NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, J. X.; Zhang, L.
2005-01-01
Incremental harmonic balance (IHB) formulations are derived for general multiple degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) non-linear autonomous systems. These formulations are developed for a concerned four-d.o.f. aircraft wheel shimmy system with combined Coulomb and velocity-squared damping. A multi-harmonic analysis is performed and amplitudes of limit cycles are predicted. Within a large range of parametric variations with respect to aircraft taxi velocity, the IHB method can, at a much cheaper cost, give results with high accuracy as compared with numerical results given by a parametric continuation method. In particular, the IHB method avoids the stiff problems emanating from numerical treatment of aircraft wheel shimmy system equations. The development is applicable to other vibration control systems that include commonly used dry friction devices or velocity-squared hydraulic dampers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fay, Temple H.
2012-01-01
Viscous damping is commonly discussed in beginning differential equations and physics texts but dry friction or Coulomb friction is not despite dry friction being encountered in many physical applications. One reason for avoiding this topic is that the equations involve a jump discontinuity in the damping term. In this article, we adopt an energy…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fay, Temple H.
2012-01-01
Viscous damping is commonly discussed in beginning differential equations and physics texts but dry friction or Coulomb friction is not despite dry friction being encountered in many physical applications. One reason for avoiding this topic is that the equations involve a jump discontinuity in the damping term. In this article, we adopt an energy…
A Coulomb-Like Off-Shell T-Matrix with the Correct Coulomb Phase Shift
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oryu, Shinsho; Watanabe, Takashi; Hiratsuka, Yasuhisa; Togawa, Yoshio
2017-03-01
We confirm the reliability of the well-known Coulomb renormalization method (CRM). It is found that the CRM is only available for a very-long-range screened Coulomb potential (SCP). However, such an SCP calculation in momentum space is considerably difficult because of the cancelation of significant digits. In contrast to the CRM, we propose a new method by using an on-shell equivalent SCP and the rest term. The two-potential theory with r-space is introduced, which defines fully the off-shell Coulomb amplitude.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noll, Ellis; Koehlinger, Mervin; Kowalski, Ludwik; Swackhamer, Gregg
1998-01-01
Describes the use of a computer-linked camera to demonstrate Coulomb's law. Suggests a way of reducing the difficulties in presenting Coulomb's law by teaching the inverse square law of gravity and the inverse square law of electricity in the same unit. (AIM)
Diffusion in Coulomb crystals.
Hughto, J; Schneider, A S; Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K
2011-07-01
Diffusion in Coulomb crystals can be important for the structure of neutron star crusts. We determine diffusion constants D from molecular dynamics simulations. We find that D for Coulomb crystals with relatively soft-core 1/r interactions may be larger than D for Lennard-Jones or other solids with harder-core interactions. Diffusion, for simulations of nearly perfect body-centered-cubic lattices, involves the exchange of ions in ringlike configurations. Here ions "hop" in unison without the formation of long lived vacancies. Diffusion, for imperfect crystals, involves the motion of defects. Finally, we find that diffusion, for an amorphous system rapidly quenched from Coulomb parameter Γ=175 to Coulomb parameters up to Γ=1750, is fast enough that the system starts to crystalize during long simulation runs. These results strongly suggest that Coulomb solids in cold white dwarf stars, and the crust of neutron stars, will be crystalline and not amorphous.
Hughto, J.; Schneider, A. S.; Horowitz, C. J.; Berry, D. K.
2011-07-15
Diffusion in Coulomb crystals can be important for the structure of neutron star crusts. We determine diffusion constants D from molecular dynamics simulations. We find that D for Coulomb crystals with relatively soft-core 1/r interactions may be larger than D for Lennard-Jones or other solids with harder-core interactions. Diffusion, for simulations of nearly perfect body-centered-cubic lattices, involves the exchange of ions in ringlike configurations. Here ions ''hop'' in unison without the formation of long lived vacancies. Diffusion, for imperfect crystals, involves the motion of defects. Finally, we find that diffusion, for an amorphous system rapidly quenched from Coulomb parameter {Gamma}=175 to Coulomb parameters up to {Gamma}=1750, is fast enough that the system starts to crystalize during long simulation runs. These results strongly suggest that Coulomb solids in cold white dwarf stars, and the crust of neutron stars, will be crystalline and not amorphous.
The scattering of the screened Coulomb potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Xin-Wei; Chen, Wen-Li; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Wei, Gao-Feng
2014-08-01
We study the scattering states of the screened Coulomb potential in the nonrelativistic frame. The explicitly calculation formula of phase shift is derived and the normalized radial wave functions of scattering states on the ^{\\prime} k/2\\pi scale^{\\prime} are presented. By studying analytical properties of scattering amplitude the screening effects on bound states are discussed numerically. It is shown that the screening effects increase with increasing screened parameter, especially for large quantum states.
Coulomb collision effects on linear Landau damping
Callen, J. D.
2014-05-15
Coulomb collisions at rate ν produce slightly probabilistic rather than fully deterministic charged particle trajectories in weakly collisional plasmas. Their diffusive velocity scattering effects on the response to a wave yield an effective collision rate ν{sub eff} ≫ ν and a narrow dissipative boundary layer for particles with velocities near the wave phase velocity. These dissipative effects produce temporal irreversibility for times t ≳ 1/ν{sub eff} during Landau damping of a small amplitude Langmuir wave.
Positron scattering from hydrogen atom with screened Coulomb potentials
Ghoshal, Arijit; Nayek, Sujay; Kamali, M. Z. M.; Ratnavelu, K.
2014-03-05
Elastic positron-hydrogen collisions with screened Coulomb potentials have been investigated using a second-order distorted wave Born approximation in the momentum space. Two types of potentials have been considered, namely, static screened Coulomb potential and exponential cosine-screened Coulomb potential. Using a simple variationally determined hydrogenic wave function it has been possible to obtain the scattering amplitude in a closed form. A detailed study has been made on the differential and total cross sections in the energy range 20–300 eV.
Coulomb gauge ghost propagator and the Coulomb form factor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quandt, M.; Burgio, G.; Chimchinda, S.; Reinhardt, H.
The ghost propagator and the Coulomb potential are evaluated in Coulomb gauge on the lattice, using an improved gauge fixing scheme which includes the residual symmetry. This setting has been shown to be essential in order to explain the scaling violations in the instantaneous gluon propagator. We find that both the ghost propagator and the Coulomb potential are insensitive to the Gribov problem or the details of the residual gauge fixing, even if the Coulomb potential is evaluated from the A0 -propagator instead of the Coulomb kernel. In particular, no signs of scaling violations could be found in either quantity, at least to well below the numerical accuracy where these violations were visible for the gluon propagator. The Coulomb potential from the A0 -propagator is shown to be in qualitative agreement with the (formally equivalent) expression evaluated from the Coulomb kernel.
Polonyi, J.
2008-06-15
The contribution of different modes of the Coulomb field to decoherence and to the dynamical breakdown of the time reversal invariance is calculated in the one-loop approximation for nonrelativistic electron gas. The dominant contribution was found to come from the usual collective modes in the plasma, namely, the zero-sound and the plasmon oscillations. The length scale of the quantum-classical transition is found to be close to the Thomas-Fermi screening length. It is argued that the extension of these modes to the whole Fock space yields optimal pointer states.
Coulomb Interactions in Hanbury Brown-Twiss Experiments with Electrons
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shen, Kan
2009-01-01
This dissertation examines the effect of Coulomb interactions in Hanbury Brown-Twiss (HBT) type experiments with electrons. HBT experiments deal with intensity interference, which is related to the second-order correlation function of the particle field. This is an extension of the usual amplitude interference experiment, such as Young's…
Coulomb Interactions in Hanbury Brown-Twiss Experiments with Electrons
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shen, Kan
2009-01-01
This dissertation examines the effect of Coulomb interactions in Hanbury Brown-Twiss (HBT) type experiments with electrons. HBT experiments deal with intensity interference, which is related to the second-order correlation function of the particle field. This is an extension of the usual amplitude interference experiment, such as Young's…
A New Feature of the Screened Coulomb Potential in Momentum Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, Takashi; Hiratsuka, Yasuhisa; Oryu, Shinsho; Togawa, Yoshio
2017-03-01
A Coulomb equivalent screened Coulomb potential is proposed for solving the Schrödinger equation and/or the Calogero first order differential equation, where some critical range bands are obtained. Phase shifts for "any" two-charged particle system (from electron-electron to heavy ion-heavy ion) are reproduced by using the universal critical range bands and the appropriate Sommerfeld parameter over a very wide energy region. A Coulomb-like off-shell amplitude is introduced using two-potential theory without employing the usual Coulomb renormalization method.
Traceable Coulomb blockade thermometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hahtela, O.; Mykkänen, E.; Kemppinen, A.; Meschke, M.; Prunnila, M.; Gunnarsson, D.; Roschier, L.; Penttilä, J.; Pekola, J.
2017-02-01
We present a measurement and analysis scheme for determining traceable thermodynamic temperature at cryogenic temperatures using Coulomb blockade thermometry. The uncertainty of the electrical measurement is improved by utilizing two sampling digital voltmeters instead of the traditional lock-in technique. The remaining uncertainty is dominated by that of the numerical analysis of the measurement data. Two analysis methods are demonstrated: numerical fitting of the full conductance curve and measuring the height of the conductance dip. The complete uncertainty analysis shows that using either analysis method the relative combined standard uncertainty (k = 1) in determining the thermodynamic temperature in the temperature range from 20 mK to 200 mK is below 0.5%. In this temperature range, both analysis methods produced temperature estimates that deviated from 0.39% to 0.67% from the reference temperatures provided by a superconducting reference point device calibrated against the Provisional Low Temperature Scale of 2000.
Energies of Screened Coulomb Potentials.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lai, C. S.
1979-01-01
This article shows that, by applying the Hellman-Feynman theorem alone to screened Coulomb potentials, the first four coefficients in the energy series in powers of the perturbation parameter can be obtained from the unperturbed Coulomb system. (Author/HM)
Coulomb blockade and Coulomb staircase behavior observed at room temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uky Vivitasari, Pipit; Azuma, Yasuo; Sakamoto, Masanori; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Majima, Yutaka
2017-02-01
A single-electron transistor (SET) consists of source, drain, Coulomb island, and gate to modulate the number of electrons and control the current. For practical applications, it is important to operate a SET at room temperature. One proposal towards the ability to operate at room temperature is to decrease Coulomb island size down to a few nanometres. We investigate a SET using Sn-porphyrin (Sn-por) protected gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with 1.4 nm in core diameter as a Coulomb island. The fabrication method of nanogap electrodes uses the combination of a top-down technique by electron beam lithography (EBL) and a bottom-up process through electroless gold plating (ELGP) as our group have described before. The electrical measurement was conducted at room temperature (300 K). From current-voltage (I d-V d) characteristics, we obtained clear Coulomb blockade phenomena together with a Coulomb staircase due to a Sn-por protected gold NP as a Coulomb island. Experimental results of I d-V d characteristics agree with a theoretical curve based on using the orthodox model. Clear dI d/dV d peaks are observed in the Coulomb staircase at 9 K which suggest the electron transports through excited energy levels of Au NPs. These results are a big step for obtaining SETs that can operate at room temperature.
Radiative capture versus Coulomb dissociation.
Esbensen, H.; Physics
2006-01-01
Measurements of the Coulomb dissociation of {sup 8}B have been used to infer the rate of the inverse radiative proton capture on {sup 7}Be. The analysis is usually based on the assumptions that the two processes are related by detailed balance and described by E1 transitions. However, there are corrections to this relation. The Coulomb form factors for the two processes, for example, are not identical. There are also E2 transitions and higher-order effects in the Coulomb dissociation, and the nuclear induced breakup cannot always be ignored. While adding first-order E2 transitions enhances the decay energy spectrum, the other mechanisms cause a suppression at low relative energies. The net result may accidentally be close to the conventional first-order E1 calculation, but there are differences which cannot be ignored if accuracies of 10% or better are needed.
Reconciling Coulomb breakup and neutron radiative capture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capel, P.; Nollet, Y.
2017-07-01
The Coulomb-breakup method to extract the cross section for neutron radiative capture at astrophysical energies is analyzed in detail. In particular, its sensitivity to the description of the neutron-core continuum is ascertained. We consider the case of 14C(n ,γ )15C for which both the radiative capture at low energy and the Coulomb breakup of 15C into 14C+n on Pb at 68 MeV/nucleon have been measured with accuracy. We confirm the direct proportionality of the cross section for both reactions to the square of the asymptotic normalization constant of 15C observed by Summers and Nunes [Phys. Rev. C 78, 011601(R) (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevC.78.011601], but we also show that the 14C-n continuum plays a significant role in the calculations. Fortunately, the method proposed by Summers and Nunes can be improved to absorb that continuum dependence. We show that a more precise radiative-capture cross section can be extracted selecting the breakup data at forward angles and low 14C-n relative energies.
Coulomb interactions in particle beams
Jansen, G.H. )
1990-01-01
This book develops analytical and computer models for beams in which Coulomb interactions are important. The research into the different phenomena of Coulomb interactions in particle beams is stimulated by developments in the field of electron beam lithography for VLSI electronics. The standard theory of charged particle optics breaks down for intense beams in which interactions between particles are significant. This monograph is devoted to the theory of these intense beams, which are not only used in VLSI electronics but also in scanning electron microscopes. The theory is also applicable to focused ion beams, which are used in VLSI mask repair.
Relativistic Aharonov-Bohm effect in the presence of planar Coulomb potentials
Khalilov, V.R.
2005-01-01
Exact analytic solutions are found to the Dirac equation in 2+1 dimensions for a combination of an Aharonov-Bohm potential and the Lorentz three-vector and scalar Coulomb potentials. By means of the solutions obtained the relativistic quantum Aharonov-Bohm effect is studied for the free (in the presence of a Lorentz three-vector Coulomb potential) and bound fermion states. We obtain the total scattering amplitude in a combination of the Aharonov-Bohm and Lorentz three-vector Coulomb potentials as a sum of two scattering amplitudes. This modifies the expression for the standard Aharonov-Bohm cross section due to the interference of these two amplitudes with each other. We discuss that the observable quantities can be the phases of electron wave functions or the energies of bound states.
Interpolating the Coulomb phase of little string theory
Lin, Ying -Hsuan; Shao, Shu -Heng; Wang, Yifan; Yin, Xi
2015-12-03
We study up to 8-derivative terms in the Coulomb branch effective action of (1,1) little string theory, by collecting results of 4-gluon scattering amplitudes from both perturbative 6D super-Yang-Mills theory up to 4-loop order, and tree-level double scaled little string theory (DSLST). In previous work we have matched the 6-derivative term from the 6D gauge theory to DSLST, indicating that this term is protected on the entire Coulomb branch. The 8-derivative term, on the other hand, is unprotected. In this paper we compute the 8-derivative term by interpolating from the two limits, near the origin and near the infinity on the Coulomb branch, numerically from SU(k) SYM and DSLST respectively, for k=2,3,4,5. We discuss the implication of this result on the UV completion of 6D SYM as well as the strong coupling completion of DSLST. As a result, we also comment on analogous interpolating functions in the Coulomb phase of circle-compactified (2,0) little string theory.
Interpolating the Coulomb phase of little string theory
Lin, Ying -Hsuan; Shao, Shu -Heng; Wang, Yifan; ...
2015-12-03
We study up to 8-derivative terms in the Coulomb branch effective action of (1,1) little string theory, by collecting results of 4-gluon scattering amplitudes from both perturbative 6D super-Yang-Mills theory up to 4-loop order, and tree-level double scaled little string theory (DSLST). In previous work we have matched the 6-derivative term from the 6D gauge theory to DSLST, indicating that this term is protected on the entire Coulomb branch. The 8-derivative term, on the other hand, is unprotected. In this paper we compute the 8-derivative term by interpolating from the two limits, near the origin and near the infinity onmore » the Coulomb branch, numerically from SU(k) SYM and DSLST respectively, for k=2,3,4,5. We discuss the implication of this result on the UV completion of 6D SYM as well as the strong coupling completion of DSLST. As a result, we also comment on analogous interpolating functions in the Coulomb phase of circle-compactified (2,0) little string theory.« less
Coulomb interaction in multiple scattering theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ray, L.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Thaler, R. M.
1980-10-01
The treatment of the Coulomb interaction in the multiple scattering theories of Kerman-McManus-Thaler and Watson is examined in detail. By neglecting virtual Coulomb excitations, the lowest order Coulomb term in the Watson optical potential is shown to be a convolution of the point Coulomb interaction with the distributed nuclear charge, while the equivalent Kerman-McManus-Thaler Coulomb potential is obtained from an averaged, single-particle Coulombic T matrix. The Kerman-McManus-Thaler Coulomb potential is expressed as the Watson Coulomb term plus additional Coulomb-nuclear and Coulomb-Coulomb cross terms, and the omission of the extra terms in usual Kerman-McManus-Thaler applications leads to negative infinite total reaction cross section predictions and incorrect pure Coulomb scattering limits. Approximations are presented which eliminate these anomalies. Using the two-potential formula, the full projectile-nucleus T matrix is separated into two terms, one resulting from the distributed nuclear charge and the other being a Coulomb distorted nuclear T matrix. It is shown that the error resulting from the omission of the Kerman-McManus-Thaler Coulomb terms is effectively removed when the pure Coulomb T matrix in Kerman-McManus-Thaler is replaced by the analogous quantity in the Watson approach. Using the various approximations, theoretical angular distributions are obtained for 800 MeV p+208Pb elastic scattering and compared with experimental data. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 208Pb(p, p), E=0.8 GeV, Kerman, McManus, and Thaler, and Watson multiple scattering theories, Coulomb correction terms, high momentum transfer.
Strip Diagrams: Illuminating Proportions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cohen, Jessica S.
2013-01-01
Proportional reasoning is both complex and layered, making it challenging to define. Lamon (1999) identified characteristics of proportional thinkers, such as being able to understand covariance of quantities; distinguish between proportional and nonproportional relationships; use a variety of strategies flexibly, most of which are nonalgorithmic,…
Coulomb dissociation of N,2120
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Röder, Marko; Adachi, Tatsuya; Aksyutina, Yulia; Alcantara, Juan; Altstadt, Sebastian; Alvarez-Pol, Hector; Ashwood, Nicholas; Atar, Leyla; Aumann, Thomas; Avdeichikov, Vladimir; Barr, M.; Beceiro, Saul; Bemmerer, Daniel; Benlliure, Jose; Bertulani, Carlos; Boretzky, Konstanze; Borge, Maria J. G.; Burgunder, G.; Caamaño, Manuel; Caesar, Christoph; Casarejos, Enrique; Catford, Wilton; Cederkäll, Joakim; Chakraborty, S.; Chartier, Marielle; Chulkov, Leonid; Cortina-Gil, Dolores; Crespo, Raquel; Datta Pramanik, Ushasi; Diaz-Fernandez, Paloma; Dillmann, Iris; Elekes, Zoltan; Enders, Joachim; Ershova, Olga; Estrade, A.; Farinon, F.; Fraile, Luis M.; Freer, Martin; Freudenberger, M.; Fynbo, Hans; Galaviz, Daniel; Geissel, Hans; Gernhäuser, Roman; Göbel, Kathrin; Golubev, Pavel; Gonzalez Diaz, D.; Hagdahl, Julius; Heftrich, Tanja; Heil, Michael; Heine, Marcel; Heinz, Andreas; Henriques, Ana; Holl, Matthias; Ickert, G.; Ignatov, Alexander; Jakobsson, Bo; Johansson, Hâkan; Jonson, Björn; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, Nasser; Kanungo, Rituparna; Kelic-Heil, Aleksandra; Knöbel, Ronja; Kröll, Thorsten; Krücken, Reiner; Kurcewicz, J.; Kurz, Nikolaus; Labiche, Marc; Langer, Christoph; Le Bleis, Tudi; Lemmon, Roy; Lepyoshkina, Olga; Lindberg, Simon; Machado, Jorge; Marganiec, Justyna; Mostazo Caro, Magdalena; Movsesyan, Alina; Najafi, Mohammad Ali; Nilsson, Thomas; Nociforo, Chiara; Panin, Valerii; Paschalis, Stefanos; Perea, Angel; Petri, Marina; Pietri, S.; Plag, Ralf; Prochazka, A.; Rahaman, Md. Anisur; Rastrepina, Ganna; Reifarth, Rene; Ribeiro, Guillermo; Ricciardi, M. Valentina; Rigollet, Catherine; Riisager, Karsten; Rossi, Dominic; Sanchez del Rio Saez, Jose; Savran, Deniz; Scheit, Heiko; Simon, Haik; Sorlin, Olivier; Stoica, V.; Streicher, Branislav; Taylor, Jon; Tengblad, Olof; Terashima, Satoru; Thies, Ronja; Togano, Yasuhiro; Uberseder, Ethan; Van de Walle, J.; Velho, Paulo; Volkov, Vasily; Wagner, Andreas; Wamers, Felix; Weick, Helmut; Weigand, Mario; Wheldon, Carl; Wilson, G.; Wimmer, Christine; Winfield, J. S.; Woods, Philip; Yakorev, Dmitry; Zhukov, Mikhail; Zilges, Andreas; Zuber, Kai; R3B Collaboration
2016-06-01
Neutron-rich light nuclei and their reactions play an important role in the creation of chemical elements. Here, data from a Coulomb dissociation experiment on N,2120 are reported. Relativistic N,2120 ions impinged on a lead target and the Coulomb dissociation cross section was determined in a kinematically complete experiment. Using the detailed balance theorem, the 19N (n ,γ )20N and 20N (n ,γ ) 21N excitation functions and thermonuclear reaction rates have been determined. The 19 (n ,γ )20N rate is up to a factor of 5 higher at T <1 GK with respect to previous theoretical calculations, leading to a 10% decrease in the predicted fluorine abundance.
Coulomb blockade in graphene nanoribbons.
Sols, F; Guinea, F; Neto, A H
2007-10-19
We propose that recent transport experiments revealing the existence of an energy gap in graphene nanoribbons may be understood in terms of Coulomb blockade. Electron interactions play a decisive role at the quantum dots which form due to the presence of necks arising from the roughness of the graphene edge. With the average transmission as the only fitting parameter, our theory shows good agreement with the experimental data.
Renormalization group analysis of graphene with a supercritical Coulomb impurity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishida, Yusuke
2016-08-01
We develop a field-theoretic approach to massless Dirac fermions in a supercritical Coulomb potential. By introducing an Aharonov-Bohm solenoid at the potential center, the critical Coulomb charge can be made arbitrarily small for one partial-wave sector, where a perturbative renormalization group analysis becomes possible. We show that a scattering amplitude for reflection of particle at the potential center exhibits the renormalization group limit cycle, i.e., log-periodic revolutions as a function of the scattering energy, revealing the emergence of discrete scale invariance. This outcome is further incorporated in computing the induced charge and current densities, which turn out to have power-law tails with coefficients log-periodic with respect to the distance from the potential center. Our findings are consistent with the previous prediction obtained by directly solving the Dirac equation and can in principle be realized by graphene experiments with charged impurities.
Coulomb path'' interference in low energy He sup + + He collisions
Swenson, J.K. ); Burgdoerfer, J. ); Meyer, F.W.; Havener, C.C.; Gregory, D.C.; Stolterfoht, N. )
1990-01-01
A new interference mechanism, analogous to classic'' double-slit electron scattering, has been identified in low energy ion-atom collisions. This Coulomb path'' interference results from the existence of two trajectories, indistinguishable with respect to laboratory energy and emission angle, along which ejected autoionizing electrons may be scattered by the attractive Coulomb potential of the slowly receding spectator ion. We present a simple semi-classical model for this effect in which we account for the path dependence of the amplitude of the ejected electron following decay of the autoionizing state. Calculated model lineshapes are found to be in excellent agreement with strong angular dependence of the interference structure observed in the He target 2s{sup 2} {sup 1}S autoionizing lineshape measured near 0{degree} following 10 keV He{sup +} + He collisions.
Ordering in classical Coulombic systems.
Schiffer, J. P.
1998-01-22
The author discusses the properties of classical Coulombic matter at low temperatures. It has been well known for some time [1,2] that infinite Coulombic matter will crystallize in body-centered cubic form when the quantity {Lambda} (the dimensionless ratio of the average two-particle Coulomb energy to the kinetic energy per particle) is larger than {approximately}175. But the systems of such particles that have been produced in the laboratory in ion traps, or ion beams, are finite with surfaces defined by the boundary conditions that have to be satisfied. This results in ion clouds with sharply defined curved surfaces, and interior structures that show up as a set of concentric layers that are parallel to the outer surface. The ordering does not appear to be cubic, but the charges on each shell exhibit a ''hexatic'' pattern of equilateral triangles that is the characteristic of liquid crystals. The curvature of the surfaces prevents the structures on successive shells from interlocking in any simple fashion. This class of structures was first found in simulations [3] and later in experiments [4].
Revival of the Phase-Amplitude Description of a Quantum-Mechanical Wave Function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rawitscher, George
2017-01-01
The phase-amplitude description of a wave function is formulated by means of a new linear differential-integral equation, which is valid in the region of turning points. A numerical example for a Coulomb potential is presented.
PREFACE: Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neilson, David; Senatore, Gaetano
2009-05-01
This special issue contains papers presented at the International Conference on Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems (SCCS), held from 29 July-2 August 2008 at the University of Camerino. Camerino is an ancient hill-top town located in the Apennine mountains of Italy, 200 kilometres northeast of Rome, with a university dating back to 1336. The Camerino conference was the 11th in a series which started in 1977: 1977: Orleans-la-Source, France, as a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Strongly Coupled Plasmas (hosted by Marc Feix and Gabor J Kalman) 1982: Les Houches, France (hosted by Marc Baus and Jean-Pierre Hansen) 1986: Santa Cruz, California, USA (hosted by Forrest J Rogers and Hugh E DeWitt) 1989: Tokyo, Japan (hosted by Setsuo Ichimaru) 1992: Rochester, New York, USA (hosted by Hugh M Van Horn and Setsuo Ichimaru) 1995: Binz, Germany (hosted by Wolf Dietrich Kraeft and Manfred Schlanges) 1997: Boston, Massachusetts, USA (hosted by Gabor J Kalman) 1999: St Malo, France (hosted by Claude Deutsch and Bernard Jancovici) 2002: Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA (hosted by John F Benage and Michael S Murillo) 2005: Moscow, Russia (hosted by Vladimir E Fortov and Vladimir Vorob'ev). The name of the series was changed in 1996 from Strongly Coupled Plasmas to Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems to reflect a wider range of topics. 'Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems' encompasses diverse many-body systems and physical conditions. The purpose of the conferences is to provide a regular international forum for the presentation and discussion of research achievements and ideas relating to a variety of plasma, liquid and condensed matter systems that are dominated by strong Coulomb interactions between their constituents. Each meeting has seen an evolution of topics and emphases that have followed new discoveries and new techniques. The field has continued to see new experimental tools and access to new strongly coupled conditions, most recently in the areas of warm matter, dusty plasmas
Coulomb-dominated low-energy deuteron stripping
Austern, N. )
1991-02-01
Analysis of a three-body model shows that Coulomb polarization of the deuteron has very little influence on the branching ratio {ital A}({ital d},{ital p})/{ital A}({ital d},{ital n}) for transfer reactions on target nucleus {ital A} at very low deuteron energies (the Oppenheimer-Phillips effect). We see that polarization effects in transfer reactions are not related to the long range of the Coulomb field, but are caused by the more intense fields near the target nucleus. However, even in that region the induced dipole moment is limited by the deuteron binding, and it is small for low {ital Z} targets. We see in addition that the transfer amplitudes tend to be {ital insensitive} to any polarization admixtures in the entrance channel. On the other hand, the branching ratio can be affected by the Coulomb barrier for the bound final-state wave function of the proton, especially for very weakly bound final states. Brief remarks about the relation of stripping theory to special properties of the {ital d}+{ital d} system are included.
Regularized friction and continuation: Comparison with Coulomb's law
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vigué, Pierre; Vergez, Christophe; Karkar, Sami; Cochelin, Bruno
2017-02-01
Periodic solutions of systems with friction are difficult to investigate because of the non-smooth nature of friction laws. This paper examines periodic solutions and most notably stick-slip, on a simple one-degree-of-freedom system (mass, spring, damper, and belt), with Coulomb's friction law, and with a regularized friction law (i.e. the friction coefficient becomes a function of relative speed, with a stiffness parameter). With Coulomb's law, the stick-slip solution is constructed step by step, which gives a usable existence condition. With the regularized law, the Asymptotic Numerical Method and the Harmonic Balance Method provide bifurcation diagrams with respect to the belt speed or normal force, and for several values of the regularization parameter. Formulations from the Coulomb case give the means of a comparison between regularized solutions and a standard reference. With an appropriate definition, regularized stick-slip motion exists, its amplitude increases with respect to the belt speed and its pulsation decreases with respect to the normal force.
Coincidence Proportional Counter
Manley, J H
1950-11-21
A coincidence proportional counter having a plurality of collecting electrodes so disposed as to measure the range or energy spectrum of an ionizing particle-emitting source such as an alpha source, is disclosed.
PREFACE: Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fortov, Vladimir E.; Golden, Kenneth I.; Norman, Genri E.
2006-04-01
This special issue contains papers presented at the International Conference on Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems (SCCS) which was held during the week of 20 24 June 2005 in Moscow, Russia. The Moscow conference was the tenth in a series of conferences. The previous conferences were organized as follows. 1977: Orleans-la-Source, France, as a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Strongly Coupled Plasmas (organized by Marc Feix and Gabor J Kalman) 1982: Les Houches, France (organized by Marc Baus and Jean-Pierre Hansen) 1986: Santa Cruz, California, USA (hosted by Forrest J Rogers and Hugh E DeWitt) 1989: Tokyo, Japan (hosted by Setsuo Ichimaru) 1992: Rochester, NY, USA (hosted by Hugh M Van Horn and Setsuo Ichimaru) 1995: Binz, Germany (hosted by Wolf Dietrich Kraeft and Manfred Schlanges) 1997: Boston, Massachusetts, USA (hosted by Gabor J Kalman) 1999: St Malo, France (hosted by Claude Deutsch and Bernard Jancovici) 2002: Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA (hosted by John F Benage and Michael S Murillo) After 1995 the name of the series was changed from `Strongly Coupled Plasmas' to the present name in order to extend the topics of the conferences. The planned frequency for the future is once every three years. The purpose of these conferences is to provide an international forum for the presentation and discussion of research accomplishments and ideas relating to a variety of plasma liquid and condensed matter systems, dominated by strong Coulomb interactions between their constituents. Strongly coupled Coulomb systems encompass diverse many-body systems and physical conditions. Each meeting has seen an evolution of topics and emphasis as new discoveries and new methods appear. This year, sessions were organized for invited presentations and posters on dense plasmas and warm matter, astrophysics and dense hydrogen, non-neutral and ultracold plasmas, dusty plasmas, condensed matter 2D and layered charged-particle systems, Coulomb liquids, and statistical theory of SCCS. Within
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Liyang; Shi, Wenjia; Tang, Chao
2016-08-01
Adaptation is a ubiquitous feature in biological sensory and signaling networks. It has been suggested that adaptive systems may follow certain simple design principles across diverse organisms, cells and pathways. One class of networks that can achieve adaptation utilizes an incoherent feedforward control, in which two parallel signaling branches exert opposite but proportional effects on the output at steady state. In this paper, we generalize this adaptation mechanism by establishing a steady-state proportionality relationship among a subset of nodes in a network. Adaptation can be achieved by using any two nodes in the sub-network to respectively regulate the output node positively and negatively. We focus on enzyme networks and first identify basic regulation motifs consisting of two and three nodes that can be used to build small networks with proportional relationships. Larger proportional networks can then be constructed modularly similar to LEGOs. Our method provides a general framework to construct and analyze a class of proportional and/or adaptation networks with arbitrary size, flexibility and versatile functional features.
Coulombic contribution and fat center vortex model
Rafibakhsh, Shahnoosh; Deldar, Sedigheh
2007-02-27
The fat (thick) center vortex model is one of the phenomenological models which is fairly successful to interpret the linear potential between static sources. However, the Coulombic part of the potential has not been investigated by the model yet. In an attempt to get the Coulombic contribution and to remove the concavity of the potentials, we are studying different vortex profiles and vortex sizes.
Coulomb-interaction-dependent effect of high-order sideband generation in an optomechanical system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, Cui; Xiong, Hao; Wu, Ying
2017-03-01
High-order sideband generation in an optomechanical system coupled to a charged object is discussed, and the features of Coulomb-interaction-dependent effect are identified. We show that the Coulomb-interaction-dependent effect of high-order sideband generation exhibits essential difference between the case of weak control field and strong control field. In the weak control field case, the output spectra are in the perturbative regime and there is hardly any Coulomb-interaction-dependent effect in an optomechanical system coupling to an object with a small amount of charge. In the strong control field case, the output spectra are in the nonperturbative regime and robust Coulomb-interaction-dependent effect arises even if there are few charges. The amplitudes of specific sidebands are also discussed, and it is shown that Coulomb interaction plays an important role in achieving optomechanical control. Due to the extremely sensitive charge number, the Coulomb-interaction-dependent effect of high-order sideband generation is remarkable in many aspects and may be used to precision measurement of electrical charges beyond the linearized optomechanical interaction.
Proportional Borda allocations.
Darmann, Andreas; Klamler, Christian
2016-01-01
In this paper we study the allocation of indivisible items among a group of agents, a problem which has received increased attention in recent years, especially in areas such as computer science and economics. A major fairness property in the fair division literature is proportionality, which is satisfied whenever each of the n agents receives at least [Formula: see text] of the value attached to the whole set of items. To simplify the determination of values of (sets of) items from ordinal rankings of the items, we use the Borda rule, a concept used extensively and well-known in voting theory. Although, in general, proportionality cannot be guaranteed, we show that, under certain assumptions, proportional allocations of indivisible items are possible and finding such allocations is computationally easy.
Coulomb-blockade effect in nonlinear mesoscopic capacitors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alomar, M. I.; Lim, Jong Soo; Sánchez, David
2016-10-01
We consider an interacting quantum dot working as a coherent source of single electrons. The dot is tunnel coupled to a reservoir and capacitively coupled to a gate terminal with an applied ac potential. At low frequencies, this is the quantum analog of the R C circuit with a purely dynamical response. We investigate the quantized dynamics as a consequence of ac pulses with large amplitude. Within a Keldysh-Green function formalism we derive the time-dependent current in the Coulomb blockade regime. Our theory thus extends previous models that considered either noninteracting electrons in nonlinear response or interacting electrons in the linear regime. We prove that the electron emission and absorption resonances undergo a splitting when the charging energy is larger than the tunnel broadening. For very large charging energies, the additional peaks collapse and the original resonances are recovered, though with a reduced amplitude. Quantization of the charge emitted by the capacitor is reduced due to Coulomb repulsion and additional plateaus arise. Additionally, we discuss the differential capacitance and resistance as a function of time. We find that to leading order in driving frequency the current can be expressed as a weighted sum of noninteracting currents shifted by the charging energy.
Multiwire proportional counter development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1972-01-01
A test run was made at the Bevatron to check the character of signals induced in an electromagnetic delay line capacitively coupled to the wire cathode plane of a multiwire proportional chamber. In particular, these signals and the behavior of the readout electronics as a function of associated delta-ray production are studied. These measurements are important in assessing the effect of delta-ray background on the spatial resolution attainable for the primary ions. Test results are used to design a multiwire proportional chamber and readout system for use as spatial detectors in a superconducting magnetic spectrometer experiment.
The Coulombic Lattice Potential of Ionic Compounds: The Cubic Perovskites.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Francisco, E.; And Others
1988-01-01
Presents coulombic models representing the particles of a system by point charges interacting through Coulomb's law to explain coulombic lattice potential. Uses rubidium manganese trifluoride as an example of cubic perovskite structure. Discusses the effects on cluster properties. (CW)
The Coulombic Lattice Potential of Ionic Compounds: The Cubic Perovskites.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Francisco, E.; And Others
1988-01-01
Presents coulombic models representing the particles of a system by point charges interacting through Coulomb's law to explain coulombic lattice potential. Uses rubidium manganese trifluoride as an example of cubic perovskite structure. Discusses the effects on cluster properties. (CW)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Snider, Richard G.
1985-01-01
The ratio factors approach involves recognizing a given fraction, then multiplying so that units cancel. This approach, which is grounded in concrete operational thinking patterns, provides a standard for science ratio and proportion problems. Examples are included for unit conversions, mole problems, molarity, speed/density problems, and…
Selecting Proportional Reasoning Tasks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de la Cruz, Jessica A.
2013-01-01
With careful consideration given to task selection, students can construct their own solution strategies to solve complex proportional reasoning tasks while the teacher's instructional goals are still met. Several aspects of the tasks should be considered including their numerical structure, context, difficulty level, and the strategies they are…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Markworth, Kimberly A.
2012-01-01
Students may be able to set up a relevant proportion and solve through cross multiplication. However, this ability may not reflect the desired mathematical understanding of the covarying relationship that exists between two variables or the equivalent relationship that exists between two ratios. Students who lack this understanding are likely to…
Multiwire proportional chamber development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Doolittle, R. F.; Pollvogt, U.; Eskovitz, A. J.
1973-01-01
The development of large area multiwire proportional chambers, to be used as high resolution spatial detectors in cosmic ray experiments is described. A readout system was developed which uses a directly coupled, lumped element delay-line whose characteristics are independent of the MWPC design. A complete analysis of the delay-line and the readout electronic system shows that a spatial resolution of about 0.1 mm can be reached with the MWPC operating in the strictly proportional region. This was confirmed by measurements with a small MWPC and Fe-55 X-rays. A simplified analysis was carried out to estimate the theoretical limit of spatial resolution due to delta-rays, spread of the discharge along the anode wire, and inclined trajectories. To calculate the gas gain of MWPC's of different geometrical configurations a method was developed which is based on the knowledge of the first Townsend coefficient of the chamber gas.
Numerical approach to Coulomb gauge QCD
Matevosyan, Hrayr H.; Szczepaniak, Adam P.; Bowman, Patrick O.
2008-07-01
We calculate the ghost two-point function in Coulomb gauge QCD with a simple model vacuum gluon wave function using Monte Carlo integration. This approach extends the previous analytic studies of the ghost propagator with this ansatz, where a ladder-rainbow expansion was unavoidable for calculating the path integral over gluon field configurations. The new approach allows us to study the possible critical behavior of the coupling constant, as well as the Coulomb potential derived from the ghost dressing function. We demonstrate that IR enhancement of the ghost correlator or Coulomb form factor fails to quantitatively reproduce confinement using Gaussian vacuum wave functional.
PULSE AMPLITUDE DISTRIBUTION RECORDER
Cowper, G.
1958-08-12
A device is described for automatica1ly recording pulse annplitude distribution received from a counter. The novelty of the device consists of the over-all arrangement of conventional circuit elements to provide an easy to read permanent record of the pulse amplitude distribution during a certain time period. In the device a pulse analyzer separates the pulses according to annplitude into several channels. A scaler in each channel counts the pulses and operates a pen marker positioned over a drivable recorder sheet. Since the scalers in each channel have the sanne capacity, the control circuitry permits counting of the incoming pulses until one scaler reaches capacity, whereupon the input is removed and an internal oscillator supplies the necessary pulses to fill up the other scalers. Movement of the chart sheet is initiated wben the first scaler reaches capacity to thereby give a series of marks at spacings proportional to the time required to fill the remaining scalers, and accessory equipment marks calibration points on the recorder sheet to facilitate direct reading of the number of external pulses supplied to each scaler.
Low rank factorization of the Coulomb integrals for periodic coupled cluster theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hummel, Felix; Tsatsoulis, Theodoros; Grüneis, Andreas
2017-03-01
We study a tensor hypercontraction decomposition of the Coulomb integrals of periodic systems where the integrals are factorized into a contraction of six matrices of which only two are distinct. We find that the Coulomb integrals can be well approximated in this form already with small matrices compared to the number of real space grid points. The cost of computing the matrices scales as O (N4) using a regularized form of the alternating least squares algorithm. The studied factorization of the Coulomb integrals can be exploited to reduce the scaling of the computational cost of expensive tensor contractions appearing in the amplitude equations of coupled cluster methods with respect to system size. We apply the developed methodologies to calculate the adsorption energy of a single water molecule on a hexagonal boron nitride monolayer in a plane wave basis set and periodic boundary conditions.
Pore fluid pressure, apparent friction, and Coulomb failure
Beeler, N.M.; Simpson, R.W.; Hickman, S.H.; Lockner, D.A.
2000-01-01
Many recent studies of stress-triggered seismicity rely on a fault failure model with a single free parameter, the apparent coefficient of friction, presumed to be a material constant with possible values 0 ≤ μ′ ≤ 1. These studies may present a misleading view of fault strength and the role of pore fluid pressure in earthquake failure. The parameter μ′ is intended to incorporate the effects of both friction and pore pressure, but is a material constant only if changes in pore fluid pressure induced by changes in stress are proportional to the normal stress change across the potential failure plane. Although specific models of fault zones permit such a relation, neither is it known that fault zones within the Earth behave this way, nor is this behavior expected in all cases. In contrast, for an isotropic homogeneous poroelastic model the pore pressure changes are proportional to changes in mean stress, μ′ is not a material constant, and −∞ ≤ μ′ ≤ +∞. Analysis of the change in Coulomb failure stress for tectonically loaded reverse and strike-slip faults shows considerable differences between these two pore pressure models, suggesting that such models might be distinguished from one another using observations of triggered seismicity (e.g., aftershocks). We conclude that using the constant apparent friction model exclusively in studies of Coulomb failure stress is unwise and could lead to significant errors in estimated stress change and seismic hazard.
Crystallization in two-component Coulomb systems.
Bonitz, M; Filinov, V S; Fortov, V E; Levashov, P R; Fehske, H
2005-12-02
The analysis of Coulomb crystallization is extended from one-component to two-component plasmas. Critical parameters for the existence of Coulomb crystals are derived for both classical and quantum crystals. In the latter case, a critical mass ratio of the two charged components is found, which is of the order of 80. Thus, holes in semiconductors with sufficiently flat valence bands are predicted to spontaneously order into a regular lattice. Such hole crystals are intimately related to ion Coulomb crystals in white dwarf and neutron stars as well as to ion crystals produced in the laboratory. A unified phase diagram of two-component Coulomb crystals is presented and is verified by first-principles computer simulations.
Analytic form for the nonrelativistic Coulomb propagator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blinder, S. M.
1991-01-01
An analytic form for the nonrelativistic Coulomb propagator is derived, thus resolving a long-standing problem in Feynman's path-integral formulation of quantum mechanics. Hostler's formula for the Coulomb Green's function is expanded according to the theorem of Mittag-Leffler, then Fourier transformed term by term to give the Coulomb propagator. The result is a discrete summation over the principal quantum number n, involving Whittaker, Laguerre, Hermite, and error functions. As is the case for other nonquadratic potentials, the Coulomb propagator does not have the canonical structure K=F exp(iS/ħ). Part of the expansion resembles a form derived by Crandall [J. Phys. A 16, 3005 (1983)] for the case of reflectionless potentials.
Coulomb flux tube on the lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Kristian; Greensite, Jeff
2017-08-01
In Coulomb gauge a longitudinal electric field is generated instantaneously with the creation of a static quark-antiquark pair. The field due to the quarks is a sum of two contributions, one from the quark and one from the antiquark, and there is no obvious reason that this sum should fall off exponentially with distance from the sources. We show here, however, from numerical simulations in pure SU(2) lattice gauge theory, that the color Coulomb electric field does in fact fall off exponentially with transverse distance away from a line joining static quark-antiquark sources, indicating the existence of a color Coulomb flux tube, and the absence of long-range Coulomb dipole fields.
Recent developments in Coulomb breakup calculations
Capel, P.
2008-05-12
The theory of reactions applied to Coulomb breakup of loosely-bound projectiles is reviewed. Both the Continuum Discretized Coupled Channel (CDCC) and time-dependent models are described. Recent results about sensitivity of breakup calculations to the projectile wave function are reviewed. Analyses of the extraction of radiative-capture cross section from Coulomb breakup measurements are presented. Current developments in breakup theory are also mentioned.
Proportional counter radiation camera
Borkowski, C.J.; Kopp, M.K.
1974-01-15
A gas-filled proportional counter camera that images photon emitting sources is described. A two-dimensional, positionsensitive proportional multiwire counter is provided as the detector. The counter consists of a high- voltage anode screen sandwiched between orthogonally disposed planar arrays of multiple parallel strung, resistively coupled cathode wires. Two terminals from each of the cathode arrays are connected to separate timing circuitry to obtain separate X and Y coordinate signal values from pulse shape measurements to define the position of an event within the counter arrays which may be recorded by various means for data display. The counter is further provided with a linear drift field which effectively enlarges the active gas volume of the counter and constrains the recoil electrons produced from ionizing radiation entering the counter to drift perpendicularly toward the planar detection arrays. A collimator is interposed between a subject to be imaged and the counter to transmit only the radiation from the subject which has a perpendicular trajectory with respect to the planar cathode arrays of the detector. (Official Gazette)
Off-shell Jost solutions for Coulomb and Coulomb-like interactions in all partial waves
Laha, U.; Bhoi, J.
2013-01-15
By exploiting the theory of ordinary differential equations, with judicious use of boundary conditions, interacting Green's functions and their integral transforms together with certain properties of higher transcendental functions, useful analytical expressions for the off-shell Jost solutions for motion in Coulomb and Coulomb-nuclear potentials are derived in maximal reduced form through different approaches to the problem in the representation space. The exact analytical expressions for the off-shell Jost solutions for Coulomb and Coulomb-like potentials are believed to be useful for the description of the charged particle scattering/reaction processes.
Parallel Molecular Dynamics of Coulomb Clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kishimoto, Tokunari; Totsuji, Chieko; Tsuruta, Kenji; Totsuji, Hiroo
2000-10-01
Using parallel computers, we perform large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of Coulomb clusters in a spherical trapping field. Long-range Coulomb forces are calculated efficiently using the fast multipole method (FMM). Previously Hasse and Avilov [1] have performed numerical analysis of Coulomb clusters, and predicted a crossover between the energy curve of Coulomb clusters and that of finite bcc crystals around N = 10^6. Another prediction [2] has been reported around N = 10^5. Recently, experimental observation of Be^+ clusters in ion trap [3] indicated that structure of N = 8 *10^4 was similar to bcc single crystal. We perform direct simulations of Coulomb clusters of system sizes N = 10^5-10^6. We report preliminary results on 10^5 system: Radial distribution and the Laue-pattern analysis indicates structural evolution of the cluster. The correlation energy of the cluster is found to be lower than finite bcc crystal of the same size. We will show results for larger systems (10^6) and the N dependence of structure and energy of the Coulomb clusters around the crossover region. [1] R. W. Hasse and V. V. Avilov, Phys. Rev. A 44, 4506 (1991). [2] D. H. E. Dubin, Phys. Rev. A 40, 1140 (1989). [3] W. M. Itano et al., Science 279, 686 (1998).
The microstrip proportional counter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramsey, B. D.
1992-01-01
Microstrip detectors in which the usual discrete anode and cathode wires are replaced by conducting strips on an insulating or partially insulating substrate are fabricated using integrated circuit-type photolithographic techniques and hence offer very high spatial accuracy and uniformity, together with the capability of producing extremely fine electrode structures. Microstrip proportional counters have now been variously reported having an energy resolution of better than 11 percent FWHM at 5.9 keV. They have been fabricated with anode bars down to 2 microns and on a variety of substrate materials including thin films which can be molded to different shapes. This review will examine the development of the microstrip detector with emphasis on the qualities which make this detector particularly interesting for use in astronomy.
Gated strip proportional detector
Morris, Christopher L.; Idzorek, George C.; Atencio, Leroy G.
1987-01-01
A gated strip proportional detector includes a gas tight chamber which encloses a solid ground plane, a wire anode plane, a wire gating plane, and a multiconductor cathode plane. The anode plane amplifies the amount of charge deposited in the chamber by a factor of up to 10.sup.6. The gating plane allows only charge within a narrow strip to reach the cathode. The cathode plane collects the charge allowed to pass through the gating plane on a set of conductors perpendicular to the open-gated region. By scanning the open-gated region across the chamber and reading out the charge collected on the cathode conductors after a suitable integration time for each location of the gate, a two-dimensional image of the intensity of the ionizing radiation incident on the detector can be made.
Gated strip proportional detector
Morris, C.L.; Idzorek, G.C.; Atencio, L.G.
1985-02-19
A gated strip proportional detector includes a gas tight chamber which encloses a solid ground plane, a wire anode plane, a wire gating plane, and a multiconductor cathode plane. The anode plane amplifies the amount of charge deposited in the chamber by a factor of up to 10/sup 6/. The gating plane allows only charge within a narrow strip to reach the cathode. The cathode plane collects the charge allowed to pass through the gating plane on a set of conductors perpendicular to the open-gated region. By scanning the open-gated region across the chamber and reading out the charge collected on the cathode conductors after a suitable integration time for each location of the gate, a two-dimensional image of the intensity of the ionizing radiation incident on the detector can be made.
Treatment of the two-body Coulomb problem as a short-range potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gasaneo, G.; Ancarani, L. U.
2009-12-01
The scattering wave function and the transition amplitude for the two-body Coulomb problem are written as power series of the Sommerfeld parameter. Making use of a mathematical study of the nth derivatives of Kummer function with respect to its first parameter, the series coefficients are expressed analytically in terms of multivariable hypergeometric functions. We establish the connection with the Born series based on the free particle Green’s function and show its applicability to long-range potentials. We also relate our analysis to recent works on the distorted-wave theory for the Coulomb problem. For the transition amplitude, the Born series is presented and compared to the series obtained from the exact well-known Rutherford result. Since the two series differ, care must be taken when extracting the relevant information about the scattering. Finally, implications for three-body problems are discussed.
Quantum mechanics on phase space and the Coulomb potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campos, P.; Martins, M. G. R.; Vianna, J. D. M.
2017-04-01
Symplectic quantum mechanics (SMQ) makes possible to derive the Wigner function without the use of the Liouville-von Neumann equation. In this formulation of the quantum theory the Galilei Lie algebra is constructed using the Weyl (or star) product with Q ˆ = q ⋆ = q +iħ/2∂p , P ˆ = p ⋆ = p -iħ/2∂q, and the Schrödinger equation is rewritten in phase space; in consequence physical applications involving the Coulomb potential present some specific difficulties. Within this context, in order to treat the Schrödinger equation in phase space, a procedure based on the Levi-Civita (or Bohlin) transformation is presented and applied to two-dimensional (2D) hydrogen atom. Amplitudes of probability in phase space and the correspondent Wigner quasi-distribution functions are derived and discussed.
Dynamic stresses, coulomb failure, and remote triggering: corrected
Hill, David P.
2012-01-01
Dynamic stresses associated with crustal surface waves with 15–30 s periods and peak amplitudes <1 MPa are capable of triggering seismicity at sites remote from the generating mainshock under appropriate conditions. Coulomb failure models based on a frictional strength threshold offer one explanation for instances of rapid‐onset triggered seismicity that develop during the surface‐wave peak dynamic stressing. Evaluation of the triggering potential of surface‐wave dynamic stresses acting on critically stressed faults using a Mohr’s circle representation together with the Coulomb failure criteria indicates that Love waves should have a higher triggering potential than Rayleigh waves for most fault orientations and wave incidence angles. That (1) the onset of triggered seismicity often appears to begin during the Rayleigh wave rather than the earlier arriving Love wave, and (2) Love‐wave amplitudes typically exceed those for Rayleigh waves suggests that the explanation for rapid‐onset dynamic triggering may not reside solely with a simple static‐threshold friction mode. The results also indicate that normal faults should be more susceptible to dynamic triggering by 20‐s Rayleigh‐wave stresses than thrust faults in the shallow seismogenic crust (<10 km) while the advantage tips in favor of reverse faults greater depths. This transition depth scales with wavelength and coincides roughly with the transition from retrograde‐to‐prograde particle motion. Locally elevated pore pressures may have a role in the observed prevalence of dynamic triggering in extensional regimes and geothermal/volcanic systems. The result is consistent with the apparent elevated susceptibility of extensional or transtensional tectonic regimes to remote triggering by Rayleigh‐wave dynamic stresses than compressional or transpressional regimes.
Amplitude- and rise-time-compensated filters
Nowlin, Charles H.
1984-01-01
An amplitude-compensated rise-time-compensated filter for a pulse time-of-occurrence (TOOC) measurement system is disclosed. The filter converts an input pulse, having the characteristics of random amplitudes and random, non-zero rise times, to a bipolar output pulse wherein the output pulse has a zero-crossing time that is independent of the rise time and amplitude of the input pulse. The filter differentiates the input pulse, along the linear leading edge of the input pulse, and subtracts therefrom a pulse fractionally proportional to the input pulse. The filter of the present invention can use discrete circuit components and avoids the use of delay lines.
Coulomb explosion of “hot spot”
Oreshkin, V. I.; Oreshkin, E. V.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Artyomov, A. P.
2016-09-15
The study presented in this paper has shown that the generation of hard x rays and high-energy ions, which are detected in pinch implosion experiments, may be associated with the Coulomb explosion of the hot spot that is formed due to the outflow of the material from the pinch cross point. During the process of material outflow, the temperature of the hot spot plasma increases, and conditions arise for the plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated. The runaway of electrons from the hot spot region results in the buildup of positive space charge in this region followed by a Coulomb explosion. The conditions for the hot spot plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated have been revealed, and the estimates have been obtained for the kinetic energy of the ions generated by the Coulomb explosion.
Coulomb wave functions in momentum space
Eremenko, V.; Upadhyay, N. J.; Thompson, I. J.; Elster, Ch.; Nunes, F. M.; Arbanas, G.; Escher, J. E.; Hlophe, L.
2015-10-15
We present an algorithm to calculate non-relativistic partial-wave Coulomb functions in momentum space. The arguments are the Sommerfeld parameter η, the angular momentum l, the asymptotic momentum q and the 'running' momentum p, where both momenta are real. Since the partial-wave Coulomb functions exhibit singular behavior when p → q, different representations of the Legendre functions of the 2nd kind need to be implemented in computing the functions for the values of p close to the singularity and far away from it. The code for the momentum-space Coulomb wave functions is applicable for values of vertical bar eta vertical bar in the range of 10^{-1} to 10, and thus is particularly suited for momentum space calculations of nuclear reactions.
Coulomb wave functions in momentum space
Eremenko, V.; Upadhyay, N. J.; Thompson, I. J.; ...
2015-10-15
We present an algorithm to calculate non-relativistic partial-wave Coulomb functions in momentum space. The arguments are the Sommerfeld parameter η, the angular momentum l, the asymptotic momentum q and the 'running' momentum p, where both momenta are real. Since the partial-wave Coulomb functions exhibit singular behavior when p → q, different representations of the Legendre functions of the 2nd kind need to be implemented in computing the functions for the values of p close to the singularity and far away from it. The code for the momentum-space Coulomb wave functions is applicable for values of vertical bar eta vertical barmore » in the range of 10-1 to 10, and thus is particularly suited for momentum space calculations of nuclear reactions.« less
Counterintuitive Coulomb hole around the bond midplane.
Wang, Jian; Kim, Kwang S; Baerends, Evert Jan
2010-05-28
The Coulomb hole does not have its largest depth around an electron in or near the bond midplane. It splits into two parts, localized on both nuclear sites forming the bond. Even counterintuitive positive values of the "hole" around such a position may be observed. This happens when the Fermi hole is deeper than the total exchange-correlation hole at the reference electron position. This Coulomb "heap" is shown to arise from correlation effects on the one-electron density rather than correlation effects in the pair density. Left-right correlation tends to enhance the effect of the nuclear attraction, contracting the electron density around the nuclear positions and depleting the bond center region. Possible alternative definitions of the Coulomb hole are discussed, including one based on the exact Kohn-Sham exchange hole. Approximate density functional theory methods (generalized gradient approximation) are not accurate enough to realize the advantages of this definition.
Coulomb bound states of strongly interacting photons
Maghrebi, M. F.; Choi, S.; Martin, I.; Firstenberg, O.; Lukin, M. D.; Büchler, H. P.; Gorshkov, A. V.
2015-09-16
We show that two photons coupled to Rydberg states via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) can interact via an effective Coulomb potential. The interaction then gives rise to a continuum of two-body bound states. Within the continuum, metastable bound states are distinguished in analogy with quasi-bound states tunneling through a potential barrier. We find multiple branches of metastable bound states whose energy spectrum is governed by the Coulomb problem, thus obtaining a photonic analogue of the hydrogen atom. These states propagate with a negative group velocity in the medium, which allows for a simple preparation and detection scheme, before they slowly decay to pairs of bound Rydberg atoms. As a result, we verify the metastability and backward propagation of these Coulomb bound states with exact numerical simulations.
Coulomb bound states of strongly interacting photons
Maghrebi, M. F.; Gullans, Michael J.; Bienias, P.; ...
2015-09-16
We show that two photons coupled to Rydberg states via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) can interact via an effective Coulomb potential. The interaction then gives rise to a continuum of two-body bound states. Within the continuum, metastable bound states are distinguished in analogy with quasi-bound states tunneling through a potential barrier. We find multiple branches of metastable bound states whose energy spectrum is governed by the Coulomb problem, thus obtaining a photonic analogue of the hydrogen atom. These states propagate with a negative group velocity in the medium, which allows for a simple preparation and detection scheme, before they slowlymore » decay to pairs of bound Rydberg atoms. As a result, we verify the metastability and backward propagation of these Coulomb bound states with exact numerical simulations.« less
Three-body Coulomb continuum problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berakdar, J.; Briggs, J. S.
1994-06-01
A symmetric representation of the three-body Coulomb continuum wave function as a product of three two-body Coulomb wave functions is modified to allow for three-body effects whereby the Sommerfeld parameter describing the strength of interaction of any two particles is affected by the presence of the third particle. This approach gives excellent agreement with near-threshold absolute (e,2e) ionization cross sections. In particular a recently observed deep minimum in noncoplanar geometry is reproduced for the first time.
Observation of ionic Coulomb blockade in nanopores
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Jiandong; Liu, Ke; Graf, Michael; Dumcenco, Dumitru; Kis, Andras; di Ventra, Massimiliano; Radenovic, Aleksandra
2016-08-01
Emergent behaviour from electron-transport properties is routinely observed in systems with dimensions approaching the nanoscale. However, analogous mesoscopic behaviour resulting from ionic transport has so far not been observed, most probably because of bottlenecks in the controlled fabrication of subnanometre nanopores for use in nanofluidics. Here, we report measurements of ionic transport through a single subnanometre pore junction, and the observation of ionic Coulomb blockade: the ionic counterpart of the electronic Coulomb blockade observed for quantum dots. Our findings demonstrate that nanoscopic, atomically thin pores allow for the exploration of phenomena in ionic transport, and suggest that nanopores may also further our understanding of transport through biological ion channels.
Nonlocal Coulomb drag in Weyl semimetals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baum, Yuval; Stern, Ady
2017-02-01
Nonlocality is one of the most striking signatures of the topological nature of Weyl semimetals. We propose to probe the nonlocality in these materials via a measurement of a magnetic-field-dependent Coulomb drag between two sheets of graphene which are separated by a three-dimensional slab of Weyl semimetal. We predict a mechanism of Coulomb drag, based on cyclotron orbits that are split between opposite surfaces of the semimetal. In the absence of impurity scattering between different Weyl nodes, this mechanism does not decay with the thickness of the semimetal.
Conductance of a superconducting Coulomb-blockaded Majorana nanowire
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiu, Ching-Kai; Sau, Jay D.; Das Sarma, S.
2017-08-01
In the presence of an applied magnetic field introducing Zeeman spin splitting, a superconducting (SC) proximitized one-dimensional (1D) nanowire with spin-orbit coupling can pass through a topological quantum phase transition developing zero-energy topological Majorana bound states (MBSs) on the wire ends. One of the promising experimental platforms in this context is a Coulomb-blockaded island, where by measuring the two-terminal conductance one can in principle investigate the MBS properties. Here, we theoretically study the tunneling transport of a single electron across the superconducting Coulomb-blockaded nanowire at finite temperature in order to obtain the generic conductance equation. By considering all possible scenarios where only MBSs are present at the ends of the nanowire, we compute the nanowire conductance as a function of the magnetic field, the temperature, and the gate voltage. In the simplest 1D topological SC model, the oscillations of the conductance peak spacings (OCPSs) arising from the Majorana overlap from the two wire ends manifest an increasing oscillation amplitude with increasing magnetic field (in disagreement with a recent experimental observation). We develop a generalized finite-temperature master-equation theory including not only multiple subbands in the nanowire, but also the possibility of ordinary Andreev bound states in the nontopological regime. Inclusion of all four effects (temperature, multiple subbands, Andreev bound states, and MBSs) provides a complete picture of the tunneling transport properties of the Coulomb-blockaded nanowire. Based on this complete theory, we indeed obtain OCPSs whose amplitudes decrease with increasing magnetic field in qualitative agreement with recent experimental results, but this happens only for rather high temperatures with multisubband occupancy and the simultaneous presence of both Andreev bound states and MBSs in the system. Thus, the experimentally observed OCPSs manifesting
Coulomb string tension, asymptotic string tension, and the gluon chain
Greensite, Jeff; Szczepaniak, Adam P.
2015-02-01
We compute, via numerical simulations, the non-perturbative Coulomb potential and position-space ghost propagator in pure SU(3) gauge theory in Coulomb gauge. We find that that the Coulomb potential scales nicely in accordance with asymptotic freedom, that the Coulomb potential is linear in the infrared, and that the Coulomb string tension is about four times larger than the asymptotic string tension. We explain how it is possible that the asymptotic string tension can be lower than the Coulomb string tension by a factor of four.
Coulomb string tension, asymptotic string tension, and the gluon chain
Greensite, Jeff; Szczepaniak, Adam P.
2015-02-01
We compute, via numerical simulations, the non-perturbative Coulomb potential and position-space ghost propagator in pure SU(3) gauge theory in Coulomb gauge. We find that that the Coulomb potential scales nicely in accordance with asymptotic freedom, that the Coulomb potential is linear in the infrared, and that the Coulomb string tension is about four times larger than the asymptotic string tension. We explain how it is possible that the asymptotic string tension can be lower than the Coulomb string tension by a factor of four.
Effective Coulomb logarithm for one component plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khrapak, Sergey A.
2013-05-01
An expression for the effective Coulomb logarithm in one-component-plasma is proposed, which allows to extend the applicability of the classical formula for the self-diffusion coefficient to the strongly coupled regime. The proposed analytical approximation demonstrates reasonable agreement with previous numerical simulation results. Relevance to weakly screened Yukawa systems (and, in particular, complex plasmas) is discussed.
Bound states of screened coulomb potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutt, Ranabir; Ray, Aparna; Ray, Pritam P.
1981-05-01
We propose an extension of the Ecker-Weizel approximation to treat the non-zero angular momentum bound states of a class of screened Coulomb potentials. As an illustration of our prescription, we have calculated the discrete energies Enl of the Yukawa potential, which are in excellent agreement with those of Rogers et al.
Electric-hexadecapole (24-pole) Coulomb integrals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chidichimo, Marita C.; Stastna, Marek
1996-03-01
We obtain the quantal zero-energy-loss limit of the radial integrals arising in the nonrelativistic atomic excitation of electric-hexadecapole transitions. We compare these results to the classical limit and the WKB approximation. We show the different behavior of the Coulomb integrals in the WKB approximation in the cases of repulsive and attractive potentials as functions of the Sommerfeld number η.
Coulomb drag between helical Luttinger liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kainaris, N.; Gornyi, I. V.; Levchenko, A.; Polyakov, D. G.
2017-01-01
We theoretically study Coulomb drag between two helical edges with broken spin-rotational symmetry, such as would occur in two capacitively coupled quantum spin Hall insulators. For the helical edges, Coulomb drag is particularly interesting because it specifically probes the inelastic interactions that break the conductance quantization for a single edge. Using the kinetic equation formalism, supplemented by bosonization, we find that the drag resistivity ρD exhibits a nonmonotonic dependence on the temperature T . In the limit of low T ,ρD vanishes with decreasing T as a power law if intraedge interactions are not too strong. This is in stark contrast to Coulomb drag in conventional quantum wires, where ρD diverges at T →0 irrespective of the strength of repulsive interactions. Another unusual property of Coulomb drag between the helical edges concerns higher T for which, unlike in the Luttinger liquid model, drag is mediated by plasmons. The special type of plasmon-mediated drag can be viewed as a distinguishing feature of the helical liquid—because it requires peculiar umklapp scattering only available in the presence of a Dirac point in the electron spectrum.
Solution of Coulomb system in momentum space
Lin, D.-H.
2008-02-15
The solution of D-dimensional Coulomb system is solved in momentum space by path integral. From which the topological effect of a magnetic flux in the system is given. It is revealed that the flux effect represented by the two-dimensional field of Aharonov-Bohm covers any space-dimensions.
Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Coulomb Explosion
Bringa, E M
2002-05-17
A swift ion creates a track of electronic excitations in the target material. A net repulsion inside the track can cause a ''Coulomb Explosion'', which can lead to damage and sputtering of the material. Here we report results from molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations of Coulomb explosion for a cylindrical track as a function of charge density and neutralization/quenching time, {tau}. Screening by the free electrons is accounted for using a screened Coulomb potential for the interaction among charges. The yield exhibits a prompt component from the track core and a component, which dominates at higher excitation density, from the heated region produced. For the cases studied, the number of atoms ejected per incident ion, i.e. the sputtering yield Y, is quadratic with charge density along the track as suggested by simple models. Y({tau} = 0.2 Debye periods) is nearly 20% of the yield when there is no neutralization ({tau} {yields} {infinity}). The connections between ''Coulomb explosions'', thermal spikes and measurements of electronic sputtering are discussed.
Effective Coulomb logarithm for one component plasma
Khrapak, Sergey A.
2013-05-15
An expression for the effective Coulomb logarithm in one-component-plasma is proposed, which allows to extend the applicability of the classical formula for the self-diffusion coefficient to the strongly coupled regime. The proposed analytical approximation demonstrates reasonable agreement with previous numerical simulation results. Relevance to weakly screened Yukawa systems (and, in particular, complex plasmas) is discussed.
Coulomb's Electrical Measurements. Experiment No. 14.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Devons, Samuel
Presented is information related to the life and work of Charles Coulomb as well as detailed notes of his measurements of the distribution of electricity on conductors. The two methods that he used (the large torsion balance, and the timing of "force" oscillations) are described. (SA)
The Pioneer Anomaly as a Coulomb Attraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morris, Steven
2016-06-01
The anomalous acceleration of the Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 spacecraft can be explained as a Coulomb attraction between the positively-charged Solar System (due to cosmic rays) and the negatively-charged spacecraft (due to alpha-particle emission from the radioisotope thermoelectric generators).
Coulomb Logarithm, Version 1.0
Singleton, Robert
2016-11-23
Clog is a library of charged particle stopping powers and related Coulomb logarithm processes in a plasma. The stopping power is a particularly useful quantity for plasma physics, as it measures the energy loss of per unit length of charged particle as it traverses a plasma. Clog's primary stopping power is the BPS (Brown-Preston-Singleton) theory.
Visual Manipulatives for Proportional Reasoning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moore, Joyce L.; Schwartz, Daniel L.
The use of a visual representation in learning about proportional relations was studied, examining students' understandings of the invariance of a multiplicative relation on both sides of a proportion equation and the invariance of the structural relations that exist in different semantic types of proportion problems. Subjects were 49 high-ability…
Remote Spacecraft Attitude Control by Coulomb Charging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stevenson, Daan
The possibility of inter-spacecraft collisions is a serious concern at Geosynchronous altitudes, where many high-value assets operate in proximity to countless debris objects whose orbits experience no natural means of decay. The ability to rendezvous with these derelict satellites would enable active debris removal by servicing or repositioning missions, but docking procedures are generally inhibited by the large rotational momenta of uncontrolled satellites. Therefore, a contactless means of reducing the rotation rate of objects in the space environment is desired. This dissertation investigates the viability of Coulomb charging to achieve such remote spacecraft attitude control. If a servicing craft imposes absolute electric potentials on a nearby nonspherical debris object, it will impart electrostatic torques that can be used to gradually arrest the object's rotation. In order to simulate the relative motion of charged spacecraft with complex geometries, accurate but rapid knowledge of the Coulomb interactions is required. To this end, a new electrostatic force model called the Multi-Sphere Method (MSM) is developed. All aspects of the Coulomb de-spin concept are extensively analyzed and simulated using a system with simplified geometries and one dimensional rotation. First, appropriate control algorithms are developed to ensure that the nonlinear Coulomb torques arrest the rotation with guaranteed stability. Moreover, the complex interaction of the spacecraft with the plasma environment and charge control beams is modeled to determine what hardware requirements are necessary to achieve the desired electric potential levels. Lastly, the attitude dynamics and feedback control development is validated experimentally using a scaled down terrestrial testbed. High voltage power supplies control the potential on two nearby conductors, a stationary sphere and a freely rotating cylinder. The nonlinear feedback control algorithms developed above are implemented to
Lewis, I.A.D.
1956-05-15
This patent pentains to an electrical pulse amplitude analyzer, capable of accepting input pulses having a separation between adjacent pulses in the order of one microsecond while providing a large number of channels of classification. In its broad aspect the described pulse amplitude analyzer utilizes a storage cathode ray tube und control circuitry whereby the amplitude of the analyzed pulses controls both the intensity and vertical defiection of the beam to charge particular spots in horizontal sectors of the tube face as the beam is moved horizontally across the tube face. As soon as the beam has swept the length of the tube the information stored therein is read out by scanning individually each horizontal sector corresponding to a certain range of pulse amplitudes and applying the output signal from each scan to separate indicating means.
Greenblatt, M.H.
1958-03-25
This patent pertains to pulse amplitude analyzers for sorting and counting a serles of pulses, and specifically discloses an analyzer which ls simple in construction and presents the puise height distribution visually on an oscilloscope screen. According to the invention, the pulses are applied to the vertical deflection plates of an oscilloscope and trigger the horizontal sweep. Each pulse starts at the same point on the screen and has a maximum amplitude substantially along the same vertical line. A mask is placed over the screen except for a slot running along the line where the maximum amplitudes of the pulses appear. After the slot has been scanned by a photocell in combination with a slotted rotating disk, the photocell signal is displayed on an auxiliary oscilloscope as vertical deflection along a horizontal time base to portray the pulse amplitude distribution.
Real topological string amplitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narain, K. S.; Piazzalunga, N.; Tanzini, A.
2017-03-01
We discuss the physical superstring correlation functions in type I theory (or equivalently type II with orientifold) that compute real topological string amplitudes. We consider the correlator corresponding to holomorphic derivative of the real topological amplitude G_{χ } , at fixed worldsheet Euler characteristic χ. This corresponds in the low-energy effective action to N=2 Weyl multiplet, appropriately reduced to the orientifold invariant part, and raised to the power g' = -χ + 1. We show that the physical string correlator gives precisely the holomorphic derivative of topological amplitude. Finally, we apply this method to the standard closed oriented case as well, and prove a similar statement for the topological amplitude F_g.
Cotunneling Drag Effect in Coulomb-Coupled Quantum Dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keller, A. J.; Lim, J. S.; Sánchez, David; López, Rosa; Amasha, S.; Katine, J. A.; Shtrikman, Hadas; Goldhaber-Gordon, D.
2016-08-01
In Coulomb drag, a current flowing in one conductor can induce a voltage across an adjacent conductor via the Coulomb interaction. The mechanisms yielding drag effects are not always understood, even though drag effects are sufficiently general to be seen in many low-dimensional systems. In this Letter, we observe Coulomb drag in a Coulomb-coupled double quantum dot and, through both experimental and theoretical arguments, identify cotunneling as essential to obtaining a correct qualitative understanding of the drag behavior.
Protostring scattering amplitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thorn, Charles B.
2016-11-01
We calculate some tree-level scattering amplitudes for a generalization of the protostring, which is a novel string model implied by the simplest string bit models. These bit models produce a light-cone world sheet which supports s integer moded Grassmann fields. In the generalization we supplement this Grassmann world-sheet system with d =24 -s transverse coordinate world-sheet fields. The protostring corresponds to s =24 and the bosonic string to s =0 . The interaction vertex is a simple overlap with no operator insertions at the break/join point. Assuming that s is even we calculate the multistring scattering amplitudes by bosonizing the Grassmann fields, each pair equivalent to one compactified bosonic field, and applying Mandelstam's interacting string formalism to a system of s /2 compactified and d uncompactified bosonic world-sheet fields. We obtain all amplitudes for open strings with no oscillator excitations and for closed strings with no oscillator excitations and zero winding number. We then study in detail some simple special cases. Multistring processes with maximal helicity violation have much simpler amplitudes. We also specialize to general four-string amplitudes and discuss their high energy behavior. Most of these models are not covariant under the full Lorentz group O (d +1 ,1 ). The exceptions are the bosonic string whose Lorentz group is O (25 ,1 ) and the protostring whose Lorentz group is O (1 ,1 ). The models in between only enjoy an O (1 ,1 )×O (d ) spacetime symmetry.
Feynman rules for Coulomb gauge QCD
Andrasi, A.; Taylor, J.C.
2012-10-15
The Coulomb gauge in nonabelian gauge theories is attractive in principle, but beset with technical difficulties in perturbation theory. In addition to ordinary Feynman integrals, there are, at 2-loop order, Christ-Lee (CL) terms, derived either by correctly ordering the operators in the Hamiltonian, or by resolving ambiguous Feynman integrals. Renormalization theory depends on the sub-graph structure of ordinary Feynman graphs. The CL terms do not have a sub-graph structure. We show how to carry out renormalization in the presence of CL terms, by re-expressing these as 'pseudo-Feynman' integrals. We also explain how energy divergences cancel. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In Coulomb gauge QCD, we re-express Christ-Lee terms in the Hamiltonian as pseudo-Feynman integrals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This gives a subgraph structure, and allows the ordinary renormalization process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It also leads to cancellation of energy-divergences.
Envelope representations for screened Coulomb potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hall, Richard L.
1985-07-01
We study the discrete eigenvalues Enl of the Schrödinger Hamiltonian H=-(1/2)Δ+V(r), where V(r)=g(-1/r) is an increasing concave transformation of the Coulomb potential, and n is the principal (radial) quantum number. It is demonstrated by the method of potential envelopes that upper bounds are provided by the simple formula Enl<= mins>0 \\{(1/2)s+V((n+l)/s1/2)\\}, where s is a real variable. Numerical results are compared with previous work for two specific screened Coulomb potentials. In the case of the Yukawa potential V(r)=-(v/r)exp(-λr), it is shown that the inequality (n+l)2λ/v<2/e is sufficient to guarantee the existence of the eigenvalue Enl: In the case of S states, sharp upper and lower bounds are also provided by a different method.
Coulomb Bound States of Strongly Interacting Photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maghrebi, M. F.; Gullans, M. J.; Bienias, P.; Choi, S.; Martin, I.; Firstenberg, O.; Lukin, M. D.; Büchler, H. P.; Gorshkov, A. V.
2015-09-01
We show that two photons coupled to Rydberg states via electromagnetically induced transparency can interact via an effective Coulomb potential. This interaction gives rise to a continuum of two-body bound states. Within the continuum, metastable bound states are distinguished in analogy with quasibound states tunneling through a potential barrier. We find multiple branches of metastable bound states whose energy spectrum is governed by the Coulomb potential, thus obtaining a photonic analogue of the hydrogen atom. Under certain conditions, the wave function resembles that of a diatomic molecule in which the two polaritons are separated by a finite "bond length." These states propagate with a negative group velocity in the medium, allowing for a simple preparation and detection scheme, before they slowly decay to pairs of bound Rydberg atoms.
Coulomb crystallization of highly charged ions.
Schmöger, L; Versolato, O O; Schwarz, M; Kohnen, M; Windberger, A; Piest, B; Feuchtenbeiner, S; Pedregosa-Gutierrez, J; Leopold, T; Micke, P; Hansen, A K; Baumann, T M; Drewsen, M; Ullrich, J; Schmidt, P O; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo
2015-03-13
Control over the motional degrees of freedom of atoms, ions, and molecules in a field-free environment enables unrivalled measurement accuracies but has yet to be applied to highly charged ions (HCIs), which are of particular interest to future atomic clock designs and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. Here, we report on the Coulomb crystallization of HCIs (specifically (40)Ar(13+)) produced in an electron beam ion trap and retrapped in a cryogenic linear radiofrequency trap by means of sympathetic motional cooling through Coulomb interaction with a directly laser-cooled ensemble of Be(+) ions. We also demonstrate cooling of a single Ar(13+) ion by a single Be(+) ion-the prerequisite for quantum logic spectroscopy with a potential 10(-19) accuracy level. Achieving a seven-orders-of-magnitude decrease in HCI temperature starting at megakelvin down to the millikelvin range removes the major obstacle for HCI investigation with high-precision laser spectroscopy.
Coulomb edge effects in graphene nanoribbons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaskolski, W.; Ayuela, A.
2014-10-01
Coulomb effects in graphene nanoribbons with arbitrary edges are investigated with the use of a mean-field Hubbard model. It was recently shown that chiral ribbons with minimal edges, characterized by the translation vector (n,m), have a similar structure of bands localized around the Fermi energy as pure zigzag ribbons (n-m,0). Here we show that these flat bands in both ribbon cases differ in detail due to the perturbation induced by armchair edge nodes. For chiral ribbons the edge bands split at the zone boundary, where the corresponding bands of (n-m,0) zigzag ribbons are degenerate. Coulomb interactions enhance strongly this splitting and at the same time they bring spin into play. We modify each edge keeping global sublattice balance to find that spin degeneracy can be partially lifted. The breaking of spin-degeneracy depends on the asymmetry between the edges and in some cases leads to spin-polarized currents.
Coulomb impurities in two-dimensional topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Jia-Lin; Li, Guo; Yang, Ning
2017-03-01
Introducing a powerful method, we obtain the exact solutions for a Coulomb impurity in two-dimensional infinite and finite topological insulators. The level order and zero-energy degeneracy of the spectra are found to be quite different between topological trivial and nontrivial phases. For quantum dots of topological insulator, the variation of the edge and Coulomb states with dot size, Coulomb potential, and magnetic field are clearly shown. It is found that for small dots the edge states can be strongly coupled with the Coulomb states and for large dots the edge states are insensitive to the Coulomb fields but sensitive to the magnetic fields.
Generalized oscillator strength and Coulomb excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chidichimo, Marita C.; Thorsley, Michael D.
2003-02-01
Coulomb interaction is characterized by two nondimensional fundamental quantities: the Sommerfeld parameter η and the adiabaticity parameter ξ=ηf-ηi. In this different approach, we choose these variables to describe the behavior of the generalized oscillator strength (GOS). The expression we obtain is valid for scattering of electrons, positrons, and nuclei by arbitrary targets. We present asymptotic expansions, in the quantal and semiclassical approximation, of the electric dipole GOS.
Ultrashort pulses in graphene with Coulomb impurities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konobeeva, N. N.; Belonenko, M. B.
2016-06-01
We have investigated the propagation of an electromagnetic field in graphene with impurities, including the two-dimensional case. The spectrum of electrons for the graphene subsystem is taken from a model that takes into account Coulomb impurities. Based on Maxwell's equations, we have obtained an effective equation for the vector potential of the electromagnetic field. It has been revealed that the pulse shape depends on free parameters.
Coulomb suppression in the low-energy p-p elastic scattering via the Trojan Horse Method
Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Cherubini, S.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Campajola, L.; Elekes, Z.; Fueloep, Zs.; Gyuerky, G.; Kiss, G. G.; Somorjai, E.; Gialanella, L.
2010-11-24
We present here an important test of the main feature of the Trojan Horse Method (THM), namely the suppression of Coulomb effects in the entrance channel due to off-energy-shell effects. This is done by measuring the THM p-p elastic scattering via the p+d{yields}p+p+n reaction at 4.7 and 5 MeV, corresponding to a p-p relative energy ranging from 80 to 670 keV. In contrast to the on-energy-shell (OES) case, the extracted p-p cross section does not exhibit the Coulomb-nuclear interference minimum due to the suppression of the Coulomb amplitude. This is confirmed by the half-off-energy shell (HOES) calculations and strengthened by the agreement with the calculated OES nuclear cross sections.
Thermoelectrics with Coulomb-coupled quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thierschmann, Holger; Sánchez, Rafael; Sothmann, Björn; Buhmann, Hartmut; Molenkamp, Laurens W.
2016-12-01
In this article we review the thermoelectric properties of three terminal devices with Coulomb-coupled quantum dots (QDs) as observed in recent experiments [1,2]. The system we consider consists of two Coulomb-blockade QDs, one of which can exchange electrons with only a single reservoir (heat reservoir), while the other dot is tunnel coupled with two reservoirs at a lower temperature (conductor). The heat reservoir and the conductor interact only via the Coulomb coupling of the quantum dots. It has been found that two regimes have to be considered. In the first one, the heat flow between the two systems is small. In this regime, thermally driven occupation fluctuations of the hot QD modify the transport properties of the conductor system. This leads to an effect called thermal gating. Experiments have shown how this can be used to control charge flow in the conductor by means of temperature in a remote reservoir. We further substantiate the observations with model calculations, and implications for the realisation of an all-thermal transistor are discussed. In the second regime, the heat flow between the two systems is relevant. Here the system works as a nanoscale heat engine, as proposed recently (Sánchez and Büttiker [3]). We review the conceptual idea, its experimental realisation and the novel features arising in this new kind of thermoelectric device such as decoupling of heat and charge flow.
Dynamics of Coulombic and gravitational periodic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Pankaj; Miller, Bruce N.
2016-04-01
We study the dynamics and the phase-space structures of Coulombic and self-gravitating versions of the classical one-dimensional three-body system with periodic boundary conditions. We demonstrate that such a three-body system may be reduced isomorphically to a spatially periodic system of a single particle experiencing a two-dimensional potential on a rhombic plane. For the case of both Coulombic and gravitational versions, exact expressions of the Hamiltonian have been derived in rhombic coordinates. We simulate the phase-space evolution through an event-driven algorithm that utilizes analytic solutions to the equations of motion. The simulation results show that the motion exhibits chaotic, quasiperiodic, and periodic behaviors in segmented regions of the phase space. While there is no evidence of global chaos in either the Coulombic or the gravitational system, the former exhibits a transition from a completely nonchaotic phase space at low energies to a mixed behavior. Gradual yet striking transitions from mild to intense chaos are indicated with changing energy, a behavior that differentiates the spatially periodic systems studied in this Rapid Communication from the well-understood free-boundary versions of the three-body problem. Our treatment of the three-body systems opens avenues for analysis of the dynamical properties exhibited by spatially periodic versions of various classes of systems studied in plasma and gravitational physics as well as in cosmology.
Ultrafast dynamics of Coulomb correlated excitons in GaAs quantum wells
Mycek, M.A. |
1995-12-01
The author measures the transient nonlinear optical response of room temperature excitons in gallium arsenide quantum wells via multi-wave mixing experiments. The dynamics of the resonantly excited excitons is directly reflected by the ultrafast decay of the induced nonlinear polarization, which radiates the detected multi-wave mixing signal. She characterizes this ultrafast coherent emission in both amplitude and phase, using time- and frequency-domain measurement techniques, to better understand the role of Coulomb correlation in these systems. To interpret the experimental results, the nonlinear optical response of a dense medium is calculated using a model including Coulomb interaction. She contributes three new elements to previous theoretical and experimental studies of these systems. First, surpassing traditional time-integrated measurements, she temporally resolves the amplitude of the ultrafast coherent emission. Second, in addition to measuring the third-order four-wave mixing signal, she also investigates the fifth-order six-wave mixing response. Third, she characterizes the ultrafast phase dynamics of the nonlinear emission using interferometric techniques with an unprecedented resolution of approximately 140 attoseconds. The author finds that effects arising from Coulomb correlation dominate the nonlinear optical response when the density of excitons falls below 3 {times} 10{sup 11} cm{sup {minus}2}, the saturation density. These signatures of Coulomb correlation are investigated for increasing excitation density to gradually screen the interactions and test the validity of the model for dense media. The results are found to be qualitatively consistent with both the predictions of the model and with numerical solutions to the semiconductor Bloch equations. Importantly, the results also indicate current experimental and theoretical limitations, which should be addressed in future research.
Proportional Reasoning as Essential Numeracy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dole, Shelley; Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff
2015-01-01
This paper reports an aspect of a large research and development project that aimed to promote middle years school teachers' understanding and awareness of the pervasiveness of proportional reasoning as integral to numeracy. Teacher survey data of proportional reasoning across the curriculum were mapped on to a rich model of numeracy. Results…
Multiple Ways to Solve Proportions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ercole, Leslie K.; Frantz, Marny; Ashline, George
2011-01-01
When solving problems involving proportions, students may intuitively draw on strategies that connect to their understanding of fractions, decimals, and percents. These two statements--"Instruction in solving proportions should include methods that have a strong intuitive basis" and "Teachers should begin instruction with more intuitive…
Multiple Ways to Solve Proportions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ercole, Leslie K.; Frantz, Marny; Ashline, George
2011-01-01
When solving problems involving proportions, students may intuitively draw on strategies that connect to their understanding of fractions, decimals, and percents. These two statements--"Instruction in solving proportions should include methods that have a strong intuitive basis" and "Teachers should begin instruction with more intuitive…
Ultrafast Dynamics of Coulomb Correlated Excitons in Gallium Arsenide Quantum Wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mycek, Mary-Ann
We measure the transient nonlinear optical response of room temperature excitons in gallium arsenide quantum wells via multi-wave mixing experiments. The dynamics of the resonantly excited excitons is directly reflected by the ultrafast decay of the induced nonlinear polarization, which radiates the detected multi-wave mixing signal. We characterize this ultrafast coherent emission in both amplitude and phase, using time and frequency-domain measurement techniques, to better understand the role of Coulomb correlation in these systems. To interpret the experimental results, the nonlinear optical response of a dense medium is calculated using a model including Coulomb interaction. We contribute three new elements to previous theoretical and experimental studies of these systems. First, surpassing traditional time-integrated measurements, we temporally resolve the amplitude of the ultrafast coherent emission. Second, in addition to measuring the third-order four-wave mixing signal, we also investigate the fifth-order six-wave mixing response. Third, we characterize the ultrafast phase dynamics of the nonlinear emission using interferometric techniques with an unprecedented resolution of approximately 140 attoseconds. We find that effects arising from Coulomb correlation dominate the nonlinear optical response when the density of excitons falls below rm3times10 ^{11}cm^{-2}, the saturation density. Under these conditions, Coulomb interactions are unscreened and there exist two contributions to the multi-wave mixing emission. A prompt response from field scattering occurs via the phase-space filling effects of the Pauli exclusion principle, while a delayed response from polarization wave scattering occurs via the Coulomb interactions between excitons. In four-wave mixing, polarization wave scattering produces a non-exponential decay to the time-resolved signal and a corresponding non-linear phase evolution in the emitted pulse. In six-wave mixing, polarization wave
Feng Bo
2007-11-20
In this talk, we will present recent progresses in perturbative calculations of scattering amplitudes at tree and one-loop levels. At tree level, we will discuss MHV-diagram method and on-shell recursion relation. At one-loop level, we will establish the framework of Unitarity cut method.
Reinforcing Saccadic Amplitude Variability
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Paeye, Celine; Madelain, Laurent
2011-01-01
Saccadic endpoint variability is often viewed as the outcome of neural noise occurring during sensorimotor processing. However, part of this variability might result from operant learning. We tested this hypothesis by reinforcing dispersions of saccadic amplitude distributions, while maintaining constant their medians. In a first experiment we…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, Tomasz R.
2017-05-01
This a pedagogical introduction to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories. It proceeds from Dirac equation and Weyl fermions to the two pivot points of current developments: the recursion relations of Britto, Cachazo, Feng and Witten, and the unitarity cut method pioneered by Bern, Dixon, Dunbar and Kosower. In ten lectures, it covers the basic elements of on-shell methods.
Planar amplitude ammonia sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karasinski, Pawel; Rogozinski, Roman
2004-09-01
The paper presents the results of investigation involving the influence of the change of launching conditions on the characteristics of amplitude ammonia sensors produced with the application of strip waveguides of different refractive profiles. Strip waveguides were produced using ion exchange technique, and the absorption sensitive films were produced using sol-gel technology.
Testing proportionality in the proportional odds model fitted with GEE.
Stiger, T R; Barnhart, H X; Williamson, J M
1999-06-15
Generalized estimating equations (GEE) methodology as proposed by Liang and Zeger has received widespread use in the analysis of correlated binary data. Miller et al. and Lipsitz et al. extended GEE to correlated nominal and ordinal categorical data; in particular, they used GEE for fitting McCullagh's proportional odds model. In this paper, we consider robust (that is, empirically corrected) and model-based versions of both a score test and a Wald test for assessing the assumption of proportional odds in the proportional odds model fitted with GEE. The Wald test is based on fitting separate multiple logistic regression models for each dichotomization of the response variable, whereas the score test requires fitting just the proportional odds model. We evaluate the proposed tests in small to moderate samples by simulating data from a series of simple models. We illustrate the use of the tests on three data sets from medical studies.
Comparison of hard-cylinder and screened Coulomb interactions in the modeling of supercoiled DNAs.
Delrow, J J; Gebe, J A; Schurr, J M
1997-10-05
A 1000 base pair (bp) model supercoiled DNA is simulated using spherical screened Coulomb interactions between subunits on one hand and equivalent hard-cylinder interactions on the other. The amplitudes, or effective charges, of the spherical screened Coulomb electrostatic potentials are chosen so that the electrostatic potential surrounding the middle of a linear array of 2001 subunits (31.8 A diameter) closely matches the solution of the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation for a cylinder with 12 A radius and the full linear charge density of DNA at all distances beyond the 24 A hard-core diameter. This superposition of spherical screened Coulomb potentials is practically identical to the particular solution of the cylindrical linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation that matches the solution of the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation at large distances. The interaction energy between subunits is reckoned from the effective charges according to the standard DLVO expression. The equivalent hard-cylinder diameter is chosen following Stigter's protocol for matching second virial coefficients, but for the full linear charge density of DNA. The electrostatic persistence length of the model with screened Coulomb interactions is extremely sensitive to the (arbitrarily) chosen subunit length at the higher salt concentrations. The persistence length of the hard-cylinder model is adjusted to match that of the screened Coulomb model for each ionic condition. Simulations for a superhelix density sigma = -0.05 using a spherical screened Coulomb interaction plus a 24 A hard-cylinder core (SCPHC) potential indicate that the radius of gyration of this 1000 bp DNA actually undergoes a slight increase as the NaCl concentration is raised from 0.01 to 1.0M. Thus, merely softening the potential from hard-cylinder to screened Coulomb form does not produce a large decrease in radius of gyration with increasing NaCl concentration for DNAs of this size. Radii of gyration, static structure
Off-energy-shell p-p scattering at sub-Coulomb energies via the Trojan horse method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Campajola, L.; Cherubini, S.; Crucillá, V.; Elekes, Z.; Fülöp, Z.; Gialanella, L.; Gulino, M.; Gyürky, G.; Kiss, G.; Cognata, M. La; Lamia, L.; Ordine, A.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Somorjai, E.
2008-12-01
Two-proton scattering at sub-Coulomb energies has been measured indirectly via the Trojan horse method applied to the p+d→p+p+n reaction to investigate off-energy shell effects for scattering processes. The three-body experiment was performed at 5 and 4.7 MeV corresponding to a p-p relative energy ranging from 80 to 670 keV. The free p-p cross section exhibits a deep minimum right within this relative energy region due to Coulomb plus nuclear destructive interference. No minimum occurs instead in the Trojan horse p-p cross section, which was extracted by employing a simple plane-wave impulse approximation. A detailed formalism was developed to build up the expression of the theoretical half-off-shell p-p cross section. Its behavior agrees with the Trojan horse data and in turn formally fits the n-n, n-p, and nuclear p-p cross sections given the fact that in its expression the Coulomb amplitude is negligible with respect to the nuclear one. These results confirm the Trojan horse suppression of the Coulomb amplitude for scattering due to the off-shell character of the process.
Off-energy-shell p-p scattering at sub-Coulomb energies via the Trojan horse method
Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Cherubini, S.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; Cognata, M. La; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Campajola, L.; Elekes, Z.; Fueloep, Z.; Gyuerky, G.; Kiss, G.; Somorjai, E.; Gialanella, L.; Ordine, A.
2008-12-15
Two-proton scattering at sub-Coulomb energies has been measured indirectly via the Trojan horse method applied to the p + d{yields}p + p + n reaction to investigate off-energy shell effects for scattering processes. The three-body experiment was performed at 5 and 4.7 MeV corresponding to a p-p relative energy ranging from 80 to 670 keV. The free p-p cross section exhibits a deep minimum right within this relative energy region due to Coulomb plus nuclear destructive interference. No minimum occurs instead in the Trojan horse p-p cross section, which was extracted by employing a simple plane-wave impulse approximation. A detailed formalism was developed to build up the expression of the theoretical half-off-shell p-p cross section. Its behavior agrees with the Trojan horse data and in turn formally fits the n-n, n-p, and nuclear p-p cross sections given the fact that in its expression the Coulomb amplitude is negligible with respect to the nuclear one. These results confirm the Trojan horse suppression of the Coulomb amplitude for scattering due to the off-shell character of the process.
In-depth analysis of Coulomb Volkov approaches to ionization and excitation by laser pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
R, Guichard; H, Bachau; E, Cormier; R, Gayet; D, Rodriguez V.
2007-10-01
In perturbation conditions, above-threshold ionization spectra produced in the interaction of atoms with femtosecond short-wavelength laser pulses are well predicted by a theoretical approach called CV2-, which is based on Coulomb-Volkov-type states. However, when resonant intermediate states play a significant role in a multiphoton transition, the CV2- transition amplitude does not take their influence into account. In a previous paper, this influence has been introduced separately as a series of additional sequential processes interfering with the direct process. To give more credit to this procedure, called modified CV2- (MCV2-), a perturbation expansion of the standard CV2- transition amplitude is compared here to the standard time-dependent perturbation series and the strong field approximation. It is shown that the CV2- transition amplitude consists merely in a simultaneous absorption of all photons involved in the transition, thus avoiding all intermediate resonant state influence. The present analysis supports the MCV2- procedure that consists in introducing explicitly the other quantum paths, which contribute significantly to ionization, such as passing through intermediate resonances. Further, this analysis permits to show that multiphoton excitation may be addressed by a Coulomb-Volkov approach akin to MCV2-.
Theoretical Investigation of a Proportional-Plus-Flicker Automatic Pilot
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seaberg, Ernest C.
1950-01-01
The proportional-plus-flicker automatic pilot operates by a nonlinear principle whereby a fast-acting flicker servomotor response is combined with a low-speed proportional servomotor response for the purpose of obtaining supersonic stability and control. Essentially, the autopilot maintains a zero reference about which the output is proportional to the input. However, a flicker response overrides this proportional response at a fixed angle of gimbal displacement on either side of the zero gyroscope reference. Therefore, in contrast to other high speed control systems, the design requirements are simplified because the two components of the proportional-flicker control system are easy to build separately and they can be combined in a relatively simple manner. By application of the proportional-flicker principle, satisfactory stability can be obtained by the proper adjustment of the variable factors in the autopilot mechanism; namely, the proportional gain, the amplitude of flicker control deflection, the autopilot time-lag factor (the time-lag between flicker and proportional operation), and the point in the range that the autopilot switches from a flicker to a proportional system. There is a possibility that these factors can be adjusted so that a more rapid response time (the time to reach steady state) is obtained with the non-linear proportional-flicker autopilot than with a purely linear proportional autopilot. For the main part of this analysis, the proportional part of the system is approximated by a zero-phase-lag proportional autopilot with the assumption that the control surface moves instantaneously at the point where the system switches from flicker to proportional. Good correlation is shown between the results obtained by this method and results obtained by using a close approximation of an actual autopilot transfer function for proportional autopilot operation.
Weak boson production amplitude zeros; equalities of the helicity amplitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mamedov, Fizuli
2002-08-01
We investigate the radiation amplitude zeros exhibited by many standard model amplitudes for triple weak gauge boson production processes. We show that WZγ production amplitudes have an especially rich structure in terms of zeros; these amplitudes have zeros originating from several different sources. It is also shown that the type-I current null zone is the special case of the equality of the specific helicity amplitudes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Can, T. V.; Weber, R. T.; Walish, J. J.; Swager, T. M.; Griffin, R. G.
2017-04-01
We present a pulsed dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) study using a ramped-amplitude nuclear orientation via electron spin locking (RA-NOVEL) sequence that utilizes a fast arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) to modulate the microwave pulses together with samples doped with narrow-line radicals such as 1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl (BDPA), sulfonated-BDPA (SA-BDPA), and trityl-OX063. Similar to ramped-amplitude cross polarization in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, RA-NOVEL improves the DNP efficiency by a factor of up to 1.6 compared to constant-amplitude NOVEL (CA-NOVEL) but requires a longer mixing time. For example, at τmix = 8 μs, the DNP efficiency reaches a plateau at a ramp amplitude of ˜20 MHz for both SA-BDPA and trityl-OX063, regardless of the ramp profile (linear vs. tangent). At shorter mixing times (τmix = 0.8 μs), we found that the tangent ramp is superior to its linear counterpart and in both cases there exists an optimum ramp size and therefore ramp rate. Our results suggest that RA-NOVEL should be used instead of CA-NOVEL as long as the electronic spin lattice relaxation T1e is sufficiently long and/or the duty cycle of the microwave amplifier is not exceeded. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of a time domain DNP experiment that utilizes modulated microwave pulses. Our results also suggest that a precise modulation of the microwave pulses can play an important role in optimizing the efficiency of pulsed DNP experiments and an AWG is an elegant instrumental solution for this purpose.
Erbert, G
2009-09-01
The Amplitude Modulator Chassis (AMC) is the final component in the MOR system and connects directly to the PAM input through a 100-meter fiber. The 48 AMCs temporally shape the 48 outputs of the MOR using an arbitrary waveform generator coupled to an amplitude modulator. The amplitude modulation element is a two stage, Lithium Niobate waveguide device, where the intensity of the light passing through the device is a function of the electrical drive applied. The first stage of the modulator is connected to a programmable high performance Arbitrary Waveform Generator (AWG) consisting of 140 impulse generators space 250 ps apart. An arbitrary waveform is generated by independently varying the amplitude of each impulse generator and then summing the impulses together. In addition to the AWG a short pulse generator is also connected to the first stage of the modulator to provide a sub 100-ps pulse used for timing experiments. The second stage of the modulator is connect to a square pulse generator used to further attenuate any pre or post pulse light passing through the first stage of the modulator. The fast rise and fall time of the square pulse generator is also used to produce fast rise and fall times of the AWG by clipping the AWG pulse. For maximum extinction, a pulse bias voltage is applied to each stage of the modulator. A pulse voltage is applied as opposed to a DC voltage to prevent charge buildup on the modulator. Each bias voltage is adjustable to provide a minimum of 50-dB extinction. The AMC is controlled through ICCS to generate the desired temporal pulse shape. This process involves a closed-loop control algorithm, which compares the desired temporal waveform to the produced optical pulse, and iterates the programming of the AWG until the two waveforms agree within an allowable tolerance.
Nonequilibrium quantum thermodynamics in Coulomb crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cosco, F.; Borrelli, M.; Silvi, P.; Maniscalco, S.; De Chiara, G.
2017-06-01
We present an in-depth study of the nonequilibrium statistics of the irreversible work produced during sudden quenches in proximity to the structural linear-zigzag transition of ion Coulomb crystals in 1+1 dimensions. By employing both an analytical approach based on a harmonic expansion and numerical simulations, we show the divergence of the average irreversible work in proximity to the transition. We show that the nonanalytic behavior of the work fluctuations can be characterized in terms of the critical exponents of the quantum Ising chain. Due to the technological advancements in trapped-ion experiments, our results can be readily verified.
The Coulomb Anomaly in Strongly Disordered Films
1992-01-01
r- AD-A271 0951 III [II[ I[Il ~ !!D T ! SC T 0 •9 3 The Coulomb Anomaly in Strongly Disordered FiiA 4 ’ Shih-Ying Hsu and J.M. Valles, Jr...strongly disordered quench condensed granular films are presented. The strength of this anomaly grows with increasing sheet resistance, RN, at low RN...Increases in the static disorder in metal The disordered films were deposited onto films degrades the screening capabilities of cooled substrates (-’ 8K
Bound eigenstates for two truncated Coulomb potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, David; Varshni, Y. P.; Dutt, Ranabir
1985-07-01
The eigenvalue problem for two particles interacting through the attractive truncated Coulomb potential, V(r)=-Ze2/(rp+βp)1/p, for p=1 and 2 is solved numerically. Energy eigenvalues accurate to within eight to six significant figures for the states 1s to 4f are calculated as a function of the truncation parameter β. It is found that the level ordering satisfies Enl>Enl' for l
Action principle for Coulomb collisions in plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirvijoki, Eero
2016-09-01
An action principle for Coulomb collisions in plasmas is proposed. Although no natural Lagrangian exists for the Landau-Fokker-Planck equation, an Eulerian variational formulation is found considering the system of partial differential equations that couple the distribution function and the Rosenbluth-MacDonald-Judd potentials. Conservation laws are derived after generalizing the energy-momentum stress tensor for second order Lagrangians and, in the case of a test-particle population in a given plasma background, the action principle is shown to correspond to the Langevin equation for individual particles.
Particle Diffusion Due to Coulomb Scattering
V. Lebedev and S. Nagaitsev
2002-06-03
Conventionally, the multiple and single particle scattering in a storage ring are considered to be independent. Such an approach is simple and often yields sufficiently accurate results. Nevertheless, there is a class of problems where such an approach is not adequate and the single and multiple scattering need to be considered together. This can be achieved by solving an integro-differential equation for the particle distribution function, which correctly treats particle Coulomb scattering in the presence of betatron motion. A derivation of the equation is presented in the article. A numerical solution for one practical case is also considered.
Nanoplasmonic renormalization and enhancement of Coulomb interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durach, Maxim; Rusina, Anastasia; Klimov, Victor I.; Stockman, Mark I.
2008-08-01
In this paper we propose a general and powerful theory of the plasmonic enhancement of the many-body phenomena resulting in a closed expression for the surface plasmon-dressed Coulomb interaction. We illustrate this theory by computing dressed interaction explicitly for an important example of metal-dielectric nanoshells which exhibits a rich resonant behavior in magnitude and phase. This interaction is used to describe the nanoplasmonic-enhanced FÂ¨orster resonant energy transfer (FRET) between nanocrystal quantum dots near a nanoshell.
Nanoplasmonic renormalization and enhancement of Coulomb interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durach, M.; Rusina, A.; Klimov, V. I.; Stockman, M. I.
2008-10-01
In this paper, we propose a general and powerful theory of the plasmonic enhancement of the many-body phenomena resulting in a closed expression for the surface plasmon-dressed Coulomb interaction. We illustrate this theory by computing the dressed interaction explicitly for an important example of metal-dielectric nanoshells which exhibits a rich resonant behavior in magnitude and phase. This interaction is used to describe the nanoplasmonic-enhanced Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET) between nanocrystal quantum dots near a nanoshell.
Coulombic dragging of molecular assemblies on nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kral, Petr; Sint, Kyaw; Wang, Boyang
2009-03-01
We show by molecular dynamics simulations that polar molecules, ions and their assemblies could be Coulombically dragged on the surfaces of single-wall carbon and boron-nitride nanotubes by ionic solutions or individual ions moving inside the nanotubes [1,2]. We also briefly discuss highly selective ionic sieves based on graphene monolayers with nanopores [3]. These phenomena could be applied in molecular delivery, separation and desalination.[3pt] [1] Boyang Wang and Petr Kral, JACS 128, 15984 (2006). [0pt] [2] Boyang Wang and Petr Kral, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 046103 (2008). [0pt] [3] Kyaw Sint, Boyang Wang and Petr Kral, JACS, ASAP (2008).
Action principle for Coulomb collisions in plasmas
Hirvijoki, Eero
2016-09-14
In this study, an action principle for Coulomb collisions in plasmas is proposed. Although no natural Lagrangian exists for the Landau-Fokker-Planck equation, an Eulerian variational formulation is found considering the system of partial differential equations that couple the distribution function and the Rosenbluth-MacDonald-Judd potentials. Conservation laws are derived after generalizing the energy-momentum stress tensor for second order Lagrangians and, in the case of a test-particle population in a given plasma background, the action principle is shown to correspond to the Langevin equation for individual particles.
Action principle for Coulomb collisions in plasmas
Hirvijoki, Eero
2016-09-14
In this study, an action principle for Coulomb collisions in plasmas is proposed. Although no natural Lagrangian exists for the Landau-Fokker-Planck equation, an Eulerian variational formulation is found considering the system of partial differential equations that couple the distribution function and the Rosenbluth-MacDonald-Judd potentials. Conservation laws are derived after generalizing the energy-momentum stress tensor for second order Lagrangians and, in the case of a test-particle population in a given plasma background, the action principle is shown to correspond to the Langevin equation for individual particles.
High amplitude propagated contractions.
Bharucha, A E
2012-11-01
While most colonic motor activity is segmental and non-propulsive, colonic high amplitude propagated contractions (HAPC) can transfer colonic contents over long distances and often precede defecation. High amplitude propagated contractions occur spontaneously, in response to pharmacological agents or colonic distention. A subset of patients with slow transit constipation have fewer HAPC. In this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Rodriguez et al. report that anal relaxation during spontaneous and bisacodyl-induced HAPC exceeds anal relaxation during rectal distention in constipated children undergoing colonic manometry. Moreover, and consistent with a neural mechanism, anal relaxation often precedes arrival of HAPC in the left colon. High amplitude propagated contractions are also used to evaluate the motor response to a meal and pharmacological stimuli (e.g., bisacodyl, neostigmine) and to identify colonic inertia during colonic motility testing in chronic constipation. This editorial comprehensively reviews the characteristics, physiology and pharmacology of HAPC, their assessment by manometry, and relevance to constipation and diarrhea. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Amplitudes of Spiral Perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grosbol, P.; Patsis, P. A.
2014-03-01
It has proven very difficult to estimate the amplitudes of spiral perturbations in disk galaxies from observations due to the variation of mass-to-light ratio and extinction across spiral arms. Deep, near-infrared images of grand-design spiral galaxies obtained with HAWK-I/VLT were used to analyze the azimuthal amplitude and shape of arms, which, even in the K-band may, be significantly biased by the presence of young stellar populations. Several techniques were applied to evaluate the relative importance of young stars across the arms, such as surface brightness of the disk with light from clusters subtracted, number density of clusters detected, and texture of the disk. The modulation of the texture measurement, which correlates with the number density of faint clusters, yields amplitudes of the spiral perturbation in the range 0.1-0.2. This estimate gives a better estimate of the mass perturbation in the spiral arms, since it is dominated by old clusters.
Gray, G.W.; Jensen, A.S.
1957-10-22
A pulse-height analyzer system of improved design for sorting and counting a series of pulses, such as provided by a scintillation detector in nuclear radiation measurements, is described. The analyzer comprises a main transmission line, a cathode-ray tube for each section of the line with its deflection plates acting as the line capacitance; means to bias the respective cathode ray tubes so that the beam strikes a target only when a prearranged pulse amplitude is applied, with each tube progressively biased to respond to smaller amplitudes; pulse generating and counting means associated with each tube to respond when the beam is deflected; a control transmission line having the same time constant as the first line per section with pulse generating means for each tube for initiating a pulse on the second transmission line when a pulse triggers the tube of corresponding amplitude response, the former pulse acting to prevent successive tubes from responding to the pulse under test. This arrangement permits greater deflection sensitivity in the cathode ray tube and overcomes many of the disadvantages of prior art pulse-height analyzer circuits.
New approach to folding with the Coulomb wave function
Blokhintsev, L. D.; Savin, D. A.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.
2015-05-15
Due to the long-range character of the Coulomb interaction theoretical description of low-energy nuclear reactions with charged particles still remains a formidable task. One way of dealing with the problem in an integral-equation approach is to employ a screened Coulomb potential. A general approach without screening requires folding of kernels of the integral equations with the Coulomb wave. A new method of folding a function with the Coulomb partial waves is presented. The partial-wave Coulomb function both in the configuration and momentum representations is written in the form of separable series. Each term of the series is represented as a product of a factor depending only on the Coulomb parameter and a function depending on the spatial variable in the configuration space and the momentum variable if the momentum representation is used. Using a trial function, the method is demonstrated to be efficient and reliable.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhongyu; Chen, Di; Wang, Jing; Shao, Lin
2014-04-01
Strong electronic stopping power of swift ions in a semiconducting or insulating substrate can lead to localized electron stripping. The subsequent repulsive interactions among charged target atoms can cause Coulomb explosion. Using molecular dynamics simulation, we simulate Coulomb explosion in silicon by introducing an ionization pulse lasting for different periods, and at different substrate temperatures. We find that the longer the pulse period, the larger the melting radius. The observation can be explained by a critical energy density model assuming that melting required thermal energy density is a constant value and the total thermal energy gained from Coulomb explosion is linearly proportional to the ionization period. Our studies also show that melting radius is larger at higher substrate temperatures. The temperature effect is explained due to a longer structural relaxation above the melting temperature at original ionization boundary due to lower heat dissipation rates. Furthermore, simulations show the formation of shock waves, created due to the compression from the melting core.
Temperature dependence of coulomb drag between finite-length quantum wires.
Peguiron, J; Bruder, C; Trauzettel, B
2007-08-24
We evaluate the Coulomb drag current in two finite-length Tomonaga-Luttinger-liquid wires coupled by an electrostatic backscattering interaction. The drag current in one wire shows oscillations as a function of the bias voltage applied to the other wire, reflecting interferences of the plasmon standing waves in the interacting wires. In agreement with this picture, the amplitude of the current oscillations is reduced with increasing temperature. This is a clear signature of non-Fermi-liquid physics because for coupled Fermi liquids the drag resistance is always expected to increase as the temperature is raised.
Manakov, N. L. Krylovetsky, A. A.; Marmo, S. I.
2015-11-15
Compact analytic expressions have been derived by a direct expansion in ħ → 0 for the nonrelativistic amplitude of Coulomb bremsstrahlung radiation (BR), the differential (in frequency and angles of the scattered electron) BR cross section, and the triply differential BR cross section that takes into account the bremsstrahlung photon direction and polarization and the scattered electron direction. They contain the classical limit and a quantum correction of the order of ħ at an arbitrary BR frequency ω. An explicit expression has been found for the quantum correction of the order of ħ to the classical BR spectrum.
Dimension two condensates in the Gribov-Zwanziger theory in Coulomb gauge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guimaraes, M. S.; Mintz, B. W.; Sorella, S. P.
2015-06-01
We investigate the dimension two condensate ⟨ϕ¯ia bϕia b-ω¯ia bωia b⟩ within the Gribov-Zwanziger approach to Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in the Coulomb gauge, in both 3 and 4 dimensions. An explicit calculation shows that, at the first order, the condensate ⟨ϕ¯i a bϕia b-ω¯i a bωia b⟩ is plagued by a nonintegrable IR divergence in 3 D , while in 4 D it exhibits a logarithmic UV divergence, being proportional to the Gribov parameter γ2. These results indicate that in 3D the transverse spatial Coulomb gluon two-point correlation function exhibits a scaling behavior, in agreement with Gribov's expression. In 4D, however, they suggest that, next to the scaling behavior, a decoupling solution might emerge too.
Turrell, A.E. Sherlock, M.; Rose, S.J.
2015-10-15
Large-angle Coulomb collisions allow for the exchange of a significant proportion of the energy of a particle in a single collision, but are not included in models of plasmas based on fluids, the Vlasov–Fokker–Planck equation, or currently available plasma Monte Carlo techniques. Their unique effects include the creation of fast ‘knock-on’ ions, which may be more likely to undergo certain reactions, and distortions to ion distribution functions relative to what is predicted by small-angle collision only theories. We present a computational method which uses Monte Carlo techniques to include the effects of large-angle Coulomb collisions in plasmas and which self-consistently evolves distribution functions according to the creation of knock-on ions of any generation. The method is used to demonstrate ion distribution function distortions in an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) relevant scenario of the slowing of fusion products.
Proportional smile design using the recurring esthetic dental (red) proportion.
Ward, D H
2001-01-01
Dentists have needed an objective way in which to evaluate a smile. A method for determining the ideal size and position of the anterior teeth has been presented here. Use of the FIVE to evaluate the RED proportion and the width-to-height ratio, tempered with sound clinical judgment, gives pleasing and consistent results. With the diversity that exists in nature, rarely does the final result follow all the mathematical rules of proportional smile design. This approach may serve as a foundation on which to base initial smile design, however. When one begins to understand the relationship between beauty, mathematics, and the surrounding world, one begins to appreciate their interdependence.
Improved Shell models for screened Coulomb balls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonitz, M.; Kaehlert, H.; Henning, C.; Baumgartner, H.; Filinov, A.
2006-10-01
Spherical Coulomb crystals in dusty plasmas [1] are well described by an isotropic Yukawa-type pair interaction and an external parabolic confinement as was shown by extensive molecular dynamics simulations [2]. A much simpler description is possible with analytical shell models which have been derived for Yukawas plasmas in [3,4]. Here we analyze improved Yukawa shell models which include correlations along the lines proposed for Coulomb crystals in [5]. The shell configurations are efficiently evaluated using a Monte Carlo procedure. [1] O. Arp, A. Piel and A. Melzer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 165004 (2004). [2] M. Bonitz, D. Block, O. Arp, V. Golunychiy, H. Baumgartner, P. Ludwig, A. Piel and A. Filinov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075001 (2006). [3] H. Totsuji, C. Totsuji, T. Ogawa, and K. Tsuruta, Phys. Rev. E 71, 045401 (2005). [4] C. Henning, M. Bonitz, A. Piel, P. Ludwig, H. Baumgartner, V. Golubnichiy, and D. Block, submitted to Phys. Rev. E [5] W.D. Kraeft and M. Bonitz, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 35, 94 (2006).
Thermodynamic properties of screened Coulomb balls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonitz, M.; Baumgartner, H.; Filinov, A.
2006-10-01
Complex plasmas in parabolic traps [1,2], especially Coulomb balls, can easily reach a strongly coupled state which is of great current interest in many fields, including trapped ions, ultracold plasmas and condensed matter. The advantage of the dust crystals is the direct experimental access to the individual particle positions, allowing for precision comparisons with theoretical models and numerical simulations. In this work the dependence of melting points of mesoscopic spherical crystals on the screening and particle number is analyzed. We present analytical results which are compared with simulation and experimental data [3,4,5]. It is shown that the influence of the screening on structural properties of these mesoscopic systems exhibts also a strong impact on the melting behavior. This analysis is based on Metropolis thermodynamic Monte Carlo simulations to obtain first principle thermodynamic properties of the strongly correlated Coulomb clusters. Finally, our results allow to propose a new non-invasive diagnostic to determine the dust temperature. [1] O. Arp, A. Piel and A. Melzer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 165004 (2004).[2] P. Ludwig, S. Kosse and M. Bonitz, Phys. Rev. E 71, 046403 (2005).[3] M. Bonitz, D. Block, O. Arp, V. Golunychiy, H. Baumgartner, P. Ludwig, A. Piel and A. Filinov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075001 (2006). [4] O.S. Vaulina, S.A. Khrapak and G.E. Morfill, Phys. Rev. E 66, 016404 (2002). [5] J.P. Schiffer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 205003 (2002)
Coulomb excitation of radioactive {sup 79}Pb
Lister, C.J.; Blumenthal, D.; Davids, C.N.
1995-08-01
The technical challenges expected in experiments with radioactive beams can already be explored by using ions produced in primary reactions. In addition, the re-excitation of these ions by Coulomb excitation allows a sensitive search for collective states that are well above the yrast line. We are building an experiment to study Coulomb excitation of radioactive ions which are separated from beam particles by the Fragment Mass Analyzer. An array of gamma detectors will be mounted at the focal plane to measure the gamma radiation following re-excitation. Five Compton-suppressed Ge detectors and five planar LEPS detectors will be used. The optimum experiment of this type appears to be the study of {sup 79}Rb following the {sup 24}Mg ({sup 58}Ni,3p) reaction. We calculate that about 5 x 10{sup 5} {sup 79}Rb nuclei/second will reach the excitation foil. This rubidium isotope was selected for study as it is strongly produced and is highly deformed, so easily re-excited. The use of a {sup 58}Ni re-excitation foil offers the best yields. After re-excitation the ions will be subsequently transported into a shielded beamdump to prevent the accumulation of activity.
Effect of Coulomb interaction on multi-electronwave packet dynamics
Shiokawa, T.; Takada, Y.; Konabe, S.; Hatsugai, Y.; Muraguchi, M.; Endoh, T.; Shiraishi, K.
2013-12-04
We have investigated the effect of Coulomb interaction on electron transport in a one-dimensional nanoscale structure using a multi-electron wave packet approach. To study the time evolution, we numerically solve the time-dependent Hartree-Fock equation, finding that the electron wave packet dynamics strongly depends on the Coulomb interaction strength. When the Coulomb interaction is large, each electron wave packet moves separately in the presence of an electric field. With weak Coulomb interaction, however, the electron wave packets overlap, forming and moving as one collective wave packet.
Cluster functions and scattering amplitudes for six and seven points
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harrington, Thomas; Spradlin, Marcus
2017-07-01
Scattering amplitudes in planar super-Yang-Mills theory satisfy several basic physical and mathematical constraints, including physical constraints on their branch cut structure and various empirically discovered connections to the mathematics of cluster algebras. The power of the bootstrap program for amplitudes is inversely proportional to the size of the intersection between these physical and mathematical constraints: ideally we would like a list of constraints which determine scattering amplitudes uniquely. We explore this intersection quantitatively for two-loop six- and seven-point amplitudes by providing a complete taxonomy of the Gr(4, 6) and Gr(4, 7) cluster polylogarithm functions of [15] at weight 4.
Cluster functions and scattering amplitudes for six and seven points
Harrington, Thomas; Spradlin, Marcus
2017-07-05
Scattering amplitudes in planar super-Yang-Mills theory satisfy several basic physical and mathematical constraints, including physical constraints on their branch cut structure and various empirically discovered connections to the mathematics of cluster algebras. The power of the bootstrap program for amplitudes is inversely proportional to the size of the intersection between these physical and mathematical constraints: ideally we would like a list of constraints which determine scattering amplitudes uniquely. Here, we explore this intersection quantitatively for two-loop six- and seven-point amplitudes by providing a complete taxonomy of the Gr(4, 6) and Gr(4, 7) cluster polylogarithm functions of [15] at weight 4.
Bayesian Inference on Proportional Elections
Brunello, Gabriel Hideki Vatanabe; Nakano, Eduardo Yoshio
2015-01-01
Polls for majoritarian voting systems usually show estimates of the percentage of votes for each candidate. However, proportional vote systems do not necessarily guarantee the candidate with the most percentage of votes will be elected. Thus, traditional methods used in majoritarian elections cannot be applied on proportional elections. In this context, the purpose of this paper was to perform a Bayesian inference on proportional elections considering the Brazilian system of seats distribution. More specifically, a methodology to answer the probability that a given party will have representation on the chamber of deputies was developed. Inferences were made on a Bayesian scenario using the Monte Carlo simulation technique, and the developed methodology was applied on data from the Brazilian elections for Members of the Legislative Assembly and Federal Chamber of Deputies in 2010. A performance rate was also presented to evaluate the efficiency of the methodology. Calculations and simulations were carried out using the free R statistical software. PMID:25786259
HIGH AMPLITUDE PROPAGATED CONTRACTIONS
Bharucha, Adil E.
2012-01-01
While most colonic motor activity is segmental and non-propulsive, colonic high amplitude propagated contractions (HAPC) can transfer colonic contents over long distances and often precede defecation. HAPC occur spontaneously, in response to pharmacological agents or colonic distention. In this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Rodriguez and colleagues report that anal relaxation during spontaneous and bisacodyl-induced HAPC exceeds anal relaxation during rectal distention in constipated children undergoing colonic manometry. Moreover, and consistent with a neural mechanism, anal relaxation often precedes arrival of HAPC in the left colon. This editorial comprehensively reviews the characteristics, physiology and pharmacology of HAPC, their assessment by manometry, and relevance to constipation and diarrhea. PMID:23057554
Pion distribution amplitude and quasidistributions
Radyushkin, Anatoly V.
2017-03-27
We extend our analysis of quasidistributions onto the pion distribution amplitude. Using the formalism of parton virtuality distribution amplitudes, we establish a connection between the pion transverse momentum dependent distribution amplitude Ψ(x,k2⊥) and the pion quasidistribution amplitude (QDA) Qπ(y,p3). We build models for the QDAs from the virtuality-distribution-amplitude-based models for soft transverse momentum dependent distribution amplitudes, and analyze the p3 dependence of the resulting QDAs. As there are many models claimed to describe the primordial shape of the pion distribution amplitude, we present the p3-evolution patterns for models producing some popular proposals: Chernyak-Zhitnitsky, flat, and asymptotic distribution amplitude. Finally, ourmore » results may be used as a guide for future studies of the pion distribution amplitude on the lattice using the quasidistribution approach.« less
Saving Money Using Proportional Reasoning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de la Cruz, Jessica A.; Garney, Sandra
2016-01-01
It is beneficial for students to discover intuitive strategies, as opposed to the teacher presenting strategies to them. Certain proportional reasoning tasks are more likely to elicit intuitive strategies than other tasks. The strategies that students are apt to use when approaching a task, as well as the likelihood of a student's success or…
Proportional Hazards Models of Graduation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chimka, Justin R.; Reed-Rhoads, Teri; Barker, Kash
2008-01-01
Survival analysis is a statistical tool used to describe the duration between events. Many processes in medical research, engineering, and economics can be described using survival analysis techniques. This research involves studying engineering college student graduation using Cox proportional hazards models. Among male students with American…
Proportional Reasoning with a Pyramid
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mamolo, Ami; Sinclair, Margaret; Whiteley, Walter J.
2011-01-01
Proportional reasoning pops up in math class in a variety of places, such as while making scaled drawings; finding equivalent fractions; converting units of measurement; comparing speeds, prices, and rates; and comparing lengths, areas, and volume. Students need to be exposed to a variety of representations to develop a sound understanding of this…
Proportional Reasoning with a Pyramid
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mamolo, Ami; Sinclair, Margaret; Whiteley, Walter J.
2011-01-01
Proportional reasoning pops up in math class in a variety of places, such as while making scaled drawings; finding equivalent fractions; converting units of measurement; comparing speeds, prices, and rates; and comparing lengths, areas, and volume. Students need to be exposed to a variety of representations to develop a sound understanding of this…
Saving Money Using Proportional Reasoning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de la Cruz, Jessica A.; Garney, Sandra
2016-01-01
It is beneficial for students to discover intuitive strategies, as opposed to the teacher presenting strategies to them. Certain proportional reasoning tasks are more likely to elicit intuitive strategies than other tasks. The strategies that students are apt to use when approaching a task, as well as the likelihood of a student's success or…
Social Justice and Proportional Reasoning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Simic-Muller, Ksenija
2015-01-01
Ratio and proportional reasoning tasks abound that have connections to real-world situations. Examples in this article demonstrate how textbook tasks can easily be transformed into authentic real-world problems that shed light on issues of equity and fairness, such as population growth and crime rates. A few ideas are presented on how teachers can…
A method for estimating proportions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guseman, L. F., Jr.; Marion, B. P.
1975-01-01
A proportion estimation procedure is presented which requires only on set of ground truth data for determining the error matrix. The error matrix is then used to determine an unbiased estimate. The error matrix is shown to be directly related to the probability of misclassifications, and is more diagonally dominant with the increase in the number of passes used.
Proportional Hazards Models of Graduation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chimka, Justin R.; Reed-Rhoads, Teri; Barker, Kash
2008-01-01
Survival analysis is a statistical tool used to describe the duration between events. Many processes in medical research, engineering, and economics can be described using survival analysis techniques. This research involves studying engineering college student graduation using Cox proportional hazards models. Among male students with American…
Understanding Proportional Reasoning for Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kastberg, Signe E.; D'Ambrosio, Beatriz; Lynch-Davis, Kathleen
2012-01-01
Proportional reasoning is an important cornerstone in children's mathematical development. This sort of reasoning has been shown to develop across the early years of schooling (ages 8 to 10) through the middle years (ages 11-14). In the early years, children tend to use additive reasoning to generate solutions to problems, while later comparisons…
Social Justice and Proportional Reasoning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Simic-Muller, Ksenija
2015-01-01
Ratio and proportional reasoning tasks abound that have connections to real-world situations. Examples in this article demonstrate how textbook tasks can easily be transformed into authentic real-world problems that shed light on issues of equity and fairness, such as population growth and crime rates. A few ideas are presented on how teachers can…
A molecular dynamics model for the Coulomb explosion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Roger; Ramasawmy, D.; Kenny, S. D.
2005-01-01
The impact of positively charged Arn+ ions, n = 1, 4, 8, incident normally on the (1 0 0) surface of NaCl is studied by Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations for energies up to 1 keV. The model assumes fixed charges on the ions and the effect of projectile charge is investigated as a function of energy. It is shown that there is a significant enhancement in the sputtering yield at low impact energies due to the attachment of Cl ions to the impacting Ar, which is subsequently ejected from the lattice. The low energy Ar ions can also experience acceleration towards the NaCl crystal due to Coulombic attraction. At energies greater than a few hundred eV the Ar ions implant within the crystal which accommodates the extra charge from these ions. As a result the sputtering yield from the initial impact is reduced but as the dose increases, the yield rises as Na+ ions are preferentially ejected from the lattice. A large proportion of the ejected material is in the form of clusters.
Dust-Coulomb waves in dense dusty plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rao, N. N.
1999-12-01
Dusty plasmas can be considered as tenuous, dilute or dense when the dust fugacity parameter f≡4πnd0λD2R˜NDR/λD satisfies f≪1, ˜1, or ≫1, where nd0, λD and R denote, respectively, the dust number density, the plasma Debye length and the dust grain size (radius), and ND=nd0λD3 is the dust plasma parameter. Dense dusty plasmas are shown to support a new kind of ultra low-frequency electrostatic dust mode which may be called the "Dust-Coulomb Wave" (DCW). In contrast to the dust-acoustic wave (DAW) and the dust-lattice wave (DLW) which exist even for constant grain charge, DCWs are accompanied by dust charge as well as number density perturbations which are proportional to each other. For frequencies much smaller than the grain charging frequency, DCWs propagate as normal modes with the phase speed CDC≡qd0/√mdR , where qd0 (md) is the charge (mass) of the dust grains. In the long wavelength limit, the DCW phase speed is much smaller than that of DAW (CDA), and scales as ˜CDA/√f . Thus, for a given wave number, the frequency regime for the existence of DCW is much lower than the DAW regime. A comparison between the three types of dust-modes (DCWs, DAWs, and DLWs) has been carried out.
The mystery of Coulomb friction in sediment transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pähtz, Thomas; Duran, Orencio
Nearly all analytical models of sediment transport in Newtonian fluid (e.g., air or water) are based on Bagnold's assumption of a constant Coulomb friction coefficient (particle-shear-pressure-ratio, μ) at the interface (zb) between sediment bed and transport layer. In fact, this assumption is the main reason why these models predict the sediment load (and subsequently the sediment transport rate) to be proportional to the excess shear stress (τ -τt), a scaling which has been confirmed in many wind-tunnel and flume experiments. Attempts to explain why μ (zb) is constant have usually been based on the sliding-friction analogy or rheology arguments. However, here we analytically derive μ (zs) √{ 3} - 1 , where zs is the location at which the production rate of particle fluctuation energy is maximal. Our derivation is based on the assumption that the rate of collisional transfer of horizontal into vertical kinetic energy is typically much larger than the rate of energy dissipation. Using state-of-the-art numerical simulations of sediment transport in Newtonian fluid, we validate all assumptions and approximation involved in our derivation. Interestingly, the location zs can significantly deviate from zb depending on the simulated conditions. We acknowledge support from grants National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 1151101041 and 41376095) and Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province (No. LR16E090001).
Coulomb crystallization in classical and quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonitz, Michael
2007-11-01
Coulomb crystallization occurs in one-component plasmas when the average interaction energy exceeds the kinetic energy by about two orders of magnitude. A simple road to reach such strong coupling consists in using external confinement potentials the strength of which controls the density. This has been succsessfully realized with ions in traps and storage rings and also in dusty plasma. Recently a three-dimensional spherical confinement could be created [1] which allows to produce spherical dust crystals containing concentric shells. I will give an overview on our recent results for these ``Yukawa balls'' and compare them to experiments. The shell structure of these systems can be very well explained by using an isotropic statically screened pair interaction. Further, the thermodynamic properties of these systems, such as the radial density distribution are discussed based on an analytical theory [3]. I then will discuss Coulomb crystallization in trapped quantum systems, such as mesoscopic electron and electron hole plasmas in coupled layers [4,5]. These systems show a very rich correlation behavior, including liquid and solid like states and bound states (excitons, biexcitons) and their crystals. On the other hand, also collective quantum and spin effects are observed, including Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity of bound electron-hole pairs [4]. Finally, I consider Coulomb crystallization in two-component neutral plasmas in three dimensions. I discuss the necessary conditions for crystals of heavy charges to exist in the presence of a light component which typically is in the Fermi gas or liquid state. It can be shown that their exists a critical ratio of the masses of the species of the order of 80 [5] which is confirmed by Quantum Monte Carlo simulations [6]. Familiar examples are crystals of nuclei in the core of White dwarf stars, but the results also suggest the existence of other crystals, including proton or α-particle crystals in dense matter
Elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, G.; Shubhchintak, Chatterjee, R.
2016-08-01
Background: 34Na is conjectured to play an important role in the production of seed nuclei in the alternate r -process paths involving light neutron rich nuclei very near the β -stability line, and as such, it is important to know its ground state properties and structure to calculate rates of the reactions it might be involved in, in the stellar plasma. Found in the region of `island of inversion', its ground state might not be in agreement with normal shell model predictions. Purpose: The aim of this paper is to study the elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na on 208Pb to give us a core of 33Na with a neutron and in the process we try and investigate the one neutron separation energy and the ground state configuration of 34Na. Method: A fully quantum mechanical Coulomb breakup theory within the architecture of post-form finite range distorted wave Born approximation extended to include the effects of deformation is used to research the elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na on 208Pb at 100 MeV/u. The triple differential cross section calculated for the breakup is integrated over the desired components to find the total cross-section, momentum, and angular distributions as well as the average momenta, along with the energy-angular distributions. Results: The total one neutron removal cross section is calculated to test the possible ground state configurations of 34Na. The average momentum results along with energy-angular calculations indicate 34Na to have a halo structure. The parallel momentum distributions with narrow full widths at half-maxima signify the same. Conclusion: We have attempted to analyze the possible ground state configurations of 34Na and in congruity with the patterns in the `island of inversion' conclude that even without deformation, 34Na should be a neutron halo with a predominant contribution to its ground state most probably coming from 33Na(3 /2+)⊗ 2 p3 /2ν configuration. We also surmise that it would certainly be useful and rewarding to test our
Relativistic Coulomb excitation of 88Kr
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moschner, K.; Blazhev, A.; Jolie, J.; Warr, N.; Boutachkov, P.; Bednarczyk, P.; Sieja, K.; Algora, A.; Ameil, F.; Bentley, M. A.; Brambilla, S.; Braun, N.; Camera, F.; Cederkäll, J.; Corsi, A.; Danchev, M.; DiJulio, D.; Fahlander, C.; Gerl, J.; Giaz, A.; Golubev, P.; Górska, M.; Grebosz, J.; Habermann, T.; Hackstein, M.; Hoischen, R.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Mǎrginean, N.; Merchán, E.; Möller, T.; Naqvi, F.; Nara Singh, B. S.; Nociforo, C.; Pietralla, N.; Pietri, S.; Podolyák, Zs.; Prochazka, A.; Reese, M.; Reiter, P.; Rudigier, M.; Rudolph, D.; Sava, T.; Schaffner, H.; Scruton, L.; Taprogge, J.; Thomas, T.; Weick, H.; Wendt, A.; Wieland, O.; Wollersheim, H.-J.
2016-11-01
To investigate the systematics of mixed-symmetry states in N =52 isotones, a relativistic Coulomb excitation experiment was performed during the PreSPEC campaign at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung to determine E 2 transition strengths to 2+ states of the radioactive nucleus 88Kr. Absolute transition rates could be measured towards the first and third 2+ states. For the latter a mixed-symmetry character is suggested on the basis of the indication for a strong M 1 transition to the fully symmetric 21+ state, extending the knowledge of the N =52 isotones below Z =40 . A comparison with the proton-neutron interacting boson model and shell-model predictions is made and supports the assignment.
Powerful Coulomb-drag thermoelectric engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daré, A.-M.; Lombardo, P.
2017-09-01
We investigate a thermoelectric nanoengine whose properties are steered by Coulomb interaction. The device whose design decouples charge and energy currents is made up of two interacting quantum dots connected to three different reservoirs. We show that, by tailoring the tunnel couplings, this setup can be made very attractive for energy-harvesting prospects, due to a delivered power that can be of the order of the quantum bound [R. S. Whitney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 130601 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.130601; Entropy 18, 208 (2016), 10.3390/e18060208], with a concomitant fair efficiency. To unveil its properties beyond the sequential quantum master equation, we apply a nonequilibrium noncrossing approximation in the Keldysh Green's function formalism, and a quantum master equation that includes cotunneling processes. Both approaches are rather qualitatively similar in a large operating regime where sequential tunneling alone fails.
Gauge Theories on the Coulomb Branch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwarz, John H.
We construct the world-volume action of a probe D3-brane in AdS5 × S5 with N units of flux. It has the field content, symmetries, and dualities of the U(1) factor of 𝒩 = 4 U(N + 1) super Yang-Mills theory, spontaneously broken to U(N) × U(1) by being on the Coulomb branch, with the massive fields integrated out. This motivates the conjecture that it is the exact effective action, called a highly effective action (HEA). We construct an SL(2, Z) multiplet of BPS soliton solutions of the D3-brane theory (the conjectured HEA) and show that they reproduce the electrically charged massive states that have been integrated out as well as magnetic monopoles and dyons. Their charges are uniformly spread on a spherical surface, called a soliton bubble, which is interpreted as a phase boundary.
Cluster Dynamics: Fast Reactions and Coulomb Explosion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poth, Lutz; Wisniewski, Eric S.; Welford Castleman, A., Jr.
2002-07-01
One of the enduring mysteries of chemistry is exactly what happens during the few femtoseconds it takes for a chemical reaction to transpire. We see what goes in and what comes out, but the in between happens so fast it has proved devilishly hard to study. One promising area of investigation involves the use of clusters—tiny atomic or molecular assemblages with weak bonding. Clusters can be rapidly ionized using laser pulses of very short duration, producing like charges of sufficient intensity and closeness to cause explosive repulsion, called Coulomb explosion. By carefully adjusting the delivery interval between femtosecond-duration laser pulses to clusters, the authors have begun to reveal the secrets of reaction dynamics.
A coulombic hypothesis of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.
Malpress, F H
1984-08-21
A coulombic hypothesis of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is presented, founded upon the evidence for negative fixed charge formation during electron transport chain activity. The intermediary force is electrostatic (psi H) and not electrochemical (delta mu H). The electrochemical potential of the chemiosmotic hypothesis is identified as a "phantom" parameter which owes its delusive existence to the procedures by which it is measured. The connection between psi H and the conditional delta mu H values is examined; it entails the use of a variable conversion factor, f, where delta mu H (mV) = f psi H, and the concept of the "protonic status" of the diffuse double layer. A number of problems which beset the chemiosmotic view are reappraised in the light of the new interpretation, and find authentic solutions.
The ghost propagator in Coulomb gauge
Watson, P.; Reinhardt, H.
2011-05-23
We present results for a numerical study of the ghost propagator in Coulomb gauge whereby lattice results for the spatial gluon propagator are used as input to solving the ghost Dyson-Schwinger equation. We show that in order to solve completely, the ghost equation must be supplemented by a boundary condition (the value of the inverse ghost propagator dressing function at zero momentum) which determines if the solution is critical (zero value for the boundary condition) or subcritical (finite value). The various solutions exhibit a characteristic behavior where all curves follow the same (critical) solution when going from high to low momenta until 'forced' to freeze out in the infrared to the value of the boundary condition. The boundary condition can be interpreted in terms of the Gribov gauge-fixing ambiguity; we also demonstrate that this is not connected to the renormalization. Further, the connection to the temporal gluon propagator and the infrared slavery picture of confinement is discussed.
Experimental realization of a Coulomb blockade refrigerator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feshchenko, A. V.; Koski, J. V.; Pekola, J. P.
2014-11-01
We present an experimental realization of a Coulomb blockade refrigerator (CBR) based on a single-electron transistor (SET). In the present structure, the SET island is interrupted by a superconducting inclusion to permit charge transport while preventing heat flow. At certain values of the bias and gate voltages, the current through the SET cools one of the junctions. The measurements follow the theoretical model down to ˜80 mK, which was the base temperature of the current measurements. The observed cooling increases rapidly with decreasing temperature, in agreement with the theory, reaching about a 15 mK drop at the base temperature. The CBR appears as a promising electronic cooler at temperatures well below 100 mK.
Ion Coulomb Crystals and Their Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drewsen, Michael
The following text will give a brief introduction to the physics of the spatially ordered structures, so-called Coulomb crystals, that appear when confined ions are cooled to sufficiently low temperatures. It will as well briefly comment on the very diverse scientific applications of such crystals, which have emerged in the past two decades. While this document lacks figures and many specific references, it is the hope, not the text will stimulate the reader to dig deeper into one or more of the discussed subjects, and inspire her/him to think about new potential applications. A fully referenced journal article of essentially the same text can be found in Physica B 460, 105 (2015) [1].
Coulomb energy differences in isobaric multiplets
Lenzi, S. M.; Farnea, E.; Bazzacco, D.; Brandolini, F.; Lunardi, S.; Mason, P.; Menegazzo, R.; Nespolo, M.; Ur, C. A.; Della Vedova, F.; Marginean, N.; Napoli, D. R.; De Angelis, G.; Axiotis, M.; Gadea, A.; Ionescu-Bujor, M.; Bucurescu, D.; Iordachescu, A.; Bizzeti-Sona, A. M.; Bizzeti, P. G.
2007-02-12
By comparing the excitation energies of analogue states in isobaric multiplets, several nuclear structure properties can be studied as a function of the angular momentum up to high spin states. In particular, the mirror nuclei 35Ar and 35Cl show large differences between the excitation energies of analogue negative-parity states at high spin, confirming the important contribution of the relativistic electromagnetic spin-orbit interaction to the Coulomb energy. The single-particle character of the configuration of these states is reproduced with very good accuracy by shell model calculations in the sd and pf shells valence space. In addition, evidence of isospin mixing is deduced from the El transitions linking positive and negative parity states.
Simulating Coulomb collisions in a magnetized plasma
Hinton, Fred L.
2008-04-15
The problem of simulating ion-ion Coulomb collisions in a plasma in a strong magnetic field is considered. No assumption is made about the ion distribution function except that it is independent of the gyrophase angle, consistent with the assumption that the ion gyrofrequency is much larger than the ion-ion collision frequency. A Langevin method is presented which time-advances the components of a particle's velocity parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field, without following the rapidly changing gyrophase. Although the standard Monte Carlo procedure, which uses random sampling, can be used, it is also possible to use a deterministic sampling procedure, where the samples are determined by the points which would be used in a numerical quadrature formula for moments of the Fokker-Planck Green's function. This should reduce the sampling noise compared with the Monte Carlo collision method.
Tabletop nucleosynthesis driven by cluster Coulomb explosion.
Last, Isidore; Jortner, Joshua
2006-10-27
Coulomb explosion of completely ionized (CH4)n, (NH3)n, and (H2O)n clusters will drive tabletop nuclear reactions of protons with 12C6+, 14N7+, and 16O8+ nuclei, extending the realm of nuclear reactions driven by ultraintense laser-heterocluster interaction. The realization for nucleosynthesis in exploding cluster beams requires complete electron stripping from the clusters (at laser intensities I(M) > or = 10(19) W cm(-2)), the utilization of nanodroplets of radius 300-700 A for vertical ionization, and the attainment of the highest energies for the nuclei (i.e., approximately 30 MeV for heavy nuclei and approximately 3 MeV for protons).
The ghost propagator in Coulomb gauge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watson, P.; Reinhardt, H.
2011-05-01
We present results for a numerical study of the ghost propagator in Coulomb gauge whereby lattice results for the spatial gluon propagator are used as input to solving the ghost Dyson-Schwinger equation. We show that in order to solve completely, the ghost equation must be supplemented by a boundary condition (the value of the inverse ghost propagator dressing function at zero momentum) which determines if the solution is critical (zero value for the boundary condition) or subcritical (finite value). The various solutions exhibit a characteristic behavior where all curves follow the same (critical) solution when going from high to low momenta until `forced' to freeze out in the infrared to the value of the boundary condition. The boundary condition can be interpreted in terms of the Gribov gauge-fixing ambiguity; we also demonstrate that this is not connected to the renormalization. Further, the connection to the temporal gluon propagator and the infrared slavery picture of confinement is discussed.
Coulomb explosion sputtering of selectively oxidized Si
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karmakar, P.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Naik, V.; Sinha, A. K.; Chakrabarti, A.
2010-05-01
We have studied the sputtering of a unique system comprising of coexisting silicon and silicon oxide surfaces due to the impact of multiply charged Arq + ions. Such surfaces are produced by oblique angle oxygen ion bombardment on Si(100), which results in one side oxidized ripple formation due to preferential oxygen implantation. It is observed by atomic force microscopy and conducting atomic force microscopy studies that the higher the potential energy of the Arq + ion, the higher the sputtering yield of the nonconducting (oxide) side of the ripple as compared to the semiconducting side while ensuring an identical irradiation and measurement condition. It also shows experimentally the potential of highly charged ions in the gentle cleaning or tailoring of nanostructures. The results are explained in terms of the Coulomb explosion model, where potential sputtering depends on the conductivity of the ion impact sites.
Known-to-Unknown Approach to Teach about Coulomb's Law
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thamburaj, P. K.
2007-01-01
Analogies from life experiences help students understand various relationships presented in an introductory chemistry course. Coulomb's law is a complex relationship encountered in introductory general chemistry. A proper understanding of the relationships between the quantities involved in Coulomb's law is necessary in order for students to…
Known-to-Unknown Approach to Teach about Coulomb's Law
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thamburaj, P. K.
2007-01-01
Analogies from life experiences help students understand various relationships presented in an introductory chemistry course. Coulomb's law is a complex relationship encountered in introductory general chemistry. A proper understanding of the relationships between the quantities involved in Coulomb's law is necessary in order for students to…
Dynamical effects in the Coulomb expansion following nuclear fragmentation
Chung, K.C.; Donangelo, R.; Schechter, H.
1987-09-01
The effects of the Coulomb expansion on the fragment kinetic energy spectrum for a fragmentating hot nuclear system is investigated. In particular, /sup 12/C-fragment spectra are calculated and compared with those predicted by the uniform expansion approximation. The results indicate that the energy spectra of fragments are quite sensitive to the details of the Coulomb expansion treatment.
On the decoupling between classical Coulomb matter and radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alastuey, Angel; Appel, Walter
2000-02-01
We consider a model of matter coupled to radiation at equilibrium. Matter is described by a one-component plasma of classical point charges with Coulomb interactions, while radiation is represented by the classical transverse potential vector in Coulomb gauge. Using a straightforward generalization of the Bohr-van Leeuwen theorem, we show that the equilibrium properties of classical Coulomb matter remain unaffected by the presence of the classical radiation. As far as the real world is concerned, this decoupling does survive at large distances where both matter and radiation can be treated classically. This invalidates all the large-distances predictions, for the charge correlations, of the so-called Darwin models which incorporate retarded electromagnetic interactions beyond the instantaneous Coulomb potential. A second related important consequence is that the first relativistic corrections to the Coulomb thermodynamical quantities must be evaluated within the theory of quantum electrodynamics at finite temperature, even in a weakly relativistic and almost classical regime for matter.
[Invariants of the anthropometrical proportions].
Smolianinov, V V
2012-01-01
In this work a general interpretation of a modulor as scales of segments proportions of anthropometrical modules (extremities and a body) is made. The objects of this study were: 1) to reason the idea of the growth modulor; 2) using the modern empirical data, to prove the validity of a principle of linear similarity for anthropometrical segments; 3) to specify the system of invariants for constitutional anthropometrics.
Metacarpal proportions in Australopithecus africanus.
Green, David J; Gordon, Adam D
2008-05-01
Recent work has shown that, despite being craniodentally more derived, Australopithecus africanus had more apelike limb-size proportions than A. afarensis. Here, we test whether the A. africanus hand, as judged by metacarpal shaft and articular proportions, was similarly apelike. More specifically, did A. africanus have a short and narrow first metacarpal (MC1) relative to the other metacarpals? Proportions of both MC breadth and length were considered: the geometric mean (GM) of articular and midshaft measurements of MC1 breadth was compared to those of MC2-4, and MC1 length was compared to MC3 length individually and also to the GM of MC2 and 3 lengths. To compare the extant hominoid sample with an incomplete A. africanus fossil record (11 attributed metacarpals), a resampling procedure imposed sampling constraints on the comparative groups that produced composite intrahand ratios. Resampled ratios in the extant sample are not significantly different from actual ratios based on associated elements, demonstrating the methodological appropriateness of this technique. Australopithecus africanus metacarpals do not differ significantly from the great apes in the comparison of breadth ratios but are significantly greater than chimpanzees and orangutans in both measures of relative length. Conversely, A. africanus has a significantly smaller breadth ratio than modern humans, but does not significantly differ from this group in either measure of relative length. We conclude that the first metacarpals of A. africanus are more apelike in relative breadth while also being more humanlike in relative length, a finding consistent with previous work on A. afarensis hand proportions. This configuration would have likely promoted a high degree of manipulative dexterity, but the relatively slender, apelike first metacarpal suggests that A. africanus did not place the same mechanical demands on the thumb as more recent, stone-tool-producing hominins.
Continuous phase and amplitude holographic elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maker, Paul D. (Inventor); Muller, Richard E. (Inventor)
1995-01-01
A method for producing a phase hologram using e-beam lithography provides n-ary levels of phase and amplitude by first producing an amplitude hologram on a transparent substrate by e-beam exposure of a resist over a film of metal by exposing n is less than or equal to m x m spots of an array of spots for each pixel, where the spots are randomly selected in proportion to the amplitude assigned to each pixel, and then after developing and etching the metal film producing a phase hologram by e-beam lithography using a low contrast resist, such as PMMA, and n-ary levels of low doses less than approximately 200 micro-C/sq cm and preferably in the range of 20-200 micro-C/sq cm, and aggressive development using pure acetone for an empirically determined time (about 6 s) controlled to within 1/10 s to produce partial development of each pixel in proportion to the n-ary level of dose assigned to it.
Ornstein-Zernike function and Coulombic correlation in the homogeneous electron liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amovilli, Claudio; March, Norman H.
2007-11-01
Adopting the original Ornstein-Zernike (OZ) definition of the direct correlation function c(r) , the present study deals with the deviation Δ(r) of c(r) induced by Coulomb correlation in the homogeneous electron liquid beyond the OZ function cFH(r) for purely Fermi hole (FH) statistical correlations. It is first stressed that Δ(r) at large r is proportional to the Coulomb potential energy e2/r , suitably scaled with the plasma frequency. Both r space and k space formulations are presented. In k space, direct numerical use is made of inequalities due to Kugler [Phys. Rev. A 1, 1688 (1970)] by employing analytic representations of the pair correlations due to Gori-Giorgi [Phys. Rev. B 61, 7353 (2000)] as a function of the uniform electron density. Then, in r space, consideration is given to differential equations proposed by Dawson and March [Phys. Chem. Liq. 14, 131 (1984)] and also in the recent study of Nagy and Amovilli [J. Chem. Phys. 121, 6640 (2004)]. In both approaches, one-body potentials enter, into which Coulombic interelectronic repulsions are subsumed. Finally, Gaskell’s [Proc. Phys. Soc. London 77, 1182 (1961)] variational ground-state wave function is shown to be related to the OZ direct correlation function in k space.
One-dimensional Josephson junction arrays: Lifting the Coulomb blockade by depinning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vogt, Nicolas; Schäfer, Roland; Rotzinger, Hannes; Cui, Wanyin; Fiebig, Andreas; Shnirman, Alexander; Ustinov, Alexey V.
2015-07-01
Experiments with one-dimensional arrays of Josephson junctions in the regime of dominating charging energy show that the Coulomb blockade is lifted at the threshold voltage, which is proportional to the array's length and depends strongly on the Josephson energy. We explain this behavior as depinning of the Cooper-pair-charge-density by the applied voltage. We assume strong charge disorder and argue that physics around the depinning point is governed by a disordered sine-Gordon-like model. This allows us to employ the well-known theory of charge density wave depinning. Our model is in good agreement with the experimental data.
Light absorption in disordered semiconductors with a random coulomb-type field
Arbuzov, Yu.D.; Evdokimov, V.M.; Kolenkin, M.Yu.
1988-07-01
A method is proposed for the formulation of an asymptotic series for the light absorption coefficient in disordered semiconductors with a random field of the Coulomb type. It is shown that the series is obtained by expanding the exponent of an exponential function in powers of a parameter proportional to (E/sub g/ /minus/ /Dirac h//omega/)/sup /minus/1/3/, where E/sub g/ is the band gap of the semiconductor, and /Dirac-H//omega/ is the photon energy. The first three terms of the series are calculated in explicit form.
Photodetectors for Scintillator Proportionality Measurement
Moses, William W.; Choong, Woon-Seng; Hull, Giulia; Payne, Steve; Cherepy, Nerine; Valentine, J.D.
2010-10-18
We evaluate photodetectors for use in a Compton Coincidence apparatus designed for measuring scintillator proportionality. There are many requirements placed on the photodetector in these systems, including active area, linearity, and the ability to accurately measure low light levels (which implies high quantum efficiency and high signal-to-noise ratio). Through a combination of measurement and Monte Carlo simulation, we evaluate a number of potential photodetectors, especially photomultiplier tubes and hybrid photodetectors. Of these, we find that the most promising devices available are photomultiplier tubes with high ({approx}50%) quantum efficiency, although hybrid photodetectors with high quantum efficiency would be preferable.
Incisors’ proportions in smile esthetics
Alsulaimani, Fahad F; Batwa, Waeil
2013-01-01
Aims: To determine whether alteration of the maxillary central and lateral incisors’ length and width, respectively, would affect perceived smile esthetics and to validate the most esthetic length and width, respectively, for the central and lateral incisors. Materials and Methods: Photographic manipulation was undertaken to produce two sets of photographs, each set of four photographs showing the altered width of the lateral incisor and length of the central length. The eight produced photographs were assessed by laypeople, dentists and orthodontists. Results: Alteration in the incisors’ proportion affected the relative smile attractiveness for laypeople (n=124), dentists (n=115) and orthodontists (n=68); dentists and orthodontists did not accept lateral width reduction of more than 0.5 mm (P<0.01), which suggests that the lateral to central incisor width ratio ranges from 54% to 62%. However, laypeople did not accept lateral width reduction of more than 1 mm (P<0.01), widening the range to be from 48% to 62%. All groups had zero tolerance for changes in central crown length (P<0.01). Conclusion: All participants recognized that the central incisors’ length changes. For lateral incisors, laypeople were more tolerant than dentists and orthodontists. This suggests that changing incisors’ proportions affects the relative smile attractiveness. PMID:24987650
Long-range interactions and the sign of natural amplitudes in two-electron systems
Giesbertz, Klaas J. H.; Leeuwen, Robert van
2013-09-14
In singlet two-electron systems, the natural occupation numbers of the one-particle reduced density matrix are given as squares of the natural amplitudes which are defined as the expansion coefficients of the two-electron wave function in a natural orbital basis. In this work, we relate the sign of the natural amplitudes to the nature of the two-body interaction. We show that long-range Coulomb-type interactions are responsible for the appearance of positive amplitudes and give both analytical and numerical examples that illustrate how the long-distance structure of the wave function affects these amplitudes. We further demonstrate that the amplitudes show an avoided crossing behavior as function of a parameter in the Hamiltonian and use this feature to show that these amplitudes never become zero, except for special interactions in which infinitely many of them can become zero simultaneously when changing the interaction strength. This mechanism of avoided crossings provides an alternative argument for the non-vanishing of the natural occupation numbers in Coulomb systems.
Classical Coulomb blockade of a silicon nanowire dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Shaoyun; Fukata, Naoki; Shimizu, Maki; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Ishibashi, Koji
2008-05-01
Single electron transistors (SETs) have been fabricated with an individual n-type single-crystal silicon nanowire (SiNW) that was grown by a catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique, and their transport properties have been measured in low temperatures. The SiNW-SET in the present work exhibited well pronounced Coulomb oscillations in a wide gate voltage range from -10to10V, featuring in uniform peak height, uniform full width at half maximum, and equidistant peak spacing. The charging energy turned out to be 64μeV. The temperature dependence of Coulomb oscillations revealed that the dot worked within the classical Coulomb blockade model.
Verification of Coulomb order in a storage ring
Hasse, Rainer W.
1999-12-10
We verify theoretically that the anomalous longitudinal temperature reduction of strongly electron cooled heavy ions in the ESR at very low density is explained by the fact that there is no intrabeam scattering and that the particles by their Coulomb repulsion cannot pass each other any more. At the achievable momentum spreads Coulomb order is reached at particle distances of the order of centimeters. It is also shown that under the given experimental conditions in the proton NAP-M experiment of 1980 intrabeam heating counteracts Coulomb order.
Verification of Coulomb Order in a Storage Ring
Rainer W. Hasse
1999-12-31
We verify theoretically that the anomalous longitudinal temperature reduction of strongly electron cooled heavy ions in the ESR at very low density is explained by the fact that there is no intrabeam scattering and that the particles by their Coulomb repulsion cannot pass each other any more. At the achievable momentum spreads Coulomb order is reached at particle distances of the order of centimeters. It is also shown that under the given experimental conditions in the proton NAP-M experiment of 1980 intrabeam heating counteracts Coulomb order.
Coulomb crystal as a detector in electron impact ionization experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klosowski, Lukasz; Piwinski, Mariusz; Wojtewicz, Szymon; Lisak, Daniel; Dziczek, Darek; Chwirot, Stanislaw
2016-09-01
Ensembles of ions in trap at sufficiently low temperature can form a structure called Coulomb crystal. Some species of such ions can be optically cooled and observed using CCD camera. Number of ions composing the crystal can be determined with high accuracy. Other, invisible species of ions can be sympathetically cooled and detected indirectly by observation of their influence on visible ones. Thus, the efficiency of ionization processes leading to Coulomb crystal formation can be determined. We present preliminary results for electron-impact-ionized molecules forming a multi-species Coulomb crystal in a linear segmented Paul trap together with atomic calcium ions.
Characterizing intra-exciton Coulomb scattering in terahertz excitations
Zybell, S.; Eßer, F.; Helm, M.; Bhattacharyya, J.; Winnerl, S.; Schneider, H.; Schneebeli, L.; Böttge, C. N.; Kira, M.; Koch, S. W.; Andrews, A. M.; Strasser, G.
2014-11-17
An intense terahertz field is applied to excite semiconductor quantum wells yielding strong non-equilibrium exciton distributions. Even though the relaxation channels involve a complicated quantum kinetics of Coulomb and phonon effects, distinct relaxation signatures of Coulomb scattering are identified within time-resolved photoluminescence by comparing the experiment with a reduced model that contains all relevant microscopic processes. The analysis uncovers a unique time scale for the Coulomb scattering directly from experiments and reveals the influence of phonon relaxation as well as radiative decay.
Coulomb field effect on plasma focusing and wake field acceleration
Amatuni, A.Ts.; Elbakian, S.S.; Sekhpossian, E.V.
1993-11-01
It is shown that the fields generated by relativistic electron (positron) bunches moving in overdense cold plasma have two components -- wake and Coulomb. The existence of the Coulomb component is caused by the absence of the Debay screening of the charge moving in plasma with the velocity greater than the thermal velocity of the plasma electrons. It is shown that at some conditions the contribution of the Coulomb component to focusing and self-focusing of the electron (positron) bunches, and wake field generation could be essential. This conclusion is valid for different descriptions of cold plasma-relativistic electron bunch system.
Electron attraction mediated by Coulomb repulsion.
Hamo, A; Benyamini, A; Shapir, I; Khivrich, I; Waissman, J; Kaasbjerg, K; Oreg, Y; von Oppen, F; Ilani, S
2016-07-21
One of the defining properties of electrons is their mutual Coulomb repulsion. However, in solids this basic property may change; for example, in superconductors, the coupling of electrons to lattice vibrations makes the electrons attract one another, leading to the formation of bound pairs. Fifty years ago it was proposed that electrons can be made attractive even when all of the degrees of freedom in the solid are electronic, by exploiting their repulsion from other electrons. This attraction mechanism, termed 'excitonic', promised to achieve stronger and more exotic superconductivity. Yet, despite an extensive search, experimental evidence for excitonic attraction has yet to be found. Here we demonstrate this attraction by constructing, from the bottom up, the fundamental building block of the excitonic mechanism. Our experiments are based on quantum devices made from pristine carbon nanotubes, combined with cryogenic precision manipulation. Using this platform, we demonstrate that two electrons can be made to attract each other using an independent electronic system as the 'glue' that mediates attraction. Owing to its tunability, our system offers insights into the underlying physics, such as the dependence of the emergent attraction on the underlying repulsion, and the origin of the pairing energy. We also demonstrate transport signatures of excitonic pairing. This experimental demonstration of excitonic pairing paves the way for the design of exotic states of matter.
Coulomb gauge model for hidden charm tetraquarks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, W.; Mo, L. Q.; Wang, Ping; Cotanch, Stephen R.
2013-08-01
The spectrum of tetraquark states with hidden charm is studied within an effective Coulomb gauge Hamiltonian approach. Of the four independent color schemes, two are investigated, the (qcbar)1(cqbar)1 singlet-singlet (molecule) and the (qc)3(qbarcbar)3 triplet-triplet (diquark), for selected JPC states using a variational method. The predicted masses of triplet-triplet tetraquarks are roughly a GeV heavier than the singlet-singlet states. There is also an interesting flavor dependence with (qqbar)1 (ccbar1) states about half a GeV lighter than (qcbar)1(qbarc)1. The lightest 1++ and 1-- predictions are in agreement with the observed X (3872) and Y (4008) masses suggesting they are molecules with ωJ / ψ and ηhc, rather than D*Dbar* and DDbar, type structure, respectively. Similarly, the lightest isovector 1++ molecule, having a ρJ / ψ flavor composition, has mass near the recently observed charged Zc (3900) value. These flavor configurations are consistent with observed X, Y and Zc decays to ππJ / ψ.
Correlation functions of Coulomb branch operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerchkovitz, Efrat; Gomis, Jaume; Ishtiaque, Nafiz; Karasik, Avner; Komargodski, Zohar; Pufu, Silviu S.
2017-01-01
We consider the correlation functions of Coulomb branch operators in four-dimensional N = 2 Superconformal Field Theories (SCFTs) involving exactly one antichiral operator. These extremal correlators are the "minimal" non-holomorphic local observables in the theory. We show that they can be expressed in terms of certain determinants of derivatives of the four-sphere partition function of an appropriate deformation of the SCFT. This relation between the extremal correlators and the deformed four-sphere partition function is non-trivial due to the presence of conformal anomalies, which lead to operator mixing on the sphere. Evaluating the deformed four-sphere partition function using supersymmetric localization, we compute the extremal correlators explicitly in many interesting examples. Additionally, the representation of the extremal correlators mentioned above leads to a system of integrable differential equations. We compare our exact results with previous perturbative computations and with the four-dimensional tt ∗ equations. We also use our results to study some of the asymptotic properties of the perturbative series expansions we obtain in N = 2 SQCD.
Deep inelastic scattering near the Coulomb barrier
Gehring, J.; Back, B.; Chan, K.
1995-08-01
Deep inelastic scattering was recently observed in heavy ion reactions at incident energies near and below the Coulomb barrier. Traditional models of this process are based on frictional forces and are designed to predict the features of deep inelastic processes at energies above the barrier. They cannot be applied at energies below the barrier where the nuclear overlap is small and friction is negligible. The presence of deep inelastic scattering at these energies requires a different explanation. The first observation of deep inelastic scattering near the barrier was in the systems {sup 124,112}Sn + {sup 58,64}Ni by Wolfs et al. We previously extended these measurements to the system {sup 136}Xe + {sup 64}Ni and currently measured the system {sup 124}Xe + {sup 58}Ni. We obtained better statistics, better mass and energy resolution, and more complete angular coverage in the Xe + Ni measurements. The cross sections and angular distributions are similar in all of the Sn + Ni and Xe + Ni systems. The data are currently being analyzed and compared with new theoretical calculations. They will be part of the thesis of J. Gehring.
Multilevel Monte Carlo simulation of Coulomb collisions
Rosin, M. S.; Ricketson, L. F.; Dimits, A. M.; ...
2014-05-29
We present a new, for plasma physics, highly efficient multilevel Monte Carlo numerical method for simulating Coulomb collisions. The method separates and optimally minimizes the finite-timestep and finite-sampling errors inherent in the Langevin representation of the Landau–Fokker–Planck equation. It does so by combining multiple solutions to the underlying equations with varying numbers of timesteps. For a desired level of accuracy ε , the computational cost of the method is O(ε–2) or (ε–2(lnε)2), depending on the underlying discretization, Milstein or Euler–Maruyama respectively. This is to be contrasted with a cost of O(ε–3) for direct simulation Monte Carlo or binary collision methods.more » We successfully demonstrate the method with a classic beam diffusion test case in 2D, making use of the Lévy area approximation for the correlated Milstein cross terms, and generating a computational saving of a factor of 100 for ε=10–5. Lastly, we discuss the importance of the method for problems in which collisions constitute the computational rate limiting step, and its limitations.« less
Multilevel Monte Carlo simulation of Coulomb collisions
Rosin, M. S.; Ricketson, L. F.; Dimits, A. M.; Caflisch, R. E.; Cohen, B. I.
2014-05-29
We present a new, for plasma physics, highly efficient multilevel Monte Carlo numerical method for simulating Coulomb collisions. The method separates and optimally minimizes the finite-timestep and finite-sampling errors inherent in the Langevin representation of the Landau–Fokker–Planck equation. It does so by combining multiple solutions to the underlying equations with varying numbers of timesteps. For a desired level of accuracy ε , the computational cost of the method is O(ε^{–2}) or (ε^{–2}(lnε)^{2}), depending on the underlying discretization, Milstein or Euler–Maruyama respectively. This is to be contrasted with a cost of O(ε^{–3}) for direct simulation Monte Carlo or binary collision methods. We successfully demonstrate the method with a classic beam diffusion test case in 2D, making use of the Lévy area approximation for the correlated Milstein cross terms, and generating a computational saving of a factor of 100 for ε=10^{–5}. Lastly, we discuss the importance of the method for problems in which collisions constitute the computational rate limiting step, and its limitations.
Coulomb glass in the random phase approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basylko, S. A.; Onischouk, V. A.; Rosengren, A.
2002-01-01
A three-dimensional model of the electrons localized on randomly distributed donor sites of density n and with the acceptor charge uniformly smeared on these sites, -Ke on each, is considered in the random phase approximation (RPA). For the case K=1/2 the free energy, the density of the one-site energies (DOSE) ɛ, and the pair OSE correlators are found. In the high-temperature region (e2n1/3/T)<1 (T is the temperature) RPA energies and DOSE are in a good agreement with the corresponding data of Monte Carlo simulations. Thermodynamics of the model in this region is similar to the one of an electrolyte in the regime of Debye screening. In the vicinity of the Fermi level μ=0 the OSE correlations, depending on sgn(ɛ1.ɛ2) and with very slow decoupling law, have been found. The main result is that even in the temperature range where the energy of a Coulomb glass is determined by Debye screening effects, the correlations of the long-range nature between the OSE still exist.
Multilevel Monte Carlo simulation of Coulomb collisions
Rosin, M.S.; Ricketson, L.F.; Dimits, A.M.; Caflisch, R.E.; Cohen, B.I.
2014-10-01
We present a new, for plasma physics, highly efficient multilevel Monte Carlo numerical method for simulating Coulomb collisions. The method separates and optimally minimizes the finite-timestep and finite-sampling errors inherent in the Langevin representation of the Landau–Fokker–Planck equation. It does so by combining multiple solutions to the underlying equations with varying numbers of timesteps. For a desired level of accuracy ε, the computational cost of the method is O(ε{sup −2}) or O(ε{sup −2}(lnε){sup 2}), depending on the underlying discretization, Milstein or Euler–Maruyama respectively. This is to be contrasted with a cost of O(ε{sup −3}) for direct simulation Monte Carlo or binary collision methods. We successfully demonstrate the method with a classic beam diffusion test case in 2D, making use of the Lévy area approximation for the correlated Milstein cross terms, and generating a computational saving of a factor of 100 for ε=10{sup −5}. We discuss the importance of the method for problems in which collisions constitute the computational rate limiting step, and its limitations.
Femtosecond Laser-Induced Coulomb Explosion Imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karimi, Reza; Liu, Wing-Ki; Sanderson, Joseph
2016-07-01
We review recent progress in the field of Coulomb imaging using femtosecond laser pulses of variable length, referred to as Femtosecond Multiple Pulse Length Spectroscopy (FEMPULS). This method introduces a multi-dimensional approach to the study of the molecular dynamics of the multiply ionized triatomic molecules: CO2, OCS, and N2O. We describe the experimental setup used and the approaches needed to optimize the multi-particle detection, coincidence technique. The results show the degree of high resolution imaging which can be achieved with few cycle pulses, and how the onset of charge resonance enhanced ionization (CREI) can be observed as pulse length is increased. By coupling pulse length variation with Dalitz and Newton plotting techniques, stepwise processes can be identified for all three molecules, giving insight into the dynamics, particularly on the 3+ state, which has been revealed as the doorway state to CREI. Finally, in the case of OCS, pulse length variation is shown to have the potential as a control mechanism, as it modulates the ratio of stepwise to concerted processes.
Coulomb gauge ghost Dyson-Schwinger equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watson, P.; Reinhardt, H.
2010-12-01
A numerical study of the ghost Dyson-Schwinger equation in Coulomb gauge is performed and solutions for the ghost propagator found. As input, lattice results for the spatial gluon propagator are used. It is shown that in order to solve completely, the equation must be supplemented by a nonperturbative boundary condition (the value of the inverse ghost propagator dressing function at zero momentum), which determines if the solution is critical (zero value for the boundary condition) or subcritical (finite value). The various solutions exhibit a characteristic behavior where all curves follow the same (critical) solution when going from high to low momenta until forced to freeze out in the infrared to the value of the boundary condition. The renormalization is shown to be largely independent of the boundary condition. The boundary condition and the pattern of the solutions can be interpreted in terms of the Gribov gauge-fixing ambiguity. The connection to the temporal gluon propagator and the infrared slavery picture of confinement is explored.
Electron attraction mediated by Coulomb repulsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamo, A.; Benyamini, A.; Shapir, I.; Khivrich, I.; Waissman, J.; Kaasbjerg, K.; Oreg, Y.; von Oppen, F.; Ilani, S.
2016-07-01
One of the defining properties of electrons is their mutual Coulomb repulsion. However, in solids this basic property may change; for example, in superconductors, the coupling of electrons to lattice vibrations makes the electrons attract one another, leading to the formation of bound pairs. Fifty years ago it was proposed that electrons can be made attractive even when all of the degrees of freedom in the solid are electronic, by exploiting their repulsion from other electrons. This attraction mechanism, termed ‘excitonic’, promised to achieve stronger and more exotic superconductivity. Yet, despite an extensive search, experimental evidence for excitonic attraction has yet to be found. Here we demonstrate this attraction by constructing, from the bottom up, the fundamental building block of the excitonic mechanism. Our experiments are based on quantum devices made from pristine carbon nanotubes, combined with cryogenic precision manipulation. Using this platform, we demonstrate that two electrons can be made to attract each other using an independent electronic system as the ‘glue’ that mediates attraction. Owing to its tunability, our system offers insights into the underlying physics, such as the dependence of the emergent attraction on the underlying repulsion, and the origin of the pairing energy. We also demonstrate transport signatures of excitonic pairing. This experimental demonstration of excitonic pairing paves the way for the design of exotic states of matter.
Dynamic stresses, Coulomb failure, and remote triggering
Hill, D.P.
2008-01-01
Dynamic stresses associated with crustal surface waves with 15-30-sec periods and peak amplitudes 5 km). The latter is consistent with the observation that extensional or transtensional tectonic regimes are more susceptible to remote triggering by Rayleigh-wave dynamic stresses than compressional or transpressional regimes. Locally elevated pore pressures may have a role in the observed prevalence of dynamic triggering in extensional regimes and geothermal/volcanic systems.
Invariant amplitudes for pion electroproduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pasquini, B.; Drechsel, D.; Tiator, L.
2007-12-01
The invariant amplitudes for pion electroproduction on the nucleon are evaluated by dispersion relations at constant t with MAID as input for the imaginary parts of these amplitudes. In the threshold region these amplitudes are confronted with the predictions of several low-energy theorems derived in the soft-pion limit. In general agreement with chiral perturbation theory, the dispersive approach yields large corrections to these theorems because of the finite pion mass.
Amplitude variations in coarticulated vowels
Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert Allen
2008-01-01
This paper seeks to characterize the nature, size, and range of acoustic amplitude variation in naturally produced coarticulated vowels in order to determine its potential contribution and relevance to vowel perception. The study is a partial replication and extension of the pioneering work by House and Fairbanks [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 22, 105–113 (1953)], who reported large variation in vowel amplitude as a function of consonantal context. Eight American English vowels spoken by men and women were recorded in ten symmetrical CVC consonantal contexts. Acoustic amplitude measures included overall rms amplitude, amplitude of the rms peak along with its relative location in the CVC-word, and the amplitudes of individual formants F1–F4 along with their frequencies. House and Fairbanks’ amplitude results were not replicated: Neither the overall rms nor the rms peak varied appreciably as a function of consonantal context. However, consonantal context was shown to affect significantly and systematically the amplitudes of individual formants at the vowel nucleus. These effects persisted in the auditory representation of the vowel signal. Auditory spectra showed that the pattern of spectral amplitude variation as a function of contextual effects may still be encoded and represented at early stages of processing by the peripheral auditory system. PMID:18529192
On the Period-Amplitude and Amplitude-Period Relationships
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.
2008-01-01
Examined are Period-Amplitude and Amplitude-Period relationships based on the cyclic behavior of the 12-month moving averages of monthly mean sunspot numbers for cycles 0.23, both in terms of Fisher's exact tests for 2x2 contingency tables and linear regression analyses. Concerning the Period-Amplitude relationship (same cycle), because cycle 23's maximum amplitude is known to be 120.8, the inferred regressions (90-percent prediction intervals) suggest that its period will be 131 +/- 24 months (using all cycles) or 131 +/- 18 months (ignoring cycles 2 and 4, which have the extremes of period, 108 and 164 months, respectively). Because cycle 23 has already persisted for 142 months (May 1996 through February 2008), based on the latter prediction, it should end before September 2008. Concerning the Amplitude-Period relationship (following cycle maximum amplitude versus preceding cycle period), because cycle 23's period is known to be at least 142 months, the inferred regressions (90-percent prediction intervals) suggest that cycle 24's maximum amplitude will be about less than or equal to 96.1 +/- 55.0 (using all cycle pairs) or less than or equal to 91.0 +/- 36.7 (ignoring statistical outlier cycle pairs). Hence, cycle 24's maximum amplitude is expected to be less than 151, perhaps even less than 128, unless cycle pair 23/24 proves to be a statistical outlier.
Coulomb excitation of radioactive nuclear beams in inverse kinematics
Zamfir, N.V. |||; Barton, C.J.; Brenner, D.S.; Casten, R.F. |; Gill, R.L.; Zilges, A. |
1996-12-31
Techniques for the measurement of B (E2:0{sub 1}{sup +} {r_arrow} 2{sub 1}{sup +}) values by Coulomb excitation of Radioactive Nuclear Beams in inverse kinematics are described. Using a thin, low Z target, the Coulomb excited beam nuclei will decay in flight downstream of the target. For long lifetimes (nanosecond range) these nuclei decay centimeters downstream of the target and for shorter lifetimes (picoseconds or less) they decay near the target. Corresponding to these two lifetime regimes two methods have been developed to measure {gamma} rays from the Coulomb excited nuclei: the lifetime method in which the lifetime of the excited state is deduced from the decay curve and the integral method in which the B(E2) value is extracted from the measured total Coulomb excitation cross section.
The Coulomb Branch of 3d N= 4 Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bullimore, Mathew; Dimofte, Tudor; Gaiotto, Davide
2017-09-01
We propose a construction for the quantum-corrected Coulomb branch of a general 3d gauge theory with N=4 supersymmetry, in terms of local coordinates associated with an abelianized theory. In a fixed complex structure, the holomorphic functions on the Coulomb branch are given by expectation values of chiral monopole operators. We construct the chiral ring of such operators, using equivariant integration over BPS moduli spaces. We also quantize the chiral ring, which corresponds to placing the 3d theory in a 2d Omega background. Then, by unifying all complex structures in a twistor space, we encode the full hyperkähler metric on the Coulomb branch. We verify our proposals in a multitude of examples, including SQCD and linear quiver gauge theories, whose Coulomb branches have alternative descriptions as solutions to Bogomolnyi and/or Nahm equations.
Indirect Coulomb energy for two-dimensional atoms
Benguria, Rafael D.; Tusek, Matej
2012-09-15
In this paper we provide a family of lower bounds on the indirect Coulomb energy for atomic and molecular systems in two dimensions in terms of a functional of the single particle density with gradient correction terms.
Multifragmentation: Surface and Coulomb instabilities of sheets, bubbles, and donuts
Moretto, L.G.; Tso, Kin; Wozniak, G.J.
1993-08-01
Disks, bubbles, and donuts have been observed in dynamical calculations of heavy ion collisions. These shapes are subject to a variety of surface and Coulomb instabilities. These instabilities are identified and analyzed in terms of their relevance to multifragmentation.
Constants of motion in deformed oscillator and Coulomb systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hakobyan, Tigran; Nersessian, Armen; Shmavonyan, Hovhannes
2017-03-01
In this note we propose a unified description for the constants of motion for superintegrable deformations of the oscillator and Coulomb systems on N-dimensional Euclidean space, sphere and hyperboloid.
Thermodynamic properties of the magnetized Coulomb crystal lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozhberov, A. A.
2016-08-01
It is thought that Coulomb crystals of ions with hexagonal close-packed lattice may form in the crust of strongly-magnetized neutron stars (magnetars). In this work we are trying to verify this prediction assuming that the direction of the magnetic field corresponds to the minimum of the zero-point energy. We also continue a detailed study of vibration modes and thermodynamic properties of magnetized Coulomb crystals in a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields. It is demonstrated that the total Helmholtz free energy of the body-centered cubic Coulomb crystal is always lower than that of the Coulomb crystal with hexagonal close-packed or face-centered cubic lattice, which casts doubt on the hypothesis above.
A New Hybrid STEP/Coulomb model for Aftershock Forecasting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steacy, S.; Jimenez, A.; Gerstenberger, M.
2014-12-01
Aftershock forecasting models tend to fall into two classes - purely statistical approaches based on clustering, b-value, and the Omori-Utsu law; and Coulomb rate-state models which relate the forecast increase in rate to the magnitude of the Coulomb stress change. Recently, hybrid models combining physical and statistical forecasts have begun to be developed, for example by Bach and Hainzl (2012) and Steacy et al. (2013). The latter approach combined Coulomb stress patterns with the STEP (short-term earthquake probability) model by redistributing expected rate from areas with decreased stress to regions where the stress had increased. The chosen 'Coulomb Redistribution Parameter' (CRP) was 0.93, based on California earthquakes, which meant that 93% of the total rate was expected to occur where the stress had increased. The model was tested against the Canterbury sequence and the main result was that the new model performed at least as well as, and often better than, STEP when tested against retrospective data but that STEP was generally better in pseudo-prospective tests that involved data actually available within the first 10 days of each event of interest. The authors suggested that the major reason for this discrepancy was uncertainty in the slip models and, particularly, in the geometries of the faults involved in each complex major event. Here we develop a variant of the STEP/Coulomb model in which the CRP varies based on the percentage of aftershocks that occur in the positively stressed areas during the forecast learning period. We find that this variant significantly outperforms both STEP and the previous hybrid model in almost all cases, even when the input Coulomb model is quite poor. Our results suggest that this approach might be more useful than Coulomb rate-state when the underlying slip model is not well constrained due to the dependence of that method on the magnitude of the Coulomb stress change.
Uniform derivation of Coulomb collisional transport thanks to Debye shielding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Escande, Dominique; Elskens, Yves; Doveil, Fabrice
2016-10-01
The effective potential acting on particles in plasmas being essentially the Debye-shielded Coulomb potential, the particles collisional transport in thermal equilibrium is calculated for all impact parameters b, with a convergent expression reducing to Rutherford scattering for small b, in agreement with both usual expressions holding for large b and small b. No cutoff at the Debye length scale is needed, and the Coulomb logarithm is only slightly modified.
Coulomb-exchange contribution to proton-nucleus scattering
Arellano, H.F.; Love, W.G. )
1992-02-01
A scheme for including the Coulomb-exchange contribution in momentum-space calculations of proton-nucleus scattering is presented. The main feature of this approach is a careful treatment of the singular two-body Coulomb potential when the Fermi motion of the bound protons is treated explicitly as required by full-folding calculations of microscopic optical potentials. Analytic expressions are presented and applications are discussed.
Proportional Reasoning: A Review of the Literature.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tourniaire, Francoise; Pulos, Steven
1985-01-01
The literature on proportional reasoning is reviewed. After methodology is discussed, strategies used to solve proportion problems, variables that influence performance, and training studies are each considered. (MNS)
Aftershock triggering by complete Coulomb stress changes
Kilb, Debi; Gomberg, J.; Bodin, P.
2002-01-01
We examine the correlation between seismicity rate change following the 1992, M7.3, Landers, California, earthquake and characteristics of the complete Coulomb failure stress (CFS) changes (??CFS(t)) that this earthquake generated. At close distances the time-varying "dynamic" portion of the stress change depends on how the rupture develops temporally and spatially and arises from radiated seismic waves and from permanent coseismic fault displacement. The permanent "static" portion (??CFS) depends only on the final coseismic displacement. ??CFS diminishes much more rapidly with distance than the transient, dynamic stress changes. A common interpretation of the strong correlation between ??CFS and aftershocks is that load changes can advance or delay failure. Stress changes may also promote failure by physically altering properties of the fault or its environs. Because it is transient, ??CFS(t) can alter the failure rate only by the latter means. We calculate both ??CFS and the maximum positive value of ??CFS(t) (peak ??CFS(t)) using a reflectivity program. Input parameters are constrained by modeling Landers displacement seismograms. We quantify the correlation between maps of seismicity rate changes and maps of modeled ??CFS and peak ??CFS(t) and find agreement for both models. However, rupture directivity, which does not affect ??CFS, creates larger peak ??CFS(t) values northwest of the main shock. This asymmetry is also observed in seismicity rate changes but not in ??CFS. This result implies that dynamic stress changes are as effective as static stress changes in triggering aftershocks and may trigger earthquakes long after the waves have passed.
Coulomb-blockade peak spacing statistics of graphene quantum dots on SiO2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herrmann, O.; Gould, C.; Molenkamp, L. W.
2016-10-01
Extrinsic disorder strongly affects the performance of graphene-based quantum dots. The standard SiO2 substrate is generally considered to be one major factor besides edge-induced disorder. In this report we present the fabrication of lithographically defined quantum dots on SiO2 with short and narrow constrictions and different central island sizes. Low temperature transport measurements display distinct Coulomb-blockade peaks with amplitudes exceeding what is commonly observed experimentally. The analysis of the normalized Coulomb-blockade peak spacing shows a size dependence, which has not previously been observed for devices on SiO2. Furthermore, a quantitative comparison of the peak spacing distribution to the literature shows that one of the two devices compares favorably to a similar sized dot placed on hexagonal boron nitride, which is known to reduce the substrate disorder. Our findings suggest that the other sources of extrinsic disorder, such as lithography residues, may play an important role for the performance of large graphene quantum dots.
Structural stiffness and Coulomb damping in compliant foil journal bearings: Parametric studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ku, C.-P. Roger; Heshmat, Hooshang
1994-07-01
This paper presents the results of the second part of the investigation on structural stiffness and Coulomb damping in compliant foil journal bearings. In the first part, a theoretical model was developed to calculate equivalent viscous damping coefficients and structural stiffness of a bump foil strip in a journal bearing or damper. A computer program was also developed to compute the eccentricity and attitude angle of the journal static equilibrium position as well as the deflections, displacements, reacting forces, and equivalent friction coefficient of each bump on the strip. This model and program enabled further parametric studies to be conducted in the second part of the investigation, the results of which are the subject of this paper. The design parameters studied were static eccentricity (bearing load), pad angle (load angle), sliding friction coefficients, and perturbation amplitude (dynamic load). In addition, more effective methods of achieving both Coulomb damping and optimum structural stiffness were examined. The results of the studies showed that stiffness and damping coefficients were highly nonlinear and anisotropic, that their values depended on the sums of the sliding friction coefficients between contact surfaces, and that they were greatly affected by the pad angle.
Coulomb excitation of states in 238U
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGowan, F. K.; Milner, W. T.
1994-05-01
Twenty-two states in 238U have been observed with 18 MeV 4He ions on a thick target. Eight 2 + states between 966 and 1782 keV and three 3 - states are populated by direct E2 and E3, respectively. The remaining states are either weakly excited by multiple Coulomb excitation and /or populated by the γ-ray decay of the directly excited states. Spin assignments are based on γ-ray angular distributions. Reduced transition probabilities have been deduced from the γ-ray yields. The B(E2) values for excitation of the 2 + states range from 0.10 to 3.0 W.u. (281 W.u. for the first 2 + state). For the 3 states, the B(E3, 0 → 3 -) values are 7.1, 7.8, and 24.2 W.u. Several of the 2 + states have decay branches to the one-phonon states with B(E2) values between 27 and 56 W.u. which are an order of magnitude larger than the B(E2) values between the one- and zero-phonon states. This disagrees with our present understanding of collectivity in nuclei if these 2 + states are considered to be collective two-phonon excitations. However, the excitation energies of these 2 + states with respect to the one-phonon states are only 1.3 to 1.6. The B(E1) values for 17 transitions between the positive- and negative-parity states range between 10 -3 and 10 -7 W.u. The B(E1) branching ratios for many of these transitions have large deviations from the Alaga-rule predictions. These deviations can be understood by the strong Coriolis coupling between the states of the one-phonon octupole quadruplet in deformed nuclei. The general features of the experimental results for the B(E3) values are reproduced by the microscopic calculations of Neergård and Vogel when the Coriolis coupling between the states of the octupole quadruplet is included.
Coulomb excitation of states in 232Th
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGowan, F. K.; Milner, W. T.
1993-09-01
Twenty-five states in 232Th have been observed with 18 MeV 4He ions on a thick target. Eleven 2 + states between 774 and 1554 keV and three 3 - states are populated by direct E2 and E3, respectively. The remaining states are either weakly excited by multiple Coulomb excitation and/or populated by the decay of the directly excited states. Spin assignments are based on γ-ray angular distributions. Reduced transition probabilities have been deduced from the γ-ray yields. The B(E2) values for excitation of the 2 + states range from 0.024 to 3.5 W.u. (222 W.u. for the first 2 + state). For the 3 - states, the B(E3,0 → 3 -) values are 1.7, 11, and 24 W.u. A possible two-phonon state at 1554 keV, which is nearly harmonic, decays to four members of the one-phonon states, to the ground-state band, and to the K = 0 - octupole band. The B(E2) value for excitation of this state is 0.66 ± 0.05 W.u. and the B(E1) values for decay of this state are (2 and 6)×10 -4 W.u. The B(E2) values between two- and one-phonon vibrational states range between 16 and 53 W.u. which are an order of magnitude larger than the B(E2) values between the one- and zero-phonon states. This disagrees with our present understanding of collectivity in nuclei if this 2 + state is considered to be a collective two-phonon excitation. The 2 + states at 1477 and 1387 keV, which are also nearly harmonic, are possible candidates with two-phonon structure. The agreement between the experimental results and the microscopic calculations by Neergård and Vogel of the B(E3,0 → 3) for the 3 - members of the one-phonon octupole quadruplet is satisfactory when the Coriolis coupling between the states with K and K ± 1 is included. The B(E1) branching ratios for transitions from the 3 - and 1 - states to the ground-state band have large deviations from the Alaga-rule predictions. These deviations can be understood by the strong Coriolis coupling between the states of the octupole quadruplet in deformed nuclei.
Substorm statistics: Occurrences and amplitudes
Borovsky, J.E.; Nemzek, R.J.
1994-05-01
The occurrences and amplitudes of substorms are statistically investigated with the use of three data sets: the AL index, the Los Alamos 3-satellite geosynchronous energetic-electron measurements, and the GOES-5 and -6 geosynchronous magnetic-field measurements. The investigation utilizes {approximately} 13,800 substorms in AL, {approximately} 1400 substorms in the energetic-electron flux, and {approximately} 100 substorms in the magnetic field. The rate of occurrence of substorms is determined as a function of the time of day, the time of year, the amount of magnetotail bending, the orientation of the geomagnetic dipole, the toward/away configuration of the IMF, and the parameters of the solar wind. The relative roles of dayside reconnection and viscous coupling in the production of substorms are assessed. Three amplitudes are defined for a substorms: the jump in the AL index, the peak of the >30-keV integral electron flux at geosynchronous orbit near midnight, and the angle of rotation of the geosynchronous magnetic field near midnight. The substorm amplitudes are statistically analyzed, the amplitude measurements are cross correlated with each other, and the substorm amplitudes are determined as functions of the solar-wind parameters. Periodically occurring and randomly occurring substorms are analyzed separately. The energetic-particle-flux amplitudes are consistent with unloading and the AL amplitudes are consistent with direct driving plus unloading.
Stable and Critical Noncohesive Coulomb Wedges: Exact Elastic Solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, K.; Hu, Y.
2004-12-01
The theory of critically tapered Coulomb wedge has been successfully applied to model active fold-and-thrust belts or submarine accretionary prisms. Brittle mountain building is episodic in nature, controlled by changes in basal friction, erosion and sedimentation, and hydrogeology. Sediment accretion may be modulated by great subduction earthquakes. Between deformation episodes and/or during transition between compressional and extensional tectonics, the Coulomb wedges are stable (i.e., supercritical), to which the critical taper theory does not apply. In this work, we provide an exact elastic solution for stable wedges based on Airy stress functions. The stress equilibrium equation and definition of basal friction and basal and internal pore fluid pressure ratios are exactly the same as those used for Dahlen's [1984] exact solution for critical noncohesive Coulomb wedges, but internal friction μ becomes irrelevant. Given elastic - perfectly Coulomb-plastic rheology, for stresses in a wedge on the verge of Coulomb failure there must co-exist a critical taper solution involving μ and a unique equivalent elastic solution not involving μ . Our elastic solution precisely reduces to Dahlen's critical taper solution for critical conditions. For stable conditions, normal stress perpendicular to the surface slope σ z and shear stress τ xz are identical with those in a critical taper, but the slope-parallel normal stress is different. The elastic solution is also generally applicable to purely elastic wedges and useful for modeling geodetic observations. A stable noncohesive Coulomb wedge differs from a general elastic wedge in that its upper and lower surfaces stay at zero curvature during loading. Dahlen, F.A. (1984), Noncohesive critical Coulomb wedges: An exact solution, JGR, 89, 10,125-10,133.
Solving the three-body Coulomb breakup problem using exterior complex scaling
McCurdy, C.W.; Baertschy, M.; Rescigno, T.N.
2004-05-17
Electron-impact ionization of the hydrogen atom is the prototypical three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. The combination of subtle correlation effects and the difficult boundary conditions required to describe two electrons in the continuum have made this one of the outstanding challenges of atomic physics. A complete solution of this problem in the form of a ''reduction to computation'' of all aspects of the physics is given by the application of exterior complex scaling, a modern variant of the mathematical tool of analytic continuation of the electronic coordinates into the complex plane that was used historically to establish the formal analytic properties of the scattering matrix. This review first discusses the essential difficulties of the three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. It then describes the formal basis of exterior complex scaling of electronic coordinates as well as the details of its numerical implementation using a variety of methods including finite difference, finite elements, discrete variable representations, and B-splines. Given these numerical implementations of exterior complex scaling, the scattering wave function can be generated with arbitrary accuracy on any finite volume in the space of electronic coordinates, but there remains the fundamental problem of extracting the breakup amplitudes from it. Methods are described for evaluating these amplitudes. The question of the volume-dependent overall phase that appears in the formal theory of ionization is resolved. A summary is presented of accurate results that have been obtained for the case of electron-impact ionization of hydrogen as well as a discussion of applications to the double photoionization of helium.
Small amplitude quasibreathers and oscillons
Fodor, Gyula; Lukacs, Arpad; Forgacs, Peter; Horvath, Zalan
2008-07-15
Quasibreathers (QB) are time-periodic solutions with weak spatial localization introduced in G. Fodor et al. in [Phys. Rev. D 74, 124003 (2006)]. QB's provide a simple description of oscillons (very long-living spatially localized time dependent solutions). The small amplitude limit of QB's is worked out in a large class of scalar theories with a general self-interaction potential, in D spatial dimensions. It is shown that the problem of small amplitude QB's is reduced to a universal elliptic partial differential equation. It is also found that there is the critical dimension, D{sub crit}=4, above which no small amplitude QB's exist. The QB's obtained this way are shown to provide very good initial data for oscillons. Thus these QB's provide the solution of the complicated, nonlinear time dependent problem of small amplitude oscillons in scalar theories.
Coulomb and nuclear effects in breakup and reaction cross sections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Descouvemont, P.; Canto, L. F.; Hussein, M. S.
2017-01-01
We use a three-body continuum discretized coupled channel (CDCC) model to investigate Coulomb and nuclear effects in breakup and reaction cross sections. The breakup of the projectile is simulated by a finite number of square integrable wave functions. First we show that the scattering matrices can be split in a nuclear term and in a Coulomb term. This decomposition is based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation and requires the scattering wave functions. We present two different methods to separate both effects. Then, we apply this separation to breakup and reaction cross sections of 7Li+208Pb . For breakup, we investigate various aspects, such as the role of the α +t continuum, the angular-momentum distribution, and the balance between Coulomb and nuclear effects. We show that there is a large ambiguity in defining the Coulomb and nuclear breakup cross sections, since both techniques, although providing the same total breakup cross sections, strongly differ for the individual components. We suggest a third method which could be efficiently used to address convergence problems at large angular momentum. For reaction cross sections, interference effects are smaller, and the nuclear contribution is dominant above the Coulomb barrier. We also draw attention to different definitions of the reaction cross section which exist in the literature and which may induce small, but significant, differences in the numerical values.
Nonstationary multistate Coulomb and multistate exponential models for nonadiabatic transitions
Ostrovsky, V. N.
2003-07-01
The nonstationary Schroedinger equation is considered in a finite basis of states. The model Hamiltonian matrix corresponds to a single diabatic potential curve with a Coulombic {approx}1/t time dependence. An arbitrary number of other diabatic potential curves are flat, i.e., time independent and have arbitrary energies. Related states are coupled by constant interactions with the Coulomb state. The resulting nonstationary Schroedinger equation is solved by the method of contour integral. Probabilities of transitions to any other state are obtained as t{yields}{infinity} in a simple analytical form for the case when the Coulomb state is populated initially (at instant of time t{yields}+0). The formulas apply both to the cases when a horizontal diabatic potential curve is crossed by the Coulomb one and to a noncrossing situation. In the limit of weak coupling, the transition probabilities are interpreted in terms of a sequence of pairwise Landau-Zener-type transitions. Mapping of the Coulomb model onto an exactly solvable exponential multistate model is established. For the special two-state case, the well-known Nikitin model is recovered.
Large Amplitude Oscillations in Prominences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tripathi, D.; Isobe, H.; Jain, R.
2009-12-01
Since the first reports of oscillations in prominences in the 1930s, there have been major theoretical and observational developments to understand the nature of these oscillatory phenomena, leading to the whole new field of the so-called “prominence seismology”. There are two types of oscillatory phenomena observed in prominences; “small-amplitude oscillations” (2-3 km s-1), which are quite common, and “large-amplitude oscillations” (>20 km s-1) for which observations are scarce. Large-amplitude oscillations have been found as “winking filament” in H α as well as motion in the plane-of-sky in H α, EUV, micro-wave and He 10830 observations. Historically, it has been suggested that the large-amplitude oscillations in prominences were triggered by disturbances such as fast-mode MHD waves (Moreton wave) produced by remote flares. Recent observations show, in addition, that near-by flares or jets can also create such large-amplitude oscillations in prominences. Large-amplitude oscillations, which are observed both in transverse as well as longitudinal direction, have a range of periods varying from tens of minutes to a few hours. Using the observed period of oscillation and simple theoretical models, the obtained magnetic field in prominences has shown quite a good agreement with directly measured one and, therefore, justifies prominence seismology as a powerful diagnostic tool. On rare occasions, when the large-amplitude oscillations have been observed before or during the eruption, the oscillations may be applied to diagnose the stability and the eruption mechanism. Here we review the recent developments and understanding in the observational properties of large-amplitude oscillations and their trigger mechanisms and stability in the context of prominence seismology.
Tempo and amplitude in growth.
Hermanussen, Michael
2011-01-01
Growth is defined as an increase of size over time with time usually defined as physical time. Yet, the rigid metric of physical time is not directly relevant to the internal dynamics of growth. Growth is linked to maturation. Children and adolescents differ in the tempo at which they mature. One calendar year differs in its meaning in a fast maturing, and in a slow maturing child. The slow child needs more calendar years for completing the same stage of maturity. Many characteristics in the human growth curve are tempo characteristics. Tempo - being fast or slow maturing - has to be carefully separated from amplitude - being tall or short. Several characteristic phenomena such as catch-up growth after periods of illness and starvation are largely tempo phenomena, and do usually not affect the amplitude component of growth. Applying Functional Data Analysis and Principal Component Analysis, the two main sources of height variance: tempo and amplitude can statistically be separate and quantified. Tempo appears to be more sensitive than amplitude to nutrition, health and environmental stress. An appropriate analysis of growth requires disentangling its two major components: amplitude and tempo. The assessment of the developmental tempo thus is an integral part of assessing child and adolescent growth. Though an Internet portal is currently available to process small amounts of height data (www.willi-will-wachsen.com) for separately determining amplitude and tempo in growth, there is urgent need of better and practical solutions for analyzing individual growth.
Amplitude sorting of oscillatory burst signals by sampling
Davis, Thomas J.
1977-01-01
A method and apparatus for amplitude sorting of oscillatory burst signals is described in which the burst signal is detected to produce a burst envelope signal and an intermediate or midportion of such envelope signal is sampled to provide a sample pulse output. The height of the sample pulse is proportional to the amplitude of the envelope signal and to the maximum burst signal amplitude. The sample pulses are fed to a pulse height analyzer for sorting. The present invention is used in an acoustic emission testing system to convert the amplitude of the acoustic emission burst signals into sample pulse heights which are measured by a pulse height analyzer for sorting the pulses in groups according to their height in order to identify the material anomalies in the test material which emit the acoustic signals.
Coulomb matrix elements in multi-orbital Hubbard models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bünemann, Jörg; Gebhard, Florian
2017-04-01
Coulomb matrix elements are needed in all studies in solid-state theory that are based on Hubbard-type multi-orbital models. Due to symmetries, the matrix elements are not independent. We determine a set of independent Coulomb parameters for a d-shell and an f-shell and all point groups with up to 16 elements (O h , O, T d , T h , D 6h , and D 4h ). Furthermore, we express all other matrix elements as a function of the independent Coulomb parameters. Apart from the solution of the general point-group problem we investigate in detail the spherical approximation and first-order corrections to the spherical approximation.
Coulomb explosion of the hot spot of micropinches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oreshkin, V. I.; Oreshkin, E. V.
2017-01-01
It has been shown that the generation of hard X-ray radiation, electron beam, and high energy ions that have been detected in experiments on compressing pinches can be related to the Coulomb explosion of a micropinch hot spot, which is formed due to the outflow of the material. In the outflow process, the plasma temperature in the hot spot increases and conditions appear for the transition of electrons to the regime of continuous acceleration. The exit of runaway electrons from the hot spot region leads to the creation of a positive bulk charge, then to a Coulomb explosion. Conditions under which electrons pass to the continuous acceleration regime have been determined and estimates of the ion kinetic energy upon a Coulomb explosion have been obtained.
Efros-Shklovskii Coulomb gap in the absence of disorder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rademaker, Louk; Mahmoudian, Samiyeh; Ralko, Arnaud; Fratini, Simone; Dobrosavljevic, Vladimir
2015-03-01
Certain models of frustrated electron systems have been shown to self-generate glassy behavior, in the absence of disorder. Possible candidate materials contain quarter-filled triangular lattices with long-range Coulomb interactions, as found in the θ-family of organic BEDT-TTF crystals. In disordered insulators with localized electronic states, the so-called Coulomb glass, the single particle excitation spectrum displays the well-known Efros-Shklovskii gap. The same excitation spectrum is investigated in a class of models that display self-generated electronic glassiness, showing pseudogap formation related to the Efros-Shklovskii Coulomb gap. Our study suggests universal characteristics of all electron glasses, regardless of disorder.
Gribov horizon and Gribov copies effect in lattice Coulomb gauge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burgio, Giuseppe; Quandt, Markus; Reinhardt, Hugo; Vogt, Hannes
2017-01-01
Following a recent proposal by Cooper and Zwanziger, we investigate via S U (2 ) lattice simulations the effect on the Coulomb gauge propagators and on the Gribov-Zwanziger confinement mechanism of selecting the Gribov copy with the smallest nontrivial eigenvalue of the Faddeev-Popov operator, i.e., the one closest to the Gribov horizon. Although such choice of gauge drives the ghost propagator towards the prediction of continuum calculations, we find that it actually overshoots the goal. With increasing computer time, we observe that Gribov copies with arbitrarily small eigenvalues can be found. For such a method to work, one would therefore need further restrictions on the gauge condition to isolate the physically relevant copies, since, for example, the Coulomb potential VC defined through the Faddeev-Popov operator becomes otherwise physically meaningless. Interestingly, the Coulomb potential alternatively defined through temporal link correlators is only marginally affected by the smallness of the eigenvalues.
Coulomb branch Hilbert series and Hall-Littlewood polynomials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cremonesi, Stefano; Hanany, Amihay; Mekareeya, Noppadol; Zaffaroni, Alberto
2014-09-01
There has been a recent progress in understanding the chiral ring of 3d = 4 superconformal gauge theories by explicitly constructing an exact generating function (Hilbert series) counting BPS operators on the Coulomb branch. In this paper we introduce Coulomb branch Hilbert series in the presence of background magnetic charges for flavor symmetries, which are useful for computing the Hilbert series of more general theories through gluing techniques. We find a simple formula of the Hilbert series with background magnetic charges for T ρ ( G) theories in terms of Hall-Littlewood polynomials. Here G is a classical group and ρ is a certain partition related to the dual group of G. The Hilbert series for vanishing background magnetic charges show that Coulomb branches of T ρ ( G) theories are complete intersections. We also demonstrate that mirror symmetry maps background magnetic charges to baryonic charges.
Thermodynamic functions of the hcp Coulomb crystal lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozhberov, A. A.; Baiko, D. A.
2015-10-01
One-component Coulomb crystals of ions with hexagonal close-packed (hcp) lattice likely form in the crust of strongly-magnetized neutron stars (magnetars). In this work we present a detailed study of vibration modes and thermodynamic properties of such crystals in a wide range of temperatures at zero magnetic field. In contrast to typically considered lattices, the phonon spectrum of the system exhibits a peculiar crossing of the acoustic modes near the Brillouin zone center in certain directions of the wavevector. It is demonstrated that in the field-free regime the Helmholtz free energy of the hcp Coulomb crystal is always higher than those of the Coulomb crystals with body-centered cubic and face-centered cubic lattices. The results of our numerical calculations are fitted by simple analytic expressions.
Three-body Coulomb bound states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhatia, A. K.; Drachman, Richard J.
1987-05-01
The binding energies of three-particle systems containing two electrons and one positive particle of mass M are reexamined in an attempt to understand the approximate proportionality of the 1Se ground-state binding energies of the reduced masses, as pointed out by Botero and Green (1986). The contribution to the energy of the mass-polarization term is evaluated. No fundamental principle is involved, since the mass polarization merely decreases somewhat as the mass of the positive particle is reduced below the proton mass. In the case of the excited 3Pe state, this reduction is not sufficient to allow binding when M approaches the electron mass. Some properties of the recently observed negative muonium ion (e/-/ mu/+/ e/-/) are also computed.
Three-body Coulomb bound states
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bhatia, A. K.; Drachman, Richard J.
1987-01-01
The binding energies of three-particle systems containing two electrons and one positive particle of mass M are reexamined in an attempt to understand the approximate proportionality of the 1Se ground-state binding energies of the reduced masses, as pointed out by Botero and Green (1986). The contribution to the energy of the mass-polarization term is evaluated. No fundamental principle is involved, since the mass polarization merely decreases somewhat as the mass of the positive particle is reduced below the proton mass. In the case of the excited 3Pe state, this reduction is not sufficient to allow binding when M approaches the electron mass. Some properties of the recently observed negative muonium ion (e/-/ mu/+/ e/-/) are also computed.
Grassmannian origin of scattering amplitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trnka, Jaroslav
Quantum field theory (QFT) is our central theoretical framework to describe the microscopic world, arising from the union of quantum mechanics and special relativity. Since QFTs play such a central role in our understanding of Nature, a deeper study of their physical properties is one of the most exciting directions of research in theoretical physics. This has led to the discovery of many important theoretical concepts, such as supersymmetry and string theory. One of the most prominent physical observable in any QFT is the scattering amplitude, which describes scattering processes of elementary particles. Theoretical progress in understanding and computing scattering amplitudes has accelerated in last few years with the discovery of amazing new mathematical structures in a close cousin of QCD, known as N=4 Super-Yang-Mills theory (SYM). In the first chapter we study integrands of loop amplitudes in planar N=4 SYM and show their astonishing simplicity when written in terms of special set of chiral integrals. In chapter two we show how to reconstruct the multi-loop integrand recursively starting from tree-level amplitudes. This approach makes the long-hidden Yangian symmetry of the theory completely manifest and provides a Lagrangian-independent approach for determining the integrand at any loop order. In chapter three we demonstrate that the problem of calculating of scattering amplitudes in planar N=4 SYM can be completely reformulated in a new framework in terms of on-shell diagrams and integrals over the positive Grassmannian G(k,n). Remarkably, the building blocks for amplitudes play a fundamental role in an active area of research in mathematics spanning algebraic geometry to combinatorics. In chapter four we sketch the argument that the amplitude itself is represented by a single geometrical object defined purely using a new striking property -- positivity -- and all physical concepts like unitarity and locality emerge as derived concepts, each having a sharp
Features of non-congruent phase transition in modified Coulomb model of the binary ionic mixture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stroev, N. E.; Iosilevskiy, I. L.
2016-11-01
Non-congruent gas-liquid phase transition (NCPT) have been studied previously in modified Coulomb model of a binary ionic mixture C(+6) + O(+8) on a uniformly compressible ideal electronic background /BIM(∼)/. The features of NCPT in improved version of the BIM(∼) model for the same mixture on background of non-ideal electronic Fermi-gas and comparison it with the previous calculations are the subject of present study. Analytical fits for Coulomb corrections to equation of state of electronic and ionic subsystems were used in present calculations within the Gibbs-Guggenheim conditions of non-congruent phase equilibrium. Parameters of critical point-line were calculated on the entire range of proportions of mixed ions 0 < X < 1. Strong “distillation” effect was found for NCPT in the present BIM(∼) model. Just similar distillation was obtained in the variant of NCPT in dense nuslear matter. The absence of azeotropic compositions was revealed in studied variants of BIM(∼) in contrast to an explicit existence of the azeotropic compositions for the NCPT in chemically reacting plasmas and in astrophysical applications.
Cognitive and Metacognitive Aspects of Proportional Reasoning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Modestou, Modestina; Gagatsis, Athanasios
2010-01-01
In this study we attempt to propose a new model of proportional reasoning based both on bibliographical and research data. This is impelled with the help of three written tests involving analogical, proportional, and non-proportional situations that were administered to pupils from grade 7 to 9. The results suggest the existence of a…
Body proportions in children with Kabuki syndrome.
Penders, Bas; Schott, Nina; Gerver, Willem-Jan M; Stumpel, Constance T R M
2016-03-01
Facial characteristics, short stature, and skeletal anomalies have been described for the clinical diagnosis of Kabuki Syndrome (KS) in children. However, no studies have investigated body proportions in KS. Knowledge of body proportions in KS may contribute to better insight into the growth pattern and characterization of this genetic disorder. Therefore we compared body proportions of children with KS to normally proportioned controls to investigate if atypical body proportions are part of this genetic disorder. This study was designed and conducted within the setting of the Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC+), the official Dutch expert center for Kabuki syndrome. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 32 children (11 children with KS and 21 controls). Body proportions were determined by means of photogrammetric anthropometry, measurements based on digital photography. Body proportions, quantified as body ratios, differ significantly in children with KS from normally proportioned children. Children with KS have larger heads and longer arms proportional to their trunks and have been found to have longer upper arms proportional to their tibia length and feet. Based on deviations in body proportions it was shown possible to discern children with KS from normally proportioned controls.
Evaluating Middle Years Students' Proportional Reasoning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hilton, Annette; Dole, Shelley; Hilton, Geoff; Goos, Merrilyn; O'Brien, Mia
2012-01-01
Proportional reasoning is a key aspect of numeracy that is not always developed naturally by students. Understanding the types of proportional reasoning that students apply to different problem types is a useful first step to identifying ways to support teachers and students to develop proportional reasoning in the classroom. This paper describes…
Cognitive and Metacognitive Aspects of Proportional Reasoning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Modestou, Modestina; Gagatsis, Athanasios
2010-01-01
In this study we attempt to propose a new model of proportional reasoning based both on bibliographical and research data. This is impelled with the help of three written tests involving analogical, proportional, and non-proportional situations that were administered to pupils from grade 7 to 9. The results suggest the existence of a…
Estimating proportions of materials using mixture models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heydorn, R. P.; Basu, R.
1983-01-01
An approach to proportion estimation based on the notion of a mixture model, appropriate parametric forms for a mixture model that appears to fit observed remotely sensed data, methods for estimating the parameters in these models, methods for labelling proportion determination from the mixture model, and methods which use the mixture model estimates as auxiliary variable values in some proportion estimation schemes are addressed.
On rate-state and Coulomb failure models
Gomberg, J.; Beeler, N.; Blanpied, M.
2000-01-01
We examine the predictions of Coulomb failure stress and rate-state frictional models. We study the change in failure time (clock advance) Δt due to stress step perturbations (i.e., coseismic static stress increases) added to "background" stressing at a constant rate (i.e., tectonic loading) at time t0. The predictability of Δt implies a predictable change in seismicity rate r(t)/r0, testable using earthquake catalogs, where r0 is the constant rate resulting from tectonic stressing. Models of r(t)/r0, consistent with general properties of aftershock sequences, must predict an Omori law seismicity decay rate, a sequence duration that is less than a few percent of the mainshock cycle time and a return directly to the background rate. A Coulomb model requires that a fault remains locked during loading, that failure occur instantaneously, and that Δt is independent of t0. These characteristics imply an instantaneous infinite seismicity rate increase of zero duration. Numerical calculations of r(t)/r0 for different state evolution laws show that aftershocks occur on faults extremely close to failure at the mainshock origin time, that these faults must be "Coulomb-like," and that the slip evolution law can be precluded. Real aftershock population characteristics also may constrain rate-state constitutive parameters; a may be lower than laboratory values, the stiffness may be high, and/or normal stress may be lower than lithostatic. We also compare Coulomb and rate-state models theoretically. Rate-state model fault behavior becomes more Coulomb-like as constitutive parameter a decreases relative to parameter b. This is because the slip initially decelerates, representing an initial healing of fault contacts. The deceleration is more pronounced for smaller a, more closely simulating a locked fault. Even when the rate-state Δt has Coulomb characteristics, its magnitude may differ by some constant dependent on b. In this case, a rate-state model behaves like a modified
Convergence of Feynman integrals in Coulomb gauge QCD
Andraši, A.; Taylor, J.C.
2014-12-15
At 2-loop order, Feynman integrals in the Coulomb gauge are divergent over the internal energy variables. Nevertheless, it is known how to calculate the effective action, provided that the external gluon fields are all transverse. We show that, for the two-gluon Greens function as an example, the method can be extended to include longitudinal external fields. The longitudinal Greens functions appear in the BRST identities. As an intermediate step, we use a flow gauge, which interpolates between the Feynman and Coulomb gauges.
Running Coulomb potential and Lamb shift in QCD
Hoang, Andre H.; Manohar, Aneesh V.; Stewart, Iain W.
2001-07-01
The QCD {beta} function and the anomalous dimensions for the Coulomb potential and the static potential first differ at three loop order. We evaluate the three loop ultrasoft anomalous dimension for the Coulomb potential and give the complete three loop running. Using this result, we calculate the leading logarithmic Lamb shift for a heavy-quark{endash}antiquark bound state, which includes all contributions to the binding energies of the form m{alpha}{sub s}{sup 4}({alpha}{sub s}ln{alpha}{sub s}){sup k}, k{ge}0.
Separable wave equation for three Coulomb interacting particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colavecchia, F. D.; Gasaneo, G.; Garibotti, C. R.
1998-02-01
We consider a separable approximation to the Schrödinger equation for the three-body Coulomb problem and found its exact solution above the ionization threshold. This wave function accounts for different possible asymptotic behaviors and reduces to the well-known product of three two-body Coulomb waves (C3) for scattering conditions. The momenta and position-dependent modifications recently proposed for the Sommerfeld parameters, as an improvement to the C3 model, are analyzed. We show how these changes can be included in our model as a suitable physically based variations in the separable approximation for the wave equation.
Ratchet effect driven by Coulomb friction: the asymmetric Rayleigh piston.
Sarracino, A; Gnoli, A; Puglisi, A
2013-04-01
The effect of Coulomb friction is studied in the framework of collisional ratchets. It turns out that the average drift of these devices can be expressed as the combination of a term related to the lack of equipartition between the probe and the surrounding bath, and a term featuring the average frictional force. We illustrate this general result in the asymmetric Rayleigh piston, showing how Coulomb friction can induce a ratchet effect in a Brownian particle in contact with an equilibrium bath. An explicit analytical expression for the average velocity of the piston is obtained in the rare collision limit. Numerical simulations support the analytical findings.
Higher-order dynamical effects in Coulomb dissociation
Esbensen, H.; Bertsch, G.F.; Bertulani, C.A.
1995-08-01
Coulomb dissociation is a technique commonly used to extract the dipole response of nuclei far from stability. This technique is applicable if the dissociation is dominated by dipole transitions and if first-order perturbation theory is valid. In order to assess the significance of higher-order processes we solve numerically the time evolution of the wave function for a two-body breakup in the Coulomb field from a high Z target. We applied this method to the breakup reactions: {sup 11}Be {yields} {sup 10}Be + n and {sup 11}Li {yields} +2n. The latter is treated as a two-body breakup, using a di-neutron model.
Femtosecond studies of Coulomb explosion utilizing covariance mapping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Card, Dennis Alan
2000-10-01
The studies presented herein elucidate details of the Coulomb explosion event initiated through the interaction of molecular clusters with an intense femtosecond laser beam (>=1 PW/cm2). Clusters studied include ammonia, titanium-hydrocarbon, pyridine, and 7-azaindole. Covariance analysis is presented as a general technique to study the dynamical processes in clusters and to discern whether the fragmentation channels are competitive. Positive covariance determinations identify concerted processes such as the concomitant explosion of protonated cluster ions of asymmetrical size. Anti- covariance mapping is exploited to distinguish competitive reaction channels such as the production of highly charged nitrogen atoms formed at the expense of the protonated members of a cluster ion ensemble. This technique is exemplified in each cluster system studied. Kinetic energy analyses, from experiment and simulation, are presented to fully understand the Coulomb explosion event. A cutoff study strongly suggests that a Coulomb explosion create ions with two different energies, a direct result of an incomplete Coulomb explosion. A peak analysis implies a strong mass-to-charge dependence on the KER. Taken together, the two studies suggest a duality in the elastic and inelastic contributions to the energy released in a Coulomb explosion. Finally, backward-ejected ions were found capable of arriving before the ion expelled without energy from a Coulomb explosion. Gradient, clustering, and microchannel plate studies confirm the chaotic nature of the Coulomb explosion and the effect clusters have on the event. Backward-ejected protons are found to impact the repeller and eject adsorbed protons from the surface. Moreover, delayed fragmentation is suggested by proton time-of-flights. A cluster study demonstrates the need for clusters at low intensities. Conceptually, the dynamic charge resonance enhanced ionization (CREI) model explains these results of heterocyclic Coulomb explosion
Plasmons in Dimensionally Mismatched Coulomb Coupled Graphene Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Badalyan, S. M.; Shylau, A. A.; Jauho, A. P.
2017-09-01
We calculate the plasmon dispersion relation for Coulomb coupled metallic armchair graphene nanoribbons and doped monolayer graphene. The crossing of the plasmon curves, which occurs for uncoupled 1D and 2D systems, is split by the interlayer Coulomb coupling into a lower and an upper plasmon branch. The upper branch exhibits an unusual behavior with end points at finite q . Accordingly, the structure factor shows either a single or a double peak behavior, depending on the plasmon wavelength. The new plasmon structure is relevant to recent experiments, its properties can be controlled by varying the system parameters and be used in plasmonic applications.
Effect of Coulombic friction on spatial displacement statistics.
Menzel, Andreas M; Goldenfeld, Nigel
2011-07-01
The phenomenon of Coulombic friction enters the stochastic description of dry friction between two solids and the statistic characterization of vibrating granular media. Here we analyze the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation including both velocity and spatial components, exhibiting a formal connection to a quantum mechanical harmonic oscillator in the presence of a delta potential. Numerical solutions for the resulting spatial displacement statistics show a crossover from exponential to Gaussian displacement statistics. We identify a transient intermediate regime that exhibits multiscaling properties arising from the contribution of Coulombic friction. The possible role of these effects during observations in diffusion experiments is briefly discussed.
Computing Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stankowicz, James Michael, Jr.
This dissertation reviews work in computing N = 4 super-Yang--Mills (sYM) and N = 8 maximally supersymmetric gravity (mSUGRA) scattering amplitudes in D = 4 spacetime dimensions in novel ways. After a brief introduction and overview in Ch. 1, the various techniques used to construct amplitudes in the remainder of the dissertation are discussed in Ch. 2. This includes several new concepts such as d log and pure integrand bases, as well as how to construct the amplitude using exactly one kinematic point where it vanishes. Also included in this chapter is an outline of the Mathematica package on shell diagrams and numerics.m (osdn) that was developed for the computations herein. The rest of the dissertation is devoted to explicit examples. In Ch. 3, the starting point is tree-level sYM amplitudes that have integral representations with residues that obey amplitude relations. These residues are shown to have corresponding residue numerators that allow a double copy prescription that results in mSUGRA residues. In Ch. 4, the two-loop four-point sYM amplitude is constructed in several ways, showcasing many of the techniques of Ch. 2; this includes an example of how to use osdn. The two-loop five-point amplitude is also presented in a pure integrand representation with comments on how it was constructed from one homogeneous cut of the amplitude. On-going work on the two-loop n-point amplitude is presented at the end of Ch. 4. In Ch. 5, the three-loop four-point amplitude is presented in the d log representation and in the pure integrand representation. In Ch. 6, there are several examples of four- through seven-loop planar diagrams that illustrate how considerations of the singularity structure of the amplitude underpin dual-conformal invariance. Taken with the previous examples, this is additional evidence that the structure known to exist in the planar sector extends to the full theory. At the end of this chapter is a proof that all mSUGRA amplitudes have a pole at
Lorentzian proper vertex amplitude: Asymptotics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engle, Jonathan; Vilensky, Ilya; Zipfel, Antonia
2016-09-01
In previous work, the Lorentzian proper vertex amplitude for a spin-foam model of quantum gravity was derived. In the present work, the asymptotics of this amplitude are studied in the semiclassical limit. The starting point of the analysis is an expression for the amplitude as an action integral with action differing from that in the Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine (EPRL) case by an extra "projector" term. This extra term scales linearly with spins only in the asymptotic limit, and is discontinuous on a (lower dimensional) submanifold of the integration domain in the sense that its value at each such point depends on the direction of approach. New tools are introduced to generalize stationary phase methods to this case. For the case of boundary data which can be glued to a nondegenerate Lorentzian 4-simplex, the asymptotic limit of the amplitude is shown to equal the single Feynman term, showing that the extra term in the asymptotics of the EPRL amplitude has been eliminated.
Proportional valve with a piezoelectric actuator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laski, Pawel Andrzej
The article concerns a slotted proportional valve for use in pneumatic and hydraulic systems. There is a growing demand for both hydraulic and pneumatic ultrafast proportional valves. The conducted analysis of literature confirms the lack of such solutions for proportional valves. The currently used pneumatic systems for selection and segregation of parts and objects require ultrafast valves. The presented solution for the proportional valve can significantly improve and accelerate this type of technological processes. Furthermore, fast proportional valves can be successfully used for positional control of pneumatic and hydraulic drives. The article presents the design of a slotted divide valve and sets the maximum mass flow rate for service roads.
Proportional valve with a piezoelectric actuator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laski, Pawel Andrzej
2016-11-01
The article concerns a slotted proportional valve for use in pneumatic and hydraulic systems. There is a growing demand for both hydraulic and pneumatic ultrafast proportional valves. The conducted analysis of literature confirms the lack of such solutions for proportional valves. The currently used pneumatic systems for selection and segregation of parts and objects require ultrafast valves. The presented solution for the proportional valve can significantly improve and accelerate this type of technological processes. Furthermore, fast proportional valves can be successfully used for positional control of pneumatic and hydraulic drives. The article presents the design of a slotted divide valve and sets the maximum mass flow rate for service roads.
Factorization of chiral string amplitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yu-tin; Siegel, Warren; Yuan, Ellis Ye
2016-09-01
We re-examine a closed-string model defined by altering the boundary conditions for one handedness of two-dimensional propagators in otherwise-standard string theory. We evaluate the amplitudes using Kawai-Lewellen-Tye factorization into open-string amplitudes. The only modification to standard string theory is effectively that the spacetime Minkowski metric changes overall sign in one open-string factor. This cancels all but a finite number of states: as found in earlier approaches, with enough supersymmetry (e.g., type II) the tree amplitudes reproduce those of the massless truncation of ordinary string theory. However, we now find for the other cases that additional fields, formerly thought to be auxiliary, describe new spin-2 states at the two adjacent mass levels (tachyonic and tardyonic). The tachyon is always a ghost, but can be avoided in the heterotic case.
Coulomb effect and threshold effect in electronic stopping power for slow protons
Semrad, D.
1986-03-01
We show how the electronic stopping power for slow protons is influenced by the deceleration and deflection of the projectile in the field of the target nucleus (Coulomb effect) and by the fact that in insulators a finite energy is also required for excitation of the outermost electrons (threshold effect). Estimates are derived from the Fermi-Teller description of the stopping process, from a modified local-density approximation, and from measured inner-shell ionization cross sections. It is found that the introduction of an energy threshold reduces at low energies the stopping cross section by a large factor and hence leads to an appreciable deviation from v/sub 1/ proportionality.
Accurate Coulomb blockade thermometry up to 60 kelvin.
Meschke, M; Kemppinen, A; Pekola, J P
2016-03-28
We demonstrate experimentally a precise realization of Coulomb blockade thermometry working at temperatures up to 60 K. Advances in nano-fabrication methods using electron beam lithography allow us to fabricate uniform arrays of sufficiently small tunnel junctions to guarantee an overall temperature reading precision of about 1%.
Coulomb gauge approach for charmonium meson and hybrid radiative transitions
Gou, Peng; Yepez-Martínez, Tochtli; Szczepaniak, Adam P.
2015-01-22
We consider the lowest order interaction of the Foldy-Wouthuysen QED and QCD Hamiltonian in the Coulomb gauge approach, to describe radiative transitions between conventional and hybrids charmonium mesons. The results are compared to potential quark models and lattices calculations.
Existence of the thermodynamic limit for disordered quantum Coulomb systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blanc, Xavier; Lewin, Mathieu
2012-09-01
Following a recent method introduced by Hainzl, Solovej, and Lewin, we prove the existence of the thermodynamic limit for a system made of quantum electrons, and classical nuclei whose positions and charges are randomly perturbed in an ergodic fashion. All the particles interact through Coulomb forces.
Coulomb crystals of oil droplets in a Paul trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Triplett, Matt; Younger, Richard; Robertson, Scott
1998-10-01
Coulomb crystals of charged liquid droplets have been created in a Paul trap in air. The technique improves upon similar experiments with solid dust by having particles with a controlled and reproducible charge-to-mass ratio. The spatial configurations of crystals of a few particles have been determined.
Limits to Electron Beam Emittance from Stochastic Coulomb Interactions
Coleman-Smith, Christopher; Padmore, Howard A.; Wan, Weishi
2008-08-22
Dense electron beams can now be generated on an ultrafast timescale using laser driven photo-cathodes and these are used for a range of applications from ultrafast electron defraction to free electron lasers. Here we determine a lower bound to the emittance of an electron beam limited by fundamental stochastic Coulomb interactions.
Finiteness of the Coulomb gauge QCD perturbative effective action
Andraši, A.; Taylor, J.C.
2015-05-15
At 2-loop order in the Coulomb gauge, individual Feynman graphs contributing to the effective action have energy divergences. It is proved that these cancel in suitable combinations of graphs. This has previously been shown only for transverse external fields. The calculation results in a generalization of the Christ–Lee term which was inserted into the Hamiltonian.
Coulomb repulsion and the electron beam directed energy weapon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Retsky, Michael W.
2004-09-01
Mutual repulsion of discrete charged particles or Coulomb repulsion is widely considered to be an ultimate hard limit in charged particle optics. It prevents the ability to finely focus high current beams into small spots at large distances from defining apertures. A classic example is the 1970s era "Star Wars" study of an electron beam directed energy weapon as an orbiting antiballistic missile device. After much analysis, it was considered physically impossible to focus a 1000-amp 1-GeV beam into a 1-cm diameter spot 1000-km from the beam generator. The main reason was that a 1-cm diameter beam would spread to 5-m diameter at 1000-km due to Coulomb repulsion. Since this could not be overcome, the idea was abandoned. But is this true? What if the rays were reversed? That is, start with a 5-m beam converging slightly with the same nonuniform angular and energy distribution as the electrons from the original problem were spreading at 1000-km distance. Could Coulomb repulsion be overcome? Looking at the terms in computational studies, some are reversible while others are not. Based on estimates, the nonreversible terms should be small - of the order of 0.1 mm. If this is true, it is possible to design a practical electron beam directed weapon not limited by Coulomb repulsion.
Exchange Coulomb interaction in nanotubes: Dispersion of Langmuir waves
Andreev, P. A. Ivanov, A. Yu.
2015-07-15
The microscopic derivation of the Coulomb exchange interaction for electrons located on the nanotubes is presented. The derivation is based on the many-particle quantum hydrodynamic method. We demonstrate the effect of curvature of the nanocylinders on the force of exchange interaction. We calculate corresponding dispersion dependencies for electron oscillations on the nanotubes.
Using the Screened Coulomb Potential to Illustrate the Variational Method
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zuniga, Jose; Bastida, Adolfo; Requena, Alberto
2012-01-01
The screened Coulomb potential, or Yukawa potential, is used to illustrate the application of the single and linear variational methods. The trial variational functions are expressed in terms of Slater-type functions, for which the integrals needed to carry out the variational calculations are easily evaluated in closed form. The variational…
Isotope shifts and coulomb displacement energies in calcium isotopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caurier, E.; Poves, A.; Zuker, A.
1980-10-01
Isotope shifts, neutron-proton radii differences and Coulomb displacement energies are calculated for calcium isotopes A = 41 to 48. A simple parametrization of the core polarization terms of the effective force in the framework of the Isospin Projected Hartree-Fock (IPHF) method leads to good agreement between theory and experiment.
Coulomb crystallization in two-component quantum plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonitz, M.; Filinov, V. S.; Levashov, P. R.; Fortov, V. E.; Fehske, H.
2006-10-01
Coulomb crystallization is a common phenomenon in trapped (non-neutral) plasmas. In a neutral plasma, however, it is hampered by recombination of electrons and ions. Known examples are ion Coulomb crystals in white dwarf and neutron stars. Here, we predict the conditions under which a Coulomb crystal of heavy particles (e.g. ions) can form in the presence of a degenerate delocalized background of light charges (e.g. electrons): the key requirement is the mass ratio has to exceed a critical value of about 80 [1]. This leads to the prediction of novel types of crystals e.g. in hydrogen and helium. Further, we predict that holes in semiconductors can spontaneously order into a regular lattice in materials with sufficiently flat valence bands. A unified phase diagram of Coulomb crystals in two-component systems is derived and verified by first-principe path-integral Monte Carlo simulations [1-3]. [1] M. Bonitz, V.S. Filinov, V.E. Fortov, P. Levashov, H. Fehske, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 235006 (2005), Phys. Rev. Focus, Dec 2005 [2] M. Bonitz, V.S. Filinov, V.E. Fortov, P. Levashov, H. Fehske, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39, 4717 (2006) [3] M. Bonitz, V.S. Filinov, V.E. Fortov, P. Levashov, H. Fehske, Phys. Rev. E (2006)
Hamiltonian flow in Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory
Leder, Markus; Reinhardt, Hugo; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Weber, Axel
2011-01-15
We derive a new functional renormalization group equation for Hamiltonian Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge. The flow equations for the static gluon and ghost propagators are solved under the assumption of ghost dominance within different diagrammatic approximations. The results are compared to those obtained in the variational approach and the reliability of the approximations is discussed.
Borisenko conducts Kulonovskiy Kristall (Coulomb Crystal) Experiment in MRM2
2011-04-18
ISS027-E-013408 (18 April 2011) --- Russian cosmonaut Andrey Borisenko, Expedition 27 flight engineer, conducts an active session for the Russian experiment KPT-10 "Kulonovskiy Kristall" (Coulomb Crystal) in the Poisk Mini-Research Module 2 (MRM2) of the International Space Station.
Borisenko conducts Kulonovskiy Kristall (Coulomb Crystal) Experiment in MRM2
2011-04-18
ISS027-E-013406 (18 April 2011) --- Russian cosmonaut Andrey Borisenko, Expedition 27 flight engineer, conducts an active session for the Russian experiment KPT-10 "Kulonovskiy Kristall" (Coulomb Crystal) in the Poisk Mini-Research Module 2 (MRM2) of the International Space Station.
Using the Screened Coulomb Potential to Illustrate the Variational Method
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zuniga, Jose; Bastida, Adolfo; Requena, Alberto
2012-01-01
The screened Coulomb potential, or Yukawa potential, is used to illustrate the application of the single and linear variational methods. The trial variational functions are expressed in terms of Slater-type functions, for which the integrals needed to carry out the variational calculations are easily evaluated in closed form. The variational…
Application of Designer Polynomials to the Soft-Coulomb Potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weatherford, Charles; Wynn, Albert, III; Red, Eddie; Mathis, Clausell
2004-05-01
In a recent article [C.A. Weatherford, E. Red, A. Wynn III, International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 90, 1289-1294 (2002)], an algorithm was described whereby a synthetic weighted polynomial basis may be constructed which is adapted (designed) to a particular potential. It was applied therein to the Schroedinger equation with a coulomb potential in one dimension (-1/|x| ). A weighted polynomial basis with weight function w(x)=exp(-a|x|) was employed. It was observed that this potential had no even parity solutions - only odd parity solutions. The question arises as to the relationship of the solutions (eigenfunctions and eigenvalues) for this hard coulomb potential to the solutions for the soft coulomb potential (-1/ √x^2+b^2^1/2 ). In particular, since the soft coulomb potential is clearly expected to possess both even and odd parity solutions, how do these solutions behave as b->0 and thus what happens to the even solutions. This problem is deceptively difficult none of the standard basis sets produce a variational minimum as a function of 'a' for nonzero 'b'. This is apparently why this problem has never been done before. A new orthonormal basis was designed with weight function w(x)=exp(-a√x^2+b^2) which did produce a variational minimum for variable a and arbitrary fixed 'b'. The present paper describes these solutions and clearly indicates how they behave as b->0 .
Large amplitude drop shape oscillations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trinh, E. H.; Wang, T. G.
1982-01-01
An experimental study of large amplitude drop shape oscillation was conducted in immiscible liquids systems and with levitated free liquid drops in air. In liquid-liquid systems the results indicate the existence of familiar characteristics of nonlinear phenomena. The resonance frequency of the fundamental quadrupole mode of stationary, low viscosity Silicone oil drops acoustically levitated in water falls to noticeably low values as the amplitude of oscillation is increased. A typical, experimentally determined relative frequency decrease of a 0.5 cubic centimeters drop would be about 10% when the maximum deformed shape is characterized by a major to minor axial ratio of 1.9. On the other hand, no change in the fundamental mode frequency could be detected for 1 mm drops levitated in air. The experimental data for the decay constant of the quadrupole mode of drops immersed in a liquid host indicate a slight increase for larger oscillation amplitudes. A qualitative investigation of the internal fluid flows for such drops revealed the existence of steady internal circulation within drops oscillating in the fundamental and higher modes. The flow field configuration in the outer host liquid is also significantly altered when the drop oscillation amplitude becomes large.
Toward complete pion nucleon amplitudes
Mathieu, Vincent; Danilkin, Igor V.; Fernández-Ramírez, Cesar; ...
2015-10-05
We compare the low-energy partial wave analyses πN scattering with a high-energy data via finite energy sum rules. We also construct a new set of amplitudes by matching the imaginary part from the low-energy analysis with the high-energy, Regge parametrization and then reconstruct the real parts using dispersion relations.
Toward complete pion nucleon amplitudes
Mathieu, Vincent; Danilkin, Igor V.; Fernández-Ramírez, Cesar; Pennington, Michael R.; Schott, Diane M.; Szczepaniak, Adam P.; Fox, G.
2015-10-05
We compare the low-energy partial wave analyses πN scattering with a high-energy data via finite energy sum rules. We also construct a new set of amplitudes by matching the imaginary part from the low-energy analysis with the high-energy, Regge parametrization and then reconstruct the real parts using dispersion relations.
Non-Sticking Oscillation Formulae for Coulomb Friction Under Harmonic Loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
HONG, H.-K.; LIU, C.-S.
2001-07-01
In this paper, a new estimate for periodic non-sticking (i.e., zero stop per cycle) solutions is presented for the steady state responses of the Coulomb friction oscillator subjected to harmonic loading. Compared with the Den Hartog (1931 Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers53, 107-115 [1]) estimate, the new estimate leads to the same formulae for the maximum displacement and its time lag, but only the new estimate offers the closed-form formulae for the maximum velocity and its time lag. More importantly, a simple formula is derived for estimating the minimum driving force amplitude needed to prevent an oscillating object from sticking to the friction surface on which it slides. The validity of the assumptions made for the new estimate and the accuracy of the formulae developed are confirmed by comparing with the exact solutions (Hong and Liu 2000 Journal of Sound and Vibration229, 1171-1192 [2]). It is also found that there exists the best driving force amplitude for maximum dissipation efficiency.
Tree-augmented Cox proportional hazards models.
Su, Xiaogang; Tsai, Chih-Ling
2005-07-01
We study a hybrid model that combines Cox proportional hazards regression with tree-structured modeling. The main idea is to use step functions, provided by a tree structure, to 'augment' Cox (1972) proportional hazards models. The proposed model not only provides a natural assessment of the adequacy of the Cox proportional hazards model but also improves its model fitting without loss of interpretability. Both simulations and an empirical example are provided to illustrate the use of the proposed method.
Compact Collision Kernels for Hard Sphere and Coulomb Cross Sections; Fokker-Planck Coefficients
Chang Yongbin; Shizgal, Bernie D.
2008-12-31
A compact collision kernel is derived for both hard sphere and Coulomb cross sections. The difference between hard sphere interaction and Coulomb interaction is characterized by a parameter {eta}. With this compact collision kernel, the calculation of Fokker-Planck coefficients can be done for both the Coulomb and hard sphere interactions. The results for arbitrary order Fokker-Planck coefficients are greatly simplified. An alternate form for the Coulomb logarithm is derived with concern to the temperature relaxation in a binary plasma.
True amplitude prestack depth migration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Feng
Reliable analysis of amplitude variation with offset (or with angle) requires accurate amplitudes from prestack migration. In routine seismic data processing, amplitude balancing and automatic gain control are often used to reduce amplitude lateral variations. However, these methods are empirical and lack a solid physical basis; thus, there are uncertainties that might produce erroneous conclusions, and hence cause economic loss. During wavefield propagation, geometrical spreading, intrinsic attenuation, transmission losses and the energy conversion significantly distort the wavefield amplitude. Most current true-amplitude migrations usually compensate only for geometrical spreading. A new prestack depth migration based on the framework of reverse-time migration in the time-space domain was developed in this dissertation with the aim of compensating all of the propagation effects in one integrated algorithm. Geometrical spreading is automatically included because of the use of full two-way wave extrapolation. Viscoelastic wave equations are solved to handle the intrinsic attenuation with a priori quality factor. Transmission losses for both up- and down-going waves are compensated using a two-pass, recursive procedure based on extracting the angle-dependent reflection/transmission coefficients from prestack migration. The losses caused by the conversion of energy from one elastic model to another are accounted for through elastic wave extrapolation; the influence of the S wave velocity contrast on the P wave reflection coefficient is implicitly included by using the Zoeppritz equations to describe the reflection and transmission at an elastic interface. Only smooth background models are assumed to be known. The contrasts/ratios of the model parameters can be estimated by fitting the compensated angle-dependent reflection coefficients obtained from data for multiple sources. This is one useful by-product of the algorithm. Numerical tests on both 2D and 3D scalar
Blocage de Coulomb dans une boite quantique laterale contenant un faible nombre d'electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gould, Charles
Dans ce travail on utilise une nouvelle geometrie pour augmenter le controle sur le nombre d'electrons contenus dans une boite quantique laterale, et ainsi atteindre un regime de petit nombre d'electrons. Ces echantillons permettent une etude du blocage de Coulomb quand les electrons sont injectes a partir d'un gaz electronique a deux dimensions (2DEG). Les mesures a faible champ magnetique demontrent la grande flexibilite des echantillons et montrent que l'on peut faire varier le nombre d'electrons dans une boite quantique a partir de plus de 40 electrons jusqu'a un seul electron, ce qui est assez courant dans les boites quantiques verticales, mais ce qui n'avait jamais ete reussi dans une boite quantique laterale. Nos resultats montrent egalement que dans les boites quantiques laterales il est possible de determiner le spin du niveau qui participe au transport a l'aide du phenomene de blocage de spin. De plus, dans certaines circonstances il est meme possible de determiner le spin total de la boite quantique, ce qui peut avoir des applications pratiques dans des domaines tels l'informatique quantique. Les mesures dans le regime de renversement de spin a un champ magnetique plus eleve montrent l'importance des correlations electrons---electrons dans ces boites quantiques, qui menent a des depolarisations et a des structures de spins qui ont un effet sur le transport. En particulier, ces correlations menent a l'existence de niveaux excites de basse energie qui causent une dependance anormale de l'amplitude des pics de blocage de Coulomb en fonction de la temperature. Nos experiences demontrent egalement la possibilite d'utiliser ces boites quantiques comme sondes pour etudier les proprietes du bord d'un 2DEG. Une voie de recherche a etre exploree.
CCSSM Challenge: Graphing Ratio and Proportion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kastberg, Signe E.; D'Ambrosio, Beatriz S.; Lynch-Davis, Kathleen; Mintos, Alexia; Krawczyk, Kathryn
2013-01-01
A renewed emphasis was placed on ratio and proportional reasoning in the middle grades in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM). The expectation for students includes the ability to not only compute and then compare and interpret the results of computations in context but also interpret ratios and proportions as they are…
Working Memory Mechanism in Proportional Quantifier Verification
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zajenkowski, Marcin; Szymanik, Jakub; Garraffa, Maria
2014-01-01
The paper explores the cognitive mechanisms involved in the verification of sentences with proportional quantifiers (e.g. "More than half of the dots are blue"). The first study shows that the verification of proportional sentences is more demanding than the verification of sentences such as: "There are seven blue and eight yellow…
Prospective Elementary School Teachers' Proportional Reasoning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Valverde, Gabriela; Castro, Encarnación
2012-01-01
We present the findings of a study on prospective elementary teachers' proportional reasoning. After describing some of the teachers' performance in solving multiplicative structure problems that involve ratios and relations of direct proportionality between quantities, we were able to establish classifications of their answers according to…
Examining Prospective Teachers' Understanding of Proportional Reasoning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kitchen, Richard; DePree, Julie
2004-01-01
In this article, the authors describe their efforts to assess prospective K-8 teachers' knowledge of proportional reasoning. Based upon their analysis of prospective K-8 teachers' work on a mathematics performance task, they discuss the implications for preparing prospective teachers to teach proportional reasoning to their students. In general,…
Estimating crop proportions from remotely sensed data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Feiveson, A. H. (Principal Investigator)
1979-01-01
The classification/pixel-count method for estimating the proportion of wheat in each segment is theoretically biased even if all distributional assumptions are met. Alternative ways to estimate crop proportions are examined and their performance testing is considered. Topics covered include general linear functional estimates, the method of moments, and maximum likelihood estimators.
Working Memory Mechanism in Proportional Quantifier Verification
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zajenkowski, Marcin; Szymanik, Jakub; Garraffa, Maria
2014-01-01
The paper explores the cognitive mechanisms involved in the verification of sentences with proportional quantifiers (e.g. "More than half of the dots are blue"). The first study shows that the verification of proportional sentences is more demanding than the verification of sentences such as: "There are seven blue and eight yellow…
CCSSM Challenge: Graphing Ratio and Proportion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kastberg, Signe E.; D'Ambrosio, Beatriz S.; Lynch-Davis, Kathleen; Mintos, Alexia; Krawczyk, Kathryn
2013-01-01
A renewed emphasis was placed on ratio and proportional reasoning in the middle grades in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM). The expectation for students includes the ability to not only compute and then compare and interpret the results of computations in context but also interpret ratios and proportions as they are…
Proportional Reasoning and the Visually Impaired
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hilton, Geoff; Hilton, Annette; Dole, Shelley L.; Goos, Merrilyn; O'Brien, Mia
2012-01-01
Proportional reasoning is an important aspect of formal thinking that is acquired during the developmental years that approximate the middle years of schooling. Students who fail to acquire sound proportional reasoning often experience difficulties in subjects that require quantitative thinking, such as science, technology, engineering, and…
Pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorometer
Greenbaum, Elias; Wu, Jie
2015-12-29
Chlorophyll fluorometry may be used for detecting toxins in a sample because of changes in micro algae. A portable lab on a chip ("LOAC") based chlorophyll fluorometer may be used for toxin detection and environmental monitoring. In particular, the system may include a microfluidic pulse amplitude modulated ("PAM") chlorophyll fluorometer. The LOAC PAM chlorophyll fluorometer may analyze microalgae and cyanobacteria that grow naturally in source drinking water.
Genus dependence of superstring amplitudes
Davis, Simon
2006-11-15
The problem of the consistency of the finiteness of the supermoduli space integral in the limit of vanishing super-fixed point distance and the genus-dependence of the integral over the super-Schottky coordinates in the fundamental region containing a neighborhood of |K{sub n}|=0 is resolved. Given a choice of the categories of isometric circles representing the integration region, the exponential form of bounds for superstring amplitudes is derived.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Xiao-Song; He, Guo-Qiu; Liu, Bing; Zhu, Zheng-Yu; Zhang, Wei-Hua
2011-08-01
With the increasing use of Al-Si-Mg alloys in the automotive industry, the fatigue performance of Al-Si-Mg alloy has become a major concern with regard to their reliability. The fatigue characteristics and microcosmic mechanism of an Al-Si-Mg alloy under multiaxial proportional loadings were investigated in this research. As low cycle fatigue life and material strengthening behavior are closely related, the effect of equivalent strain amplitude on the multiaxial fatigue properties was analyzed. Fatigue tests were conducted to determine the influence of equivalent strain amplitude on the multiaxial proportional fatigue properties. The fatigue life exhibits a stable behavior under multiaxial proportional loadings. The dislocation structures of the Al-Si-Mg alloy were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The dislocation structure evolution of the Al-Si-Mg alloy under multiaxial proportional loadings during low cycle fatigue develops step by step by increasing fatigue cycles. Simultaneously, the dislocation structure changes with the change in equivalent strain amplitude under multiaxial proportional loadings. The experimental evidence indicates that the multiaxial fatigue behavior and life are strongly dependent on the microstructure of the material, which is caused by multiaxial proportional loadings.
Numerical Proportion Representation: A Neurocomputational Account.
Chen, Qi; Verguts, Tom
2017-01-01
Proportion representation is an emerging subdomain in numerical cognition. However, its nature and its correlation with simple number representation remain elusive, especially at the theoretical level. To fill this gap, we propose a gain-field model of proportion representation to shed light on the neural and computational basis of proportion representation. The model is based on two well-supported neuroscientific findings. The first, gain modulation, is a general mechanism for information integration in the brain; the second relevant finding is how simple quantity is neurally represented. Based on these principles, the model accounts for recent relevant proportion representation data at both behavioral and neural levels. The model further addresses two key computational problems for the cognitive processing of proportions: invariance and generalization. Finally, the model provides pointers for future empirical testing.
Phase variation of hadronic amplitudes
Dedonder, J.-P.; Gibbs, W. R.; Nuseirat, Mutazz
2008-04-15
The phase variation with angle of hadronic amplitudes is studied with a view to understanding the underlying physical quantities that control it and how well it can be determined in free space. We find that unitarity forces a moderately accurate determination of the phase in standard amplitude analyses but that the nucleon-nucleon analyses done to date do not give the phase variation needed to achieve a good representation of the data in multiple scattering calculations. Models are examined that suggest its behavior near forward angles is related to the radii of the real and absorptive parts of the interaction. The dependence of this phase on model parameters is such that if these radii are modified in the nuclear medium (in combination with the change due to the shift in energy of the effective amplitude in the medium) then the larger magnitudes of the phase needed to fit the data might be attainable but only for negative values of the phase variation parameter.
The Effects of Static Coulomb Stress Change on Southern California Earthquake Forecasting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strader, Anne Elizabeth
I investigate how inclusion of static Coulomb stress changes, caused by tectonic loading and previous seismicity, contributes to the effectiveness and reliability of prospective earthquake forecasts. Several studies have shown that positive static Coulomb stress changes are associated with increased seismicity, relative to stress shadows. However, it is difficult to avoid bias when the learning and testing intervals are chosen retrospectively. I hypothesize that earthquake forecasts based on static Coulomb stress fields may improve upon existing earthquake forecasts based on historical seismicity. Within southern California, I have confirmed the aforementioned relationship between earthquake location and Coulomb stress change, but found no identifiable triggering threshold based on static Coulomb stress history at individual earthquake locations. I have also converted static Coulomb stress changes into spatially-varying earthquake rates by optimizing an index function and calculating probabilities of cells containing at least one earthquake based on Coulomb stress ranges. Inclusion of Coulomb stress effects gives an improvement in earthquake forecasts that is significant with 95% confidence, compared to smoothed seismicity null forecasts. Because of large uncertainties in Coulomb stress calculations near faults (and aftershock distributions), I combine static Coulomb stress and smoothed seismicity into a hybrid earthquake forecast. Evaluating such forecasts against those in which only Coulomb stress or smoothed seismicity determines earthquake rates indicates that Coulomb stress is more effective in the far field, whereas statistical seismology outperforms Coulomb stress near faults. Additionally, I test effects of receiver plane orientation, stress type (normal and shear components), and declustering receiver earthquakes. While static Coulomb stress shows significant potential in a prospective earthquake forecast, simplifying assumptions compromise its
Crisis in Amplitude Control Hides in Multistability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Chunbiao; Sprott, Julien Clinton; Xing, Hongyan
2016-12-01
A crisis of amplitude control can occur when a system is multistable. This paper proposes a new chaotic system with a line of equilibria to demonstrate the threat to amplitude control from multistability. The new symmetric system has two coefficients for amplitude control, one of which is a partial amplitude controller, while the other is a total amplitude controller that simultaneously controls the frequency. The amplitude parameter rescales the basins of attraction and triggers a state switch among different states resulting in a failure of amplitude control to the desired state.
Calculation of multi-loop superstring amplitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danilov, G. S.
2016-12-01
The multi-loop interaction amplitudes in the closed, oriented superstring theory are obtained by the integration of local amplitudes. The local amplitude is represented by a sum over the spinning string local amplitudes. The spinning string local amplitudes are given explicitly through super-Schottky group parameters and through interaction vertex coordinates on the (1| 1) complex, non-split supermanifold. The obtained amplitudes are free from divergences. They are consistent with the world-sheet spinning string symmetries. The vacuum amplitude vanishes along with 1-, 2- and 3-point amplitudes of massless states. The vanishing of the above-mentioned amplitude occurs after the integration of the corresponding local amplitude has been performed over the super-Schottky group limiting points and over interaction vertex coordinate, except for those (3| 2) variables which are fixed due to SL(2)-symmetry.
Coulomb interaction driven instabilities of sliding Luttinger liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sur, Shouvik; Yang, Kun
2017-08-01
We study systems made of periodic arrays of one-dimensional quantum wires coupled by Coulomb interaction. Using bosonization an interacting metallic fixed point is obtained, which is shown to be a higher-dimensional analog of the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid, or a sliding Luttinger liquid. This non-Fermi liquid metallic state, however, is unstable in the presence of weak interwire backscatterings, which favor charge density wave states and suppress pairing. Depending on the effective strength of the Coulomb repulsion and the size of interwire spacing, various charge density wave states are stabilized, including Wigner crystal states. Our method allows for the determination of the specific ordering patterns and corresponding energy and temperature scales.
Stability of Dirac Liquids with Strong Coulomb Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tupitsyn, Igor S.; Prokof'ev, Nikolay V.
2017-01-01
We develop and apply the diagrammatic Monte Carlo technique to address the problem of the stability of the Dirac liquid state (in a graphene-type system) against the strong long-range part of the Coulomb interaction. So far, all attempts to deal with this problem in the field-theoretical framework were limited either to perturbative or random phase approximation and functional renormalization group treatments, with diametrically opposite conclusions. Our calculations aim at the approximation-free solution with controlled accuracy by computing vertex corrections from higher-order skeleton diagrams and establishing the renormalization group flow of the effective Coulomb coupling constant. We unambiguously show that with increasing the system size L (up to ln (L )˜40 ), the coupling constant always flows towards zero; i.e., the two-dimensional Dirac liquid is an asymptotically free T =0 state with divergent Fermi velocity.
Back to epicycles - relativistic Coulomb systems in velocity space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ben-Ya'acov, Uri
2017-05-01
The study of relativistic Coulomb systems in velocity space is prompted by the fact that the study of Newtonian Kepler/Coulomb systems in velocity space, although less familiar than the analytic solutions in ordinary space, provides a much simpler (also more elegant) method. The simplicity and elegance of the velocity-space method derives from the linearity of the velocity equation, which is the unique feature of 1/r interactions for Newtonian and relativistic systems alike. The various types of possible trajectories are presented, their properties deduced from the orbits in velocity space, accompanied with illustrations. In particular, it is found that the orbits traversed in the relativistic velocity space (which is hyperbolic (H 3) rather than Euclidean) are epicyclic - circles whose centres also rotate - thus the title. Dedicated to the memory of J. D. Bekenstein - physicist, teacher and human
Coulomb effects in low-energy nuclear fragmentation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, John W.; Chun, Sang Y.; Badavi, Francis F.; John, Sarah
1993-01-01
Early versions of the Langley nuclear fragmentation code NUCFRAG (and a publicly released version called HZEFRG1) assumed straight-line trajectories throughout the interaction. As a consequence, NUCFRAG and HZEFRG1 give unrealistic cross sections for large mass removal from the projectile and target at low energies. A correction for the distortion of the trajectory by the nuclear Coulomb fields is used to derive fragmentation cross sections. A simple energy-loss term is applied to estimate the energy downshifts that greatly alter the Coulomb trajectory at low energy. The results, which are far more realistic than prior versions of the code, should provide the data base for future transport calculations. The systematic behavior of charge-removal cross sections compares favorably with results from low-energy experiments.
Conductance of a proximitized nanowire in the Coulomb blockade regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Heck, B.; Lutchyn, R. M.; Glazman, L. I.
2016-06-01
We identify the leading processes of electron transport across finite-length segments of proximitized nanowires and build a quantitative theory of their two-terminal conductance. In the presence of spin-orbit interaction, a nanowire can be tuned across the topological transition point by an applied magnetic field. Due to a finite segment length, electron transport is controlled by the Coulomb blockade. Upon increasing of the field, the shape and magnitude of the Coulomb blockade peaks in the linear conductance are defined, respectively, by Andreev reflection, single-electron tunneling, and resonant tunneling through the Majorana modes emerging after the topological transition. Our theory provides the framework for the analysis of experiments with proximitized nanowires [such as reported in S. M. Albrecht et al., Nature (London) 531, 206 (2016), 10.1038/nature17162] and identifies the signatures of the topological transition in the two-terminal conductance.
Structural phase transitions and topological defects in ion Coulomb crystals
Partner, Heather L.; Nigmatullin, Ramil; Burgermeister, Tobias; Keller, Jonas; Pyka, Karsten; Plenio, Martin B.; Retzker, Alex; Zurek, Wojciech Hubert; del Campo, Adolfo; Mehlstaubler, Tanja E.
2014-11-19
We use laser-cooled ion Coulomb crystals in the well-controlled environment of a harmonic radiofrequency ion trap to investigate phase transitions and defect formation. Topological defects in ion Coulomb crystals (kinks) have been recently proposed for studies of nonlinear physics with solitons and as carriers of quantum information. Defects form when a symmetry breaking phase transition is crossed non-adiabatically. For a second order phase transition, the Kibble-Zurek mechanism predicts that the formation of these defects follows a power law scaling in the rate of the transition. We demonstrate a scaling of defect density and describe kink dynamics and stability. We further discuss the implementation of mass defects and electric fields as first steps toward controlled kink preparation and manipulation.
Glassy Dynamics in Geometrically Frustrated Coulomb Liquids without Disorder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahmoudian, Samiyeh; Rademaker, Louk; Ralko, Arnaud; Fratini, Simone; Dobrosavljević, Vladimir
2015-07-01
We show that introducing long-range Coulomb interactions immediately lifts the massive ground state degeneracy induced by geometric frustration for electrons on quarter-filled triangular lattices in the classical limit. Important consequences include the stabilization of a stripe-ordered crystalline (global) ground state, but also the emergence of very many low-lying metastable states with amorphous "stripe-glass" spatial structures. Melting of the stripe order thus leads to a frustrated Coulomb liquid at intermediate temperatures, showing remarkably slow (viscous) dynamics, with very long relaxation times growing in Arrhenius fashion upon cooling, as typical of strong glass formers. On shorter time scales, the system falls out of equilibrium and displays the aging phenomena characteristic of supercooled liquids above the glass transition. Our results show remarkable similarity with the recent observations of charge-glass behavior in ultraclean triangular organic materials of the θ -(BEDT -TTF )2 family.
Glassy Dynamics in Geometrically Frustrated Coulomb Liquids without Disorder.
Mahmoudian, Samiyeh; Rademaker, Louk; Ralko, Arnaud; Fratini, Simone; Dobrosavljević, Vladimir
2015-07-10
We show that introducing long-range Coulomb interactions immediately lifts the massive ground state degeneracy induced by geometric frustration for electrons on quarter-filled triangular lattices in the classical limit. Important consequences include the stabilization of a stripe-ordered crystalline (global) ground state, but also the emergence of very many low-lying metastable states with amorphous "stripe-glass" spatial structures. Melting of the stripe order thus leads to a frustrated Coulomb liquid at intermediate temperatures, showing remarkably slow (viscous) dynamics, with very long relaxation times growing in Arrhenius fashion upon cooling, as typical of strong glass formers. On shorter time scales, the system falls out of equilibrium and displays the aging phenomena characteristic of supercooled liquids above the glass transition. Our results show remarkable similarity with the recent observations of charge-glass behavior in ultraclean triangular organic materials of the θ-(BEDT-TTF)(2) family.
Orbital ice: An exact Coulomb phase on the diamond lattice
Chern Giawei; Wu Congjun
2011-12-15
We demonstrate the existence of an orbital Coulomb phase as the exact ground state of a p-orbital exchange Hamiltonian on the diamond lattice. The Coulomb phase is an emergent state characterized by algebraic dipolar correlations and a gauge structure resulting from local constraints (ice rules) of the underlying lattice models. For most ice models on the pyrochlore lattice, these local constraints are a direct consequence of minimizing the energy of each individual tetrahedron. On the contrary, the orbital ice rules are emergent phenomena resulting from the quantum orbital dynamics. We show that the orbital ice model exhibits an emergent geometrical frustration by mapping the degenerate quantum orbital ground states to the spin-ice states obeying the 2-in-2-out constraints on the pyrochlore lattice. We also discuss possible realization of the orbital ice model in optical lattices with p-band fermionic cold atoms.
Low-energy Coulomb excitation of Sr,9896 beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clément, E.; Zielińska, M.; Péru, S.; Goutte, H.; Hilaire, S.; Görgen, A.; Korten, W.; Doherty, D. T.; Bastin, B.; Bauer, C.; Blazhev, A.; Bree, N.; Bruyneel, B.; Butler, P. A.; Butterworth, J.; Cederkäll, J.; Delahaye, P.; Dijon, A.; Ekström, A.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fransen, C.; Georgiev, G.; Gernhäuser, R.; Hess, H.; Iwanicki, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Larsen, A. C.; Ljungvall, J.; Lutter, R.; Marley, P.; Moschner, K.; Napiorkowski, P. J.; Pakarinen, J.; Petts, A.; Reiter, P.; Renstrøm, T.; Seidlitz, M.; Siebeck, B.; Siem, S.; Sotty, C.; Srebrny, J.; Stefanescu, I.; Tveten, G. M.; Van de Walle, J.; Vermeulen, M.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.; Wiens, A.; De Witte, H.; Wrzosek-Lipska, K.
2016-11-01
The structure of neutron-rich Sr,9896 nuclei was investigated by low-energy safe Coulomb excitation of radioactive beams at the REX-ISOLDE facility, CERN, with the MINIBALL spectrometer. A rich set of transitional and diagonal E 2 matrix elements, including those for non-yrast structures, has been extracted from the differential Coulomb-excitation cross sections. The results support the scenario of a shape transition at N =60 , giving rise to the coexistence of a highly deformed prolate and a spherical configuration in 98Sr, and are compared to predictions from several theoretical calculations. The experimental data suggest a significant contribution of the triaxal degree of freedom in the ground state of both isotopes. In addition, experimental information on low-lying states in 98Rb has been obtained.
Coulomb excitation of C{sub 60} molecules
Esbensen, H.; Berry, H.G.; Cheng, S.
1995-08-01
The ionization and dissociation of C{sub 60} molecules in the Coulomb field from fast, highly-charged xenon ions was measured recently at ATLAS. The Coulomb excitation was modeled as a coherent excitation of the giant plasmon resonance. Guided by photo-absorption measurements, single-plasmon excitations were identified with the production of single-charged C{sub 60}{sup +} molecular ions. The calculated cross sections do indeed reproduce the beam energy-dependence of the measured C{sub 60}{sup +} yield. The calculations show that single-plasmon excitations are responsible for about half of the total reaction cross section. The other half, i.e., multiplasmon excitations, leads to multiple ionization and dissociation of the molecule.
Elastic scattering of Beryllium isotopes near the Coulomb barrier
Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Amorini, F.; Fisichella, M.; Lattuada, M.; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Randisi, G.; Rizzo, F.; Santonocito, D.; Scalia, G.; Scuderi, V.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D.; Papa, M.; Acosta, L.; Martel, I.; Perez-Bernal, F.; Borge, M. J. G.; Tengblad, O.
2011-10-28
In this contribution, results of experiments performed with the three Beryllium isotopes {sup 9,10,11}Be on a medium mass {sup 64}Zn target, at a center of mass energy of {approx_equal}1.4 the Coulomb barrier, will be discussed. Elastic scattering angular distributions have been measured for the {sup 9,10}Be reactions. In the {sup 11}Be case the quasielastic scattering angular distribution was obtained. In the halo nucleus case, the angular distribution exhibit a non-Fresnel-type pattern with a strong damping of the Coulomb-nuclear interference peak. Moreover, it is found that the total reaction cross-section for the halo nucleus induced collision is more than double the ones extracted in the collisions induced by the non-halo Beryllium isotopes. A large contribution to the total-reaction cross-section in the {sup 11}Be case could be attributed to transfer and/or break-up events.
Role of the Permanent Dipole Moment in Coulomb Explosion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Cai-Ping; Miao, Xiang-Yang
2013-10-01
By numerically solving the non-Born—Oppenheimer time-dependent Schrödinger equation in a few-cycle chirped laser field (5-fs, 800-nm), the effect of the permanent dipole moment on the Coulomb explosion is studied by the kinetic-energy-release spectra with the “virtual detector" method. The results indicate that with the effect of the permanent dipole moment, different multiphoton processes for heteronuclear and homonuclear diatomic molecular ions may take place when the wave packets transit from the ground state (1sσg) to the first excited state (2pσu), and then move along the excited potential curve, and finally charge-resonant enhanced ionization occurs at critical internuclear distance. As a result, despite the similar ionization probabilities for these two systems at higher vibrational level with larger chirp parameter β, the structure of the Coulomb explosion spectrum for the former is prominently different from that for the latter.
Coulomb and electron-phonon interactions in metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tupitsyn, Igor S.; Mishchenko, Andrey S.; Nagaosa, Naoto; Prokof'ev, Nikolay
2016-10-01
An accurate and consistent theory of phonons in metals requires that all long-range Coulomb interactions between charged particles (electrons and ions) be treated on equal footing. So far, all attempts to deal with this nonperturbative system were relying on uncontrolled approximations in the absence of small parameters. In this paper, we develop the diagrammatic Monte Carlo approach for a two-component Coulomb system that obtains the solution to this fundamental problem in an approximation-free way by computing vertex corrections from higher-order skeleton graphs. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated by calculating the spectrum of longitudinal acoustic phonons in a simple cubic lattice, determining their sound velocity, and obtaining the phonon spectral densities by analytic continuation of the Matsubara-Green's functions. Final results are checked against the lowest-order fully self-consistent G W approximation in both adiabatic and nonadiabatic regimes.
Coulomb artifacts and bottomonium hyperfine splitting in lattice NRQCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, T.; Penin, A. A.; Rayyan, A.
2017-02-01
We study the role of the lattice artifacts associated with the Coulomb binding effects in the analysis of the heavy quarkonium within lattice NRQCD. We find that a "na¨ıve" perturbative matching generates spurious linear Coulomb artifacts, which result in a large systematic error in the lattice predictions for the heavy quarkonium spectrum. This effect is responsible, in particular, for the discrepancy between the recent determinations of the bottomonium hyperfine splitting in the radiatively improved lattice NRQCD [1, 2]. We show that the correct matching procedure which provides full control over discretization errors is based on the asymptotic expansion of the lattice theory about the continuum limit, which gives M Y(1 S) - M ηb (1 S) = 52.9 ± 5.5 MeV [1].
Is the ground state of Yang-Mills theory Coulombic?
Heinzl, T.; Ilderton, A.; Langfeld, K.; Lavelle, M.; McMullan, D.; Lutz, W.
2008-08-01
We study trial states modelling the heavy quark-antiquark ground state in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. A state describing the flux tube between quarks as a thin string of glue is found to be a poor description of the continuum ground state; the infinitesimal thickness of the string leads to UV artifacts which suppress the overlap with the ground state. Contrastingly, a state which surrounds the quarks with non-Abelian Coulomb fields is found to have a good overlap with the ground state for all charge separations. In fact, the overlap increases as the lattice regulator is removed. This opens up the possibility that the Coulomb state is the true ground state in the continuum limit.
Electronic cooling via interlayer Coulomb coupling in multilayer epitaxial graphene.
Mihnev, Momchil T; Tolsma, John R; Divin, Charles J; Sun, Dong; Asgari, Reza; Polini, Marco; Berger, Claire; de Heer, Walt A; MacDonald, Allan H; Norris, Theodore B
2015-09-24
In van der Waals bonded or rotationally disordered multilayer stacks of two-dimensional (2D) materials, the electronic states remain tightly confined within individual 2D layers. As a result, electron-phonon interactions occur primarily within layers and interlayer electrical conductivities are low. In addition, strong covalent in-plane intralayer bonding combined with weak van der Waals interlayer bonding results in weak phonon-mediated thermal coupling between the layers. We demonstrate here, however, that Coulomb interactions between electrons in different layers of multilayer epitaxial graphene provide an important mechanism for interlayer thermal transport, even though all electronic states are strongly confined within individual 2D layers. This effect is manifested in the relaxation dynamics of hot carriers in ultrafast time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. We develop a theory of interlayer Coulomb coupling containing no free parameters that accounts for the experimentally observed trends in hot-carrier dynamics as temperature and the number of layers is varied.
Electronic cooling via interlayer Coulomb coupling in multilayer epitaxial graphene
Mihnev, Momchil T.; Tolsma, John R.; Divin, Charles J.; Sun, Dong; Asgari, Reza; Polini, Marco; Berger, Claire; de Heer, Walt A.; MacDonald, Allan H.; Norris, Theodore B.
2015-01-01
In van der Waals bonded or rotationally disordered multilayer stacks of two-dimensional (2D) materials, the electronic states remain tightly confined within individual 2D layers. As a result, electron–phonon interactions occur primarily within layers and interlayer electrical conductivities are low. In addition, strong covalent in-plane intralayer bonding combined with weak van der Waals interlayer bonding results in weak phonon-mediated thermal coupling between the layers. We demonstrate here, however, that Coulomb interactions between electrons in different layers of multilayer epitaxial graphene provide an important mechanism for interlayer thermal transport, even though all electronic states are strongly confined within individual 2D layers. This effect is manifested in the relaxation dynamics of hot carriers in ultrafast time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. We develop a theory of interlayer Coulomb coupling containing no free parameters that accounts for the experimentally observed trends in hot-carrier dynamics as temperature and the number of layers is varied. PMID:26399955
Relativistic effects in heavy-ion Coulomb scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Ravinder; Bertulani, C. A.; Robinson, G.
2017-09-01
The role of relativistic corrections in heavy-ion Coulomb scattering at intermediate energies (Elab≳50 MeV/nucleon) is investigated by numerically solving a full set of coupled equations. We compare two methods: (a) one involving an exact account of interaction retardation and (b) a method based on the expansion of effective Lagrangians in powers of the ion velocities, v /c . Our study makes it possible to infer the relevance of kinematic corrections, retardation, and magnetic interactions such as the Darwin force. We show that analytical formulas are able to describe all aspects of experimental interest in relativistic effects in heavy-ion Coulomb scattering at intermediate energies without having to solve numerically the coupled equations.
Proton focusing driven by laser triggered Coulomb explosion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, W. Q.; Yin, Y.; Zou, D. B.; Yu, T. P.; Ge, Z. Y.; Xu, H.; Zhuo, H. B.; Shao, F. Q.
2017-03-01
A mechanism of the acceleration and focusing of quasi-monoenergetic proton beams from a thin arched carbon-hydrogen target irradiated by a relativistic-intensity laser pulse is investigated by multi-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. As an intense linearly polarized laser pulse impinges on the thin target, a considerable number of electrons are evacuated, leading to Coulomb explosion in the excess positive charges left behind. Accompanying with the acceleration, the protons are focused ballistically in the Coulomb field, which is mainly contributed by the carbon ions. It is demonstrated that a quasi-monoenergetic proton bunch with the energy-density as high as 1017 J/m3 is produced by using a laser pulse with the intensity of 1021 W/cm2. An analytical model is proposed to predict the proton energy and the focal position, which is fairly consistent with PIC simulations.
Coulomb branch Hilbert series and three dimensional Sicilian theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cremonesi, Stefano; Hanany, Amihay; Mekareeya, Noppadol; Zaffaroni, Alberto
2014-09-01
We evaluate the Coulomb branch Hilbert series of mirrors of three dimensional Sicilian theories, which arise from compactifying the 6 d (2 , 0) theory with symmetry G on a circle times a Riemann surface with punctures. We obtain our result by gluing together the Hilbert series for building blocks T ρ ( G), where ρ is a certain partition related to the dual group of G, which we evaluated in a previous paper. The result is expressed in terms of a class of symmetric functions, the Hall-Littlewood polynomials. As expected from mirror symmetry, our results agree at genus zero with the superconformal index prediction for the Higgs branch Hilbert series of the Sicilian theories and extend it to higher genus. In the A 1 case at genus zero, we also evaluate the Coulomb branch Hilbert series of the Sicilian theory itself, showing that it only depends on the number of external legs.
Quantum solution for the one-dimensional Coulomb problem
Nunez-Yepez, H. N.; Salas-Brito, A. L.; Solis, Didier A.
2011-06-15
The one-dimensional hydrogen atom has been a much studied system with a wide range of applications. Since the pioneering work of Loudon [R. Loudon, Am. J. Phys. 27, 649 (1959).], a number of different features related to the nature of the eigenfunctions have been found. However, many of the claims made throughout the years in this regard are not correct--such as the existence of only odd eigenstates or of an infinite binding-energy ground state. We explicitly show that the one-dimensional hydrogen atom does not admit a ground state of infinite binding energy and that the one-dimensional Coulomb potential is not its own supersymmetric partner. Furthermore, we argue that at the root of many such false claims lies the omission of a superselection rule that effectively separates the right side from the left side of the singularity of the Coulomb potential.
A likelihood ratio test for nested proportions.
Chen, Yi-Fan; Yabes, Jonathan G; Brooks, Maria M; Singh, Sonia; Weissfeld, Lisa A
2015-02-10
For policy and medical issues, it is important to know if the proportion of an event changes after an intervention is administered. When the later proportion can only be calculated in a portion of the sample used to compute the previous proportion, the two proportions are nested. The motivating example for this work comes from the need to test whether admission rates in emergency departments are different between the first and a return visit. Here, subjects who contribute to the admission rate at the return visit must be included in the first rate and also return, but not vice versa. This conditionality means that existing methods, including the basic test of equality of two proportions, longitudinal data analysis methods, and recurrent event approaches are not directly applicable. Currently, researchers can only explore this question by the use of descriptive statistics. We propose a likelihood ratio test to compare two nested proportions by using the product of conditional probabilities. This test accommodates the conditionality, subject dependencies, and cluster effects and can be implemented in SAS PROC NLMIXED allowing for the proposed method to be readily used in an applied setting. Simulation studies showed that our approach provides unbiased estimates and reasonable power. Moreover, it generally outperforms the two-sample proportion z-test, in the presence of heterogeneity, and the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test. An example based on readmission rates through an emergency department is used to illustrate the proposed method. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Culham, Doreen E.; Shkel, Irina A.; Record, M. Thomas; Wood, Janet M.
2016-01-01
Osmosensing transporters mediate osmolyte accumulation to forestall cellular dehydration as the extracellular osmolality increases. ProP is a bacterial osmolyte-H+ symporter, a major facilitator superfamily member, and a paradigm for osmosensing. ProP activity is a sigmoid function of the osmolality. It is determined by the osmolality, not the magnitude or direction of the osmotic shift, in cells and salt-loaded proteoliposomes. The activation threshold varies directly with the proportion of anionic phospholipid in cells and proteoliposomes. The osmosensory mechanism was probed by varying the salt composition and concentration outside and inside proteoliposomes. Data analysis was based on the hypothesis that the fraction of maximal transporter activity at a particular luminal salt concentration reflects the proportion of ProP molecules in an active conformation. ProP attained the same activity at the same osmolality when diverse, membrane-impermeant salts were added to the external medium. Contributions of Coulombic and/or Hofmeister salt effects to ProP activation were examined by varying the luminal salt cation (K+ and Na+) and anion (chloride, phosphate, and sulfate) composition and then systematically increasing the luminal salt concentration by increasing the external osmolality. ProP activity increased with the sixth power of the univalent cation concentration, independent of the type of anion. This indicates that salt activation of ProP is a Coulombic, cation effect resulting from salt cation accumulation and not site-specific cation binding. Possible origins of this Coulombic effect include folding or assembly of anionic cytoplasmic ProP domains, an increase in local membrane surface charge density, and/or the juxtaposition of anionic protein and membrane surfaces during activation. PMID:26871755
Culham, Doreen E; Shkel, Irina A; Record, M Thomas; Wood, Janet M
2016-03-08
Osmosensing transporters mediate osmolyte accumulation to forestall cellular dehydration as the extracellular osmolality increases. ProP is a bacterial osmolyte-H(+) symporter, a major facilitator superfamily member, and a paradigm for osmosensing. ProP activity is a sigmoid function of the osmolality. It is determined by the osmolality, not the magnitude or direction of the osmotic shift, in cells and salt-loaded proteoliposomes. The activation threshold varies directly with the proportion of anionic phospholipid in cells and proteoliposomes. The osmosensory mechanism was probed by varying the salt composition and concentration outside and inside proteoliposomes. Data analysis was based on the hypothesis that the fraction of maximal transporter activity at a particular luminal salt concentration reflects the proportion of ProP molecules in an active conformation. ProP attained the same activity at the same osmolality when diverse, membrane-impermeant salts were added to the external medium. Contributions of Coulombic and/or Hofmeister salt effects to ProP activation were examined by varying the luminal salt cation (K(+) and Na(+)) and anion (chloride, phosphate, and sulfate) composition and then systematically increasing the luminal salt concentration by increasing the external osmolality. ProP activity increased with the sixth power of the univalent cation concentration, independent of the type of anion. This indicates that salt activation of ProP is a Coulombic, cation effect resulting from salt cation accumulation and not site-specific cation binding. Possible origins of this Coulombic effect include folding or assembly of anionic cytoplasmic ProP domains, an increase in local membrane surface charge density, and/or the juxtaposition of anionic protein and membrane surfaces during activation.
Coulomb-Gauge Gluon Propagator and the Gribov Formula
Burgio, G.; Quandt, M.; Reinhardt, H.
2009-01-23
We analyze the lattice SU(2) Yang-Mills theory in the Coulomb gauge. We show that the static gluon propagator is multiplicative renormalizable and takes the simple form D(|p-vector|){sup -1}={radical}(|p-vector|{sup 2}+M{sup 4}/|p-vector|{sup 2}), proposed by Gribov through heuristic arguments many years ago. We find M=0.88(1) GeV{approx_equal}2{radical}({sigma})
Stability characterizations of fixtured rigid bodies with Coulomb friction
PANG,J.S.; TRINKLE,JEFFREY C.
2000-02-15
This paper formally introduces several stability characterizations of fixtured three-dimensional rigid bodies initially at rest and in unilateral contact with Coulomb friction. These characterizations, weak stability and strong stability, arise naturally from the dynamic model of the system, formulated as a complementarity problem. Using the tools of complementarity theory, these characterizations are studied in detail to understand their properties and to develop techniques to identify the stability classifications of general systems subjected to known external loads.
On the Nonlocality of the Coulomb Gauge External Field Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hraskó, Péter
The apparent nonlocality of the Coulomb gauge external field problem in electrodynamics is illustrated with an example in which nonlocality is especially striking. Explanation of this apparent nonlocal behaviour based on a purely local picture is given. A gauge invariant decomposition of the Lorentz-force into two terms with clear physical meanings is pointed out. Based on this decomposition derivation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in terms of field strengths alone is given.
On the nonlocality of the Coulomb gauge external field problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hraskó, Péter
2016-10-01
The apparent nonlocality of the Coulomb gauge external field problem in electrodynamics is illustrated with an example in which nonlocality is especially striking. Explanation of this apparent nonlocal behaviour based on a purely local picture is given. A gauge invariant decomposition of the Lorentz-force into two terms with clear physical meanings is pointed out. Based on this decomposition derivation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in terms of field strengths alone is given.
Observation of macroscopic quantum tunneling through the Coulomb energy barrier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geerligs, L. J.; Averin, D. V.; Mooij, J. E.
1990-12-01
The conductance of linear arrays of two and three normal-metal small tunnel junctions is studied for bias voltages V below the Coloumb-blockade threshold. At low temperature, we find evidence for macroscopic quantum tunneling of the electric charge (q-MQT) through the Coulomb energy barrier. For double junctions the tunneling rate scales as V3, and approximately as the product of the junction conductances, as predicted by the theory of inelastic q-MQT.
Quantum magnetotransport in two-dimensional Coulomb liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monarkha, Yu. P.; Teske, E.; Wyder, P.
2002-11-01
In this article we review recent progress in understanding of many-electron effects on the quantum magnetotransport in two-dimensional (2D) Coulomb liquids in which the interaction potential energy per electron can be approximately a hundred times larger than the mean kinetic energy. The conventional Fermi-liquid approach based on the introduction of weakly interacting excitations being not applicable, it is remarkable that a quantitative theoretical description of the equilibrium and transport properties of the 2D Coulomb liquid appears to be possible. An account of basic properties of the strongly interacting 2D electron system under magnetic field realized on a free surface of liquid helium is given. Due to the high magnetic field applied perpendicular to the system, the electron liquid constituted of strongly interacting electrons can be described as a collection of statistically independent electrons, each of them having the discrete Landau spectrum in a local reference frame moving ultra-fast with regard to the center-of-mass frame of the entire electron liquid. We found it surprising that the narrowing of Landau levels induced by Coulomb forces in local frames is accompanied by a strong Coulomb broadening of the electron dynamical structure factor (DSF) in the laboratory reference frame. We discuss in detail the magnetotransport theories in two-dimensions, especially the force-balance equation method and the memory function formalism which allow to reduce the electron transport problem to the description of the equilibrium electron DSF. We show that the whole body of the DC magnetoconductivity and cyclotron resonance absorption data measured and reported within the last two decades (even previously conflicting with theory) can be very well described by means of a simple model for the electron DSF entering the imaginary part of the memory function or the effective collision frequency of the electrons.
Coulomb excitations for a short linear chain of metallic shells
Zhemchuzhna, Liubov; Gumbs, Godfrey; Iurov, Andrii; Huang, Danhong; Gao, Bo
2015-03-15
A self-consistent-field theory is given for the electronic collective modes of a chain containing a finite number, N, of Coulomb-coupled spherical two-dimensional electron gases arranged with their centers along a straight line, for simulating electromagnetic response of a narrow-ribbon of metallic shells. The separation between nearest-neighbor shells is arbitrary and because of the quantization of the electron energy levels due to their confinement to the spherical surface, all angular momenta L of the Coulomb excitations, as well as their projections M on the quantization axis, are coupled. However, for incoming light with a given polarization, only one angular momentum quantum number is usually required. Therefore, the electromagnetic response of the narrow-ribbon of metallic shells is expected to be controlled externally by selecting different polarizations for incident light. We show that, when N = 3, the next-nearest-neighbor Coulomb coupling is larger than its value if they are located at opposite ends of a right-angle triangle forming the triad. Additionally, the frequencies of the plasma excitations are found to depend on the orientation of the line joining them with respect to the axis of quantization since the magnetic field generated from the induced oscillating electric dipole moment on one sphere can couple to the induced magnetic dipole moment on another. Although the transverse inter-shell electromagnetic coupling can be modeled by an effective dynamic medium, the longitudinal inter-shell Coulomb coupling, on the other hand, can still significantly modify the electromagnetic property of this effective medium between shells.
Coulomb crystallization of sympathetically cooled highly charged ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crespo López-Urrutia, José R.
2015-05-01
Wave functions of inner-shell electrons significantly overlap with the nucleus, whereby enormously magnified relativistic, quantum electrodynamic (QED) and nuclear size effects emerge. In highly charged ions (HCI), the relative reduction of electronic correlations contributions improves the visibility of these effects. This well known facts have driven research efforts with HCI, yet the typically high temperatures at which these can be prepared in the laboratory constitutes a serious hindrance for application of laser spectroscopic methods. The solution for this, cooling HCI down to crystallization has remained an elusive target for more than two decades. By applying laser cooling to an ensemble of Be+ ions, we build Coulomb crystals that we use for stopping the motion of HCI and for cooling them. HCI, in this case Ar13+ ions are extracted from an electron beam ion trap with an energy spread of a few 100's of eV, due to the ion temperature within the trap. Carefully timed electric pulses in a potential-gradient decelerate and bunch the HCI. We achieve Coulomb crystallization of these HCI by re-trapping them in a cryogenic linear radiofrequency trap where they are sympathetically cooled through Coulomb interaction with the directly laser-cooled ensemble. Furthermore, we also demonstrate cooling of a single Ar13+ ion by a single Be+ ion, prerequisite for quantum logic spectroscopy with potentially 10-19 relative accuracy. The strongly suppressed thermal motion of the embedded HCI offers novel possibilities for investigation of questions related to the time variation of fundamental constants, parity non-conservation effects, Lorentz invariance and quantum electrodynamics. Achieving a seven orders-of-magnitude decrease in HCI temperature, from the starting point at MK values in the ion source down to the mK range within the Coulomb crystal eliminates the major obstacle for HCI investigation with high precision laser spectroscopy and quantum computation schemes.
Proportion of recovered waterfowl bands reported
Geis, A.D.; Atwood, E.L.
1961-01-01
Data from the annual mail survey of waterfowl hunters in the United States were used to estimate the total numbers of banded waterfowl that were shot. These estimates were compared with Banding Office records to estimate the proportion of recovered bands that was reported. On the average, about two banded birds were recovered for each one reported. The proportion reported was higher for some areas and for some species than for others. The proportion reported was higher when more of the reports came through employees of conservation agencies.
Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Cherubini, S.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Mudo, F.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Elekes, Z.; Fueloep, Z.; Gyuerky, G.; Kiss, G.; Somorjai, E.
2007-06-22
Off-energy-shell effects in p-p scattering have been investigated at p-p relative energies from 600 down to 80 keV applying the Trojan horse method (THM) to the p+d{yields}p+p+n reaction at 5 MeV. In contrast with the on-energy-shell case, no Coulomb-nuclear interference minimum has been found in the extracted THM p-p cross section, due to the suppression of the Coulomb amplitude as predicted by the half-off-energy shell calculations. This hypothesis is strengthened by the agreement between THM p-p data and calculated on-energy-shell n+n, n+p and nuclear p+p cross sections.
Implosive Interatomic Coulombic decay in the simplest molecular anion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greene, Chris H.; Perez-Rios, Jesus; Slipchenko, Lyudmila
2016-05-01
Interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) has been extensively studied in different systems: from diatomic systems such as He2 up to more complex chemical systems with interest in biochemistry. Independently of the size and complexity of the system, the ICD process proposed involves the emission of an electron through exchange of a virtual photon. The present theoretical study investigates the ICD process in the helium hydride anion, which involves two final product states that can be produced through a Coulomb implosion following high energy ejection of a He 1s electron accompanied by excitation to He+(n = 2) . One of the subsequent decay channels is associated with the usual emission of a single electron, to produce a stable molecule: HeH+, which can compete with the usual dissociated final state of the system. The second channel involves the emission of two electrons, leading to the usual Coulomb explosion of the final product ions He+(1 s) + H + . In addition, the process of formation of the helium hydride anion is analyzed in terms of the existing technology of ionic molecular beams and buffer gas cooling techniques. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-1306905.
Dynamical Coulomb blockade of tunnel junctions driven by alternating voltages
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grabert, Hermann
2015-12-01
The theory of the dynamical Coulomb blockade is extended to tunneling elements driven by a time-dependent voltage. It is shown that, for standard setups where an external voltage is applied to a tunnel junction via an impedance, time-dependent driving entails an excitation of the modes of the electromagnetic environment by the applied voltage. Previous approaches for ac driven circuits need to be extended to account for the driven bath modes. A unitary transformation involving also the variables of the electromagnetic environment is introduced which allows us to split off the time dependence from the Hamiltonian in the absence of tunneling. This greatly simplifies perturbation-theoretical calculations based on treating the tunneling Hamiltonian as a perturbation. In particular, the average current flowing in the leads of the tunnel junction is studied. Explicit results are given for the case of an applied voltage with a constant dc part and a sinusoidal ac part. The connection with standard dynamical Coulomb blockade theory for constant applied voltage is established. It is shown that an alternating voltage source reveals significant additional effects caused by the electromagnetic environment. The hallmark of the dynamical Coulomb blockade in ac driven devices is a suppression of higher harmonics of the current by the electromagnetic environment. The theory presented basically applies to all tunneling devices driven by alternating voltages.
Accurate Coulomb-fitting basis sets for H to Rn.
Weigend, Florian
2006-03-07
A series of auxiliary basis sets to fit Coulomb potentials for the elements H to Rn (except lanthanides) is presented. For each element only one auxiliary basis set is needed to approximate Coulomb energies in conjunction with orbital basis sets of split valence, triple zeta valence and quadruple zeta valence quality with errors of typically below ca. 0.15 kJ mol(-1) per atom; this was demonstrated in conjunction with the recently developed orbital basis sets of types def2-SV(P), def2-TZVP and def2-QZVPP for a large set of small molecules representing (nearly) each element in all of its common oxidation states. These auxiliary bases are slightly more than three times larger than orbital bases of split valence quality. Compared to non-approximated treatments, computation times for the Coulomb part are reduced by a factor of ca. 8 for def2-SV(P) orbital bases, ca. 25 for def2-TZVP and ca. 100 for def2-QZVPP orbital bases.
Electron interactions in graphene through an effective Coulomb potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodrigues, Joao N. B.; Adam, Shaffique
A recent numerical work [H.-K. Tang et al, PRL 115, 186602 (2015)] considering graphene's π-electrons interacting through an effective Coulomb potential that is finite at short-distances, stressed the importance of the sp2 -electrons in determining the semimetal to Mott insulator phase transition in graphene. Some years ago, I. F. Herbut [PRL 97, 146401 (2006)] studied such a transition by mapping graphene's π-electrons into a Gross-Neveu model. From a different perspective, D. T. Son [PRB 75, 235423 (2007)] put the emphasis on the long-range interactions by modelling graphene as Dirac fermions interacting through a bare Coulomb potential. Here we build on these works and explore the phase diagram of Dirac fermions interacting through an effective Coulomb-like potential screened at short-distances. The interaction potential used allows for analytic results that controllably switch between the two perspectives above. This work was supported by the Singapore National Research Foundation (NRF-NRFF2012-01 and CA2DM medium-sized centre program) and by the Singapore Ministry of Education and Yale-NUS College (R-607-265-01312).
Relativistic and Nuclear Medium Effects on the Coulomb Sum Rule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cloët, Ian C.; Bentz, Wolfgang; Thomas, Anthony W.
2016-01-01
In light of the forthcoming high precision quasielastic electron scattering data from Jefferson Lab, it is timely for the various approaches to nuclear structure to make robust predictions for the associated response functions. With this in mind, we focus here on the longitudinal response function and the corresponding Coulomb sum rule for isospin-symmetric nuclear matter at various baryon densities. Using a quantum field-theoretic quark-level approach which preserves the symmetries of quantum chromodynamics, as well as exhibiting dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and quark confinement, we find a dramatic quenching of the Coulomb sum rule for momentum transfers |q |≳0.5 GeV . The main driver of this effect lies in changes to the proton Dirac form factor induced by the nuclear medium. Such a dramatic quenching of the Coulomb sum rule was not seen in a recent quantum Monte Carlo calculation for carbon, suggesting that the Jefferson Lab data may well shed new light on the explicit role of QCD in nuclei.
Relativistic and Nuclear Medium Effects on the Coulomb Sum Rule.
Cloët, Ian C; Bentz, Wolfgang; Thomas, Anthony W
2016-01-22
In light of the forthcoming high precision quasielastic electron scattering data from Jefferson Lab, it is timely for the various approaches to nuclear structure to make robust predictions for the associated response functions. With this in mind, we focus here on the longitudinal response function and the corresponding Coulomb sum rule for isospin-symmetric nuclear matter at various baryon densities. Using a quantum field-theoretic quark-level approach which preserves the symmetries of quantum chromodynamics, as well as exhibiting dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and quark confinement, we find a dramatic quenching of the Coulomb sum rule for momentum transfers |q|≳0.5 GeV. The main driver of this effect lies in changes to the proton Dirac form factor induced by the nuclear medium. Such a dramatic quenching of the Coulomb sum rule was not seen in a recent quantum Monte Carlo calculation for carbon, suggesting that the Jefferson Lab data may well shed new light on the explicit role of QCD in nuclei.
Quasi-exactly solvable relativistic soft-core Coulomb models
Agboola, Davids Zhang, Yao-Zhong
2012-09-15
By considering a unified treatment, we present quasi exact polynomial solutions to both the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations with the family of soft-core Coulomb potentials V{sub q}(r)=-Z/(r{sup q}+{beta}{sup q}){sup 1/q}, Z>0, {beta}>0, q{>=}1. We consider cases q=1 and q=2 and show that both cases are reducible to the same basic ordinary differential equation. A systematic and closed form solution to the basic equation is obtained using the Bethe ansatz method. For each case, the expressions for the energies and the allowed parameters are obtained analytically and the wavefunctions are derived in terms of the roots of a set of Bethe ansatz equations. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The relativistic bound-state solutions of the soft-core Coulomb models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quasi-exact treatments of the Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations for the soft-core Coulomb models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solutions obtained in terms of the roots to the Bethe ansatz equations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hidden Lie algebraic structure discussed for the models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results useful in describing mesonic atoms and interaction of intense laser fields with atom.
Can Coulomb repulsion for charged particle beams be overcome?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Retsky, Michael W.
2004-01-01
Mutual repulsion of discrete charged particles or Coulomb repulsion is widely considered to be an ultimate hard limit in charged particle optics. It prevents the ability to finely focus high current beams into a small spots at large distances from the defining apertures. A classic example is the 1970s era "Star Wars" study of an electron beam directed energy weapon as an orbiting antiballistic missile device. After much analysis, it was considered physically impossible to focus a 1000-amp 1-GeV beam into a 1-cm diameter spot 1000-km from the beam generator. The main reason was that a 1-cm diameter beam would spread to 5-m diameter at 1000-km due to Coulomb repulsion. Since this could not be overcome, the idea was abandoned. But is this true? What if the rays were reversed? That is, start with a 5-m beam converging slightly with the same nonuniform angular and energy distribution as the electrons from the original problem were spreading at 1000-km distance. Could Coulomb repulsion be overcome? Looking at the terms in computational studies, some are reversible while others are not. Since the nonreversible terms should be small, it might be possible to construct an electron beam directed energy weapon.
Coulomb crystal mass spectrometry in a digital ion trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deb, Nabanita; Pollum, Laura L.; Smith, Alexander D.; Keller, Matthias; Rennick, Christopher J.; Heazlewood, Brianna R.; Softley, Timothy P.
2015-03-01
We present a mass spectrometric technique for identifying the masses and relative abundances of Coulomb-crystallized ions held in a linear Paul trap. A digital radio-frequency wave form is employed to generate the trapping potential, as this can be cleanly switched off, and static dipolar fields are subsequently applied to the trap electrodes for ion ejection. Close to 100% detection efficiency is demonstrated for Ca+ and CaF+ ions from bicomponent Ca+-CaF+ Coulomb crystals prepared by the reaction of Ca+ with CH3F . A quantitative linear relationship is observed between ion number and the corresponding integrated time-of-flight (TOF) peak, independent of the ionic species. The technique is applicable to a diverse range of multicomponent Coulomb crystals—demonstrated here for Ca+-NH 3+ -NH 4+ and Ca+-CaOH +-CaOD + crystals—and will facilitate the measurement of ion-molecule reaction rates and branching ratios in complicated reaction systems.
Ionization in an intense field considering Coulomb correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jian; Huo, Yi-Ning; Tang, Zeng-Hua; Ma, Feng-Cai
2017-01-01
We derive a simple ionization rate formula for the ground state of a hydrogen atom in the velocity gauge under the conditions: ω \\ll 1 a.u. (a.u. is short for atomic unit) and γ \\ll 1 (ω is the laser frequency and γ is the Keldysh parameter). Comparisons are made among the different versions of the Keldysh–Faisal–Reiss (KFR) theory. The numerical study shows that with considering the quasi-classical (WKB) Coulomb correction in the final state of the ionized electron, the photoionization rate is enhanced compared with without considering the Coulomb correction, and the Reiss theory with the WKB Coulomb correction gives the correct result in the tunneling regime. Our concise formula of the ionization rate may provide an insight into the ionization mechanism for the ground state of a hydrogen atom. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274149 and 11304185) and the Program of Shenyang Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technology, China (Grant No. F12-254-1-00).
Instabilities of Coulomb phases and quark confinement in QCD
Asorey, Manuel; Santagata, Alessandro
2009-01-01
The Gribov picture to quark confinement is based on the Coulomb phase instability due to the very large values that the effective α{sub s} coupling constant can reach in the infrared regime. The Gribov instability is driven by a vacuum decay into light quarks beyond a critical value of the coupling constant α{sub s}3π(1-√(2/3))/4 (for SU(3) gauge group). From first principles it has been shown the existence of an instability of the Coulomb phase in pure gauge theories for α≥√(2), much beyond the Gribov critical value. In this paper we analyze the effect of dynamical quarks in the instability of the Coulomb phase. We find a critical value of the coupling α=√(3) where a quark-antiquark pair creation mechanism leads to vacuum instability. However, the new critical value turns out to be larger than the pure gauge critical value α=√(2), unlike it is expected in the standard Gribov scenario. The result is analytically derived from first principles and provides further consistency to the picture where quark confinement is mainly driven by gluonic fluctuation instabilities.
Coulomb Blockade Oscillations in Coupled Single-Electron Transistors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shin, Mincheol; Lee, Seongjae; Park, Kyoung Wan
2000-03-01
The system we consider in this work is parallel coupled single-electron transistors (SETs) at strong coupling. For weak coupling, the transport characteristics of our coupled SETs are the same as those of the single SET, with the stability diagram exhibiting usual Coulomb diamonds. When the coupling becomes sufficiently strong, however, electron-hole binding and transport become important. In contrast to the previous works carried out in the cotunneling-dominating Coulomb blockade regime [1,2], we study e-h binding in the sequential-tunneling-dominating conducting regime. The major findings in this work are that the Coulomb diamonds in the conducting regime break up into fine internal structures at strong coupling, and that, although the cotunneling processes are much less frequent, they nonetheless play a crucial role. [1] D. V. Averin, A. N. Korotkov, and Yu. V. Nazarov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2818 (1991). [2] M. Matters, J. J. Versluys, and J. E. Mooij, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2469 (1997).
Amplitude effects on the dynamic performance of hydrostatic gas thrust bearings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stiffler, A. K.; Tapia, R. R.
1979-01-01
A strip gas film bearing with inherently compensated inlets is analyzed to determine the effect of disturbance amplitude on its dynamic performance. The governing Reynolds' equation is solved using finite-difference techniques. The time dependent load capacity is represented by a Fourier series up to and including the third harmonics. For the range of amplitudes investigated the linear stiffness was independent of the amplitude, and the linear damping was inversely proportional to (1 - epsilon-squared) to the 1.5 power where epsilon is the amplitude relative to the film thickness.
Proportion estimation using prior cluster purities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Terrell, G. R. (Principal Investigator)
1980-01-01
The prior distribution of CLASSY component purities is studied, and this information incorporated into maximum likelihood crop proportion estimators. The method is tested on Transition Year spring small grain segments.
Proportionality, just war theory and weapons innovation.
Forge, John
2009-03-01
Just wars are supposed to be proportional responses to aggression: the costs of war must not greatly exceed the benefits. This proportionality principle raises a corresponding 'interpretation problem': what are the costs and benefits of war, how are they to be determined, and a 'measurement problem': how are costs and benefits to be balanced? And it raises a problem about scope: how far into the future do the states of affairs to be measured stretch? It is argued here that weapons innovation always introduces costs, and that these costs cannot be determined in advance of going to war. Three examples, the atomic bomb, the AK-47 and the ancient Greek catapult, are given as examples. It is therefore argued that the proportionality principle is inapplicable prospectively. Some replies to the argument are discussed and rejected. Some more general defences of the proportionality principle are considered and also rejected. Finally, the significance of the argument for Just War Theory as a whole is discussed.
Using Resampling to Compare Two Proportions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stephenson, W. Robert; Froelich, Amy G.; Duckworth, William M.
2010-01-01
This article shows that when applying resampling methods to the problem of comparing two proportions, students can discover that whether you resample with or without replacement can make a big difference.
Using Resampling to Compare Two Proportions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stephenson, W. Robert; Froelich, Amy G.; Duckworth, William M.
2010-01-01
This article shows that when applying resampling methods to the problem of comparing two proportions, students can discover that whether you resample with or without replacement can make a big difference.
Jackson, M I; Hiley, M J; Yeadon, M R
2011-10-13
In the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting both dynamic and static friction act. The purpose of this study was to develop a method of simulating Coulomb friction that incorporated both dynamic and static phases and to compare the results with those obtained using a pseudo-Coulomb implementation of friction when applied to the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting. Kinematic data were obtained from an elite level gymnast performing handspring straight somersault vaults using a Vicon optoelectronic motion capture system. An angle-driven computer model of vaulting that simulated the interaction between a seven segment gymnast and a single segment vaulting table during the table contact phase of the vault was developed. Both dynamic and static friction were incorporated within the model by switching between two implementations of the tangential frictional force. Two vaulting trials were used to determine the model parameters using a genetic algorithm to match simulations to recorded performances. A third independent trial was used to evaluate the model and close agreement was found between the simulation and the recorded performance with an overall difference of 13.5%. The two-state simulation model was found to be capable of replicating performance at take-off and also of replicating key contact phase features such as the normal and tangential motion of the hands. The results of the two-state model were compared to those using a pseudo-Coulomb friction implementation within the simulation model. The two-state model achieved similar overall results to those of the pseudo-Coulomb model but obtained solutions more rapidly.
The simplest model for non-congruent fluid-fluid phase transition in Coulomb system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stroev, N. E.; Iosilevskiy, I. L.
2015-11-01
The simplest model for non-congruent phase transition of gas-liquid type was developed in frames of modified model with no associations of a binary ionic mixture (BIM) on a homogeneous compressible ideal background (or non-ideal) electron gas /BIM(˜)/. The analytical approximation for equation of state equation of state of Potekhin and Chabrier of fully ionized electron-ionic plasma was used for description of the ion-ion correlations (Coulomb non-ideality) in combination with “linear mixture” (LM) approximation. Phase equilibrium for the charged species was calculated according to the Gibbs-Guggenheim conditions. The presently considered BIM(˜) model allows to calculate full set of parameters for phase boundaries of non-congruent variant of phase equilibrium and to study all features for this non-congruent phase transition realization in Coulomb system in comparison with the simpler (standard) forced-congruent evaporation mode. In particular, in BIM(˜) there were reproduced two-dimensional remarkable (“banana-like”) structure of two-phase region P — T diagram and the characteristic non-monotonic shape of caloric phase enthalpy-temperature diagram, similar to the non-congruent evaporation of reactive plasma products in high-temperature heating with the uranium-oxygen system. The parameters of critical points (CP) line were calculated on the entire range of proportions of ions 0 < X < 1, including two reference values, when CP coincides with a point of extreme temperature and extreme pressure, XT and Xp. Finally, it is clearly demonstrated the low-temperature property of non-congruent gas-liquid transition — “distillation”, which is weak in chemically reactive plasmas.
Gozem, Samer; Gunina, Anastasia O.; Ichino, Takatoshi; ...
2015-10-28
The calculation of absolute total cross sections requires accurate wave functions of the photoelectron and of the initial and final states of the system. The essential information contained in the latter two can be condensed into a Dyson orbital. We employ correlated Dyson orbitals and test approximate treatments of the photoelectron wave function, that is, plane and Coulomb waves, by comparing computed and experimental photoionization and photodetachment spectra. We find that in anions, a plane wave treatment of the photoelectron provides a good description of photodetachment spectra. For photoionization of neutral atoms or molecules with one heavy atom, the photoelectronmore » wave function must be treated as a Coulomb wave to account for the interaction of the photoelectron with the +1 charge of the ionized core. For larger molecules, the best agreement with experiment is often achieved by using a Coulomb wave with a partial (effective) charge smaller than unity. This likely derives from the fact that the effective charge at the centroid of the Dyson orbital, which serves as the origin of the spherical wave expansion, is smaller than the total charge of a polyatomic cation. Finally, the results suggest that accurate molecular photoionization cross sections can be computed with a modified central potential model that accounts for the nonspherical charge distribution of the core by adjusting the charge in the center of the expansion.« less
Quasidistribution amplitude of heavy quarkonia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Yu; Xiong, Xiaonu
2016-11-01
The recently proposed quasidistributions point out a promising direction for lattice QCD to investigate the light-cone correlators, such as parton distribution functions and distribution amplitudes (DAs), directly in the x space. Owing to its excessive simplicity, heavy quarkonium can serve as an ideal theoretical laboratory to ascertain certain features of quasi-DAs. In the framework of nonrelativistic QCD factorization, we compute the order-αs correction to both light-cone distribution amplitudes (LCDAs) and quasi-DAs associated with the lowest-lying quarkonia, with the transverse-momentum UV cutoff interpreted as the renormalization scale. We confirm analytically that the quasi-DA of a quarkonium does reduce to the respective LCDA in the infinite-momentum limit. We also observe that, provided that the momentum of a charmonium reaches about 2-3 times its mass, the quasi-DAs already converge to the LCDAs to a decent level. These results might provide some useful guidance for the future lattice study of quasidistributions.
Testing departure from Hardy-Weinberg proportions.
Wang, Jian; Shete, Sanjay
2012-01-01
The Hardy-Weinberg principle, one of the most important principles in population genetics, was originally developed for the study of allele frequency changes in a population over generations. It is now, however, widely used in studies of human diseases to detect inbreeding, populations stratification, and genotyping errors. For assessment of deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg proportions in data, the most popular approaches include the asymptotic Pearson's chi-square goodness-of-fit test and the exact test. The Pearson's chi-square goodness-of-fit test is simple and straightforward, but it is very sensitive to small sample size or rare allele frequency. The exact test of Hardy-Weinberg proportions is preferable in these situations. The exact test can be performed through complete enumeration of heterozygote genotypes or on the basis of the Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure. In this chapter, we describe the Hardy-Weinberg principle and the commonly used Hardy-Weinberg proportions tests and their applications, and we demonstrate how the chi-square test and exact test of Hardy-Weinberg proportions can be performed step-by-step using the popular software programs SAS, R, and PLINK, which have been widely used in genetic association studies, along with numerical examples. We also discuss recent approaches for testing Hardy-Weinberg proportions in case-control study designs that are better than traditional approaches for testing Hardy-Weinberg proportions in controls only. Finally, we note that deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg proportions in affected individuals can provide evidence for an association between genetic variants and diseases.
Reassessing manual proportions in Australopithecus afarensis.
Rolian, Campbell; Gordon, Adam D
2013-11-01
Previous analyses of hand morphology in Australopithecus afarensis have concluded that this taxon had modern human-like manual proportions, with relatively long thumbs and short fingers. These conclusions are based on the A.L.333 composite fossil assemblage from Hadar, Ethiopia, and are premised on the ability to assign phalanges to a single individual, and to the correct side and digit. Neither assignment is secure, however, given the taphonomy and sample composition at A.L.333. We use a resampling approach that includes the entire assemblage of complete hand elements at Hadar, and takes into account uncertainties in identifying phalanges by individual, side and digit number. This approach provides the most conservative estimates of manual proportions in Au. afarensis. We resampled hand long bone lengths in Au. afarensis and extant hominoids, and obtained confidence limits for distributions of manual proportions in the latter. Results confirm that intrinsic manual proportions in Au. afarensis are dissimilar to Pan and Pongo. However, manual proportions in Au. afarensis often fall at the upper end of the distribution in Gorilla, and very lower end in Homo, corresponding to disproportionately short thumbs and long medial digits in Homo. This suggests that manual proportions in Au. afarensis, particularly metacarpal proportions, were not as derived towards Homo as previously described, but rather are intermediate between gorillas and humans. Functionally, these results suggest Au. afarensis could not produce precision grips with the same efficiency as modern humans, which may in part account for the absence of lithic technology in this fossil taxon. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Progress in studying scintillator proportionality: Phenomenological model
Bizarri, Gregory; Cherepy, Nerine; Choong, Woon-Seng; Hull, Giulia; Moses, William; Payne, Sephen; Singh, Jai; Valentine, John; Vasilev, Andrey; Williams, Richard
2009-04-30
We present a model to describe the origin of non-proportional dependence of scintillator light yield on the energy of an ionizing particle. The non-proportionality is discussed in terms of energy relaxation channels and their linear and non-linear dependences on the deposited energy. In this approach, the scintillation response is described as a function of the deposited energy deposition and the kinetic rates of each relaxation channel. This mathematical framework allows both a qualitative interpretation and a quantitative fitting representation of scintillation non-proportionality response as function of kinetic rates. This method was successfully applied to thallium doped sodium iodide measured with SLYNCI, a new facility using the Compton coincidence technique. Finally, attention is given to the physical meaning of the dominant relaxation channels, and to the potential causes responsible for the scintillation non-proportionality. We find that thallium doped sodium iodide behaves as if non-proportionality is due to competition between radiative recombinations and non-radiative Auger processes.
Meshramkar, R; Patankar, A; Lekha, K; Nadiger, R
2013-03-01
A beautiful smile is the most striking feature in the face. However beauty is not absolute and is extremely subjective. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of 'Golden proportion and Recurring aesthetic dental proportion' in individuals presenting attractive smiles. 214 smile photographs of students of SDM Dental College aged 18-25 years with natural dentition were analysed for their attractiveness based on 6 predetermined criteria. Further, smiles were digitally analysed to evaluate the prevalence of Golden Proportion and Recurring Aesthetic dental proportion (RED) and obtained data was statistically analysed. RED proportion was present in 6.6% of population as opposed to golden proportion which was found in 0.6% of population. It was found that 70% RED was more prevalent than Golden Proportion in attractive as well as unattractive smiles.
Large amplitude relativistic plasma waves
Coffey, Timothy
2010-05-15
Relativistic, longitudinal plasma oscillations are studied for the case of a simple water bag distribution of electrons having cylindrical symmetry in momentum space with the axis of the cylinder parallel to the velocity of wave propagation. The plasma is required to obey the relativistic Vlasov-Poisson equations, and solutions are sought in the wave frame. An exact solution for the plasma density as a function of the electrostatic field is derived. The maximum electric field is presented in terms of an integral over the known density. It is shown that when the perpendicular momentum is neglected, the maximum electric field approaches infinity as the wave phase velocity approaches the speed of light. It is also shown that for any nonzero perpendicular momentum, the maximum electric field will remain finite as the wave phase velocity approaches the speed of light. The relationship to previously published solutions is discussed as is some recent controversy regarding the proper modeling of large amplitude relativistic plasma waves.
Expansion of Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitude
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Chih-Hao; Du, Yi-Jian; Huang, Rijun; Feng, Bo
2017-09-01
In this paper, we study from various perspectives the expansion of tree level single trace Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitudes into linear combination of color-ordered Yang-Mills amplitudes. By applying the gauge invariance principle, a programable recursive construction is devised to expand EYM amplitude with arbitrary number of gravitons into EYM amplitudes with fewer gravitons. Based on this recursive technique we write down the complete expansion of any single trace EYM amplitude in the basis of color-order Yang-Mills amplitude. As a byproduct, an algorithm for constructing a polynomial form of the BCJ numerator for Yang-Mills amplitudes is also outlined in this paper. In addition, by applying BCFW recursion relation we show how to arrive at the same EYM amplitude expansion from the on-shell perspective. And we examine the EYM expansion using KLT relations and show how to evaluate the expansion coefficients efficiently.
Constructing amplitudes from their soft limits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boucher-Veronneau, Camille; Larkoski, Andrew J.
2011-09-01
The existence of universal soft limits for gauge-theory and gravity amplitudes has been known for a long time. The properties of the soft limits have been exploited in numerous ways; in particular for relating an n-point amplitude to an ( n - 1)-point amplitude by removing a soft particle. Recently, a procedure called inverse soft was developed by which "soft" particles can be systematically added to an amplitude to construct a higher-point amplitude for generic kinematics. We review this procedure and relate it to Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten recursion. We show that all tree-level amplitudes in gauge theory and gravity up through seven points can be constructed in this way, as well as certain classes of NMHV gauge-theory amplitudes with any number of external legs. This provides us with a systematic procedure for constructing amplitudes solely from their soft limits.
Constructing Amplitudes from Their Soft Limits
Boucher-Veronneau, Camille; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC
2011-12-09
The existence of universal soft limits for gauge-theory and gravity amplitudes has been known for a long time. The properties of the soft limits have been exploited in numerous ways; in particular for relating an n-point amplitude to an (n-1)-point amplitude by removing a soft particle. Recently, a procedure called inverse soft was developed by which 'soft' particles can be systematically added to an amplitude to construct a higher-point amplitude for generic kinematics. We review this procedure and relate it to Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten recursion. We show that all tree-level amplitudes in gauge theory and gravity up through seven points can be constructed in this way, as well as certain classes of NMHV gauge-theory amplitudes with any number of external legs. This provides us with a systematic procedure for constructing amplitudes solely from their soft limits.
Boron-10 Lined Proportional Counter Wall Effects
Siciliano, Edward R.; Kouzes, Richard T.
2012-05-01
The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) is supporting the project 'Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology' at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube based system in the configuration of a coincidence counter. This report provides information about how variations in proportional counter radius and gas pressure in a typical coincident counter design might affect the observed signal from boron-lined tubes. A discussion comparing tubes to parallel plate counters is also included.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salas, L. D.; Arce, J. C.
2017-02-01
For the S states of two-electron atoms, we introduce an exact and unique factorization of the internal eigenfunction in terms of a marginal amplitude, which depends functionally on the electron-nucleus distances r1 and r2, and a conditional amplitude, which depends functionally on the interelectronic distance r12 and parametrically on r1 and r2. Applying the variational principle, we derive pseudoeigenvalue equations for these two amplitudes, which cast the internal Schrödinger equation in a form akin to the Born-Oppenheimer separation of nuclear and electronic degrees of freedom in molecules. The marginal equation involves an effective radial Hamiltonian, which contains a nonadiabatic potential energy surface that takes into account all interparticle correlations in an averaged way, and whose unique eigenvalue is the internal energy. At each point (r1,r2) , such surface is, in turn, the unique eigenvalue in the conditional equation. Employing the ground state of He as prototype, we show that the nonadiabatic potential energy surface affords a molecularlike interpretation of the structure of the atom, and aids in the analysis of energetic and spatial aspects of the Coulomb correlation, in particular correlation-induced symmetry breaking and quantum phase transition.
Coulomb Drag and Magnetotransport in Graphene Double Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tutuc, Emanuel
2013-03-01
Graphene double layers, a set of two closely spaced graphene monolayers seperated by an ultra-thin dielectric, represent an interesting electron system to explore correlated electron states. We discuss the fabrication of such samples using a layer-by-layer transfer approach, the electron transport in individual layers at zero and in a high magnetic field, and Coulomb drag measurements. Coulomb drag, probed by flowing a drive current in one layer, and measuring the voltage drop in the opposite layer provides a direct measurement of the electron-electron scattering between the two layers, and can be used to probe the electron system ground state. Coulomb drag in graphene, measured as a function of both layer densities and temperature reveals two distinct regimes: (i) diffusive drag at elevated temperatures, above 50 K, and (ii) mesoscopic fluctuations-dominated drag at low temperatures. A second topic discussed here is a technique that allows a direct measurement of the Fermi energy in an electron system with an accuracy independent of the sample size, using a graphene double layer heterostructure. The underlying principle of the technique is that an interlayer bias applied to bring the top layer to the charge neutrality point is equal to the Fermi energy of the bottom layer, which in effect renders the top graphene layer a resistively detected Kelvin probe. We illustrate this method by measuring the Fermi velocity, Landau level spacing, and Landau level broadening in monolayer graphene. Work done in collaboration with S. Kim, I. Jo, J. Nah, D. Dillen, K. Lee, B. Fallahazad, Z. Yao, and S. K. Banerjee. We thank ONR, NRI, and NSF for support.
Coulomb breakup of 22C in a four-body model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinilla, E. C.; Descouvemont, P.
2016-08-01
Breakup cross sections are determined for the Borromean nucleus 22C by using a four-body eikonal model, including Coulomb corrections. Bound and continuum states are constructed within a 20C+n +n three-body model in hyperspherical coordinates. We compute continuum states with the correct asymptotic behavior through the R -matrix method. For the n +n potential, we use the Minnesota interaction. As there is no precise experimental information on 21C, we define different parameter sets for the 20C+n potentials. These parameter sets provide different scattering lengths, and resonance energies of an expected 3 /2+ excited state. Then we analyze the 22C ground-state energy and rms radius, as well as E 1 strength distributions and breakup cross sections. The E 1 strength distribution presents an enhancement at low energies. Its amplitude is associated with the low binding energy, rather than with a three-body resonance. We show that the shape of the cross section at low energies is sensitive to the ground-state properties. In addition, we suggest the existence of a low-energy 2+ resonance, which should be observable in breakup experiments.
High power laser coupling to carbon nano-tubes and ion Coulomb explosion
K, Magesh Kumar K; Tripathi, V. K.
2013-09-15
Linear and non linear interaction of laser with an array of carbon nanotubes is investigated. The ac conductivity of nanotubes, due to uneven response of free electrons in them to axial and transverse fields, is a tensor. The propagation constant for p-polarization shows resonance at a specific frequency that varies with the direction of laser propagation. It also shows surface plasmon resonance at ω=ω{sub p}/√(2), where ω{sub p} is the plasma frequency of free electrons inside a nanotube, assumed to be uniform plasma cylinder. The attenuation constant is also resonantly enhanced around these frequencies. At large laser amplitude, the nanotubes behave as thin plasma rods. As the electrons get heated, the nanotubes undergo hydrodynamic expansion. At an instant when plasma frequency reaches ω{sub p}=√(2)ω, the electron temperature rises rapidly and then saturates. For a Gaussian laser beam, the heating rate is maximum on the laser axis and falls off with the distance r from the axis. When the excursion of the electrons Δ is comparable or larger than the radius of the nanotube r{sub c}, the nanotubes undergo ion Coulomb explosion. The distribution function of ions turns out to be a monotonically decreasing function of energy.
Theory and simulation of ion Coulomb crystal formation in a Penning trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asprusten, Martin; Worthington, Simon; Thompson, Richard C.
2014-01-01
Ion Coulomb crystals (ICCs) are formed by laser-cooled ions in both radio-frequency and Penning traps. In radio-frequency traps, the crystals are generally stationary. In Penning traps, ICCs always rotate. The frequency of rotation is often set by an applied rotating wall drive that forces the crystal to rotate at the same frequency as the drive. In the absence of any applied rotating or oscillating fields, ICCs in a Penning trap can be in stable equilibrium with a range of rotation frequencies. The density and shape of the crystal adjust with the rotation frequency to ensure that equilibrium is reached. Here, we show that the parameters of the radial laser-cooling beam determine the rotation frequency of a small crystal in a Penning trap when no driving fields are present. We demonstrate, using an approximate theoretical treatment and realistic simulations, that the crystal rotation frequency is independent of the number of ions and the trap parameters, so long as the crystal radius remains smaller than the cooling laser beam waist. As the rotation frequency increases, the crystal eventually becomes a linear string, at which point it is no longer able to adjust its density. Instead, a small amplitude vibration in the zigzag mode of oscillation manifests itself as a rotation of the crystal at a fixed frequency that depends only on the applied trap potential.
Heavy quarks, gluons and the confinement potential in Coulomb gauge
Popovici, Carina; Watson, Peter; Reinhardt, Hugo
2011-05-23
We consider the heavy quark limit of Coulomb gauge QCD, with the truncation of the Yang-Mills sector to include only (dressed) two-point functions. We find that the rainbow-ladder approximation to the gap and Bethe-Salpeter equations is nonperturbatively exact and moreover, we provide a direct connection between the temporal gluon propagator and the quark confinement potential. Further, we show that only bound states of color singlet quark-antiquark (meson) and quark-quark (SU(2) baryon) pairs are physically allowed.
Proton radiography, nuclear cross sections and multiple Coulomb scattering
Sjue, Sky K.
2015-11-04
The principles behind proton radiography including multiple Coulomb scattering are discussed for a purely imaginary square well nucleus in the eikonal approximation. It is found that a very crude model can reproduce the angular dependence of the cross sections measured at 24 GeV/c. The largest differences are ~3% for the 4.56 mrad data, and ~4% for the 6.68 mrad data. The prospect of understanding how to model deterministically high-energy proton radiography over a very large range of energies is promising, but it should be tested more thoroughly.
Triaxiality near the 110Ru ground state from Coulomb excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doherty, D. T.; Allmond, J. M.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Korten, W.; Zhu, S.; Zielińska, M.; Radford, D. C.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Bucher, B.; Batchelder, J. C.; Beausang, C. W.; Campbell, C.; Carpenter, M. P.; Cline, D.; Crawford, H. L.; David, H. M.; Delaroche, J. P.; Dickerson, C.; Fallon, P.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Kondev, F. G.; Harker, J. L.; Hayes, A. B.; Hendricks, M.; Humby, P.; Girod, M.; Gross, C. J.; Klintefjord, M.; Kolos, K.; Lane, G. J.; Lauritsen, T.; Libert, J.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Napiorkowski, P. J.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Pardo, R. C.; Reviol, W.; Sarantites, D. G.; Savard, G.; Seweryniak, D.; Srebrny, J.; Varner, R.; Vondrasek, R.; Wiens, A.; Wilson, E.; Wood, J. L.; Wu, C. Y.
2017-03-01
A multi-step Coulomb excitation measurement with the GRETINA and CHICO2 detector arrays was carried out with a 430-MeV beam of the neutron-rich 110Ru (t1/2 = 12 s) isotope produced at the CARIBU facility. This represents the first successful measurement following the post-acceleration of an unstable isotope of a refractory element. The reduced transition probabilities obtained for levels near the ground state provide strong evidence for a triaxial shape; a conclusion confirmed by comparisons with the results of beyond-mean-field and triaxial rotor model calculations.
Momentum correlation in the three-body Coulomb continuum problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Suimeng
2000-09-01
Following the work of Berakdar (1996 Phys. Rev. A 53 2316), momentum correlation in the three-body Coulomb continuum problem is considered by the introduction of effective Sommerfeld parameters for both the symmetric and the asymmetric geometry. The triple differential cross sections for electron impact ionization of atomic helium at incident energies of 50 eV in the asymmetric geometry are calculated. Results of this approach are compared with the absolute measurements, the results of the BBK model without modification, the convergent close-coupling calculations and the results of our earlier model.
Coulombic wall slip of concentrated soft-particle suspensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, Michael; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhibing; Fryer, Peter
2013-06-01
The coefficients of friction of concentrated soft-particle suspensions (tomato paste and a microgel suspension) were measured as a function of the slip velocity for a number of substrates. The data are interpreted using a micro-elastohydrodynamic model that is consistent with significant bulk frictional dissipation and an increase in the number of particle-wall contacts with increasing normal stress. The origin of the Coulombic slip, which has not been observed previously for pastes, is ascribed to the sensitivity of the lubricating film thickness.
Triaxiality near the 110Ru ground state from Coulomb excitation
Doherty, D. T.; Allmond, James M.; Janssens, R. V. F.; ...
2017-01-20
A multi-step Coulomb excitation measurement with the GRETINA and CHICO2 detector arrays was carried out with a 430-MeV beam of the neutron-rich 110Ru (t1/2 = 12 s) isotope produced at the CARIBU facility. This represents the first successful measurement following the post-acceleration of an unstable isotope of a refractory element. The reduced transition probabilities obtained for levels near the ground state provide strong evidence for a triaxial shape; a conclusion confirmed by comparisons with the results of beyond-mean-field and triaxial rotor model calculations.
A nonlinear Bloch model for Coulomb interaction in quantum dots
Bidegaray-Fesquet, Brigitte Keita, Kole
2014-02-15
In this paper, we first derive a Coulomb Hamiltonian for electron–electron interaction in quantum dots in the Heisenberg picture. Then we use this Hamiltonian to enhance a Bloch model, which happens to be nonlinear in the density matrix. The coupling with Maxwell equations in case of interaction with an electromagnetic field is also considered from the Cauchy problem point of view. The study is completed by numerical results and a discussion about the advisability of neglecting intra-band coherences, as is done in part of the literature.
The distinguishable cluster approach from a screened Coulomb formalism.
Kats, Daniel
2016-01-28
The distinguishable cluster doubles equations have been derived starting from an effective screened Coulomb formalism and a particle-hole symmetric formulation of the Fock matrix. A perturbative triples correction to the distinguishable cluster with singles and doubles (DCSD) has been introduced employing the screened integrals. It is shown that the resulting DCSD(T) method is more accurate than DCSD for reaction energies and is less sensitive to the static correlation than coupled cluster with singles and doubles with a perturbative triples correction.
Quantum confinement and Coulomb blockade in isolated nanodiamond crystallites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolker, Asaf; Saguy, Cecile; Tordjman, Moshe; Kalish, Rafi
2013-07-01
We present direct experimental evidence of quantum confinement effects in single isolated nanodiamonds by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. For grains smaller than 4.5 nm, the band gap was found to increase with decreasing nanodiamond size and a well-defined, evenly spaced, 12-peak structure was observed on the conduction band side of the conductance curves. We attribute these peaks to the Coulomb blockade effect, reflecting the 12-fold degeneracy of the first electron-energy level in the confined nanodiamond. The present results shed light on the size dependence of the electronic properties of single nanodiamonds and are of major importance for future nanodiamond-based applications.
Analytical approach to quasiperiodic beam Coulomb field modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rubtsova, I. D.
2016-09-01
The paper is devoted to modeling of space charge field of quasiperiodic axial- symmetric beam. Particle beam is simulated by charged disks. Two analytical Coulomb field expressions are presented, namely, Fourier-Bessel series and trigonometric polynomial. Both expressions permit the integral representation. It provides the possibility of integro-differential beam dynamics description. Consequently, when beam dynamics optimization problem is considered, it is possible to derive the analytical formula for quality functional gradient and to apply directed optimization methods. In addition, the paper presents the method of testing of space charge simulation code.
Coulomb excitation of levels in 143Nd and 145Nd
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drǎgulescu, E.; Ivaşcu, M.; Mihu, R.; Popescu, D.; Semenescu, G.; Paar, V.; Vretenar, D.
1984-04-01
The low-lying states of 143Nd and 154Nd have been studied by means of Coulomb excitation with 16O and α-particles. Angular distribution measurements were carried out for some transitions in 145Nd with 11.2 MeV α-particles. Level energy decay schemes and B(E2)↑ values were measured for two states in 143Nd and for six states in 145Nd. Some spin assignments have been established for the 145Nd nucleus. 143Nd and 145Nd have been theoretically described by coupling one and three particles, respectively, to quadrupole vibrations, and rather good agreement with experiment was achieved.
Photodetachment of hydrogen negative ions with screened Coulomb interaction
Zhang, Song Bin; Chen, Xiang Jun; Wang, Jian Guo; Janev, R. K.; Qu, Yi Zhi
2010-06-15
The effects of Coulomb interaction screening on photodetachment cross sections of hydrogen negative ions below the n =2 excitation threshold is investigated by using the R-matrix method with pseudostates. The contributions of Feshbach and shape resonances to H{sup -} photodetachment cross section are presented when screening length (D) varies from D = {infinity} to D = 4.6 a.u. It is found that the interaction screening has dramatic effects on the photodetachment cross sections of hydrogen negative ions in the photoelectron energy region around the n = 2 excitation threshold by strongly affecting the evolution of near-threshold resonances.
Imaging of Acoustic Waves in Piezoelectric Ceramics by Coulomb Coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Habib, Anowarul; Shelke, Amit; Pluta, Mieczyslaw; Kundu, Tribikram; Pietsch, Ullrich; Grill, Wolfgang
2012-07-01
The transport properties of bulk and guided acoustic waves travelling in a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) disc, originally manufactured to serve as ultrasonic transducer, have been monitored by scanned Coulomb coupling. The images are recorded by excitation and detection of ultrasound with local electric field probes via piezoelectric coupling. A narrow pulse has been used for excitation. Broadband coupling is achieved since neither mechanical nor electrical resonances are involved. The velocities of the traveling acoustic waves determined from the images are compared with characteristic velocities calculated from material properties listed by the manufacturer of the PZT plate.
Ice limit of Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory
Heinzl, T.; Ilderton, A.; Langfeld, K.; Lavelle, M.; McMullan, D.
2008-10-01
In this paper we describe gauge invariant multiquark states generalizing the path integral framework developed by Parrinello, Jona-Lasinio, and Zwanziger to amend the Faddeev-Popov approach. This allows us to produce states such that, in a limit which we call the ice limit, fermions are dressed with glue exclusively from the fundamental modular region associated with Coulomb gauge. The limit can be taken analytically without difficulties, avoiding the Gribov problem. This is illustrated by an unambiguous construction of gauge invariant mesonic states for which we simulate the static quark-antiquark potential.
Dynamic screening of the three-body coulomb interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang-jin, Chen
1998-03-01
The BBK approach is modified by the introduction of effective Sommerfeld parameters for both symmetric and asymmetric geometries, according to the fact that the strength of any particular two-body Coulomb interaction is affected by the presence of the third particle. The triple differential cross sections for electron impact ionization of atomic helium at incident energies of 40 and 50 eV in asymmetric geometry are calculated. Results of this approach are found to be in good agreement with the absolute measurements and the only existing theoretical results of the convergent close-coupling method.
Nonlocal and nonlinear electrostatics of a dipolar Coulomb fluid.
Sahin, Buyukdagli; Ralf, Blossey
2014-07-16
We study a model Coulomb fluid consisting of dipolar solvent molecules of finite extent which generalizes the point-like dipolar Poisson-Boltzmann model (DPB) previously introduced by Coalson and Duncan (1996 J. Phys. Chem. 100 2612) and Abrashkin et al (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 077801). We formulate a nonlocal Poisson-Boltzmann equation (NLPB) and study both linear and nonlinear dielectric response in this model for the case of a single plane geometry. Our results shed light on the relevance of nonlocal versus nonlinear effects in continuum models of material electrostatics.
A solvable model for localized adsorption in a Coulomb system
Rosinberg, M.L.; Blum, L.; Lebowitz, J.L.
1986-07-01
A model for an interface with localized adsorption is presented, in which the surface has a distribution of sticky adhesive sites in contact with a Coulomb fluid. Contrary to the current literature on the electrical double layer the surface charge is in dynamic equilibrium with the bulk fluid. The sum rules obeyed by the one- and two-body correlation functions are investigated. Explicit results are obtained for a solvable model, the two-dimensional one-component plasma at reduced temperature 2. The effect of the granularity of the adsorbed charge on the adsorption isotherm is discussed.
"Coulombic Viscosity" In Granular Materials: Planetary and Astrophysical Implications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marshall, J. R.
1999-01-01
The term "Coulombic viscosity" is introduced here to define an empirically observed phenomenon from experiments conducted in both microgravity, and in ground-based 1-g conditions. In the latter case, a sand attrition device was employed to test the longevity of aeolian materials by creating two intersecting grain-circulation paths or cells that would lead to most of the grain energy being expended on grain-to-grain collisions (simulating dune systems). In the areas in the device where gravitationally-driven grain-slurries recycled the sand, the slurries moved with a boundary-layer impeded motion down the chamber walls. Excessive electrostatic charging of the grains during these experiments was prevented by the use of an a.c. corona (created by a Tesla coil) through which the grains passed on every cycle. This created both positive and negative ions which neutralized the triboelectrically-generated grain charges. When the corona was switched on, the velocity of the wall-attached slurries increased by a factor of two as approximately determined by direct observation. What appeared to be a freely-flowing slurry of grains impeded only by intergranular mechanical friction, had obviously been significantly retarded in its motion by electrostatic forces between the grains; with the charging reduced, the grains were able to move past one another without a flow "viscosity" imposed by the Coulombic intergranular forces. A similar phenomenon was observed during microgravity experiments aboard Space Shuttle in USML-1 & USML-2 spacelabs where freely-suspended clouds of sand were being investigated for their potential to for-m aggregates. In this environment, the grains were also charged electrostatically (by natural processes prior to flight), but were free from the intervention of gravity in their interactions. The grains were dispersed into dense clouds by bursts of air turbulence and allowed to form aggregates as the ballistic and turbulent motions damped out. During this
Mean Field Evolution of Fermions with Coulomb Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Porta, Marcello; Rademacher, Simone; Saffirio, Chiara; Schlein, Benjamin
2017-03-01
We study the many body Schrödinger evolution of weakly coupled fermions interacting through a Coulomb potential. We are interested in a joint mean field and semiclassical scaling, that emerges naturally for initially confined particles. For initial data describing approximate Slater determinants, we prove convergence of the many-body evolution towards Hartree-Fock dynamics. Our result holds under a condition on the solution of the Hartree-Fock equation, that we can only show in a very special situation (translation invariant data, whose Hartree-Fock evolution is trivial), but that we expect to hold more generally.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zagatto, V. A. B.; Lubian, J.; Gasques, L. R.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Chamon, L. C.; Oliveira, J. R. B.; Alcántara-Núñez, J. A.; Medina, N. H.; Scarduelli, V.; Freitas, A.; Padron, I.; Rossi, E. S.; Shorto, J. M. B.
2017-06-01
Experimental angular distributions for the 7Li+120Sn elastic and inelastic (projectile and target excitations) scattering, and for the neutron stripping reaction, have been obtained at ELAB= 20 , 22, 24, and 26 MeV, covering an energy range around the Coulomb barrier (VB(LAB )≈21.4 MeV). Coupled channel and coupled reaction channel calculations were performed and both describe satisfactorily the experimental data sets. The 1/2- state 7Li inelastic excitation (using a rotational model), as well as the projectile coupling to the continuum (α plus a tritium particle) play a fundamental role on the proper description of elastic, inelastic, and transfer channels. Couplings to the one-neutron stripping channel do not significantly affect the theoretical elastic scattering angular distributions. The spectroscopic amplitudes of the transfer channel were obtained through a shell model calculation. The theoretical angular distributions for the one-neutron stripping reaction agreed with the experimental data.
Canine Conjectures: Using Data for Proportional Reasoning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Westenskow, Arla; Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.
2011-01-01
No person, place, or thing can capture the attention of a class of sixth graders like "man's best friend." To prompt students' interest in a series of lessons on proportional relationships, the authors brought in a unique teaching aid--a dog. A family dog was used to supply the measurements for scatter plots and variables so that students could…
Kitchen Gardens: Contexts for Developing Proportional Reasoning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff; Dole, Shelley; Goos, Merrilyn; O'Brien, Mia
2013-01-01
It is great to see how the sharing of ideas sparks new ideas. In 2011 Lyon and Bragg wrote an "Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom" (APMC) article on the mathematics of kitchen gardens. In this article the authors show how the kitchen garden may be used as a starting point for proportional reasoning. The authors highlight different…
Golden Proportions for the Generalized Tribonacci Numbers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shah, Devbhadra V.; Mehta, Darshana A.
2009-01-01
It is known that the ratios of consecutive terms of Fibonacci and Tribonacci sequences converge to the fixed ratio. In this article, we consider the generalized form of Tribonacci numbers and derive the "golden proportion" for the whole family of this generalized sequence. (Contains 2 tables.)
Canine Conjectures: Using Data for Proportional Reasoning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Westenskow, Arla; Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.
2011-01-01
No person, place, or thing can capture the attention of a class of sixth graders like "man's best friend." To prompt students' interest in a series of lessons on proportional relationships, the authors brought in a unique teaching aid--a dog. A family dog was used to supply the measurements for scatter plots and variables so that students could…
Tukey-Like Pairwise Comparisons among Proportions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williams, Richard H.
1992-01-01
A QuickBASIC microcomputer program for conducting Tukey-like pairwise comparisons on "k" independent sample proportions is described. The program can accommodate applications involving equal or unequal sample sizes. Studentized range values are computed and displayed on a computer monitor, each of which represents a simple comparison…
Using Artwork to Explore Proportional Reasoning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bush, Sarah B.; Karp, Karen S.; Nadler, Jennifer; Gibbons, Katie
2016-01-01
Having an answer to "When are we ever going to use this in real life?" is important to middle school mathematics teachers. The activity described in this article awakened sixth graders' understanding of how artists use mathematics. By exploring ratio and proportionality in different paintings, students realized the use of proportional…
Using Artwork to Explore Proportional Reasoning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bush, Sarah B.; Karp, Karen S.; Nadler, Jennifer; Gibbons, Katie
2016-01-01
Having an answer to "When are we ever going to use this in real life?" is important to middle school mathematics teachers. The activity described in this article awakened sixth graders' understanding of how artists use mathematics. By exploring ratio and proportionality in different paintings, students realized the use of proportional…
Golden Proportions for the Generalized Tribonacci Numbers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shah, Devbhadra V.; Mehta, Darshana A.
2009-01-01
It is known that the ratios of consecutive terms of Fibonacci and Tribonacci sequences converge to the fixed ratio. In this article, we consider the generalized form of Tribonacci numbers and derive the "golden proportion" for the whole family of this generalized sequence. (Contains 2 tables.)
Research on fluidics, valves, and proportional amplifiers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1974-01-01
Research and development being conducted at the Systems and Controls Laboratory is reviewed. Static characteristics (supply, input, transfer, output, and noise characteristics) of laminar proportional amplifiers were investigated. Other topics discussed include velocity profiles for laminar fluidic jets, speed control systems employing a jet pipe valve, and power amplification with a vortex valve.
Brogi, Bharat Bhushan Ahluwalia, P. K.; Chand, Shyam
2015-06-24
Theoretical study of the Coulomb blockade effect on transport properties (Transmission Probability and I-V characteristics) for varied configuration of coupled quantum dot system has been studied by using Non Equilibrium Green Function(NEGF) formalism and Equation of Motion(EOM) method in the presence of magnetic flux. The self consistent approach and intra-dot Coulomb interaction is being taken into account. As the key parameters of the coupled quantum dot system such as dot-lead coupling, inter-dot tunneling and magnetic flux threading through the system can be tuned, the effect of asymmetry parameter and magnetic flux on this tuning is being explored in Coulomb blockade regime. The presence of the Coulomb blockade due to on-dot Coulomb interaction decreases the width of transmission peak at energy level ε + U and by adjusting the magnetic flux the swapping effect in the Fano peaks in asymmetric and symmetric parallel configuration sustains despite strong Coulomb blockade effect.
Momentum-space treatment of Coulomb distortions in a multiple-scattering expansion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chinn, C. R.; Elster, Ch.; Thaler, R. M.
1991-10-01
The momentum-space treatment of the Coulomb interaction within the framework of the Watson multiple-scattering expansion is derived and tested numerically. By neglecting virtual Coulomb excitations and higher-order terms, the lowest-order optical potential for proton-nucleus scattering is shown to be the sum of the convolutions of a two-body nucleon-nucleon t matrix with the nuclear density and the point Coulomb interaction with the nuclear charge density. The calculation of the optical potential, as well as the treatment of the Coulomb interaction, is performed entirely in momentum space in an exact and numerically stable procedure. Elastic-scattering observables are presented for 16O, 40Ca, and 208Pb at energies up to 500 MeV. Comparisons are made with approximate treatments of the Coulomb interaction. The interference of nonlocality effects in the nuclear optical potential with different treatments of the Coulomb interaction is investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brogi, Bharat Bhushan; Chand, Shyam; Ahluwalia, P. K.
2015-06-01
Theoretical study of the Coulomb blockade effect on transport properties (Transmission Probability and I-V characteristics) for varied configuration of coupled quantum dot system has been studied by using Non Equilibrium Green Function(NEGF) formalism and Equation of Motion(EOM) method in the presence of magnetic flux. The self consistent approach and intra-dot Coulomb interaction is being taken into account. As the key parameters of the coupled quantum dot system such as dot-lead coupling, inter-dot tunneling and magnetic flux threading through the system can be tuned, the effect of asymmetry parameter and magnetic flux on this tuning is being explored in Coulomb blockade regime. The presence of the Coulomb blockade due to on-dot Coulomb interaction decreases the width of transmission peak at energy level ɛ + U and by adjusting the magnetic flux the swapping effect in the Fano peaks in asymmetric and symmetric parallel configuration sustains despite strong Coulomb blockade effect.
Tsunami Focusing and Leading Amplitude
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanoglu, U.
2016-12-01
Tsunamis transform substantially through spatial and temporal spreading from their source region. This substantial spreading might result unique maximum tsunami wave heights which might be attributed to the source configuration, directivity, the waveguide structures of mid-ocean ridges and continental shelves, focusing and defocusing through submarine seamounts, random focusing due to small changes in bathymetry, dispersion, and, most likely, combination of some of these effects. In terms of the maximum tsunami wave height, after Okal and Synolakis (2016 Geophys. J. Int. 204, 719-735), it is clear that dispersion would be one of the reasons to drive the leading wave amplitude in a tsunami wave train. Okal and Synolakis (2016), referring to this phenomenon as sequencing -later waves in the train becoming higher than the leading one, considered Hammack's (1972, Ph.D. Dissertation, Calif. Inst. Tech., 261 pp) formalism, in addition to LeMéhauté and Wang's (1995 Water waves generated by underwater explosion, World Scientific, 367 pp), to evaluate linear dispersive tsunami propagation from a circular plug uplifted on an ocean of constant depth. They identified transition distance, as the second wave being larger, performing parametric study for the radius of the plug and the depth of the ocean. Here, we extend Okal and Synolakis' (2016) analysis to an initial wave field with a finite crest length and, in addition, to a most common tsunami initial wave form of N-wave (Tadepalli and Synolakis, 1994 Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 445, 99-112). First, we investigate the focusing feature in the leading-depression side, which enhance tsunami wave height as presented by Kanoglu et al. (2013 Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 469, 20130015). We then discuss the results in terms of leading wave amplitude presenting a parametric study and identify a simple relation for the transition distance. The solution presented here could be used to better analyze dispersive
The Effect of Speed of Processing Training on Microsaccade Amplitude
Layfield, Stephen; Burge, Wesley; Mitchell, William; Ross, Lesley; Denning, Christine; Amthor, Frank; Visscher, Kristina
2014-01-01
Older adults experience cognitive deficits that can lead to driving errors and a loss of mobility. Fortunately, some of these deficits can be ameliorated with targeted interventions which improve the speed and accuracy of simultaneous attention to a central and a peripheral stimulus called Speed of Processing training. To date, the mechanisms behind this effective training are unknown. We hypothesized that one potential mechanism underlying this training is a change in distribution of eye movements of different amplitudes. Microsaccades are small amplitude eye movements made when fixating on a stimulus, and are thought to counteract the “visual fading” that occurs when static stimuli are presented. Due to retinal anatomy, larger microsaccadic eye movements are needed to move a peripheral stimulus between receptive fields and counteract visual fading. Alternatively, larger microsaccades may decrease performance due to neural suppression. Because larger microsaccades could aid or hinder peripheral vision, we examine the distribution of microsaccades during stimulus presentation. Our results indicate that there is no statistically significant change in the proportion of large amplitude microsaccades during a Useful Field of View-like task after training in a small sample of older adults. Speed of Processing training does not appear to result in changes in microsaccade amplitude, suggesting that the mechanism underlying Speed of Processing training is unlikely to rely on microsaccades. PMID:25248099
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Przybytek, Michal; Helgaker, Trygve
2013-08-01
We analyze the accuracy of the Coulomb energy calculated using the Gaussian-and-finite-element-Coulomb (GFC) method. In this approach, the electrostatic potential associated with the molecular electronic density is obtained by solving the Poisson equation and then used to calculate matrix elements of the Coulomb operator. The molecular electrostatic potential is expanded in a mixed Gaussian-finite-element (GF) basis set consisting of Gaussian functions of s symmetry centered on the nuclei (with exponents obtained from a full optimization of the atomic potentials generated by the atomic densities from symmetry-averaged restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock theory) and shape functions defined on uniform finite elements. The quality of the GF basis is controlled by means of a small set of parameters; for a given width of the finite elements d, the highest accuracy is achieved at smallest computational cost when tricubic (n = 3) elements are used in combination with two (γH = 2) and eight (γ1st = 8) Gaussians on hydrogen and first-row atoms, respectively, with exponents greater than a given threshold (α _min^G=0.5). The error in the calculated Coulomb energy divided by the number of atoms in the system depends on the system type but is independent of the system size or the orbital basis set, vanishing approximately like d4 with decreasing d. If the boundary conditions for the Poisson equation are calculated in an approximate way, the GFC method may lose its variational character when the finite elements are too small; with larger elements, it is less sensitive to inaccuracies in the boundary values. As it is possible to obtain accurate boundary conditions in linear time, the overall scaling of the GFC method for large systems is governed by another computational step—namely, the generation of the three-center overlap integrals with three Gaussian orbitals. The most unfavorable (nearly quadratic) scaling is observed for compact, truly three-dimensional systems
Przybytek, Michal; Helgaker, Trygve
2013-08-07
We analyze the accuracy of the Coulomb energy calculated using the Gaussian-and-finite-element-Coulomb (GFC) method. In this approach, the electrostatic potential associated with the molecular electronic density is obtained by solving the Poisson equation and then used to calculate matrix elements of the Coulomb operator. The molecular electrostatic potential is expanded in a mixed Gaussian-finite-element (GF) basis set consisting of Gaussian functions of s symmetry centered on the nuclei (with exponents obtained from a full optimization of the atomic potentials generated by the atomic densities from symmetry-averaged restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock theory) and shape functions defined on uniform finite elements. The quality of the GF basis is controlled by means of a small set of parameters; for a given width of the finite elements d, the highest accuracy is achieved at smallest computational cost when tricubic (n = 3) elements are used in combination with two (γ(H) = 2) and eight (γ(1st) = 8) Gaussians on hydrogen and first-row atoms, respectively, with exponents greater than a given threshold (αmin (G)=0.5). The error in the calculated Coulomb energy divided by the number of atoms in the system depends on the system type but is independent of the system size or the orbital basis set, vanishing approximately like d(4) with decreasing d. If the boundary conditions for the Poisson equation are calculated in an approximate way, the GFC method may lose its variational character when the finite elements are too small; with larger elements, it is less sensitive to inaccuracies in the boundary values. As it is possible to obtain accurate boundary conditions in linear time, the overall scaling of the GFC method for large systems is governed by another computational step-namely, the generation of the three-center overlap integrals with three Gaussian orbitals. The most unfavorable (nearly quadratic) scaling is observed for compact, truly three-dimensional systems
Simulation of the Coulomb blockade microscopy of quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wach, E.; Szafran, B.
2017-09-01
We perform numerical simulation of the Coulomb blockade microscopy on single and double quantum dots (QDs) weakly coupled to the reservoirs of the two-dimensional electron gas. The model describes the screening of the Coulomb charge at the tip of the atomic force microscope by deformation of the electron gas in the QD and in the reservoirs by a self-consistent iteration of DFT equations for the coupled subsystems. We discuss the reaction of the electrons to the tip and the shape of the effective tip potential, which in general becomes short range, strongly dependent on the tip position and asymmetric with a longer tail at the side of the QD. We determine the ground state under influence of the charged probe and obtain charge stability maps of QD as functions of the tip position. We evaluate the charging lines and compare them with the ones obtained for the perturbative conditions for which the charge density is assumed unaffected by the tip.
Exact linearized Coulomb collision operator in the moment expansion
Ji, Jeong -Young; Held, Eric D.
2006-10-05
In the moment expansion, the Rosenbluth potentials, the linearized Coulomb collision operators, and the moments of the collision operators are analytically calculated for any moment. The explicit calculation of Rosenbluth potentials converts the integro-differential form of the Coulomb collision operator into a differential operator, which enables one to express the collision operator in a simple closed form for any arbitrary mass and temperature ratios. In addition, it is shown that gyrophase averaging the collision operator acting on arbitrary distribution functions is the same as the collision operator acting on the corresponding gyrophase averaged distribution functions. The moments of the collisionmore » operator are linear combinations of the fluid moments with collision coefficients parametrized by mass and temperature ratios. Furthermore, useful forms involving the small mass-ratio approximation are easily found since the collision operators and their moments are expressed in terms of the mass ratio. As an application, the general moment equations are explicitly written and the higher order heat flux equation is derived.« less
Exact linearized Coulomb collision operator in the moment expansion
Ji, Jeong -Young; Held, Eric D.
2006-10-05
In the moment expansion, the Rosenbluth potentials, the linearized Coulomb collision operators, and the moments of the collision operators are analytically calculated for any moment. The explicit calculation of Rosenbluth potentials converts the integro-differential form of the Coulomb collision operator into a differential operator, which enables one to express the collision operator in a simple closed form for any arbitrary mass and temperature ratios. In addition, it is shown that gyrophase averaging the collision operator acting on arbitrary distribution functions is the same as the collision operator acting on the corresponding gyrophase averaged distribution functions. The moments of the collision operator are linear combinations of the fluid moments with collision coefficients parametrized by mass and temperature ratios. Furthermore, useful forms involving the small mass-ratio approximation are easily found since the collision operators and their moments are expressed in terms of the mass ratio. As an application, the general moment equations are explicitly written and the higher order heat flux equation is derived.
Coulomb effects on pions produced in heavy-ion reactions
Sullivan, J.P.
1981-11-01
Double differential cross sections for the production of ..pi../sup +/ and ..pi../sup -/ near the velocity of the incident beam for pion lab angles less than 40 degrees are presented. The experimental apparatus and the techniques are discussed. Beams of /sup 20/Ne with E/A from 80 to 655 MeV and /sup 40/Ar with E/A = 535 MeV incident on Be, C, NaF, KC1, Cu, and U targets were used. A sharp peak in the ..pi../sup -/ spectrum and a depression in the ..pi../sup +/ spectrum were observed at zero degrees near the incident beam velocity. The effect is explained in terms of Coulomb interactions between the pions and fragments of the incident beam. Least squares fits to the data using the Coulomb correction formulas of Gyulassy and Kauffman and an effective projectile fragment charge are made. The relationship between these data and previously measured pion production and projectile fragmentation data is discussed. The data are also compared to some theoretical models. A simple expression is given for the differential cross section as a function of the projectile mass, target mass, and beam energy.
Revision of the Coulomb logarithm in the ideal plasma
Mulser, P. Alber, G.; Murakami, M.
2014-04-15
The standard picture of the Coulomb logarithm in the ideal plasma is controversial, the arguments for the lower cut off need revision. The two cases of far subthermal and of far superthermal electron drift motions are accessible to a rigorous analytical treatment. We show that the lower cut off b{sub min} is a function of symmetry and shape of the shielding cloud, it is not universal. In the subthermal case, shielding is spherical and b{sub min} is to be identified with the de Broglie wavelength; at superthermal drift the shielding cloud exhibits cylindrical (axial) symmetry and b{sub min} is the classical parameter of perpendicular deflection. In both situations, the cut offs are determined by the electron-ion encounters at large collision parameters. This is in net contrast to the governing standard interpretation that attributes b{sub min} to the Coulomb singularity at vanishing collision parameters b and, consequently, assigns it universal validity. The origin of the contradictions in the traditional picture is analyzed.
Super-Coulombic atom-atom interactions in hyperbolic media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cortes, Cristian L.; Jacob, Zubin
2017-01-01
Dipole-dipole interactions, which govern phenomena such as cooperative Lamb shifts, superradiant decay rates, Van der Waals forces and resonance energy transfer rates, are conventionally limited to the Coulombic near-field. Here we reveal a class of real-photon and virtual-photon long-range quantum electrodynamic interactions that have a singularity in media with hyperbolic dispersion. The singularity in the dipole-dipole coupling, referred to as a super-Coulombic interaction, is a result of an effective interaction distance that goes to zero in the ideal limit irrespective of the physical distance. We investigate the entire landscape of atom-atom interactions in hyperbolic media confirming the giant long-range enhancement. We also propose multiple experimental platforms to verify our predicted effect with phonon-polaritonic hexagonal boron nitride, plasmonic super-lattices and hyperbolic meta-surfaces as well. Our work paves the way for the control of cold atoms above hyperbolic meta-surfaces and the study of many-body physics with hyperbolic media.
Super-Coulombic atom-atom interactions in hyperbolic media.
Cortes, Cristian L; Jacob, Zubin
2017-01-25
Dipole-dipole interactions, which govern phenomena such as cooperative Lamb shifts, superradiant decay rates, Van der Waals forces and resonance energy transfer rates, are conventionally limited to the Coulombic near-field. Here we reveal a class of real-photon and virtual-photon long-range quantum electrodynamic interactions that have a singularity in media with hyperbolic dispersion. The singularity in the dipole-dipole coupling, referred to as a super-Coulombic interaction, is a result of an effective interaction distance that goes to zero in the ideal limit irrespective of the physical distance. We investigate the entire landscape of atom-atom interactions in hyperbolic media confirming the giant long-range enhancement. We also propose multiple experimental platforms to verify our predicted effect with phonon-polaritonic hexagonal boron nitride, plasmonic super-lattices and hyperbolic meta-surfaces as well. Our work paves the way for the control of cold atoms above hyperbolic meta-surfaces and the study of many-body physics with hyperbolic media.
Coulomb interaction effects on the Majorana states in quantum wires.
Manolescu, A; Marinescu, D C; Stanescu, T D
2014-04-30
The stability of the Majorana modes in the presence of a repulsive interaction is studied in the standard semiconductor wire-metallic superconductor configuration. The effects of short-range Coulomb interaction, which is incorporated using a purely repulsive δ-function to model the strong screening effect due to the presence of the superconductor, are determined within a Hartree-Fock approximation of the effective Bogoliubov-De Gennes Hamiltonian that describes the low-energy physics of the wire. Through a numerical diagonalization procedure we obtain interaction corrections to the single particle eigenstates and calculate the extended topological phase diagram in terms of the chemical potential and the Zeeman energy. We find that, for a fixed Zeeman energy, the interaction shifts the phase boundaries to a higher chemical potential, whereas for a fixed chemical potential this shift can occur either at lower or higher Zeeman energies. These effects can be interpreted as a renormalization of the g-factor due to the interaction. The minimum Zeeman energy needed to realize Majorana fermions decreases with the increasing strength of the Coulomb repulsion. Furthermore, we find that in wires with multi-band occupancy this effect can be enhanced by increasing the chemical potential, i.e. by occupying higher energy bands.
Laser-Driven Recollisions under the Coulomb Barrier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keil, Th.; Popruzhenko, S. V.; Bauer, D.
2016-12-01
Photoelectron spectra obtained from the ab initio solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation can be in striking disagreement with predictions by the strong-field approximation (SFA), not only at low energy but also around twice the ponderomotive energy where the transition from the direct to the rescattered electrons is expected. In fact, the relative enhancement of the ionization probability compared to the SFA in this regime can be several orders of magnitude. We show for which laser and target parameters such an enhancement occurs and for which the SFA prediction is qualitatively good. The enhancement is analyzed in terms of the Coulomb-corrected action along analytic quantum orbits in the complex-time plane, taking soft recollisions under the Coulomb barrier into account. These recollisions in complex time and space prevent a separation into sub-barrier motion up to the "tunnel exit" and subsequent classical dynamics. Instead, the entire quantum path up to the detector determines the ionization probability.
Exact linearized Coulomb collision operator in the moment expansion
Ji, Jeong-Young; Held, Eric D.
2006-10-15
In the moment expansion, the Rosenbluth potentials, the linearized Coulomb collision operators, and the moments of the collision operators are analytically calculated for any moment. The explicit calculation of Rosenbluth potentials converts the integro-differential form of the Coulomb collision operator into a differential operator, which enables one to express the collision operator in a simple closed form for any arbitrary mass and temperature ratios. In addition, it is shown that gyrophase averaging the collision operator acting on arbitrary distribution functions is the same as the collision operator acting on the corresponding gyrophase averaged distribution functions. The moments of the collision operator are linear combinations of the fluid moments with collision coefficients parametrized by mass and temperature ratios. Useful forms involving the small mass-ratio approximation are easily found since the collision operators and their moments are expressed in terms of the mass ratio. As an application, the general moment equations are explicitly written and the higher order heat flux equation is derived.
Coulomb-corrected molecular orbital tomography of nitrogen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhai, Chunyang; He, Lixin; Lan, Pengfei; Zhu, Xiaosong; Li, Yang; Wang, Feng; Shi, Wenjing; Zhang, Qingbin; Lu, Peixiang
2016-03-01
High-order harmonic generation (HHG) from aligned molecules has provided a promising way to probe the molecular orbital with an Ångström resolution. This method, usually called molecular orbital tomography (MOT) replies on a simple assumption of the plane-wave approximation (PW), which has long been questioned due to that PW approximation is known to be valid in the keV energy region. However, the photon energy is usually no more than 100 eV in HHG. In this work, we experimentally reconstruct the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of nitrogen (N2) by using a Coulomb-corrected MOT (CCMOT) method. In our scheme, the molecular continuum states are described by a Coulomb wave function instead of the PW approximation. With CCMOT, the reconstructed orbital is demonstrated to agree well with the theoretical prediction and retain the main features of the HOMO of N2. Compared to the PW approximation method, the CCMOT shows a significant improvement in eliminating the artificial structures caused by PW approximation.
Interatomic Coulombic decay cascades in multiply excited neon clusters
Nagaya, K.; Iablonskyi, D.; Golubev, N. V.; Matsunami, K.; Fukuzawa, H.; Motomura, K.; Nishiyama, T.; Sakai, T.; Tachibana, T.; Mondal, S.; Wada, S.; Prince, K. C.; Callegari, C.; Miron, C.; Saito, N.; Yabashi, M.; Demekhin, Ph. V.; Cederbaum, L. S.; Kuleff, A. I.; Yao, M.; Ueda, K.
2016-01-01
In high-intensity laser light, matter can be ionized by direct multiphoton absorption even at photon energies below the ionization threshold. However on tuning the laser to the lowest resonant transition, the system becomes multiply excited, and more efficient, indirect ionization pathways become operative. These mechanisms are known as interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD), where one of the species de-excites to its ground state, transferring its energy to ionize another excited species. Here we show that on tuning to a higher resonant transition, a previously unknown type of interatomic Coulombic decay, intra-Rydberg ICD occurs. In it, de-excitation of an atom to a close-lying Rydberg state leads to electron emission from another neighbouring Rydberg atom. Moreover, systems multiply excited to higher Rydberg states will decay by a cascade of such processes, producing even more ions. The intra-Rydberg ICD and cascades are expected to be ubiquitous in weakly-bound systems exposed to high-intensity resonant radiation. PMID:27917867
Super-Coulombic atom–atom interactions in hyperbolic media
Cortes, Cristian L.; Jacob, Zubin
2017-01-01
Dipole–dipole interactions, which govern phenomena such as cooperative Lamb shifts, superradiant decay rates, Van der Waals forces and resonance energy transfer rates, are conventionally limited to the Coulombic near-field. Here we reveal a class of real-photon and virtual-photon long-range quantum electrodynamic interactions that have a singularity in media with hyperbolic dispersion. The singularity in the dipole–dipole coupling, referred to as a super-Coulombic interaction, is a result of an effective interaction distance that goes to zero in the ideal limit irrespective of the physical distance. We investigate the entire landscape of atom–atom interactions in hyperbolic media confirming the giant long-range enhancement. We also propose multiple experimental platforms to verify our predicted effect with phonon–polaritonic hexagonal boron nitride, plasmonic super-lattices and hyperbolic meta-surfaces as well. Our work paves the way for the control of cold atoms above hyperbolic meta-surfaces and the study of many-body physics with hyperbolic media. PMID:28120826
Coupling strength in Coulomb and Yukawa one-component plasmas
Ott, T.; Bonitz, M.; Stanton, L. G.; Murillo, M. S.
2014-11-15
In a non-ideal classical Coulomb one-component plasma (OCP), all thermodynamic properties are known to depend only on a single parameter—the coupling parameter Γ. In contrast, if the pair interaction is screened by background charges (Yukawa OCP) the thermodynamic state depends, in addition, on the range of the interaction via the screening parameter κ. How to determine in this case an effective coupling parameter has been a matter of intensive debate. Here we propose a consistent approach for defining and measuring the coupling strength in Coulomb and Yukawa OCPs based on a fundamental structural quantity, the radial pair distribution function (RPDF). The RPDF is often accessible in experiments by direct observation or indirectly through the static structure factor. Alternatively, it is directly computed in theoretical models or simulations. Our approach is based on the observation that the build-up of correlation from a weakly coupled system proceeds in two steps: First, a monotonically increasing volume around each particle becomes devoid of other particles (correlation hole), and second (upon further increase of the coupling), a shell structure emerges around each particle giving rise to growing peaks of the RPDF. Using molecular dynamics simulation, we present a systematic study for the dependence of these features of the RPDF on Γ and κ and derive a simple expression for the effective coupling parameter.
Slave rotor approach to dynamically screened Coulomb interactions in solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krivenko, I. S.; Biermann, S.
2015-04-01
Recent studies of dynamical screening of the electronic Coulomb interactions in solids have revived interest in lattice models of correlated fermions coupled to bosonic degrees of freedom (Hubbard-Holstein-type models). We propose a new dynamical mean-field-based approach to dynamically screened Coulomb interactions. In the effective Anderson-Holstein model, a transformation to slave rotors [S. Florens and A. Georges, Phys. Rev. B 66, 165111 (2002), 10.1103/PhysRevB.66.165111] is performed to decouple the dynamical part of the interaction. This transformation allows for a systematic derivation and analysis of recently introduced approximate schemes for the solution of dynamical impurity problems, in particular, the Bose factor ansatz within the dynamic atomic limit approximation (DALA) with and without Lang-Firsov correction. More importantly still, it suggests an optimized choice for a Bose factor in the sense of the variational principle of Feynman and Peierls. We demonstrate the accuracy of our scheme and present a comparison to calculations within the DALA.
Interatomic Coulombic decay cascades in multiply excited neon clusters.
Nagaya, K; Iablonskyi, D; Golubev, N V; Matsunami, K; Fukuzawa, H; Motomura, K; Nishiyama, T; Sakai, T; Tachibana, T; Mondal, S; Wada, S; Prince, K C; Callegari, C; Miron, C; Saito, N; Yabashi, M; Demekhin, Ph V; Cederbaum, L S; Kuleff, A I; Yao, M; Ueda, K
2016-12-05
In high-intensity laser light, matter can be ionized by direct multiphoton absorption even at photon energies below the ionization threshold. However on tuning the laser to the lowest resonant transition, the system becomes multiply excited, and more efficient, indirect ionization pathways become operative. These mechanisms are known as interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD), where one of the species de-excites to its ground state, transferring its energy to ionize another excited species. Here we show that on tuning to a higher resonant transition, a previously unknown type of interatomic Coulombic decay, intra-Rydberg ICD occurs. In it, de-excitation of an atom to a close-lying Rydberg state leads to electron emission from another neighbouring Rydberg atom. Moreover, systems multiply excited to higher Rydberg states will decay by a cascade of such processes, producing even more ions. The intra-Rydberg ICD and cascades are expected to be ubiquitous in weakly-bound systems exposed to high-intensity resonant radiation.
Interatomic Coulombic decay cascades in multiply excited neon clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagaya, K.; Iablonskyi, D.; Golubev, N. V.; Matsunami, K.; Fukuzawa, H.; Motomura, K.; Nishiyama, T.; Sakai, T.; Tachibana, T.; Mondal, S.; Wada, S.; Prince, K. C.; Callegari, C.; Miron, C.; Saito, N.; Yabashi, M.; Demekhin, Ph. V.; Cederbaum, L. S.; Kuleff, A. I.; Yao, M.; Ueda, K.
2016-12-01
In high-intensity laser light, matter can be ionized by direct multiphoton absorption even at photon energies below the ionization threshold. However on tuning the laser to the lowest resonant transition, the system becomes multiply excited, and more efficient, indirect ionization pathways become operative. These mechanisms are known as interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD), where one of the species de-excites to its ground state, transferring its energy to ionize another excited species. Here we show that on tuning to a higher resonant transition, a previously unknown type of interatomic Coulombic decay, intra-Rydberg ICD occurs. In it, de-excitation of an atom to a close-lying Rydberg state leads to electron emission from another neighbouring Rydberg atom. Moreover, systems multiply excited to higher Rydberg states will decay by a cascade of such processes, producing even more ions. The intra-Rydberg ICD and cascades are expected to be ubiquitous in weakly-bound systems exposed to high-intensity resonant radiation.
Enhancement of the Coulomb collision rate by individual particle wakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baalrud, Scott; Scheiner, Brett
2013-09-01
Charged particles moving in a plasma leave a trailing wake in their electric potential profile associated with the response function of the medium. For superthermal particles, these wakes can cause significant departures from the oft-assumed screened Coulomb potential profile. The wakes extend the interaction length scale beyond the Debye screening length for collisions between fast test particles and field particles in their wake. This can increase the Coulomb collision rate for velocities beyond the thermal speed. To demonstrate this effect, we consider the relaxation rate due to electron-electron collisions of an electron distribution function with initially depleted tails, as is common near boundary sheaths or double layers. This problem is related to Langmuir's paradox. We compare the standard Landau (Fokker-Planck) collision operator, which does not account for wakes, with the Lenard-Balescu collision operator, which includes wake effects through the linear dielectric response function. For this distribution, the linear dielectric is described by the incomplete plasma dispersion function. We compare the collision operators directly as well as the relaxation rate determined from a hybrid kinetic-fluid model. S. D. Baalrud, Phys. Plasmas 20, 012118 (2013).
Influence of the Coulomb Force on Spray Cooling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuhlman, John M.; Kreitzer, Paul J.; Mehra, Deepak; Gray, Donald D.; Yerkes, Kirk L.
2007-01-01
Effects of the Coulomb electrical body force on heat transfer performance of an instrumented spray cooling experiment are reported. Heat transfer performance is documented for a range of spray volume flow rates and heater power levels using the dielectric liquids, FC-72 and HFE-7000, sprayed onto a Thick Film Resistor (TFR) heater; along with flow visualization results using a transparent Indium-Tin Oxide (ITO) heater. Two Coulomb force electrode geometries show modest but consistent improvements in heat transfer (order of 5-15%), but only at heat fluxes where boiling of the liquid film occurs. Flow visualization shows a highly contorted liquid film forming on the heater surface. These flow visualization results are used to aid in the estimation of characteristic time scales governing the effects of surface tension, gravity, heating of the liquid film, and vaporization of the film. For the present dense liquid sprays, it is concluded that none of these time scales are as short as the average time between droplet impacts into a heater surface area equal to the estimated size of the thin, crater-like liquid films formed by a previous droplet impact.
Absence of exponential clustering in quantum Coulomb fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alastuey, A.; Martin, Ph. A.
1989-12-01
We show that the quantum corrections to the classical correlations of a Coulomb fluid do not decay exponentially fast for all values of the thermodynamical parameters. Specifically, the ħ4 term in the Wigner-Kirkwood expansion of the equilibrium charge-charge correlations of the quantum one-component plasma is found to decay like ||r||-10. More generally, using functional integration, we present a diagrammatic representation of the ħ expansion of the correlations in a multicomponent fluid with a locally regularized Coulomb potential and Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics. The ħ2n terms are found to decay algebraically for all n>=2. Furthermore, an analysis of the hierarchy equations for the correlations provides upper bounds that are compatible with the findings of the perturbative expansion. Except for the monopole, all higher-order multipole sum rules do not hold, in general, in the quantum system. This violation of the multipole sum rules as well as the related algebraic tails are due to the intrinsic quantum fluctuations that prevent a perfect organization of the screening clouds. This phenomenon is illustrated in a simpler model where the large-distance correlations between two quantum particles embedded in a classical plasma can be exactly computed.
Coulomb-corrected molecular orbital tomography of nitrogen.
Zhai, Chunyang; He, Lixin; Lan, Pengfei; Zhu, Xiaosong; Li, Yang; Wang, Feng; Shi, Wenjing; Zhang, Qingbin; Lu, Peixiang
2016-03-22
High-order harmonic generation (HHG) from aligned molecules has provided a promising way to probe the molecular orbital with an Ångström resolution. This method, usually called molecular orbital tomography (MOT) replies on a simple assumption of the plane-wave approximation (PW), which has long been questioned due to that PW approximation is known to be valid in the keV energy region. However, the photon energy is usually no more than 100 eV in HHG. In this work, we experimentally reconstruct the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of nitrogen (N2) by using a Coulomb-corrected MOT (CCMOT) method. In our scheme, the molecular continuum states are described by a Coulomb wave function instead of the PW approximation. With CCMOT, the reconstructed orbital is demonstrated to agree well with the theoretical prediction and retain the main features of the HOMO of N2. Compared to the PW approximation method, the CCMOT shows a significant improvement in eliminating the artificial structures caused by PW approximation.
Room temperature Coulomb blockade mediated field emission via self-assembled gold nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Fei; Fang, Jingyue; Chang, Shengli; Qin, Shiqiao; Zhang, Xueao; Xu, Hui
2017-02-01
Coulomb blockade mediated field-emission current was observed in single-electron tunneling devices based on self-assembled gold nanoparticles at 300 K. According to Raichev's theoretical model, by fixing a proper geometric distribution of source, island and drain, the transfer characteristics can be well explained through a combination of Coulomb blockade and field emission. Coulomb blockade and field emission alternately happen in our self-assembled devices. The Coulomb island size derived from the experimental data is in good agreement with the average size of the gold nanoparticles used in the device. The integrated tunneling can be adjusted via a gate electrode.
CESR feedback system using a constant amplitude pulser
Codner, G.; Billing, M.; Meller, R.; Patten, R.; Rogers, J.; Sikora, J.; Sloand, M.; Strohman, C.
1998-12-10
Particle beam feedback system using constant-amplitude, 1000 V, 12 ns pulses has been built to provide longitudinal and horizontal feedback for stabilizing 14 ns spaced bunches for use in CESR (Cornell Electron Storage Ring). The pulse rate is modulated to obtain proportional amplitude control and the pulse arrival time is modulated to obtain both positive and negative kicks. The average repetition rate is limited by pulser power dissipation, but the instantaneous rate may be increased to full duty cycle for short periods of time to handle transients. The pulser drives a 50-ohm stripline kicker so the equivalent peak power at 1000 V is 10 kW. The characteristics of the pulser and its modulator will be described along with the system's operation.
"Coulombic Viscosity" In Granular Materials: Planetary and Astrophysical Implications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marshall, J. R.
1999-01-01
The term "Coulombic viscosity" is introduced here to define an empirically observed phenomenon from experiments conducted in both microgravity, and in ground-based 1-g conditions. In the latter case, a sand attrition device was employed to test the longevity of aeolian materials by creating two intersecting grain-circulation paths or cells that would lead to most of the grain energy being expended on grain-to-grain collisions (simulating dune systems). In the areas in the device where gravitationally-driven grain-slurries recycled the sand, the slurries moved with a boundary-layer impeded motion down the chamber walls. Excessive electrostatic charging of the grains during these experiments was prevented by the use of an a.c. corona (created by a Tesla coil) through which the grains passed on every cycle. This created both positive and negative ions which neutralized the triboelectrically-generated grain charges. When the corona was switched on, the velocity of the wall-attached slurries increased by a factor of two as approximately determined by direct observation. What appeared to be a freely-flowing slurry of grains impeded only by intergranular mechanical friction, had obviously been significantly retarded in its motion by electrostatic forces between the grains; with the charging reduced, the grains were able to move past one another without a flow "viscosity" imposed by the Coulombic intergranular forces. A similar phenomenon was observed during microgravity experiments aboard Space Shuttle in USML-1 & USML-2 spacelabs where freely-suspended clouds of sand were being investigated for their potential to for-m aggregates. In this environment, the grains were also charged electrostatically (by natural processes prior to flight), but were free from the intervention of gravity in their interactions. The grains were dispersed into dense clouds by bursts of air turbulence and allowed to form aggregates as the ballistic and turbulent motions damped out. During this
Last, Isidore; Jortner, Joshua
2004-11-01
In this paper we present a theoretical and computational study of the temporal dynamics and energetics of Coulomb explosion of (CD4)(n) and (CH4)(n) (n=55-4213) molecular heteroclusters in ultraintense (I=10(16)-10(19) W cm(-2)) laser fields, addressing the manifestation of electron dynamics, together with nuclear energetic and kinematic effects on the heterocluster Coulomb instability. The manifestations of the coupling between electron and nuclear dynamics were explored by molecular dynamics simulations for these heteroclusters coupled to Gaussian laser fields (pulse width tau=25 fs), elucidating outer ionization dynamics, nanoplasma screening effects (being significant for I< or =10(17) W cm(-2)), and the attainment of cluster vertical ionization (CVI) (at I=10(17) W cm(-2) for cluster radius R(0)< or =31 A). Nuclear kinematic effects on heterocluster Coulomb explosion are governed by the kinematic parameter eta=q(C)m(A)/q(A)m(C) for (CA(4))(n) clusters (A=H,D), where q(j) and m(j) (j=A,C) are the ionic charges and masses. Nonuniform heterocluster Coulomb explosion (eta >1) manifests an overrun effect of the light ions relative to the heavy ions, exhibiting the expansion of two spatially separated subclusters, with the light ions forming the outer subcluster at the outer edge of the spatial distribution. Important features of the energetics of heterocluster Coulomb explosion originate from energetic triggering effects of the driving of the light ions by the heavy ions (C(4+) for I=10(17)-10(18) W cm(-2) and C(6+) for I=10(19) W cm(-2)), as well as for kinematic effects. Based on the CVI assumption, scaling laws for the cluster size (radius R(0)) dependence of the energetics of uniform Coulomb explosion of heteroclusters (eta=1) were derived, with the size dependence of the average (E(j,av)) and maximal (E(j,M)) ion energies being E(j,av)=aR(0) (2) and E(j,M)=(5a/3)R(0) (2), as well as for the ion energy distributions P(E(j)) proportional to E(j) (1/2); E(j)< or
Efficacy paradox and proportional contextual effect (PCE).
Zhang, Weiya; Doherty, Michael
2017-07-20
The "efficacy paradox" is when the effect of a treatment tested in an RCT, or evidence-based guideline advice, differs markedly from treatment benefits observed in clinical practice. This arises because in RCT reporting and guideline development treatment efficacy is judged by the separation of the treatment group from the placebo group (the specific treatment effect) whereas in clinical practice it is the overall treatment effect, which includes both specific and contextual responses, that patients experience. This paradox causes a disconnect between guidelines and clinical practice and ignores the importance of contextual response in clinical care. This article fully explains and discusses these issues and presents a possible way to reduce the paradox through an alteration in RCT reporting that shifts the focus to overall treatment benefit and the proportion ("proportional contextual effect") that is explained by placebo and contextual effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Proportional reasoning competence among different student populations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wong, King
2012-10-01
A collaborative project between Western Washington University, Rutgers University, and New Mexico State University seeks to understand student's competence level on proportional reasoning. We have been collecting and analyzing data from introductory physics and science education courses using a set of assessment tasks. We utilize the notion of constructs to categorize student thinking according to repetitive patterns. Results suggest that, when students confront ratio and proportion problems, they often experience a gap between the mechanics of the mathematical operations and the conscious understanding of what they are doing. In this poster we will share results of our findings from different courses, institutions, and student populations. Supported by NSF grants DUE-1045227, DUE-1045231, DUE-1045250..
Becedas, Jonathan; Trapero, Juan Ramón; Feliu, Vicente; Sira-Ramirez, Hebertt
2009-06-01
In this paper, we propose a fast online closed-loop identification method combined with an output-feedback controller of the generalized proportional integral (GPI) type for the control of an uncertain flexible robotic arm with unknown mass at the tip, including a Coulomb friction term in the motor dynamics. A fast nonasymptotic algebraic identification method developed in continuous time is used to identify the unknown system parameter and update the designed certainty equivalence GPI controller. In order to verify this method, several informative simulations and experiments are shown.
Gamma heating measurements with proportional counters
Chiu, H.; Bennett, E.F.; Micklich, B.J.
1990-05-01
A new data acquisition technique (the Continuously-varied Bias- voltage Acquisition mode) has been developed and tested for the low-flux broad-energy regime characteristic of existing fusion blanket mock-ups. This method of analysis allows for the acquisition of data spanning several orders of magnitude in energy with a single proportional counter. Utilizing this method, the gamma energy deposition in a mixed neutron and gamma field was measured. 7 refs., 5 figs.
The evolution of anthropoid molar proportions.
Carter, Katherine E; Worthington, Steven
2016-05-20
Developmental processes that underpin morphological variation have become a focus of interest when attempting to interpret macroevolutionary patterns. Recently, the Dental Inhibitory Cascade (DIC) model has been suggested to explain much of the variation in mammalian molar size proportions. We tested the macroevolutionary implications of this model using anthropoid primate species (n=100), focusing on overall morphological patterns, as well as predictions made about molar size variability, direct developmental control, and diet. Of the species sampled, 56 % had centroids that fell within regions of molar proportion morphospace consistent with the DIC model. We also found that the third molar had greater variation in size than either the first or second molars, as expected by the model. Some DIC model predictions were not supported, however, such as the expected proportion of M 2/M 1 when the third molar is absent. Furthermore, we found that some variability in third molar size could not be explained by the influence of the inhibitory cascade. Overall, we found considerable clade-specific differences in relative molar sizes among anthropoid primates, with hominoids and cercopithecins strongly divergent from DIC model predictions, and platyrrhines, colobines, and papionins more consistent with the inhibitory cascade. Finally, we investigated reasons why some clades deviated from DIC model expectations. Adaptations for frugivory (e.g., bunodont cusp relief) appeared to be one driver of relatively larger second molars and have evolved independently in multiple lineages of anthropoids. The DIC model explains some of the variation in anthropoid primate molar proportions. However, there are interesting deviations away from this broad mammalian pattern, particularly in hominoids and cercopithecins, which suggest the model is only one of multiple mechanisms determining morphological variability in mammalian teeth.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lobato, Joanne; Ellis, Amy; Zbiek, Rose Mary
2010-01-01
How do you refute the erroneous claim that all ratios are fractions? This book goes beyond a simple introduction to ratios, proportions, and proportional reasoning. It will help broaden and deepen your mathematical understanding of one of the most challenging topics for students--and teachers--to grasp. It will help you engage your students,…
NASA CONNECT: Proportionality: Modeling the Future
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2000-01-01
'Proportionality: Modeling the Future' is the sixth of seven programs in the 1999-2000 NASA CONNECT series. Produced by NASA Langley Research Center's Office of Education, NASA CONNECT is an award-winning series of instructional programs designed to enhance the teaching of math, science and technology concepts in grades 5-8. NASA CONNECT establishes the 'connection' between the mathematics, science, and technology concepts taught in the classroom and NASA research. Each program in the series supports the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; includes a resource-rich teacher guide; and uses a classroom experiment and web-based activity to complement and enhance the math, science, and technology concepts presented in the program. NASA CONNECT is FREE and the programs in the series are in the public domain. Visit our web site and register. http://connect.larc.nasa.gov 'Proportionality: Modeling the Future', students will examine how patterns, measurement, ratios, and proportions are used in the research, development, and production of airplanes.
Evaluation of Facial Beauty Using Anthropometric Proportions
Milutinovic, Jovana
2014-01-01
The improvement of a patient's facial appearance is one of the main goals of contemporary orthodontic treatment. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the difference in facial proportions between attractive and anonymous females in order to establish objective facial features which are widely considered as beautiful. The study included two groups: first group consisted of 83 Caucasian female subjects between 22 and 28 years of age who were selected from the population of students at the University of Belgrade, and the second group included 24 attractive celebrity Caucasian females. The en face facial photographs were taken in natural head position (NHP). Numerous parameters were recorded on these photographs, in order to establish facial symmetry and correlation with the ideal set of proportions. This study showed significant difference between anonymous and attractive females. Attractive females showed smaller face in general and uniformity of the facial thirds and fifths, and most of the facial parameters meet the criteria of the ideal proportions. PMID:24701166
Learning With Label Proportions via NPSVM.
Qi, Zhiquan; Wang, Bo; Meng, Fan; Niu, Lingfeng
2017-10-01
Recently, learning from label proportions (LLPs), which seeks generalized instance-level predictors merely based on bag-level label proportions, has attracted widespread interest. However, due to its weak label scenario, LLP usually falls into a transductive learning framework accounting for an intractable combinatorial optimization issue. In this paper, we propose a brand new algorithm, called LLPs via nonparallel support vector machine (LLP-NPSVM), to facilitate this dilemma. To harness satisfactory data adaption, instead of transductive learning fashion, our scheme determined instance labels according to two nonparallel hyper-planes under the supervision of label proportion information. In a geometrical view, our approach can be interpreted as an alternative competitive method benefiting from large margin clustering. In practice, LLP-NPSVM can be efficiently addressed by applying two fast sequential minimal optimization paths iteratively. To rationally support the effectiveness of our method, finite termination and monotonic decrease of the proposed LLP-NPSVM procedure were essentially analyzed. Various experiments demonstrated our algorithm enjoys rapid convergence and robust numerical stability, along with best accuracies among several recently developed methods in most cases.
Student Obstacles in Ratio and Proportion Learning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andini, W.; Jupri, Al
2017-02-01
Ratio and proportion are mathematics topics that are learned in elementary school. In the learning process, teachers often found students who have difficulties in learning these topics. Analysing the difficulties on the topics is important for teachers, as an attempt to doa reflection of the learning process and as a reference in devising a learning plan, including for anticipation of the possibility of these barriers that might appear in the next learning process. This research used as the qualitative method, and involved 49 students of grade 5 and one teacher. From the analysis of the data, i.e., student test results and observation of the learning, we found some obstacles that faced by students, such as students confused in understanding about ratio and proportion topic, students found it difficult in completing the problem which have different contexts, the learning material of ratio and proportion topic that presented in textbooks are still partial (not depth), and the lack of ability of the teacher in creating problems.
The relationship between sensory latency and amplitude.
Bodofsky, Elliot B; Cohen, Stephen J; Kumar, Rohini J; Schindelheim, Adam; Gaughan, John
2016-12-01
To prove that the relationship between sensory latencies and amplitudes is useful in determining the severity of neuropathies. This is achieved by deriving a mathematical relationship between sensory distal latency and amplitude. Determine whether sensory amplitudes below predicted correlate with a worse pathology. Patients seen for Nerve Conduction Studies by the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation at Cooper University Hospital between 12/1/12 and 12/31/14 were invited to participate in a prospective database. The median, ulnar and sural sensory latencies and amplitudes were analyzed with both linear and power regression. Patients with amplitudes above and below the regression curve were compared for latency, amplitude and velocity of other nerves. Carpal Tunnel Patients were analyzed to determine whether Median sensory amplitude below predicted correlated with more severe disease. For the Median nerve, Power Regression Analysis showed a stronger correlation (R(2)=0.54) than linear regression (R(2)=0.34). Patients with Median sensory amplitude below the power correlation curve showed significantly longer ulnar sensory latency, and lower sensory amplitude than those above. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome patients with Median sensory amplitude well below predicted by the power relationship showed more advanced disease. For the ulnar and sural sensory nerve, the difference between power and linear regression was not significant. A power regression curve correlates sensory latency and amplitude better than linear regression. The latency amplitude relationship correlates with other parameters of nerve function and severity of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. This implies that below predicted sensory amplitude may indicate worse disease, and could be a useful diagnostic tool. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Time-lapse nanoscopy of friction in the non-Amontons and non-Coulomb regime.
Ishida, Tadashi; Sato, Takaaki; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Oguma, Masatsugu; Itamura, Noriaki; Goda, Keisuke; Sasaki, Naruo; Fujita, Hiroyuki
2015-03-11
Originally discovered by Leonard da Vinci in the 15th century, the force of friction is directly proportional to the applied load (known as Amontons' first law of friction). Furthermore, kinetic friction is independent of the sliding speed (known as Coulomb's law of friction). These empirical laws break down at high normal pressure (due to plastic deformation) and low sliding speed (in the transition regime between static friction and kinetic friction). An important example of this phenomenon is friction between the asperities of tectonic plates on the Earth. Despite its significance, little is known about the detailed mechanism of friction in this regime due to the lack of experimental methods. Here we demonstrate in situ time-lapse nanoscopy of friction between asperities sliding at ultralow speed (∼0.01 nm/s) under high normal pressure (∼GPa). This is made possible by compressing and rubbing a pair of nanometer-scale crystalline silicon anvils with electrostatic microactuators and monitoring its dynamical evolution with a transmission electron microscope. Our analysis of the time-lapse movie indicates that superplastic behavior is induced by decrystallization, plastic deformation, and atomic diffusion at the asperity-asperity interface. The results hold great promise for a better understanding of quasi-static friction under high pressure for geoscience, materials science, and nanotechnology.
Amplitude-dependent station magnitude
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radzyner, Yael; Ben Horin, Yochai; Steinberg, David M.
2016-04-01
Magnitude, a concept first presented by Gutenberg and Richter, adjusts measurements of ground motion for epicentral distance and source depth. Following this principle, the IDC defines the j'th station body wave magnitude for event i as mb(stai,j) = log 10(Aj,i/Tj,i) + V C(Δj,i,hi) , where VC is the Veith-Clawson (VC) correction to compensate for the epicentral distance of the station and the depth of the source. The network magnitude is calculated as the average of station magnitudes. The IDC magnitude estimation is used for event characterization and discrimination and it should be as accurate as possible. Ideally, the network magnitude should be close in value to the station magnitudes. In reality, it is observed that the residuals range between -1 and 1 mu or ±25% of a given mb(neti) value. We show that the residual, mb(neti) -mb(staj,i), depends linearly on log 10(Aj,i/Tj,i), and we correct for this dependence using the following procedure: Calculate a "jackknifed" network magnitude, mbj,n(neti), i.e. an average over all participating stations except station n. Using all measurements at station n, calculate the parameters an, bn of the linear fit of the residual mbj,n(neti) - mb(stan,i to log 10(An,i/Tn,i). For each event i at station n calculate the new station magnitude mbnew(stan,i) = (an + 1)log(An,i/Tn,i) + V C(Δn,i,hi) + bn Calculate the new network magnitude: mbnew(neti) = 1N- ∑ n=1nmbnew(stan,i) The procedure was used on more than two million station-event pairs. Correcting for the station-specific dependence on log amplitude reduces the residuals by roughly a third. We have calculated the spread of the distributions, and compared the original values and those for the corrected magnitudes. The spread is the ratio between the variance of the network magnitudes, and the variance of the residual. Calculations show an increase in the ratio of the variance, meaning that the correction process presented in this document did not lead to loss of variance
Gravity and Yang-Mills amplitude relations
Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Damgaard, Poul H.; Soendergaard, Thomas; FengBo
2010-11-15
Using only general features of the S matrix and quantum field theory, we prove by induction the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye relations that link products of gauge theory amplitudes to gravity amplitudes at tree level. As a bonus of our analysis, we provide a novel and more symmetric form of these relations. We also establish an infinite tower of new identities between amplitudes in gauge theories.
Minimal Basis for Gauge Theory Amplitudes
Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Damgaard, Poul H.; Vanhove, Pierre
2009-10-16
Identities based on monodromy for integrations in string theory are used to derive relations between different color-ordered tree-level amplitudes in both bosonic and supersymmetric string theory. These relations imply that the color-ordered tree-level n-point gauge theory amplitudes can be expanded in a minimal basis of (n-3)exclamation amplitudes. This result holds for any choice of polarizations of the external states and in any number of dimensions.
Discontinuities of multi-Regge amplitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fadin, V. S.
2015-04-01
In the BFKL approach, discontinuities of multiple production amplitudes in invariant masses of produced particles are discussed. It turns out that they are in evident contradiction with the BDS ansatz for n-gluon amplitudes in the planar N = 4 SYM at n ≥ 6. An explicit expression for the NLO discontinuity of the two-to-four amplitude in the invariant mass of two produced gluons is is presented.
Quantification of neonatal amplitude-integrated EEG patterns.
Thorngate, Lauren; Foreman, Shuyuann Wang; Thomas, Karen A
2013-12-01
Amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) is increasingly used in research with premature infants; however, comprehensive interpretation is limited by the lack of simple approaches for reliably quantifying and summarizing the data. Explore operational measures for quantifying continuity and discontinuity, measured by aEEG as components of infant brain function. An exploratory naturalistic study of neonates while in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). One single channel aEEG recording per infant was obtained without disruption of nursing care practices. 24 infants with mean postmenstrual age (PMA) of 33.11 weeks (SD 3.49), average age of 2.62 weeks (SD 1.35) and mean birth weights of 1.39 kg (SD 0.73). Quantification of continuity and discontinuity included bandwidth and lower border of aEEG, calculated proportion of time with signal amplitude below 10 μV, and peak counts. Variance of bandwidth and lower border denoted cycling. Group mean bandwidth was 52.98 μV (SD 27.62). Median peak count in 60 second epochs averaged 3.63 (SD 1.74), while median proportion < 10 μV was 22% (SD 0.20). The group mean of lower border within-subject aggregated medians was 6.20 μV (SD 2.13). Group mean lower border standard deviation was 3.96 μV. Proportion < 10 μV showed a strong negative correlation with the natural log of the lower border median (r = -0.906, p < .0001) after controlling for PMA. This study introduces a novel quantification process by counting peaks and proportion of time < 10 μV. Expanded definitions and analytic techniques will serve to strengthen the application of existing scoring systems for use in naturalistic research settings and clinical practice. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
DVCS amplitude with kinematical twist-3 terms
Radyushkin, A.V.; Weiss, C.
2000-08-01
The authors compute the amplitude of deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) using the calculus of QCD string operators in coordinate representation. To restore the electromagnetic gauge invariance (transversality) of the twist-2 amplitude they include the operators of twist-3 which appear as total derivatives of twist-2 operators. The results are equivalent to a Wandzura-Wilczek approximation for twist-3 skewed parton distributions. They find that this approximation gives a finite result for the amplitude of a longitudinally polarized virtual photon, while the amplitude for transverse polarization is divergent, i.e., factorization breaks down in this term.
Proportional wire calorimeter for magnet pole tips
Kraus, D; Ludlam, T; Renardy, J; Willis, W; Zurfluh, E
1980-01-01
A total absorption calorimeter is designed to have magnetic properties comparable to those of ordinary steel, and thus can be incorporated into the poles of a spectrometer magnet without compromising the field quality. A test device has been built which consists of an iron structure penetrated by a finegrain pattern of holes, each acting as a proportional tube such that 90% of the volume is occupied by iron. Measurements of the energy and space resolution of this device in a high energy beam will be presented.
Neutron spectrometry with He-3 proportional counters
Manolopoulou, M.; Fragopoulou, M.; Stoulos, S.; Vagena, E.; Westmeier, W.; Zamani, M.
2011-07-01
Helium filled proportional counters are widely used in the field of neutron detection and spectrometry. In this work the response of a commercially available He-3 counter is studied experimentally and calculated with Monte Carlo for the neutron energy range from 230 keV up to about 7 MeV. The calculated response of the system is used to determine neutron yield energy distribution emitted from an extended {sup nat}U/Pb assembly irradiated with 1.6 GeV deuterons. The results are in acceptable agreement with the calculated neutron distribution with DCM-DEM code. (authors)
Sensing circuits for multiwire proportional chambers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peterson, H. T.; Worley, E. R.
1977-01-01
Integrated sensing circuits were designed, fabricated, and packaged for use in determining the direction and fluence of ionizing radiation passing through a multiwire proportional chamber. CMOS on sapphire was selected because of its high speed and low power capabilities. The design of the proposed circuits is described and the results of computer simulations are presented. The fabrication processes for the CMOS on sapphire sensing circuits and hybrid substrates are outlined. Several design options are described and the cost implications of each discussed. To be most effective, each chip should handle not more than 32 inputs, and should be mounted on its own hybrid substrate.
Configurational and energy landscape in one-dimensional Coulomb systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varela, Lucas; Téllez, Gabriel; Trizac, Emmanuel
2017-02-01
We study a one-dimensional Coulomb system, where two charged colloids are neutralized by a collection of point counterions, with global neutrality. With temperature being given, two situations are addressed: Either the colloids are kept at fixed positions (canonical ensemble) or the force acting on the colloids is fixed (isobaric-isothermal ensemble). The corresponding partition functions are worked out exactly, in view of determining which arrangement of counterions is optimal. How many counterions should be in the confined segment between the colloids? For the remaining ions outside, is there a left-right symmetry breakdown? We evidence a cascade of transitions as system size is varied in the canonical treatment or as pressure is increased in the isobaric formulation.
Dynamic analysis of a structure with Coulomb friction
Shah, V.N.; Gilmore, C.B.
1982-01-01
A modal superposition method for the dynamic analysis of a structure with Coulomb friction is presented. The finite element method is used to derive the equations of motion, and the nonlinearities due to friction are represented by a pseudoforce vector. A structure standing freely on the ground may slide during a seismic event. The relative displacement response may be divided into two parts: elastic deformation and rigid body motion. The presence of rigid body motion necessitates the inclusion of the higher modes in the transient analysis. Three single degree-of-freedom problems are solved to verify this method. In a fourth problem, the dynamic response of a platform standing freely on the ground is analyzed during a seismic event.
Dynamic analysis of a structure with Coulomb friction
Shah, V.N.; Gilmore, C.B.
1982-01-01
A modal superposition method for the dynamic analysis of a structure with Coulomb friction is presented. The finite element method is used to derive the equations of motion, and the nonlinearities due to friction are represented by pseudo-force vector. A structure standing freely on the ground may slide during a seismic event. The relative displacement response may be divided into two parts: elastic deformation and rigid body motion. The presence of rigid body motion necessitates the inclusion of the higher modes in the transient analysis. Three single degree-of-freedom problems are solved to verify this method. In a fourth problem, the dynamic response of a platform standing freely on the ground is analyzed during a seismic event.
Ultra-high-ohmic microstripline resistors for Coulomb blockade devices.
Lotkhov, Sergey V
2013-06-14
In this paper, we report on the fabrication and low-temperature characterization of ultra-high-ohmic microstripline resistors made of a thin film of weakly oxidized titanium. Nearly linear voltage-current characteristics were measured at temperatures down to T ~ 20 mK for films with sheet resistivities as high as ~7 kΩ, i.e. about an order of magnitude higher than our previous findings for weakly oxidized Cr. Our analysis indicates that such an improvement can help to create an advantageous high-impedance environment for different Coulomb blockade devices. Further properties of the Ti film addressed in this work show the promise of low-noise behavior of the resistors when applied in different realizations of the quantum standard of current.
Coulomb collision model for use in nonthermal plasma simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chap, Andrew M.; Sedwick, Raymond J.
2017-06-01
In kinetic simulations of non-Maxwellian plasmas, the calculation of particle scattering due to Coulomb collisions has no simple approximation. In such simulations, the number of collision interactions a particle experiences in a single time step is typically too large for direct calculation. In this work, the cumulative effect of a series of binary collisions is calculated numerically in a stochastic manner, and heuristic trends are produced as functions of the local plasma parameters. The result is a collision model suitable for implementation into a kinetic plasma simulation. The presence of low-probability, high-angle scattering due to close collision encounters is defined and described, and this effect is demonstrated in a test problem simulation of weakly collisional counterstreaming ion beams.
Anomalous Coulomb drag in bilayer graphene double layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xiaomeng; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Kim, Philip
Bilayer graphene double-layer structure consists of two layers of bilayer graphene separated by atomically thin hexagonal boron nitride (hBN). With a perfect Fermi surface nesting and strong electron-electron interaction (ECoulomb > Ekinetic), such systems offer exciting platforms to study interaction driven phenomena, such as Coulomb drag and exciton condensation. We fabricate ultra-clean encapsulated bilayer graphene double layers with dry pick-up method. Room temperature drag measurement on our devices shows the sign of drag agree with the typical Fermi liquid behavior. However, at lower temperatures, the sign of drag reversed, indicating a new drag mechanism emerges and dominates. We measure this with different geometry, temperature, bias and gating to investigate the origin of such effect and discuss the implication of the drag sign changes.
Coulomb Excitation of the N = 50 nucleus 80Zn
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van de Walle, J.; Aksouh, F.; Ames, F.; Behrens, T.; Bildstein, V.; Blazhev, A.; Cederkäll, J.; Clément, E.; Cocolios, T. E.; Davinson, T.; Delahaye, P.; Eberth, J.; Ekström, A.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Fraile, L. M.; Franchoo, S.; Gernhauser, R.; Georgiev, G.; Habs, D.; Heyde, K.; Huber, G.; Huyse, M.; Ibrahim, F.; Ivanov, O.; Iwanicki, J.; Jolie, J.; Kester, O.; Köster, U.; Kröll, T.; Krücken, R.; Lauer, M.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Lutter, R.; Marsh, B. A.; Mayet, P.; Niedermaier, O.; Nilsson, T.; Pantea, M.; Perru, O.; Raabe, R.; Reiter, P.; Sawicka, M.; Scheit, H.; Schrieder, G.; Schwalm, D.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Sieber, T.; Sletten, G.; Smirnova, N.; Stanoiu, M.; Stefanescu, I.; Thomas, J.-C.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; van Duppen, P.; Verney, D.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Weisshaar, D.; Wenander, F.; Wolf, B. H.; Zielińska, M.
2008-05-01
Neutron rich Zinc isotopes, including the N = 50 nucleus 80Zn, were produced and post-accelerated at the Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility REX-ISOLDE (CERN). Low-energy Coulomb excitation was induced on these isotopes after post-acceleration, yielding B(E2) strengths to the first excited 2+ states. For the first time, an excited state in 80Zn was observed and the 21+ state in 78Zn was established. The measured B(E2,21+-->01+) values are compared to two sets of large scale shell model calculations. Both calculations reproduce the observed B(E2) systematics for the full Zinc isotopic chain. The results for N = 50 isotones indicate a good N = 50 shell closure and a strong Z = 28 proton core polarization. The new results serve as benchmarks to establish theoretical models, predicting the nuclear properties of the doubly magic nucleus 78Ni.
Strong nuclear couplings as a source of Coulomb rainbow suppression
Keeley, N.; Alamanos, N.; Rusek, K.
2010-09-15
A recent measurement of the {sup 11}Be+{sup 64}Zn quasielastic scattering angular distribution exhibits a non-Fresnel-type pattern, in contrast to {sup 6}He+{sup 64}Zn elastic scattering but similar to that for the elastic scattering of {sup 6}He from heavy targets. We show by means of continuum discretized coupled-channels (CDCC) calculations that this unusual behavior of {sup 11}Be is caused by the much greater importance of nuclear coupling to the continuum in {sup 11}Be compared to {sup 6}He, where Coulomb dipole coupling is mainly responsible for the non-Fresnel-like shape, when present. We also show that the dynamic polarization potentials derived from the CDCC calculations seem to follow a universal form as a function of radius.
Coulomb gauge confinement in the heavy quark limit
Popovici, C.; Watson, P.; Reinhardt, H.
2010-05-15
The relationship between the nonperturbative Green's functions of Yang-Mills theory and the confinement potential is investigated. By rewriting the generating functional of quantum chromodynamics in terms of a heavy quark mass expansion in Coulomb gauge, restricting to leading order in this expansion and considering only the two-point functions of the Yang-Mills sector, the rainbow-ladder approximation to the gap and Bethe-Salpeter equations is shown to be exact in this case and an analytic, nonperturbative solution is presented. It is found that there is a direct connection between the string tension and the temporal gluon propagator. Further, it is shown that for the 4-point quark correlation functions, only confined bound states of color-singlet quark-antiquark (meson) and quark-quark (baryon) pairs exist.
Screened Coulomb interactions with non-uniform surface charge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosal, Sandip; Sherwood, John D.
2017-03-01
The screened Coulomb interaction between a pair of infinite parallel planes with spatially varying surface charge is considered in the limit of small electrical potentials for arbitrary Debye lengths. A simple expression for the disjoining pressure is derived in terms of a two-dimensional integral in Fourier space. The integral is evaluated for periodic and random charge distributions and the disjoining pressure is expressed as a sum over Fourier-Bloch reciprocal lattice vectors or in terms of an integral involving the autocorrelation function, respectively. The force between planes with a finite area of uniform charge, a model for the DLVO interaction between finite surfaces, is also calculated. It is shown that the overspill of the charge cloud beyond the region immediately between the charged areas results in a reduction of the disjoining pressure, as reported by us recently in the long Debye length limit for planes of finite width.
Bounded solutions of neutral fermions with a screened Coulomb potential
Castro, Antonio S. de . E-mail: castro@feg.unesp.br
2005-11-01
The intrinsically relativistic problem of a fermion subject to a pseudoscalar screened Coulomb plus a uniform background potential in two-dimensional space-time is mapped into a Sturm-Liouville. This mapping gives rise to an effective Morse-like potential and exact bounded solutions are found. It is shown that the uniform background potential determinates the number of bound-state solutions. The behaviour of the eigenenergies as well as of the upper and lower components of the Dirac spinor corresponding to bounded solutions is discussed in detail and some unusual results are revealed. An apparent paradox concerning the uncertainty principle is solved by recurring to the concepts of effective mass and effective Compton wavelength.
Interatomic Coulombic decay widths of helium trimer: Ab initio calculations
Kolorenč, Přemysl; Sisourat, Nicolas
2015-12-14
We report on an extensive study of interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) widths in helium trimer computed using a fully ab initio method based on the Fano theory of resonances. Algebraic diagrammatic construction for one-particle Green’s function is utilized for the solution of the many-electron problem. An advanced and universal approach to partitioning of the configuration space into discrete states and continuum subspaces is described and employed. Total decay widths are presented for all ICD-active states of the trimer characterized by one-site ionization and additional excitation of an electron into the second shell. Selected partial decay widths are analyzed in detail, showing how three-body effects can qualitatively change the character of certain relaxation transitions. Previously unreported type of three-electron decay processes is identified in one class of the metastable states.
Ultra-high-ohmic microstripline resistors for Coulomb blockade devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lotkhov, Sergey V.
2013-06-01
In this paper, we report on the fabrication and low-temperature characterization of ultra-high-ohmic microstripline resistors made of a thin film of weakly oxidized titanium. Nearly linear voltage-current characteristics were measured at temperatures down to T ˜ 20 mK for films with sheet resistivities as high as ˜7 kΩ, i.e. about an order of magnitude higher than our previous findings for weakly oxidized Cr. Our analysis indicates that such an improvement can help to create an advantageous high-impedance environment for different Coulomb blockade devices. Further properties of the Ti film addressed in this work show the promise of low-noise behavior of the resistors when applied in different realizations of the quantum standard of current.
Configurational and energy landscape in one-dimensional Coulomb systems.
Varela, Lucas; Téllez, Gabriel; Trizac, Emmanuel
2017-02-01
We study a one-dimensional Coulomb system, where two charged colloids are neutralized by a collection of point counterions, with global neutrality. With temperature being given, two situations are addressed: Either the colloids are kept at fixed positions (canonical ensemble) or the force acting on the colloids is fixed (isobaric-isothermal ensemble). The corresponding partition functions are worked out exactly, in view of determining which arrangement of counterions is optimal. How many counterions should be in the confined segment between the colloids? For the remaining ions outside, is there a left-right symmetry breakdown? We evidence a cascade of transitions as system size is varied in the canonical treatment or as pressure is increased in the isobaric formulation.
Finsler-type modification of the Coulomb law
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itin, Yakov; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Perlick, Volker
2014-12-01
Finsler geometry is a natural generalization of pseudo-Riemannian geometry. It can be motivated e.g. by a modified version of the Ehlers-Pirani-Schild axiomatic approach to space-time theory. Also, some scenarios of quantum gravity suggest a modified dispersion relation which could be phrased in terms of Finsler geometry. On a Finslerian space-time, the universality of free fall is still satisfied but local Lorentz invariance is violated in a way not covered by standard Lorentz invariance violation schemes. In this paper we consider a Finslerian modification of Maxwell's equations. The corrections to the Coulomb potential and to the hydrogen energy levels are computed. We find that the Finsler metric corrections yield a splitting of the energy levels. Experimental data provide bounds for the Finsler parameters.
Gribov pendulum in the Coulomb gauge on curved spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Canfora, Fabrizio; Giacomini, Alex; Oliva, Julio
2011-11-01
In this paper the generalization of the Gribov pendulum equation in the Coulomb gauge for curved space-times is analyzed on static spherically symmetric backgrounds. A rigorous argument for the existence and uniqueness of solution is provided in the asymptotically AdS case. The analysis of the strong and weak boundary conditions is equivalent to analyzing an effective one-dimensional Schrödinger equation. Necessary conditions in order for spherically symmetric backgrounds to admit solutions of the Gribov pendulum equation representing copies of the vacuum satisfying the strong boundary conditions are given. It is shown that asymptotically flat backgrounds do not support solutions of the Gribov pendulum equation of this type, while on asymptotically AdS backgrounds such ambiguities can appear. Some physical consequences are discussed.
Relativistic Aharonov{endash}Bohm{endash}Coulomb problem
Hagen, C.R.; Park, D.K.
1996-10-01
The ((2+1)-dimensional) Aharonov{endash}Bohm effect is analyzed for a spin-1/2 particle in the case that a 1/{ital r} potential is present. Scalar and vector couplings are each considered. It is found that the approach in which the flux tube is given a finite radius that is taken to zero only after a matching of boundary conditions does not give physically meaningful results. Specifically, the operations of taking the limit of zero flux tube radius and the Galilean limit do not commute. Thus there appears to be no satisfactory solution of the relativistic Aharonov{endash}Bohm{endash}Coulomb problem using the finite radius flux tube method. Copyright {copyright} 1996 Academic Press, Inc.
Plunger lifetime measurements after Coulomb excitation at intermediate beam energies
Dewald, A.; Hackstein, M.; Rother, W.; Jolie, J.; Melon, B.; Pissulla, T.; Shimbara, Y.; Starosta, K.; Adrich, P.; Amthor, A. M.; Baumann, T.; Bazin, D.; Bowen, M.; Chester, A.; Dunomes, A.; Gade, A.; Galaviz, D.; Glasmacher, T.; Ginter, T.; Hausmann, M.
2009-01-28
Absolute transition probabilities of the first 2{sup +} state in {sup 110,114}Pd were remeasured using the recoil distance Doppler shift technique following projectile Coulomb excitation at intermediate beam energies for the first time. The {sup 110}Pd experiment served to check the novel technique as well as the method used for the data analysis which is based on the examination of {gamma}-ray lineshapes. Whereas the measured B(E2) value for {sup 110}Pd agrees very well with the literature, the value obtained for {sup 114}Pd differs considerably. The data is also used to test a novel concept, called the valence proton symmetry, which allows one to extrapolate nuclear properties to very neutron rich nuclei.
Coulomb-stable triply charged diatomic: HeY3+
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wesendrup, Ralf; Pernpointner, Markus; Schwerdtfeger, Peter
1999-11-01
Accurate relativistic coupled-cluster calculations show that the triply charged species HeY3+ is a stable molecule and represents the lightest diatomic trication that does not undergo a Coulomb fragmentation into charged fragments. The diatomic potential-energy curve is approximated by an extended Morse potential, and vibrational-rotational constants for HeY3+ are predicted (Re=224.3 pm, D0=0.394 eV, ωe=437 cm-1, ωexe=15.8 cm-1, Be=0.877 cm-1). It is further shown that the He-Y3+ bond can basically be described as a charge-induced dipole interaction.
Analytic Coulomb approximations for dynamic multipole polarizabilities and dispersion forces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamm, Gene; Szabo, Attila
1980-03-01
This paper presents a comprehensive and unified treatment of atomic multipole oscillator strengths, dynamic multipole polarizabilities, and dispersion force constants in a variety of Coulomb-like approximations. A theoretically and computationally superior modification of the original Bates-Damgaard (BD) procedure, referred to here simply as the Coulomb approximation (CA), is introduced. An analytic expression for the dynamic multipole polarizability is found which contains as special cases this quantity within the CA, the extended Coulomb approximation (ECA) of Adelman and Szabo, and the quantum defect orbital (QDO) method of Simons. This expression contains model-dependent parameters determined from ground and excited state ionization potentials and is derived using a powerful approach based on the sturmian representation of a generalized Coulomb Green's function. In addition, this result is obtained within the ECA and QDO models through an extension of the novel algebraic procedure previously used in obtaining the static polarizability within the ECA, thus demonstrating the equivalence of the two approaches. Static quadrupole and scalar and tensor dipole polarizabilities for a variety of mono and divalent ground and excited state systems within the CA, ECA, and QDO models are compared, when possible, with recent experimental and accurate theoretical work. Except for quadrupole polarizabilities of light divalent systems, agreement for all models is very good. For ground state systems, best accuracy is obtained using the ECA. Illustrative calculation for the dynamic dipole polarizability at real and imaginary frequencies for the He 11S and 21S systems within the ECA is presented and compared with the definitive results of Glover and Weinhold (GW). For He 11S, despite an 8% error in the predicted static polarizability, scaling the dynamic polarizability to the GW static value shows the frequency dependence to be accurately represented. The analytic nature of the
Slow Interatomic Coulombic Decay of Multiply Excited Neon Clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iablonskyi, D.; Nagaya, K.; Fukuzawa, H.; Motomura, K.; Kumagai, Y.; Mondal, S.; Tachibana, T.; Takanashi, T.; Nishiyama, T.; Matsunami, K.; Johnsson, P.; Piseri, P.; Sansone, G.; Dubrouil, A.; Reduzzi, M.; Carpeggiani, P.; Vozzi, C.; Devetta, M.; Negro, M.; Calegari, F.; Trabattoni, A.; Castrovilli, M. C.; Faccialà, D.; Ovcharenko, Y.; Möller, T.; Mudrich, M.; Stienkemeier, F.; Coreno, M.; Alagia, M.; Schütte, B.; Berrah, N.; Kuleff, A. I.; Jabbari, G.; Callegari, C.; Plekan, O.; Finetti, P.; Spezzani, C.; Ferrari, E.; Allaria, E.; Penco, G.; Serpico, C.; De Ninno, G.; Nikolov, I.; Diviacco, B.; Di Mitri, S.; Giannessi, L.; Prince, K. C.; Ueda, K.
2016-12-01
Ne clusters (˜5000 atoms ) were resonantly excited (2 p →3 s ) by intense free electron laser (FEL) radiation at FERMI. Such multiply excited clusters can decay nonradiatively via energy exchange between at least two neighboring excited atoms. Benefiting from the precise tunability and narrow bandwidth of seeded FEL radiation, specific sites of the Ne clusters were probed. We found that the relaxation of cluster surface atoms proceeds via a sequence of interatomic or intermolecular Coulombic decay (ICD) processes while ICD of bulk atoms is additionally affected by the surrounding excited medium via inelastic electron scattering. For both cases, cluster excitations relax to atomic states prior to ICD, showing that this kind of ICD is rather slow (picosecond range). Controlling the average number of excitations per cluster via the FEL intensity allows a coarse tuning of the ICD rate.
Coulomb interaction effect in tilted Weyl fermion in two dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isobe, Hiroki; Nagaosa, Naoto
Weyl fermions with tilted linear dispersions characterized by several different velocities appear in some systems including the quasi-two-dimensional organic semiconductor α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3 and three-dimensional WTe2. The Coulomb interaction between electrons modifies the velocities in an essential way in the low energy limit, where the logarithmic corrections dominate. Taking into account the coupling to both the transverse and longitudinal electromagnetic fields, we derive the renormalization group equations for the velocities of the tilted Weyl fermions in two dimensions, and found that they increase as the energy decreases and eventually hit the velocity of light c to result in the Cherenkov radiation. Especially, the system restores the isotropic Weyl cone even when the bare Weyl cone is strongly tilted and the velocity of electrons becomes negative in certain directions.
Deep inelastic scattering at energies near the Coulomb barrier
Gehring, J.; Rehm, K.E.; Schiffer, J.P.
1993-10-01
A large yield for a process that appears to have many of the features of deep inelastic scattering has been observed at energies, near the Coulomb barrier in the systems {sup 112,124}Sn + {sup 58}Ni by Wolfs et al. In order to better understand the mechanisms by which energy dissipation takes place close to the barrier, we have extended the measurements of Wolfs to the system {sup 136}Xe + {sup 64}Ni. The use of inverse kinematics in the present measurements resulted in better mass and energy resolution due to reduced target effects and in more complete angular coverage. We have obtained angular distributions, mass distributions, and total cross sections for deep inelastic scattering at two energies near the barrier. The results on the closed neutron shell nucleus {sup 136}Xe complement those from the closed proton shell Sn nuclei.
Slow Interatomic Coulombic Decay of Multiply Excited Neon Clusters.
Iablonskyi, D; Nagaya, K; Fukuzawa, H; Motomura, K; Kumagai, Y; Mondal, S; Tachibana, T; Takanashi, T; Nishiyama, T; Matsunami, K; Johnsson, P; Piseri, P; Sansone, G; Dubrouil, A; Reduzzi, M; Carpeggiani, P; Vozzi, C; Devetta, M; Negro, M; Calegari, F; Trabattoni, A; Castrovilli, M C; Faccialà, D; Ovcharenko, Y; Möller, T; Mudrich, M; Stienkemeier, F; Coreno, M; Alagia, M; Schütte, B; Berrah, N; Kuleff, A I; Jabbari, G; Callegari, C; Plekan, O; Finetti, P; Spezzani, C; Ferrari, E; Allaria, E; Penco, G; Serpico, C; De Ninno, G; Nikolov, I; Diviacco, B; Di Mitri, S; Giannessi, L; Prince, K C; Ueda, K
2016-12-30
Ne clusters (∼5000 atoms) were resonantly excited (2p→3s) by intense free electron laser (FEL) radiation at FERMI. Such multiply excited clusters can decay nonradiatively via energy exchange between at least two neighboring excited atoms. Benefiting from the precise tunability and narrow bandwidth of seeded FEL radiation, specific sites of the Ne clusters were probed. We found that the relaxation of cluster surface atoms proceeds via a sequence of interatomic or intermolecular Coulombic decay (ICD) processes while ICD of bulk atoms is additionally affected by the surrounding excited medium via inelastic electron scattering. For both cases, cluster excitations relax to atomic states prior to ICD, showing that this kind of ICD is rather slow (picosecond range). Controlling the average number of excitations per cluster via the FEL intensity allows a coarse tuning of the ICD rate.
Exact Extremal Statistics in the Classical 1D Coulomb Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dhar, Abhishek; Kundu, Anupam; Majumdar, Satya N.; Sabhapandit, Sanjib; Schehr, Grégory
2017-08-01
We consider a one-dimensional classical Coulomb gas of N -like charges in a harmonic potential—also known as the one-dimensional one-component plasma. We compute, analytically, the probability distribution of the position xmax of the rightmost charge in the limit of large N . We show that the typical fluctuations of xmax around its mean are described by a nontrivial scaling function, with asymmetric tails. This distribution is different from the Tracy-Widom distribution of xmax for Dyson's log gas. We also compute the large deviation functions of xmax explicitly and show that the system exhibits a third-order phase transition, as in the log gas. Our theoretical predictions are verified numerically.
Classical Kepler-Coulomb problem on SO(2, 2) hyperboloid
Petrosyan, D. Pogosyan, G. S.
2013-10-15
In the present work, the problem of the motion of the classical particle in the Kepler-Coulomb field in three-dimensional hyperbolic space H{sub 2}{sup 2}: z{sub 2}{sup 0} + z{sub 2}{sup 1} - z{sub 2}{sup 2} - z{sub 2}{sup 3} = R{sup 2} is solved in the framework of Hamilton-Jacobi equation. The requirements for the existence of bounded motion of particle are formulated. The equation of the trajectory of particle is obtained, and it is shown that all the finite trajectories are closed. It is also demonstrated that under the certain values (zero or negative) of the separation constant A the fall of the particle onto the center takes place.
Coulomb-blockade and Pauli-blockade magnetometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Széchenyi, Gábor; Pályi, András
2017-01-01
Scanning-probe magnetometry is a valuable experimental tool to investigate magnetic phenomena at the micro- and nanoscale. We theoretically analyze the possibility of measuring magnetic fields via the electrical current flowing through quantum dots. We characterize the shot-noise-limited magnetic-field sensitivity of two devices: a single dot in the Coulomb blockade regime, and a double dot in the Pauli blockade regime. Constructing such magnetometers using carbon nanotube quantum dots would benefit from the large, strongly anisotropic and controllable g tensors, the low abundance of nuclear spins, and the small detection volume allowing for nanoscale spatial resolution; we estimate that a sensitivity below 1 μ T/√{Hz} can be achieved with this material. As quantum dots have already proven to be useful as scanning-probe electrometers, our proposal highlights their potential as hybrid sensors having in situ switching capability between electrical and magnetic sensing.
Quantum Coulomb systems: some exact results in the atomic limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ballenegger, V.; Martin, Ph. A.
2002-04-01
We review a number of exact results concerning the recombined electron-proton gas. The recombination problem can be formulated in precise terms in the atomic limit. In this limit one lets the density and the temperature tend to zero in a coupled way so that the resulting energy-entropy balance favors the formation of certain chemical species. This enables to develop a clear understanding of the dielectric versus conducting behavior in the system. In particular, we give a first principle derivation of the dielectric constant of the dilute atomic gas without presupposing the existence of atoms. The analysis relies on the path integral representation of the Coulomb gas together with Mayer diagrammatic techniques.
First-principles calculations of shear moduli for Monte Carlo-simulated Coulomb solids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ogata, Shuji; Ichimaru, Setsuo
1990-01-01
The paper presents a first-principles study of the shear modulus tensor for perfect and imperfect Coulomb solids. Allowance is made for the effects of thermal fluctuations for temperatures up to the melting conditions. The present theory treats the cases of the long-range Coulomb interaction, where volume fluctuations should be avoided in the Ewald sums.
First-principles calculations of shear moduli for Monte Carlo-simulated Coulomb solids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ogata, Shuji; Ichimaru, Setsuo
1990-01-01
The paper presents a first-principles study of the shear modulus tensor for perfect and imperfect Coulomb solids. Allowance is made for the effects of thermal fluctuations for temperatures up to the melting conditions. The present theory treats the cases of the long-range Coulomb interaction, where volume fluctuations should be avoided in the Ewald sums.
Three-body Coulomb systems using generalized angular-momentum S states
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitten, R. C.; Sims, J. S.
1974-01-01
An expansion of the three-body Coulomb potential in generalized angular-momentum eigenfunctions developed earlier by one of the authors is used to compute energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of bound S states of three-body Coulomb systems. The results for He, H(-), e(-)e(+)e(-), and pmu(-)p are compared with the results of other computational approaches.
Effects of Coulomb Interactions on Disordered Two-Dimensional Systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Green, Mark Christopher
This dissertation is divided into two parts. Part I examines the effects of screening by a metallic electrode on the Coulomb gap, and related properties. The computer model restricts electrons to the lattice points of a two -dimensional square lattice. Disorder results from a random potential energy assigned to each lattice site. Screening is by image charges resulting from a simulated metal plate placed at a distance h/2 from the electron surface, with image charges a distance h from the electrons. The results show the single-particle density of states and the single-particle density of excitations as a function of the distance h. Part II relates to recent experiments on mesoscopic metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors ^* (MOSFETs). The experimental results show sharp peaks in the source-drain current as a function of the gate voltage. The peaks are believed to be due to coherent tunneling between the source and drain electrodes, via a localized state near the center. The structure of such peaks at low temperatures is expected to be Lorentzian, but the observed peaks had a non-Lorentzian character, and also exhibited resolvable secondary peaks on the shoulders of the main peak. These features were interpreted as due to Coulomb interactions between the tunneling site and electrons which may enter or exit the localized states during the experiment and excitations internal to the system. We have performed computer simulations based upon the above model. The results, while not entirely conclusive, seemed to verify the approach taken. ftn^dag Supported in part by the San Diego Supercomputer Center. ^SSupported in part by TRW, Space and Defense Sector. *A. B. Fowler, G. L. Timp, J. J. Wainer and R. A. Webb, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 138 (1986).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Shi-Wu; Peng, Guang-Xiong
2012-06-01
The color-flavor locked (CFL) strangelets have been investigated in a new quark model with linear confinement and one-gluon-exchange interactions. Considering Coulomb energy, we have studied the properties of three kinds of CFL strangelets, namely, positively charged, negatively charged and nearly neutral CFL strangelets. It is found that the one-gluon-exchange effect lowers the energy of a strangelet considerably and thus makes it much more stable than without considering the effect. The charge of a positive strangelet is larger than 0.15A2/3 with A being the baryon number, but smaller than that in bag model. The charge of a negatively charged or nearly neutral CFL strangelet is nearly proportional to A1/3.
Kalman-predictive-proportional-integral-derivative (KPPID)
Fluerasu, A.; Sutton, M.
2004-12-17
With third generation synchrotron X-ray sources, it is possible to acquire detailed structural information about the system under study with time resolution orders of magnitude faster than was possible a few years ago. These advances have generated many new challenges for changing and controlling the state of the system on very short time scales, in a uniform and controlled manner. For our particular X-ray experiments on crystallization or order-disorder phase transitions in metallic alloys, we need to change the sample temperature by hundreds of degrees as fast as possible while avoiding over or under shooting. To achieve this, we designed and implemented a computer-controlled temperature tracking system which combines standard Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) feedback, thermal modeling and finite difference thermal calculations (feedforward), and Kalman filtering of the temperature readings in order to reduce the noise. The resulting Kalman-Predictive-Proportional-Integral-Derivative (KPPID) algorithm allows us to obtain accurate control, to minimize the response time and to avoid over/under shooting, even in systems with inherently noisy temperature readings and time delays. The KPPID temperature controller was successfully implemented at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratories and was used to perform coherent and time-resolved X-ray diffraction experiments.
Energy Proportionality for Disk Storage Using Replication
Kim, Jinoh; Rotem, Doron
2010-09-09
Energy saving has become a crucial concern in datacenters as several reports predict that the anticipated energy costs over a three year period will exceed hardware acquisition. In particular, saving energy for storage is of major importance as storage devices (and cooling them off) may contribute over 25 percent of the total energy consumed in a datacenter. Recent work introduced the concept of energy proportionality and argued that it is a more relevant metric than just energy saving as it takes into account the tradeoff between energy consumption and performance. In this paper, we present a novel approach, called FREP (Fractional Replication for Energy Proportionality), for energy management in large datacenters. FREP includes areplication strategy and basic functions to enable flexible energy management. Specifically, our method provides performance guarantees by adaptively controlling the power states of a group of disks based on observed and predicted workloads. Our experiments, using a set of real and synthetic traces, show that FREP dramatically reduces energy requirements with a minimal response time penalty.
Proportionality and quantitative relationships in physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gamble, R.
1986-11-01
Considers some aspects of quantitative relationships involved in learning physics. These are proportionality, various kinds of equality and the need for generality. The distinctions may seem to some extent artificial, for the physics curriculum is very much a seamless robe. However, some distinguishing is necessary if the physics curriculum is to be examined with regard to pupil outcomes. Knowledge relevant to proportionality and other aspects of quantitative relationships (which is often perhaps implicitly assumed) should be subsumed by the successful learning of physics: as such it need not feature in summative assessment and does not seem to do so in practice. If, however, some children fail to learn much physics theory, for whatever reason, they could be far more aware of the difficulties involved that are either their teachers or their more successful colleagues. It could be the case that some children become confused or demotivated by some of the various aspects of quantitative relationships and so remain confused or ignorant as regard the intended outcomes of the curriculum. The literature indicates that many children do indeed remain confused and/or ignorant (e.g. see Gilbert and Watts 1983).
Viking-Age Sails: Form and Proportion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bischoff, Vibeke
2017-01-01
Archaeological ship-finds have shed much light on the design and construction of vessels from the Viking Age. However, the exact proportions of their sails remain unknown due to the lack of fully preserved sails, or other definite indicators of their proportions. Key Viking-Age ship-finds from Scandinavia—the Oseberg Ship, the Gokstad Ship and Skuldelev 3—have all revealed traces of rigging. In all three finds, the keelson—with the mast position—is preserved, together with fastenings for the sheets and the tack, indicating the breadth of the sail. The sail area can then be estimated based on practical experience of how large a sail the specific ship can carry, in conjunction with hull form and displacement. This article presents reconstructions of the form and dimensions of rigging and sail based on the archaeological finds, evidence from iconographic and written sources, and ethnographic parallels with traditional Nordic boats. When these sources are analysed, not only do the similarities become apparent, but so too does the relative disparity between the archaeological record and the other sources. Preferential selection in terms of which source is given the greatest merit is therefore required, as it is not possible to afford them all equal value.
Viking-Age Sails: Form and Proportion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bischoff, Vibeke
2017-04-01
Archaeological ship-finds have shed much light on the design and construction of vessels from the Viking Age. However, the exact proportions of their sails remain unknown due to the lack of fully preserved sails, or other definite indicators of their proportions. Key Viking-Age ship-finds from Scandinavia—the Oseberg Ship, the Gokstad Ship and Skuldelev 3—have all revealed traces of rigging. In all three finds, the keelson—with the mast position—is preserved, together with fastenings for the sheets and the tack, indicating the breadth of the sail. The sail area can then be estimated based on practical experience of how large a sail the specific ship can carry, in conjunction with hull form and displacement. This article presents reconstructions of the form and dimensions of rigging and sail based on the archaeological finds, evidence from iconographic and written sources, and ethnographic parallels with traditional Nordic boats. When these sources are analysed, not only do the similarities become apparent, but so too does the relative disparity between the archaeological record and the other sources. Preferential selection in terms of which source is given the greatest merit is therefore required, as it is not possible to afford them all equal value.