior to training and 48 h following the last training session. Samples were analyzed for signaling kinases: p38 MAPK and AMPK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), enzyme activities indicative of mitochondrial biogenesis, and protein subunits representative of respiratory chain complexes I-V. Following training, subjects' peak oxygen uptake and running velocity were improved by 5.9% and 6.2%, respectively (P < 0.05). Repeated CWI resulted in higher total AMPK, phosphorylated AMPK, phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase, β-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase and the protein subunits representative of complex I and III (P < 0.05). Moreover, large effect sizes (Cohen's d > 0.8) were noted with changes in protein content of p38 (d = 1.02, P = 0.064), PGC-1α (d = 0.99, P = 0.079), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (d = 0.93, P = 0.10) in COLD compared with CON. No differences between conditions were observed in the representative protein subunits of respiratory complexes II, IV, and V and in the activities of several mitochondrial enzymes (P > 0.05). These findings indicate that regular CWI enhances p38, AMPK, and possibly mitochondrial biogenesis. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Hypothalamic histamine H1 receptor-AMPK signaling time-dependently mediates olanzapine-induced hyperphagia and weight gain in female rats.

    PubMed

    He, Meng; Zhang, Qingsheng; Deng, Chao; Wang, Hongqin; Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2014-04-01

    Although second-generation antipsychotics induce severe weight gain and obesity, there is a lack of detailed knowledge about the progressive development of antipsychotic-induced obesity. This study examined the hypothalamic histamine H1 receptor and AMP-activated protein kinase (H1R-AMPK) signaling at three distinctive stages of olanzapine-induced weight gain (day 1-12: early acceleration, day 13-28: middle new equilibrium, and day 29-36: late heavy weight maintenance). At the early acceleration stage, the rats were hyperphagic with an underlying mechanism of olanzapine-increased H1R mRNA expression and AMPK phosphorylation (pAMPK), in which pAMPK levels positively correlated with H1R mRNA expression and food intake. At the middle stage, when the rats were no longer hyperphagic, the changes in H1R-AMPK signaling vanished. At the late stage, olanzapine increased H1R mRNA expression but decreased pAMPK which were positively and negatively correlated with weight gain, respectively. These data suggest a time-dependent change of H1R-AMPK signaling, where olanzapine activates AMPK by blocking the H1Rs and causing hyperphagia in the acute phase. The chronic blockade of H1R may contribute to the late stage of olanzapine-induced heavy weight maintenance. However, pAMPK was no longer elevated and actually decreased. This indicates that AMPK acts as an energy sensor and negatively responds to the positive energy balance induced by olanzapine. Furthermore, we showed that an H1R agonist, 2-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) histamine, can significantly inhibit olanzapine-induced hyperphagia and AMPK activation in the mediobasal hypothalamus in a dose dependent manner. Therefore, lowering H1R-AMPK signaling is an effective treatment for the olanzapine-induced hyperphagia associated with the development of obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. p53 coordinates decidual sestrin 2/AMPK/mTORC1 signaling to govern parturition timing

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jeeyeon; Yuan, Jia; Haraguchi, Hirofumi; Bartos, Amanda; Bradshaw, Heather B.; Hirota, Yasushi; Dey, Sudhansu K.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are known risk factors for preterm birth (PTB); however, the mechanisms and pathways that influence this condition are not fully described. Previously, we showed that mTORC1 signaling is increased in mice harboring a uterine-specific deletion of transformation-related protein 53 (p53d/d mice), which exhibit premature decidual senescence that triggers spontaneous and inflammation-induced PTB. Treatment with the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin reduced the incidence of PTB in the p53d/d mice. Decidual senescence with heightened mTORC1 signaling is also a signature of human PTB. Here, we have identified an underlying mechanism for PTB and a potential therapeutic strategy for treating the condition. Treatment of pregnant p53d/d mice with either the antidiabetic drug metformin or the antioxidant resveratrol activated AMPK signaling and inhibited mTORC1 signaling in decidual cells. Both metformin and resveratrol protected against spontaneous and inflammation-induced PTB in p53d/d females. Using multiple approaches, we determined that p53 interacts with sestrins to coordinate an inverse relationship between AMPK and mTORC1 signaling that determines parturition timing. This signature was also observed in human decidual cells. Together, these results reveal that p53-dependent coordination of AMPK and mTORC1 signaling controls parturition timing and suggest that metformin and resveratrol have therapeutic potential to prevent PTB. PMID:27454290

  8. Desnutrin/ATGL is Regulated by AMPK and is Required for a Brown Adipose Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Abbott, Marcia J.; Tang, Tianyi; Hudak, Carolyn S.S.; Kim, Yangha; Bruss, Matthew; Hellerstein, Marc K.; Lee, Hui-Young; Samuel, Varman T.; Shulman, Gerald I.; Wang, Yuhui; Duncan, Robin E.; Kang, Chulho; Sul, Hei Sook

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY While fatty acids (FAs) released by white adipose tissue (WAT) provide energy for other organs, lipolysis is also critical in brown adipose tissue (BAT), generating FAs for oxidation and UCP-1 activation for thermogenesis. Here, we show that adipose-specific ablation of desnutrin/ATGL in mice converts BAT to a WAT-like tissue. These mice exhibit severely impaired thermogenesis with increased expression of WAT-enriched genes but decreased BAT genes including UCP-1 with lower PPARα binding to its promoter, revealing the requirement of desnutrin-catalyzed lipolysis for maintaining BAT phenotype. We also show that desnutrin is phosphorylated by AMPK at S406, increasing TAG hydrolase activity, and provide evidence for increased lipolysis by AMPK phosphorylation of desnutrin in adipocytes and in vivo. Despite adiposity and impaired BAT function, desnutrin-ASKO mice have improved hepatic insulin sensitivity with lower DAG levels. Overall, desnutrin is phosphorylated/activated by AMPK to increase lipolysis and brings FA oxidation and UCP-1 induction for thermogenesis. PMID:21641555

  9. Berberine augments ATP-induced inflammasome activation in macrophages by enhancing AMPK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li-Hui; Liang, Yi-Dan; Wei, Hong-Xia; Hu, Bo; Pan, Hao; Zha, Qing-Bing; Ouyang, Dong-Yun; He, Xian-Hui

    2017-01-01

    The isoquinoline alkaloid berberine possesses many pharmacological activities including antibacterial infection. Although the direct bactericidal effect of berberine has been documented, its influence on the antibacterial functions of macrophages is largely unknown. As inflammasome activation in macrophages is important for the defense against bacterial infection, we aimed to investigate the influence of berberine on inflammasome activation in murine macrophages. Our results showed that berberine significantly increased ATP-induced inflammasome activation as reflected by enhanced pyroptosis as well as increased release of caspase-1p10 and mature interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in macrophages. Such effects of berberine could be suppressed by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor compound C or by knockdown of AMPKα expression, indicating the involvement of AMPK signaling in this process. In line with increased IL-1β release, the ability of macrophages to kill engulfed bacteria was also intensified by berberine. This was corroborated by the in vivo finding that the peritoneal live bacterial load was decreased by berberine treatment. Moreover, berberine administration significantly improved survival of bacterial infected mice, concomitant with increased IL-1β levels and elevated neutrophil recruitment in the peritoneal cavity. Collectively, these data suggested that berberine could enhance bacterial killing by augmenting inflammasome activation in macrophages through AMPK signaling. PMID:27980220

  10. SIRT1 is required for AMPK activation and the beneficial effects of resveratrol on mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Price, Nathan L.; Gomes, Ana P.; Ling, Alvin J.Y.; Duarte, Filipe V.; Martin-Montalvo, Alejandro; North, Brian J.; Agarwal, Beamon; Ye, Lan; Ramadori, Giorgio; Teodoro, Joao S.; Hubbard, Basil P.; Varela, Ana T.; Davis, James G.; Varamini, Behzad; Hafner, Angela; Moaddel, Ruin; Rolo, Anabela P.; Coppari, Roberto; Palmeira, Carlos M.; de Cabo, Rafael; Baur, Joseph A.; Sinclair, David A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Resveratrol induces mitochondrial biogenesis and protects against metabolic decline but whether SIRT1 mediates these benefits is the subject of debate. To circumvent the developmental defects of germ-line SIRT1 knockouts, we have developed the first inducible system that permits whole-body deletion of SIRT1 in adult mice. Mice treated with a moderate dose of resveratrol showed increased mitochondrial biogenesis and function, AMPK activation and increased NAD+ levels in skeletal muscle, whereas SIRT1 knockouts displayed none of these benefits. A mouse overexpressing SIRT1 mimicked these effects. A high dose of resveratrol activated AMPK in a SIRT1-independent manner, demonstrating that resveratrol dosage is a critical factor. Importantly, at both doses of resveratrol no improvements in mitochondrial function were observed in animals lacking SIRT1. Together these data indicate that SIRT1 plays an essential role in the ability of moderate doses of resveratrol to stimulate AMPK and improve mitochondrial function both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22560220

  11. Desnutrin/ATGL is regulated by AMPK and is required for a brown adipose phenotype.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Abbott, Marcia J; Tang, Tianyi; Hudak, Carolyn S S; Kim, Yangha; Bruss, Matthew; Hellerstein, Marc K; Lee, Hui-Young; Samuel, Varman T; Shulman, Gerald I; Wang, Yuhui; Duncan, Robin E; Kang, Chulho; Sul, Hei Sook

    2011-06-08

    While fatty acids (FAs) released by white adipose tissue (WAT) provide energy for other organs, lipolysis is also critical in brown adipose tissue (BAT), generating FAs for oxidation and UCP-1 activation for thermogenesis. Here we show that adipose-specific ablation of desnutrin/ATGL in mice converts BAT to a WAT-like tissue. These mice exhibit severely impaired thermogenesis with increased expression of WAT-enriched genes but decreased BAT genes, including UCP-1 with lower PPARα binding to its promoter, revealing the requirement of desnutrin-catalyzed lipolysis for maintaining a BAT phenotype. We also show that desnutrin is phosphorylated by AMPK at S406, increasing TAG hydrolase activity, and provide evidence for increased lipolysis by AMPK phosphorylation of desnutrin in adipocytes and in vivo. Despite adiposity and impaired BAT function, desnutrin-ASKO mice have improved hepatic insulin sensitivity with lower DAG levels. Overall, desnutrin is phosphorylated/activated by AMPK to increase lipolysis and brings FA oxidation and UCP-1 induction for thermogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. AMPK acts as a molecular trigger to coordinate glutamatergic signals and adaptive behaviours during acute starvation

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Moloud; Roy, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The stress associated with starvation is accompanied by compensatory behaviours that enhance foraging efficiency and increase the probability of encountering food. However, the molecular details of how hunger triggers changes in the activity of neural circuits to elicit these adaptive behavioural outcomes remains to be resolved. We show here that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates neuronal activity to elicit appropriate behavioural outcomes in response to acute starvation, and this effect is mediated by the coordinated modulation of glutamatergic inputs. AMPK targets both the AMPA-type glutamate receptor GLR-1 and the metabotropic glutamate receptor MGL-1 in one of the primary circuits that governs behavioural response to food availability in C. elegans. Overall, our study suggests that AMPK acts as a molecular trigger in the specific starvation-sensitive neurons to modulate glutamatergic inputs and to elicit adaptive behavioural outputs in response to acute starvation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16349.001 PMID:27642785

  13. p53 coordinates decidual sestrin 2/AMPK/mTORC1 signaling to govern parturition timing.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wenbo; Cha, Jeeyeon; Yuan, Jia; Haraguchi, Hirofumi; Bartos, Amanda; Leishman, Emma; Viollet, Benoit; Bradshaw, Heather B; Hirota, Yasushi; Dey, Sudhansu K

    2016-08-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are known risk factors for preterm birth (PTB); however, the mechanisms and pathways that influence this condition are not fully described. Previously, we showed that mTORC1 signaling is increased in mice harboring a uterine-specific deletion of transformation-related protein 53 (p53d/d mice), which exhibit premature decidual senescence that triggers spontaneous and inflammation-induced PTB. Treatment with the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin reduced the incidence of PTB in the p53d/d mice. Decidual senescence with heightened mTORC1 signaling is also a signature of human PTB. Here, we have identified an underlying mechanism for PTB and a potential therapeutic strategy for treating the condition. Treatment of pregnant p53d/d mice with either the antidiabetic drug metformin or the antioxidant resveratrol activated AMPK signaling and inhibited mTORC1 signaling in decidual cells. Both metformin and resveratrol protected against spontaneous and inflammation-induced PTB in p53d/d females. Using multiple approaches, we determined that p53 interacts with sestrins to coordinate an inverse relationship between AMPK and mTORC1 signaling that determines parturition timing. This signature was also observed in human decidual cells. Together, these results reveal that p53-dependent coordination of AMPK and mTORC1 signaling controls parturition timing and suggest that metformin and resveratrol have therapeutic potential to prevent PTB.

  14. Exendin-4 attenuates cardiac hypertrophy via AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; He, Xin; Chen, Yili; Huang, Yiyi; Wu, Lingling; He, Jiangui

    Diabetes mellitus is a prominent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Diabetic cardiomyopathy is an important complication of the heart independent of hypertension and coronary artery disease and is accompanied by cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac hypertrophy easily leads to heart failure, which is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone, which has various beneficial roles in the cardiovascular system, and exendin-4 is a highly potent glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist. However, the role of GLP-1 in cardiac hypertrophy remains unknown. Our study revealed that exendin-4 treatment ameliorated phenylephrine (PE)-induced cardiac hypertrophy, which presented as decreased cardiac hypertrophic markers (ANP, BNP, and β-MHC) and cell surface area. This condition was significantly reversed upon treatment with the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin9-39. We also discovered that Erk1/2 and AMPK signaling pathways were involved in this process. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that the AMPK inhibitor compound C inhibited the anti-hypertrophic effect of exendin-4, which is associated with the mTOR/p70S6K/4-EBP1 signaling pathway. Finally, exendin-4 enhanced the anti-hypertrophic effect of rapamycin. In summary, our study disclosed that exedin-4 inhibits cardiac hypertrophy by upregulating GLP-1 receptor expression and activating the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Resveratrol inhibits renal interstitial fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy by regulating AMPK/NOX4/ROS pathway.

    PubMed

    He, Ting; Xiong, Jiachuan; Nie, Ling; Yu, Yanlin; Guan, Xu; Xu, Xinli; Xiao, Tangli; Yang, Ke; Liu, Liang; Zhang, Daohai; Huang, Yunjian; Zhang, Jingbo; Wang, Junping; Sharma, Kumar; Zhao, Jinghong

    2016-12-01

    Renal interstitial fibrosis is a major pathologic feature of diabetic nephropathy, while the pathogenesis and therapeutic interventions of diabetic renal interstitial fibrosis are not well established. In this study, we first demonstrated that high glucose could induce renal fibroblast (NRK-49F) cell proliferation and activation to myofibroblasts, accompanied by a significant increase in the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (NOX4). ROS-mediated ERK1/2 activation was found to play a crucial role in high glucose-induced fibroblast proliferation and activation. Resveratrol, like the NOX4-targeting small interfering RNA (siRNA), markedly inhibited high glucose-induced fibroblast proliferation and activation by reducing NOX4-derived ROS production. It was then revealed that the increase in the expression of NOX4 induced by high glucose was due to the inactivation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which could be reversed by resveratrol. Further in vivo investigation demonstrated that resveratrol treatment significantly attenuated renal fibrosis in db/db mice, accompanied by an evident increase in phospho-AMPK and decrease in NOX4. In summary, our results suggest that high glucose can directly promote renal fibroblasts proliferation and activation in a ROS-dependent manner, and resveratrol is a potential therapeutic agent against diabetic renal fibrosis via regulation of AMPK/NOX4/ROS signaling.

  16. Apoptotic effect of quercetin on HT-29 colon cancer cells via the AMPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Kim, Sang-Ki; Kim, Byeong-Soo; Lee, Seung-Ho; Park, Young-Seok; Park, Byung-Kwon; Kim, So-Jung; Kim, Jin; Choi, Changsun; Kim, Jong-Suk; Cho, Sung-Dae; Jung, Ji-Won; Roh, Kyong-Hwan; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Jung, Ji-Youn

    2010-08-11

    Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a physiological cellular energy sensor, strongly suppresses cell proliferation in both nonmalignant and tumor cells. This study demonstrates the mechanism of quercetin-induced apoptosis in HT-29 colon cancer cells. Treatment of cells with quercetin significantly decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, quercetin increased cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and up-regulated apoptosis-related proteins, such as AMPK, p53, and p21, within 48 h. Furthermore, in vivo experiments showed that quercetin treatment resulted in a significant reduction in tumor volume over 6 weeks, and apoptosis-related protein induction by quercetin was significantly higher in the 100 mg/kg treated group compared to the control group. All of these results indicate that quercetin induces apoptosis via AMPK activation and p53-dependent apoptotic cell death in HT-29 colon cancer cells and that it may be a potential chemopreventive or therapeutic agent against HT-29 colon cancer.

  17. AMPK-dependent regulation of GLP1 expression in L-like cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Sushi; Zhai, Hening; Li, Danjie; Huang, Jiana; Zhang, Heng; Li, Ziru; Zhang, Weizhen; Xu, Geyang

    2016-10-01

    This study examined whether AMPK, an evolutionarily conserved sensor of cellular energy status, determines the production of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1). A negative relation existed between phosphorylation of AMPKα and the expression and secretion of GLP1 during changes in energy status in STC-1 cells, an L-like cell line. High concentration of glucose (25 mmol/L) decreased AMPKα phosphorylation, whereas it stimulated the expression and secretion of GLP1 relative to 5.6 mmol/L glucose. Serum starvation upregulated AMPKα phosphorylation, whereas it reduced GLP1 production significantly. Stimulation of AMPK phosphorylation by AICAR and overexpression of wild-type AMPKα1, constitutively active AMPKα1 plasmids, or AMPKα1 lentivirus particles suppressed proglucagon mRNA and protein contents in STC-1 cells. Inactivation of AMPK by Compound C, AMPKα1 siRNA or kinase-inactive AMPKα1 mutant increased the expression and secretion of GLP1. Our results suggest that AMPKα1 may link energy supply with the production of GLP1 in L-like cells.

  18. Thapsigargin sensitizes human esophageal cancer to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via AMPK activation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhiqiang; Fan, Chongxi; Yang, Yang; Di, Shouyin; Hu, Wei; Li, Tian; Zhu, Yifang; Han, Jing; Xin, Zhenlong; Wu, Guiling; Zhao, Jing; Li, Xiaofei; Yan, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising anticancer agent for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Forced expression of CHOP, one of the key downstream transcription factors during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, upregulates the death receptor 5 (DR5) levels and promotes oxidative stress and cell death. In this study, we show that ER stress mediated by thapsigargin promoted CHOP and DR5 synthesis thus sensitizing TRAIL treatment, which induced ESCC cells apoptosis. These effects were reversed by DR5 siRNA in vitro and CHOP siRNA both in vitro and in vivo. Besides, chemically inhibition of AMPK by Compound C and AMPK siRNA weakened the anti-cancer effect of thapsigargin and TRAIL co-treatment. Therefore, our findings suggest ER stress effectively sensitizes human ESCC to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via the TRAIL-DR5-AMPK signaling pathway, and that activation of ER stress may be beneficial for improving the efficacy of TRAIL-based anti-cancer therapy. PMID:27731378

  19. Polyphenol-Rich Propolis Extracts Strengthen Intestinal Barrier Function by Activating AMPK and ERK Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Jin, Xiaolu; Chen, Yifan; Song, Zehe; Jiang, Xiasen; Hu, Fuliang; Conlon, Michael A.; Topping, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Propolis has abundant polyphenolic constituents and is used widely as a health/functional food. Here, we investigated the effects of polyphenol-rich propolis extracts (PPE) on intestinal barrier function in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells, as well as in rats. In Caco-2 cells, PPE increased transepithelial electrical resistance and decreased lucifer yellow flux. PPE-treated cells showed increased expression of the tight junction (TJ) loci occludin and zona occludens (ZO)-1. Confocal microscopy showed organized expressions in proteins related to TJ assembly, i.e., occludin and ZO-1, in response to PPE. Furthermore, PPE led to the activation of AMPK, ERK1/2, p38, and Akt. Using selective inhibitors, we found that the positive effects of PPE on barrier function were abolished in cells in which AMPK and ERK1/2 signaling were inhibited. Moreover, rats fed a diet supplemented with PPE (0.3% in the diet) exhibited increased colonic epithelium ZO-1 expression. Overall, these data suggest that PPE strengthens intestinal barrier function by activating AMPK and ERK signaling and provide novel insights into the potential application of propolis for human gut health. PMID:27164138

  20. AMPK and PFKFB3 mediate glycolysis and survival in response to mitophagy during mitotic arrest.

    PubMed

    Doménech, Elena; Maestre, Carolina; Esteban-Martínez, Lorena; Partida, David; Pascual, Rosa; Fernández-Miranda, Gonzalo; Seco, Esther; Campos-Olivas, Ramón; Pérez, Manuel; Megias, Diego; Allen, Katherine; López, Miguel; Saha, Asish K; Velasco, Guillermo; Rial, Eduardo; Méndez, Raúl; Boya, Patricia; Salazar-Roa, María; Malumbres, Marcos

    2015-10-01

    Blocking mitotic progression has been proposed as an attractive therapeutic strategy to impair proliferation of tumour cells. However, how cells survive during prolonged mitotic arrest is not well understood. We show here that survival during mitotic arrest is affected by the special energetic requirements of mitotic cells. Prolonged mitotic arrest results in mitophagy-dependent loss of mitochondria, accompanied by reduced ATP levels and the activation of AMPK. Oxidative respiration is replaced by glycolysis owing to AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of PFKFB3 and increased production of this protein as a consequence of mitotic-specific translational activation of its mRNA. Induction of autophagy or inhibition of AMPK or PFKFB3 results in enhanced cell death in mitosis and improves the anti-tumoral efficiency of microtubule poisons in breast cancer cells. Thus, survival of mitotic-arrested cells is limited by their metabolic requirements, a feature with potential implications in cancer therapies aimed to impair mitosis or metabolism in tumour cells.

  1. Barbaloin pretreatment attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury via activation of AMPK.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peiyong; Liu, Xiaochen; Huang, Guotao; Bai, Caiyan; Zhang, Zhenling; Li, Hongjun

    2017-09-02

    Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury is a major cause of cardiac dysfunction during cardiovascular surgery and heart transplantation and characterized by hyperactive oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Barbaloin (BAR) is the main medicinal composition of the Chinese traditional medicine aloe vera. BAR has strong anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties. However, the effect of BAR on MI/R-induced myocardial injury is not explored. This study aims to investigate whether BAR provides cardio-protection against MI/R injury and the underlying mechanisms. BAR (20 mg/kg/d) or vehicle was intragastrically administered to Sprague-Dawley rats for 5 days before MI/R operation. BAR pretreatment conferred cardio-protective effects against MI/R injury by improving hemodynamic function and limiting infarction size. Moreover, BAR pretreatment effectively inhibited I/R-induced myocardial oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Furthermore, BAR pretreatment activated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling in MI/R hearts. AMPK inhibitor compound C inhibited BAR-induced AMPK activation, and blunted BAR-mediated anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory effects and cardio-protection. Taken together our study has identified a novel function of BAR and provided a molecular basis for BAR potential applications in the treatment of MI/R injury and other ischemic disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hypoxia Regulates mTORC1-Mediated Keratinocyte Motility and Migration via the AMPK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Tiantian; Zhang, Junhui; Tang, Di; Zhang, Xingyue; Jiang, Xupin; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Qiong; Zhang, Dongxia; Huang, Yuesheng

    2017-01-01

    Keratinocyte migration, the initial event and rate-limiting step in wound healing, plays a vital role in restoration of the intact skin barrier, also known as re-epithelialization. After acute tissue injury, hypoxic microenvironment gradually develops and acts as an early stimulus to initiate the healing process. Although we have previously found that hypoxia induces keratinocyte migration, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, we first observed that hypoxia increased mTORC1 activity. Recombinant lentivirus vector and Rapamycin were used for silencing mTORC1 in HaCaT cells and primary mouse keratinocytes (MKs). Using cell migration assay and a Zeiss chamber equipped with imaging system, we also demonstrated that mTORC1 downregulation reversed hypoxia-induced keratinocyte motility and lateral migration. Importantly, hypoxia-activated mTORC1 was accompanied by the AMPK downregulation, and we found that the AMPK pathway activators Metformin (Met) and 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) decreased the mTORC1 activity, cell motility and lateral migration. Thus, our results suggest that hypoxia regulates mTORC1-mediated keratinocyte motility and migration via the AMPK pathway. PMID:28068384

  3. AMPK Promotes Aberrant PGC1β Expression To Support Human Colon Tumor Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Kurt W.; Das, Binita; Kim, Hyun Seok; Clymer, Beth K.; Gehring, Drew; Smith, Deandra R.; Costanzo-Garvey, Diane L.; Fernandez, Mario R.; Brattain, Michael G.; Kelly, David L.; MacMillan, John

    2015-01-01

    A major goal of cancer research is the identification of tumor-specific vulnerabilities that can be exploited for the development of therapies that are selectively toxic to the tumor. We show here that the transcriptional coactivators peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1β (PGC1β) and estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) are aberrantly expressed in human colon cell lines and tumors. With kinase suppressor of Ras 1 (KSR1) depletion as a reference standard, we used functional signature ontology (FUSION) analysis to identify the γ1 subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as an essential contributor to PGC1β expression and colon tumor cell survival. Subsequent analysis revealed that a subunit composition of AMPK (α2β2γ1) is preferred for colorectal cancer cell survival, at least in part, by stabilizing the tumor-specific expression of PGC1β. In contrast, PGC1β and ERRα are not detectable in nontransformed human colon epithelial cells, and depletion of the AMPKγ1 subunit has no effect on their viability. These data indicate that Ras oncogenesis relies on the aberrant activation of a PGC1β-dependent transcriptional pathway via a specific AMPK isoform. PMID:26351140

  4. Hernandezine, a novel AMPK activator induces autophagic cell death in drug-resistant cancers

    PubMed Central

    Law, Betty Yuen Kwan; Mok, Simon Wing Fai; Chan, Wai Kit; Xu, Su Wei; Wu, An Guo; Yao, Xiao Jun; Wang, Jing Rong; Liu, Liang; Wong, Vincent Kam Wai

    2016-01-01

    Drug resistance hinder most cancer chemotherapies and leads to disease recurrence and poor survival of patients. Resistance of cancer cells towards apoptosis is the major cause of these symptomatic behaviours. Here, we showed that isoquinoline alkaloids, including liensinine, isoliensinine, dauricine, cepharanthine and hernandezine, putatively induce cytotoxicity against a repertoire of cancer cell lines (HeLa, A549, MCF-7, PC3, HepG2, Hep3B and H1299). Proven by the use of apoptosis-resistant cellular models and autophagic assays, such isoquinoline alkaloid-induced cytotoxic effect involves energy- and autophagy-related gene 7 (Atg7)-dependent autophagy that resulted from direct activation of AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK). Hernandezine possess the highest efficacy in provoking such cell death when compared with other examined compounds. We confirmed that isoquinoline alkaloid is structurally varied from the existing direct AMPK activators. In conclusion, isoquinoline alkaloid is a new class of compound that induce autophagic cell death in drug-resistant fibroblasts or cancers by exhibiting its direct activation on AMPK. PMID:26811496

  5. SIRT1 is required for AMPK activation and the beneficial effects of resveratrol on mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Price, Nathan L; Gomes, Ana P; Ling, Alvin J Y; Duarte, Filipe V; Martin-Montalvo, Alejandro; North, Brian J; Agarwal, Beamon; Ye, Lan; Ramadori, Giorgio; Teodoro, Joao S; Hubbard, Basil P; Varela, Ana T; Davis, James G; Varamini, Behzad; Hafner, Angela; Moaddel, Ruin; Rolo, Anabela P; Coppari, Roberto; Palmeira, Carlos M; de Cabo, Rafael; Baur, Joseph A; Sinclair, David A

    2012-05-02

    Resveratrol induces mitochondrial biogenesis and protects against metabolic decline, but whether SIRT1 mediates these benefits is the subject of debate. To circumvent the developmental defects of germline SIRT1 knockouts, we have developed an inducible system that permits whole-body deletion of SIRT1 in adult mice. Mice treated with a moderate dose of resveratrol showed increased mitochondrial biogenesis and function, AMPK activation, and increased NAD(+) levels in skeletal muscle, whereas SIRT1 knockouts displayed none of these benefits. A mouse overexpressing SIRT1 mimicked these effects. A high dose of resveratrol activated AMPK in a SIRT1-independent manner, demonstrating that resveratrol dosage is a critical factor. Importantly, at both doses of resveratrol no improvements in mitochondrial function were observed in animals lacking SIRT1. Together these data indicate that SIRT1 plays an essential role in the ability of moderate doses of resveratrol to stimulate AMPK and improve mitochondrial function both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Polyphenol-Rich Propolis Extracts Strengthen Intestinal Barrier Function by Activating AMPK and ERK Signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Jin, Xiaolu; Chen, Yifan; Song, Zehe; Jiang, Xiasen; Hu, Fuliang; Conlon, Michael A; Topping, David L

    2016-05-07

    Propolis has abundant polyphenolic constituents and is used widely as a health/functional food. Here, we investigated the effects of polyphenol-rich propolis extracts (PPE) on intestinal barrier function in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells, as well as in rats. In Caco-2 cells, PPE increased transepithelial electrical resistance and decreased lucifer yellow flux. PPE-treated cells showed increased expression of the tight junction (TJ) loci occludin and zona occludens (ZO)-1. Confocal microscopy showed organized expressions in proteins related to TJ assembly, i.e., occludin and ZO-1, in response to PPE. Furthermore, PPE led to the activation of AMPK, ERK1/2, p38, and Akt. Using selective inhibitors, we found that the positive effects of PPE on barrier function were abolished in cells in which AMPK and ERK1/2 signaling were inhibited. Moreover, rats fed a diet supplemented with PPE (0.3% in the diet) exhibited increased colonic epithelium ZO-1 expression. Overall, these data suggest that PPE strengthens intestinal barrier function by activating AMPK and ERK signaling and provide novel insights into the potential application of propolis for human gut health.

  7. Effect of Selenium Deficiency on Phosphorylation of the AMPK Pathway in Rats.

    PubMed

    He, Shulan; Guo, Xiong; Tan, Wuhong; Su, Xiaohui; Li, Jiangping; Pan, Wang; Qiu, Hongyan

    2016-02-01

    Selenium is an important trace element for human health. Previous studies have raised concern that dietary selenium intake may change energy metabolism. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of energy status that controls cellular energy homeostasis. We aimed to determine the effect of selenium on the phosphorylation of AMPK pathway between Se-deficient and normal Sprague-Dawley rats. Twenty-four weaning rats were fed either a Se-deficient diet (0.02 mg Se/kg) or a standard diet (0.18 mg Se/kg). After 109 days, total serum levels of non-esterified fatty acid and total amino acids were significantly higher and the serum insulin concentration was significantly lower in Se-deficient rats than in healthy controls. Selenium concentration and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in myocardial tissue were significantly lower in Se-deficient rats. Importantly, mRNA levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta (ACACB), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), and protein levels of p-AMPKα were increased in the Se-deficient group compared to normal controls (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that selenium deficiency induces changes in metabolic and molecular parameters involved in energy metabolism in the AMPK pathway.

  8. Berberine increases adipose triglyceride lipase in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through the AMPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dongqing; Wang, Dianhui; Zhuang, Xianghua; Wang, Zhanqing; Ni, Yihong; Chen, Shihong; Sun, Fudun

    2016-12-09

    Obesity is closely related to the metabolism of triacylglycerol (TG) in adipocytes. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) are rate-limiting enzymes that control the hydrolysis of TG. Effects on ATGL and HSL to increase lipolysis may counteract obesity. Berberine (BBR) is a compound derived from the Chinese medicine plant Coptis chinensis. In the present study we show the effects of BBR on ATGL and HSL and explore the potential underlying mechanisms of these effects. The TG content in cells was measured using a colorimetric assay. The expressions of HSL, ATGL and GPAT3 were evaluated by Western-blotting. The expression of ATGL was also evaluated by real-time PCR and radioimmunoassay. Compound C, an inhibitor of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), was used to explore the possible pathway that involved in the effect of BBR on ATGL. TG content of differentiated 3T3-L1 cells was significantly decreased by more than 10% after treated with BBR. In differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, BBR increased the expression of p-HSL and ATGL, and these effects were time-depended (p <0.01). The effect of BBR on ATGL expression could be abolished by Compound C which suggested that AMPK pathway was involved in the effects of BBR on p-HSL and ATGL. BBR could increase the expression of ATGL and therefore stimulate basal lipolysis in mature adipocytes through the associated mechanisms related to the AMPK pathway.

  9. The role of AMPK in controlling metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis during exercise.

    PubMed

    Marcinko, Katarina; Steinberg, Gregory R

    2014-12-01

    Insulin resistance is associated with defects in skeletal muscle fatty acid (FA) metabolism that contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. Endurance exercise increases FA and glucose metabolism, muscle mitochondrial content and insulin sensitivity. In skeletal muscle, basal rates of FA oxidation are dependent on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2, the rate-limiting enzyme controlling the production of the metabolic intermediate malonyl-CoA. Likewise, AMPK is essential for maintaining muscle mitochondrial content in untrained mice; effects that may be mediated through regulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1α. However, the importance of AMPK in regulating glucose and FA uptake, FA oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis during and following endurance exercise training is not fully understood. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which endurance exercise regulates substrate utilization and mitochondrial biogenesis may lead to improved therapeutic and preventative strategies for the treatment of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

  10. Liraglutide reduces fatty degeneration in hepatic cells via the AMPK/SREBP1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Gui; Yang, Tian-Lun

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested that liraglutide could have a potential function in improving non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) pathway in mediating the effect of liraglutide in reducing fatty degeneration in an in vitro NAFLD model. To resemble the NAFLD condition in vitro, L-02 cells were treated with 0.5 mM free fatty acids (FFAs) for 24 h. Liraglutide could affect the expression of AMPKα1, phosphorylated AMPKα1 and SREBP1 in a dose-dependent manner in FFA-exposed L-02 cells, as demonstrated by western blot analysis. The intracellular lipid accumulation was significantly decreased, as shown by oil red O staining. A significant decrease in the content of triglyceride and total cholesterol was observed when the FFA-exposed L-02 cells were incubated with liraglutide. In addition, the increased expression of liver-type fatty acid-binding protein in FFA-exposed L-02 cells was suppressed by liraglutide. These effects were reversed by compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that liraglutide can reduce fatty degeneration induced by FFAs in hepatocytes, and this effect may be partially mediated by the AMPK/SREBP1 pathway.

  11. AMPK-dependent modulation of hepatic lipid metabolism by nesfatin-1.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yue; Li, Ziru; Gao, Ling; Li, Yin; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Weizhen

    2015-12-05

    The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanism by which peripheral nesfatin-1 regulates hepatic lipid metabolism. Continuous peripheral infusion of nesfatin-1 reduced adiposity and plasma levels of triglyceride and cholesterol. In mice fed high fat diet, peripheral nesfatin-1 significantly decreased hepatic steatosis measured by triglyceride content and oil red staining area and diameter. These alterations were associated with a significant reduction in lipogenesis-related transcriptional factors PPARγ and SREBP1, as well as rate-limited enzyme genes such as acaca, fasn, gpam, dgat1 and dgat2. In primary hepatocytes, nesfatin-1 inhibited both basal and oleic acid stimulated triglyceride accumulation, which was accompanied by a decrement in lipogenesis-related genes and an increase in β-oxidation-related genes. In cultured hepatocytes, nesfatin-1 increased levels of AMPK phosphorylation. Inhibition of AMPK by compound C blocked the reduction of triglyceride content elicited by nesfatin-1. Our studies demonstrate that nesfatin-1 attenuates lipid accumulation in hepatocytes by an AMPK-dependent mechanism.

  12. Effect of A-769662, a direct AMPK activator, on Tlr-4 expression and activity in mice heart tissue

    PubMed Central

    Rameshrad, Maryam; Maleki-Dizaji, Nasrin; Soraya, Hamid; Toutounchi, Negisa Seyed; Barzegari, Abolfazl; Garjani, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s):: TLR-4 activates a number of inflammatory signaling pathways. Also, AMPK could be involved in anti-inflammatory signaling. The aim of this study was to identify whether stimulation of AMPK could inhibit LPS-induced Tlr-4 gene expression in mice hearts. Materials and methods: Heart AMPK activity and/or Tlr-4 expression was stimulated in different mice groups, using respectively IP injection of A-769662 (10 mg/kg) and LPS (2 mg/kg) or a combination of both agents. Moreover, compound-C (20 mg/kg), as an AMPK antagonist, was intraperitoneally co-administrated with both A-769662 and LPS in another group to investigate the role of AMPK activity on Tlr-4 regulation. After 8 hr, in addition to peripheral neutrophil cell count, myocardial p-AMPK, p-ACC as well as MyD88 protein contents and Tlr-4 expression was assessed by Western blotting and real-time qRT-PCR, respectively. TNF-α and IL-6 expression levels were also determined by ELISA. Results: LPS induced heart Tlr-4 expression (P<0.001) associating with an increase in the myocardial MyD88 protein content (P<0.001), elevation of heart TNF-α (P<0.01) and IL-6 (P<0.05) concentrations, and rise in the peripheral neutrophil cell count (P<0.001). Administration of A-769662 decreased LPS-induced Tlr-4 expression (P<0.01) and alleviated peripheral neutrophil cell count (P<0.01). The inhibitory effect of A-769662 on LPS-induced Tlr-4 expression was reversed by antagonizing AMPK with compound-C (P<0.001) which reduced p-AMPK (P<0.05) and p-ACC (P<0.01) myocardial protein contents in the LPS+A-769662 group. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that activation of AMPK, by A-769662 agent, could inhibit Tlr-4 expression and activity, suggesting a link between AMPK and Tlr-4 in heart tissue. PMID:28096963

  13. Anti-obesity effects of ginsenoside Rh2 are associated with the activation of AMPK signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocyte.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jin-Taek; Kim, Soon-Hee; Lee, Myoung-Su; Kim, Sung Hee; Yang, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Min-Jung; Kim, Hak-Soo; Ha, Joohun; Kim, Myung Sunny; Kwon, Dae Young

    2007-12-28

    Metabolic disorders such as obesity are major obstacles in improving the average life span. Therefore, a therapeutic approach using natural compounds has been proposed as a novel strategy for preventing metabolic disorders. Ginsenoside Rh2 is one of the ginsenosides that exert anti-diabetes, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects. However, the anti-obesity effects of Ginsenoside Rh2 remain unclear. Here, we investigated the anti-obesity ability of ginsenoside Rh2 using cell culture systems. Ginsenoside Rh2 effectively inhibited adipocyte differentiation via PPAR-gamma inhibition. Next, to find specific target molecules based on this result, we used cell culture systems to examine whether AMPK activation was involved in the anti-obesity ability of ginsenoside Rh2 since several published papers have indicated that AMPK signaling is involved in the regulation of metabolic disorders. Ginsenoside Rh2 significantly activated AMPK in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, we also examined the effect of AMPK on lipolysis molecules such as CPT-1 and UCP-2 by using an AMPK inhibitor. Ginsenoside Rh2 effectively induced CPT-1 and UCP-2 and this induction was abolished by AMPK inhibitor treatment. Moreover, we observed that ROS is an important upstream signal for AMPK activation during ginsenoside Rh2 treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that ginsenoside Rh2 is the most effective candidate for preventing metabolic disorders such as obesity and that it acts via the AMPK signaling pathway. Thus, AMPK signaling might contribute toward improving human health.

  14. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) cross-talks with canonical Wnt signaling via phosphorylation of {beta}-catenin at Ser 552

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Junxing; Yue, Wanfu; Zhu, Mei J.; Sreejayan, Nair; Du, Min

    2010-04-23

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of energy metabolism; its activity is regulated by a plethora of physiological conditions, exercises and many anti-diabetic drugs. Recent studies show that AMPK involves in cell differentiation but the underlying mechanism remains undefined. Wingless Int-1 (Wnt)/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway regulates the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells through enhancing {beta}-catenin/T-cell transcription factor 1 (TCF) mediated transcription. The objective of this study was to determine whether AMPK cross-talks with Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling through phosphorylation of {beta}-catenin. C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal cells were used. Chemical inhibition of AMPK and the expression of a dominant negative AMPK decreased phosphorylation of {beta}-catenin at Ser 552. The {beta}-catenin/TCF mediated transcription was correlated with AMPK activity. In vitro, pure AMPK phosphorylated {beta}-catenin at Ser 552 and the mutation of Ser 552 to Ala prevented such phosphorylation, which was further confirmed using [{gamma}-{sup 32}P]ATP autoradiography. In conclusion, AMPK phosphorylates {beta}-catenin at Ser 552, which stabilizes {beta}-catenin, enhances {beta}-catenin/TCF mediated transcription, expanding AMPK from regulation of energy metabolism to cell differentiation and development via cross-talking with the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway.

  15. FK866-induced NAMPT inhibition activates AMPK and downregulates mTOR signaling in hepatocarcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, Susanne; Penke, Melanie; Gorski, Theresa; Gebhardt, Rolf; Weiss, Thomas S.; Kiess, Wieland; Garten, Antje

    2015-03-06

    Background: Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is the key enzyme of the NAD salvage pathway starting from nicotinamide. Cancer cells have an increased demand for NAD due to their high proliferation and DNA repair rate. Consequently, NAMPT is considered as a putative target for anti-cancer therapies. There is evidence that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) become dysregulated during the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we investigated the effects of NAMPT inhibition by its specific inhibitor FK866 on the viability of hepatocarcinoma cells and analyzed the effects of FK866 on the nutrient sensor AMPK and mTOR complex1 (mTORC1) signaling. Results: FK866 markedly decreased NAMPT activity and NAD content in hepatocarcinoma cells (Huh7 cells, Hep3B cells) and led to delayed ATP reduction which was associated with increased cell death. These effects could be abrogated by administration of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), the enzyme product of NAMPT. Our results demonstrated a dysregulation of the AMPK/mTOR pathway in hepatocarcinoma cells compared to non-cancerous hepatocytes with a higher expression of mTOR and a lower AMPKα activation in hepatocarcinoma cells. We found that NAMPT inhibition by FK866 significantly activated AMPKα and inhibited the activation of mTOR and its downstream targets p70S6 kinase and 4E-BP1 in hepatocarcinoma cells. Non-cancerous hepatocytes were less sensitive to FK866 and did not show changes in AMPK/mTOR signaling after FK866 treatment. Conclusion: Taken together, these findings reveal an important role of the NAMPT-mediated NAD salvage pathway in the energy homeostasis of hepatocarcinoma cells and suggest NAMPT inhibition as a potential treatment option for HCC. - Highlights: • FK866 increases cell death in p53-deficient hepatocarcinoma cells. • AMPK/mTOR signaling is dysregulated in hepatocarcinoma cells. • FK866-induced NAMPT inhibition activates AMPK

  16. Ursolic Acid Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes through LKB1/AMPK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    He, Yonghan; Li, Ying; Zhao, Tiantian; Wang, Yanwen; Sun, Changhao

    2013-01-01

    Background Ursolic acid (UA) is a triterpenoid compound with multiple biological functions. This compound has recently been reported to possess an anti-obesity effect; however, the mechanisms are less understood. Objective As adipogenesis plays a critical role in obesity, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of UA on adipogenesis and mechanisms of action in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Methods and Results The 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to differentiate in the presence or absence of UA for 6 days. The cells were determined for proliferation, differentiation, fat accumulation as well as the protein expressions of molecular targets that regulate or are involved in fatty acid synthesis and oxidation. The results demonstrated that ursolic acid at concentrations ranging from 2.5 µM to 10 µM dose-dependently attenuated adipogenesis, accompanied by reduced protein expression of CCAAT element binding protein β (C/EBPβ), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT element binding protein α (C/EBPα) and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), respectively. Ursolic acid increased the phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and protein expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), but decreased protein expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4). Ursolic acid increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and protein expression of (silent mating type information regulation 2, homolog) 1 (Sirt1). Further studies demonstrated that the anti-adipogenic effect of UA was reversed by the AMPK siRNA, but not by the Sirt1 inhibitor nicotinamide. Liver kinase B1 (LKB1), the upstream kinase of AMPK, was upregulated by UA. When LKB1 was silenced with siRNA or the inhibitor radicicol, the effect of UA on AMPK activation was diminished. Conclusions Ursolic acid inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through the LKB1/AMPK pathway

  17. Exacerbated cardiac fibrosis induced by β-adrenergic activation in old mice due to decreased AMPK activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Song, Yao; Li, Hao; Shen, Qiang; Shen, Jing; An, Xiangbo; Wu, Jimin; Zhang, Jianshu; Wu, Yunong; Xiao, Han; Zhang, Youyi

    2016-11-01

    Senescent hearts exhibit defective responses to β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) over-activation upon stress, leading to more severe pathological cardiac remodelling. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigated the role of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in protecting against ageing-associated cardiac remodelling in mice upon β-AR over-activation. 10-week-old (young) and 18-month-old (old) mice were subcutaneously injected with the β-AR agonist isoproterenol (ISO; 5 mg/kg). More extensive cardiac fibrosis was found in old mice upon ISO exposure than in young mice. Meanwhile, ISO treatment decreased AMPK activity and increased β-arrestin 1, but not β-arrestin 2, expression, and the effects of ISO on AMPK and β-arrestin 1 were greater in old mice than in young mice. Similarly, young AMPKα2-knockout (KO) mice showed more extensive cardiac fibrosis upon ISO exposure than that was observed in age-matched wild-type (WT) littermates. The extent of cardiac fibrosis in WT old mice was similar to that in young KO mice. Additionally, AMPK activities were decreased and β-arrestin 1 expression increased in KO mice. In contrast, the AMPK activator metformin decreased β-arrestin 1 expression and attenuated cardiac fibrosis in both young and old mice upon ISO exposure. In conclusion, more severe cardiac fibrosis is induced by ISO in old mice than in young mice. A decrease in AMPK activity, which further increases β-arrestin 1 expression, is the central mechanism underlying the ageing-related cardiac fibrosis induced by ISO. The AMPK activator metformin is a promising therapeutic agent for treating ageing-related cardiac remodelling upon β-AR over-activation.

  18. LPS inhibits caspase 3-dependent apoptosis in RAW264.7 macrophages induced by the AMPK activator AICAR

    SciTech Connect

    Russe, Otto Quintus Möser, Christine V. Kynast, Katharina L. King, Tanya S. Olbrich, Katrin Grösch, Sabine Geisslinger, Gerd Niederberger, Ellen

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • AMPK-activation induces caspase 3-dependent apoptosis in macrophages. • Apoptosis is associated with decreased mTOR and increased p21 levels. • All effects can be significantly inhibited by the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide. - Abstract: AMP-activated kinase is a cellular energy sensor which is activated in stages of increased ATP consumption. Its activation has been associated with a number of beneficial effects such as decreasing inflammatory processes and the disease progress of diabetes and obesity, respectively. Furthermore, AMPK activation has been linked with induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer and vascular cells, indicating that it might have a therapeutic impact for the treatment of cancer and atherosclerosis. However, the impact of AMPK on the proliferation of macrophages, which also play a key role in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques and in inflammatory processes, has not been focused so far. We have assessed the influence of AICAR- and metformin-induced AMPK activation on cell viability of macrophages with and without inflammatory stimulation, respectively. In cells without inflammatory stimulation, we found a strong induction of caspase 3-dependent apoptosis associated with decreased mTOR levels and increased expression of p21. Interestingly, these effects could be inhibited by co-stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but not by other proinflammatory cytokines suggesting that AICAR induces apoptosis via AMPK in a TLR4-pathway dependent manner. In conclusion, our results revealed that AMPK activation is not only associated with positive effects but might also contribute to risk factors by disturbing important features of macrophages. The fact that LPS is able to restore AMPK-associated apoptosis might indicate an important role of TLR4 agonists in preventing unfavorable cell death of immune cells.

  19. Departure from optimal O2 level for mouse trophoblast stem cell proliferation and potency leads to most rapid AMPK activation

    PubMed Central

    YANG, Yu; JIANG, Zhongliang; BOLNICK, Alan; DAI, Jing; PUSCHECK, Elizabeth E; RAPPOLEE, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that cultured mouse trophoblast stem cells (mTSCs) have the most rapid proliferation, normal maintenance of stemness/potency, the least spontaneous differentiation, and the lowest level of stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) when incubated at 2% O2 rather than at the traditional 20% O2 or hypoxic (0.5% and 0% O2) conditions. Switching from 2% O2 induced fast SAPK responses. Here we tested the dose response of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in its active form (pAMPK Thr172P) at O2 levels from 20–0%, and also tested whether pAMPK levels show similar rapid changes when mTSC cultures were switched from the optimal 2% O2 to other O2 conditions. There was a delayed increase in pAMPK levels ~6–8 h after switching conditions from 20% to 2%, 0.5%, or 0% O2. Altering O2 conditions from 2% to either 20%, 0.5%, or 0% led to rapid increase in pAMPK levels within 1 h, similar to the previously reported SAPK response in mTSC cells removed from 2% O2. Twelve hours of 0.5% O2 exposure led to cell program changes in terms of potency loss and suppressed biosynthesis, as indicated by levels of phosphorylated inactive acetyl CoA carboxylase (pACC). Phosphorylation of ACC was inhibited by the AMPK inhibitor Compound C. However, unlike other stressors, AMPK does not mediate hypoxia-induced potency loss in mTSCs. These results suggest an important aspect of stem cell biology, which demands rapid stress enzyme activation to cope with sudden changes in external environment, e.g., from least stressful (2% O2) to more stressful conditions. PMID:27867161

  20. Chronic activation of central AMPK attenuates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Kim, Da Sol; Kang, Suna; Shin, Bae Keun

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the effects of chronic AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) activation in the hypothalamus on energy and glucose metabolism in 90% pancreatectomized diabetic rats. Diabetic rats fed a high fat diet were divided into 3 groups and intracerebroventricular (ICV) administered with one of the following: 5-amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR, AMPK activator; 80 μg/day), AICAR+compound C (AMPK inhibitor; 6.2 μg/day), or an artificial cerebrospinal fluid (control) by means of osmotic pumps for 4 weeks. In the hypothalamus, central AICAR activated the phosphorylation of AMPK whereas adding compound C suppressed the activation. AICAR increased body weight and epididymal and retroperitoneal fat mass by increasing energy intake for the first 2 weeks and decreasing energy expenditure, whereas compound C reversed the AICAR effect on energy metabolism. Indirect calorimetry revealed that ICV-AICAR decreased carbohydrate oxidation, but not fat oxidation, compared to the control. During euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, central AICAR increased hepatic glucose output at hyperinsulinemic states. ICV-AICAR increased expressions of hepatic genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and decreased expression of hepatic genes related to thermogenesis whereas compound C nullified the AICAR effect. Insulin secretion in the first and second phases decreased in AICAR-treated rats at hyperglycemic clamp, but compound C nullified the decrease. However, central AICAR did not alter β-cell mass via its proliferation or apoptosis. In conclusion, chronic hypothalamic AMPK activation impaired energy metabolism and glucose homeostasis by increasing food intake, increasing hepatic glucose output and decreasing insulin secretion in diabetic rats. The impairment of energy and glucose homeostasis by AMPK activation was nullified by an AMPK inhibitor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The neuroprotective role of metformin in advanced glycation end product treated human neural stem cells is AMPK-dependent.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ming-Min; Chen, Yen-Lin; Pei, Dee; Cheng, Yi-Chuan; Sun, Binggui; Nicol, Christopher J; Yen, Chia-Hui; Chen, Han-Min; Liang, Yao-Jen; Chiang, Ming-Chang

    2015-05-01

    Diabetic neuronal damage results from hyperglycemia followed by increased formation of advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs), which leads to neurodegeneration, although the molecular mechanisms are still not well understood. Metformin, one of the most widely used anti-diabetic drugs, exerts its effects in part by activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a critical evolutionarily conserved enzyme expressed in the liver, skeletal muscle and brain, and promotes cellular energy homeostasis and biogenesis by regulating several metabolic processes. While the mechanisms of AMPK as a metabolic regulator are well established, the neuronal role for AMPK is still unknown. In the present study, human neural stem cells (hNSCs) exposed to AGEs had significantly reduced cell viability, which correlated with decreased AMPK and mitochondria associated gene/protein (PGC1α, NRF-1 and Tfam) expressions, as well as increased activation of caspase 3 and 9 activities. Metformin prevented AGEs induced cytochrome c release from mitochondria into cytosol in the hNSCs. Co-treatment with metformin significantly abrogated the AGE-mediated effects in hNSCs. Metformin also significantly rescued hNSCs from AGE-mediated mitochondrial deficiency (lower ATP, D-loop level, mitochondrial mass, maximal respiratory function, COX activity, and mitochondrial membrane potential). Furthermore, co-treatment of hNSCs with metformin significantly blocked AGE-mediated reductions in the expression levels of several neuroprotective genes (PPARγ, Bcl-2 and CREB). These findings extend our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of both AGE-induced neuronal toxicity, and AMPK-dependent neuroprotection by metformin. This study further suggests that AMPK may be a potential therapeutic target for treating diabetic neurodegeneration.

  2. Knockdown of GSK3β increases basal autophagy and AMPK signalling in nutrient-laden human aortic endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Weikel, Karen A.; Cacicedo, José M.; Ruderman, Neil B.; Ido, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    High concentrations of glucose and palmitate increase endothelial cell inflammation and apoptosis, events that often precede atherogenesis. They may do so by decreasing basal autophagy and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity, although the mechanisms by which this occurs are not clear. Decreased function of the lysosome, an organelle required for autophagy and AMPK, have been associated with hyperactivity of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). To determine whether GSK3β affects nutrient-induced changes in autophagy and AMPK activity, we used a primary human aortic endothelial cell (HAEC) model of type 2 diabetes that we had previously characterized with impaired AMPK activity and autophagy [Weikel et al. (2015) Am. J. Phys. Cell Physiol. 308, C249–C263]. Presently, we found that incubation of HAECs with excess nutrients (25 mM glucose and 0.4 mM palmitate) increased GSK3β activity and impaired lysosome acidification. Suppression of GSK3β in these cells by treatment with a chemical inhibitor or overexpression of kinase-dead GSK3β attenuated these lysosomal changes. Under control and excess nutrient conditions, knockdown of GSK3β increased autophagosome formation, forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) activity and AMPK signalling and decreased Akt signalling. Similar changes in autophagy, AMPK and Akt signalling were observed in aortas from mice treated with the GSK3β inhibitor CHIR 99021. Thus, increasing basal autophagy and AMPK activity by inhibiting GSK3β may be an effective strategy in the setting of hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia for restoring endothelial cell health and reducing atherogenesis. PMID:27534430

  3. Noise-Induced Loss of Hair Cells and Cochlear Synaptopathy Are Mediated by the Activation of AMPK

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kayla; Yuan, Hu; Wang, Xianren

    2016-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a major unresolved public health problem. Here, we investigate pathomechanisms of sensory hair cell death and suggest a novel target for protective intervention. Cellular survival depends upon maintenance of energy homeostasis, largely by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In response to a noise exposure in CBA/J mice, the levels of phosphorylated AMPKα increased in hair cells in a noise intensity-dependent manner. Inhibition of AMPK via siRNA or the pharmacological inhibitor compound C attenuated noise-induced loss of outer hair cells (OHCs) and synaptic ribbons, and preserved auditory function. Additionally, noise exposure increased the activity of the upstream AMPK kinase liver kinase B1 (LKB1) in cochlear tissues. The inhibition of LKB1 by siRNA attenuated the noise-increased phosphorylation of AMPKα in OHCs, reduced the loss of inner hair cell synaptic ribbons and OHCs, and protected against NIHL. These results indicate that noise exposure induces hair cell death and synaptopathy by activating AMPK via LKB1-mediated pathways. Targeting these pathways may provide a novel route to prevent NIHL. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our results demonstrate for the first time that the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α in sensory hair cells is noise intensity dependent and contributes to noise-induced hearing loss by mediating the loss of inner hair cell synaptic ribbons and outer hair cells. Noise induces the phosphorylation of AMPKα1 by liver kinase B1 (LKB1), triggered by changes in intracellular ATP levels. The inhibition of AMPK activation by silencing AMPK or LKB1, or with the pharmacological inhibitor compound C, reduced outer hair cell and synaptic ribbon loss as well as noise-induced hearing loss. This study provides new insights into mechanisms of noise-induced hearing loss and suggests novel interventions for the prevention of the loss of sensory hair cells and cochlear synaptopathy. PMID:27413159

  4. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activators for the prevention, treatment and potential reversal of pathological pain

    PubMed Central

    Price, Theodore J.; Das, Vaskar; Dussor, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Pathological pain is an enormous medical problem that places a significant burden on patients and can result from an injury that has long since healed or be due to an unidentifiable cause. Although treatments exist, they often either lack efficacy or have intolerable side effects. More importantly, they do not reverse the changes in the nervous system mediating pathological pain, and thus symptoms often return when therapies are discontinued. Consequently, novel therapies are urgently needed that have both improved efficacy and disease-modifying properties. Here we highlight an emerging target for novel pain therapies, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is capable of regulating a variety of cellular processes including protein translation, activity of other kinases, and mitochondrial metabolism, many of which are thought to contribute to pathological pain. Consistent with these properties, preclinical studies show positive, and in some cases disease-modifying effects of either pharmacological activation or genetic regulation of AMPK in models of nerve injury, chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), postsurgical pain, inflammatory pain, and diabetic neuropathy. Given the AMPK-activating ability of metformin, a widely prescribed and well-tolerated drug, these preclinical studies provide a strong rationale for both retrospective and prospective human pain trials with this drug. They also argue for the development of novel AMPK activators, whether orthosteric, allosteric, or modulators of events upstream of the kinase. Together, this review will present the case for AMPK as a novel therapeutic target for pain and will discuss future challenges in the path toward development of AMPK-based pain therapeutics. PMID:26521775

  5. Departure from optimal O2 level for mouse trophoblast stem cell proliferation and potency leads to most rapid AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Jiang, Zhongliang; Bolnick, Alan; Dai, Jing; Puscheck, Elizabeth E; Rappolee, Daniel A

    2017-02-16

    Previous studies showed that cultured mouse trophoblast stem cells (mTSCs) have the most rapid proliferation, normal maintenance of stemness/potency, the least spontaneous differentiation, and the lowest level of stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) when incubated at 2% O2 rather than at the traditional 20% O2 or hypoxic (0.5% and 0% O2) conditions. Switching from 2% O2 induced fast SAPK responses. Here we tested the dose response of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in its active form (pAMPK Thr172P) at O2 levels from 20-0%, and also tested whether pAMPK levels show similar rapid changes when mTSC cultures were switched from the optimal 2% O2 to other O2 conditions. There was a delayed increase in pAMPK levels ~6-8 h after switching conditions from 20% to 2%, 0.5%, or 0% O2. Altering O2 conditions from 2% to either 20%, 0.5%, or 0% led to rapid increase in pAMPK levels within 1 h, similar to the previously reported SAPK response in mTSC cells removed from 2% O2. Twelve hours of 0.5% O2 exposure led to cell program changes in terms of potency loss and suppressed biosynthesis, as indicated by levels of phosphorylated inactive acetyl CoA carboxylase (pACC). Phosphorylation of ACC was inhibited by the AMPK inhibitor Compound C. However, unlike other stressors, AMPK does not mediate hypoxia-induced potency loss in mTSCs. These results suggest an important aspect of stem cell biology, which demands rapid stress enzyme activation to cope with sudden changes in external environment, e.g., from least stressful (2% O2) to more stressful conditions.

  6. Telmisartan prevention of LPS-induced microglia activation involves M2 microglia polarization via CaMKKβ-dependent AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan; Xu, Yazhou; Wang, Yurong; Wang, Yunjie; He, Ling; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Huang, Zhangjian; Liao, Hong; Li, Jia; Saavedra, Juan M; Zhang, Luyong; Pang, Tao

    2015-11-01

    Brain inflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of many psychiatric and neurological diseases. During brain inflammation, microglia cells are activated, producing neurotoxic molecules and neurotrophic factors depending on their pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes. It has been demonstrated that Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) ameliorate brain inflammation and reduce M1 microglia activation. The ARB telmisartan suppresses glutamate-induced upregulation of inflammatory genes in cultured primary neurons. We wished to clarify whether telmisartan, in addition, prevents microglia activation through polarization to an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. We found that telmisartan promoted M2 polarization and reduced M1 polarization in LPS-stimulated BV2 and primary microglia cells, effects partially dependent on PPARγ activation. The promoting effects of telmisartan on M2 polarization, were attenuated by an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor or AMPK knockdown, indicating that AMPK activation participates on telmisartan effects. Moreover, in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells, telmisartan enhancement of M2 gene expression was prevented by the inhibitor STO-609 and siRNA of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ), an upstream kinase of AMPK. Furthermore, telmisartan enhanced brain AMPK activation and M2 gene expression in a mouse model of LPS-induced neuroinflammation. In addition, telmisartan reduced the LPS-induced sickness behavior in this in vivo model, and this effect was prevented by prior administration of an AMPK inhibitor. Our results indicate that telmisartan can be considered as a novel AMPK activator, suppressing microglia activation by promoting M2 polarization. Telmisartan may provide a novel, safe therapeutic approach to treat brain disorders associated with enhanced inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Knockdown of GSK3β increases basal autophagy and AMPK signalling in nutrient-laden human aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Weikel, Karen A; Cacicedo, José M; Ruderman, Neil B; Ido, Yasuo

    2016-10-01

    High concentrations of glucose and palmitate increase endothelial cell inflammation and apoptosis, events that often precede atherogenesis. They may do so by decreasing basal autophagy and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity, although the mechanisms by which this occurs are not clear. Decreased function of the lysosome, an organelle required for autophagy and AMPK, have been associated with hyperactivity of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). To determine whether GSK3β affects nutrient-induced changes in autophagy and AMPK activity, we used a primary human aortic endothelial cell (HAEC) model of type 2 diabetes that we had previously characterized with impaired AMPK activity and autophagy [Weikel et al. (2015) Am. J. Phys. Cell Physiol. 308: , C249-C263]. Presently, we found that incubation of HAECs with excess nutrients (25 mM glucose and 0.4 mM palmitate) increased GSK3β activity and impaired lysosome acidification. Suppression of GSK3β in these cells by treatment with a chemical inhibitor or overexpression of kinase-dead GSK3β attenuated these lysosomal changes. Under control and excess nutrient conditions, knockdown of GSK3β increased autophagosome formation, forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) activity and AMPK signalling and decreased Akt signalling. Similar changes in autophagy, AMPK and Akt signalling were observed in aortas from mice treated with the GSK3β inhibitor CHIR 99021. Thus, increasing basal autophagy and AMPK activity by inhibiting GSK3β may be an effective strategy in the setting of hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia for restoring endothelial cell health and reducing atherogenesis.

  8. Demethyleneberberine attenuates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with activation of AMPK and inhibition of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Xiaoyan; Xu, Lulu; Zhang, Miao; Zhang, Pengcheng; Wang, Yinhang; Wang, Yongchen; Zhao, Zheng; Chen, Huan; Liu, Xie; Zhang, Yubin

    2016-04-15

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has reached an epidemic level globally, which is recognized to form non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) by the "two-hit" model, including oxidative stress and inflammation. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has long been regarded as a key regulator of energy metabolism, which is recognized as a critical target for NAFLD treatment. Here we introduce a natural product, demethyleneberberine (DMB), which potentially ameliorated NAFLD by activating AMPK pathways. Our study showed that the intraperitoneal injection of DMB (20 or 40 mg/kg body weight) decreased hepatic lipid accumulation in methionine and choline deficient (MCD) high-fat diet feeding mice and db/db mice. The further investigation demonstrated that DMB activated AMPK by increasing its phosphorylation in vitro and in vivo. Accompanied with AMPK activation, the expression of lipogenic genes were significantly reduced while genes responsible for the fatty acid β-oxidation were restored in DMB-treated NAFLD mice. In addition, the remarkable oxidative damage and inflammation induced by NAFLD were both attenuated by DMB treatment, which is reflected by decreased lipid oxidative product, malonaldehyde (MDA) and inflammatory factors, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β). Based on all above, DMB could serve as a novel AMPK activator for treating NAFLD and preventing the pathologic progression from NAFLD to NASH by inhibiting the oxidative stress and inflammation.

  9. Specific Sirt1 Activator-mediated Improvement in Glucose Homeostasis Requires Sirt1-Independent Activation of AMPK.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Jun; Ahmad, Faiyaz; Um, Jee-Hyun; Brown, Alexandra L; Xu, Xihui; Kang, Hyeog; Ke, Hengming; Feng, Xuesong; Ryall, James; Philp, Andrew; Schenk, Simon; Kim, Myung K; Sartorelli, Vittorio; Chung, Jay H

    2017-04-01

    The specific Sirt1 activator SRT1720 increases mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle, presumably by activating Sirt1. However, Sirt1 gain of function does not increase mitochondrial function, which raises a question about the central role of Sirt1 in SRT1720 action. Moreover, it is believed that the metabolic effects of SRT1720 occur independently of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important metabolic regulator that increases mitochondrial function. Here, we show that SRT1720 activates AMPK in a Sirt1-independent manner and SRT1720 activates AMPK by inhibiting a cAMP degrading phosphodiesterase (PDE) in a competitive manner. Inhibiting the cAMP effector protein Epac prevents SRT1720 from activating AMPK or Sirt1 in myotubes. Moreover, SRT1720 does not increase mitochondrial function or improve glucose tolerance in AMPKα2 knockout mice. Interestingly, weight loss induced by SRT1720 is not sufficient to improve glucose tolerance. Therefore, contrary to current belief, the metabolic effects produced by SRT1720 require AMPK, which can be activated independently of Sirt1. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinase (PIKfyve) is an AMPK target participating in contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Lai, Yu-Chiang; Hill, Elaine V; Tyteca, Donatienne; Carpentier, Sarah; Ingvaldsen, Ada; Vertommen, Didier; Lantier, Louise; Foretz, Marc; Dequiedt, Franck; Courtoy, Pierre J; Erneux, Christophe; Viollet, Benoît; Shepherd, Peter R; Tavaré, Jeremy M; Jensen, Jørgen; Rider, Mark H

    2013-10-15

    PIKfyve (FYVE domain-containing phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinase), the lipid kinase that phosphorylates PtdIns3P to PtdIns(3,5)P2, has been implicated in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. We investigated whether PIKfyve could also be involved in contraction/AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase)-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Incubation of rat epitrochlearis muscles with YM201636, a selective PIKfyve inhibitor, reduced contraction- and AICAriboside (5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide riboside)-stimulated glucose uptake. Consistently, PIKfyve knockdown in C2C12 myotubes reduced AICAriboside-stimulated glucose transport. Furthermore, muscle contraction increased PtdIns(3,5)P2 levels and PIKfyve phosphorylation. AMPK phosphorylated PIKfyve at Ser307 both in vitro and in intact cells. Following subcellular fractionation, PIKfyve recovery in a crude intracellular membrane fraction was increased in contracting versus resting muscles. Also in opossum kidney cells, wild-type, but not S307A mutant, PIKfyve was recruited to endosomal vesicles in response to AMPK activation. We propose that PIKfyve activity is required for the stimulation of skeletal muscle glucose uptake by contraction/AMPK activation. PIKfyve is a new AMPK substrate whose phosphorylation at Ser307 could promote PIKfyve translocation to endosomes for PtdIns(3,5)P2 synthesis to facilitate GLUT4 (glucose transporter 4) translocation.

  11. The AMPK/SNF1/SnRK1 fuel gauge and energy regulator: structure, function and regulation.

    PubMed

    Ghillebert, Ruben; Swinnen, Erwin; Wen, Jing; Vandesteene, Lies; Ramon, Matthew; Norga, Koen; Rolland, Filip; Winderickx, Joris

    2011-11-01

    All life forms on earth require a continuous input and monitoring of carbon and energy supplies. The AMP-activated kinase (AMPK)/sucrose non-fermenting1 (SNF1)/Snf1-related kinase1 (SnRK1) protein kinases are evolutionarily conserved metabolic sensors found in all eukaryotic organisms from simple unicellular fungi (yeast SNF1) to animals (AMPK) and plants (SnRK1). Activated by starvation and energy-depleting stress conditions, they enable energy homeostasis and survival by up-regulating energy-conserving and energy-producing catabolic processes, and by limiting energy-consuming anabolic metabolism. In addition, they control normal growth and development as well as metabolic homeostasis at the organismal level. As such, the AMPK/SNF1/SnRK1 kinases act in concert with other central signaling components to control carbohydrate uptake and metabolism, fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis and the storage of carbon energy reserves. Moreover, they have a tremendous impact on developmental processes that are triggered by environmental changes such as nutrient depletion or stress. Although intensive research by many groups has partly unveiled the factors that regulate AMPK/SNF1/SnRK1 kinase activity as well as the pathways and substrates they control, several fundamental issues still await to be clarified. In this review, we will highlight these issues and focus on the structure, function and regulation of the AMPK/SNF1/SnRK1 kinases.

  12. Effects of lipoic acid on AMPK and adiponectin in adipose tissue of low- and high-fat-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Hontoria, Pedro L; Pérez-Matute, Patricia; Fernández-Galilea, Marta; Alfredo Martínez, J; Moreno-Aliaga, María J

    2013-03-01

    Lipoic acid (LA) is an antioxidant with antiobesity and antidiabetic properties. Adiponectin is an adipokine with potent anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key enzyme involved in cellular energy homeostasis. Activation of AMPK has been considered as a target to reverse the metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of LA on AMPK phosphorylation and adiponectin production in adipose tissue of low-fat (control diet) and high-fat diet-fed rats. Dietary supplementation with LA reduced body weight and adiposity in control and high-fat-fed rats. LA also reduced basal hyperinsulinemia as well as the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) levels, an index of insulin resistance, in high-fat-fed rats, which was in part independent of their food intake lowering actions. Furthermore, AMPK phosphorylation was increased in white adipose tissue (WAT) from LA-treated rats as compared with pair-fed animals. Dietary supplementation with LA also upregulated adiponectin gene expression in WAT, while a negative correlation between adiposity-corrected adiponectin levels and HOMA index was found. Our present data suggest that the ability of LA supplementation to prevent insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed rats might be related in part to the stimulation of AMPK and adiponectin in WAT.

  13. Hypoxia leads to Na,K-ATPase downregulation via Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) channels and AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Gusarova, Galina A; Trejo, Humberto E; Dada, Laura A; Briva, Arturo; Welch, Lynn C; Hamanaka, Robert B; Mutlu, Gökhan M; Chandel, Navdeep S; Prakriya, Murali; Sznajder, Jacob I

    2011-09-01

    To maintain cellular ATP levels, hypoxia leads to Na,K-ATPase inhibition in a process dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activation of AMP-activated kinase α1 (AMPK-α1). We report here that during hypoxia AMPK activation does not require the liver kinase B1 (LKB1) but requires the release of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and redistribution of STIM1 to ER-plasma membrane junctions, leading to calcium entry via Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels. This increase in intracellular Ca(2+) induces Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ)-mediated AMPK activation and Na,K-ATPase downregulation. Also, in cells unable to generate mitochondrial ROS, hypoxia failed to increase intracellular Ca(2+) concentration while a STIM1 mutant rescued the AMPK activation, suggesting that ROS act upstream of Ca(2+) signaling. Furthermore, inhibition of CRAC channel function in rat lungs prevented the impairment of alveolar fluid reabsorption caused by hypoxia. These data suggest that during hypoxia, calcium entry via CRAC channels leads to AMPK activation, Na,K-ATPase downregulation, and alveolar epithelial dysfunction.

  14. AMPK antagonizes hepatic glucagon-stimulated cyclic AMP signalling via phosphorylation-induced activation of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 4B

    PubMed Central

    Johanns, M.; Lai, Y.-C.; Hsu, M.-F.; Jacobs, R.; Vertommen, D.; Van Sande, J.; Dumont, J. E.; Woods, A.; Carling, D.; Hue, L.; Viollet, B.; Foretz, M; Rider, M H

    2016-01-01

    Biguanides such as metformin have previously been shown to antagonize hepatic glucagon-stimulated cyclic AMP (cAMP) signalling independently of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) via direct inhibition of adenylate cyclase by AMP. Here we show that incubation of hepatocytes with the small-molecule AMPK activator 991 decreases glucagon-stimulated cAMP accumulation, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity and downstream PKA target phosphorylation. Moreover, incubation of hepatocytes with 991 increases the Vmax of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) without affecting intracellular adenine nucleotide concentrations. The effects of 991 to decrease glucagon-stimulated cAMP concentrations and activate PDE4B are lost in hepatocytes deleted for both catalytic subunits of AMPK. PDE4B is phosphorylated by AMPK at three sites, and by site-directed mutagenesis, Ser304 phosphorylation is important for activation. In conclusion, we provide a new mechanism by which AMPK antagonizes hepatic glucagon signalling via phosphorylation-induced PDE4B activation. PMID:26952277

  15. Methyl-β-cyclodextrin restores impaired autophagy flux in Niemann-Pick C1-deficient cells through activation of AMPK.

    PubMed

    Dai, Sheng; Dulcey, Andrés E; Hu, Xin; Wassif, Christopher A; Porter, Forbes D; Austin, Christopher P; Ory, Daniel S; Marugan, Juan; Zheng, Wei

    2017-08-03

    The drug 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) reduces lysosomal cholesterol accumulation in Niemann-Pick disease, type C (NPC) and has been advanced to human clinical trials. However, its mechanism of action for reducing cholesterol accumulation in NPC cells is uncertain and its molecular target is unknown. We found that methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), a potent analog of HPβCD, restored impaired macroautophagy/autophagy flux in Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) cells. This effect was mediated by a direct activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an upstream kinase in the autophagy pathway, through MβCD binding to its β-subunits. Knockdown of PRKAB1 or PRKAB2 (encoding the AMPK β1 or β2 subunit) expression and an AMPK inhibitor abolished MβCD-mediated reduction of cholesterol storage in NPC1 cells. The results demonstrate that AMPK is the molecular target of MβCD and its activation enhances autophagy flux, thereby mitigating cholesterol accumulation in NPC1 cells. The results identify AMPK as an attractive target for drug development to treat NPC.

  16. Activation of AMPK attenuates LPS-induced acute lung injury by upregulation of PGC1α and SOD1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guizuo; Song, Yang; Feng, Wei; Liu, Lu; Zhu, Yanting; Xie, Xinming; Pan, Yilin; Ke, Rui; Li, Shaojun; Li, Fangwei; Yang, Lan; Li, Manxiang

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that an imbalance between oxidation and antioxidation is involved in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been shown to inhibit the occurrence of ALI/ARDS. However, it is unknown whether activation of AMPK benefits ALI/ARDS by restoration of the oxidant and antioxidant balance, and which mechanisms are responsible for this process. The present study aimed to address these issues. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced pronounced pathological changes of ALI in mice; these were accompanied by elevated production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) compared with control mice. Prior treatment of mice with the AMPK agonist metformin significantly suppressed the LPS-induced development of ALI, reduced the elevation of MDA and increased the activity of SOD. Further analysis indicated that activation of AMPK also stimulated the protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). This study suggests that activation of AMPK by metformin inhibits oxidative stress by upregulation of PGC1α and SOD1, thereby suppressing the development of ALI/ARDS, and has potential value in the clinical treatment of such conditions. PMID:27602077

  17. Activation of AMPK/MnSOD signaling mediates anti-apoptotic effect of hepatitis B virus in hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Hong, Hong-Hai; Chen, Shi-Ping; Ma, Cai-Qi; Liu, Han-Yan; Yao, Ya-Chao

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-apoptotic capability of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the HepG2 hepatoma cell line and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Cell viability and apoptosis were measured by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Targeted knockdown of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) genes as well as AMPK agonist AICAR and antagonist compound C were employed to determine the correlations of expression of these genes. RESULTS: HBV markedly protected the hepatoma cells from growth suppression and cell death in the condition of serum deprivation. A decrease of superoxide anion production accompanied with an increase of MnSOD expression and activity was found in HepG2.215 cells. Moreover, AMPK activation contributed to the up-regulation of MnSOD. HBx protein was identified to induce the expression of AMPK and MnSOD. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that HBV suppresses mitochondrial superoxide level and exerts an anti-apoptotic effect by activating AMPK/MnSOD signaling pathway, which may provide a novel pharmacological strategy to prevent HCC. PMID:27158203

  18. Endothelial AMPK Activation Induces Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Stress Adaptation via eNOS-Dependent mTORC1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunying; Reif, Michaella M; Craige, Siobhan; Kant, Shashi; Keaney, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic stress sensors like AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are known to confer stress adaptation and promote longevity in lower organisms. This study demonstrates that activating the metabolic stress sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in endothelial cells helps maintain normal cellular function by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and stress adaptation. To better define the mechanisms whereby AMPK promotes endothelial stress resistance, we used 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) to chronically activate AMPK and observed stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in wild type mouse endothelium, but not in endothelium from endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout (eNOS-null) mice. Interestingly, AICAR-enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis was blocked by pretreatment with the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibitor, rapamycin. Further, AICAR stimulated mTORC1 as determined by phosphorylation of its known downstream effectors in wild type, but not eNOS-null, endothelial cells. Together these data indicate that eNOS is needed to couple AMPK activation to mTORC1 and thus promote mitochondrial biogenesis and stress adaptation in the endothelium. These data suggest a novel mechanism for mTORC1 activation that is significant for investigations in vascular dysfunction. PMID:26989010

  19. EGCG Blocked Phenylephrin-Induced Hypertrophy in H9C2 Cardiomyocytes, by Activating AMPK-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li; Qin, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of energy metabolism. Previous studies have shown that activation of AMPK results in suppression of cardiac myocyte hypertrophy via inhibition of the p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) and eukaryotic elongation factor-2 (eEF2) signaling pathways. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol found in green tea, possesses multiple protective effects on the cardiovascular system including cardiac hypertrophy. However, the molecular mechanisms has not been well investigated. In this study, we found that EGCG could significantly reduce natriuretic peptides type A (Nppa), brain natriuretic polypeptide (BNP) mRNA expression and decrease cell surface area in H9C2 cardiomyocytes stimulated with phenylephrine (PE). Moreover, we showed that AMPK is activated in H9C2 cardiomyocytes by EGCG, and AMPK-dependent pathway participates in the inhibitory effects of EGCG on cardiac hypertrophy. Taken together, our findings provide the first evidence that the effect of EGCG against cardiac hypertrophy may be attributed to its activation on AMPK-dependent signaling pathway, suggesting the therapeutic potential of EGCG on the prevention of cardiac remodeling in patients with pressure overload hypertrophy. PMID:25954124

  20. α-Synuclein binds and sequesters PIKE-L into Lewy bodies, triggering dopaminergic cell death via AMPK hyperactivation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seong Su; Zhang, Zhentao; Liu, Xia; Manfredsson, Fredric P; He, Li; Iuvone, P Michael; Cao, Xuebing; Sun, Yi E; Jin, Lingjing; Ye, Keqiang

    2017-01-31

    The abnormal aggregation of fibrillar α-synuclein in Lewy bodies plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating α-synuclein pathological effects are incompletely understood. Here we show that α-synuclein binds phosphoinositide-3 kinase enhancer L (PIKE-L) in a phosphorylation-dependent manner and sequesters it in Lewy bodies, leading to dopaminergic cell death via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) hyperactivation. α-Synuclein interacts with PIKE-L, an AMPK inhibitory binding partner, and this action is increased by S129 phosphorylation through AMPK and is decreased by Y125 phosphorylation via Src family kinase Fyn. A pleckstrin homology (PH) domain in PIKE-L directly binds α-synuclein and antagonizes its aggregation. Accordingly, PIKE-L overexpression decreases dopaminergic cell death elicited by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), whereas PIKE-L knockdown elevates α-synuclein oligomerization and cell death. The overexpression of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or α-synuclein induces greater dopaminergic cell loss and more severe motor defects in PIKE-KO and Fyn-KO mice than in wild-type mice, and these effects are attenuated by the expression of dominant-negative AMPK. Hence, our findings demonstrate that α-synuclein neutralizes PIKE-L's neuroprotective actions in synucleinopathies, triggering dopaminergic neuronal death by hyperactivating AMPK.

  1. PP2A catalytic subunit silence by microRNA-429 activates AMPK and protects osteoblastic cells from dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shiguang; Chen, Caiyun; Ji, Feng; Mao, Li; Xie, Yue

    2017-06-03

    Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) could efficiently protect osteoblasts from dexamethasone (Dex). Here, we aim to induce AMPK activation through miRNA-mediated downregulating its phosphatase, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). We discovered that microRNA-429 ("miR-429") targets the catalytic subunit of PP2A (PP2A-c). Significantly, expression of miR-429 downregulated PP2A-c and activated AMPK (p-AMPKα1 Thr172) in human osteoblastic cells (OB-6 and hFOB1.19 lines). Remarkably, miR-429 expression alleviated Dex-induced osteoblastic cell death and apoptosis. On the other hand, miR-429-induced AMPK activation and osteoblast cytoprotection were almost abolished when AMPKα1 was either silenced (by targeted shRNA) or mutated (T172A inactivation). Further studies showed that miR-429 expression in osteoblastic cells increased NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) content to significantly inhibit Dex-induced oxidative stress. Such effect by miR-429 was again abolished with AMPKα1 silence or mutation. Together, we propose that PP2A-c silence by miR-429 activates AMPK and protects osteoblastic cells from Dex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. AMPK activation by peri-sciatic nerve administration of ozone attenuates CCI-induced neuropathic pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lijuan; Pan, Cailong; Chen, Lu; Hu, Liang; Wang, Chaoyu; Han, Yuan; Yang, Yanjing; Cheng, Zhixiang; Liu, Wen-Tao

    2017-04-01

    Neuropathic pain is a debilitating clinical condition with few efficacious treatments, warranting development of novel therapeutics. Ozone is widely used as an alternative therapy for many different pain conditions, with exact mechanisms still elusive. In this study, we found that a single peri-sciatic nerve injection of ozone decreased mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, and normalized the phosphorylation of protein kinase C γ, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model in rat sciatic nerve. Meanwhile, ozone significantly suppressed CCI-induced activation of spinal microglia. More importantly, the anti-nociceptive effect of ozone depended on the activation of 5'-adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which was proved by the fact that the phosphorylated AMPK level increased during the ozone therapy and AMPK antagonist abolished the effect of ozone in vivo and in vitro. In addition, direct injection of AMPK agonist could replicate the anti-nociceptive effect of ozone in CCI rats. In conclusion, our observations indicate that peri-sciatic nerve injection of ozone activates AMPK to attenuate CCI-induced neuropathic pain. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Folliculin controls lung alveolar enlargement and epithelial cell survival through E-cadherin, LKB1, and AMPK.

    PubMed

    Goncharova, Elena A; Goncharov, Dmitry A; James, Melane L; Atochina-Vasserman, Elena N; Stepanova, Victoria; Hong, Seung-Beom; Li, Hua; Gonzales, Linda; Baba, Masaya; Linehan, W Marston; Gow, Andrew J; Margulies, Susan; Guttentag, Susan; Schmidt, Laura S; Krymskaya, Vera P

    2014-04-24

    Spontaneous pneumothoraces due to lung cyst rupture afflict patients with the rare disease Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome, which is caused by mutations of the tumor suppressor gene folliculin (FLCN). The underlying mechanism of the lung manifestations in BHD is unclear. We show that BHD lungs exhibit increased alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis and that Flcn deletion in mouse lung epithelium leads to cell apoptosis, alveolar enlargement, and an impairment of both epithelial barrier and overall lung function. We find that Flcn-null epithelial cell apoptosis is the result of impaired AMPK activation and increased cleaved caspase-3. AMPK activator LKB1 and E-cadherin are downregulated by Flcn loss and restored by its expression. Correspondingly, Flcn-null cell survival is rescued by the AMPK activator AICAR or constitutively active AMPK. AICAR also improves lung condition of Flcn(f/f):SP-C-Cre mice. Our data suggest that lung cysts in BHD may result from an underlying defect in alveolar epithelial cell survival, attributable to FLCN regulation of the E-cadherin-LKB1-AMPK axis. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Glucose Alters Per2 Rhythmicity Independent of AMPK, Whereas AMPK Inhibitor Compound C Causes Profound Repression of Clock Genes and AgRP in mHypoE-37 Hypothalamic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Oosterman, Johanneke E.; Belsham, Denise D.

    2016-01-01

    Specific neurons in the hypothalamus are regulated by peripheral hormones and nutrients to maintain proper metabolic control. It is unclear if nutrients can directly control clock gene expression. We have therefore utilized the immortalized, hypothalamic cell line mHypoE-37, which exhibits robust circadian rhythms of core clock genes. mHypoE-37 neurons were exposed to 0.5 or 5.5 mM glucose, comparable to physiological levels in the brain. Per2 and Bmal1 mRNAs were assessed every 3 hours over 36 hours. Incubation with 5.5 mM glucose significantly shortened the period and delayed the phase of Per2 mRNA levels, but had no effect on Bmal1. Glucose had no significant effect on phospho-GSK3β, whereas AMPK phosphorylation was altered. Thus, the AMPK inhibitor Compound C was utilized, and mRNA levels of Per2, Bmal1, Cryptochrome1 (Cry1), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C (Cpt1c), and O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (Ogt) were measured. Remarkably, Compound C dramatically reduced transcript levels of Per2, Bmal1, Cry1, and AgRP, but not Cpt1c or Ogt. Because AMPK was not inhibited at the same time or concentrations as the clock genes, we suggest that the effect of Compound C on gene expression occurs through an AMPK-independent mechanism. The consequences of inhibition of the rhythmic expression of clock genes, and in turn downstream metabolic mediators, such as AgRP, could have detrimental effects on overall metabolic processes. Importantly, the effects of the most commonly used AMPK inhibitor Compound C should be interpreted with caution, considering its role in AMPK-independent repression of specific genes, and especially clock gene rhythm dysregulation. PMID:26784927

  5. Glucose Alters Per2 Rhythmicity Independent of AMPK, Whereas AMPK Inhibitor Compound C Causes Profound Repression of Clock Genes and AgRP in mHypoE-37 Hypothalamic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Oosterman, Johanneke E; Belsham, Denise D

    2016-01-01

    Specific neurons in the hypothalamus are regulated by peripheral hormones and nutrients to maintain proper metabolic control. It is unclear if nutrients can directly control clock gene expression. We have therefore utilized the immortalized, hypothalamic cell line mHypoE-37, which exhibits robust circadian rhythms of core clock genes. mHypoE-37 neurons were exposed to 0.5 or 5.5 mM glucose, comparable to physiological levels in the brain. Per2 and Bmal1 mRNAs were assessed every 3 hours over 36 hours. Incubation with 5.5 mM glucose significantly shortened the period and delayed the phase of Per2 mRNA levels, but had no effect on Bmal1. Glucose had no significant effect on phospho-GSK3β, whereas AMPK phosphorylation was altered. Thus, the AMPK inhibitor Compound C was utilized, and mRNA levels of Per2, Bmal1, Cryptochrome1 (Cry1), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C (Cpt1c), and O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (Ogt) were measured. Remarkably, Compound C dramatically reduced transcript levels of Per2, Bmal1, Cry1, and AgRP, but not Cpt1c or Ogt. Because AMPK was not inhibited at the same time or concentrations as the clock genes, we suggest that the effect of Compound C on gene expression occurs through an AMPK-independent mechanism. The consequences of inhibition of the rhythmic expression of clock genes, and in turn downstream metabolic mediators, such as AgRP, could have detrimental effects on overall metabolic processes. Importantly, the effects of the most commonly used AMPK inhibitor Compound C should be interpreted with caution, considering its role in AMPK-independent repression of specific genes, and especially clock gene rhythm dysregulation.

  6. Interactome analysis of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-α1 and -β1 in INS-1 pancreatic beta-cells by affinity purification-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sungyoon; Han, Dohyun; Kim, Yikwon; Jin, Jonghwa; Ho, Won-Kyung; Kim, Youngsoo

    2014-03-14

    The heterotrimeric enzyme AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major metabolic factor that regulates the homeostasis of cellular energy. In particular, AMPK mediates the insulin resistance that is associated with type 2 diabetes. Generally, cellular processes require tight regulation of protein kinases, which is effected through their formation of complex with other proteins and substrates. Despite their critical function in regulation and pathogenesis, there are limited data on the interaction of protein kinases. To identify proteins that interact with AMPK, we performed large-scale affinity purification (AP)-mass spectrometry (MS) of the AMPK-α1 and -β1 subunits. Through a comprehensive analysis, using a combination of immunoprecipitaion and ion trap mass spectrometry, we identified 381 unique proteins in the AMPKα/β interactomes: 325 partners of AMPK-α1 and 243 for AMPK-β1. Further, we identified 196 novel protein-protein interactions with AMPK-α1 and AMPK-β1. Notably, in our bioinformatics analysis, the novel interaction partners mediated functions that are related to the regulation of actin organization. Specifically, several such proteins were linked to pancreatic beta-cell functions, including glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, beta-cell development, beta-cell differentiation, and cell-cell communication.

  7. AMPK activation by isorhamnetin protects hepatocytes against oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Dong, Guang-Zhi; Lee, Ju-Hee; Ki, Sung Hwan; Yang, Ji Hye; Cho, Il Je; Kang, Seung Ho; Zhao, Rong Jie; Kim, Sang Chan; Kim, Young Woo

    2014-10-05

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is a ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid that is found in the phospholipids of membranes and released from the cellular membrane lipid bilayer by phospholipase A2. During this process, AA could produce excess reactive oxygen species and induce apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction by selectively inhibiting complexes I and III. Isorhamnetin, an O-methylated flavonol aglycone, has been shown to have cardio-protective, anti-adipogenic, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of isorhamnetin on hepatotoxicity and the underlying mechanisms involved. Our in vitro experiments showed that isorhamnetin dose-dependently blocked the hepatotoxicity induced by treatment with AA plus iron in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, isorhamnetin inhibited the AA+iron induced generation of reactive oxygen species and reduction of glutathione, and subsequently maintained mitochondria membrane potential in AA+iron treated HepG2 cells. In addition, isorhamnetin activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by Thr-172 phosphorylation of AMPKα, and this was mediated with Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-2 (CaMKK2), but not liver kinase B1. Experiments using CaMKK2 siRNA or its selective inhibitor, STO-609, revealed the role of CaMKK2 in the isorhamnetin-induced activation of AMPK in HepG2 cells. These results indicate isorhamnetin protects against the hepatotoxic effect of AA plus iron, and suggest that the AMPK pathway is involved in the mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of isorhamnetin in the liver.

  8. Disturbed adiponectin – AMPK system in skeletal muscle of patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Van Berendoncks, An M; Stensvold, Dorthe; Garnier, Anne; Fortin, Dominique; Sente, Tahnee; Vrints, Christiaan J; Arild, Slørdahl Stig; Ventura-Clapier, Renee; Wisløff, Ulrik; Conraads, Viviane M

    2015-02-01

    Patients with metabolic syndrome are characterized by low circulating adiponectin levels and reduced adiponectin sensitivity in skeletal muscles. Through binding on its main skeletal muscle receptor AdipoR1, adiponectin activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key player in energy homeostasis. Fourteen metabolic syndrome patients and seven healthy control subjects were included. Blood samples were taken to determine insulin resistance, adiponectin, lipoproteins, and C-reactive protein. Muscle biopsies (m. vastus lateralis) were obtained to assess mRNA expression of AdipoR1 and both AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 subunits, as well as downstream targets in lipid and glucose metabolism. Skeletal muscle mRNA expression of AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 was lower in metabolic syndrome patients (100 ± 6 vs. 122 ± 8 AU, p = 0.030 and 64 ± 4 vs. 85 ± 9 AU, p = 0.044, respectively), whereas the expression of AdipoR1 was upregulated (138 ± 9 vs. 105 ± 7, p = 0.012). AMPKα1 and AdipoR1 correlated positively in both the control (r = 0.964, p < 0.001) and the metabolic syndrome group (r = 0.600, p = 0.023). However, this relation was shifted upwards in metabolic syndrome patients, indicating increased AdipoR1mRNA expression for a similar AMPKα1 expression. Previously, a blunted stimulatory effect of adiponectin on AMPK activation has been shown in metabolic syndrome patients. The present data suggest that the disturbed interaction of adiponectin with AMPK is located downstream of the AdipoR1 receptor. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. The AMPK pathway mediates an anti-adipogenic effect of fruits of Hovenia dulcis Thunb.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Lin; Sim, Jung-Eun; Choi, Hyun-Myung; Choi, In-Young; Jeong, Mi-Young; Park, Jinbong; Jung, Yunu; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Cho, Jung-Hee; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Hwang, Min-Woo; Jin, Jong-Sik; Hong, Seung-Heon; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Um, Jae-Young

    2014-11-01

    Hovenia dulcis Thunb. is well known as a treatment for liver disease. Several studies have demonstrated that extracts of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. or its purified compounds can serve as detoxifying agents for alcohol poisoning. However, its anti-obesity effect has not been reported thus far. In this study, the anti-obesity effect of water extracts from the fruits or stems of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. was examined in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The cellular lipid contents in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were assessed by Oil Red O staining. Fruits of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (FHD) significantly inhibit lipid accumulation during adipogenesis in a dose-dependent manner, but not stems of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. FHD (100 μg ml(-1)) significantly down-regulates the expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2, adiponectin, and resistin, and the inhibition rates were 29.33%, 54.36%, 34.5%, 55.69%, and 60.39%, respectively. In addition, FHD (100 μg ml(-1)) also up-regulates the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-α, liver kinase B1 as a major AMPK kinase, and the downstream substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and the inhibition rates were 43.52%, 38.25%, and 20.39%, respectively. These results indicate that FHD has a significant anti-obesity effect through the modulation of the AMPK pathway, suggesting that FHD has a potential benefit in preventing obesity.

  10. [PPARα attenuates palmitate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress in human cardiac cells by enhancing AMPK activity].

    PubMed

    Palomer, Xavier; Capdevila-Busquets, Eva; Garreta, Gerard; Davidson, Mercy M; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been linked to several cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, heart failure and cardiac hypertrophy. ER stress impairs insulin signalling, thus contributing to the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. Since several studies have reported that PPARα may inhibit ER stress, the main aim of this study consisted in investigating whether activation of this nuclear receptor is able to prevent lipid-induced ER stress in cardiac cells, as well as studying the mechanisms involved. A cardiomyocyte cell line of human origin, AC16, was treated with palmitate in the presence or absence of several AMPK and PPARα pharmacological agonists and antagonists. For the in vivo studies, wild-type male mice were fed a standard diet, or a high-fat diet (HFD), for two months. At the end of the experiments, several ER stress markers were assessed in cardiac cells or in the mice hearts, using real-time RT-PCR and Western-blot analyses. The results demonstrate that both palmitate and the HFD induced ER stress in cardiac cells, since they upregulated the expression (ATF3, BiP/GRP78 and CHOP), splicing (sXBP1), and phosphorylation (IRE-1α and eIF2α) of several ER stress markers. Interestingly, treatment with the PPARα agonist Wy-14,643 prevented an increase in the majority of these ER stress markers in human cardiac cells by means of AMPK activation. These data indicate that PPARα activation by Wy-14,643 might be useful to prevent the harmful effects of ER stress and associated cardiovascular diseases in obese patients, and even during diabetic cardiomyopathy, by enhancing AMPK activity. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Puerarin ameliorates hepatic steatosis by activating the PPARα and AMPK signaling pathways in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ok-Hwa; Kim, Sung-Bae; Mun, Su-Hyun; Seo, Yun-Soo; Hwang, Hyeong-Chil; Lee, Young-Mi; Lee, Ho-Seob; Kang, Dae-Gil; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

    2015-03-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and is the leading cause of chronic liver disease. Steatohepatitis plays a critical role in the process resulting in liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Puerarin is a herbal product widely used in Asia, and is believed to have therapeutic benefits for alleviating the symptoms of steatohepatitis. The present study was designed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of puerarin in reducing lipid accumulation in oleic acid (OA)-treated HepG2 cells. Hepatocytes were treated with OA with or without puerarin to observe lipid accumulation by Oil Red O staining. We also examined hepatic lipid contents (e.g., triacylglycerol and cholesterol) following treatment with puerarin. Western blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to measure sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1, fatty acid synthase (FAS), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) protein and mRNA expression, respectively. Our results revealed that puerarin suppressed OA-induced lipid accumulation, and reduced the triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels. Furthermore, puerarin decreased the expression levels of lipogenic enzymes, such as FAS and SREBPs, and increased the expression levels of PPARα, which are critical regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism through the AMPK signaling pathway. These results indicate that puerarin has the same ability to activate AMPK, and reduce SREBP-1 and FAS expression, thus inhibiting hepatic lipogenesis and increasing hepatic antioxidant activity. We found that puerarin exerted a regulatory effect on lipid accumulation by decreasing lipogenesis in hepatocytes. Therefore, puerarin extract may have therapeutic benefits in the treatment of fatty liver and lipid-related metabolic disorders.

  12. Environmental and Genetic Preconditioning for Long-Term Anoxia Responses Requires AMPK in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    LaRue, Bobby L.; Padilla, Pamela A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Preconditioning environments or therapeutics, to suppress the cellular damage associated with severe oxygen deprivation, is of interest to our understanding of diseases associated with oxygen deprivation. Wildtype C. elegans exposed to anoxia enter into a state of suspended animation in which energy-requiring processes reversibly arrest. C. elegans at all developmental stages survive 24-hours of anoxia exposure however, the ability of adult hermaphrodites to survive three days of anoxia significantly decreases. Mutations in the insulin-like signaling receptor (daf-2) and LIN-12/Notch (glp-1) lead to an enhanced long-term anoxia survival phenotype. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we show that the combined growth environment of 25°C and a diet of HT115 E. coli will precondition adult hermaphrodites to survive long-term anoxia; many of these survivors have normal movement after anoxia treatment. Animals fed the drug metformin, which induces a dietary-restriction like state in animals and activates AMPK in mammalian cell culture, have a higher survival rate when exposed to long-term anoxia. Mutations in genes encoding components of AMPK (aak-2, aakb-1, aakb-2, aakg-2) suppress the environmentally and genetically induced long-term anoxia survival phenotype. We further determine that there is a correlation between the animals that survive long-term anoxia and increased levels of carminic acid staining, which is a fluorescent dye that incorporates in with carbohydrates such as glycogen. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that small changes in growth conditions such as increased temperature and food source can influence the physiology of the animal thus affecting the responses to stress such as anoxia. Furthermore, this supports the idea that metformin should be further investigated as a therapeutic tool for treatment of oxygen-deprived tissues. Finally, the capacity for an animal to survive long bouts of severe oxygen deprivation is likely

  13. Activation of cannabinoid CB2 receptor-mediated AMPK/CREB pathway reduces cerebral ischemic injury.

    PubMed

    Choi, In-Young; Ju, Chung; Anthony Jalin, Angela M A; Lee, Da In; Prather, Paul L; Kim, Won-Ki

    2013-03-01

    The type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) was recently shown to mediate neuroprotection in ischemic injury. However, the role of CB2Rs in the central nervous system, especially neuronal and glial CB2Rs in the cortex, remains unclear. We, therefore, investigated anti-ischemic mechanisms of cortical CB2R activation in various ischemic models. In rat cortical neurons/glia mixed cultures, a CB2R agonist, trans-caryophyllene (TC), decreased neuronal injury and mitochondrial depolarization caused by oxygen-glucose deprivation/re-oxygenation (OGD/R); these effects were reversed by the selective CB2R antagonist, AM630, but not by a type 1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist, AM251. Although it lacked free radical scavenging and antioxidant enzyme induction activities, TC reduced OGD/R-evoked mitochondrial dysfunction and intracellular oxidative stress. Western blot analysis demonstrated that TC enhanced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB), and increased expression of the CREB target gene product, brain-derived neurotrophic factor. However, TC failed to alter the activity of either Akt or extracellular signal-regulated kinase, two major CB2R signaling pathways. Selective AMPK and CREB inhibitors abolished the neuroprotective effects of TC. In rats, post-ischemic treatment with TC decreased cerebral infarct size and edema, and increased phosphorylated CREB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in neurons. All protective effects of TC were reversed by co-administration with AM630. Collectively, these data demonstrate that cortical CB2R activation by TC ameliorates ischemic injury, potentially through modulation of AMPK/CREB signaling, and suggest that cortical CB2Rs might serve as a putative therapeutic target for cerebral ischemia.

  14. MD2 Blockage Protects Obesity-Induced Vascular Remodeling via Activating AMPK/Nrf2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lintao; Han, Jibo; Shan, Peiren; You, Shengban; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Yiyi; Wang, Jingying; Huang, Weijian; Wang, Yi; Liang, Guang

    2017-09-01

    Obesity and increased free fatty acid (FFA) levels are tightly linked with vascular oxidative stress and remodeling. Myeloid differentiation 2 (MD2), an important protein in innate immunity, is requisite for endotoxin lipopolysaccharide responsiveness. This study shows that palmitic acid (PA) also bonds to MD2, initiating cardiac inflammatory injury. However, it is not clear whether MD2 plays a role in noninflammatory systems such as obesity- and FFA-related oxidative stress involved in vascular remodeling and injury. The aim of this study is to examine whether MD2 participates in reactive oxygen species increase and vascular remodeling. Male MD2(-/-) mice and wild-type littermates with a C57BL/6 background were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) to establish obesity-induced vascular remodeling. Rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were treated with PA to induce oxidative stress and injury. In vivo, MD2 deficiency significantly reduced HFD-induced vascular oxidative stress, fibrosis, and remodeling, accompanied with AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) activation and nuclear factor erythroid (Nrf2) upregulation. In VSMCs and RAECs, inhibition of MD2 by neutralizing monoclonal antibody to MD2 or small interfering RNA knockdown significantly activated the AMPK/Nrf2-signaling pathway and reduced PA-induced oxidative stress and cell injury. It was demonstrated that the deletion or inhibition of MD2 protects against HFD/FFA-induced vascular oxidative stress and remodeling by activating the AMPK/Nrf2-signaling pathway. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  15. Resveratrol suppresses glial activation and alleviates trigeminal neuralgia via activation of AMPK.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan-jing; Hu, Liang; Xia, Ye-peng; Jiang, Chun-yi; Miao, Chen; Yang, Chun-qing; Yuan, Miao; Wang, Lin

    2016-04-19

    Glial activation and neuroinflammation in the spinal trigeminal nucleus (STN) play a pivotal role in the genesis and maintenance of trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Resveratrol, a natural compound from grape and red wine, has a potential anti-inflammatory effect. We hypothesized that resveratrol could significantly suppress neuroinflammation in the STN mediated by glial activation and further relieve TN. In this study, we evaluated whether resveratrol could alleviate trigeminal allodynia and explore the mechanism underlying the antinociceptive effect of resveratrol. Animals were orally injected with resveratrol after chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the infraorbital nerve. Mechanical thresholds of the affected whisker pad were measured to assess nociceptive behaviors. The STN was harvested to quantify the changing levels of p-NR1, p-PKC, TNF-α, and IL1-β by western blotting and detect the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and c-Fos by immunofluorescence. Glial activation was observed by immunofluorescence and western blotting. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation in vivo and in vitro was examined by western blotting. We found that resveratrol significantly attenuated trigeminal allodynia dose-dependently and decreased the increased expression of CGRP and c-Fos in the STN. Additionally, resveratrol showed an inhibitory effect on CCI-evoked astrocyte and microglia activation and reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the STN. Furthermore, the antinociceptive effect of resveratrol was partially mediated by reduced phosphorylation of MAP kinases via adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. AMPK activation in the STN glia via resveratrol has utility in the treatment of CCI-induced neuroinflammation and further implicates AMPK as a novel target for the attenuation of trigeminal neuralgia.

  16. Therapeutics targeting CD90-integrin-AMPK-CD133 signal axis in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ching; Chang, Yung-Sheng; Hsu, Hui-Ping; Yen, Meng-Chi; Huang, Hau-Lun; Cho, Chien-Yu; Wang, Chih-Yang; Weng, Tzu-Yang; Lai, Po-Ting; Chen, Ching-Shih; Lin, Yih-Jyh; Lai, Ming-Derg

    2015-12-15

    CD90 is used as a marker for cancer stem cell in liver cancer. We aimed to study the mechanism by which CD90 promoted liver cancer progression and identify the new therapeutic targets on CD90 signal pathway. Ectopic expression of CD90 in liver cancer cell lines enhanced anchorage-independent growth and tumor progression. Furthermore, CD90 promoted sphere formation in vitro and upregulated the expression of the cancer stem cell marker CD133. The CD133 expression was higher in CD45-CD90+ cells in liver cancer specimen. The natural carcinogenic molecules TGF-β-1, HGF, and hepatitis B surface antigen increased the expression of CD90 and CD133. Inhibition of CD90 by either shRNA or antibody attenuated the induction of CD133 and anchorage-independent growth. Lentiviral delivery of CD133 shRNA abolished the tumorigenicity induced by CD90. Ectopic expression of CD90 induced mTOR phosphorylation and AMPK dephosphorylation. Mutation of integrin binding-RLD domain in CD90 attenuated the induction of CD133 and anchorage-independent growth. Similar results were observed after silencing β3 integrin. Signaling analyses revealed that AMPK/mTOR and β3 integrin were required for the induction of CD133 and tumor formation by CD90. Importantly, the energy restriction mimetic agent OSU-CG5 reduced the CD90 population in fresh liver tumor sample and repressed the tumor growth. In contrast, sorafenib did not decrease the CD90+ population. In conclusion, the signal axis of CD90-integrin-mTOR/AMPK-CD133 is critical for promoting liver carcinogenesis. Molecules inhibiting the signal axis, including OSU-CG5 and other inhibitors, may serve as potential novel cancer therapeutic targets in liver cancer.

  17. Resveratrol attenuates high glucose-induced oxidative stress and cardiomyocyte apoptosis through AMPK.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuang; Yao, Qing; Ke, Zhiqiang; Chen, Hongguang; Wu, Jiliang; Liu, Chao

    2015-09-05

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) suggests a direct cellular insult to myocardium. Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis have been implicated in the pathogenesis of DCM. NADPH oxidase is a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in cardiomyocytes. Resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenol, has shown beneficial effects on some cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes. We aimed to examine the role of resveratrol on high glucose-induced NADPH oxidase-derived ROS production and cardiac apoptosis, together with modulation of protein signaling pathways in cardiomyocytes. Primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were exposed to 30 mmol/L high glucose with or without resveratrol. Cell viability, apoptosis, superoxide formation, NADPH oxidase activity and its subunits expression, antioxidant enzymes activities, as well as the potential regulatory molecules AMPK, Akt and GSK-3β were assessed in cardiac cells. Elevated ROS production induced by 30 mmol/L high glucose was inhibited with the addition of resveratrol in primary cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Consistently, resveratrol markedly suppressed the increased activity of NADPH oxidase and Rac1, as well as the enhanced expression of p67(phox), p47(phox), and gp91(phox) induced by high glucose. Lipid peroxidation, SOD, catalase, GSH-px activity and GSH content was reversed in the presence of resveratrol. Moreover, the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax was down regulated while anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was up regulated. And cardiac cell injury and apoptosis were markedly rescued by resveratrol. In addition, resveratrol significantly increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) at Thr172 in cardiomyocytes exposed to high glucose. Compound C, the pharmacologic inhibitor of AMPK, could mostly abrogate roles of resveratrol on cardiomyocytes in high glucose. In contrast, Akt and GSK-3β were little influenced by resveratrol. Our data

  18. Globular adiponectin ameliorates metabolic insulin resistance via AMPK-mediated restoration of microvascular insulin responses.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lina; Fu, Zhuo; Wu, Jing; Aylor, Kevin W; Barrett, Eugene J; Cao, Wenhong; Liu, Zhenqi

    2015-09-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine with anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties. Hypoadiponectinaemia is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance in obesity and diabetes. Insulin resistance is present in muscle microvasculature and this may contribute to decreased insulin delivery to, and action in, muscle. In this study we examined whether adiponectin ameliorates metabolic insulin resistance by affecting muscle microvascular recruitment. We demonstrated that a high-fat diet induces vascular adiponectin and insulin resistance but globular adiponectin administration can restore vascular insulin responses and improve insulin's metabolic action via an AMPK- and nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. This suggests that globular adiponectin might have a therapeutic potential for improving insulin resistance and preventing cardiovascular complications in patients with diabetes via modulation of microvascular insulin responses. Hypoadiponectinaemia is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance, and microvasculature plays a critical role in the regulation of insulin action in muscle. Here we tested whether adiponectin replenishment could improve metabolic insulin sensitivity in male rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) via the modulation of microvascular insulin responses. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a HFD or low-fat diet (LFD) for 4 weeks. Small resistance artery myograph changes in tension, muscle microvascular recruitment and metabolic response to insulin were determined. Compared with rats fed a LFD, HFD feeding abolished the vasodilatory actions of globular adiponectin (gAd) and insulin on pre-constricted distal saphenous arteries. Pretreatment with gAd improved insulin responses in arterioles isolated from HFD rats, which was blocked by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibition. Similarly, HFD abolished microvascular responses to either gAd or insulin and decreased insulin-stimulated glucose disposal by

  19. Globular adiponectin ameliorates metabolic insulin resistance via AMPK-mediated restoration of microvascular insulin responses

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lina; Fu, Zhuo; Wu, Jing; Aylor, Kevin W; Barrett, Eugene J; Cao, Wenhong; Liu, Zhenqi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hypoadiponectinaemia is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance, and microvasculature plays a critical role in the regulation of insulin action in muscle. Here we tested whether adiponectin replenishment could improve metabolic insulin sensitivity in male rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) via the modulation of microvascular insulin responses. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were fed either a HFD or low-fat diet (LFD) for 4 weeks. Small resistance artery myograph changes in tension, muscle microvascular recruitment and metabolic response to insulin were determined. Compared with rats fed a LFD, HFD feeding abolished the vasodilatory actions of globular adiponectin (gAd) and insulin on pre-constricted distal saphenous arteries. Pretreatment with gAd improved insulin responses in arterioles isolated from HFD rats, which was blocked by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibition. Similarly, HFD abolished microvascular responses to either gAd or insulin and decreased insulin-stimulated glucose disposal by ∼60%. However, supplementing gAd fully rescued insulin’s microvascular action and significantly improved the metabolic responses to insulin in HFD male rats and these actions were abolished by inhibition of either AMPK or nitric oxide production. We conclude that HFD induces vascular adiponectin and insulin resistance but gAd administration can restore vascular insulin responses and improve insulin’s metabolic action via an AMPK- and nitric oxide-dependent mechanism in male rats. Key points Adiponectin is an adipokine with anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties. Hypoadiponectinaemia is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance in obesity and diabetes. Insulin resistance is present in muscle microvasculature and this may contribute to decreased insulin delivery to, and action in, muscle. In this study we examined whether adiponectin ameliorates metabolic insulin resistance by affecting muscle

  20. LKB1 and AMPK differentially regulate pancreatic β-cell identity

    PubMed Central

    Kone, Marina; Pullen, Timothy J.; Sun, Gao; Ibberson, Mark; Martinez-Sanchez, Aida; Sayers, Sophie; Nguyen-Tu, Marie-Sophie; Kantor, Chase; Swisa, Avital; Dor, Yuval; Gorman, Tracy; Ferrer, Jorge; Thorens, Bernard; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona; McGinty, James A.; Chen, Lingling; French, Paul M.; Birzele, Fabian; Hildebrandt, Tobias; Uphues, Ingo; Rutter, Guy A.

    2014-01-01

    Fully differentiated pancreatic β cells are essential for normal glucose homeostasis in mammals. Dedifferentiation of these cells has been suggested to occur in type 2 diabetes, impairing insulin production. Since chronic fuel excess (“glucotoxicity”) is implicated in this process, we sought here to identify the potential roles in β-cell identity of the tumor suppressor liver kinase B1 (LKB1/STK11) and the downstream fuel-sensitive kinase, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Highly β-cell-restricted deletion of each kinase in mice, using an Ins1-controlled Cre, was therefore followed by physiological, morphometric, and massive parallel sequencing analysis. Loss of LKB1 strikingly (2.0–12-fold, E<0.01) increased the expression of subsets of hepatic (Alb, Iyd, Elovl2) and neuronal (Nptx2, Dlgap2, Cartpt, Pdyn) genes, enhancing glutamate signaling. These changes were partially recapitulated by the loss of AMPK, which also up-regulated β-cell “disallowed” genes (Slc16a1, Ldha, Mgst1, Pdgfra) 1.8- to 3.4-fold (E<0.01). Correspondingly, targeted promoters were enriched for neuronal (Zfp206; P=1.3×10−33) and hypoxia-regulated (HIF1; P=2.5×10−16) transcription factors. In summary, LKB1 and AMPK, through only partly overlapping mechanisms, maintain β-cell identity by suppressing alternate pathways leading to neuronal, hepatic, and other characteristics. Selective targeting of these enzymes may provide a new approach to maintaining β-cell function in some forms of diabetes.—Kone, M., Pullen, T. J., Sun, G., Ibberson, M., Martinez-Sanchez, A., Sayers, S., Nguyen-Tu, M.-S., Kantor, C., Swisa, A., Dor, Y., Gorman, T., Ferrer, J., Thorens, B., Reimann, F., Gribble, F., McGinty, J. A., Chen, L., French, P. M., Birzele, F., Hildebrandt, T., Uphues, I., Rutter, G. A. LKB1 and AMPK differentially regulate pancreatic β-cell identity. PMID:25070369

  1. Indazole-type alkaloids from Nigella sativa seeds exhibit antihyperglycemic effects via AMPK activation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Tao; Nahar, Pragati; Sharma, Meenakshi; Liu, Ke; Slitt, Angela; Aisa, H A; Seeram, Navindra P

    2014-10-24

    Six rare naturally occurring indazole-type alkaloids including two new compounds, 17-O-(β-d-glucopyranosyl)-4-O-methylnigellidine (1) and nigelanoid (2), and four known compounds (3-6) were isolated from a defatted extract of Nigella sativa (black cumin) seeds. 17-O-(β-d-Glucopyranosyl)-4-O-methylnigellidine (1) increased glucose consumption by liver hepatocytes (HepG2 cells) through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Also, this is the first report of compounds 4 and 6 from a natural source.

  2. Nootkatone, a characteristic constituent of grapefruit, stimulates energy metabolism and prevents diet-induced obesity by activating AMPK.

    PubMed

    Murase, Takatoshi; Misawa, Koichi; Haramizu, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yoshihiko; Hase, Tadashi

    2010-08-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine kinase that is implicated in the control of energy metabolism and is considered to be a molecular target for the suppression of obesity and the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Here, we identified and characterized nootkatone, a constituent of grapefruit, as a naturally occurring AMPK activator. Nootkatone induced an increase in AMPKalpha1 and -alpha2 activity along with an increase in the AMP/ATP ratio and an increase the phosphorylation of AMPKalpha and the downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), in C(2)C(12) cells. Nootkatone-induced activation of AMPK was possibly mediated both by LKB1 and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase. Nootkatone also upregulated PPARgamma coactivator-1alpha in C(2)C(12) cells and C57BL/6J mouse muscle. In addition, administration of nootkatone (200 mg/kg body wt) significantly enhanced AMPK activity, accompanied by LKB1, AMPK, and ACC phosphorylation in the liver and muscle of mice. Whole body energy expenditure evaluated by indirect calorimetry was also increased by nootkatone administration. Long-term intake of diets containing 0.1% to 0.3% (wt/wt) nootkatone significantly reduced high-fat and high-sucrose diet-induced body weight gain, abdominal fat accumulation, and the development of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperleptinemia in C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, endurance capacity, evaluated as swimming time to exhaustion in BALB/c mice, was 21% longer in mice fed 0.2% nootkatone than in control mice. These findings indicate that long-term intake of nootkatone is beneficial toward preventing obesity and improving physical performance and that these effects are due, at least in part, to enhanced energy metabolism through AMPK activation in skeletal muscle and liver.

  3. The pentacyclic triterpenoid, plectranthoic acid, a novel activator of AMPK induces apoptotic death in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Nosheen; Syed, Deeba N; Khan, Mohammad Imran; Adhami, Vaqar M; Mirza, Bushra; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2016-01-26

    Epidemiologic studies indicated that diabetics treated with metformin had a lower incidence of cancer than those taking other anti-diabetes drugs. This led to a surge in the efforts for identification of safer and more effective metformin mimetic compounds. The plant Ficus microcarpa is widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in traditional medicine in South Asia. We obtained extracts from this plant and identified a small molecule, plectranthoic acid (PA), with potent 5'AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) activating properties far superior than metformin. AMPK is the central hub of metabolic regulation and a well-studied therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes and cancer. We observed that treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) cells with PA inhibited proliferation and induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest that was associated with up-regulation of cyclin kinase inhibitors p21/CIP1 and p27/KIP1. PA treatment suppressed mTOR/S6K signaling and induced apoptosis in PCa cells in an AMPK-dependent manner. Interestingly, PA-induced autophagy in PCa cells was found to be independent of AMPK activation. Combination studies of PA and metformin demonstrated that metformin had an inhibitory effect on PA-induced AMPK activation and suppressed PA-mediated apoptosis. Given the anti-proliferative role of PA in cancer and its potent anti-hyperglycemic activity, we suggest that PA should be explored further as a novel activator of AMPK for its ultimate use for the prevention of cancers and treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  4. The pentacyclic triterpenoid, plectranthoic acid, a novel activator of AMPK induces apoptotic death in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Nosheen; Syed, Deeba N.; Khan, Mohammad Imran; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Mirza, Bushra; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicated that diabetics treated with metformin had a lower incidence of cancer than those taking other anti-diabetes drugs. This led to a surge in the efforts for identification of safer and more effective metformin mimetic compounds. The plant Ficus microcarpa is widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in traditional medicine in South Asia. We obtained extracts from this plant and identified a small molecule, plectranthoic acid (PA), with potent 5′AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) activating properties far superior than metformin. AMPK is the central hub of metabolic regulation and a well-studied therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes and cancer. We observed that treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) cells with PA inhibited proliferation and induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest that was associated with up-regulation of cyclin kinase inhibitors p21/CIP1 and p27/KIP1. PA treatment suppressed mTOR/S6K signaling and induced apoptosis in PCa cells in an AMPK-dependent manner. Interestingly, PA-induced autophagy in PCa cells was found to be independent of AMPK activation. Combination studies of PA and metformin demonstrated that metformin had an inhibitory effect on PA-induced AMPK activation and suppressed PA-mediated apoptosis. Given the anti-proliferative role of PA in cancer and its potent anti-hyperglycemic activity, we suggest that PA should be explored further as a novel activator of AMPK for its ultimate use for the prevention of cancers and treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26683363

  5. Ampelopsin Improves Insulin Resistance by Activating PPARγ and Subsequently Up-Regulating FGF21-AMPK Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yu; Liu, Lei; Wan, Jing; Zou, Lingyun; Zhang, Qianyong; Zhu, Jundong; Mi, Mantian

    2016-01-01

    Ampelopsin (APL), a major bioactive constituent of Ampelopsis grossedentata, exerts a number of biological effects. Here, we explored the anti-diabetic activity of APL and elucidate the underlying mechanism of this action. In palmitate-induced insulin resistance of L6 myotubes, APL treatment markedly up- regulated phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 and protein kinase B, along with a corresponding increase of glucose uptake capacity. APL treatment also increased expressions of fibroblast growth factor (FGF21) and phosphorylated adenosine 5’-monophosphate -activated protein kinase (p-AMPK), however inhibiting AMPK by Compound C or AMPK siRNA, or blockage of FGF21 by FGF21 siRNA, obviously weakened APL -induced increases of FGF21 and p-AMPK as well as glucose uptake capacity in palmitate -pretreated L6 myotubes. Furthermore, APL could activate PPAR γ resulting in increases of glucose uptake capacity and expressions of FGF21 and p-AMPK in palmitate -pretreated L6 myotubes, whereas all those effects were obviously abolished by addition of GW9662, a specific inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor –γ (PPARγ), and PPARγsiRNA. Using molecular modeling and the luciferase reporter assays, we observed that APL could dock with the catalytic domain of PPARγ and dose-dependently up-regulate PPARγ activity. In summary, APL maybe a potential agonist of PPARγ and promotes insulin sensitization by activating PPARγ and subsequently regulating FGF21- AMPK signaling pathway. These results provide new insights into the protective health effects of APL, especially for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27391974

  6. Berberine enhances the AMPK activation and autophagy and mitigates high glucose-induced apoptosis of mouse podocytes.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yingli; Liu, Shuping; Ma, Qingshan; Xiao, Dong; Chen, Li

    2017-01-05

    High glucose concentration can induce injury of podocytes and berberine has a potent activity against diabetic nephropathy. However, whether and how berberine can inhibit high glucose-mediated injury of podocytes have not been clarified. This study tested the effect of berberine on high glucose-mediated apoptosis and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation and autophagy in podocytes. The results indicated that berberine significantly mitigated high glucose-decreased cell viability, and nephrin and podocin expression as well as apoptosis in mouse podocytes. Berberine significantly increased the AMPK activation and mitigated high glucose and/or the AMPK inhibitor, compound C-mediated mTOR activation and apoptosis in podocytes. Berberine significantly enhanced the AMPK activation and protected from high glucose-induced apoptosis in the AMPK-silencing podocytes. Furthermore, berberine significantly increased the high glucose-elevated Unc-51-like autophagy-activating kinase 1 (ULK1) S317/S555 phosphorylation, Beclin-1 expression, the ratios of LC3II to LC3I expression and the numbers of autophagosomes, but reduced ULK1 S757 phosphorylation in podocytes. In addition, berberine significantly attenuated compound C-mediated inhibition of autophagy in podocytes. The protective effect of berberine on high glucose-induced podocyte apoptosis was significantly mitigated by pre-treatment with 3-methyladenine or bafilomycin A1. Collectively, berberine enhanced autophagy and protected from high glucose-induced injury in podocytes by promoting the AMPK activation. Our findings may provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-diabetic nephropathy effect of berberine and may aid in design of new therapies for intervention of diabetic nephropathy.

  7. Corosolic acid inhibits adipose tissue inflammation and ameliorates insulin resistance via AMPK activation in high-fat fed mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Leng, Jing; Li, Jing-Jing; Tang, Jing-fu; Li, Yi; Liu, Bao-Lin; Wen, Xiao-Dong

    2016-02-15

    Adipose tissue inflammation is tightly associated with the development of insulin resistance. Corosolic acid (CRA), a natural triterpenoid, is well known as "phyto-insulin" due to its insulin-like activities. However, its underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of CRA on improving insulin resistance both in vivo and in vitro. C57BL/6 mice were fed with normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD with CRA, respectively. General biochemical parameters in blood and glucose intolerance in mice were assayed. Meanwhile, proinflammatory cytokines and macrophage infiltrations in adipose tissues were analyzed by real-time PCR and immunohistochemical staining. The effects of CRA on insulin signaling transduction and AMPK activity in adipose tissues were investigated by western blot. Furthermore, the effects of CRA on AMPK were confirmed on 3T3-L1 cells by using both AMPK inhibitor and AMPKα1/2-specific siRNA RESULTS: CRA attenuated hyperlipidemia, improved insulin sensitivity and glucose intolerance in mice. Meanwhile, it alleviated inflammation in adipose tissues, demonstrated by the suppression of IKKβ phosphorylation and down-regulation of gene expressions of proinflammatory cytokines. Histological analysis revealed that CRA attenuated macrophage infiltrations into adipose tissue. It also improved insulin signaling transduction by modification of Ser/Thr phosphorylation of IRS-1 and downstream Akt, thereby improved insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed mice. Furthermore, CRA regulated AMPK activation in a LKB1-dependent manner. AMPKα knockdown in adipocytes abolished the inhibitory effects of CRA on IKKβ and IRS-1 serine phosphorylation, indicating that CRA inhibited inflammation and ameliorated insulin resistance via AMPK activation. CRA inhibited inflammation with improvement in adipose tissue dysfunction and ameliorated insulin resistance in an AMPK-dependent manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Cadmium induces autophagy through ROS-dependent activation of the LKB1-AMPK signaling in skin epidermal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Young-Ok; Wang Xin; Hitron, John Andrew; Zhang Zhuo; Cheng Senping; Budhraja, Amit; Ding Songze; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Shi Xianglin

    2011-09-15

    Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal which is environmentally and occupationally relevant. The mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced autophagy are not yet completely understood. The present study shows that cadmium induces autophagy, as demonstrated by the increase of LC3-II formation and the GFP-LC3 puncta cells. The induction of autophagosomes was directly visualized by electron microscopy in cadmium-exposed skin epidermal cells. Blockage of LKB1 or AMPK by siRNA transfection suppressed cadmium-induced autophagy. Cadmium-induced autophagy was inhibited in dominant-negative AMPK-transfected cells, whereas it was accelerated in cells transfected with the constitutively active form of AMPK. mTOR signaling, a negative regulator of autophagy, was downregulated in cadmium-exposed cells. In addition, cadmium generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) at relatively low levels, and caused poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP) activation and ATP depletion. Inhibition of PARP by pharmacological inhibitors or its siRNA transfection suppressed ATP reduction and autophagy in cadmium-exposed cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced autophagy signaling was attenuated by either exogenous addition of catalase and superoxide dismutase, or by overexpression of these enzymes. Consequently, these results suggest that cadmium-mediated ROS generation causes PARP activation and energy depletion, and eventually induces autophagy through the activation of LKB1-AMPK signaling and the down-regulation of mTOR in skin epidermal cells. - Highlights: > Cadmium, a toxic heavy metal, induces autophagic cell death through ROS-dependent activation of the LKB1-AMPK signaling. > Cadmium generates intracellular ROS at low levels and this leads to severe DNA damage and PARP activation, resulting in ATP depletion, which are the upstream events of LKB1-AMPK-mediated autophagy. > This novel finding may contribute to further understanding of cadmium-mediated diseases.

  9. Rapamycin requires AMPK activity and p27 expression for promoting autophagy-dependent Tsc2-null cell survival.

    PubMed

    Campos, Tania; Ziehe, Javiera; Fuentes-Villalobos, Francisco; Riquelme, Orlando; Peña, Daniela; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Lavandero, Sergio; Morin, Violeta; Pincheira, Roxana; Castro, Ariel F

    2016-06-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) disease results from inactivation of the TSC1 or TSC2 gene, and is characterized by benign tumors in several organs. Because TSC tumorigenesis correlates with hyperactivation of mTORC1, current therapies focus on mTORC1 inhibition with rapamycin or its analogs. Rapamycin-induced tumor shrinkage has been reported, but tumor recurrence occurs on withdrawal from rapamycin. Autophagy has been associated with development of TSC tumors and with tumor cell survival during rapamycin treatment. mTORC1 and AMPK directly inhibit and activate autophagy, respectively. AMPK is hyperactivated in TSC cells and tumors, and drives cytoplasmic sequestration of the cell-cycle inhibitor p27KIP (p27). Whether AMPK and p27 are involved in rapamycin-induced autophagy and survival of TSC cells remain unexplored. Here, we show that inhibition of AMPK by compound C or by shRNA-mediated depletion of LKB1 reduces activation of autophagy by rapamycin in Tsc2-null cells. Similarly, shRNA-mediated depletion of p27 inhibited rapamycin-induced autophagy. In support of p27 lying downstream of AMPK on the activation of autophagy in Tsc2-null cells, a p27 mutant that preferentially localizes in the cytosol recovered the effect of rapamycin on autophagy in both p27- and LKB1-depleted cells, but a nuclear p27 mutant was inactive. Finally, we show that p27-dependent activation of autophagy is involved in Tsc2-null cell survival under rapamycin treatment. These results indicate that an AMPK/p27 axis is promoting a survival mechanism that could explain in part the relapse of TSC tumors treated with rapamycin, exposing new avenues for designing more efficient treatments for TSC patients.

  10. Resveratrol protects against spinal cord injury by activating autophagy and inhibiting apoptosis mediated by the SIRT1/AMPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haosen; Chen, Shurui; Gao, Kai; Zhou, Zipeng; Wang, Chen; Shen, Zhaoliang; Guo, Yue; Li, Zhuo; Wan, Zhanghui; Liu, Chang; Mei, Xifan

    2017-04-21

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition with few effective treatments. Resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound, has exhibited neuroprotective effects in many neurodegenerative diseases. However, the explicit effect and mechanism of resveratrol on SCI is still unclear. Adenosine 5' monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), the downstream protein, play key roles in metabolizing of energy, resisting of resistance, and cellular protein homeostasis. In this study, we determined the effects of resveratrol on SCI and their potential relationship with SIRT1/AMPK signaling pathway, autophagy and apoptosis. To determine the effect of resveratrol on SCI recovery, a spinal cord contusion model was employed. Rats received treatment with resveratrol or DMSO immediately following contusion. We determined that Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scores were significantly higher for injured rats treated with resveratrol. Nissl and HE staining revealed that resveratrol treatment significantly reduced the loss of motor neurons and lesion size in the spinal cord of injured rats when compared to vehicle-treated animals. Spinal cord tissue was assessed by Western blot, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical analyses 7days after injury for changes in expression of SIRT1/AMPK signaling pathway, autophagy and apoptosis proteins. Expression of SIRT1, p-AMPK, Beclin-1, LC3-B, and Bcl-2 was elevated in resveratrol-treated animals, whereas expression of p62, Cleaved Caspase-3, Caspase-9, and Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) was inhibited. Immunofluorescence analysis of primary neurons treated with resveratrol alone or in combination with Compound C (AMPK inhibitor) or EX527 (SIRT1 inhibitor) revealed that treatment with the inhibitors blocks the increased LC3-B expression in cells and increases the portion of TUNEL-positive cells. Taken together, these results suggest that resveratrol exerts neuroprotective effects

  11. Carnosic acid as a component of rosemary extract stimulates skeletal muscle cell glucose uptake via AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Naimi, Madina; Vlavcheski, Filip; Murphy, Brennan; Hudlicky, Tomas; Tsiani, Evangelia

    2017-01-01

    Compounds that increase the activity of the energy sensor AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) have the potential to regulate blood glucose levels. Although rosemary extract (RE) has been reported to activate AMPK and reduce blood glucose levels in vivo, the chemical components responsible for these effects are not known. In the present study, we measured the levels of the polyphenol carnosic acid (CA) in RE and examined the effects and the mechanism of action of CA on glucose transport system in muscle cells. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to measure the levels of CA in RE. Parental and GLUT4myc or GLUT1myc overexpressing L6 rat myotubes were used. Glucose uptake was assessed using [(3) H]-2-deoxy-d-glucose. Total and phosphorylated levels of Akt and AMPK were measured by immunoblotting. Plasma membrane GLUT4myc and GLUT1myc levels were examined using a GLUT translocation assay. Statistics included analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post-hoc test. At concentrations found in rosemary extract, CA stimulated glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. At 2.0 μmol/L CA a response (226 ± 9.62% of control, P=.001), similar to maximum insulin (201 ± 7.86% of control, P=.001) and metformin (213 ± 10.74% of control, P=.001) was seen. Akt phosphorylation was not affected by CA while AMPK and ACC phosphorylation was increased and the CA-st