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Sample records for amputated upper limb

  1. Upper limb amputations and prostheses.

    PubMed

    Beasley, R W; de Bese, G M

    1986-07-01

    The management of amputations is an important area of surgery of the hand and demands the same measured judgment, global perspective, and technical skill of any other reconstructive procedure. The needs of each patient are different, even when physical losses are similar. In terms of physical impairment, the bilateral hand amputee is a totally different problem than the unilateral. Logical choice requires knowledge of and consideration of all the alternatives, including prosthetic fitting potentials. As surgical procedures often are irreversible, it is important that the best master plan be devised as early as possible. Major reconstructions for the partially amputated hand and prosthetic fitting usually have a remarkably common physical goal--restoration of a simple vise mechanism. Today, this goal must include restoration of a socially acceptable presentation of the constantly exposed hands. To many patients in our mobile and competitive society, the latter will be their greater need. Both active and passive prosthetic devices are functional; they simply meet different needs and each has advantages and disadvantages. The usefulness of motorized units for unilateral amputees remains severely limited as all such devices are "second-thought" mechanisms having no sensory feedback, an indispensable requirement for automatic control. Hand prostheses are playing an increasingly important role in the treatment of amputees. The surgeon charged with primary responsibility of care must be knowledgeable about them. With the rapid changes in our work force and the ever-increasing mobility of our society, it is unrealistic to ignore or deny that a grotesque or badly deformed hand is a serious socioeconomic liability. The needs of each patient are different, but the prosthetic needs of most patients in the future will include mechanically simple devices of socially acceptable appearance.

  2. Paradoxical embolus: an unusual indication for upper limb amputation.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, S. K.; Tomlinson, M.; Anjum, A.; Quarmby, J.

    2001-01-01

    Paradoxical emboli occur when venous embolic material passes into the arterial circulation (via a right-to-left cardiac shunt). The association of paradoxical emboli and arterial ischaemia has been described previously, especially with respect to cerebral infarcts. We describe a case in which double paradoxical emboli following a long haul flight, resulted in emergency amputation of an upper limb. Amputation resulting from a paradoxical embolus has not previously been described. Images Figure 1 PMID:11777131

  3. Prevalence and Characteristics of Phantom Limb Pain and Residual Limb Pain in the Long Term after Upper Limb Amputation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmond, Deirdre M.; MacLachlan, Malcolm

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to describe the prevalence and characteristics of phantom limb pain and residual limb pain after upper limb amputation. One-hundred and forty-one participants (139 males; mean age 74.8 years; mean time since amputation 50.1 years) completed a self-report questionnaire assessing residual and phantom limb pain experience. Prevalence…

  4. Prevalence and Characteristics of Phantom Limb Pain and Residual Limb Pain in the Long Term after Upper Limb Amputation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmond, Deirdre M.; MacLachlan, Malcolm

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to describe the prevalence and characteristics of phantom limb pain and residual limb pain after upper limb amputation. One-hundred and forty-one participants (139 males; mean age 74.8 years; mean time since amputation 50.1 years) completed a self-report questionnaire assessing residual and phantom limb pain experience. Prevalence…

  5. [Tests of hand functionality in upper limb amputation with prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Bazzini, G; Orlandini, D; Moscato, T A; Nicita, D; Panigazzi, M

    2007-01-01

    The need for standardized instruments for clinical measurements has become pressing in the fields of occupational rehabilitation and ergonomics. This is particularly the case for instruments that allow a quantitative evaluation of upper limb function, and especially hand function in patients who have undergone an amputation and then application of an upper limb prosthesis. This study presents a review of the main tests used to evaluate hand function, with a critical analysis of their use in subjects with an upper limb prosthesis. The tests are divided into: tests to evaluate strength, tests to evaluate co-ordination and dexterity, tests of global or overall function, and tests proposed specifically for subjects with an upper limb prosthesis. Of the various tests presented, the authors give their preference to the Bimanual Functional Assessment, Abilhand and/or the ADL Questionnaire, because of the practical usefulness, clinimetric features, simplicity and ease of administration of these tests.

  6. Proposal of bioinstrumentation using flex sensor for amputated upper limb.

    PubMed

    Mori, Takahiko; Tanaka, Yuya; Mito, Misaki; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Katane, Daisuke; Torishima, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Yukiyo; Hara, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    We previously proposed a new bioinstrumentation using the shape deformation of the amputated upper limbs without using the myoelectricity generated on the skin of the upper limbs. However many electronic parts were required owing to a bridge circuit and multi-amplifier circuits so as to amplify a tiny voltage of strain gages. Moreover, the surplus heat might occur by the overcurrent owing to low resistance value of strain gages. Therefore, in this study, we apply a flex sensor to this system instead of strain gages to solve the above problems.

  7. Prevalence and characteristics of phantom limb pain and residual limb pain in the long term after upper limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Desmond, Deirdre M; Maclachlan, Malcolm

    2010-09-01

    This study aims to describe the prevalence and characteristics of phantom limb pain and residual limb pain after upper limb amputation. One-hundred and forty-one participants (139 males; mean age 74.8 years; mean time since amputation 50.1 years) completed a self-report questionnaire assessing residual and phantom limb pain experience. Prevalence of phantom limb pain during the week preceding assessment was 42.6% (60 of 141). Prevalence of residual limb pain was 43.3% (61 of 141). More than one third of these had some pain constantly or most days. Phantom limb pain was commonly described as 'discomforting' (31 of 60) and associated with 'a little bit' of lifestyle interference (23 of 60). Residual limb pain was most often described as 'discomforting' (27 of 61) or 'distressing' (19 of 61) and was typically associated with low to moderate levels of lifestyle interference. Assessment of multiple dimensions of postamputation pain in the long term after upper limb amputation is warranted.

  8. Successful revascularisation of near total amputation of the upper limb after ten hours of warm ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Merican, A M; Kwan, M K; Cheok, C Y; Wong, E L W; Sara, T A

    2005-06-01

    Near total amputation of the upper limb if unsalvageable would cause severe disability. However, delayed revascularisation can be life threatening. We report two cases of revascularisation of the upper limb following near total amputation that was successful and functional after a warm ischaemic time of ten hours. The first was a traction avulsion injury of the arm leaving major nerves contused but in continuity. The second was a sharp injury through the mid-forearm attached by only a bridge of skin. Attempting revascularisation of a proximal injury beyond 6 hours, in selected cases is worthwhile.

  9. Timed activity performance in persons with upper limb amputation: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda; Borgia, Mathew; Acluche, Frantzy

    2017-05-06

    55 subjects with upper limb amputation were administered the T-MAP twice within one week. To develop a timed measure of activity performance for persons with upper limb amputation (T-MAP); examine the measure's internal consistency, test-retest reliability and validity; and compare scores by prosthesis use. Measures of activity performance for persons with upper limb amputation are needed The time required to perform daily activities is a meaningful metric that implication for participation in life roles. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated. Construct validity was examined by comparing scores by amputation level. Exploratory analyses compared sub-group scores, and examined correlations with other measures. Scale alpha was 0.77, ICC was 0.93. Timed scores differed by amputation level. Subjects using a prosthesis took longer to perform all tasks. T-MAP was not correlated with other measures of dexterity or activity, but was correlated with pain for non-prosthesis users. The timed scale had adequate internal consistency and excellent test-retest reliability. Analyses support reliability and construct validity of the T-MAP. 2c "outcomes" research. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. [Cross-hand replantation in bilateral upper limb amputation: An anatomical emergency].

    PubMed

    Andre, A; Rongieres, M; Laffosse, J-M; Pailhe, R; Lauwers, F; Grolleau, J-L

    2015-08-01

    Bilateral amputations of upper limbs are excessively rare clinical situations. We report an exceptional clinical case of bilateral amputation of upper limbs at different levels: destruction of the right hand and left transhumeral amputation in a patient after an attempted suicide on train lines. This special situation led us to perform a cross-hand replantation of the left hand to the right forearm. Only 4 other similar cases have been published in the literature. Once the surgical indication had been formulated collectively, and taking into account all the ethical issues surrounding such a decision, we had to solve the issue of inverting anatomical structures in emergency. We have provided a detailed description of our surgical technique. The aim was to save at least one organ used for grasping. The result obtained is presented and reviewed.

  11. Phantom limb perception interferes with motor imagery after unilateral upper-limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Yuanyuan; Guo, Xiaoli; Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Flor, Herta; Tong, Shanbao

    2016-02-16

    A potential contributor to impaired motor imagery in amputees is an alteration of the body schema as a result of the presence of a phantom limb. However, the nature of the relationship between motor imagery and phantom experiences remains unknown. In this study, the influence of phantom limb perception on motor imagery was investigated using a hand mental rotation task by means of behavioral and electrophysiological measures. Compared with healthy controls, significantly prolonged response time for both the intact and missing hand were observed specifically in amputees who perceived a phantom limb during the task but not in amputees without phantom limb perception. Event-related desynchronization of EEG in the beta band (beta-ERD) in central and parietal areas showed an angular disparity specifically in amputees with phantom limb perception, with its source localized in the right inferior parietal lobule. The response time as well as the beta-ERD values were significantly positively correlated with phantom vividness. Our results suggest that phantom limb perception during the task is an important interferential factor for motor imagery after amputation and the interference might be related to a change of the body representation resulting from an unnatural posture of the phantom limb.

  12. Osseointegration amputation prostheses on the upper limbs: methods, prosthetics and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Stewe; Caine-Winterberger, Kerstin; Brånemark, Rickard

    2011-06-01

    The osseointegration programme for upper extremity amputation started in Sweden in 1990, when a titanium fixture was first implanted into a thumb. This method has since been used for transhumeral and below-elbow amputation. The treatment involves two surgical procedures. During the first a titanium fixture is surgically attached to the skeleton, and a second procedure six months later involves a skin penetrating abutment to which the prosthesis is attached. To describe the osseointegration procedure for surgery, prosthetics and rehabilitation. Patients with short stumps and previous problems with prosthetic fitting were selected. From 1990 to April 2010, 37 upper limb cases were treated and fitted with prosthesis: 10 thumbs, 1 partial hand, 10 transradial and 16 transhumeral amputations. Of these, 7 patients are currently not prosthetic users. Patients indicated that function and quality of life had improved since osseointegration. Osseointegration is an important platform for present and future prosthetic technology. The prosthetic situation is improved due to the stable fixation, freedom of motion and functionality. The two-stage osseointegration procedure has the potential to change the rehabilitation strategy for selected upper limb amputees. The method eliminates the need for a socket and the prosthesis will always fit. The stable prosthetic fixation and increased freedom of motion generates improved function. Specially designed components and rehabilitation procedures have been developed.

  13. Cortical motor activity and reorganization following upper-limb amputation and subsequent targeted reinnervation☆

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Albert; Yao, Jun; Kuiken, Todd; Dewald, Julius P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have postulated that the amount of brain reorganization following peripheral injuries may be correlated with negative symptoms or consequences. However, it is unknown whether restoring effective limb function may then be associated with further changes in the expression of this reorganization. Recently, targeted reinnervation (TR), a surgical technique that restores a direct neural connection from amputated sensorimotor nerves to new peripheral targets such as muscle, has been successfully applied to upper-limb amputees. It has been shown to be effective in restoring both peripheral motor and sensory functions via the reinnervated nerves as soon as a few months after the surgery. However, it was unclear whether TR could also restore normal cortical motor representations for control of the missing limb. To answer this question, we used high-density electroencephalography (EEG) to localize cortical activity related to cued motor tasks generated by the intact and missing limb. Using a case study of 3 upper-limb amputees, 2 of whom went through pre and post-TR experiments, we present unique quantitative evidence for the re-mapping of motor representations for the missing limb closer to their original locations following TR. This provides evidence that an effective restoration of peripheral function from TR can be linked to the return of more normal cortical expression for the missing limb. Therefore, cortical mapping may be used as a potential guide for monitoring rehabilitation following peripheral injuries. PMID:24273732

  14. Early delayed amputation: a paradigm shift in the limb-salvage time line for patients with major upper-limb injury.

    PubMed

    Burdette, Todd E; Long, Sarah A; Ho, Oscar; Demas, Chris; Bell, John-Erik; Rosen, Joseph M

    2009-01-01

    Patients with major injuries to the upper limbs sometimes fail to achieve successful limb salvage. During the attempt to fashion a functional limb, multiple painful procedures may be ventured. Despite the best efforts of surgeons and therapists, a nonfunctioning or painful upper limb may remain in place for many months or years before late delayed amputation and progression to productive rehabilitation occur. We present three patient cases that illustrate failed upper-limb salvage. In each case, patients expressed a desire for amputation at 6 months after their injury. To reduce the pain and suffering that patients with failed limb salvage endure, we propose a paradigm shift in the limb-salvage time line. We suggest that patients be evaluated for early delayed amputation 6 months after their injury.

  15. Punitive limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Mavroforou, Anna; Malizos, Konstantinos; Karachalios, Theofilos; Chatzitheofilou, Konstantinos; Giannoukas, Athanasios D

    2014-10-01

    Limb amputation has been carried out through the ages as a punitive method in various parts of the world. This article highlights the historical and societal background associated with the use of punitive limb amputation. We performed an extensive electronic search of the pertinent literature augmented with a hand-search of additional sources. Evidence for punitive amputation is available as early as the court of the Babylonian Code of King Hammurabi (circa 1750 Before the Common Era [BCE]), which imposed punitive limb amputations on slaves who used force against free citizens. Other reports provided evidence that punitive amputation was used as early as the 4th century BCE in ancient Peru. Limb amputation restored law and order during the Roman and Byzantine periods. Amputation as a punitive instrument prevailed in Europe throughout the 17th century. During the Enlightenment, the intellectual movement in Europe approached criminal law from a humanistic perspective, incorporated it into societal practice, and promoted its preventive dimensions. Punitive limb amputation still exists in several Arab and African countries. Amputation as a punitive or correctional method has its roots in old civilizations. It has been used through the ages in various parts of the world. While it has been abandoned in modern western societies, punitive amputation is still used in several third-world countries.

  16. Reliability, Validity, and Responsiveness of the QuickDASH in Patients With Upper Limb Amputation.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda; Borgia, Matthew

    2015-09-01

    To examine the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the shortened version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) questionnaire in persons with upper limb amputation. Cross-sectional and longitudinal. Three sites participating in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Home Study of the DEKA Arm. A convenience sample of upper limb amputees (N=44). Training with a multifunction upper limb prosthesis. Multiple outcome measures including the QuickDASH were administered twice within 1 week, and for a subset of 20 persons, after completion of in-laboratory training with the DEKA Arm. Scale alphas and intraclass correlation coefficient type 3,1 (ICC3,1) were used to examine reliability. Minimum detectable change (MDC) scores were calculated. Analyses of variance, comparing QuickDASH scores by the amount of prosthetic use and amputation level, were used for known-group validity analyses with alpha set at .05. Pairwise correlations between QuickDASH and other measures were used to examine concurrent validity. Responsiveness was measured by effect size (ES) and standardized response mean (SRM). QuickDASH alpha was .83, and ICC was .87 (95% confidence interval, .77-.93). MDC at the 95% confidence level (MDC95%) was 17.4. Full- or part-time prosthesis users had better QuickDASH scores compared with nonprosthesis users (P=.021), as did those with more distal amputations at both baseline (P=.042) and with the DEKA Arm (P=.024). The QuickDASH was correlated with concurrent measures of activity limitation as expected. The ES and SRM after training with the DEKA Arm were 0.6. This study provides evidence of reliability and validity of the QuickDASH in persons with upper limb amputation. Results provide preliminary evidence of responsiveness to prosthetic device type/training. Further research with a larger sample is needed to confirm results. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by

  17. [Replantation and revascularization in acute upper limb amputation--the Sheba Medical Center experience].

    PubMed

    Oron, Amir; Yaffe, Batia

    2008-01-01

    Replantation and revascularization in acute upper-limb amputations are well-accepted surgical techniques in hand surgery. All medical staff members treating patients in emergency settings should be familiar with the indications, timetable, setup and transportation of patients rendered suitable for such surgery. While replantation surgery is not considered a simple surgical procedure by any means, viability rates approach ninety percent. The amputated part should be wrapped with gauze soaked in saline, placed in a sterile plastic bag and then put in an ice-filled container. The patient should be transferred to a medical center with a team dedicated to performing replantation procedures, following notification in advance. Time from the initial insult to the initiation of treatment should be minimized. Combined efforts employed by the primary caregivers and the microsurgical team will lead to optimization of patient treatment and improve the final outcome. During the years 1991-2007 a total of 383 upper limb replantation or revascularization procedures were performed at the Sheba Medical Center and are presented in this article.

  18. Epidural electrocorticography of phantom hand movement following long-term upper-limb amputation

    PubMed Central

    Gharabaghi, Alireza; Naros, Georgios; Walter, Armin; Roth, Alexander; Bogdan, Martin; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Mehring, Carsten; Birbaumer, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Prostheses for upper-limb amputees are currently controlled by either myoelectric or peripheral neural signals. Performance and dexterity of these devices is still limited, particularly when it comes to controlling hand function. Movement-related brain activity might serve as a complementary bio-signal for motor control of hand prosthesis. Methods: We introduced a methodology to implant a cortical interface without direct exposure of the brain surface in an upper-limb amputee. This bi-directional interface enabled us to explore the cortical physiology following long-term transhumeral amputation. In addition, we investigated neurofeedback of electrocorticographic brain activity related to the patient’s motor imagery to open his missing hand, i.e., phantom hand movement, for real-time control of a virtual hand prosthesis. Results: Both event-related brain activity and cortical stimulation revealed mutually overlapping cortical representations of the phantom hand. Phantom hand movements could be robustly classified and the patient required only three training sessions to gain reliable control of the virtual hand prosthesis in an online closed-loop paradigm that discriminated between hand opening and rest. Conclusion: Epidural implants may constitute a powerful and safe alternative communication pathway between the brain and external devices for upper-limb amputees, thereby facilitating the integrated use of different signal sources for more intuitive and specific control of multi-functional devices in clinical use. PMID:24834047

  19. Systematic Review of Measures of Impairment and Activity Limitation for Persons With Upper Limb Trauma and Amputation.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda; Borgia, Matt; Silver, Ben; Cancio, Jill

    2017-09-01

    (1) To identify outcome measures used in studies of persons with traumatic upper limb injury and/or amputation; and (2) to evaluate focus, content, and psychometric properties of each measure. Searches of PubMed and CINAHL for terms including upper extremity, function, activities of daily living, outcome assessment, amputation, and traumatic injuries. Included articles had a sample of ≥10 adults with limb trauma or amputation and were in English. Measures containing most items assessing impairment of body function or activity limitation were eligible. There were 260 articles containing 55 measures that were included. Data on internal consistency; test-retest, interrater, and intrarater reliability; content, structural, construct, concurrent, and predictive validity; responsiveness; and floor/ceiling effects were extracted and confirmed by a second investigator. The mostly highly rated performance measures included 2 amputation-specific measures (Activities Measure for Upper Limb Amputees and University of New Brunswick Test of Prosthetic Function skill and spontaneity subscales) and 2 non-amputation-specific measures (Box and Block Test and modified Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test light and heavy cans tests). Most highly rated self-report measures were Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand; Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation; QuickDASH; Hand Assessment Tool; International Osteoporosis Foundation Quality of Life Questionnaire; and Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation functional recovery subscale. None were amputation specific. Few performance measures were recommended for patients with limb trauma and amputation. All top-rated self-report measures were suitable for use in both groups. These results will inform choice of outcome measures for these patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Musculoskeletal Complaints in Transverse Upper Limb Reduction Deficiency and Amputation in The Netherlands: Prevalence, Predictors, and Effect on Health.

    PubMed

    Postema, Sietke G; Bongers, Raoul M; Brouwers, Michael A; Burger, Helena; Norling-Hermansson, Liselotte M; Reneman, Michiel F; Dijkstra, Pieter U; van der Sluis, Corry K

    2016-07-01

    (1) To determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints (MSCs) in individuals with upper limb absence in The Netherlands, (2) to assess the health status of individuals with upper limb absence in general and in relation to the presence of MSCs, and (3) to explore the predictors of development of MSCs and MSC-related disability in this population. Cross-sectional study: national survey. Twelve rehabilitation centers and orthopedic workshops. Individuals (n=263; mean age, 50.7±16.7y; 60% men) ≥18 years old, with transverse upper limb reduction deficiency (42%) or amputation (58%) at or proximal to the carpal level (response, 45%) and 108 individuals without upper limb reduction deficiency or amputation (n=108; mean age, 50.6±15.7y; 65% men) (N=371). Not applicable. Point and year prevalence of MSCs, MSC-related disability (Pain Disability Index), and general health perception and mental health (RAND-36 subscales). Point and year prevalence of MSCs were almost twice as high in individuals with upper limb absence (57% and 65%, respectively) compared with individuals without upper limb absence (27% and 34%, respectively) and were most often located in the nonaffected limb and upper back/neck. MSCs were associated with decreased general health perception and mental health and higher perceived upper extremity work demands. Prosthesis use was not related to presence of MSCs. Clinically relevant predictors of MSCs were middle age, being divorced/widowed, and lower mental health. Individuals with upper limb absence experienced more MSC-related disability than individuals without upper limb absence. Higher age, more pain, lower general and mental health, and not using a prosthesis were related to higher disability. Presence of MSCs is a frequent problem in individuals with upper limb absence and is associated with decreased general and mental health. Mental health and physical work demands should be taken into account when assessing such a patient. Clinicians should

  1. Merkel cell carcinoma: A case of palliative upper limb amputation in a patient with refractory in-transit metastases.

    PubMed

    Gunaratne, Dakshika A; Howle, Julie R; Veness, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    We report an unusual case of Merkel cell carcinoma in a 70-year-old woman with the rapid development of left upper limb in-transit and hepatic metastases. The patient had a preceding history of left-sided breast cancer. Palliative chemotherapy with carboplatin and etoposide produced a minimal response. The in-transit metastases rapidly progressed and were refractory to chemotherapy and a single fraction of palliative radiotherapy, leading to a marked impact on her quality of life, secondary to sepsis and bleeding. After lengthy discussion, she consented to an above-elbow amputation resulting in a marked improvement in her well-being. In this case, we believe that palliative amputation of the involved arm was justified and beneficial to the patient. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  2. Sensory cortical re-mapping following upper-limb amputation and subsequent targeted reinnervation: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jun; Chen, Albert; Kuiken, Todd; Carmona, Carolina; Dewald, Julius

    2015-01-01

    This case study demonstrates the change of sensory cortical representations of the residual parts of the arm in an individual who underwent a trans-humeral amputation and subsequent targeted reinnervation (TR). As a relatively new surgical technique, TR restores a direct neural connection from amputated sensorimotor nerves to specific target muscles. This method has been successfully applied to upper-limb and lower-limb amputees, and has shown effectiveness in regaining control signals via the newly re-innervated muscles. Correspondingly, recent study results have shown that motor representations for the missing limb move closer to their original locations following TR. Besides regaining motor control signals, TR also restores the sensation in the re-innervated skin areas. We therefore hypothesize that TR causes analogous cortical sensory remapping that may return closer to their original locations. In order to test this hypothesis, cortical activity in response to sensory-level electrical stimulation in different parts of the arm was studied longitudinally in one amputated individual before and up to 2 years after TR. Our results showed that 1) before TR, the cortical response to sensory electrical stimulation in the residual limb showed a diffuse bilateral pattern without a clear focus in either the time or spatial domain; and 2) 2 years after TR, the sensory map of the reinnervated median nerve reorganized, showing predominant activity over the contralateral S1 hand area as well as moderate activity over the ipsilateral S1. Therefore, this work provides new evidence for long-term sensory cortical plasticity in the human brain after TR. PMID:26106558

  3. Sensory cortical re-mapping following upper-limb amputation and subsequent targeted reinnervation: A case report.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Chen, Albert; Kuiken, Todd; Carmona, Carolina; Dewald, Julius

    2015-01-01

    This case study demonstrates the change of sensory cortical representations of the residual parts of the arm in an individual who underwent a trans-humeral amputation and subsequent targeted reinnervation (TR). As a relatively new surgical technique, TR restores a direct neural connection from amputated sensorimotor nerves to specific target muscles. This method has been successfully applied to upper-limb and lower-limb amputees, and has shown effectiveness in regaining control signals via the newly re-innervated muscles. Correspondingly, recent study results have shown that motor representations for the missing limb move closer to their original locations following TR. Besides regaining motor control signals, TR also restores the sensation in the re-innervated skin areas. We therefore hypothesize that TR causes analogous cortical sensory remapping that may return closer to their original locations. In order to test this hypothesis, cortical activity in response to sensory-level electrical stimulation in different parts of the arm was studied longitudinally in one amputated individual before and up to 2 years after TR. Our results showed that 1) before TR, the cortical response to sensory electrical stimulation in the residual limb showed a diffuse bilateral pattern without a clear focus in either the time or spatial domain; and 2) 2 years after TR, the sensory map of the reinnervated median nerve reorganized, showing predominant activity over the contralateral S1 hand area as well as moderate activity over the ipsilateral S1. Therefore, this work provides new evidence for long-term sensory cortical plasticity in the human brain after TR.

  4. Sensory capacity of reinnervated skin after redirection of amputated upper limb nerves to the chest.

    PubMed

    Marasco, Paul D; Schultz, Aimee E; Kuiken, Todd A

    2009-06-01

    Targeted reinnervation is a new neural-machine interface that has been developed to help improve the function of new-generation prosthetic limbs. Targeted reinnervation is a surgical procedure that takes the nerves that once innervated a severed limb and redirects them to proximal muscle and skin sites. The sensory afferents of the redirected nerves reinnervate the skin overlying the transfer site. This creates a sensory expression of the missing limb in the amputee's reinnervated skin. When these individuals are touched on this reinnervated skin they feel as though they are being touched on their missing limb. Targeted reinnervation takes nerves that once served the hand, a skin region of high functional importance, and redirects them to less functionally relevant skin areas adjacent to the amputation site. In an effort to better understand the sensory capacity of the reinnervated target skin following this procedure, we examined grating orientation thresholds and point localization thresholds on two amputees who had undergone the targeted reinnervation surgery. Grating orientation thresholds and point localization thresholds were also measured on the contralateral normal skin of the targeted reinnervation amputees and on analogous sites in able-bodied controls. Grating orientation thresholds for the reinnervated skin of the targeted reinnervation amputees were found to be similar to normal ranges for both the amputees' contralateral skin and also for the control population. Point localization thresholds for these amputees were found to be lower for their reinnervated skin than for their contralateral skin. Reinnervated point localization thresholds values were also lower in comparison to homologous chest sites on the control population. Mechanisms appear to be in place to maximize re-established touch input in targeted reinnervation amputees. It seems that sound sensory function is provided to the denervated skin of the residual limb when connected to afferent

  5. Upper Extremity Amputations and Prosthetics

    PubMed Central

    Ovadia, Steven A.; Askari, Morad

    2015-01-01

    Upper extremity amputations are most frequently indicated by severe traumatic injuries. The location of the injury will determine the level of amputation. Preservation of extremity length is often a goal. The amputation site will have important implications on the functional status of the patient and options for prosthetic reconstruction. Advances in amputation techniques and prosthetic reconstructions promote improved quality of life. In this article, the authors review the principles of upper extremity amputation, including techniques, amputation sites, and prosthetic reconstructions. PMID:25685104

  6. Upper extremity amputations and prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Ovadia, Steven A; Askari, Morad

    2015-02-01

    Upper extremity amputations are most frequently indicated by severe traumatic injuries. The location of the injury will determine the level of amputation. Preservation of extremity length is often a goal. The amputation site will have important implications on the functional status of the patient and options for prosthetic reconstruction. Advances in amputation techniques and prosthetic reconstructions promote improved quality of life. In this article, the authors review the principles of upper extremity amputation, including techniques, amputation sites, and prosthetic reconstructions.

  7. Sensory cortical re-mapping following upper-limb amputation and subsequent targeted reinnervation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Carmona, Carolina; Chen, Albert; Kuiken, Todd; Dewald, Julius

    2011-01-01

    This case study demonstrates the ability of sensory cortical representations to remap following arm amputation and subsequent targeted reinnervation (TR). Previous human studies have demonstrated functional plasticity in the primary sensory cortex months or years after amputation of the upper arm, forearm, the hand or a single finger, or after subsequent replantation. Targeted reinnervation, a surgical procedure that re-routes inactive, residual sensorimotor nerves previously responsible for innervating the missing limb to alternative muscle groups and skin areas [1-3], has shown the ability to restore a subject's sensation in the reinnervated skin areas. Whether this new technique causes analogous cortical remapping in a similar timeframe as following hand replantation is still unknown. In order to answer this question, high-density electroencephalography was used to study whether the original sensory cortical territory was regained after TR. Before TR, we found that the cortical response to sensory electrical stimulation in the residual limb showed a diffuse bilateral pattern without a clear focus in either the time or spatial domain, Two years after TR, the sensory map of the reinnervated median nerve shifted back to a close-to-normal, predominantly contralateral pattern. The overall trend of TR-induced sensory remapping is similar to previous reports related to hand replantation but occurs over a slower timeframe. This relatively slower progress after TR as compared to after hand replantation could be because TR is performed months or even years after amputation, while hand replantation was performed immediately after the injury. This work provides new evidence for long term plasticity in the human brain.

  8. Prognostic factors of a satisfactory functional result in patients with unilateral amputations of the upper limb above the wrist that use an upper limb prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Dabaghi-Richerand, A; Haces-García, F; Capdevila-Leonori, R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the prognostic factors of a satisfactory functional outcome in patients using upper extremity prosthetics with a proximal third forearm stump, and above, level of amputation. All patients with longitudinal deficiencies and traumatic amputations of upper extremity with a level of amputation of proximal third forearm and above were included. A total of 49 patients with unilateral upper extremity amputations that had used the prosthetic for a minimum of 2 years were included in the protocol. The Disability arm shoulder hand (DASH) scale was used to determine a good result with a cut-off of less than 40%. The independent variables were the level of amputation, the etiology for its use, initial age of use and number of hours/day using the prosthesis. It was found that patients with a congenital etiology and those that started using the prosthetic before 6 years of age had better functional results. It was found that when adapting a patient with an upper extremity prosthetic, which has a high rejection rate of up to 49%, better functional outcomes are found in those who started using it before 6 years of age, and preferably because of a congenital etiology. It was also found that the number of hours/day strongly correlates with a favorable functional outcome. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. [Upper leg amputation. Transfemoral amputation].

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, R

    2011-10-01

    Objective. Amputation through the diaphysis of the femur at the most peripheral level possible. The stump, covered with soft tissue flaps, is free from pain. It can be fitted with a total contact prosthetic socket. The hip joint is preserved with its full range of motion.Indications. When no possibility to amputate at a more distal level through the tibia or the knee joint exists.Contraindications. When it is possible to amputate at a more distal level.Surgical technique. Symmetrical flaps in the frontal plane are recommended. Asymmetrical flaps and flaps in the sagittal plane can also be made. Their muscles are fixed to each other (myodesis) or the bone end by means of transosseous sutures (myopexy). The ischial nerve has to be shortened about 2 inches proximal to the end of the femur.In peripheral vascular diseases, this procedure is not suitable. An alternative technique is suggested.In chronic osteomyelitis (e.g., after intramedullary nailing), the ventral half of the femur can be removed and the medullary cavity cleansed and filled with a muscular flap in order to maintain length. Lengthening procedures of the femur are discussed.Postoperative management. Avoid active or passive movement of the stump for the first 2 weeks in order not to disturb healing of the muscle sutures. Physical therapy, prosthetic fitting after 4–6 weeks, according to the expected functional level 0–4. Aids: crutches, wheel chair, adjustable bed, modified hand-controlled automobile.The walking ability of a patient with a double amputation above the knee is severely limited and in patients with peripheral artery disease remains the exception.

  10. Replantation in scapulothoracic avulsion amputation of the right upper limb in a 3-year-old child- A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Mahendru, Sanjay; Khazanchi, Rakesh Kumar; Brajesh, Vimalendu; Jawed, Akram; Aggarwal, Aditya; Singh, Hardeep; Singh, Sukhdeep; Krishnan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Replantations for major amputations of upper extremity have been widely performed. We report a unique case of successful replantation of scapulothoracic avulsion amputation in a child. In this manuscript, we discuss the various challenges faced during the procedure and chances of neural recovery. PMID:27833298

  11. Hand-to-Face Remapping But No Differences in Temporal Discrimination Observed on the Intact Hand Following Unilateral Upper Limb Amputation

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Kassondra L.; McKean, Danielle L.; Huff, Katherine; Tommerdahl, Mark; Favorov, Oleg Vyacheslavovich; Waters, Robert S.; Tsao, Jack W.

    2017-01-01

    Unilateral major limb amputation causes changes in sensory perception. Changes may occur within not only the residual limb but also the intact limb as well as the brain. We tested the hypothesis that limb amputation may result in the detection of hand sensation during stimulation of a non-limb-related body region. We further investigated the responses of unilateral upper limb amputees and individuals with all limbs intact to temporally based sensory tactile testing of the fingertips to test the hypothesis that changes in sensory perception also have an effect on the intact limb. Upper extremity amputees were assessed for the presence of referred sensations (RSs)—experiencing feelings in the missing limb when a different body region is stimulated, to determine changes within the brain that occur due to an amputation. Eight of 19 amputees (42.1%) experienced RS in the phantom limb with manual tactile mapping on various regions of the face. There was no correlation between whether someone had phantom sensations or phantom limb pain and where RS was found. Six of the amputees had either phantom sensation or pain in addition to RS induced by facial stimulation. Results from the tactile testing showed that there were no significant differences in the accuracy of participants in the temporal order judgment tasks (p = 0.702), whereby participants selected the digit that was tapped first by a tracking paradigm that resulted in correct answers leading to shorter interstimulus intervals (ISIs) and incorrect answers increasing the ISI. There were also no significant differences in timing perception, i.e., the threshold accuracy of the duration discrimination task (p = 0.727), in which participants tracked which of the two digits received a longer stimulus. We conclude that many, but not all, unilateral upper limb amputees experience phantom hand sensation and/or pain with stimulation of the face, suggesting that there could be postamputation changes in neuronal

  12. Pediatric limb differences and amputations.

    PubMed

    Le, Joan T; Scott-Wyard, Phoebe R

    2015-02-01

    Congenital limb differences are uncommon birth defects that may go undetected even with prenatal screening ultrasound scans and often go undetected until birth. For children with congenital limb differences, a diagnostic evaluation should be done to rule out syndromes involving other organ systems or known associations. The most common etiology of acquired amputation is trauma. Postamputation complications include pain and terminal bony overgrowth. A multidisciplinary approach to management with the child and family can lead to a successful, functional, and fulfilling life.

  13. Crossover replantation as a salvage procedure following bilateral transhumeral upper limb amputation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ozçelik, Ismail Bülent; Mersa, Berkan; Kabakaş, Fatih; Saçak, Bülent; Kuvat, Samet Vasfi

    2011-04-01

    Cross-over replantation is a salvage option for cases with bilateral extremity amputations where the wound conditions do not enable an orthotopic replantation. Here, we present a 24-year-old patient who applied to our center with bilateral transhumeral amputations. Due to the wound conditions, a cross-over replantation was performed. 24 months after the initial operation, the patient exhibits good protective sensation at the distal levels and function to some degree, whereas the active range of motion is not as promising as previously expected. In this article, we present this case together with its immediate and long-term outcomes and the consequences of the cross-over replantation.

  14. [Lower limb amputations and rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Lange, Reinhild; Ljøstad, Unn

    2017-05-01

    BACKGROUND We wished to study the therapy for lower limb amputees at Sørlandet Hospital Kristiansand after restructuring of activities in 2004.MATERIAL AND METHOD All lower limb amputees hospitalised in the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation between March 2012 and July 2015 were followed up prospectively.RESULTS A total of 50 patients with 54 amputations were followed up for at least three months. Altogether 31 transtibial amputations, 22 transfemoral amputations and one knee disarticulation were performed. The median age of the patients was 66 years, 36 of whom were men, median Charlson comorbidity index was 1.5, 14 smoked, 8 were substance abusers, 9 were able to walk at least 2 km preoperatively, 44 of the amputations were performed with myodesis, and 41 patients were transferred directly to the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. At the three-month check-up, 48 patients used their custom-made prostheses, average walk-test time was 21 seconds, and 45 lived in their own home. At the one-year check-up, 32 of 35 patients who attended used prostheses, and average walk-test time was 18 seconds. Use of painkillers declined during the period. Advanced age, transfemoral amputation and substance abuse were associated with longer walk-test time at the three-month check-up.INTERPRETATION Most patients achieved a good level of function, and the therapy appears to be functioning satisfactorily.

  15. Incidence of Upper Extremity Nerve Entrapments In Veterans With Major Limb Amputations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    epicondyle and above- elbow stimulation was performed with the elbow flexed to 90 degrees at a distance of 4cm proximal to medial epicondyle (6, 8, 11...deep tendon reflexes, strength testing, sensory testing with pinprick and light touch, Tinel’s test at the elbow and wrist, and Phalen’s test. All...subjects had ulnar entrapment neuropathy across the elbow (22/38 affected limbs, 6 subjects with unilateral and 8 subjects with bilateral findings

  16. Pain Management in Four-Limb Amputation: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Warner, Nafisseh S; Warner, Matthew A; Moeschler, Susan M; Hoelzer, Bryan C

    2015-09-01

    Acute pain following amputation can be challenging to treat due to multiple underlying mechanisms and variable clinical responses to treatment. Furthermore, poorly controlled preoperative pain is a risk factor for developing chronic pain. Evidence suggests that epidural analgesia and peripheral nerve blockade may decrease the severity of residual limb pain and the prevalence of phantom pain after lower extremity amputation. We present the perioperative analgesic management of a patient with gangrene of the bilateral upper and lower extremities as a result of septic shock and prolonged vasopressor administration who underwent four-limb amputation in a single procedure. A multimodal analgesic regimen was utilized, including titration of preoperative opioid and neuropathic pain agents, perioperative intravenous, epidural and peripheral nerve catheter infusions, and postoperative oral medication titration. More than 8 months postoperatively, the patient has satisfactory pain control with no evidence for phantom limb pain. To our knowledge, there have been no publications to date concerning analgesic regimens in four-limb amputation.

  17. Predicting prosthetic prescription after major lower-limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda; Borgia, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We describe prosthetic limb prescription in the first year following lower-limb amputation and examine the relationship between amputation level, geographic region, and prosthetic prescription. We analyzed 2005 to 2010 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Inpatient and Medical Encounters SAS data sets, Vital Status death data, and National Prosthetic Patient Database data for 9,994 Veterans who underwent lower-limb amputation at a VA hospital. Descriptive statistics and bivariates were examined. Cox proportional hazard models identified factors associated with prosthetic prescription. Analyses showed that amputation level was associated with prosthetic prescription. The hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.41 for ankle amputation and 0.46 for transfemoral amputation compared with transtibial amputation. HRs for geographic region were Northeast = 1.49, Upper Midwest = 1.26, and West = 1.39 compared with the South (p < 0.001). African American race, longer length of hospital stay, older age, congestive heart failure, paralysis, other neurological disease, renal failure, and admission from a nursing facility were negatively associated with prosthetic prescription. Being married was positively associated. After adjusting for patient characteristics, people with ankle amputation were most likely to be prescribed a prosthesis and people with transfemoral amputation were least likely. Geographic variation in prosthetic prescription exists in the VA and further research is needed to explain why.

  18. Special Considerations for Multiple Limb Amputation.

    PubMed

    Pasquina, Paul F; Miller, Matthew; Carvalho, A J; Corcoran, Michael; Vandersea, James; Johnson, Elizabeth; Chen, Yin-Ting

    2014-01-01

    It has been estimated that more than 1.6 million individuals in the United States have undergone at least one amputation. The literature abounds with research of the classifications of such injuries, their etiologies, epidemiologies, treatment regimens, average age of onset (average age of amputation), and much more. The subpopulation that is often overlooked in these evaluations, however, is comprised of individuals who have suffered multiple limb loss. The challenges faced by those with single-limb loss are amplified for those with multiple limb loss. Pain, lifestyle adjustment, and quality of life return are just a few key areas of concern in this population. Along with amputations resulting from trauma, many individuals with multiple amputations have endured them as a result of dysvascular disease. Over recent years, amputations as a result of dysvascular disease have risen to comprise more than 80 % of new amputations occurring in the United States every year. This compares to just 54 % of total current prevalence. Those with diabetes comorbid with dysvascular disease make up 74 % of those with dysvascular amputations, and these individuals with diabetes comorbid with dysvascular disease have a 55 % chance of enduring an amputation of their contralateral limb within 2-3 years of their initial amputation. With the well-documented aging of the nation's population and the similarly skyrocketing prevalence of dysvascular disease and diabetes, it can be expected that the number of individuals with multiple limb loss will continue to increase in the United States. This article outlines the recommended measures of care for this particular subpopulation, including pain management, behavioral health considerations, strategies for rehabilitation for various levels and variations of multiple limb loss, and the assistive technology and adaptive equipment that might be available for these individuals to best enable them to continue healthy, fulfilling lives following

  19. Functional and Clinical Outcomes of Upper Extremity Amputation.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbons, Peter; Medvedev, Gleb

    2015-12-01

    Upper extremity amputation is an uncommon but often necessary procedure. It can be required as a result of trauma, infection, or malignancy. Amputation is a life-changing procedure. Careful planning for it must not only include the level of amputation and assurance of durable soft-tissue coverage of the amputation site, but it must also consider patients' goals and occupations, as well as social factors affecting amputees. The choice of prosthesis is an individual matter, but new technology permits lighter and more multifunctional prostheses. Targeted muscle reinnervation can be used to achieve improved myoelectric signaling and possibly decrease limb pain following amputation. Rehabilitation is crucial to achieving favorable results.

  20. Caring for patients with limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Virani, Anila; Werunga, Jane; Ewashen, Carol; Green, Theresa

    2015-10-07

    This article provides an overview of the care of patients undergoing limb amputation. Absence of a limb can be congenital or the result of trauma or complications of chronic diseases. While the economic burden of limb amputation is significant, nurses have an important role in limiting other losses attributable to limb loss, such as long-term disability leading to loss of employment and delayed return to work or school. Comprehensive nursing assessments and appropriate interventions, pre and post-operatively, as well as early discharge planning and community reintegration can help avoid some of these losses. Nurses should be aware of the resources available in communities and work in multidisciplinary teams to ensure optimal outcomes for patients following limb amputation and their families.

  1. Simulation of Upper Limb Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uherčík, Filip; Hučko, Branislav

    2011-12-01

    The paper deals with controlling an upper limb prosthesis based on the measurement of myoelectric signals (MES) while drinking. MES signals have been measured on healthy limbs to obtain the same response for the prosthesis. To simulate the drinking motion of a healthy upper limb, the program ADAMS was used, with all degrees of freedom and a hand after trans-radial amputation with an existing hand prosthesis. Modification of the simulation has the exact same logic of control, where the muscle does not have to be strenuous all the time, but it is the impulse of the muscle which drives the motor even though the impulse disappears and passed away.

  2. Lower Limb Amputation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kröger, Knut; Berg, Christian; Santosa, Frans; Malyar, Nasser; Reinecke, Holger

    2017-02-24

    Declining amputation rates have been reported in multiple countries in recent years. It is not yet known whether amputation rates have declined in Germany as well. On the basis of DRG (diagnosis-related group) data, we received a list from the German Federal Statistical Office of all major and minor amputations documented in German hospitals from 2005 to 2014. Changes over this period were studied with linear regression. The absolute number of amputations per year in Germany rose slightly from 55 689 in 2005 to 57 637 (+3.5%) in 2014. After the exclusion of cases in which the main diagnosis was trauma, intoxication, musculoskeletal disease, diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, or neoplasia, the corresponding numbers were 48 043 in 2005 and 48 561 in 2014 (+1.1%). The age-adjusted rate of major amputations per 100 000 persons per year fell from 23.3 to 16.1 (-30.9%), while the rate of minor amputations rose from 35.0 to 43.9 (+25.4%). The percentage of major amputations that took place in patients with diabetes mellitus as the main diagnosis or a side diagnosis declined from 70.2% to 63.7%. For all of these changes, p <0.0001. From 2005 to 2014, the major amputation rate fell by 30.9% while the minor amputation rate rose by 25.4%. The goal of lowering amputation rates still further will be best served not only by applying the recognized preventive measures in patients with foot lesions, but also by further research into the causes of the recent changes in amputation numbers. Prospective registries will be needed.

  3. The mangled limb: salvage versus amputation.

    PubMed

    Wolinsky, Philip R; Webb, Lawrence X; Harvey, Edward J; Tejwani, Nirmal C

    2011-01-01

    A mangled extremity is defined as a limb with injury to three of four systems in the extremity. The decision to salvage or amputate the injured limb has generated much controversy in the literature, with studies to support advantages of each approach. Various scoring systems have proved unreliable in predicting the need for amputation or salvage; however, a recurring theme in the literature is that the key to limb viability seems to be the severity of the soft-tissue injury. Factors such as associated injuries, patient age, and comorbidities (such as diabetes) also should be considered. Attempted limb salvage should be considered only if a patient is hemodynamically stable enough to tolerate the necessary surgical procedures and blood loss associated with limb salvage. For persistently hemodynamically unstable patients and those in extremis, life comes before limb. Recently, the Lower Extremity Assessment Project study attempted to answer the question of whether amputation or limb salvage achieves a better outcome. The study also evaluated other factors, including return-to-work status, impact of the level of and bilaterality of the amputation, and economic cost. There appears to be no significant difference in return to work, functional outcomes, or the cost of treatment (including the prosthesis) between the two groups. A team approach with different specialties, including orthopaedics, plastic surgery, vascular surgery and trauma general surgery, is recommended for treating patients with a mangled extremity.

  4. Healthy limb amputation: ethical and legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Josephine; Elliott, Carl

    2002-01-01

    A surgeon in Scotland has amputated the legs of two consenting, physically healthy patients. Although a handful of medical professionals believe that the desire for healthy limb amputation is symptomatic of a mental disorder that can be treated only by amputation, there is currently no consensus on what causes a person to desire such a disabling intervention. As long as there is no established body of medical opinion as to the diagnosis and treatment of such a condition, performing the surgery may be a criminal act. Given the ethically problematic history of surgery for psychiatric conditions, as well as the absence of sound medical data on this condition, surgeons should exercise great caution before complying with a request to amputate a healthy limb.

  5. [Psychological adjustment following lower limb amputation].

    PubMed

    Panyi, Lilla Krisztina; Lábadi, Beatrix

    2015-09-27

    Rehabilitation of lower limb amputees and the fitting of their prosthesis depend highly on the psychological adjustment process and motivational state of the patient. The loss of a limb is extremely challenging and can cause various physical and psychological problems. Depression, anxiety, decreased well-being and quality of life, body image dissatisfaction and changes in self-concept and identity are frequent after lower limb amputation. In the interest of adjustment patients have to cope with the emerging changes and difficulties in their lifes as well as the problems in psychological functioning. It is important for them to accept the alterations in their body and identity, and integrate them in a new self-concept in which process motivation is a fundamental issue. The aim of this article is to review the literature on psychological consequences of lower limb amputation, and to propose an integrative way of rehabilitation for lower limb amputees.

  6. The Contemporary Role of Major Amputation in the Management of Advanced Limb Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Read, Rebecca L; Stalley, Paul; Thompson, John F

    2015-11-01

    Major amputations are rarely performed for melanoma, with limb-preserving techniques used whenever possible. This article reviews the indications for major amputation in patients with melanoma and reports outcomes with the aim of better classifying progressive and potentially curable disease patterns. At a single institution in Australia, 55 major amputations were performed for melanoma in 51 patients treated between 1984 and 2012. Clinicopathologic characteristics, treatments before amputation, and outcomes were analyzed. The 55 cases included 17 upper limb (9 forequarter) and 38 lower limb (3 hindquarter) amputations. The most common reasons for amputation were progressive in-transit metastases (ITM, 67 %), troublesome limb metastases from distant sites (14 %), pain or ulceration after regional chemotherapy (14 %) and otherwise inoperable regional recurrence (6 %). Regional chemotherapy was used before amputation for 58 % of the patients, and for those with ITM, it was associated with an increased interval between ITM diagnosis and amputation. The overall 5-year survival rate (5YS) from the time of amputation was 22.8 %. For stage 3 patients with either ITM or regional recurrence, who had all known disease resected at the time of amputation, the 5YS was 38.4 %. Major amputation may be indicated for advanced limb melanoma when limb-preserving strategies have been exhausted. Although they have advanced locoregional disease, some patients undergoing potentially curative amputation can achieve long-term survival.

  7. Major limb amputations in Seremban Hospital: a review of 204 cases from 1997-1999.

    PubMed

    Hazmy, W; Mahamud, M; Ashikin, N; Jamilah, S; Yee, L E; Shong, H K

    2001-06-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of 3 years duration beginning from the 1st January 1997 to the 31st December 1999 in order to identify the epidemiology of major limb amputations in Seremban Hospital. Two hundred and four patients were included in this study out of which 65.7% were male and 34.3% were female. The mean age of the amputees was 39.7 years old. Non traumatic amputations constitute 85.8% of the cases mainly due to diabetic ulcers or gangrene (91%) followed by peripheral vascular disease (7%) and malignancy (2%). Traumatic amputations represent 14.2% of the cases with road-traffic accident as the major cause (82.8%) followed by industrial accident (17.2%). Lower limb amputations were performed in 97.5% of the cases with below knee amputations as the commonest procedure (72%), followed by above knee amputations (27%) and Syme amputations (1%). Five patients had upper limb amputations done. Four of them were below elbow amputations while one had forequarter amputation done of the left shoulder. Of note, there were increasing number of amputations done over the last three years with alarming increasing trends of traumatic amputation. The three main risk factors for major limb amputations are diabetes mellitus, male gender and road traffic accident.

  8. Epidemiology of post-traumatic limb amputation: a National Trauma Databank analysis.

    PubMed

    Barmparas, Galinos; Inaba, Kenji; Teixeira, Pedro G R; Dubose, Joseph J; Criscuoli, Michele; Talving, Peep; Plurad, David; Green, Donald; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the epidemiology and outcomes of posttraumatic upper (UEA) and lower extremity amputations (LEA). The National Trauma Databank version 5 was used to identify all posttraumatic amputations. From 2000 to 2004 there were 8910 amputated patients (1.0% of all trauma patients). Of these, 6855 (76.9%) had digit and 2055 (23.1%) had limb amputation. Of those with limb amputation, 92.7 per cent (1904/2055) had a single limb amputation. LEA were more frequent than UEA among patients in the single limb amputation group (58.9% vs 41.1%). The mechanism of injury was blunt in 83 per cent; most commonly after motor vehicle collisions (51.0%), followed by machinery accidents (19.4%). Motor vehicle collision occupants had more UEA (54.5% vs 45.5%, P < 0.001), whereas motorcyclists (86.2% vs 13.8%, P < 0.001) and pedestrians (91.9% vs 8.1%, P < 0.001) had more LEA. Patients with LEA were more likely to require discharge to a skilled nursing facility; whereas those with UEA were more likely to be discharged home. Traumatic limb amputation is not uncommon after trauma in the civilian population and is associated with significant morbidity. Although single limb amputation did not impact mortality, the need for multiple limb amputation was an independent risk factor for death.

  9. Traction avulsion amputation of the major upper limb: a proposed new classification, guidelines for acute management, and strategies for secondary reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chuang, D C; Lai, J B; Cheng, S L; Jain, V; Lin, C H; Chen, H C

    2001-11-01

    Major replantation of a traction avulsion amputation is undertaken with the goal of not only the reestablishment of circulation, but also functional outcome. This type of amputation is characterized by different levels of soft-tissue divisions involving crushing, traction, and avulsion injuries to various structures. Between 1985 and 1998, 27 cases were referred for secondary reconstruction following amputation of the upper extremity involving both arm and forearm. Replantation was performed by at least 12 qualified plastic surgeons using different approaches and management, resulting in different outcomes. Initial replantation management significantly affects the later reconstruction. For comparing studies and prognostic implications, the authors propose a new classification according to the level of injury to muscles and innervated nerves: type I, amputation at or close to the musculotendinous aponeurosis with muscles remaining essentially intact; type II, amputation within the muscle bellies but with the proximal muscles still innervated; type III, amputation involving the motor nerve or neuromuscular junction, thereby causing total loss of muscle function; and type IV, amputation through the joint; i.e., disarticulation of the elbow or shoulder joint. Some patients required further reconstruction for functional restoration after replantation, but some did not. Through this retrospective study based on the proposed classification system, prospective guidelines for the management of different types of traction avulsion amputation are provided, including the value of replantation, length of bone shortening, primary or delayed muscle or nerve repair, necessity of fasciotomy, timing for using free tissue transfer for wound coverage, and the role of functioning free muscle transplantation for late reconstruction. The final functional outcome can also be anticipated prospectively through this classification system.

  10. Lower limb amputation: striking the balance.

    PubMed

    Campbell, W B; St Johnston, J A; Kernick, V F; Rutter, E A

    1994-05-01

    During a 5-year period, 210 patients (125 male: aged 43-96 years, median 76 years) had 228 primary amputations for peripheral arterial disease. Level selection was by clinical criteria, and there were 148 below-knee (BK, 65%), 72 above-knee (AK, 32%) and eight Gritti-Stokes (GS, 3%). Revision was needed in 43 (19%). The 30-day mortality was 14%. There were 69 patients who had previously undergone bypass grafting (< 30 days in 36; 30 days-1 year 20; > 1 year 13). In these there were 57% BK and 43% AK with a revision rate of 13%--no worse than in patients who had not had attempted limb salvage. Decisions about rehabilitation were made by a team of doctors, nurses and therapists. The 69 patients fitted with prosthetic limbs between 1987 and 1990 were followed up for eventual mobility (minimum 6 months). Of these patients, 81% used their prosthesis at least around the house, but only 16% achieved near normal mobility. This series fails to support the claim that failed arterial bypass surgery prejudices amputation level or healing. Despite attempts to achieve a high rate of below-knee amputation and good rehabilitation, the revision rate remains high and really good prosthesis usage remains low in these elderly patients.

  11. Amputation level following unsuccessful distal limb salvage operations.

    PubMed

    Kazmers, M; Satiani, B; Evans, W E

    1980-06-01

    Distal arterial grafting for limb salvage remains controversial. Among the criticisms is the potential adverse effect of failed distal bypass on subsequent amputation level. Measurement of popliteal pressure with Doppler ultrasound is useful in predicting healing at the below-knee (BK) level and, pressure of greater than or equal to 60 mm Hg was associated with 87% BK healing in 51 limbs undergoing amputation without prior distal bypass. This study examined the outcome in 40 limbs amputated after unsuccessful distal revascularization and compared the final amputation level with that predicted by popliteal pressure measurements obtained prior to bypass. Forty limbs underwent amputation after unsuccessful limb salvage following attempted femoropopliteal grafts (13), femorotibial grafts (10), a combination of both procedures (10) or tibial artery exploration alone (7). Of 33 limbs with initial pressure of greater than or equal to 60 mm Hg, eventual healing at the BK level was achieved in only 17 (52%). Four of seven limbs with initial pressures of less than 60 mm Hg healed at the BK level, and increased popliteal pressure prior to amputation was shown in three of these. Of the total 40 limbs, only 21 (53%) obtained final healing at the BK level. These results indicate that unsuccessful limb salvage attempts adversely affected ultimate amputation level in limbs initially considered to be candidates for BK amputation.

  12. Gray matter changes following limb amputation with high and low intensities of phantom limb pain.

    PubMed

    Preissler, Sandra; Feiler, Johanna; Dietrich, Caroline; Hofmann, Gunther O; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Weiss, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Limb amputation and chronic phantom limb pain (PLP) are both associated with neural alterations at all levels of the neuraxis. We investigated gray matter volume of 21 upper limb amputees and 14 healthy control subjects. Results demonstrate that amputation is associated with reduced gray matter in areas in the motor cortex representing the amputated limb. Additionally, patients show an increase in gray matter in brain regions that belong to the dorsal and ventral visual stream. We subdivided the patient group into patients with medium to high PLP (HPLP; N = 11) and those with slight PLP (SPLP; N = 10). HPLP patients showed reduced gray matter in brain areas involved in pain processing. SPLP patients showed a significant gray matter increase in regions of the visual stream. Results indicate that all patients may have an enhanced need for visual control to compensate the lack of sensory feedback of the missing limb. As we found these alterations primarily in the SPLP patient group, successful compensation may have an impact on PLP development. Therefore, we hypothesize that visual adaptation mechanisms may compensate for the lack of sensorimotor feedback and may therefore function as a protection mechanism against high PLP development.

  13. Delayed amputation in lower limb trauma: an analysis of factors leading to delayed amputation.

    PubMed

    Thiagarajan, P

    1999-03-01

    An in-depth analysis of the course of events leading to 49 delayed amputation of the lower extremity in 47 patients with open lower limb fractures is presented. Seventeen amputations were performed within one month mainly for vascular reasons. Eleven were between one month and one year, due to persistent sepsis and 21 amputations were performed more than a year after the original injury for infected non-union. Below-knee amputation was done in 32 limbs, above-knee amputation in 13 limbs and Symes' amputation in 4 limbs. The delay in timing of the amputation was analysed with respect to the nature of the injury, the primary treatment and the Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS). The MESS score was computed for all injuries and a score of 7 or more predicted an early amputation. We suggest that in all severe lower limb injuries, particularly in Type III C fractures with associated neurological injury, the benefits of an early amputation be considered as an alternative to a limb salvage procedure.

  14. Elective amputation of a "healthy limb".

    PubMed

    Blom, Rianne M; Guglielmi, Valeria; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-10-01

    Patients with body integrity identity disorder (BIID) experience a strong desire for amputation from very early on. BIID patients are often dismissed when they share their wish for amputation with surgeons. Consequently, patients resort to self-amputation, including complications and sometimes death. BIID patients are not psychotic and are mentally competent to oversee the consequences of an elective amputation. The authors offer arguments in favor of elective amputation.

  15. Delayed amputation following trauma increases residual lower limb infection.

    PubMed

    Jain, Abhilash; Glass, Graeme E; Ahmadi, Hootan; Mackey, Simon; Simmons, Jon; Hettiaratchy, Shehan; Pearse, Michael; Nanchahal, Jagdeep

    2013-04-01

    Residual limb infection following amputation is a devastating complication, resulting in delayed rehabilitation, repeat surgery, prolonged hospitalisation and poor functional outcome. The aim of this study was to identify variables predicting residual limb infection following non-salvageable lower limb trauma. All cases of non-salvageable lower limb trauma presenting to a specialist centre over 5 years were evaluated from a prospective database and clinical and management variables correlated with the development of deep infection. Forty patients requiring 42 amputations were identified with a mean age of 49 years (±19.9, 1SD). Amputations were performed for 21 Gustilo IIIB injuries, 12 multi-planar degloving injuries, seven IIIC injuries and one open Schatzker 6 fracture. One limb was traumatically amputated at the scene and surgically revised. Amputation level was transtibial in 32, through-knee in one and transfemoral in nine. Median time from injury to amputation was 4 days (range 0-30 days). Amputation following only one debridement and within 5 days resulted in significantly fewer stump infections (p = 0.026 and p = 0.03, respectively, Fisher's exact test). The cumulative probability of infection-free residual limb closure declined steadily from day 5. Multivariate analyses revealed that neither the nature of the injury nor pre-injury patient morbidity independently influenced residual limb infection. Avoiding residual limb infection is critically dependent on prompt amputation of non-salvageable limbs. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Toe amputation: a predictor of future limb loss?

    PubMed

    Griffin, Kathryn J; Rashid, Tawqeer S; Bailey, Marc A; Bird, Sarah A; Bridge, Katherine; Scott, Julian D A

    2012-01-01

    Digital toe amputation is a relatively minor surgical procedure but there is a historical view that it is the "first stage in a predictable clinical course" leading to eventual limb loss. There is a paucity of contemporaneous data on the long-term outcomes of patients undergoing toe amputation. We aim to study the experience from our institution, focussing on the risk factors for progression to future limb loss, by conducting a retrospective review of our practice. Sixty-three patients undergoing toe amputation within our institution were identified and the clinical notes retrospectively reviewed. A database of vascular risk factors and co-morbidity was constructed and correlation with future limb loss was analysed with Chi-squared testing and a logistic regression model. Sixty-three patients with a mean age of 69 (IQR 62-76.5) years were identified. Thirty-five (55.6%) of these patients went on to have a further surgical amputation; 22 major amputations (16 below-knee and 6 above-knee amputations) and 23 minor amputations were performed in total. Forty three (68.3%) patients had diabetes and 31 (49.2%) patients had one or more revascularisation procedures undertaken. There was a significant correlation between patients who did not have diabetes and future limb loss (Chi-squared=4.31, p=0.038), however no other identified risk factor predicted the need for major amputation. Toe amputation is a significant predictor of future limb loss. Our study identified that patients with diabetes are significantly less likely to progress to further limb loss than those with the disease. We hypothesise that this difference is due to the more intensive, multi-disciplinary foot care follow-up that diabetic patients receive. These results highlight the significance of toe amputation and contribute to the evidence for a more intensive out-patient service for these high risk patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prognosis of critical limb ischemia: Major vs. minor amputation comparison.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Kyoichi; Hayashi, Ruka; Okabe, Keisuke; Aramaki-Hattori, Noriko; Kishi, Kazuo

    2015-09-01

    Healthcare providers treating wounds have difficulties assessing the prognosis of patients with critical limb ischemia who had been discharged after complete healing of major amputation wounds. The word "major" in "major amputation" gives the impression of "being more severe" than "minor amputation." Therefore, even if wounds are healed after major amputation, they imagine that prognosis after major amputation would be poorer than that after minor amputation. We investigated the prognosis of diabetic nephropathy patients 2 years after amputations. Those patients underwent dialysis as well as amputation following percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for their foot wounds. They were ambulatory prior to these surgeries. Among 56 cases of minor amputation, 45 were males and 11 were females, and mortality was 41.1%. The mortality of cases with and without a coronary intervention history was 53.1% and 25.0%, respectively (p = 0.034). Among 10 cases of major amputation, 9 were males and 1 was female, and mortality was 60%. The mortality of cases with and without a coronary intervention history was 75.0% and 0%, respectively. Although we predicted poor prognosis in cases with major amputation, there was no significant difference in mortality 2 years after amputations (p = 0.267). Thus far poor prognosis has been reported for major amputation. It might be due to inclusion of the following patients: patients with wounds proximal to ankle joints, patients with extensive gangrene spreading to the lower legs, patients with septicemia from wound infection and who died around the time of operation, and patients with malnutrition. The results of our present study showed that the outcomes at 2 years postoperatively were similar between patients with major amputations and those with minor amputations, if surgical wounds were able to heal. We should not estimate the prognosis by the level of amputation, rather we should consider the effect of coronary intervention history on

  18. Coping and posttraumatic growth in women with limb amputations.

    PubMed

    Stutts, Lauren A; Bills, Sarah E; Erwin, Savannah R; Good, Jessica J

    2015-01-01

    While ample research has examined the psychological experiences of men with limb amputations, minimal research has examined the psychological experiences of women with limb amputations. The present study utilizes a qualitative design to examine coping and posttraumatic growth in women with limb amputations. Thirty women completed the posttraumatic growth inventory (PTGI) and provided open-ended responses about coping, social support, discrimination, support groups, and acceptance. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to discern emergent and superordinate themes in qualitative responses. Superordinate themes included social support (friendships/family and community), self-beliefs, resources, physical complications, spirituality, specific strategies, and acceptance. Concerns related specifically to participants' gender identity included appearance and motherhood. Overall, women reported moderate-to-high PTGI scores. The current findings address a void in the literature by illuminating the unique perspective of women with amputations. Future research should use quantitative methodology to expand on our research findings, as well as assess interventions to assist women adjusting to limb loss.

  19. Chronic Pain Associated with Upper-Limb Loss

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Marisol A.; Ehde, Dawn M.; Jensen, Mark; Czerniecki, Joseph; Smith, Douglas G.; Robinson, Lawrence R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence, intensity, and functional impact of the following types of pain associated with upper-limb loss: phantom limb, residual limb, back, neck, and nonamputated-limb pain. Design Cross-sectional survey; 104 respondents with upper-limb loss at least 6 months postamputation completed measures of pain intensity, interference, disability, and health-related quality-of-life. Results Nearly all (90%) of the respondents reported pain, with 76% reporting more than one pain type. Phantom-limb pain and residual-limb pain were the most prevalent (79% and 71%, respectively), followed by back (52%), neck (43%), and nonamputated-limb pain (33%). Although nonamputated-limb pain was least prevalent, it was reported to cause the highest levels of interference and pain-related disability days. Self-reported quality-of-life was significantly lower for individuals with each type of pain compared with those without any pain. Age, time since amputation, and cause of amputation were not associated with pain. Conclusions In addition to pain in the phantom and residual limb, back, neck, and nonamputated-limb pain are also common after upper-limb loss. All of these pain types are associated with significant disability and activity interference for some individuals, suggesting that assessment of multiple pain types in persons with upper-limb amputation may be important. PMID:19692791

  20. Fate of the contralateral limb after lower extremity amputation

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Julia D.; Bensley, Rodney P.; Hurks, Rob; Dahlberg, Suzanne; Hamdan, Allen D.; Wyers, Mark C.; Chaikof, Elliot L.; Schermerhorn, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Lower extremity amputation is often performed in patients where both lower extremities are at risk due to peripheral arterial disease or diabetes, yet the proportion of patients who progress to amputation of their contralateral limb is not well defined. We sought to determine the rate of subsequent amputation on both the ipsilateral and contralateral lower extremities following initial amputation. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of all patients undergoing lower extremity amputation (exclusive of trauma or tumor) at our institution from 1998 to 2010. We used International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision codes to identify patients and procedures as well as comorbidities. Outcomes included the proportion of patients at 1 and 5 years undergoing contralateral and ipsilateral major and minor amputation stratified by initial major vs minor amputation. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of major contralateral amputation. Results We identified 1715 patients. Mean age was 67.2 years, 63% were male, 77% were diabetic, and 34% underwent an initial major amputation. After major amputation, 5.7% and 11.5% have a contralateral major amputation at 1 and 5 years, respectively. After minor amputation, 3.2% and 8.4% have a contralateral major amputation at 1 and 5 years while 10.5% and 14.2% have an ipsilateral major amputation at 1 and 5 years, respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed end-stage renal disease (hazard ratio [HR], 3.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3–6.5), chronic renal insufficiency (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.5–3.3), atherosclerosis without diabetic neuropathy (HR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.5–5.7), atherosclerosis with diabetic neuropathy (HR, 9.1; 95% CI, 3.7–22.5), and initial major amputation (HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3–2.6) were independently predictive of subsequent contralateral major amputation. Conclusions Rates of contralateral limb amputation are high and predicted

  1. Influence of adjustments to amputation and artificial limb on quality of life in patients following lower limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Richa; van den Heuvel, Wim J A; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study are to investigate the relationship between adjustments to amputation and artificial limb, and quality of life (QoL), and to analyse the influence of sociodemographic, medical and amputation-related factors on this relationship. Patients with unilateral and noncongenital lower limb amputation who were using artificial limb were interviewed (n=368) using structured questionnaires. The Trinity Amputation and Prosthesis Experience Scales (TAPES) were used to assess adjustments to amputation and artificial limb and the MOS Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess the physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component summary of QoL. Absence of comorbidity and residual stump pain, being employed, young age, less functional restriction, being more adjusted to limitation, increased social adjustment and less restriction in athletic activity were related to better PCS scores. Absence of comorbidity and phantom limb pain, nonuse of assistive device, being more adjusted to limitation, increased social adjustment and being less functionally restricted were related to higher MCS scores. Comorbidity had a modifying effect on both PCS and MCS scores. In addition, age, being employed and residual stump pain had a modifying influence on PCS, whereas assistive device use and phantom limb pain had a modifying influence on MCS. Our findings show that TAPES subscales have a modifying effect on the associations between several background (sociodemographic and amputation characteristics) and QoL (PCS and MCS). This indicates that adjustments to amputation and artificial limb are the key determinants of QoL in individuals following lower limb amputation.

  2. Traumatic amputations in children and adolescents: demographics from a regional limb-fitting centre in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Roche, A J; Selvarajah, K

    2011-04-01

    There is no published literature detailing the demographics of paediatric amputations in the United Kingdom. We performed this review of children and adolescents referred to a regional limb-fitting centre from the 1930s to the current decade who suffered amputation as a result of trauma, and compared our data with similar cohorts from other units. Of the 93 patients included, only 11 were injured in the last 20 years. Road traffic accidents accounted for 63% of traumatic amputations. Of all amputations, 81% were in the lower limb and 19% in the upper limb. Our figures are similar to those from a United Kingdom national statistical database of amputees which showed on average four traumatic amputee referrals to each regional limb-fitting centre in the United Kingdom per ten-year period. Compared with the United States, the incidence of paediatric traumatic amputations in the United Kingdom is low.

  3. Pattern and mechanism of traumatic limb amputations after explosive blast: experience from the 07/07/05 London terrorist bombings.

    PubMed

    Patel, Hasu D L; Dryden, Steven; Gupta, Amit; Ang, Swee Chai

    2012-07-01

    Traumatic amputation of limbs caused by bomb blast carries a high mortality; we present our experience of 07/07 London terrorist bombing that resulted in a large number of survivors with amputated limbs. We think that the unique underground bombing, the shape of the carriages, and the enclosure by the underground tunnel caused amputation of the limb by the channeling of the blast wave as a result of the device being floor based, which resulted in lower-limb amputation without other fatal primary blast injuries. We present our results of the traumatic amputation in the fatalities and survivors as well as the possible mechanism and protective measure that could save lives. Data for traumatic amputations were collected from several sources and made anonymous. Traumatic amputations were specifically classified in both the survivors and the fatalities. Our results have shown that 24.5% of those with traumatic amputations will survive. Most of the lower-limb amputations occurred in the shaft of the long bones. Only one person with an upper limb amputation survived the injuries. This study does not support the previously held belief that traumatic amputations from a bomb blast results from simple avulsions by the blast winds. However, it reinforces the belief that the principal mechanism of primary traumatic amputation of the limbs in such circumstances occurs primarily [corrected] from the direct coupling of blast waves, resulting in a fracture of the long bone rather than at a joint. This study is unique because it looks at the effects of blast at a very close range (<2 m) at the four London bombing scenes. Epidemiological study, level V.

  4. The effect of limb amputation on standing weight distribution in the remaining three limbs in dogs.

    PubMed

    Cole, Grayson Lee; Millis, Darryl

    2017-01-16

    Despite the fact that limb amputation is a commonly performed procedure in veterinary medicine, quantitative data regarding outcomes are lacking. The intention of this study was to evaluate the effect of limb amputation on weight distribution to the remaining three limbs at a stance in dogs. Ten dogs with a prior forelimb amputation and ten dogs with a prior hindlimb amputation; all of which had no history of orthopaedic or neural disease in the remaining three limbs were included in the study. Standing weight bearing was evaluated with a commercial stance analyzer in all dogs. Five valid trials were obtained and a mean percentage of weight bearing was calculated for each remaining limb. The dogs with a previous forelimb amputation, and also those with a previous hindlimb amputation, had the largest mean increase in weight bearing in the contralateral forelimb. In conclusion, proactive monitoring of orthopaedic disease in the contralateral forelimb may be advisable in dogs with a previous limb amputation. In addition, when determining candidacy for a limb amputation, disease of the contralateral forelimb should be thoroughly evaluated.

  5. Comorbidities in amputation: a systematic review of hemiplegia and lower limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Jacqueline S; Payne, Michael W C; Wolfe, Dalton L; Deathe, A Barry; Devlin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review of the scientific literature was to investigate the incidence and prevalence of hemiplegia with lower limb amputation, and to identify outcomes following the dual disability of hemiplegia and amputation. Electronic searching of the literature identified major studies examining the effects of hemiplegia on rehabilitation following amputation. Data were extracted and levels of evidence assigned for each subtopic area. The summary conclusions are Level 4 evidence. The prevalence of amputation and hemiplegia is 8-18% and amputation and hemiplegia occur most often in the same leg. Once individuals with hemiplegia and lower limb amputation are selected for prosthetic rehabilitation, rate of successful functional ambulation is greater than 58%. In general there is a lower rate of prosthetic success and independence with hemiplegia than without. Predictive factors associated with success include less severe hemiplegia, laterality of hemiplegia (ipsilateral and right side), transtibial level of amputation and absence of impaired mental function. There is wide variation in length of hospital stay, but a specialty multidisciplinary team reduces length of stay. Patients with dual disability of hemiplegia and amputation generally benefit from a prosthetic rehabilitation program. Further study on predictive factors for outcome would be beneficial. • The prevalence of hemiplegia with lower limb amputation ranges from 8 to 18%, most frequently affecting the same leg. • The majority of patients attain successful functional levels of ambulation with prosthetic rehabilitation, although lower rates than nonhemiplegic patients. • Predictive factors associated with greater success include less severe hemiplegia, ipsilateral hemiplegia, transtibial level of amputation and absence of impaired mental function.

  6. Association between Functional Severity and Amputation Type with Rehabilitation Outcomes in Patients with Lower Limb Amputation

    PubMed Central

    Graham, James E.; Reistetter, Timothy A.; Kumar, Amit; Niewczyk, Paulette; Granger, Carl V.; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine independent influences of functional level and lower limb amputation type on inpatient rehabilitation outcomes. We conducted a secondary data analysis for patients with lower limb amputation who received inpatient medical rehabilitation (N = 26,501). The study outcomes included length of stay, discharge functional status, and community discharge. Predictors included the 3-level case mix group variable and a 4-category amputation variable. Age of the sample was 64.5 years (13.4) and 64% were male. More than 75% of patients had a dysvascular-related amputation. Patients with bilateral transfemoral amputations and higher functional severity experienced longest lengths of stay (average 13.7 days) and lowest functional rating at discharge (average 79.4). Likelihood of community discharge was significantly lower for those in more functionally severe patients but did not differ between amputation categories. Functional levels and amputation type are associated with rehabilitation outcomes in inpatient rehabilitation settings. Patients with transfemoral amputations and those in case mix group 1003 (admission motor score less than 36.25) generally experience poorer outcomes than those in other case mix groups. These relationships may be associated with other demographic and/or health factors, which should be explored in future research. PMID:25400948

  7. Obesity and metabolic disorders in adults with lower limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Kurdibaylo, S F

    1996-10-01

    Anthropometric and biochemical research was conducted on 94 subjects with various levels of lower limb amputation. The purpose of the work was to investigate the features of obesity progression and disorders of cholesterin metabolism, as well as to develop adequate training exercises. Anthropometric research was conducted by calipermetry; the biochemical research was done by various methods to determine exempt and total cholesterin and triglycerides in the blood serum. The research establishes the frequency of obesity progression relative to the level of amputation, as well as the features of the excessive body mass. Type 11A hyperlipoproteidemia was evident. It is characterized by rapid progress of atherosclerotic vascular disease and coronary disease (CD). Cyclic and acyclic exercises were developed for prophylaxis and therapy. Anthropometric research on the determination of body fat mass was conducted on 68 subjects with various levels of lower limb amputation. The nondirect method of measuring skin folds of several parts of the body was used to determine the extent of lipogenesis. Biochemical research of cholesterin metabolism was conducted on 26 subjects with lower limb amputation (a different group). Anthropometric research revealed an increase of body fat mass directly related to the level of amputation. The largest amount of fat in the body mass was noted for the subjects with bilateral transfemoral (above-knee) amputation or transfemoral plus transtibial (below-knee) amputation. Both groups averaged 25.9%. The body fat mass increased chiefly in the subcutaneous fat. Increase of the internal fat mass was less noticeable. The frequency of obesity progression in subjects with unilateral transtibial amputation equaled 37.9%; in subjects with transfemoral amputation, 48.0%; and in subjects with bilateral transfemoral or transfemoral plus transtibial amputation, 64.2%. Young subjects demonstrated obesity progression during the first year after amputation

  8. Limb amputations from the ancient times to the present.

    PubMed

    Stryła, Wanda; Pogorzała, Adam M; Kasior, Iwona; Nowakowski, Andrzej

    2013-07-26

    Amputations, or the removal of limbs at different levels, have been performed since the ancient times. The first reports of amputations originate from the ancient ruins in Egypt, where primitive prosthetic toes were found in the tombs of the Pharaohs. In Europe, during the period of ancient Greece and Rome, various examples of amputations were described on amphoras and mosaics. During the middle ages, the body was marginalized and replaced by the worship of human spirituality. As a result reports of amputations from that time period are scarce. True development of amputation and prosthetic techniques took place during the Renaissance and centuries that followed. Present-day indications for amputation are similar to those utilized in the ancient times. The greatest development of limb amputation techniques and prosthetic methods began in the 20th century and continues to this day. Despite the development of new techniques in prosthetics, many solutions have their roots in designs originating in the ancient times and differ only in their structural design.

  9. Rehabilitation of patients with war-related lower limb amputations.

    PubMed

    Osmani-Vllasolli, Teuta; Hundozi, Hajrije; Bytyçi, Cen; Kalaveshi, Ariana; Krasniqi, Blerim

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the influence of factors: the amputation type and the time lag between last surgery and prosthetic rehabilitation, on the rehabilitation duration and outcome, in patients with war-related lower limb amputations. We reviewed the records of 101 war-related lower limb amputees who had inpatient rehabilitation at the National Ortho-Prosthetic Centre (NOPC) of Kosovo in Pristina, from July 1999 to June 2001, a retrospective observational study. Assessment of rehabilitation outcome-ambulation grade with prosthesis, is made on a 3-point scale. The amputation type was shown as an important predictor for the rehabilitation duration and outcome. The analysis by comparative groups has confirmed the amputation type to be of biggest importance. Earlier prosthetic rehabilitation, was shown as a factor of influence on the rehabilitation duration in all cases (r=0.22, P=0.027). This predictor was not relevant for the rehabilitation outcome. The most frequent type of prosthesis manufactured for the amputees, was the patellar tendon bearing below-knee prosthesis with suspension band (36.9%). Amputation of the limb should be performed as low as possible. If there are possibilities for prosthetic rehabilitation, any delays must be avoided, particularly in war-related lower limb amputees.

  10. Lower-limb amputation and body weight changes in men.

    PubMed

    Littman, Alyson J; Thompson, Mary Lou; Arterburn, David E; Bouldin, Erin; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Sangeorzan, Bruce J; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between lower-limb amputation (LLA) and subsequent changes in body weight. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using clinical and administrative databases to identify and follow weight changes in 759 males with amputation (partial foot amputation [PFA], n = 396; transtibial amputation [TTA], n = 267; and transfemoral amputation [TFA], n = 96) and 3,790 nondisabled persons frequency-matched (5:1) on age, body mass index, diabetes, and calendar year from eight Department of Veterans Affairs medical care facilities in the Pacific Northwest. We estimated and compared longitudinal percent weight change from baseline during up to 39 mo of follow-up in participants with and without amputation. Weight gain in the 2 yr after amputation was significantly more in men with an amputation than without, and in men with a TTA or TFA (8%-9% increase) than in men with a PFA (3%-6% increase). Generally, percent weight gain peaked at 2 yr and was followed by some weight loss in the third year. These findings indicate that LLA is often followed by clinically important weight gain. Future studies are needed to better understand the reasons for weight gain and to identify intervention strategies to prevent excess weight gain and the deleterious consequences that may ensue.

  11. The Military Extremity Trauma Amputation/Limb Salvage (METALS) study: outcomes of amputation versus limb salvage following major lower-extremity trauma.

    PubMed

    Doukas, William C; Hayda, Roman A; Frisch, H Michael; Andersen, Romney C; Mazurek, Michael T; Ficke, James R; Keeling, John J; Pasquina, Paul F; Wain, Harold J; Carlini, Anthony R; MacKenzie, Ellen J

    2013-01-16

    The study was performed to examine the hypothesis that functional outcomes following major lower-extremity trauma sustained in the military would be similar between patients treated with amputation and those who underwent limb salvage. This is a retrospective cohort study of 324 service members deployed to Afghanistan or Iraq who sustained a lower-limb injury requiring either amputation or limb salvage involving revascularization, bone graft/bone transport, local/free flap coverage, repair of a major nerve injury, or a complete compartment injury/compartment syndrome. The Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) questionnaire was used to measure overall function. Standard instruments were used to measure depression (the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD Checklist-military version), chronic pain (Chronic Pain Grade Scale), and engagement in sports and leisure activities (Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire). The outcomes of amputation and salvage were compared by using regression analysis with adjustment for age, time until the interview, military rank, upper-limb and bilateral injuries, social support, and intensity of combat experiences. Overall response rates were modest (59.2%) and significantly different between those who underwent amputation (64.5%) and those treated with limb salvage (55.4%) (p = 0.02). In all SMFA domains except arm/hand function, the patients scored significantly worse than population norms. Also, 38.3% screened positive for depressive symptoms and 17.9%, for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One-third (34.0%) were not working, on active duty, or in school. After adjustment for covariates, participants with an amputation had better scores in all SMFA domains compared with those whose limbs had been salvaged (p < 0.01). They also had a lower likelihood of PTSD and a higher likelihood of being engaged in vigorous sports. There were no significant differences between

  12. A "preamputation care pathway" reduces mortality for lower limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jason; Dindyal, Shiva; Raynor, Hannah; Abidia, Ahmed; Refson, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Lower limb amputation due to peripheral arterial disease is common. The comorbid nature of this patient group makes management challenging. The aims of the study were 1) to introduce a novel "preamputation care pathway" to facilitate perioperative care and 2) to evaluate whether such a pathway is able to reduce morbidity and mortality. All patients undergoing lower limb amputation over 12 months were prospectively identified. Patient demographics were recorded before statistical analysis was performed. Twelve limbs were amputated (mean age, 69 years; mean American Association of Anesthesiologists score, 3.36). The mean time from presentation to amputation was 16.83 days. Eighty percent of patients were admitted to a critical care bed postoperatively. The mean time that patients stayed in a critical care environment was 2.62 days (range, 0-6 days). After a stay in the critical care unit, 90% of patients were stepped down to a health care of the elderly ward. One patient died in less than 30 days, representing a 10% 30-day mortality rate. The mean inpatient stay was 47 days (range, 19-121 days). Eighty percent of patients who underwent amputation in less than 10 days survived to discharge. In contrast, only 25% of patients who underwent amputation after day 11 survived to discharge (P = .0384). In conclusion, the implementation of the "preamputation care pathway" has reduced the 30-day mortality rate to 10%. A similar model of care currently exists for fractured neck of femur patients and is outlined by the care standards into "Best Practice Tariff" for the care of fractured neck of femur. A similar model should be implemented for patients undergoing lower limb amputation. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Nursing, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rehabilitation of burn patients with concomitant limb amputation: case reports.

    PubMed

    Ward, R S; Hayes-Lundy, C; Schnebly, W A; Reddy, R; Saffle, J R

    1990-10-01

    Burn patients with associated limb amputations present demanding rehabilitation problems, many of which might be expected to lead to chronic difficulties. Therapeutic goals following limb amputation include oedema reduction, prevention of contracture (through positioning and range of motion), stump shaping, both pre- and post-prosthetic fitting strengthening exercises of the limb and trunk, and gait training. Some patients present problems that are associated with both the burn injury and the limb amputation that cause concern among the physical therapy staff. Some of these situations include intolerance of the stump to pressure or manipulation due to remaining open wounds or fragility of newly skin grafted areas on the residual limb or delayed gait or functional training due to wounds on other body surface areas. Delays in stump preparation or other treatment aims due to continued surgical procedures can be worrisome. A review of these patients indicates the possible difficulties that rehabilitation personnel may face when treating burn victims who required amputation. Effective rehabilitation of these patients can be achieved despite the noted concerns.

  14. Bilateral high upper limb replantation in a child.

    PubMed

    Koul, Ashok Raj; Cyriac, Asha; Khaleel, V M; Vinodan, K

    2004-05-01

    Bilateral high amputation of upper limbs in a child is a very unusual injury. In the present case, although the amputation was high and significant avulsion was present, the age of the child (6 years) made the case both challenging and encouraging--challenging because of the anticipated systemic effects of reperfusion, and encouraging because the long-term prognosis is always more encouraging in a child.

  15. Major upper limb replantation.

    PubMed

    Chew, W Y; Tsai, T M

    2001-08-01

    Major amputations remain a challenge to the replantation surgeon. Proper patient selection, good surgical skills, and cooperation among the patient, surgeon, and rehabilitation team help achieve a better outcome.

  16. A prognostic model for amputation in critical lower limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Klomp, H M; Steyerberg, E W; Wittens, C H A; van Urk, H; Habbema, J D F

    2009-05-01

    In a (negative) multicenter randomized trial on management for inoperable critical lower limb ischemia, comparing spinal cord stimulation and best medical treatment, a number of pre-defined factors were analyzed for prognostic value. We included a radiological arterial disease score, modified from the SVS/ISCVS runoff score. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate clinical factors and commonly used circulatory measurements for prognostic modeling in patients with critical lower limb ischemia. We determined the incidence of amputation and its relation to various pre-defined risk factors. A total of 120 patients with critical limb ischemia were included in the study. The integrity of circulation in the affected limb was evaluated on five levels: suprainguinal, infrainguinal, popliteal, infrapopliteal and pedal. A total radiological arterial disease score was calculated from 1 (full integrity of circulation) to 20 (maximally compromised state). We used Cox regression analysis to quantify prognostic effects and differential treatment (predictive) effects. Major amputation occurred in 33% of the patients at 6 months and in 51% at 2 years. The presence of ischemic skin lesions and the radiological arterial disease score were independent prognostic factors for amputation. Patients with ulcerations or gangrene had a higher amputation risk (hazard ratio 2.38, p = 0.018 and 2.30, p = 0.036 respectively) as well as patients with a higher radiological arterial disease score (hazard ratio 1.17 per increment, p = 0.003). We did not observe significant interactions between prognostic factors and the effect of spinal cord stimulation. In conclusion, in patients with critical lower limb ischemia, the presence of ischemic skin lesions and the described radiological arterial disease score can be used to estimate amputation risk.

  17. Long-term mortality after lower-limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajiv Kumar; Prasad, Guru

    2016-10-01

    Mortality after amputation is known to be extremely high and is associated with a number of patient features. We wished to calculate this mortality after first-time lower-limb amputation and investigate whether any population or treatment factors are associated with worse mortality. To follow up individuals after lower limb amputation and ascertain the mortality rate as well as population or treatment features associated with mortality. A prospective cohort study. Prospective lower-limb amputations over 1 year (N = 105) at a Regional Rehabilitation Centre were followed up for 3 years. After 3 years, 35 individuals in the cohort had died, representing a mortality of 33%. On initial univariate analysis, those who died were more likely to have diabetes mellitus (χ(2) = 7.16, df = 1, p = 0.007) and less likely to have been fitted with a prosthesis (χ(2) = 5.84, df = 1, p = 0.016). There was no association with age, gender, level of amputation, social isolation, significant medical co-morbidity other than diabetes or presence of mood disorders. A multi-variable logistic regression (backward step) confirmed that diabetes (odds ratio = 3.04, confidence intervals = 1.25-7.40, p = 0.014) and absence of prosthesis-fitting (odds ratio = 2.60, confidence interval = 1.16-6.25, p = 0.028) were independent predictors of mortality. Mortality after amputation is extremely high and is increased in individuals with diabetes or in those who are not fitted with a prosthesis after amputation. The link between diabetes and mortality after amputation has been noted by others, but this is the first study to find an effect from prosthetic limb-wearing. This requires further investigation to ascertain why the wearing of a prosthetic limb, confers an independent survival benefit that is not related to the presence of medical co-morbidity. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  18. [Amputation of the Lower Limb - Treatment and Management].

    PubMed

    Ramczykowski, Tim; Schildhauer, Thomas A

    2017-08-01

    Despite modern conservative and surgical procedures, the number of amputations of the lower limb remains at a consistently high level. With the demographic changes and the consequent prevalence of atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus, there is a steady increase of the risk factors that can lead to an amputation. The cause, which ultimately leads to the loss of the affected limb is therefore a symptom of the underlying disease. Primarily, the purpose of any medical treatment is the prevention of any amputation. If the preservation of the limb is not achievable, the surgical procedure follows. In principle the preparation of the stump should be as peripheral as possible. The actual prosthetic fitting starts with the dimension and the impression (negative-copy) of the prosthesis a few weeks following surgery. The technical requirements of a prosthesis will depend on the degree of mobility and the medical history of the patient. Prosthetic adjustments are available for all amputation levels and activities. The essential basic modules of a modern prosthesis can be combined and exchanged freely, so as to allow a change of function, form and axis. The aim of rehabilitation is the full reintegration into daily life. Especially young patients can provide amazing professional and athletic achievements. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. A Prosthesis to Train the Proprioceptive Capabilities of the Residual Limb of Military Personnel Recovering from Lower Limb Amputation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Capabilities of the Residual Limb of Military Personnel Recovering From Lower Limb Amputation PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Brian Glaister, Ph.D...Proprioceptive Capabilities of the Residual Limb of Military Personnel Recovering From Lower Limb Amputation 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0573 5c... amputation takes many months owing largely to the fact that new amputees cannot perceive when the prosthetic foot is in contact with the ground. To

  20. Effects of prosthetic limb prescription on 3-year mortality among Veterans with lower-limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Kurichi, Jibby E; Kwong, Pui; Vogel, W Bruce; Xie, Dawei; Cowper Ripley, Diane; Bates, Barbara E

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the relationship between receipt of a prescription for a prosthetic limb and 3 yr mortality postsurgery among Veterans with lower-limb amputation (LLA). We conducted a retrospective observational study that included 4,578 Veterans hospitalized for LLA and discharged in fiscal years 2003 and 2004. The outcome was time to all-cause mortality from the amputation surgical date up to the 3 yr anniversary of the surgical date. Of the Veterans with LLA, 1,300 (28.4%) received a prescription for a prosthetic limb within 1 yr after the surgical amputation. About 46% (n = 2,086) died within 3 yr of the surgical anniversary. Among those who received a prescription for a prosthetic limb, only 25.2% died within 3 yr of the surgical anniversary. After adjustment, Veterans who received a prescription for a prosthetic limb were less likely to die after the surgery than Veterans without a prescription, with a hazard ratio of 0.68 (95% confidence interval: 0.60-0.77). Findings demonstrated that Veterans with LLA who received a prescription for a prosthetic limb within 1 yr after the surgical amputation were less likely to die within 3 yr of the surgical amputation after controlling for patient-, treatment-, and facility-level characteristics.

  1. [Replantation in the complete amputation of the upper extremity].

    PubMed

    Unlü, Yahya; Ezirmik, Naci; Vural, Unsal; Velioğlu, Yusuf

    2002-01-01

    Trauma of the upper extremity can be a cause of significant morbidity and disability to otherwise productive people. Wounded extremity can be saved by replantation of the amputated parts. Replantation of traumatic amputations can be performed with reasonable success at a regional medical center when experienced surgeons, appropriate and experienced equipment, and skilled ancillary care are available. Successful replantation significantly reduces the morbidity of upper extremity amputations. We presented one case that, 9 year-old, was bridged to our hospital because of total arm amputation after sustained during use of a lawn mover. His arm was saved by urgency surgery.

  2. Weight Change Trajectories After Incident Lower-Limb Amputation.

    PubMed

    Bouldin, Erin D; Thompson, Mary Lou; Boyko, Edward J; Morgenroth, David C; Littman, Alyson J

    2016-01-01

    To characterize weight change after amputation by identifying typical weight trajectories in men with incident lower-limb amputation (LLA) and describing characteristics associated with each trajectory. Retrospective cohort study and analyzed using group-based trajectory modeling. Administrative data. Veterans who were men (N=759), living in the Northwest United States, and who had an incident toe, foot, or leg amputation between 1997 and 2008 and at least 18 months of amputation-free survival thereafter. Not applicable. Postamputation weight and body mass index change. The mean weight at baseline was 91.6±24 kg (202±53 lb), and average follow-up was 2.4 years. We identified 4 trajectory groups for weight change: weight loss (13%), stable weight (47%), slow weight gain (33%), and rapid weight gain (7%). Men with a toe or foot amputation most frequently were assigned to the stable weight group (58%), whereas men with transtibial or transfemoral amputations were most commonly assigned to the slow weight gain group (42% each). Men who died during follow-up were more likely to be assigned to the weight loss group (24%) than men who did not die (11%). We identified distinct weight change trajectories that represent heterogeneity in weight change after LLA. An improved understanding of factors predictive of weight gain or loss in people with LLA may help better target rehabilitation and prosthetic prescription. Additional research is needed to fully understand the relation between weight change and health status after amputation. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Primary motor cortex changes after amputation correlate with phantom limb pain and the ability to move the phantom limb.

    PubMed

    Raffin, Estelle; Richard, Nathalie; Giraux, Pascal; Reilly, Karen T

    2016-04-15

    A substantial body of evidence documents massive reorganization of primary sensory and motor cortices following hand amputation, the extent of which is correlated with phantom limb pain. Many therapies for phantom limb pain are based upon the idea that plastic changes after amputation are maladaptive and attempt to normalize representations of cortical areas adjacent to the hand area. Recent data suggest, however, that higher levels of phantom pain are associated with stronger local activity and more structural integrity in the missing hand area rather than with reorganization of neighbouring body parts. While these models appear to be mutually exclusive they could co-exist, and one reason for the apparent discrepancy between them might be that no single study has examined the organisation of lip, elbow, and hand movements in the same participants. In this study we thoroughly examined the 3D anatomy of the central sulcus and BOLD responses during movements of the hand, elbow, and lips using MRI techniques in 11 upper-limb amputees and 17 healthy control subjects. We observed different reorganizational patterns for all three body parts as the former hand area showed few signs of reorganization, but the lip and elbow representations reorganized and shifted towards the hand area. We also found that poorer voluntary control and higher levels of pain in the phantom limb were powerful drivers of the lip and elbow topological changes. In addition to providing further support for the maladaptative plasticity model, we demonstrate for the first time that motor capacities of the phantom limb correlate with post-amputation reorganization, and that this reorganization is not limited to the face and hand representations but also includes the proximal upper-limb.

  4. Regulating bodily integrity: cosmetic surgery and voluntary limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Aileen

    2012-12-01

    Cosmetic surgery and voluntary limb amputation share a number of features. Both procedures are patient-driven forms of body shaping that can only be performed by surgeons, and therefore the procedures require the imprimatur of the medical profession to be lawful. Both invoke identity construction as a central legitimating factor that renders the procedures therapeutic. The legal regulation of surgery is subsumed within general principles regulating medical practice, where autonomy and consent are constituted as fundamental authorising principles. The legitimacy of consent to surgical intervention operates unevenly in relation to these two forms of surgery. Amputation of healthy limbs is presumed to be non-therapeutic. Capacity is closely interrogated and minutely scrutinised. Consent to cosmetic surgery, by contrast, is presumed to be a valid expression of autonomy and self-determination.

  5. Advanced upper limb prosthetic devices: implications for upper limb prosthetic rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda; Meucci, Marissa R; Lieberman-Klinger, Shana; Fantini, Christopher; Kelty, Debra L; Disla, Roxanne; Sasson, Nicole

    2012-04-01

    The number of catastrophic injuries caused by improvised explosive devices in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars has increased public, legislative, and research attention to upper limb amputation. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has partnered with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and DEKA Integrated Solutions to optimize the function of an advanced prosthetic arm system that will enable greater independence and function. In this special communication, we examine current practices in prosthetic rehabilitation including trends in adoption and use of prosthetic devices, financial considerations, and the role of rehabilitation team members in light of our experiences with a prototype advanced upper limb prosthesis during a VA study to optimize the device. We discuss key challenges in the adoption of advanced prosthetic technology and make recommendations for service provision and use of advanced upper limb prosthetics. Rates of prosthetic rejection are high among upper limb amputees. However, these rates may be reduced with sufficient training by a highly specialized, multidisciplinary team of clinicians, and a focus on patient education and empowerment throughout the rehabilitation process. There are significant challenges emerging that are unique to implementing the use of advanced upper limb prosthetic technology, and a lack of evidence to establish clinical guidelines regarding prosthetic prescription and treatment. Finally, we make recommendations for future research to aid in the identification of best practices and development of policy decisions regarding insurance coverage of prosthetic rehabilitation.

  6. Always Contact a Vascular Interventional Specialist Before Amputating a Patient with Critical Limb Ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Met, Rosemarie; Koelemay, Mark J. W.; Bipat, Shandra; Legemate, Dink A.; Lienden, Krijn P. van; Reekers, Jim A.

    2010-06-15

    Patients with severe critical limb ischemia (CLI) due to long tibial artery occlusions are often poor candidates for surgical revascularization and frequently end up with a lower limb amputation. Subintimal angioplasty (SA) offers a minimally invasive alternative for limb salvage in this severely compromised patient population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of SA in patients with CLI caused by long tibial occlusions who have no surgical options for revascularization and are facing amputation. We retrospectively reviewed all consecutive patients with CLI due to long tibial occlusions who were scheduled for amputation because they had no surgical options for revascularization and who were treated by SA. A total of 26 procedures in 25 patients (14 males; mean age, 70 {+-} 15 [SD] years) were evaluated. Technical success rate was 88% (23/26). There were four complications, which were treated conservatively. Finally, in 10 of 26 limbs, no amputation was needed. A major amputation was needed in 10 limbs (7 below-knee amputations and 3 above-knee amputations). Half of the major amputations took place within 3 months after the procedure. Cumulative freedom of major amputation after 12 months was 59% (SE = 11%). In six limbs, amputation was limited to a minor amputation. Seven patients (28%) died during follow-up. In conclusion, SA of the tibial arteries seem to be a valuable treatment option to prevent major amputation in patients with CLI who are facing amputation due to lack of surgical options.

  7. Functional and psychological outcomes of delayed lower limb amputation following failed lower limb reconstruction.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Lana; Birkholtz, Franz; Tetsworth, Kevin; Hohmann, Erik

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional and psychological outcomes of patients who underwent delayed lower limb amputation following failed limb salvage surgery. This retrospective, descriptive study evaluated functional outcomes using the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) and Short Form-36 (SF-36) in 12 patients. Inclusion criteria included patients who underwent limb reconstruction and delayed amputation between July 2006 and December 2014, with an age range between 18 and 80 years of age, the ability to ambulate independently, a time interval between the last salvage procedure and amputation greater than six months, and a minimum follow-up of 24 months. Patients were contacted via telephone by the principal investigator and both the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) and Short Form-36 (SF-36) were completed. Descriptive analysis (means and standard deviation) was used to determine outcomes for both SIP and SF-36 health profiles. Ten patients who had amputations following failed reconstruction (2006-2014) with a mean age of 53±10years were interviewed. Six patients had a SIP <5, three patients scored between five and 10 points and one scored >10 points. The main deficit on the SF-36 was in the physical component. The SF-36 scores demonstrated a mean score of 40.8±11.5 for the physical component, and 57.4±7.9 for the mental component. Three patients returned to work after amputation and continued performing their pre-injury duties as farmers. Three other patients returned to work, but were allocated to administrative duties. Two patients were pensioners at the time of their injuries, and the only female patient was a housewife. One patient went into early retirement. The results of this study strongly suggest that delayed amputation following failed limb salvage surgery can still result in good and satisfactory outcomes in the majority of patients and achieves results similar to early amputation and limb reconstruction techniques. Copyright © 2016

  8. Physical and social factors determining quality of life for veterans with lower-limb amputation(s): a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Jan; Ipsen, Thomas; Doherty, Patrick; Langberg, Henning

    2016-12-01

    Most veterans live for many years after their war-related traumatic lower-limb amputation, which is why understanding which factors influence health-related quality of life (HRQoL) remains important to their long-term management. The objective of this study was to perform a review of the literature to summarize any evidence on the physical and social determinants for HRQoL in veterans with uni- or bilateral lower-limb amputation(s). MEDLINE, EMBASE, PEDro, CINAHL, Scopus and Cochrane databases were searched systematically for eligible studies. Inclusion criteria were: traumatic lower-limb amputation(s), HRQoL outcome and veterans. Physical and social factors that influence HRQoL were extracted. The literature search identified 2073 citations, leading to the inclusion of 10 studies in the systematic review. Physical activity level, sport participation, level of amputation, back pain, years of education, as well as duration and severity of phantom pain were found to be determining factors for HRQoL among veterans with lower-limb amputation. The identified physical and social determinants were similar to those found in civilian traumatic amputees. More high quality research designs, interventions and complex statistical analyses are warranted to identify the physical and social factors that influence the HRQoL of veteran amputees. Implications for Rehabilitation Rehabilitation staff should promote physical activity and participation in sport among veterans with lower-limb amputation(s). Level of amputation, back pain severity, years of education, duration of phantom pain and severity of phantom pain have been found to be determining factors for HRQoL and should be taken into consideration when planning rehabilitation programs for veterans with lower-limb amputations.

  9. [Frostbite of the upper and lower limbs in an expert mountain climber: the value of bone scan in the prediction of amputation level].

    PubMed

    Banzo, J; Martínez Villén, G; Abós, M D; Morandeira, J R; Prats, E; García López, F; Razola, P; Ubieto, M A

    2002-01-01

    A 38 year old man was admitted to our hospital 10 days after suffering a frostbite injury in hands and feet while practicing mountain climbing, at 8,100 meters of altitude, while he was trying to reach the top of the K2 mountain. A 99mTc-MDP bone scan performed in aseptic conditions showed: in hands: absence of bone uptake in the 3rd phalanx and distal portion of 2nd phalanx of the 5th finger of the left hand, and multiple areas of increased uptake in the distal portion of both hands. In feet: uptake decreases in the 2nd phalanx of the first toe of the left foot, and absence of bone uptake in the 3rd phalanx of the 2nd toe of the left foot, and in 2nd phalanx of the 1st toe and 3rd phalanx of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th toes of the right foot. As in the hands, there were multiple areas of increased uptake in the distal portion of both feet. The phalanges with absence of bone uptake had to be amputated, while those that presented increased uptake recovered with conservative treatment. Bone scan is indicated in the evaluation of frostbite injuries and helps to establish the prognosis early.

  10. Transcutaneous oxygen pressure as a surrogate index of lower limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Hiroomi; Minakata, Kenji; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Kumagai, Motoyuki; Ikeda, Takafumi; Shimizu, Akira; Yokode, Masayuki; Morita, Satoshi; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2016-12-01

    A large number of clinical trials of therapeutic angiogenesis in patients with critical limb ischemia have been conducted in recent years. However, limb amputation, which is used as a primary endpoint in such studies, is not often required in Japan, which can make it difficult to carry out related clinical trials. Transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO2) is widely used to evaluate the severity of limb ischemia, to decide the level of amputation, and to predict wound healing after limb amputation. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether TcPO2 can be a surrogate index of limb ischemia, and to define an appropriate cutoff value for wound healing after limb amputation using meta-analysis. A computer search was performed to identify studies describing the association between TcPO2 and limb ischemic events. From these, studies focused on wound healing after limb amputation were combined and analyzed. Eleven studies were identified for inclusion in this analysis. The analysis demonstrated that TcPO2 20 mmHg was a valid cutoff value for limb amputation and TcPO2 30 mmHg would be an appropriate value for wound healing after limb amputation. TcPO2 of 20 and 30 mmHg were considered appropriate cutoff values for limb amputation and wound healing after amputation, respectively.

  11. The validity of the mangled extremity severity score in the assessment of upper limb injuries.

    PubMed

    Togawa, S; Yamami, N; Nakayama, H; Mano, Y; Ikegami, K; Ozeki, S

    2005-11-01

    The Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) may be used to decide whether to perform amputation in patients with injuries involving a limb. A score of 7 points or higher indicates the need for amputation. We have treated three patients with a MESS of 7 points or higher, in two of which the injured limb was salvaged. This scoring system was originally devised to assess injuries to the lower limb. However, a MESS of 7 points as a justification for amputation does not appear appropriate when assessing injuries to the major vessels in the upper limb.

  12. Double flap from amputated opposite lower limb for cover of plantar and dorsal surfaces of a crushed foot

    PubMed Central

    Samir, Kumta; Shrirang, Purohit; Anurag, Chitranshi

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral limb trauma poses many possibilities for management. In a situation of bilateral amputation, if the amputated limb is not salvageable or replantation is not advisable, the amputated limb can be used to harvest tissue for free tissue transfer to cover the amputation stump. We describe a case here in which we have used these principles. PMID:24459351

  13. Outcomes of dogs undergoing limb amputation, owner satisfaction with limb amputation procedures, and owner perceptions regarding postsurgical adaptation: 64 cases (2005-2012).

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Vanna M; Coleman, Kevin D; Ogawa, Morika; Saba, Corey F; Cornell, Karen K; Radlinsky, MaryAnn G; Schmiedt, Chad W

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate outcomes of dogs and owner satisfaction and perception of their dogs' adaptation following amputation of a thoracic or pelvic limb. Retrospective case series. 64 client-owned dogs. Procedures-Medical records of dogs that underwent limb amputation at a veterinary teaching hospital between 2005 and 2012 were reviewed. Signalment, body weight, and body condition scores at the time of amputation, dates of amputation and discharge from the hospital, whether a thoracic or pelvic limb was amputated, and reason for amputation were recorded. Histologic diagnosis and date of death were recorded if applicable. Owners were interviewed by telephone about their experience and interpretation of the dog's adaptation after surgery. Associations between perioperative variables and postoperative quality of life scores were investigated. 58 of 64 (91%) owners perceived no change in their dog's attitude after amputation; 56 (88%) reported complete or nearly complete return to preamputation quality of life, 50 (78%) indicated the dog's recovery and adaptation were better than expected, and 47 (73%) reported no change in the dog's recreational activities. Body condition scores and body weight at the time of amputation were negatively correlated with quality of life scores after surgery. Taking all factors into account, most (55/64 [86%]) respondents reported they would make the same decision regarding amputation again, and 4 (6%) indicated they would not; 5 (8%) were unsure. This information may aid veterinarians in educating clients about adaptation potential of dogs following limb amputation and the need for postoperative weight control in such patients.

  14. Assessment of gait stability, harmony, and symmetry in subjects with lower-limb amputation evaluated by trunk accelerations.

    PubMed

    Iosa, Marco; Paradisi, Francesco; Brunelli, Stefano; Delussu, Anna Sofia; Pellegrini, Roberto; Zenardi, Daniele; Paolucci, Stefano; Traballesi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of upper-body accelerations is a promising and simple technique for quantitatively assessing some general features of gait such as stability, harmony, and symmetry. Despite the growing literature on elderly healthy populations and neurological patients, few studies have used accelerometry to investigate these features in subjects with lower-limb amputation. We enrolled four groups of subjects: subjects with transfemoral amputation who walked with a locked knee prosthesis, subjects with transfemoral amputation who walked with an unlocked knee prosthesis, subjects with transtibial amputation, and age-matched nondisabled subjects. We found statistically significant differences for stability (p < 0.001), harmony (p < 0.001), and symmetry (p < 0.001) of walking, with general trends following the noted order of subjects, but with the lowest laterolateral harmony in subjects with transtibial amputation. This study is the first to investigate upper-body acceleration of subjects with unilateral lower-limb amputation during walking who were evaluated upon dismissal from a rehabilitation hospital; it is also the first study to differentiate the sample in terms of level of amputation and type of prosthesis used.

  15. [Endo-exo prostheses following limb-amputation].

    PubMed

    Juhnke, D-L; Aschoff, H-H

    2015-06-01

    Rehabilitation of patients having undergone limb amputation is difficult due to problems related to poor socket fit, which often deteriorates comfort, gait and the ability to take part in everyday life and work. The endo-exo prosthesis has been an alternative provision for people having undergone lower limb amputation for reasons other than diabetes or peripheral vascular disease for more than 10 years. The system consists of an intramedullar, osseointegrated and skin perforating prosthesis, which is implanted in the remaining bone and has an abutment to allow the attachment of the external prosthetic part including the knee joint in the case of a trans-femoral amputation. The idea originates in findings of modern tooth-implantology and involves a two-step operation. This study focuses on one centre's experience with the endo-exo prostheses in Lübeck, Germany, to describe and discuss the reliability of this alternative treatment method after lower limb amputation. This article presents the results of lower limb amputees operated on in Lübeck, Germany between 1999-2013. It focuses on theoretical aspects of osseointegration and different clinically-based findings using the endo-exo technique over the last decade. 74 lower-limb amputees were treated with an endo-exo prosthesis until December 2013. There were only 4 verified intramedullar infections, yet there were many unplanned surgical revisions secondary to soft-tissue infections in the beginning. They were successfully encountered via clinically-based changes that were made concerning implant design, wound treatment and operative technique. Since 1990 a few groups have developed an innovative method that provides an alternative to traditional socket-type prostheses. This involves a skeletally anchored device that is inserted into the remaining stump and provides osseointegration into the bone. The distal part of the implant protrudes transcutaneously and allows attachment to a prosthetic limb. This creates a

  16. Spinal cord stimulation for intractable pain following limb amputation.

    PubMed

    McAuley, John; van Gröningen, Richard; Green, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    €‚ Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) by high-frequency electrical pulses has been used since the early 1970s for relief of chronic intractable pain following limb amputation. The long-€term effectiveness of SCS for amputation-€related pain with ongoing after-care is reviewed by assessment of all such cases managed over 20 years in the Neurostimulator Clinic at the Royal London Hospital. €‚ Twelve amputation-€related pain patients had quadripolar paddle electrodes (Resume; Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) inserted epidurally by laminectomy over the thoracic or cervical dorsal spinal cord and connected to remotely controlled subcutaneously implanted stimulators (Itrel2, Itrel3, Synergy; Medtronic). €‚ Two of 12 patients had unsuccessful stimulation, one despite repeated electrode revisions. Two were subsequently lost to follow-€up, one had delayed spontaneous resolution of phantom limb pain, one had a technical fault, and one had gradually waning benefit over 19 years. In the remaining five patients having ongoing follow-up, self-€reported initial and final magnitudes of pain relief were unchanged, with a mean (SD) of 66% (18.2%). Benefits calculated from local and general visual analogue pain scores were similarly unchanged (initial local 48.8% [18.7%]; final local 50.0% [17.6%]; initial general 60.8% [10.9%]; final general 57.9% [12.3%]). Continued successful stimulation often required frequent changes of stimulating electrode contacts. Revision procedures for technical problems or pain at the battery site were universally successful. €‚ Successful SCS in some patients with amputation-€related pain otherwise resistant to treatment indicates that the procedure merits continued use with further efforts to refine technique. © 2012 International Neuromodulation Society.

  17. Spina bifida and lower limb amputation in Northern Ireland: A retrospective study of demographics and outcome.

    PubMed

    Graham, Lorraine

    2017-01-01

    Spina bifida is an uncommon cause for lower limb amputation. The causes and level of amputation and mobility outcome for these patients have not been reported previously. To identify the causes and level of amputation and the mobility outcome for amputee patients with spina bifida. Retrospective case series. Chart review of patients identified by computer as having an amputation secondary to neurological or congenital cause. Additional patients identified from the Regional Spina Bifida Medical Clinic. Demographics, cause and level of mobility pre- and post-amputation recorded from the prosthetic notes. In total, 16 patients were identified who had a diagnosis of spina bifida and a lower limb amputation. Mean age at the time of amputation was 28.5 years. In total, 15 patients had a transtibial amputation. In total, 14 patients post-amputation were able to maintain their mobility, wheelchair or walking, without any change in type of aid needed. Patients with spina bifida appear to require lower limb amputation at a younger age than patients with peripheral vascular disease. Almost all patients had prior chronic skin infection/osteomyelitis as precursors for amputation. The most common level for amputation was transtibial. Mobility was maintained for all patients, albeit for two in a more supported way. Clinical relevance Spina bifida is an uncommon reason for amputation. Patients, are often younger and medically complicated. Chronic skin ulceration, was the most common indication for amputation. Wheelchair or walking ambulance was maintained at the same level for most patients.

  18. Sensations evoked in patients with amputation from watching an individual whose corresponding intact limb is being touched.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Vilayanur S; Brang, David

    2009-10-01

    After amputation of a limb, the majority of patients experience phantom sensations, such as phantom pain. Such patients provide an opportunity for the exploration of the perceptual correlates of recently discovered "mirror neurons," which fire not only when individuals move their own limb but when they watch the movements of the corresponding limb of another person. Similar neurons exist in the secondary somatosensory cortex for touch: they fire when the individual is touched or simply watches another person be touched. While these neurons cannot by themselves discriminate between the two, the mind is aware of the difference between feeling and watching; one does not confuse empathy with actual experience. To investigate whether patients with amputation experience the sensations of another person in their own phantom limb during the mere observation of someone else being touched, owing to removal of the inhibition of the mirror neuron system that would have occurred had the limb been intact. Case report. University campus, academic setting. Patients Four patients with upper-limb amputation. The subjective reports of patients. We report that 4 individuals with arm amputation, the mere watching of the intact hand of another being touched evokes vivid, precisely localized sensations in their own phantom hands. We suggest these evoked sensations are owing to removal of neural signals from the hand that would have ordinarily inhibited the response of the mirror neurons and prevented their activity from reaching the threshold of conscious awareness.

  19. Treating Intractable Post-Amputation Phantom Limb Pain with Ambulatory Continuous Peripheral Nerve Blocks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Phantom Limb Pain With Ambulatory Continuous...Annual 3. DATES COVERED 26 December 2012–25 December 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Treating Intractable Post-Amputation Phantom Limb Pain With...effective  treatment  for  intractable   phantom   limb   pain  following  a  traumatic   limb  amputation.  There  is

  20. Remodeling of cortical activity for motor control following upper limb loss

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Laura; Pirouz, Nikta; Mizelle, J.C.; Cusack, William; Kistenberg, Rob; Wheaton, Lewis A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Upper extremity loss presents immediate and lasting challenges for motor control. While sensory and motor representations of the amputated limb undergo plasticity to adjacent areas of the sensorimotor homunculus, it remains unclear whether laterality of motor-related activity is affected by neural reorganization following amputation. Methods Using electroencephalography, we evaluated neural activation patterns of formerly right hand dominant persons with upper limb loss (amputees) performing a motor task with their residual right limb, then their sound left limb. We compared activation patterns with left- and right-handed persons performing the same task. Results Amputees have involvement of contralateral motor areas when using their sound limb and atypically increased activation of posterior parietal regions when using the affected limb. When using the non-amputated left arm, patterns of activation remains similar to right handed persons using their left arm. Conclusions A remodeling of activations from traditionally motor areas into posterior parietal areas occurs for motor planning and execution when using the amputated limb. This may reflect an amputation-specific adaptation of heightened visuospatial feedback for motor control involving the amputated limb. Significance These results identify a neuroplastic mechanism for motor control in amputees, which may have great relevance to development of motor rehabilitation paradigms and prosthesis adaptation. PMID:27472549

  1. Diabetic foot complications: a two-year review of limb amputation in a Kelantanese population.

    PubMed

    Yusof, M I; Sulaiman, A R; Muslim, D A J

    2007-08-01

    Many conditions, including benign and malignant tumours, peripheral vascular diseases and open fracture grade 3C, have been successfully treated with limb sparing procedures. However, the same could not be said for treatment of limb infection, especially late stage diabetic foot complications. This is a retrospective review of patients who underwent operations at our hospital from July 2003 to June 2005. All patients who underwent various types of limbs amputations were included. The cohort was divided according to the diagnosis leading to the amputation and the level of amputation. The number and levels of amputation were then compared with the various causes leading to the amputation. There were 203 patients who underwent amputation during the period of study. 135 (66.5 percent) of the patients were diabetic and amputations performed were related to diabetic foot conditions. 68 (33.5 percent) patients were not known to have diabetes mellitus. Among nondiabetic patients, 54 (26.6 percent) amputations were due to trauma, 11 (5.4 percent) were related to musculoskeletal tumours and 3 (1.5 percent) were due to peripheral vascular disease. Among diabetic patients, 23 (17 percent) patients underwent above knee amputation, 44 (33 percent) patients underwent below knee amputation, and 68 (50 percent) patients underwent local foot amputation. 80 of 135 (59.3 percent) patients, who underwent amputation due to diabetic complications, were less than 60 years old. Good diabetic control and detection of early diabetic foot complications will reduce the number of patients undergoing limb amputation as well as the number of amputees. Since the incidence of lower limb amputation is due mainly to poor diabetic control, it is important to protect this group of patients from a probable avoidable amputation.

  2. Comparison of patient-reported outcomes after traumatic upper extremity amputation: Replantation versus prosthetic rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Pet, Mitchell A; Morrison, Shane D; Mack, Jacob S; Sears, Erika D; Wright, Thomas; Lussiez, Alisha D; Means, Kenneth R; Higgins, James P; Ko, Jason H; Cederna, Paul S; Kung, Theodore A

    2016-12-01

    After major upper extremity traumatic amputation, replantation is attempted based upon the assumption that outcomes for a replanted limb exceed those for revision amputation with prosthetic rehabilitation. While some reports have examined functional differences between these patients, it is increasingly apparent that patient perceptions are also critical determinants of success. Currently, little patient-reported outcomes data exists to support surgical decision-making in the setting of major upper extremity traumatic amputation. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to directly compare patient-reported outcomes after replantation versus prosthetic rehabilitation. At three tertiary care centers, patients with a history of traumatic unilateral upper extremity amputation at or between the radiocarpal and elbow joints were identified. Patients who underwent either successful replantation or revision amputation with prosthetic rehabilitation were contacted. Patient-reported health status was evaluated with both DASH and MHQ instruments. Intergroup comparisons were performed for aggregate DASH score, aggregate MHQ score on the injured side, and each MHQ domain. Nine patients with successful replantation and 22 amputees who underwent prosthetic rehabilitation were enrolled. Aggregate MHQ score for the affected extremity was significantly higher for the Replantation group compared to the Prosthetic Rehabilitation group (47.2 vs. 35.1, p<0.05). Among the MHQ domains, significant advantages to replantation were demonstrated with respect to overall function (41.1 vs. 19.7, p=0.03), ADLs (28.3 vs. 6.0, p=0.03), and patient satisfaction (46.0 vs. 24.4, p=0.03). Additionally, Replantation patients had a lower mean DASH score (24.6 vs. 39.8, p=0.08). Patients in this study who experienced major upper extremity traumatic amputation reported more favorable patient-reported outcomes after successful replantation compared to revision amputation with prosthetic rehabilitation

  3. Four limb amputations due to electrical burn caused by TV antenna contact with overhead electric cables.

    PubMed

    Celiköz, B; Sengezer, M; Selmanpakoğlu, N

    1997-02-01

    A 22-year-old man who sustained four limb amputations due to an electrical burn caused by contact of a TV receiver antenna with overhead electric cables is presented. The indications for limb amputation and the necessary preventive measures for such injuries are discussed.

  4. Rehabilitation and multiple limb amputations: A clinical report of patients injured in combat.

    PubMed

    Melcer, Ted; Pyo, Jay; Walker, Jay; Quinn, Kimberly; Lebedda, Martin; Neises, Kamaran; Nguyen, Christina; Galarneau, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This clinical report describes the outpatient rehabilitation program for patients with multiple limb amputations enrolled in the Comprehensive Combat and Complex Casualty Care facility at the Naval Medical Center San Diego. Injury-specific data for 29 of these patients wounded by blast weaponry in Afghanistan in 2010 or 2011 were captured by the Expeditionary Medical Encounter Database at the Naval Health Research Center and were reviewed for this report. Their median Injury Severity Score was 27 (N = 29; range, 11-54). Patients averaged seven moderate to serious injuries (Abbreviated Injury Scale scores ≥2), including multiple injuries to lower limbs and injuries to the torso and/or upper limbs. All patients received care from numerous clinics, particularly physical therapy during the first 6 mo postinjury. Clinic use generally declined after the first 6 mo with the exception of prosthetic devices and repairs. The clinical team implemented the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory, 4th Revision (MPAI-4) to assess functioning at outpatient program initiation and discharge (n = 23). At program discharge, most patients had improved scores for the MPAI-4 items assessing mobility, pain, and transportation, but not employment. Case reports described rehabilitation for two patients with triple amputations and illustrated multispecialty care and contrasting solutions for limb prostheses.

  5. Reorganization of the primary motor cortex following lower-limb amputation for vascular disease: a pre-post-amputation comparison.

    PubMed

    Hordacre, Brenton; Bradnam, Lynley V; Crotty, Maria

    2017-08-01

    This study compared bilateral corticomotor and intracortical excitability of the primary motor cortex (M1), pre- and post-unilateral transtibial amputation. Three males aged 45, 55, and 48 years respectively who were scheduled for elective amputation and thirteen (10 male, 3 female) healthy control participants aged 58.9 (SD 9.8) were recruited. Transcranial magnetic stimulation assessed corticomotor and intracortical excitability of M1 bilaterally. Neurophysiological assessments were performed 10 (SD 7) days prior to surgery and again at 10 (SD 3) days following surgery. Data were analyzed descriptively and objectively compared to 95% confidence intervals from control data. Prior to amputation, all three patients demonstrated stronger short-latency intracortical inhibition evoked from M1 ipsilateral to the affected limb and reduced long-latency intracortical inhibition evoked from M1 contralateral to the affected limb compared to control subjects. Following amputation, short-latency intracortical inhibition was reduced in both M1s and long-latency intracortical inhibition was reduced for the ipsilateral M1. Single-pulse motor evoked potential amplitude and motor thresholds were similar pre-to-post amputation. Modulation of intracortical excitability shortly following amputation indicates that the cortical environment may be optimized for reorganization in the acute post-amputation period which might be significant for learning to support prosthetic mobility. Implications for Rehabilitation Amputation of a lower-limb is associated with extensive reorganization at the level of the cortex. Reorganization occurs in the acute post-amputation period implying a favorable cortical environment for recovery. Rehabilitation or brain interventions may target the acute pre-prosthetic post-amputation period to optimize recovery.

  6. [Prosthetic possibilities after amputations in the upper extremities].

    PubMed

    Grüttner, B; Frohnauer, G; Burgkart, R

    2004-06-24

    Whereas passive prostheses are fitted onto the patient after the amputation of an arm, hand or finger and are mostly cosmetic in function, active prostheses have much more potential. They can transform the movements of other body regions to movement in the artificial limb. Belts or harnesses, for example, effect the direct transfer of the power from the muscle to the prosthesis. The range of movement possible depends upon the level of the amputation, the length of the residual limb, the age of the patient, his body build and fitness. Myoelectrically controlled prostheses possess their own drive and power source. They control movement through the electrical action potentials of the residual limb muscles, which are detected, amplified and transmitted with help of electrodes.

  7. Impairment variables predicting activity limitation in individuals with lower limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Raya, Michele A; Gailey, Robert S; Fiebert, Ira M; Roach, Kathyrn E

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether measures of impairment (i.e., muscle strength, balance), personal factors (i.e., comorbidities, demographic information) and amputation specific variables (i.e., time since amputation, cause of amputation, level of amputation) were able to predict performance on the six-minute walk test, a measure of activity limitation, in individuals with lower limb amputation. A total of 72 individuals with lower limb amputation ranging in age from 21-83 were tested for balance, limb muscle strength and function. Medical comorbidities were recorded and activity limitation was measured using the six-minute walk test. Data were analyzed and multivariate relationships were examined using multiple linear regression. Impairment variables of strength, balance, subject demographics, time since amputation, cause of amputation and level of amputation were all significant predictors and explained 72% of the variance in the outcome variable. Strength of the hip extensors was the strongest predictor, accounting for 30.9% of the total variance. Multiple factors impact six minute walk scores in individuals with lower limb amputation. Impairments in hip strength and balance appear to be the two most significant. The findings of this study support the use of the six-minute walk test to underscore impairments of the musculoskeletal system that can affect ambulation ability in the amputee.

  8. A Comparison of Four-Year Health Outcomes following Combat Amputation and Limb Salvage

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Jay; Bhatnagar, Vibha; Richard, Erin; Sechriest, V. Franklin; Galarneau, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Little research has described the long-term health outcomes of patients who had combat-related amputations or leg-threatening injuries. We conducted retrospective analysis of Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs health data for lower extremity combat-injured patients with (1) unilateral amputation within 90 days postinjury (early amputation, n = 440), (2) unilateral amputation more than 90 days postinjury (late amputation, n = 78), or (3) leg-threatening injuries without amputation (limb salvage, n = 107). Patient medical records were analyzed for four years postinjury. After adjusting for group differences, early amputation was generally associated with a lower or similar prevalence for adverse physical and psychological diagnoses (e.g., pain, osteoarthritis, posttraumatic stress disorder) versus late amputation and/or limb salvage. By contrast, early amputation was associated with an increased likelihood of osteoporosis during the first year postinjury. The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder increased for all patient groups over four years postinjury, particularly in the second year. The different clinical outcomes among combat extremity injured patients treated with early amputation, late amputation, or limb salvage highlight their different healthcare requirements. These findings can inform and optimize the specific treatment pathways that address the physical and psychological healthcare needs of such patients over time. PMID:28122002

  9. A Comparison of Four-Year Health Outcomes following Combat Amputation and Limb Salvage.

    PubMed

    Melcer, Ted; Walker, Jay; Bhatnagar, Vibha; Richard, Erin; Sechriest, V Franklin; Galarneau, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Little research has described the long-term health outcomes of patients who had combat-related amputations or leg-threatening injuries. We conducted retrospective analysis of Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs health data for lower extremity combat-injured patients with (1) unilateral amputation within 90 days postinjury (early amputation, n = 440), (2) unilateral amputation more than 90 days postinjury (late amputation, n = 78), or (3) leg-threatening injuries without amputation (limb salvage, n = 107). Patient medical records were analyzed for four years postinjury. After adjusting for group differences, early amputation was generally associated with a lower or similar prevalence for adverse physical and psychological diagnoses (e.g., pain, osteoarthritis, posttraumatic stress disorder) versus late amputation and/or limb salvage. By contrast, early amputation was associated with an increased likelihood of osteoporosis during the first year postinjury. The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder increased for all patient groups over four years postinjury, particularly in the second year. The different clinical outcomes among combat extremity injured patients treated with early amputation, late amputation, or limb salvage highlight their different healthcare requirements. These findings can inform and optimize the specific treatment pathways that address the physical and psychological healthcare needs of such patients over time.

  10. Primary upper-limb lymphoedema.

    PubMed

    Vignes, S; Arrault, M; Yannoutsos, A; Blanchard, M

    2013-02-01

    Lymphoedema is a general term used to designate pathological, regional accumulation of protein-rich fluid. It can be either primary or secondary, and mainly occurs after cancer treatment. To analyse the clinical and lymphoscintigraphic characteristics of primary upper-limb lymphoedema (ULL). All of the patients with ULL were recruited at a single Department of Lymphology between January 2007 and December 2011. In total, 60 patients (33 female, 27 male) were enrolled. For the 54 noncongenital lymphoedemas, the mean age at onset was 38·5 (range 3-82) years. Lymphoedema was unilateral in 51 patients (85%). It always affected the hand, and less often the forearm (55%) or upper arm (23%). Eleven patients (18%) developed cellulitis after onset of lymphoedema, and 21 patients (35%) had associated lower-limb lymphoedema (LLL). Forty-six patients (with 49 lymphoedematous limbs) underwent lymphoscintigraphy: axillary lymph node uptake was diminished in 18 (37%), absent in 24 (49%) and normal in seven limbs (14%). Among the 43 patients with unilateral lymphoedema and lymphoscintigraphy, 28 had epitrochlear node visualization, suggesting a rerouting through the deep lymphatic system, with 15 only on the lymphoedematous limb and 22 on the contralateral nonlymphoedematous limb. The median follow-up period was 103 months, and 57/60 patients (95%) considered their lymphoedema to be stable. Primary ULL appears later in life than LLL, without predominance in either sex. Infectious complications are rare and patients considered the lymphoedema volume stable throughout life. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  11. Similar survival but better function for patients after limb salvage versus amputation for distal tibia osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Abati, Caterina Novella; Romagnoli, Carlo; Ruggieri, Pietro

    2012-06-01

    Amputation has been the standard surgical treatment for distal tibia osteosarcoma. Advances in surgery and chemotherapy have made limb salvage possible. However, it is unclear whether limb salvage offers any improvement in function without compromising survival. We therefore compared the survival, local recurrence, function, and complications of patients with distal tibia osteosarcoma treated with limb salvage or amputation. We retrospectively reviewed 42 patients with distal tibia osteosarcoma treated from 1985 to 2010. Nineteen patients had amputations and 23 had limb salvage and allograft reconstructions. We graded the histology using Broders classification, and staged patients using the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) systems. The tumor grades tended to be higher in the group of patients who had amputations. We determined survival, local recurrence, MSTS function, and complications. The minimum followup was 8 months (median, 60 months; range, 8-288 months). The survival of patients who had limb salvage was similar to that of patients who had amputations: 84% at 120 and 240 months versus 74%, respectively. The incidence of local recurrence was similar: three of 23 patients who had limb salvage versus no patients who had amputations. The mean MSTS functional score tended to be higher in patients who had limb salvage compared with those who had amputations: 76% (range, 30%-93%) versus 71% (range, 50%-87%), respectively. The incidence of complications was similar. Patients treated with either limb salvage or amputation experience similar survival, local recurrence, and complications, but better function is achievable for patients treated with limb salvage versus amputation. Local recurrence and complications are more common in patients with limb salvage. Level III, retrospective comparative study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  12. Responsiveness of outcome measures for upper limb prosthetic rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda; Borgia, Matthew

    2016-02-01

    There is limited research on responsiveness of prosthetic rehabilitation outcome measures. To examine responsiveness of the Box and Block test, Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function tests, Upper Extremity Functional Scale, University of New Brunswick skill and spontaneity tests, Activity Measure for Upper Limb Amputation, and the Patient-Specific Functional Scale. This was a quasi-experimental study with repeated measurements in a convenience sample of upper limb amputees. Measures were collected before, during, and after training with the DEKA Arm. Largest effect sizes were observed for Patient-Specific Functional Scale (effect size: 1.59, confidence interval: 1.00, 2.14), Activity Measure for Upper Limb Amputation (effect size: 1.33, confidence interval: 0.73, 1.90), and University of New Brunswick skill test (effect size: 1.18, confidence interval: 0.61, 1.73). Other measures that were responsive to change were Box and Block test, Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function light and heavy can tests, and University of New Brunswick spontaneity test. Responsiveness and pattern of responsiveness varied by prosthetic level. The Box and Block test, Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function light and heavy can tests, University of New Brunswick skill and spontaneity tests, Activities Measure for Upper Limb Amputation, and the Patient-Specific Functional Scale were responsive to change during prosthetic training. These findings have implications for choice of measures for research and practice and inform clinicians about the amount of training necessary to maximize outcomes with the DEKA Arm. Findings on responsiveness of outcome measures have implications for the choice of measures for clinical trials and practice. Findings regarding the responsiveness to change over the course of training can inform clinicians about the amount of training that may be necessary to maximize specific outcomes with the DEKA Arm. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  13. Pediatric Traumatic Limb Amputation: The Principles of Management and Optimal Residual Limb Lengths

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Adil Abbas; Javed, Ammar Asrar; Rao, Dominic Jordan; Corner, J Antony; Rosenfield, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric traumatic limb amputations are rare and their acute and long term management can be challenging in this subgroup of patients. The lengthy and costly hospital stays, and resulting physical and psychological implications leads to significant morbidity. We present a summary of treatment principles and the evidence base supporting the management options for this entity. The initial management focuses on resuscitating and stabilization of the patients, administration of appropriate and adequate analgesics, and broad spectrum antibiotics. The patient should ideally be managed by an orthopedic or a plastic surgeon and when an amputation is warranted, the surgical team should aim to conserve as much of the viable physis as possible aimed at allowing bone development in a growing child. A subsequent wound inspection should be performed to assess for signs of ischemia or non-viability of tissue. Depending on the child’s age, approximations of the ideal residual limb length can be calculated using our guidelines, allowing an ideal stump length at skeletal maturity for a well-fitting and appropriate prosthesis. Myodesis and myoplasties can be performed according to the nature of the amputation. Removable rigid dressings are safe and cost effective offering better protection of the stump. Complications such as necrosis and exostosis, on subsequent examination, warrant further revisions. Other complications such as neuromas can be prevented by proximal division of the nerves. Successful rehabilitation can be accomplished with a multidisciplinary approach, involving physiotherapist, play therapist and a child psychiatrist, in addition to the surgeon and primary care providers. PMID:27308235

  14. Brief activity performance measure for upper limb amputees: BAM-ULA.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda; Borgia, Matthew; Acluche, Frantzy

    2017-01-01

    Measures of activity performance for adults with upper limb amputation are needed. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the measurement properties of a new measure of activity performance for adults with upper limb amputation, which we call the Brief Activity Measure for Upper Limb Amputees (BAM-ULA) and to compare BAM-ULA scores for users of different types of prostheses. In all, 35 persons with upper limb amputation were administered the BAM-ULA, twice within 1 week. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated. Construct validity was examined by comparing scores by amputation level. Concurrent validity was evaluated by examining correlations with other measures. Exploratory analyses using linear regression compared sub-group scores for users of myoelectric and body-powered devices, and for users of single-degree-of-freedom and multi-articulating devices, controlling for amputation level. The scale alpha was 0.83; intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.91. Item scores differed by amputation level and device type. Persons with transradial amputation completed more items than those with amputations at the transhumeral or shoulder level ( p < 0.05). Users of myoelectric devices completed more items than users of body-powered devices ( p < 0.05). The BAM-ULA strongly correlated with the Activities Measure for Upper Limb Amputees; R = 0.86) and three modified Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Tests ( R = 0.62-0.68) and moderately correlated with one Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test ( R = 0.46) as well as with the Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale. No differences in scores were found by degree of freedom of the terminal device after controlling for amputation level. Analyses support reliability, construct validity, and concurrent validity of the Brief Activity Measure for Upper Limb Amputees. This new briefer measure is easier to score than the Activities Measure for Upper Limb Amputees. Clinical relevance This article

  15. Spinal, pelvic, and hip movement asymmetries in people with lower-limb amputation: Systematic review.

    PubMed

    Devan, Hemakumar; Carman, Allan; Hendrick, Paul; Hale, Leigh; Ribeiro, Daniel Cury

    2015-01-01

    Following amputation, people with transfemoral amputation (TFA) and transtibial amputation (TTA) adapt with asymmetrical movements in the spinal and lower-limb joints. The aim of this review is to describe the trunk, lumbopelvic, and hip joint movement asymmetries of the amputated limb of people with TFA and TTA during functional tasks as compared with the intact leg and/or referent leg of nondisabled controls. Electronic databases were searched from inception to February 2014. Studies with kinematic data comparing (1) amputated and intact leg and (2) amputated and referent leg of nondisabled controls were included (26 articles). Considerable heterogeneity in the studies precluded data pooling. During stance phase of walking in participants with TFA, there is moderate evidence for increased trunk lateral flexion toward the amputated limb as compared with the intact leg and increased anterior pelvic tilt as compared with nondisabled controls. None of the studies investigated spinal kinematics during other functional tasks such as running, ramp walking, stair climbing, or obstacle crossing in participants with TFA or TTA. Overall, persons with TFA adapt with trunk and pelvic movement asymmetries at the amputated limb to facilitate weight transfer during walking. Among participants with TTA, there is limited evidence of spinal and pelvic asymmetries during walking.

  16. A Clinical Evaluation of Postamputation Phenomena Including Phantom Limb Pain after Lower Limb Amputation in Dysvascular Patients.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Cliff; Crawford, Kath; Milnes, Karen; Bouch, Elizabeth; Kulkarni, Jai

    2015-08-01

    To explore the effects of phantom phenomena on a group of dysvascular lower limb amputees. This was a cross-sectional study of dysvascular lower limb amputees. A modified version of the phantom phenomena questionnaire was used to measure the prevalence of phantom phenomena and the effects of those phenomena on daily life. Eighty-nine amputees were recruited. The majority were inpatients (72%) and male (72%). Most had pain before amputation (83%). Sixty-three percent had phantom limb pain. No associations were found between phantom limb pain and preamputation pain (p = .397). Phantom limb pain was present immediately on waking from amputation in 23%. Phantom limb pain is highly fluctuant. It is more likely that phantom limb pain was present with more time passed since amputation (p = .002). Outpatients with unhealed wounds were less likely to have phantom limb pain (p = .007). The effects of postamputation phenomena include sleep loss and social restrictions. These results challenge the belief that phantom limb pain reduces over time as more outpatients reported phantom limb pain than inpatients. Preamputation pain is not linked to the presence of phantom limb pain. The fluctuant nature of phantom limb pain makes its treatment complex. Some may wish intensity to reduce, whereas others may prefer to reduce the number of episodes or duration of each episode instead. More research is needed to clarify the needs of amputees in relation to the postamputation phenomena.

  17. 3D-printed upper limb prostheses: a review.

    PubMed

    Ten Kate, Jelle; Smit, Gerwin; Breedveld, Paul

    2017-04-01

    This paper aims to provide an overview with quantitative information of existing 3D-printed upper limb prostheses. We will identify the benefits and drawbacks of 3D-printed devices to enable improvement of current devices based on the demands of prostheses users. A review was performed using Scopus, Web of Science and websites related to 3D-printing. Quantitative information on the mechanical and kinematic specifications and 3D-printing technology used was extracted from the papers and websites. The overview (58 devices) provides the general specifications, the mechanical and kinematic specifications of the devices and information regarding the 3D-printing technology used for hands. The overview shows prostheses for all different upper limb amputation levels with different types of control and a maximum material cost of $500. A large range of various prostheses have been 3D-printed, of which the majority are used by children. Evidence with respect to the user acceptance, functionality and durability of the 3D-printed hands is lacking. Contrary to what is often claimed, 3D-printing is not necessarily cheap, e.g., injection moulding can be cheaper. Conversely, 3D-printing provides a promising possibility for individualization, e.g., personalized socket, colour, shape and size, without the need for adjusting the production machine. Implications for rehabilitation Upper limb deficiency is a condition in which a part of the upper limb is missing as a result of a congenital limb deficiency of as a result of an amputation. A prosthetic hand can restore some of the functions of a missing limb and help the user in performing activities of daily living. Using 3D-printing technology is one of the solutions to manufacture hand prostheses. This overview provides information about the general, mechanical and kinematic specifications of all the devices and it provides the information about the 3D-printing technology used to print the hands.

  18. [The endo-exo prosthesis treatment concept : Improvement in quality of life after limb amputation].

    PubMed

    Hoffmeister, T; Schwarze, F; Aschoff, H H

    2017-05-01

    Osseointegrated, percutaneous implants as the force bearer for exoprosthetics after limb amputation have been used in individual cases for clinical rehabilitation of amputees during the past years. Most experience in this field in Germany has been accumulated at the Sana Klinik in Lübeck with the so-called endo-exo prosthesis (EEP) system. The two-step implantation procedure can now be considered as reliable. Following a well-documented learning curve initial soft tissue problems concerning the cutaneous stoma can now be regarded as exceptions. The retrospective examination of the results concerning by now more than 100 patients provided with an endo-exo femoral prosthesis (EEFP) showed a very satisfying outcome concerning objective as well as subjective values, such as duration of daily use and wearing comfort of the exoprosthesis. Regaining the ability of osseoperception due to the intraosseous fixation is described by the patients as a great advantage. The step from a socket prosthesis to an EEP is felt to be a big increase in quality of life by nearly all patients included into the follow-up. Nearly all of the patients questioned would choose an endo-exo prosthesis again. Meanwhile, the success of the EEP resulted in the broadening of indications from above-knee amputations to transtibial as well as transhumeral amputations. The results are likewise encouraging. The use of EEP for the upper limbs leads to substantial improvement in the range of motion of the shoulder joint with the intramedullary anchored percutaneous implant. Furthermore, new pathbreaking possibilities in the fixation of myoelectrically controlled arm prostheses may arise from the EEP technique.

  19. The status of lower-limb amputation in Bangladesh: a 6-year review.

    PubMed

    Aftabuddin, M; Islam, N; Jafar, M A; Haque, I

    1997-01-01

    We conducted a review of 450 single lower-limb amputations performed in our hospital in Bangladesh between July 1982 and June 1987. The incidence of amputation in the specific area of 1000000 inhabitants covered by the hospital was 0.75/10(3) per year. The indications for amputation were: limb ischemia in 366 patients (81%), traumatic crush injury in 45 (10%), diabetes-associated complications in 20 (5%), severe limb infection in 10 (2%), and neoplasm growth in 10 (2%). The ratio of above-knee (AK) to below-knee (BK) amputation was 1:65, and 36 patients (8%) required reamputation, 22 of whom had undergone BK amputation previously. Thus, the number of patients with a final amputation at AK level was 302 (67%). The operative mortality was 21% and the uncomplicated primary wound healing rate was 89% within the survivors. Among the 355 patients who survived the amputation, 265 (75%) were given a prosthesis, 50 (14%) refused a prosthesis, and the remaining 40 (11%) were unfit for a prosthesis. Rehabilitation was successful in 44% of the AK and 86% of the BK amputees. In conclusion, when amputation is inevitable, maximum consideration should be given to the type of surgery performed to avoid rehabilitation failure.

  20. Phantom hand and wrist movements in upper limb amputees are slow but naturally controlled movements.

    PubMed

    De Graaf, J B; Jarrassé, N; Nicol, C; Touillet, A; Coyle, T; Maynard, L; Martinet, N; Paysant, J

    2016-01-15

    After limb amputation, patients often wake up with a vivid perception of the presence of the missing limb, called "phantom limb". Phantom limbs have mostly been studied with respect to pain sensation. But patients can experience many other phantom sensations, including voluntary movements. The goal of the present study was to quantify phantom movement kinematics and relate these to intact limb kinematics and to the time elapsed since amputation. Six upper arm and two forearm amputees with various delays since amputation (6months to 32years) performed phantom finger, hand and wrist movements at self-chosen comfortable velocities. The kinematics of the phantom movements was indirectly obtained via the intact limb that synchronously mimicked the phantom limb movements, using a Cyberglove® for measuring finger movements and an inertial measurement unit for wrist movements. Results show that the execution of phantom movements is perceived as "natural" but effortful. The types of phantom movements that can be performed are variable between the patients but they could all perform thumb flexion/extension and global hand opening/closure. Finger extension movements appeared to be 24% faster than finger flexion movements. Neither the number of types of phantom movements that can be executed nor the kinematic characteristics were related to the elapsed time since amputation, highlighting the persistence of post-amputation neural adaptation. We hypothesize that the perceived slowness of phantom movements is related to altered proprioceptive feedback that cannot be recalibrated by lack of visual feedback during phantom movement execution.

  1. Limb salvage versus amputation. Preliminary results of the Mangled Extremity Severity Score.

    PubMed

    Helfet, D L; Howey, T; Sanders, R; Johansen, K

    1990-07-01

    Objective criteria can predict amputation after lower-extremity trauma. The authors examined the hypothesis that objective data, available early in the evaluation of patients with severe skeletal/soft-tissue injuries of the lower extremity with vascular compromise, might discriminate the salvageable from the unsalvageable limbs. The Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) was developed by reviewing 25 trauma victims with 26 severe lower-extremity open fractures with vascular compromise. The four significant criteria (with increasing points for worsening prognosis) were skeletal/soft-tissue injury, limb ischemia, shock, and patient age. (There was a significant difference in the mean MESS scores; 4.88 in 17 limbs salvaged and 9.11 in nine limbs amputated; p less than 0.01). This scoring system was then prospectively evaluated in 26 lower-extremity open fractures with vascular injury over a 12-month period at two trauma centers. Again, there was a significant difference in the mean MESS scores; 4.00 for the 14 salvaged limbs and 8.83 for the 12 amputated limbs (p less than 0.01). In both the prospective and retrospective studies, a MESS score of greater than or equal to 7 had a 100% predictable value for amputation. This relatively simple, readily available scoring system of objective criteria was highly accurate in acutely discriminating between limbs that were salvageable and those that were unsalvageable and better managed by primary amputation.

  2. [Upper-extremity amputation in tumours of the shoulder and upper arm--experiences of the Vienna Bone Tumour Registry].

    PubMed

    Funovics, P T; Dominkus, M; Kotz, R

    2008-02-01

    Malignant lesions of the bones and soft tissues require radical or wide resection to achieve adequate therapy. Due to the many developments in terms of adjuvant modalities, diagnostics and surgical expertise today there are several modes of therapy as alternatives to amputation in the treatment of malignant tumours of the shoulder and upper arm. After resection of smaller tumours excellent functional results can be obtained by the use of modular endoprostheses, whereas large neoplasms adjacent to the neurovascular bundle require resection-replantation to allow salvage of the hand. Within the Vienna Bone Tumour Registry, 100 patients out of a total of more than 6500 have been treated for such lesions: 62 received an endoprostheses, 18 resection-replantation and 20 amputation. In cases of primary malignant tumours the incidence of lung metastases was higher in the resection-replantation group (50 %) and amputation group (42 %) than in the prostheses group (11 %), which has been linked to larger tumour size in the former two groups. Radical or wide resections were obtained in 95 % of the prostheses group, as compared to 75 % and 78 % in the amputation group and the resection-replantation group, respectively, due to invasion into the neurovascular bundle. Over time the number of amputations decreased simultaneously with the increase of endoprostheses whereas the number of resection-replantations remained equal at our institution. Amputation today still plays a crucial role in the treatment of intralesionally resected tumours, as surgical contamination can make limb salvage impossible. Therefore, the importance of biopsy in the therapeutical algorithm of bone and soft tissue tumours has to be emphasised again.

  3. Characterisation and Outcomes of Upper Extremity Amputations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    previously reported by Stansbury et al. [5]. This study incorporated data from multiple databases designed to track injury characteristics at multiples...without the use of the service member’s hands , and due to the reported increased difficulty with the use of upper extremity prosthetics [14–16]. There...30 630 4 Facial injury 15 8.62 32 480 5 Loss of hand function 18 10.40 25 450 6 Scar to an extremity 18 10.40 25 450 7 Traumatic brain injury 16 9.25

  4. Lower limb amputations in Southern Finland in 2000 and trends up to 2001.

    PubMed

    Eskelinen, E; Lepäntalo, M; Hietala, E-M; Sell, H; Kauppila, L; Mäenpää, I; Pitkänen, J; Salminen-Peltola, P; Leutola, S; Eskelinen, A; Kivioja, A; Tukiainen, E; Lukinmaa, A; Brasken, P; Railo, M

    2004-02-01

    To assess the current incidence of major lower limb amputations in Southern Finland and epidemiological trends during the last 17 years. In a retrospective survey for the year 2000 patient data was gathered from hospital records in the eight surgical hospitals in the area studied. Follow-up was 1 year. Amputation data for years 1984-1995 was gathered from reports done before at the same area and amputation figures for years 1990-2001 also from the National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health. In year 2000, the incidence of major amputations was 154/million inhabitants. The reason for major amputation was chronic critical lower limb ischaemia in 71.8% and acute ischaemia in 16.5% of the cases. The below-knee (BK)/above-knee (AK) ratio was 0.76. After 1 year only 48% of the patients were alive. From 1984 to 2000 amputation incidence showed a decrease of 41%. The decline in age-adjusted amputation incidence from 1990 to 2000 was 30% and by 2001 as much as 40%. There was a significant inverse correlation both between incidence of infrainguinal bypass and amputation (r=-0.682, p=0.021) and between infrapopliteal bypass and amputation (r=-0.682, p=0.021). There was a reduction in the number of amputations in Southern Finland during the past 17 years. This occurred synchronously with the increase in vascular reconstructions. Our data suggests that vascular surgery saves patients from BK-amputations and therefore relative amount of AK-amputations inevitably rises.

  5. Necrotising fasciitis of upper and lower limb: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Angoules, A G; Kontakis, G; Drakoulakis, E; Vrentzos, G; Granick, M S; Giannoudis, P V

    2007-12-01

    Necrotising fasciitis is a rapidly progressive, life threatening soft tissue infection. In a significant proportion of patients, the extremities are involved as a result of trauma, needle puncture or extravasation of drugs, often leading to limb loss and devastating disability. In this systematic review of necrotising fasciitis of the upper and lower extremities, we report on the clinical characteristics, the predisposing factors, the associated diseases, the pathogenic bacteria, the surgical treatment and the final outcome in terms of limb loss and mortality. Data for a total of 451 patients were analysed for each parameter of interest. A percentage of 22.3% of the reviewed patients underwent amputation or disarticulation of a limb following failure of multiple debridements to control infection and the mortality rate was estimated as high as 21.9%.

  6. Predicting prosthetic use in elderly patients after major lower limb amputation.

    PubMed

    van Eijk, Monica Spruit-; van der Linde, Harmen; Buijck, Bianca; Geurts, Alexander; Zuidema, Sytse; Koopmans, Raymond

    2012-03-01

    The main determinants of prosthetic use known from literature apply to the younger patient with lower limb amputation. Studies aimed at identifying determinants of outcome of lower limb amputation in elderly patients with multimorbidity that rehabilitate in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) are scarce. To predict prosthetic use and physical mobility in geriatric patients admitted to SNFs for rehabilitation after lower limb amputation and the impact of multimorbidity. Prospective design. Univariate and multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were used to identify determinants that were independently related to prosthetic use and the timed-up-and-go test (TUG test). Of 55 eligible patients, 38 had complete assessments on admission and at discharge. Fifty per cent was provided with a prosthesis. Multimorbidity was present in 53% of the patients. Being able to ambulate independently, and having a transtibial amputation (rather than a higher level of amputation), without phantom pain determined prosthetic use (R(2)=56%), while cognitive abilities, low amputation level, and pre-operative functional abilities were independently associated with the TUG test (R(2)=82%). Elderly patients referred to an SNF for prosthetic training have a high probability of using a prosthesis when having an independent ambulation after transtibial amputation, without phantom pain. These patients should be considered for prosthetic training.

  7. Living in a medically underserved county is an independent risk factor for major limb amputation.

    PubMed

    McGinigle, Katharine L; Kalbaugh, Corey A; Marston, William A

    2014-03-01

    Despite an increase in the incidence of hospital admissions for comorbid conditions, such as diabetes, the incidence of major limb amputation in North Carolina has decreased. The decline in amputation rate has not been uniformly realized across the state. The objective of this study was to determine the association between major vascular limb amputation and living in an underserved county in North Carolina. We analyzed discharges aged 18 to 100 years old with a peripheral arterial disease (PAD)-related admission from the North Carolina Inpatient Discharge Database from 2006 to 2009. Medically underserved counties are defined by the United States Health Resources and Services Administration as having too few primary care providers, high infant mortality, high poverty, or high elderly population. The association between major amputation prevalence and medically underserved counties was calculated using a binomial regression model adjusted for sex, age, diabetes, end-stage renal disease, PAD, and critical limb ischemia. Each confounder was assessed using backward elimination modeling. Among the 222,920 discharges with a PAD-related hospital admission from 2006 to 2009, 8601 (3.9%) were from medically underserved counties. There were 7328 major amputations. The adjusted prevalence odds ratio of the association between underserved counties and major vascular limb amputation is 1.29 (95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.44). None of the confounders significantly affected the association between underserved counties and number of amputations. Living in an underserved county in North Carolina is associated with a 29% increase in the odds of undergoing major limb amputation. Gender, age, and comorbidities, including diabetes, end-stage renal disease, and PAD, do not significantly affect the relationship. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical Outcome and Survival of Osteosarcoma Patients in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital: Limb Salvage Surgery versus Amputation.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Achmad Fauzi; Widyawarman, Heru; Husodo, Kurniadi; Hutagalung, Errol Untung; Rajabto, Wulyo

    2016-07-01

    to analyze the outcome and survival rate of osteosarcoma patients in our hospital as well as the factors affecting prognosis and functional outcome. this is a retrospective cohort study of osteosarcoma patients in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital underwent limb salvage surgery (LSS), amputation, LSS + amputation, and refused surgery from year 1995 to 2014. The surgical decision was based on patient's age, staging, location, neurovascular involvement, Huvos type, functional demand, patient preference, and general condition. Functional outcome was assessed using the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) score with the maximum score of 30. subjects consisted of 80 male and 52 female aged 4 to 61 year-old. They underwent limb salvage surgery (LSS) (n=37), amputation (n=42), LSS + amputation (n=2), and refused surgery (n=51). Overall 5-year cumulative survival rate was 14.6%. The 5-year survival rate for each group; LSS, amputation, combined LSS and amputation, and refused surgery was 34.8%; 15.9%; 0%; and 0%, respectively. Patients with tumor size <8 cm tend to underwent LSS compared to amputations (60.7% vs 39.3%, p=0.046). Local recurrence-free survival for LSS and amputation was 96.2% and 86.5% respectively (p=0.586). MSTS score was higher in LSS than amputation group (25.0 vs 18.5, p=0.011). LSS had higher survival rate than amputation in osteosarcoma patients who were treated in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. MSTS functional score in the LSS group was higher than amputation group.

  9. Desire for amputation of a limb: paraphilia, psychosis, or a new type of identity disorder.

    PubMed

    First, Michael B

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe and conceptualize an unusual and probably rare condition: the intense longstanding desire to have an amputation. Structured interviews were conducted by telephone of 52 subjects (mean age: 48.6, range 23-77 years; 47 male, 4 female, 1 intersexed) self-identified as having had a desire to have an amputation. Seventeen per cent (n = 9) had an arm or leg amputated with two-thirds using methods that put the subject at risk of death and one-third enlisting a surgeon to amputate their healthy limb. The most common reported reason for wanting an amputation was the subject's feeling that it would correct a mismatch between the person's anatomy and sense of his or her 'true' self (identity). None were delusional. For all but one subject age at onset was during childhood or early adolescence. For those who had psychotherapy or medication there was no change in the intensity of the desire for amputation. The six subjects who had an amputation at their desired site reported that following the amputation they felt better than they ever had and no longer had a desire for an amputation. These preliminary results suggest the existence of an extremely unusual clinically distinct condition characterized by a lifelong desire to have an amputation of a particular limb. The condition is associated with serious negative consequences: amputation attempts, impairment and marked distress. Reflecting similarities between Gender Identity Disorder and this condition, the author suggests that it may be conceptualized as an unusual dysfunction in the development one's fundamental sense of anatomical (body) identity.

  10. Peripheral muscle dysfunction in COPD: lower limbs versus upper limbs.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Eduardo Foschini; Malaguti, Carla; Corso, Simone Dal

    2011-01-01

    In patients with COPD, the degree of functional impairment appears to differ between the upper and lower limbs. Significant dyspnea and fatigue have been reported by these patients when performing tasks with unsupported upper limbs and two mechanisms have been proposed to explain this fact: neuromechanical dysfunction of respiratory muscles; and changes in lung volume during such activities. The neuromechanical dysfunction seen in COPD patients during this type of exercise is related to changes in the breathing pattern, as well as to the simultaneity of afferent and efferent muscle stimuli, resulting in respiratory muscle asynchrony. In addition, the increased ventilation during upper limb exercise in patients with COPD leads to dynamic hyperinflation at different workloads. During lower limb exercises, the strength and endurance of the quadriceps muscle is lower in COPD patients than in healthy subjects. This could by explained by abnormal muscle metabolism (decreased aerobic capacity), dependence on glycolytic metabolism, and rapid accumulation of lactate during exercise. In comparison with lower limb exercises, upper limb exercises result in higher metabolic and ventilatory demands, as well as in a more intense sensation of dyspnea and greater fatigue. Because there are differences between the upper and lower limb muscles in terms of the morphological and functional adaptations in COPD patients, specific protocols for strength training and endurance should be developed and tested for the corresponding muscle groups.

  11. Prosthetic fitting, use, and satisfaction following lower-limb amputation: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Webster, Joseph B; Hakimi, Kevin N; Williams, Rhonda M; Turner, Aaron P; Norvell, Daniel C; Czerniecki, Joseph M

    2012-01-01

    Providing a satisfactory, functional prosthesis following lower-limb amputation is a primary goal of rehabilitation. The objectives of this study were to describe the rate of successful prosthetic fitting over a 12 mo period; describe prosthetic use after amputation; and determine factors associated with greater prosthetic fitting, function, and satisfaction. The study design was a multicenter prospective cohort study of individuals undergoing their first major lower-limb amputation because of vascular disease and/or diabetes. At 4 mo, unsuccessful prosthetic fitting was significantly associated with depression, prior arterial reconstruction, diabetes, and pain in the residual limb. At 12 mo, 92% of all subjects were fit with a prosthetic limb and individuals with transfemoral amputation were significantly less likely to have a prosthesis fit. Age older than 55 yr, diagnosis of a major depressive episode, and history of renal dialysis were associated with fewer hours of prosthetic walking. Subjects who were older, had experienced a major depressive episode, and/or were diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had greater functional restriction. Thus, while most individuals achieve successful prosthetic fitting by 1 yr following a first major nontraumatic lower-limb amputation, a number of medical variables and psychosocial factors are associated with prosthetic fitting, utilization, and function.

  12. Treating Intractable Post-Amputation Phantom Limb Pain With Ambulatory Continuous Peripheral Nerve Blocks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Phantom Limb Pain With Ambulatory Continuous...TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 26 Dec 2013 – 25 Dec 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Treating Intractable Post-Amputation Phantom Limb Pain With Ambulatory...continuous  peripheral  nerve  block  (CPNB)  is  an  effective  treatment  for  intractable   phantom   limb   pain

  13. Diabetes or war? Incidence of and indications for limb amputation in Lebanon, 2007.

    PubMed

    Yaghi, K; Yaghi, Y; McDonald, A A; Yadegarfar, G; Cecil, E; Seidl, J; Dubois, E; Rawaf, S; Majeed, A

    2012-12-01

    Chronic diseases such as diabetes and vascular disease are a major public health problem in Lebanon, where primary care is not well developed. This study aimed to describe the incidence and indications for limb amputation in Lebanon and identify associated factors (age, sex, level of surgery, length of hospital stay). There were 1.6 amputations per 10 000 persons. The rate of amputation was highest in southern Lebanon at 3.8 per 10 000. The most important indication for surgery was diabetes (59%). Diabetic patients were older (mean age 73 years versus 30 years), more likely to have major surgery (OR = 7.87; 95% CI: 2.83-21.9) and stay in hospital longer (RR = 4.56, 95% CI: 2.41-8.64) than patients with trauma-related amputation. Diabetes prevention, detection and management should be prioritized in any attempt to reduce the current incidence of amputation in Lebanon.

  14. Mobility in elderly people with a lower limb amputation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fortington, Lauren V; Rommers, Gerardus M; Geertzen, Jan H B; Postema, Klaas; Dijkstra, Pieter U

    2012-05-01

    Elderly people with a lower limb amputation impose a heavy burden on health resources, requiring extensive rehabilitation and long term care. Mobility is key to regaining independence; however, the impact of multiple comorbidities in this patient group can make regaining mobility a particularly challenging task. An evidence-based prognosis for mobility is needed for rehabilitation and long term care planning. This systematic review summarizes the prosthetic and nonprosthetic mobility outcomes achieved by elderly people with a lower limb amputation, to determine whether an accurate prognosis for mobility can be made. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched for studies published before May 2010 in English, German, Dutch, or French, using keywords and synonyms for elderly, mobility, rehabilitation, and amputation. Mobility focused on actual movement (moving from one place to another) and was limited to long-term measurements, 6 months after amputation or 3 months after discharge from rehabilitation. The 15 included studies featured a diversity of objective outcome measures and mobility grades that proved difficult to compare meaningfully. In general, studies that included selected populations of prosthetic walkers showed that advanced prosthetic mobility skills can be achieved by the elderly person with a lower limb amputation, including outdoor/community walking. Studies that included all subjects undergoing a lower limb amputation reported that less than half of the elderly population achieved a household level of prosthetic mobility. The predominant findings from the included studies were incomplete reporting of study populations and poor reporting of the reliability of the mobility measures used. The strength of conclusions from this review was therefore limited and the prognosis for mobility in elderly people after lower limb amputation remains unclear. Further research into mobility outcomes of this population is needed to provide evidence that enables more

  15. Amputation-Free Survival after Crural Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty for Critical Limb Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Strøm, M; Konge, L; Lönn, L; Schroeder, T V; Rørdam, P

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the amputation-free survival after below the knee percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in a consecutive group of patients with critical ischemia of the lower extremity. A total of 70 consecutive patients with critical ischemia were treated with below the knee percutaneous transluminal angioplasty at the vascular center at Rigshospitalet with the purpose of limb salvage. All patients were deemed unfit for major surgery due to anatomical limitations or severe co-morbidity, and no prior attempts of revascularization were performed. Follow-up clinical examinations were performed within 6 weeks and after 1 year. All medical records were crosschecked with the national vascular registry ensuring a valid 1-year status in 97% of the patients. A total of 15 major amputations were performed during follow-up, with 11 amputations performed within the first year. Complications after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty were rare. Cumulative mortality after 1 and 2 years was 22% and 34%, respectively. Amputation-free survival at 1 and 2 years of follow-up was 68% and 58%, respectively. There were no association between known risk factors such as diabetes, ischemic ulcers, cardiac disease, history of smoking, major amputation, or overall amputation. Below the knee percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in patients with end-stage peripheral arterial disease and critical limb ischemia is a safe procedure in relieving critical ischemia, reducing the short-term rate of a major amputation as opposed to best medical treatment alone. © The Finnish Surgical Society 2015.

  16. A prospective study of short-term functional outcome after dysvascular major lower limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Ulla Riis; Bååth, Carina; Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Hommel, Ami

    2017-08-12

    This study investigates functional status on Day 21 after dysvascular major lower limb amputation compared with one month pre-amputation and evaluates factors potentially influencing outcome. A prospective cohort study design was used. Data were collected via in-person interviews using structured instruments and covered functional level (Barthel index 100) one month pre-amputation and on Day 21. Out of a consecutive sample of patients having major lower limb amputation (tibia, knee or femoral) (n = 105), 51 participated on Day 21 follow-up. Clinical, demographic, body function and environmental data were analysed as factors potentially influencing outcome. From pre-amputation to Day 21, participants' functional level decreased significantly in all ten activities of daily living activities as measured by the Barthel Index. Almost 60% of participants were independent in bed-chair transfer on Day 21. Being independent in transfer on Day 21 was positively associated with younger age and attending physiotherapy after discharge. The findings indicate that short-term functional outcome is modifiable by quality of the postoperative care provided and thus highlights the need for increased focus on postoperative care to maintain basic function as well as establish and provide everyday rehabilitation in the general population of patients who have dysvascular lower limb amputations. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Cross-Slope and Level Walking Strategies During Swing in Individuals With Lower Limb Amputation.

    PubMed

    Villa, Coralie; Loiret, Isabelle; Langlois, Karine; Bonnet, Xavier; Lavaste, François; Fodé, Pascale; Pillet, Hélène

    2017-06-01

    To quantitatively analyze prosthetic limb swing phase gait strategies used to adapt to cross slopes compared with flat surfaces. Cross-sectional study. Gait laboratory. A volunteer sample (N=49) of individuals with transfemoral amputation (n=17), individuals with transtibial amputation (n=15), and able-bodied individuals (n=17). Participants walked on flat and 6° (10%) inclined cross-slope surfaces at a self-selected walking speed. Gait speed, step width, sagittal plane kinematics (ankle, knee, hip) on the prosthetic side during swing (uphill limb) and on the contralateral side during stance (downhill limb), frontal plane pelvic kinematics on the prosthetic side during swing, contralateral side ankle power during stance, and timing of gait events. All groups reduced gait speed and downhill limb knee flexion during the stance phase. Able-bodied participants adjusted their uphill limb ankle flexion during the swing phase. Participants with lower limb amputation used additional adjustments during the swing phase of the prosthetic limb when positioned uphill on cross slopes. Transtibial amputee participants mainly adapted with increased flexion of the residual hip and knee joints. Transfemoral amputee participants primarily compensated using increased pelvic hiking and vaulting gait strategies. The swing phase of the uphill limb during cross-slope walking results in compensatory mechanisms that should be addressed during rehabilitation to gain confidence and reduce avoidance when encountering cross slopes in daily life. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Preoperative state anxiety, acute postoperative pain, and analgesic use in persons undergoing lower limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Raichle, Katherine A; Osborne, Travis L; Jensen, Mark P; Ehde, Dawn M; Smith, Douglas G; Robinson, Lawrence R

    2015-08-01

    The current study examined the relationship between preoperative anxiety and acute postoperative phantom limb pain (PLP), residual limb pain (RLP), and analgesic medication use in a sample of persons undergoing lower limb amputation. Participants included 69 adults admitted to a large level 1 trauma hospital for lower limb amputation. Participants' average pain and anxiety during the previous week were assessed before amputation surgery. RLP, PLP, and analgesic medication use were measured on each of the 5 days following amputation surgery. Results of partial-order correlations indicated that greater preoperative anxiety was significantly associated with greater ratings of average PLP for each of the 5 days following amputation surgery, after controlling for preoperative pain ratings and daily postoperative analgesic medication use. Partial correlation values ranged from 0.30 to 0.62, indicating medium to large effects. Preoperative anxiety was also significantly associated with ratings of average RLP only on postoperative day 1, after controlling for preoperative pain ratings and daily postoperative analgesic medication use (r=0.34, P<0.05). Correlations between preoperative anxiety and daily postoperative analgesic medication dose became nonsignificant when controlling for preamputation and postamputation pain ratings. These findings suggest that anxiety may be a risk factor for acute postamputation PLP and RLP, and indicate that further research to examine these associations is warranted. If replicated, the findings would support research to examine the extent to which modifying preoperative anxiety yields a reduction in postoperative acute PLP and RLP.

  19. Conversion From Limb Salvage to Late Amputation: Lessons Learned From Recent Battlefields With Application to Civilian Trauma.

    PubMed

    Covey, D C

    2015-01-01

    Battlefield injuries and high-energy civilian trauma present orthopaedic surgeons with treatment challenges. Despite efforts at limb salvage, some patients elect late amputation. This article reviews risk factors that predispose to late amputation. Using a MEDLINE search, English language peer-reviewed articles from 1993 to 2013 having data on late amputation following limb salvage were included. Late lower extremity amputation after limb salvage varied from 3.9% to 40% in civilian patients and from 5.2% to 15.2% in military patients. Factors influencing a patient's decision to undergo late amputation included a combination of complex pain symptoms with neurologic dysfunction, infection, a desire for improved limb functionality, and unwillingness to endure an often complicated and lengthy course of treatment. In military patients, rank was a significant risk factor since officers were 2.5 times more likely to elect late amputation (p < .05) than enlisted personnel. Despite often extraordinary efforts towardlimb salvage, results maybe disappointing.

  20. Mangling upper limb injuries in industry.

    PubMed

    Ring, D; Jupiter, J B

    1999-01-01

    The salvage of upper limbs mangled by industrial machinery became possible with the development of predictable techniques of vascular and microvascular anastamosis. Unfortunately, many of these salvaged limbs are associated with fair and poor functional outcomes. The quality of the skeletal fixation can have a substantial effect on the functional outcome and should be a major focus of the limb repair process. Internal plate fixation facilitates wound care and limb mobilization without tethering muscle-tendon units and is safe in the majority of severe upper limb injuries provided that all devitalized tissue is debrided and, if necessary, reconstructed using microvascular tissue transfers. Injury patterns, especially those which involve associated injury of the elbow or forearm ligaments, must be identified and treated appropriately. Internal fixation should restore anatomical alignment and provide sufficient stability to allow immediate active mobilization of the limb without contributing to devascularization of the soft tissues or skeleton.

  1. Assessment of anxiety and depression after lower limb amputation in Jordanian patients

    PubMed Central

    Hawamdeh, Ziad M; Othman, Yasmin S; Ibrahim, Alaa I

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the prevalence of anxiety and depression among Jordanian lower limb amputees with different clinical characteristics and sociodemographic data (gender, marital status, social support, income, type and level of amputation, and occupation). Methods Participants were 56 patients with unilateral lower limb amputation with mean duration (8.4 ± 5.75 years). They were recruited from inpatient and outpatient clinics of Jordan University hospital, Royal Farah Rehabilitation Center, and Al-basheer hospital in Amman, Jordan. Participants responded to a questionnaire that included a battery of questions requesting brief information about sociodemographic variables and characteristics of amputation. The level of depression and anxiety in each participating patient was assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results The prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms were 37% and 20%, respectively. Factors associated with high prevalence of psychological symptoms included female gender, lack of social support, unemployment, traumatic amputation, shorter time since amputation, and amputation below the knee. These findings were confirmed by a significant reduction of anxiety and depression scores in patients who received social support, patients with amputation due to disease, and patients with amputation above the knee. Presence of pain and use of prosthesis had no effect on the prevalence. Conclusions The findings of the present study highlight the high incidence of psychiatric disability and depression in amputees; it also showed the importance of sociodemographic factors in psychological adjustment to amputation. It is suggested that psychiatric evaluation and adequate rehabilitation should form a part of their overall management. PMID:18830394

  2. Impact of rehabilitation programs on dependency and functional performance of patients with major lower limb amputations

    PubMed Central

    AlSofyani, Mohammad A.; AlHarthi, Abdulaziz S.; Farahat, Fayssal M.; Abuznadah, Wesam T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine pattern and impact of physical rehabilitation on dependency and functional performance of patients. Methods: This retrospective chart review was carried out between July and August 2012 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Data were collected using demographic, clinical, and dependency assessment checklists. Results: Patients who underwent major lower limb amputations between January 2007 and April 2012 (n=121) were included in the study. There were 84 (69.4%) male and 37 (30.6%) female patients with a mean ± standard deviation of 63.3±17.4 years old. Diabetes mellitus was the most frequent cause in 63.6% of patients. Only one-third of the amputees (32.2%) have records of completion of their rehabilitation programs, although 20.7% of them completed the <50% of the scheduled rehabilitation sessions, 17.2% attended between 50% and 80%, and the remaining 62.1% attended more than 80% of the scheduled sessions. Muscle power scores in each side of the upper and lower limbs were significantly better following rehabilitation (p<0.0001). Basic functions of mobility and transfer have also significantly improved (p<0.05). Conclusions: Overall dependency and functional performance were significantly better following implementation of the physical rehabilitation programs. A multidisciplinary team approach is mandatory to improve compliance of patients toward the rehabilitation programs. PMID:27652362

  3. CONGENITAL DEFORMITIES OF THE UPPER LIMBS.

    PubMed Central

    Bisneto, Edgard Novaes França

    2015-01-01

    This article, divided into three parts, had the aims of reviewing the most common upper-limb malformations and describing their treatments. In this first part, failure of formation is discussed. The bibliography follows after the first part. PMID:27047864

  4. Impact of pain in vertebral column on activities of daily living in the Iranian amputees with bilateral lower limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Alireza; Shojaee, Hadi; Mousavi, Batool; Masoumi, Mehdi; Rezaei, Noushin; Azema, Hasan; Soroush, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    To determine the impact of pain in the vertebral column on the activities of daily living (ADL) level of war victims with bilateral lower limb amputation. All the war-related bilateral lower limb amputees were invited. More than half of them (n = 335) participated and underwent a thorough assessment after giving informed consent. The majority of the participants were male (97.6%). Their mean age was 42 years and 97.6% of them were married. The most common causes of injury leading to amputation were shells of artillery and mortar (56.7%). The most common level of amputation was bilateral transtibial (37.6%) and 64% were wearing the prosthesis of both sides. The most ADL dependency were transfer activities (27.8%) and bathing (23.3%) and the most independent functioning was eating (97.6%). Upper cervical vertebral pain was associated with dependency in the bowel and bladder management and dressing (p < 0.03 and p < 0.04, respectively). Pain in the lower cervical vertebrae was associated with dependency in toileting and dressing (p < 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively). There were significant relationships between pain in the thoracic vertebrae and dependency in bathing, transfer activities and toileting (p < 0.02, p < 0.003 and p < 0.03, respectively). Pain in the lumbosacral region had a relationship with the level of amputation, transfer activities and toileting (p < 0.006, p < 0.03 and p < 0.05, respectively). Vertebral pain in bilateral lower limb amputees, especially lumbosacral pain, was accompanied with higher dependency in ADL. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach to the management of pain is required to minimize disability and maximize functioning.

  5. The association between depressive mood and pain amongst individuals with limb amputations.

    PubMed

    Ide, M

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between pain and depressive mood amongst persons with limb amputations, and to examine the relationship between the etiology (work-related trauma or other types) and depressive mood. Mailed questionnaires were used to collect personal information from 69 limb amputees living in the community. The severity of limb amputation-related pain was rated using the Chronic Pain Grade scale. Eighteen (26.1%) of the participants referred their pain as Grade 0 (no pain) and 25 (36.2%) referred as Grade I (mild pain). Depressive mood was classified using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. Eighteen (26.1%) of the participants were classified as having mild depression, 16 (23.2%) as having moderate depression, and 7 (10.1%) as having severe depressive mood. A significant proportion of participants with moderate or severe depression were amputees with work-related etiology for their loss of limbs. In addition, amputees with more severe depressive mood tended to experience a higher level of amputation-related pain than amputees with less severe depressive mood. The results of this study revealed the validity of optional approaches such as prescription of antidepressants or psychological counseling to improve mental health of individuals with limb amputations.

  6. [Prosthetic reconstruction in high amputations of the upper extremity].

    PubMed

    Salminger, S; Sturma, A; Herceg, M; Riedl, O; Bergmeister, K; Aszmann, O C

    2015-06-01

    Conventional upper arm prostheses are controlled via two surface electrodes that measure motor activity of two separately innervated muscle groups. The various prosthetic joints are chosen by co-contractions and controlled linearly by these two muscles. A harmonious and natural course of movements is not possible in this way. Overview regarding surgical, therapeutical and prosthetic options in high amputations of the upper extremity. Selective literature research including the authors' own experience in everyday clinical practice as well as a review of medical records. Selective nerve transfers of the amputated nerves of the brachial plexus to the remaining stump muscles can create up to six myosignals for intuitive and simultaneous control of the different prosthetic joints. In this way, an efficient and harmonious control of the prosthetic device is possible without the need to change between the different control levels. At the same time, possible neuromas are treated and painless wear of the prosthesis is achieved. Due to the resulting extended use of the prosthetic device, the demands regarding stump quality are increased. Thus, both surgically and by the means of the orthopedic technician a stable stump-socket connection should be achieved to enable optimal prosthetic function.

  7. Kinetic, kinematic, magnetic resonance and owner evaluation of dogs before and after the amputation of a hind limb.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Zamora, Vladimir; von Babo, Verena; Eberle, Nina; Betz, Daniela; Nolte, Ingo; Wefstaedt, Patrick

    2016-01-25

    The amputation of a limb is a surgical procedure that is regularly performed in small animal practice. In spite of several clinical reports indicating high owner satisfaction after limb amputation in dogs, an amputation is still very critically seen by the owners, and even by some veterinarians, due to the lack of accurate information about the recovery of amputee patients. Thus, the objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate, both objectively and subjectively, the recovery outcome of dogs undergoing a hind limb amputation. Twelve patients in which a hind limb amputation was scheduled were studied. Kinetic and kinematic gait analyses were performed before the amputation, and 10, 30, 90 and 120 days after surgery. Magnetic resonance (MR) examination of the contralateral stifle joint was performed before and 120 days after amputation. The subjective impressions of the owners were gathered at the same examination times of the gait analyses. Kinetic data showed a redistribution of the load to all remaining limbs after the amputation; ten days after the procedure patients had already established their new locomotory pattern. Kinematic data showed significant differences between sessions in the mean angle progression curves of almost all analyzed joints; however, the ranges of motion were very similar before and after the amputation, and remained constant in the subsequent sessions after the amputation. No changes in the signal intensity of the soft tissues evaluated, and no evidence of cartilage damage or osteoarthritis was seen on the MR examination of the contralateral stifle. Owners evaluated the results of the amputation very positively, both during and at the end of the study. Dogs had a quick adaptation after a hind limb amputation, and the adaptation process began before the amputation was performed. This happened without evidence of morphologic changes in the contralateral stifle joint, and with a very positive evaluation from the owner.

  8. Limb-sparing surgery as an alternative for limb amputation in an invasive myxoid liposarcoma--case report.

    PubMed

    Adameșteanu, M O; Enache, V; Zamfirescu, D; Lascăr, I

    2015-01-01

    In medical practice, plastic surgeons confront with patients with sarcomas of the extremities that require a radical surgical approach. Knowing when to attempt limb-sparing surgery and when to give in to limb amputation is one of the most difficult decisions a surgeon can take. The correct approach and management of such cases ensure surgical success and the patient survival. In this paper, the case of a 56-year-old man, admitted in our clinic with a crush injury of the right calf and subsequent haematoma is presented. During haematoma drainage, the surgeon noticed abnormal tissue and performed an incisional biopsy. The patient was diagnosed with myxoid liposarcoma of the external compartment of the right calf. Limb amputation was proposed, but the patient refused. After the clinical examination, blood tests and diagnostic imaging, which allowed the correct evaluation of the case-tumor sizes and neighboring tissue reports, and preoperatory radiotherapy, limb sparing surgery, respectively primary tumor excision was decided to be performed. Negative margins could not be obtained by 3 successive resections or by adjuvant chemotherapy. The presented case supports the idea that limb-sparing surgery is only applicable to carefully selected patients with soft tissue sarcoma. In some cases, radical excision involving even mutilating amputations may provide a better oncologic and functional result.

  9. Amputations and prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Pinzur, M S

    1999-01-01

    The author presents in a condensed way an overview of the principles of limb amputations and further treatment of patients who underwent such a procedure. The metabolic cost of walking, load transfer, and wound healing are reviewed in a concise manner. Particular attention is given to blood supply to the wound and methods to determine adequate perfusion with a clear analysis of the pro and cons of the Doppler method. Pediatric amputations, because of their specificity, are considered apart. Disarticulation of limbs is the method of choice in children, because of it retains growth potential of the bone and prevents bony overgrowth of the stump. The article discusses the main indications for limb amputations: trauma, peripheral vascular disease, musculoskeletal tumors and gas gangrene. In every case the specificity of the amputation is considered by the author. Postoperative care is also presented, with a short description of possible complications. Pain is the most common and treatment strategies should be similar to those used in treating patients with major reflex sympathetic causalgia. Edema, joint contracture, wound failure and dermatologic problems are all shortly reviewed. The last part of the article treats with the principles of prosthetics in both the upper and lower limb. These principles are presented basing on the level of amputation: for the upper limb hand, transradial, transhumeral amputations and shoulder disarticulation. For the lower limb foot and ankle, transtibial and transfemoral amputations are considered.

  10. Upper Limb Absence: Predictors of Work Participation and Work Productivity.

    PubMed

    Postema, Sietke G; Bongers, Raoul M; Brouwers, Michael A; Burger, Helena; Norling-Hermansson, Liselotte M; Reneman, Michiel F; Dijkstra, Pieter U; van der Sluis, Corry K

    2016-06-01

    To analyze work participation, work productivity, contributing factors, and physical work demands of individuals with upper limb absence (ULA). Cross-sectional study: postal survey (response rate, 45%). Twelve rehabilitation centers and orthopedic workshops. Individuals (n=207) with unilateral transverse upper limb reduction deficiency (RD) or acquired amputation (AA), at or proximal to the carpal level, between the ages of 18 and 65 years, and a convenience sample of control subjects (n=90) matched on age and sex. Not applicable. Employment status, self-reported work productivity measured with the Quality-Quantity method, and self-reported upper extremity work demands measured with the Upper Extremity Work Demands scale. Seventy-four percent of the individuals with RD and 57% of the individuals with AA were employed (vs 82% of the control group and 66% of the general population). Male sex, younger age, a medium or higher level of education, prosthesis use, and good general health were predictors of work participation. Work productivity was similar to that of the control group. Higher work productivity was inversely related to musculoskeletal complaint-related pain. When having predominantly mentally demanding work, individuals with ULA perceived higher upper extremity work demands compared with controls. Work participation of individuals with RD was slightly higher compared with that of the general population, whereas employment rates of individuals with AA were slightly lower. Furthermore, work productivity did not differ between individuals with RD, AA, and controls. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Reorganization in the ipsilateral motor cortex of patients with lower limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Schwenkreis, Peter; Pleger, Burkhard; Cornelius, Beate; Weyen, Ute; Dertwinkel, Roman; Zenz, Michael; Malin, Jean Pierre; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2003-10-09

    The aim of the present study was to assess reorganization in the motor cortex of patients with lower limb amputation. We studied seven patients with traumatic lower limb amputation, and six healthy controls, using transcranial magnetic stimulation mapping, with recordings from the quadriceps femoris muscle on both sides. Motor threshold, sum of amplitudes, area and the amplitude-weighted centre of gravity (COG) of the motor output map were assessed. We found a significant lateral displacement of the COG on the hemisphere contralateral to the healthy leg, whereas other parameters did not differ significantly between sides. This finding might be indicative of cortical reorganization in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the amputation. It is discussed with respect to an altered peripheral input to this hemisphere, and to transcallosal interactions from the deafferented hemisphere.

  12. Elevated vacuum suspension preserves residual-limb skin health in people with lower-limb amputation: Randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Rink, Cameron; Wernke, Matthew M; Powell, Heather M; Gynawali, Surya; Schroeder, Ryan M; Kim, Jayne Y; Denune, Jeffrey A; Gordillo, Gayle M; Colvin, James M; Sen, Chandan K

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of clinical trials and case reports support qualitative claims that use of an elevated vacuum suspension (EVS) prosthesis improves residual-limb health on the basis of self-reported questionnaires, clinical outcomes scales, and wound closure studies. Here, we report first efforts to quantitatively assess residual-limb circulation in response to EVS. Residual-limb skin health and perfusion of people with lower-limb amputation (N = 10) were assessed during a randomized crossover study comparing EVS with nonelevated vacuum suspension (control) over a 32 wk period using noninvasive probes (transepidermal water loss, laser speckle imaging, transcutaneous oxygen measurement) and functional hyperspectral imaging approaches. Regardless of the suspension system, prosthesis donning decreased perfusion in the residual limb under resting conditions. After 16 wk of use, EVS improved residual-limb oxygenation during treadmill walking. Likewise, prosthesis-induced reactive hyperemia was attenuated with EVS following 16 wk of use. Skin barrier function was preserved with EVS but disrupted after control socket use. Taken together, outcomes suggest chronic EVS use improves perfusion and preserves skin barrier function in people with lower-limb amputation.

  13. Stifle Disarticulation as a Pelvic Limb Amputation Technique in a Cockatiel ( Nymphicus hollandicus ) and a Northern Cardinal ( Cardinalis cardinalis ).

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Sarah; Mans, Christoph

    2017-03-01

    This clinical report describes the use of stifle disarticulation in 2 avian patients as an alternative to transfemoral limb amputation. A northern cardinal ( Cardinalis cardinalis ) was presented for soft tissue swelling and a traumatic fracture of the third digit of the left limb, with secondary bacterial infection and necrosis. A 25-year-old cockatiel ( Nymphicus hollandicus ) was diagnosed with distal extremity necrosis after a nonunion of a closed tibiotarsal fracture. In both cases amputation was recommended due to the poor prognosis for healing and because both birds were poor surgical candidates for traditional methods of amputation due to patient size or age. Therefore, stifle disarticulation surgery for amputation of the pelvic limb was performed successfully in both cases and recovery was unremarkable. The outcomes of these 2 cases suggest that stifle disarticulation may be used as an alternative to transfemoral amputation in birds where prolonged surgery, anesthesia, or patient size precludes traditional amputation techniques.

  14. Instrumented Measurement of Balance and Postural Control in Individuals with Lower Limb Amputation: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakaran, Prasath; Johnson, Gillian M.; Sullivan, S. John; Nitz, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of balance and postural performance that underpins activities of daily living is important in the rehabilitation of individuals with a lower limb amputation (LLA), and there are a number of methods and strategies available for this purpose. To provide an evidence-based choice of approach, this review aims to critically review the tasks…

  15. Handling stairs in the seated position for people with unilateral lower-limb amputations.

    PubMed

    Kirby, R Lee; Brown, Barbara A; Connolly, Christina M; McRae, Sarah; Phillips, Pamela L

    2009-07-01

    Handling stairs in the seated position for people with unilateral lower-limb amputations. The objective of this uncontrolled pilot study was to test the hypotheses that the seated stair-handling method enables people with unilateral lower-limb amputations to ascend and descend stairs effectively and safely, and with an acceptable level of perceived exertion. Eight people with unilateral lower-limb amputations each received a single 20-minute education session on climbing stairs in the seated position. The main outcome measures, assessed 3 days after training, were success in ascending and descending a flight of 11 stairs, safety, and rating of perceived exertion (Borg CR-10 scale, range 0-10). Before training, 3 participants (37.5%) were successful in using a variety of methods. After training, all 8 (100%) were successful, but only 7 (87.5%) were successful when required to use the seated stair-handling method. Two participants had difficulty with this method, one as a result of arm weakness and the other as a result of aggravation of knee pain. There were no adverse events. Ratings of perceived exertion for the seated method (n=7) ranged from 3 to 7.5 for stair ascent and 1 to 5.5 for descent. The seated stair-handling method is a generally effective, safe, and well-tolerated method for people with unilateral lower-limb amputations to ascend and descend stairs.

  16. Lower limb amputation. Part 3: Prosthetics--a 10 year literature review.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, H; Orsi, K; Reilly, P

    2001-04-01

    This paper is intended as a follow-up to the ISPO Consensus Conference on Amputation Surgery. It reviews all the literature on lower limb prosthetics published after 1990. The review was considered under six categories: feet, knees, hips, thermoplastics, liners/suspension and computers.

  17. Instrumented Measurement of Balance and Postural Control in Individuals with Lower Limb Amputation: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakaran, Prasath; Johnson, Gillian M.; Sullivan, S. John; Nitz, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of balance and postural performance that underpins activities of daily living is important in the rehabilitation of individuals with a lower limb amputation (LLA), and there are a number of methods and strategies available for this purpose. To provide an evidence-based choice of approach, this review aims to critically review the tasks…

  18. [Limb salvage and amputation after trauma : Decision criteria and management algorithm].

    PubMed

    Krettek, C; Lerner, A; Giannoudis, P; Willy, C; Müller, C W

    2016-05-01

    The clinical decision-making process for patients with severe trauma of the extremities for primary amputation or to initiate extensive reconstructive measures for limb salvage in the best interests of the patient can be complex and difficult. The many factors influencing the decision-making process, such as local anatomical, pathomechanical, physiological, psychosocial and general factors are demonstrated and discussed. In the past, the role of scores supporting the decision-making process for amputation or limb salvage has been overestimated. In the LEAP study it could clearly be demonstrated that none of the sometimes highly complex scores could fulfill the expectations to predict successful limb salvage or the need for amputation. In this article it is shown that initiators and authors of scores achieved much higher sensitivity and specificity in the inaugural studies compared to the standardized and controlled conditions used in the LEAP study. For a long time, a lack of feeling in the feet was considered a safe and reliable criterion for amputation but the LEAP study has made a substantial contribution to demythologizing this as a lead symptom. Patients with severe trauma of the ankle or foot requiring a free flap or ankle arthrodesis have a significantly worse outcome compared to patients with a below knee amputation. Taking all these influencing factors into consideration, a comprehensive algorithm is presented that facilitates, strengthens and standardizes decision-making for amputation or limb salvage. This algorithm consists of four modules: 1) decision-making, 2) emergency treatment, 3) definitive treatment and 4) fine tuning. In the decision-making module not only local and general injury severity are addressed but the expected result, the general condition, comorbidities, compliance and the will of the patient are also included.

  19. Resection replantation of the upper limb for aggressive malignant tumors.

    PubMed

    El-Gammal, Tarek Abdalla; El-Sayed, Amr; Kotb, Mohamed Mostafa

    2002-04-01

    Stage IIB malignant tumors of the upper limb have been traditionally treated by amputation or disarticulation. There have been isolated reports on the technique of segmental resection of the tumor-bearing segment complete with the skin, and replanting the distal arm or forearm with or without neurovascular repair. The present paper describes four cases in which a wide resection margin was achieved in all by resecting the affected cylinder of the limb. Functional reconstruction was performed by appropriate tendon transfer. The main vessels and nerves were dealt with according to the findings revealed by preoperative investigations. If they had to be sacrificed, end-to-end suture was performed, but if the main nerves could be spared, it greatly enhanced the functional outcome. Local and systemic recurrences occurred in one case, and systemic recurrence occurred in another case. The other two cases remained disease-free at more than 4 years' follow-up. This operation is as radical as amputation, while the esthetic and functional results are equivalent to those of resection-arthrodesis.

  20. Successful Salvage of the Upper Limb After Crush Injury Requiring Nine Operations: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qingmin; Cai, Guoping; Liu, Dechang; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Xinchao

    2015-01-01

    Emergency treatment of amputation is one of the most frequently used therapeutic methods for patients with severe upper limb crush injury with a mangled extremity severity score (MESS) of more than 7. With the development of advanced surgical repair techniques and reconstructive technology, cases that once required amputation can now be salvaged with appropriate management, and some limb functions may also be reserved. A patient with a severe upper limb crush injury with a MESS score of 10 was treated in our hospital. The limb was salvaged after 9 surgeries over 10 months. The follow-up visits over the next 18 months post-injury showed that the shoulder joint functions were rated as “excellent” (90) according to the Neer score, the Harris hip evaluation (HHS) for elbow joint functions was “good” (80), and the patient was very satisfied with the overall therapeutic outcome. We conclude from the successful outcome of this extreme injury that salvage attempts should be the first management choice for upper limbs with complex injuries to save as much function as possible. Amputation should only be adopted when the injury is life-threatening or no more function can be saved. The level of evidence was V. PMID:25785341

  1. Successful salvage of the upper limb after crush injury requiring nine operations: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qingmin; Cai, Guoping; Liu, Dechang; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Xinchao

    2015-03-01

    Emergency treatment of amputation is one of the most frequently used therapeutic methods for patients with severe upper limb crush injury with a mangled extremity severity score (MESS) of more than 7. With the development of advanced surgical repair techniques and reconstructive technology, cases that once required amputation can now be salvaged with appropriate management, and some limb functions may also be reserved. A patient with a severe upper limb crush injury with a MESS score of 10 was treated in our hospital. The limb was salvaged after 9 surgeries over 10 months. The follow-up visits over the next 18 months post-injury showed that the shoulder joint functions were rated as "excellent" (90) according to the Neer score, the Harris hip evaluation (HHS) for elbow joint functions was "good" (80), and the patient was very satisfied with the overall therapeutic outcome. We conclude from the successful outcome of this extreme injury that salvage attempts should be the first management choice for upper limbs with complex injuries to save as much function as possible. Amputation should only be adopted when the injury is life-threatening or no more function can be saved. The level of evidence was V.

  2. Late amputation may not reduce complications or improve mental health in combat-related, lower extremity limb salvage patients.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Chad A; Rivera, Jessica C; Tennent, David J; Sheean, Andrew J; Stinner, Daniel J; Wenke, Joseph C

    2015-08-01

    Following severe lower extremity trauma, patients who undergo limb reconstruction and amputations both endure frequent complications and mental health sequelae. The purpose of this study is to assess the extent to which late amputation following a period of limb salvage impacts the evolution of the clinical variables that can affect the patient's perception of his or her limb: ongoing limb associated complications and mental health conditions. A case series of US service members who sustained a late major extremity amputation from September 2001 through July 2011 were analysed. Pre- and post-amputation complications, mental health conditions, and reason(s) for desiring amputation were recorded. Forty-four amputees with detailed demographic, injury and treatment data were identified. The most common reasons for desiring a late amputation were pain and being dissatisfied with the function of the salvage limb. An average of 3.2 (range 1-10) complications were reported per amputee prior to undergoing late amputation and an average of 1.8 (range 0-5) complications reported afterwards. The most common complication prior to and after late amputation was soft tissue infection (24 (17%) and 9 (22%), respectively). Twenty-nine (64%) late amputees were diagnosed with a mental health condition prior to undergoing their amputation and 27 (61%) late amputees were diagnosed with mental conditions after late amputation. Only three of the 15 patients who did not have a mental health condition documented prior to their late amputation remained free of a documented mental health condition after the amputation. Ongoing complications and mental health conditions can affect how a patient perceives and copes with his or her limb following severe trauma. Patient dissatisfaction following limb reconstruction can influence the decision to undergo a late amputation. Patients with a severe, combat related lower extremity injury that are undergoing limb salvage may not have a reduction in

  3. Traumatic amputation: psychosocial adjustment of six Army women to loss of one or more limbs.

    PubMed

    Cater, Janet K

    2012-01-01

    More than 220,000 U.S. servicewomen fought in Iraq and Afghanistan. In addition, more than 135 gave their lives, more than 600 were injured, and at least 24 lost one or more limbs. With no research on the adjustment of women to amputation or on military women's adjustment to traumatic limb loss, the phenomenological approach was used to gain an in-depth understanding of this life experience. Six Army women shared their personal adjustment experience to limb loss. This experience included personal safety fears, body image issues, grief, and loss. Recovering from traumatic amputation in a military environment promoted a "kick-butt" attitude, with these servicewomen reporting that a positive attitude, social support, personal courage, resiliency, military training, humor, and the belief their loss had meaning most influenced their recovery.

  4. Painful neuroma requiring surgical excision after lower limb amputation caused by landmine explosions

    PubMed Central

    Sehirlioglu, Ali; Yazicioglu, Kamil; Tugcu, Ilknur; Yilmaz, Bilge; Goktepe, Ahmet Salim

    2007-01-01

    This article reports an analysis of 75 consecutive lower limb amputees who developed painful neuroma requiring surgical excision after lower limb amputation following landmine explosions. This retrospective study analyses the results of 75 patients who were treated for painful neuroma after lower limb amputation following landmine explosions between the years 2000 and 2006. The average time period from use of prosthesis to start of symptoms suggesting neuroma was 9.6 months. The average time period from start of pain symptoms to neuroma surgery was 7.8 months. All clinically proven neuromas were surgically resected. In the mean follow-up of 2.8 years, all patients were satisfied with the end results and all were free of any pain symptoms. Painful stump with clinical diagnostic findings of neuroma described above may be regarded as neuroma without requiring any further imaging modalities and is an indication for surgery if conservative measures fail. PMID:17940765

  5. Limb Salvage With Intrepid Dynamic Exoskeletal Orthosis Versus Transtibial Amputation: A Comparison of Functional Gait Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mangan, Katharine I; Kingsbury, Trevor D; Mazzone, Brittney N; Wyatt, Marilynn P; Kuhn, Kevin M

    2016-12-01

    To determine if there is a difference in functional gait outcomes between patients with limb injuries treated with either transtibial amputation or limb preservation with the Intrepid Dynamic Exoskeletal Orthosis. Retrospective prognostic study. Tertiary referral military hospital. This study included 10 transtibial amputees and 10 limb preservation patients using the Intrepid Dynamic Exoskeletal Orthosis who were matched by body mass index after excluding for nontraumatic, proximal ipsilateral, contralateral, spine, or traumatic brain injuries. Transtibial amputation patients were also excluded if they did not have a gait study between 6 and 12 months after independent ambulation. Limb preservation were excluded if they did not complete the "Return to Run" program. An observational study of functional outcomes using instrumented gait analysis. Spatiotemporal, kinetic (vertical ground reaction force), unified deformable power, work, and efficiency. Limb preservation patients walked with a significantly slower cadence (P = 0.036) and spent less time on their affected limb in stance (P = 0.045), and longer in swing (P = 0.019). Amputees had significantly increased maximum positive power in both limbs (P = 0.004 and P = 0.029) and increased maximum negative power on the unaffected limb (P = 0.035). Amputees had significantly increased positive and negative work in the affected limb (P = 0.0009 and P = 0.014) and positive work in the unaffected limb (P = 0.042). There was no significant difference in the kinetic data or efficiency. Limb preservation patients spend less time on their affected limb as a percentage of the gait cycle. The unified deformable power demonstrated more dynamic gait in amputees, with peak values closer to normative data. Therapeutic level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  6. "Limb Salvage With Intrepid Dynamic Exoskeleton Orthosis Versus Transtibial Amputation: A Comparison of Functional Gait Outcomes".

    PubMed

    Mangan, Katharine I; Kingsbury, Trevor D; Mazzone, Brittney N; Wyatt, Marilynn P; Kuhn, Kevin M

    2016-08-23

    To determine if there is a difference in functional gait outcomes between patients with limb injuries treated with either transtibial amputation or limb preservation with Intrepid Dynamic Exoskeletal Orthosis (IDEO). Retrospective prognostic study. Tertiary referral military hospital. This study included 10 transtibial amputees and ten limb preservation patients using the IDEO who were matched by body mass index after excluding for non-traumatic, proximal ipsilateral, contralateral, spine or traumatic brain injuries. Transtibial amputation patients were also excluded if they did not have a gait study between 6 and 12 months after independent ambulation and limb preservation were excluded if they did not complete the "Return to Run" program. An observational study of functional outcomes utilizing instrumented gait analysis. Spatiotemporal, kinetic (vertical ground reaction force), unified deformable (UD) power, work, and efficiency. Limb preservation patients walked with a significantly slower cadence (p=0.036) and spent less time on their affected limb in stance (p=0.045), and longer in swing (p=0.019). Amputees had significantly increased maximum positive power in both limbs (p=0.004 and p= 0.029) and increased maximum negative power on the unaffected limb (p= 0.035). Amputees had significantly increased positive and negative work in the affected limb (p=0.0009 and p=0.014) and positive work in the unaffected limb (p=0.042).There was no significant difference in the kinetic data or efficiency. Limb preservation patients spend less time on their affected limb as a percentage of the gait cycle. The UD power demonstrated more dynamic gait in amputees, with peak values closer to normative data. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  7. Amputation surgery.

    PubMed

    Schnur, David; Meier, Robert H

    2014-02-01

    The best level of amputation must take into consideration the newest socket designs, methods of prosthetic suspension, and technologically advanced components. In some instances stump revision should be considered, to provide a better prosthetic fitting and function. Targeted reinnervation is a new neural-machine interface that has been developed to help improve the function of electrically powered upper prosthetic limbs. Osseointegrated implants for prosthetic suspension offer amputees an alternative to the traditional socket suspension, and are especially useful for transfemoral and transhumeral levels of amputation. Cadaver bone can be used to lengthen an extremely short residual bony lever arm.

  8. Incidence, severity, and impact of hyperhidrosis in people with lower-limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Colby; Godfrey, Bradeigh; Wixom, Jody; McFadden, Molly

    2015-01-01

    To assess the incidence and severity of self-reported hyperhidrosis in patients with amputation and understand its effects on prosthetic fit or function, a cross-sectional survey of patients at two amputee clinics was performed. Responses from 121 subjects with lower-limb amputation were analyzed. Of these subjects, 66% reported sweating to a degree that it interfered with daily activities, as measured by the Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale. There was a significant association between sweating and interference with prosthetic fit and function. Sweating was more severe in cases of transtibial amputations, patients under the age of 60, warm weather, and vigorous activity. There was no relationship between severity of sweating and time since amputation, etiology of amputation, duration of daily prosthetic use, or reported ability to perform functional tasks. Subjects reported trying multiple interventions, but the self-reported effectiveness of these treatments was low. Hyperhidrosis, a common problem associated with prosthetic usage, varies in severity and often interferes with daily activities. Sweating severity is associated with poor prosthetic fit and function. Risk factors include younger age and transtibial amputation status. Treatment strategies generally lack efficacy. The results of this study may provide guidance for future interventions and treatment options.

  9. Effects of practice, visual loss, limb amputation, and disuse on motor imagery vividness.

    PubMed

    Malouin, Francine; Richards, Carol L; Durand, Anne; Descent, Micheline; Poiré, Diane; Frémont, Pierre; Pelet, Stéphane; Gresset, Jacques; Doyon, Julien

    2009-06-01

    The ability to generate vivid images of movements is variable across individuals and likely influenced by sensorimotor inputs. The authors examined (1) the vividness of motor imagery in dancers and in persons with late blindness, with amputation or an immobilization of one lower limb; (2) the effects of prosthesis use on motor imagery; and (3) the temporal characteristics of motor imagery. Eleven dancers, 10 persons with late blindness, 14 with amputation, 6 with immobilization, and 2 groups of age-matched healthy individuals (27 in control group A; 35 in control group B) participated. The Kinesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire served to assess motor imagery vividness. Temporal characteristics were assessed with mental chronometry. The late blindness group and dance group displayed higher imagery scores than respective control groups. In the amputation and immobilization groups, imagery scores were lower on the affected side than the intact side and specifically for imagined foot movements. Imagery scores of the affected limb positively correlated with the time since walking with prosthesis. Movement times during imagination and execution (amputation and immobilization) were longer on the affected side than the intact side, but the temporal congruence between real and imagined movement times was similar to that in the control group. The mental representation of actions is highly modulated by imagery practice and motor activities. The ability to generate vivid images of movements can be specifically weakened by limb loss or disuse, but lack of movement does not affect the temporal characteristics of motor imagery.

  10. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Diabetic Lower Limb Amputation: A Clinic-Based Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Beverly T; Vangaveti, Venkat N; Malabu, Usman H

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for lower limb amputation in a specialist foot clinic-based setting. Methods. A retrospective quantitative study was conducted, using clinical and biochemical profiles of diabetic foot patients attending the High Risk Foot Clinic at The Townsville Hospital, Australia, between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2013. Results. The total study sample included 129 subjects, comprising 81 males and 48 females with M : F ratio of 1.7 : 1. Twenty-three subjects were Indigenous Australians, representing 17.8% of the study population. The average age of the cohort was 63.4 years ± 14.1 years [CI 90.98-65.89]. Lower limb amputation was identified as a common and significant outcome (n = 44), occurring in 34.1%, more commonly amongst the Indigenous Australians (56.5% versus 29.2%; p = 0.94, OR 0.94). Risk factors most closely associated with amputation included diabetic retinopathy (p = 0.00, OR 4.4), coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (p = 0.01, OR 4.1), Charcot's arthropathy (p = 0.01, OR 2.9), and Indigenous ethnicity (p = 0.01, OR 3.4). Although average serum creatinine, corrected calcium, and glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (Hba1c) levels were higher amongst amputees they were statistically insignificant. Conclusions. Lower limb amputation is a common outcome and linked to ethnicity and neurovascular diabetic complications amongst subjects with diabetic foot ulcer. Further research is needed to identify why risk of lower limb amputation seems to differ according to ethnicity.

  11. Psychosocial and Functional Outcomes in Long-Term Survivors of Osteosarcoma: A Comparison of Limb-Salvage Surgery and Amputation

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Rhonda S.; Ottaviani, Giulia; Huh, Winston W.; Palla, Shana; Jaffe, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Background Traditionally, physicians have believed that limb-salvage surgery has functional and cosmetic advantages over amputation, yet the literature is equivocal. Therefore, we sought to compare the psychosocial and functional outcomes in osteosarcoma survivors after limb-salvage surgery and amputation. We hypothesized there to be neither psychosocial nor functional outcome differences between groups. Procedure Participants received treatment of extremity osteosarcoma, had received their cancer diagnosis at least 2 years prior, and were at least 16 years old. A comprehensive set of validated psychosocial and functional measures was used to assess outcome. Results Fifty-seven patients participated in this study (33 who underwent limb-salvage surgery and 24 who underwent amputation). Participants had gone 12–24 years since diagnosis and were 16–52 years old at study participation. We used multiple linear regression models to examine differences in quality of life, body image, self-esteem, and social support between the two groups and found no differences. Lower limb function was a significant predictor of quality of life (p < 0.001), whereas surgery type did not impact this relationship. Body image was rated significantly worse by those who underwent late amputation, amputation after failed limb salvage, than by those who did not. Conclusions Participants with more functional lower limbs had better quality of life than did those with less functional lower limbs regardless of whether they underwent amputation or limb-salvage surgery. PMID:20135700

  12. Amputation

    MedlinePlus

    ... a temporary prosthesis before receiving a permanent one. Prosthetic fitting and adjustment can take time, but is ... on how to avoid amputation. Financial Assistance for Prosthetic Services, Durable Medical Equipment, and Other Assistive Devices ( ...

  13. [Long-term (33 years) result of revascularization of subtotally amputated upper arm].

    PubMed

    Kaczmarzyk, Janusz; Kocieba, Ryszard; Jabłecki, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    Replantations and revascularizations on the level of the arm are performed in the smallest number. The achieved functional results are poor. The paper presents a result achieved in a patient who sustained an avulsion amputation of an upper arm in the year 1974. The first long-term control was made 11 years after the revascularization of the limb which rated the result as III acc. to Chen's score system. The patient was steadily highly motivated for hand rehabilitation process. The second control performed 33 years after the accident proved the increase of sensibility, muscle strength as well as the range of movements. The result was up-graded as II (good). No degenerative changes in hand bones of mutilated hand were found.

  14. Predictors of secondary amputation in patients with grade IIIC lower limb injuries: A retrospective analysis of 35 patients.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenhao; Zhou, DongSheng; Dong, Jinlei

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for failure of limb salvage surgery in grade IIIC lower extremity injuries.A single-institution, retrospective review was performed of all patients with grade IIIC lower limb injuries presenting from January 2009 to April 2014. We gathered the data on each patient who underwent limb salvage and analyzed the final outcome for these patients (limb salvage vs secondary amputation).Grade IIIC lower limb injuries were identified in 41 patients. Primary amputation was performed in 6 patients (15%) as the initial procedure. Thirty-five patients (85%) underwent vascular reconstruction and other surgical procedures to salvage the limb. Limb salvage was successful in 23 patients (66%); 12 patients (34%) ultimately underwent secondary amputation. The median time from injury to secondary amputation was 22.5 days (range 4-380 days). The mean Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) was 7.2 ± 1.5 (range 5-10). The MESS was significantly higher in the secondary amputation group compared with the limb salvage group. Additionally, statistical testing revealed that the limb ischemia time, complex fractures, rate of fasciotomy, and number of vascular reconstruction were significantly higher in the secondary amputation group. Muscle necrosis and extensive soft tissue defect were the main reasons for secondary amputation.The findings indicate that MESS of 7 or greater, complex fractures, limb ischemia time equal to or greater than 6 hours, and osteofascial compartment syndrome were associated with an increased risk of delayed amputation. The MESS is highly prognostic but not perfect; decision-making in patients with an MESS of 7 or greater should be re-evaluated for clinical use.

  15. [Transcutaneous osseointegrated prosthesis (TOP) after limb amputation : Status quo and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Willy, Christian; Krettek, Christian

    2017-04-10

    The majority of transfemoral and transtibial amputees can be functionally fitted with conventional suspension sockets; however, due to socket problems using conventional stump care, 60% of the patients have limited function and even in younger patients approximately one sixth are unable to wear the prosthesis daily. After the introduction of transcutaneous osseointegrated prostheses (TOP) the inherent problems of socket-stump care can be avoided for these patients. Against this background this article reviews the recent clinical development of TOP in Sweden, Germany, the Netherlands, Australia and USA currently in nine centers. Unanimously, all groups show that TOP enables physiological weight bearing, improved range of motion in the proximal joint, as well as osseoperceptive sensory feedback and better control of the artificial limb. Likewise, there is agreement that as a rule that there is a clinically less relevant superficial contamination of the stoma. Furthermore, TOP is nowadays also used for transhumeral amputees and after thumb amputation and the development of the indications for this technique are increasing. Future aspects include novel treatment options using implanted intramedullary electrodes allowing permanent and unlimited bidirectional communication with the human body (osseointegrated human-machine gateway). This could possibly realize an innovative form of prosthesis control as well as the combination of TOP and targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) surgery to create more advanced prosthesis systems for upper and lower extremity amputees.

  16. A training programme to improve hip strength in persons with lower limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Lee

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the effect of a 10-week training programme on persons with a lower limb amputation and to determine if this training is sufficient to enable running. Seven transtibial, 8 transfemoral and 1 bilateral amputee (all resulting from trauma, tumour or congenital) were randomly assigned to a training (n  =8) or control group (n = 8). Isokinetic hip flexor and extensor strength at 60 and 120º/s and oxygen consumption while walking at 1.0 m/s were tested pre- and post- a 10-week period. The training group followed a twice weekly hip strengthening programme, while the control group continued with their usual activities. Running ability was determined pre-testing, and attempted after post-testing for the training group only. The training group increased hip strength and decreased oxygen consumption. Six amputees who were previously unable to run were able to after training. The control group decreased intact limb hip extensor strength. The training programme is sufficient to improve hip strength and enable running in persons with a lower limb amputation. As hip strength was reduced in those not following the training programme, it is recommended that strength training be undertaken regularly in order to avoid losing limb strength following amputation.

  17. Perceptions of low back pain in people with lower limb amputation: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Devan, Hemakumar; Carman, Allan B; Hendrick, Paul A; Ribeiro, Daniel Cury; Hale, Leigh A

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of people with a lower limb amputation as to important factors contributing to their low back pain (LBP). Semi-structured interviews were conducted (three focus groups and two individual interviews), with 11 participants with lower limb amputation and on-going LBP. The discussions were analysed using the General Inductive Approach. Five major categories were identified with "uneven posture and compensatory movements" of the back perceived to be the main contributor to LBP. "Fatigue" during functional activities and "prosthesis-related factors" may affect the "uneven movements" of the back further leading to LBP. "Multiple pain conditions" (i.e. phantom limb pain, non-amputated limb pain) could influence the pain perceptions contributing to LBP. "Self-management strategies" in the form of maintaining optimal physical fitness and support from health care professionals helped to manage LBP symptoms, thereby assisted in preventing chronicity. The results suggest "uneven movements" of the back affected by "fatigue" and "prosthesis-related factors" may alter the mechanical loading of the spine during functional activities and contribute to LBP. While being physically active helped participants cope with their LBP, identifying and addressing "uneven movements" in the back during the performance of functional activities may be important to devise prevention strategies for LBP.

  18. The utility of scores in the decision to salvage or amputation in severely injured limbs.

    PubMed

    Shanmuganathan, Rajasekaran

    2008-10-01

    The decision to amputate or salvage a severely injured limb can be very challenging to the trauma surgeon. A misjudgment will result in either an unnecessary amputation of a valuable limb or a secondary amputation after failed salvage. Numerous scores have been proposed to provide guidelines to the treating surgeon, the notable of which are Mangled extremity severity score (MESS); the predictive salvage index (PSI); the Limb Salvage Index (LSI); the Nerve Injury, Ischemia, Soft tissue injury, Skeletal injury, Shock and Age of patient (NISSSA) score; and the Hannover fracture scale-97 (HFS-97). These scores have all been designed to evaluate limbs with combined orthopaedic and vascular injuries and have a poor sensitivity and specificity in evaluating IIIB injuries. Recently the Ganga Hospital Score (GHS) has been proposed which is specifically designed to evaluate a IIIB injury. Another notable feature of GHS is that it offers guidelines in the choice of the appropriate reconstruction protocol. The basis of the commonly used scores with their utility have been discussed in this paper.

  19. Mortality rates and walking ability transition after lower limb major amputation in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Serizawa, Fukashi; Sasaki, Shigeru; Fujishima, Shinobu; Akamatsu, Daijirou; Goto, Hitoshi; Amada, Noritoshi

    2016-10-01

    The number of hemodialysis patients with peripheral artery disease is increasing, and critical limb ischemia develops in some of these patients. The clinical outcomes in such patients after major amputation remain unclear. We therefore examined the mortality rates after major amputation in hemodialysis patients. The study enrolled 108 hemodialysis patients undergoing their first major amputation at Community Health Care Organization Sendai Hospital between January 2005 and December 2014 and monitored them until June 2015. All-cause mortality and additional amputation-free survival were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. The most dominant primary disease of renal failure was diabetes mellitus (77%), and the duration of hemodialysis was 8.5 ± 6.8 years. During the median follow-up period of 11.5 months (20.3 ± 22.6 months), 80 patients (74%) died, and the survival rates were 83% at 30 days, 56% at 1 year, and 15% at 5 years. The median time to death was 19.9 months (95% confidence interval, 9.8-30.0 months), and the causes of death were cardiac (45%), sepsis (29%), cerebrovascular (4%), and others (22%). Thirty-one patients underwent additional amputation, and the additional amputation-free survival rates were 39% at 1 year and 9% at 5 years. The median time between the first and second amputations was 2.5 months (5.7 ± 7.6 months). Univariate analysis showed previous minor amputation (P = .04) and low hematocrit level (P = .04) were associated with the 30-day mortality rate, and age (P = .05) was associated with the 5-year mortality rate. On multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis, only age was associated with mortality rate (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.02; P = .04). We also compared walking ability before and after major amputation among patients who survived >60 days. The rate changed from 34% to 12% for of ambulatory patients, from 45% to 48% for wheelchair use, and from 21% to 40% for bedridden patients

  20. Trends in Major Lower Limb Amputation Related to Peripheral Arterial Disease in Hungary: A Nationwide Study (2004-2012).

    PubMed

    Kolossváry, E; Ferenci, T; Kováts, T; Kovács, L; Járai, Z; Menyhei, G; Farkas, K

    2015-07-01

    To assess the trends of peripheral arterial disease associated major lower limb amputation in Hungary over a 9 year period (2004-2012) in the whole Hungarian population. This was a retrospective cohort study employing administrative health care data. Major amputations were identified in the entire Hungarian population during a 9 year period (2004-2012) using the health care administrative data. Direct standardization was used to eliminate the potential bias induced by the different age and sex structure of the compared populations. For external direct standardization, the ESP 2013 was chosen as reference. 76,798 lower limb amputations were performed. The number of major amputations was 38,200; these procedures affected 32,084 patients. According to case detection, 50.4% of the amputees were diabetic. The overall primary amputation rate was 71.5%. The annual crude and age adjusted major amputation rates exhibited no significant long-term pattern over the observation period. The major lower limb amputation incidence for the overall period was 42.3/10(5) in the total population and 317.9/10(5) in diabetic population. According to this whole population based study from Hungary, the incidence of lower limb major amputation is high with no change over the past 9 years. An explanation for this remains to be determined, as the traditional risk factors in Hungary do not account for it. The characteristics of major amputation (the rate of primary amputation, the ratio of below to above knee amputation and the age of the affected population) underline the importance of screening, early detection, improved vascular care and an optimal revascularization policy. Standardization and validation of amputation detection methods and reporting is essential. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence and Regional Distribution of Lower Limb Amputations from 2006 to 2012 in Germany: A Population based Study.

    PubMed

    Heyer, K; Debus, E S; Mayerhoff, L; Augustin, M

    2015-12-01

    International studies show conflicting results regarding the frequency of lower limb amputations over time. However, published data are often based on event related amputation frequencies per year, on hospital statistics or on regional surveys. Thus, they do not allow population based statements. The present study assesses the population based epidemiology of amputations in Germany. Secondary analyses of 80 German statutory health insurance companies with 4 million insurants nationwide in 2012 were performed. From 2006 to 2012, lower limb amputations were identified in the entire population and in persons with diabetes mellitus (DM) and arterial occlusive disease (AOD). Lower limb amputations and persons with DM and arterial occlusive diseases were extracted by specific operation procedure codes and International Classification of Diseases-10 codes. Descriptive standardized analyses by age, sex, and regional distribution were conducted. The proportion of patients with at least one lower limb amputation in the entire population stayed constant over time at 0.04% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04-0.04). Extrapolated to the German population in 2012 there were 49,150 cases and 32,767 persons with amputations. In 2012, about 70% of amputations were minor (0.03% [95% CI 0.03-0.03]) versus major amputations (0.01% [95% CI 0.01-0.01]). Related to DM and AOD, there was a small decrease in the amputation rate per patient, even though the DM prevalence increased by 10.4%. The amputation rates per patient in Germany have remained stable in the overall population and show slight decline in patients with diabetes mellitus and with arterial occlusive disease between 2006 and 2012. In the future, intensified preventive measures are crucial to reduce the number of amputations of the lower extremities permanently. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prior contralateral amputation predicts worse outcomes for lower extremity bypasses performed in the intact limb

    PubMed Central

    Baril, Donald T.; Goodney, Philip P.; Robinson, William P.; Nolan, Brian W.; Stone, David H.; Li, YouFu; Cronenwett, Jack L.; Schanzer, Andres

    2013-01-01

    Introduction To date, history of a contralateral amputation as a potential predictor of outcomes after lower extremity bypass (LEB) for critical limb ischemia (CLI) has not been studied. We sought to determine if a prior contralateral lower extremity amputation predicts worse outcomes in patients undergoing LEB in the remaining intact limb. Methods A retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing infrainguinal LEB for CLI between 2003 and 2010 within hospitals comprising the Vascular Study Group of New England was performed. Patients were stratified according to whether or not they had previously undergone a contralateral major or minor amputation before LEB. Primary end points included major amputation and graft occlusion at 1 year postoperatively. Secondary end points included in-hospital major adverse events, discharge status, and mortality at 1 year. Results Of 2636 LEB procedures, 228 (8.6%) were performed in the setting of a prior contralateral amputation. Patients with a prior amputation compared to those without were younger (66.5 vs 68.7; P = .034), more like to have congestive heart failure (CHF; 25% vs 16%; P = .002), hypertension (94% vs 85%; P = .015), renal insufficiency (26% vs 14%; P = .0002), and hemodialysis-dependent renal failure (14% vs 6%; P = .0002). They were also more likely to be nursing home residents (8.0% vs 3.6%; P = .036), less likely to ambulate without assistance (41% vs 80%; P < .0002), and more likely to have had a prior ipsilateral bypass (20% vs 12%; P = .0005). These patients experience increased in-hospital major adverse events, including myocardial infarction (MI; 8.9% vs 4.2%; P = .002), CHF (6.1% vs 3.4%; P = .044), deterioration in renal function (9.0% vs 4.7%; P = .006), and respiratory complications (4.2% vs 2.3%; P = .034). They were less likely to be discharged home (52% vs 72%; P < .0001) and less likely to be ambulatory on discharge (25% vs 55%; P < .0001). Although patients with a prior contralateral amputation

  3. Neck muscle fatigue alters upper limb proprioception.

    PubMed

    Zabihhosseinian, Mahboobeh; Holmes, Michael W R; Murphy, Bernadette

    2015-05-01

    Limb proprioception is an awareness by the central nervous system (CNS) of the location of a limb in three-dimensional space and is essential for movement and postural control. The CNS uses the position of the head and neck when interpreting the position of the upper limb, and altered input from neck muscles may affect the sensory inputs to the CNS and consequently may impair the awareness of upper limb joint position. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fatigue of the cervical extensors muscles (CEM) using a submaximal fatigue protocol alters the ability to recreate a previously presented elbow angle with the head in a neutral position. Twelve healthy individuals participated. CEM activity was examined bilaterally using surface electromyography, and kinematics of the elbow joint was measured. The fatigue protocol included an isometric neck extension task at 70 % of maximum until failure. Joint position error increased following fatigue, demonstrating a significant main effect of time (F 2, 18 = 19.41, p ≤ 0.0001) for absolute error. No significant differences were found for variable error (F 2, 18 = 0.27, p = 0.76) or constant error (F 2, 18 = 1.16 of time, p ≤ 0.33). This study confirms that fatigue of the CEM can reduce the accuracy of elbow joint position matching. This suggests that altered afferent input from the neck subsequent to fatigue may impair upper limb proprioception.

  4. Finite element analysis of the amputated lower limb: A systematic review and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, A S; Steer, J W; Worsley, P R

    2017-05-01

    The care and rehabilitation of individuals after lower limb amputation presents a substantial and growing socioeconomic challenge. Clinical outcome is closely linked to successful functional rehabilitation with a prosthetic limb, which depends upon comfortable prosthetic limb - residual limb load transfer. Despite early interest in the 1980s, the amputated limb has received considerably less attention in computational biomechanical analysis than other subjects, such as arthroplasty. This systematic literature review investigates the state of the art in residual limb finite element analysis published since 2000. The identified studies were grouped into the following categories: (1) residuum-prosthesis interface mechanics; (2) residuum soft tissue internal mechanics; (3) identification of residuum tissue characteristics; (4) proposals for incorporating FEA into the prosthesis fitting process; (5) analysis of the influence of prosthetic componentry concepts to improve load transfer to the residuum, such as the monolimb and structural socket compliance; and (6) analysis of osseointegrated (OI) prostheses. The state of the art is critically appraised in order to form recommendations for future modeling studies in terms of geometry, material properties, boundary conditions, interface models, and relevant but un-investigated issues. Finally, the practical implementation of these approaches is discussed.

  5. [Risk assessment in upper limb overload].

    PubMed

    Martinelli, R; Casilli, A; Fanelli, C; Pizzuti, S; Tarquini, M; Tobia, L; Paoletti, A

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important factors of the work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremities (WMSDs) is the biomechanical overload. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the possibility to predict the upper limb repetitive stress, according to risk assessment procedures. In order to this aim, we gathered clinical-anamnestic data and risk assessment considerations of a cohort of workers in a car industry.

  6. Physical activity, functional capacity, and step variability during walking in people with lower-limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Suh-Jen; Winston, Katie D; Mitchell, Jill; Girlinghouse, Jacob; Crochet, Karleigh

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity is important for general health. For an individual with amputation to sustain physical activity, certain functional capacity might be needed. Gait variability is related to the incidence of falls. This study explored the relationship between physical activity and a few common performance measures (six-minute walk test, step length variability, step width variability, and comfortable walking speed) in individuals with unilateral lower-limb amputation. Twenty individuals completed the study (age: 50±11yrs). Twelve of them had transtibial amputation, seven had transfemoral amputation, and one had through-knee amputation. Gait data was collected by the GaitRite instrumented walkway while participants performed a 3-min comfortable walking trial followed by a six-minute walk test. Physical activity was indicated by the mean of 7-day step counts via a pedometer. Gait variability was calculated by the coefficient of variation. Pearson correlation analysis was conducted between physical activity level and the 4 performance measures. Significance level was set at 0.05. Physical activity correlates strongly to comfortable walking speed (r=0.76), six-minute walk distance (r=0.67), and correlates fairly to step width variability (r=0.44). On the contrary, physical activity is inversely related to step length variability of the prosthetic leg (r=-0.46) and of the sound leg (r=-0.47). Having better functional capacity and lateral stability might enable an individual with lower-limb amputation to engage in a higher physical activity level, or vise versa. However, our conclusions are only preliminary as limited by the small sample size.

  7. Upper limb musculoskeletal disorders in healthcare personnel.

    PubMed

    Occhionero, Vincenzo; Korpinen, Leena; Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    2014-01-01

    The literature on upper limb musculoskeletal disorders (UL-MSD) in different groups of healthcare workers was reviewed: 65 relevant studies were collected. In dentists, the neck was the most frequently affected segment, with prevalences up to 73% and exceeding 50% in 7 out of 12 studies. In dental hygienists and in laboratory technicians, the hand/wrist had the highest prevalence in the majority of the studies. In nurses, the most seriously affected anatomic sites were the neck and shoulders. Physiotherapists had the lowest prevalence of UL-MSD. A high prevalence of upper limb disease, mainly carpal tunnel syndrome, was reported in dentists, dental hygienists, anesthesia nurses and endoscopists. The high prevalence of upper limb disorders/diseases reported in health personnel supports the hypothesis of a significant risk in these workers. However, the possible role of biomechanical overload, as much as that of stress or other personal factors, cannot be currently assessed. Practitioner Summary: Published studies support the hypothesis of a significant risk of upper limb musculoskeletal disorders in healthcare activities. The neck was the most frequently affected segment in dentists, the hand/wrist in dental hygienists and in laboratory technicians, and the neck and shoulders in nurses. Lower prevalence was reported in physiotherapists. A high prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome was also observed in various healthcare activities.

  8. Upper Limb Motor Impairment Post Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis Understanding upper limb impairment after stroke is essential to planning therapeutic efforts to restore function. However determining which upper limb impairment to treat and how is complex for two reasons: 1) the impairments are not static, i.e. as motor recovery proceeds, the type and nature of the impairments may change; therefore the treatment needs to evolve to target the impairment contributing to dysfunction at a given point in time. 2) multiple impairments may be present simultaneously, i.e., a patient may present with weakness of the arm and hand immediately after a stroke, which may not have resolved when spasticity sets in a few weeks or months later; hence there may be a layering of impairments over time making it difficult to decide what to treat first. The most useful way to understand how impairments contribute to upper limb dysfunction may be to examine them from the perspective of their functional consequences. There are three main functional consequences of impairments on upper limb function are: (1) learned nonuse, (2) learned bad-use, and (3) forgetting as determined by behavioral analysis of tasks. The impairments that contribute to each of these functional limitations are described. PMID:26522900

  9. Mortality and diabetes mellitus in amputations of the lower limbs for gas gangrene: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pereira de Godoy, José Maria; Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Janalice; Caracanhas, Lívia Andrioli

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine any association between the presence of diabetes in patients with gas gangrene of the legs and mortality following major lower limb amputation. In a retrospective study, patients submitted to amputation of lower limbs for anaerobic infections were evaluated in the period from January 2005 to January 2007 in the University Hospital de Base in Sao Jose do Rio Preto. All the patients were hospitalized for the treatment of ulcerated lesions of the leg. The study sample consisted of 30 men and 10 women aged between 46 and 87 years (mean 69 years) suffering from anaerobic infections. During treatment, the presence of crepitation in the skin was observed as was gas by radiological examination. Amputation was performed within 2 to 6 hours after diagnosis. Diabetes was identified in 33 patients and death occurred within the perioperative period in 12 cases. Diabetes is associated with the necessity of amputation for gas gangrene resulting in a high mortality rate.

  10. Risk Factors for Falls in People With a Lower Limb Amputation: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Susan W; Batchelor, Frances; Hill, Keith D; Hill, Anne-Marie; Mackintosh, Shylie; Payne, Michael

    2017-02-01

    To review the evidence connecting risk factors to falls in adults with a lower limb amputation (LLA) across the continuum of care settings. Systematic review. Electronic database searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Pubmed, CINAHL, and EMBASE covering January 1988 to January 2016. Noninterventional studies, including cohort and cross-sectional studies, were included. Two reviewers independently completed data extraction and quality evaluation. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria and quality of reporting was evaluated using the criteria by Tooth et al. The average quality of reporting score was 19.8, scores ranged from 16 to 29. Studies covered the acute hospital stay after the amputation, inpatient rehabilitation, and community living. Falls were a common occurrence, with the cohort studies reporting 20.8% for acute hospital stay to 58% in the community years after the amputation. Injurious falls also were common, with an occurrence ranging from 40% to 60%. Risk factors that increase falls and are shared with the general population of older adults include lower extremity muscle weakness, increasing age, comorbidities, and number of prescription medications. Risk factors for falls that are unique to adults with LLA are dysvascular etiology of the amputation, transtibial level of amputation in the postoperative period and transfemoral level postrehabilitation, and reduced sense of vibration. Falls in adults with an LLA are common from the time of the amputation to years later living in the community. Risk factors vary across care settings after the amputation, which has implications for safety and fall-prevention strategies. III. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Motor and sensory rehabilitation after lower limb amputation: state of art and perspective of change.

    PubMed

    Casale, Roberto; Maini, Maurizio; Bettinardi, Ornella; Labeeb, Alaa; Rosati, Vanessa; Damiani, Carlo; Mallik, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    The rehabilitation of the amputated patient is based on a coordinated sequence of diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic procedures carried out by an interdisciplinary rehabilitation team, that works globally on all patient problems. The objectives of the different phases of the rehabilitation treatment were reviewed. Due to their relevance in conditioning the final outcome of the treatment, aspects requiring further studies and remarks, were also reviewed. Among these the psychological aspects, the alterations of all sensory inputs, the secondary alterations at the bone, articular and muscular level, pain of the residual limb and the phantom limb. Finally, the basic criteria to be used to choose the kind of prosthesis in relation to the characteristics and expectations of the amputated person, and the results of the recovery of the autonomy and walking ability, will be schematically described.

  12. [Mirror therapy for the treatment of phantom limb pain after bilateral thigh amputation. A case report].

    PubMed

    Wosnitzka, M; Papenhoff, M; Reinersmann, A; Maier, C

    2014-12-01

    This case study is the first to report successful treatment of bilateral phantom limb pain (PLP) in a patient with bilateral thigh amputation and inefficacious medical treatment using a protocol of graded interventions including mirror therapy (MT). MT is a common treatment for PLP but requires the induction of a visual illusion of an intact limb in the mirror, usually achieved by mirroring the healthy extremity. Here, we illustrate how application of a unilateral prosthesis sufficed to induce the necessary illusion. After sequential imagery, then lateralization training, which alleviated pain attacks, the patient received a further 3-week treatment of mirror treatment. Pain intensity was reduced by more than 85 %; the number of attacks were decreased by more than 90% per day. The analgesic efficacy lasted until the unexpected death of the patient several months later. This case illustrates the mechanisms of MT through overcoming the sensory incongruences underlying the distorted body schema and its efficacy in patients with bilateral amputation.

  13. Memory and executive function predict mobility rehabilitation outcome after lower-limb amputation.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Brian F; Evans, Jonathan J

    2009-01-01

    Post-amputation rehabilitation is physically and cognitively demanding. Understanding which specific cognitive domains mediate outcome is critical to the development of interventions. A cohort undergoing post-amputation rehabilitation was assessed before limb fitting and followed up at 6 months (n = 34). The average age was 60.69 years (SD = 13.98). 82.4% of the sample was male. 79.4% had amputations because of peripheral arterial disease. Memory, visuospatial function, executive function, praxis, emotion and language were assessed at Time 1 (first prosthetic clinic attendance). Time 1 data were also gathered on aetiology, level of amputation, comorbidities, pain and demographics. Six month outcomes were the locomotor capability index (LCI), the special interest group in amputee medicine (SIGAM) mobility grades and self reported hours of use. The LCI at 6 months was significantly predicted in regression analyses by a measure of visual memory (figure recall) (adjusted R2 = 24.8%, df = 32, zbeta = 0.52, p = 0.002. Hours of use were predicted by the verbal fluency test total (adjusted R2 = 17.1%, df= 26, zbeta = 0.45, p = 0.017). SIGAM mobility grades were predicted by a combination of immediate verbal memory (story recall), age, level of amputation and presence of pain (adjusted R2 = 58.2, df = 30, zbeta = 0.52, p = 0.000). Neuropsychological and clinical variables predict a large amount of 6 month outcome variance. Cognitive difficulties may be considered mediators of poor outcome.

  14. Health Related Quality of Life in Patients with Single Lower Limb Amputation.

    PubMed

    Hisam, Aliya; Ashraf, Fatimah; Rana, Mariam Nadeem; Waqar, Yumna; Karim, Sumaiyya; Irfan, Fatima

    2016-10-01

    To determine the effects of age, cause of amputation, and anatomic level of amputation on the health related quality of life (HRQOL) in individuals with unilateral lower limb amputation. Across-sectional survey. The Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, from August 2014 to February 2015. Short Form-36 (SF-36) health related quality of life (HRQOL). Survey questionnaire was used to collect data. The responses were scored by using the quality metric health outcomes™ scoring software 4.5. The scores were entered and analysed in SPSS version 21. Atotal of 52 patients were inducted with mean age of 30.71 ±7.50 years. Mean physical component summary (PCS) was lower than mental component summary (MCS) (38.7 vs. 44.8). RP and RE scores were found to be significantly associated with gender (p=0.024 and p=0.003, respectively). Age group was also significantly associated with RP(p=0.037) and SF (p=0.041). When SF-36 domains were compared with level of amputation (i.e. trans-tibial and transfemoral), none of the domains showed any statistically significant results. Age and indication affect different aspects of quality of life but level of amputation did not. If these are known and anticipated before any type of rehabilitation, this could help in anticipation of health consequences and prevention accordingly.

  15. [Amputation and equipment of the lower limb during the Revolution and the Empire].

    PubMed

    Vesselle, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    During the French Revolution and Napoleon's campaigns, above-knee or below-knee amputations were performed either immediately or with a delay, which favoured septic problems. A rapidly operated amputation by a well-trained surgeon was the best way to save the life of a soldier who suffered from an open comminuted fracture of a limb. The conditions on military campaigns were indeed hard ones: doctors and surgeons had practically no resources and the transportation of severely injured persons was difficult. Such conditions favoured the pain and the danger caused by an injury, and it was rather impossible for the medical corps to lavish repeated treatments on the wounds. The amputated soldiers were then given prostheses: either a traditional peg-leg, with a flexed knee joint for trans-tibial amputations, or an "imitative" prosthesis, which tended to look like a real leg with eventually an articulated knee or foot. The author mentions famous or unrecognized amputated men, describing significant events.

  16. The influence of limb alignment and transfemoral amputation technique on muscle capacity during gait.

    PubMed

    Ranz, Ellyn C; Wilken, Jason M; Gajewski, Donald A; Neptune, Richard R

    2017-08-01

    Many factors influence successful outcomes following transfemoral amputation. One factor is surgical technique. In this study, the influence of limb alignment and surgical technique on a muscle's capacity to generate force was examined using musculoskeletal modeling. Non-amputee and transfemoral amputee models were analyzed while hip adduction, femur length, and reattached muscle wrap position, tension and stabilization technique were systematically varied. With muscle tension preserved, wrap position and femur length had little influence on muscle capacity. However, limb alignment, muscle tension and stabilization technique notably influenced muscle capacity. Overall, myodesis stabilization provided greater muscle balance and function than myoplasty stabilization.

  17. Postoperative Analgesia Provided by Liposomal Hydromorphone in Client-Owned Dogs Undergoing Limb Amputation.

    PubMed

    Krugner-Higby, Lisa; Smith, Lesley J; Schmidt, Brynn; Steagall, Paulo V; Brown, Carolyn; Heath, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    The analgesic efficacy of liposomal hydromorphone (LE-hydro) was tested in dogs undergoing limb amputation. The positive controls (n = 10) received subcutaneous (SQ) hydromorphone (0.2 mg/kg) and 1.5 mL of blank liposomes before surgery; fentanyl continuous rate infusion (CRI), 5-10 μg/kg/hr IV, during and for 24 hr after surgery; and a fentanyl patch at extubation. The negative controls (n = 7) received SQ hydromorphone (0.2 mg/kg) and 1.5 mLs of blank liposomes SQ before surgery, fentanyl CRI (5-10 μg/kg/hr IV) during surgery but stopped at extubation, and a fentanyl patch at extubation. The test group (n = 11) received 3 mg/kg of LE-hydro and 1.5 mL of saline SQ before surgery, 1.5 mL of saline SQ, and a saline CRI during surgery. All groups received a bupivacaine block in the limb prior to amputation and carprofen prior to surgery. Treatment failures, pain scores, opioid side effects, heart rate, respiratory rate, temperature, and client-reported pain and side effects were evaluated. There were three treatment failures in the positive control (3/10) and test groups (3/11). Negative controls had seven treatment failures (7/7). Side effects for all three groups were within expected limits. LE-hydro provides postoperative analgesia equivalent to fentanyl CRI in dogs undergoing limb amputation.

  18. Lower-limb amputation and effect of posttraumatic stress disorder on Department of Veterans Affairs outpatient cost trends.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Vibha; Richard, Erin; Melcer, Ted; Walker, Jay; Galarneau, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) outpatient costs were analyzed for combat Veterans injured in Iraq and Afghanistan from 2001 to 2008. Patients had serious lower-limb injuries (n = 170) or unilateral (n = 460) or bilateral (n = 153) lower-limb amputation(s). Total costs over the follow-up period (2003 to 2012) and annual costs were analyzed. Unadjusted mean costs per year in 2012 U.S. dollars were $7,200, $14,700 and $18,700 for limb injuries and unilateral and bilateral lower-limb amputation(s), respectively (p < 0.001). Multivariate modeling indicated that annual cost declined after the first year in the VA for Veterans with limb injuries (p < 0.001, repeated measures). In contrast, annual costs doubled after 3-5 years with unilateral (p < 0.001) and bilateral amputation(s) (p < 0.001). Among amputees, prosthetics comprised more than 50% of outpatient cost; unadjusted mean cost per year for prosthetics was 7-9 times higher in comparison with Veterans with limb injuries. Amputation status was associated with an adjusted 3.12-fold increase in mean prosthetic cost per year (p < 0.001, generalized linear model). In addition, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was associated with increased prosthetic cost by amputation status (p < 0.001) and increased psychiatric and pharmacy costs (both p < 0.001). Results indicate relatively high and sustained outpatient costs driven by prosthetics following amputation. Finally, PTSD affected cost for multiple domains of health, highlighting the importance of accurate diagnosis, treatment, and support for PTSD.

  19. Effect of Upper Limb Deformities on Gross Motor and Upper Limb Functions in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Eun Sook; Sim, Eun Geol; Rha, Dong-wook

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the nature and extent of upper limb deformities via the use of various classifications, and to analyze the relationship between upper limb deformities and gross motor or upper limb functionality levels. Upper extremity data were collected from 234 children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) who were…

  20. Effect of Upper Limb Deformities on Gross Motor and Upper Limb Functions in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Eun Sook; Sim, Eun Geol; Rha, Dong-wook

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the nature and extent of upper limb deformities via the use of various classifications, and to analyze the relationship between upper limb deformities and gross motor or upper limb functionality levels. Upper extremity data were collected from 234 children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) who were…

  1. Ultrasound-guided posterior approach to brachial plexus for the treatment of upper phantom limb syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tognù, A; Borghi, B; Gullotta, S; White, P F

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the case is to report the clinical value of the ultrasound-guided posterior approach to the brachial plexus in the treatment of phantom limb syndrome after an upper extremity amputation. The author experienced ultrasound guidance as sole technique to localize the brachial plexus for the purpose of placing a catheter for continuous infusion of a local anesthetic in a patient where standard landmark-based nerve stimulation for placement of a continuous perineural block was not possible.

  2. Isolated primary lymphedema tarda of the upper limb.

    PubMed

    Shariati, Farzaneh; Ravari, Hasan; Kazemzadeh, Gholamhossein; Sadeghi, Ramin

    2013-03-01

    Primary lymphedema tarda is considered as a congenital disease with late presentation. Primary lymphedema tarda usually affects lower limbs, and primary lymphedema tarda of the upper limbs usually accompanies lower limb lymphedema. In the current case report, we present an 80-year-old male patient with isolated left upper limb swelling that lymphoscintigraphy imaging proved to be lymphedema.

  3. Major replantation versus revision amputation and prosthetic fitting in the upper extremity: a late functional outcomes study.

    PubMed

    Graham, B; Adkins, P; Tsai, T M; Firrell, J; Breidenbach, W C

    1998-09-01

    The functional outcomes of amputated arms that were either replanted or had a prosthesis were compared. In addition, factors that influenced the functional outcome of replants were evaluated. The Carroll test was used to evaluate functional capacity of 22 successful upper extremity replantations at or proximal to the wrist as well as 22 amputees (at similar levels) fitted with a variety of prosthetic devices. The outcome was excellent or good in 8 (36%) replanted limbs. This proportion was statistically higher than those grades in the prosthetic group. When the groups were more closely matched (adults with below elbow injuries), the replantation group had 6 (50%) good or excellent outcomes and the prosthetic group had none. An analysis of covariance of the replantations demonstrated a statistical association between a better outcome in younger patients with more distal injuries. This study indicates that replantation produces superior functional results compared with amputation and a prosthesis.

  4. The effect of prosthetic alignment on relative limb loading in persons with trans-tibial amputation: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Pinzur, M S; Cox, W; Kaiser, J; Morris, T; Patwardhan, A; Vrbos, L

    1995-11-01

    The prosthetic sockets of 14 independent persons with unilateral trans-tibial (BK) amputation were mounted on an adjustable alignment pylon. Vertical ground reaction forces were recorded in neutral prosthetic alignment and in 10 degrees of prosthetic socket varus, valgus, flexion, and extension. Stance phase time, peak vertical ground reaction force, and impulse were all found to be increased on the sound limb when compared to the amputated residual limb. Significant differences were found in stance phase time and peak vertical ground reaction force when comparing malaligned with neutrally aligned prosthetic limbs. Significant differences were also seen in impulse between neutrally aligned and malaligned prosthetic limbs. The results suggest that prosthetic malalignment in persons with trans-tibial amputation leads to increased loading of the contralateral limb.

  5. Physiotherapy rehabilitation for individuals with lower limb amputation: a 15-year clinical series.

    PubMed

    Hordacre, Brenton; Birks, Vicki; Quinn, Stephen; Barr, Christopher; Patritti, Benjamin L; Crotty, Maria

    2013-06-01

    Individuals with amputations are a core group in Australian rehabilitation units that have a long index length of stay. The Repatriation General Hospital (RGH) offers general rehabilitation services to the population of Southern Adelaide (a population of 350,000) and includes an on-site prosthetic manufacturing facility. Using a physiotherapy database at the RGH, we sought to answer the following questions: What are the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients admitted for lower limb prosthetic rehabilitation over 15 years? What are the times to rehabilitation outcomes? How have these changed over 15 years with changes in service delivery? This paper is a retrospective observational study using a physiotherapy clinical database (1996-2010) of 531 consecutive individuals with lower limb amputation at one South Australian hospital (RGH). There were two changes in service delivery: 1) a multidisciplinary interim prosthetic programme (IPP) introduced in 1998 and 2) removable rigid dressings (RRDs) introduced in 2000. Outcome measures were patient demographics, clinical characteristics and time to rehabilitation outcome markers. Mean age was 68 years (standard deviation [SD]: 15), with 69% male, 80% dysvascular and 68% transtibial. The overall median inpatient rehabilitation length of stay (RLOS) was 39 days (interquartile range [IQR]: 26-57). Individuals with amputation entering rehabilitation each year had a higher number of co-morbidities (β: 0.08; 95% confidence interval: 0.05-0.11). Introduction of the IPP was associated with a significant reduction in time to initial prosthetic casting, independent walking and inpatient RLOS. Introduction of RRDs was associated with a significant reduction in time to wound healing, initial prosthetic casting and independent walking. Individuals with amputation were typically elderly dysvascular men with transtibial amputations. Introduction of the IPP and RRDs successfully reduced time to rehabilitation

  6. The upper limb of Homo naledi.

    PubMed

    Feuerriegel, Elen M; Green, David J; Walker, Christopher S; Schmid, Peter; Hawks, John; Berger, Lee R; Churchill, Steven E

    2017-03-01

    The evolutionary transition from an ape-like to human-like upper extremity occurred in the context of a behavioral shift from an upper limb predominantly involved in locomotion to one adapted for manipulation. Selection for overarm throwing and endurance running is thought to have further shaped modern human shoulder girdle morphology and its position about the thorax. Homo naledi (Dinaledi Chamber, Rising Star Cave, Cradle of Humankind, South Africa) combines an australopith-like cranial capacity with dental characteristics akin to early Homo. Although the hand, foot, and lower limb display many derived morphologies, the upper limb retains many primitive traits. Here, we describe the H. naledi upper extremity (excluding the hand) in detail and in a comparative context to evaluate the diversity of clavicular, scapular, humeral, radial, and ulnar morphology among early hominins and later Homo. Homo naledi had a scapula with a markedly cranially-oriented glenoid, a humerus with extremely low torsion, and an australopith-like clavicle. These traits indicate that the H. naledi scapula was situated superiorly and laterally on the thorax. This shoulder girdle configuration is more similar to that of Australopithecus and distinct from that of modern humans, whose scapulae are positioned low and dorsally about the thorax. Although early Homo erectus maintains many primitive clavicular and humeral features, its derived scapular morphology suggests a loss of climbing adaptations. In contrast, the H. naledi upper limb is markedly primitive, retaining morphology conducive to climbing while lacking many of the derived features related to effective throwing or running purported to characterize other members of early Homo.

  7. Sound limb loading in individuals with unilateral transfemoral amputation across a range of walking velocities.

    PubMed

    Russell Esposito, Elizabeth; Aldridge Whitehead, Jennifer M; Wilken, Jason M

    2015-12-01

    Individuals with unilateral transfemoral amputation demonstrate significantly increased rates of osteoarthritis in their sound knee. This increased risk is likely the result of altered knee mechanical loading and gait compensations resulting from limited function in the prosthetic limb. Altered knee loading as calculated using loading rates and peak external knee adduction moments and impulses have been associated with both the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis in other populations. The purpose of this study was to determine if young individuals with transfemoral amputation demonstrate biomechanical indicators of increased knee osteoarthritis risk. Fourteen young male Service Members with unilateral transfemoral amputation and 14 able-bodied service members underwent biomechanical gait analysis at three standardized walking velocities. A two-way ANOVA (group × speed) with unpaired comparisons with Bonferroni-Holm post-hoc corrections assessed statistical significance and effect sizes (d) were calculated. Normalized peak external knee adduction moments and impulses were 25.7% (P < 0.014, d > 0.994) and 27.1% (P < 0.012, d > 1.019) lower, respectively, in individuals with trans-femoral amputation than controls when averaged across speeds, and effect sizes were large. External knee flexor moments were not, however, different between groups and effect sizes were generally small (P > 0.380, d < 0.338). Maximal loading rates were significantly greater in individuals with amputation and effect sizes were large (P < 0.001, d > 1.644). Individuals with transfemoral amputation did not demonstrate biomechanical risk factors for high medial compartment knee joint loads, but the increased loading rates could place the sound knee at greater risk for cartilage or other tissue damage, even if not localized to the medial compartment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. SPORTS INJURIES OF THE UPPER LIMBS

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Rogerio Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Sports injuries of the upper limbs are very common in physical activities and therefore, they need to be studied in detail, taking into consideration specific aspects of the types of sports practiced. Special attention should be paid to the dynamics of the shoulder girdle and the entire scapular belt, since the most appropriate treatment for athletes can only be provided in this manner. This can also help to prevent recurrences, which can occur in some cases because athletes always seek to return to their pre-injury level of sports activity. This article will focus primarily on the management of upper-limb tendon injuries, from the physiopathology through to the new methods of injury treatment that are more prevalent in sports practice in Brazil. PMID:27022529

  9. Rehabilitation protocol in upper limb lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Leduc, O; Leduc, A

    2002-01-01

    Edema of the upper limb is, frequently, very invalidating. The physical treatment for edema of the upper limb consists on a combination of different therapies: manual lymphatic drainage (MLD), intermittent sequential pressotherapy (IPP) with a very low intensity, multilayer bandages (MLB), and compression sleeves. Patients are not hospitalized. In the first step of physical treatment, the patients are treated daily during 2 or 3 weeks with different therapies (MLD, IPP and MLB). During the second step, bandages are no more used. The compression garments are applied after this 2 or 3 weeks period. The physical treatment consist now in: manual lynphatic drainage and intermittent sequential pressotherapy (with low intensity). The frequency of the physical treatment is progressively decreased.

  10. The upper limb of Australopithecus sediba.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Steven E; Holliday, Trenton W; Carlson, Kristian J; Jashashvili, Tea; Macias, Marisa E; Mathews, Sandra; Sparling, Tawnee L; Schmid, Peter; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Berger, Lee R

    2013-04-12

    The evolution of the human upper limb involved a change in function from its use for both locomotion and prehension (as in apes) to a predominantly prehensile and manipulative role. Well-preserved forelimb remains of 1.98-million-year-old Australopithecus sediba from Malapa, South Africa, contribute to our understanding of this evolutionary transition. Whereas other aspects of their postcranial anatomy evince mosaic combinations of primitive (australopith-like) and derived (Homo-like) features, the upper limbs (excluding the hand and wrist) of the Malapa hominins are predominantly primitive and suggest the retention of substantial climbing and suspensory ability. The use of the forelimb primarily for prehension and manipulation appears to arise later, likely with the emergence of Homo erectus.

  11. Mirror therapy in the rehabilitation of lower-limb amputation: are there any contraindications?

    PubMed

    Casale, Roberto; Damiani, Carlo; Rosati, Venessa

    2009-10-01

    Mirror box therapy and its development (immersive virtual reality) is used in pain therapy and in rehabilitation of people with amputation affected by phantom limb-related phenomena. It allows patients to view a reflection of their anatomical limb in the visual space occupied by their phantom limb. There are only limited reports of its possible side effects. We retrospectively reviewed the existence of side effects or adverse reactions in a group of 33 nonselected patients with phantom limb-related phenomena. Nineteen reported confusion and dizziness, 6 reported a not clearly specified sensation of irritation, and 4 refused to continue the treatment. Only 4 of the 33 patients did not have any complaints. Possible reasons for this large number of side effects could be the lack of selection of patients and the fact that the mirror box therapy was paralleled by a conventional rehabilitation approach targeted to the use of a prosthesis. Warnings on the need to select patients, with regard to their psychologic as well as clinical profile (including time from amputation and clinical setting), and possible conflicting mechanisms between mirror box therapy and conventional therapies are presented.

  12. The importance of aerodynamics for prosthetic limb design used by competitive cyclists with an amputation: An introduction.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Bryce

    2015-06-01

    This study introduces the importance of the aerodynamics to prosthetic limb design for athletes with either a lower-limb or upper-limb amputation. The study comprises two elements: 1) An initial experiment investigating the stability of outdoor velodrome-based field tests, and 2) An experiment evaluating the application of outdoor velodrome aerodynamic field tests to detect small-scale changes in aerodynamic drag respective of prosthetic limb componentry changes. An outdoor field-testing method is used to detect small and repeatable changes in the aerodynamic drag of an able-bodied cyclist. These changes were made at levels typical of alterations in prosthetic componentry. The field-based test method of assessment is used at a smaller level of resolution than previously reported. With a carefully applied protocol, the field test method proved to be statistically stable. The results of the field test experiments demonstrate a noticeable change in overall athlete performance. Aerodynamic refinement of artificial limbs is worthwhile for athletes looking to maximise their competitive performance. A field-testing method illustrates the importance of the aerodynamic optimisation of prosthetic limb components. The field-testing protocol undertaken in this study gives an accessible and affordable means of doing so by prosthetists and sports engineers. Using simple and accessible field-testing methods, this exploratory experiment demonstrates how small changes to riders' equipment, consummate of the scale of a small change in prosthetics componentry, can affect the performance of an athlete. Prosthetists should consider such opportunities for performance enhancement when possible. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  13. Proximal monomelic amyotrophy of the upper limb.

    PubMed

    Amir, D; Magora, A; Vatine, J J

    1987-07-01

    A 30-year-old patient of Central European origin, suffering from monomelic amyotrophy, is presented. The disease was characterized by proximal weakness of one upper limb, mainly of the shoulder girdle, accompanied by atrophy. The electrodiagnostic examination revealed signs of partial denervation in the presence of normal motor and sensory conduction. The disease, which is probably of the anterior horn cells, had a benign course and good prognosis, as evident from repeated examinations during a follow-up of eight years.

  14. Quality Measures That Address the Upper Limb.

    PubMed

    2016-11-01

    Physicians, health care systems, and payers use quality measures to judge performance and monitor the outcomes of interventions. Practicing upper-limb surgeons desire quality measures that are important to patients and feasible to use, and for which it is fair to hold them accountable. Nine academic upper-limb surgeons completed a RAND/University of California-Los Angeles Delphi Appropriateness process to evaluate the importance, feasibility, and accountability of 134 quality measures identified from systematic review. Panelists rated measures on an ordinal scale between 1 (definitely not valid) and 9 (definitely valid) in 2 rounds (preliminary round and final round) with an intervening face-to-face discussion. Ratings from 1 to 3 were considered not valid, 4 to 6 were equivocal or uncertain, and 7 to 9 were valid. If no more than 2 of the 9 ratings were outside the 3-point range that included the median (1-3, 4-6, or 7-9), panelists were considered to be in agreement. If 3 or more ratings of a measure were within the 1 to 3 range whereas 3 or more ratings were in the 7 to 9 range, panelists were considered to be in disagreement. There was agreement that 58 of the measures are important (43%), 74 are feasible (55%), and surgeons can be held accountable for 39 (29%). All 3 thresholds were met for 33 measures (25%). A total of 36 reached agreement for being unimportant (48%) and 57 were not suited for surgeon accountability (43%). A minority of upper-limb quality measures were rated as important for care, feasible to complete, and suitable for upper-limb surgeon accountability. Before health systems and payers implement quality measures, we recommend ensuring their importance and feasibility to safeguard against measures that may not improve care and might misappropriate attention and resources. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Importance of Technical Devices in the Self-care of Upper Limbs Amputees.

    PubMed

    Mészáros, Gabriella; Vén, Ildikó

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute of Medical Rehabilitation (NIMR) is engaged in the rehabilitation of posttraumatic patients, including also attending traumatic cases with amputated upper limbs. The lack of upper limbs is a great obstacle in essential functioning for the injured, and that is why we give high priority to planning, constructing and individually adopting appliances for aiding everyday life. Special literature gives distinguished attention to operative techniques and the possibilities of prosthetic devices, but no professional articles present any special devices needed for discharging everyday vital functions. The purpose of this lecture is to present the results of our follow-up examination aimed at upper limbs amputees reeducated since 1994 at the NIMR (9 patients). Case studies conclude that the prosthetic care plays a surprisingly small part in the self-sufficiency of the injured. Claims to individual appliances are already more considerable but these cannot be obtained in normal commerce because of unprofitable production in view of users so few in number.

  16. Predictive factors of functional ability after lower-limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Pohjolainen, T; Alaranta, H

    1991-01-01

    Functional ability and accommodation situation were studied by personal interview and examination of 125 surviving lower-limb amputees after one postoperative year. Among ten independent variables studied by multiple linear regression analysis, an unfavourable association was found between increasing age and the following aspects of physical function: walking distance (P less than 0.001), walking time (P less than 0.001), amount of outdoor walking outdoors (P less than 0.001), increased need for aids to ambulation (P less than 0.01), use of a prosthesis (P less than 0.05). Using a partial correlation coefficient analysis of functional ability and accommodation situation, with adjustment for age, the time lag between surgery and prosthetic fitting, and the occurrence of cerebrovascular disease displayed a similar unfavourable association with prosthetic usage. In the group of BK (below-knee) amputees the length of the stump had a significant favourable relationship with walking distance (P less than 0.01). In the male group of vascular BK amputees, smoking had an unfavourable association with walking distance (P less than 0.01), ability to walk outdoors (P less than 0.01) and walking time (P less than 0.05). None of the variables showed any significant relationship with the postoperative accommodation situation.

  17. The organization of upper limb physiological tremor.

    PubMed

    Carignan, Benoit; Daneault, Jean-François; Duval, Christian

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study are (1) to assess the relationship between tremor displacement of different segments of the upper limb, (2) to assess whether an attempt to voluntarily reduce tremor amplitude affects this relationship. Twenty-five young healthy participants were tested. Tremor of the finger, hand, arm and shoulder was assessed using laser displacement sensors while the upper limb was in a postural position. Results show strong correlations (r > 0.90), high coherence (>0.9) and in-phase movement between tremor displacement oscillations of different segments. The majority of finger tremor amplitude can be predicted by angular movement generated at the shoulder joint (r(2) > 0.86). Participants were able to voluntarily reduce tremor amplitude, but no change in the relationship between segments was observed. Tremor of all segments of the upper limb was mechanically driven by the angular movement generated at the shoulder joint. This study provides evidence that there is no compensatory organization of physiological tremor. This lays the groundwork to evaluate whether pathological tremors also lack this organization.

  18. Exercise programs to improve gait performance in people with lower limb amputation: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christopher Kevin; Ehrlich, Julie E; Ersing, Jennifer C; Maroldi, Nicholas J; Stevenson, Catharine E; Varca, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have explored the effects of exercise on gait performance in people with lower limb amputations. To (1) summarize the effects of exercise programs on gait performance and (2) assess the overall quality of the evidence for adults ambulating with leg prostheses. Systematic review. Six databases were searched for one- and two-group studies published through June 2013 reporting effects of exercise on gait speed, a universal measure of performance in lower limb prosthetic users. The search adhered to a predetermined protocol following Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. In all, 623 citations were reviewed and eight studies included. The quality level of the combined evidence was low with few randomized control trials and multiple sources of bias evident within the heterogeneous group of studies. The 11 exercise programs, including three control conditions, demonstrated small to large effect size improvements in self-selected gait speed. Use of exercise to improve gait speed was supported by low-quality level evidence, with low-moderate quality evidence to suggest that specific functional exercise programs were more effective than supervised walking. Using exercise to improve gait speed in people with lower limb amputation received a B grade recommendation. Future high-quality research is required. Supervised walking, muscle strengthening, balance exercises, gait training, and functional training programs demonstrated small to large effect size gait performance improvements in people with lower limb amputation. Self-selected gait speed was the most consistent outcome measure. Exercise programs emphasizing resisted gait and functional training were more effective than supervised walking. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  19. Salvage of amputated upper extremities with temporary ectopic implantation followed by replantation at a second stage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiang-Ning; Tong, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Tie-Hui; Wang, Shou-Yu; Zhang, Hong-Quan; Zhao, Gui-Qing; Zhang, Feng

    2006-01-01

    Salvage of the complex amputation of extremities, such as combined with devastating segmental injuries, extensive soft tissue defect, and multiple important organ injuries, continues to be a challenge for plastic surgeons. Temporary ectopic implantation of the amputated part to a healthy recipient site allows the patient to recover from critical combined injuries, radical debridements, and soft tissue repair. In this article, the authors report two cases of temporary ectopic implantation of complexly amputated forearms, followed by successful replantation to their anatomic positions at a second stage. The contralateral upper extremity is an acceptable recipient site for temporary ectopic implantation. In secondary replantation, a cross-arm flap can be designed to carry the vascular pedicle from the ectopic implantation recipient to improve blood supply to the replanted part when the second blood supply is established. The authors validated that temporary ectopic implantation of amputated parts provides an alternative procedure for the salvage of amputated extremities under special circumstances.

  20. Pre- and postischemic transcutaneous oxygen tension measurements and the determination of amputation level in ischemic limbs.

    PubMed

    Slagsvold, C E; Kvernebo, K; Slungaard, U; Kroese, A J

    1989-10-01

    The value of transcutaneous pO2 (TCpO2) measurements in determining amputation levels was studied in patients with atherosclerotic lower limb ischemia. A postischemic TCpO2 response did not predict healing of the amputation stump better than measurements at rest. No minimal resting or postischemic TCpO2 was found below which healing could not occur. However high TCpO2 values probably are indicative of a good healing potential. In patients with poor skin viability, assessed clinically, the method may be of value; in some cases TCpO2 values compatible with healing may be found. Attention should be paid to the TCpO2 sensor as its characteristics may influence the measurements in patients with critical ischemia causing underestimation of tissue pO2.

  1. Measuring Community Integration in Persons With Limb Trauma and Amputation: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda; Borgia, Matthew; Silver, Benjamin

    2017-03-01

    To conduct a systematic review of community integration measures used with populations with limb trauma, amputation, or both, and to evaluate each measure's focus, content, and psychometric properties. Searches of PubMed and CINAHL for the terms social participation, community integration, social function, outcome assessment, wounds and injuries, and amputation/rehabilitation. Included English-language articles with a sample size of ≥20 adults with limb trauma or amputation. Measures were deemed eligible if they contained a majority of items related to the construct of participation as defined by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Data on internal consistency; test-retest, interrater, and intrarater reliability; content, structural, construct, concurrent, and predictive validity; responsiveness; and floor/ceiling effects were extracted from each article and confirmed by a second investigator. A total of 156 articles containing 34 measures and 94 subscales were reviewed. Psychometric properties were rated, and an overall score was calculated for each measure. Content of the highest scoring measures was examined. Scant evidence was found regarding the psychometric properties of most measures. Eight scales from 5 instruments had the strongest measurement properties: the Trinity Amputation and Prosthesis Experience (TAPES) social restriction and adjustment to limitation scales; Community Reintegration of Injured Service Members (CRIS) extent of participation and perceived limitations scales; Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) role-physical and social functioning scales; the 136-item Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) psychosocial domain scale; and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS-II) 12-item total score. Eights scales from 5 instruments-the TAPES, CRIS, SF-36, the 136-item SIP, and the WHODAS-II 12-item measure-had the strongest measurement properties. Published by

  2. A prospective study examining balance confidence among individuals with lower limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Miller, W C; Deathe, A B

    In this study we assessed whether balance confidence scores changed over a 2-year follow up period, and identified predictors of balance confidence and predictors of change in balance confidence among lower limb amputees. A prospective follow-up survey of 245 community living adults with unilateral below and above knee lower limb amputation who used their prosthetic limb daily was conducted. Balance confidence, assessed using the 16-item Activity-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale, socio-demographic, health and amputation related variables were collected at baseline and 2 years later. ABC scores were similar at baseline (mean = 67.6; SD = 25.7) and follow up (mean = 68.0; SD = 25.8). Lower balance confidence scores at follow up were predicted by older age, being female, use of a mobility device, poor perceived health, increased symptoms of depression, having to concentrate while walking, and fear of falling (all p < 0.05). Predictors of change in balance confidence included gender and perceived health (all p < 0.05). Balance confidence appears to be a persistent problem in the amputee population. Health professionals are encouraged to consider balance confidence as a potentially important variable that may influence function in this clinically unique group of individuals. The identified predictor variables may be useful to clinicians in targeting individuals who require attention to improve balance confidence.

  3. Demographics of Lower Limb Amputations in the Pakistan Military: A Single Center, Three-Year Prospective Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ayaz, Saeed B; Mansoor, Sahibzada N; Qureshi, Ali R; Fahim, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction  The Pakistan military has been actively engaged in the war against terror for more than a decade. Many officers and soldiers have lost their limbs in this war. But the data on traumatic lower limb amputations in Pakistan is sparse. The aim of this study is to prospectively document the epidemiological profile of lower limb military amputees presenting at the largest rehabilitation centre of Pakistan over a three-year period. Materials & methods  A prospective three-year survey was conducted at the Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM), Pakistan. One hundred twenty-three consecutive patients with lower limb amputations were enrolled in the survey. The demographic data, etiology, associated injuries, complications profile, and type of prosthesis provided were documented. The data analysis was done using the statistical analysis tool SPSS V 20 (IBM®,NY, USA).  Results  All patients were male. Most had traumatic amputation (119), were between 20–40 years (106), with unilateral amputation (115). Mine blast injury was the leading cause in 73 (59.3%) and most (58.5%) were fitted with modular prosthesis. Transtibial amputation was the commonest level (65), followed by transfemoral (30). The time of surgical amputation was not documented in 87% of the patients. Half of the patients (54%) had associated injuries. Seventy-nine patients had at least one complication with phantom pain being the commonest in 25% cases. Conclusions  This is the largest prospective demographic survey of lower limb amputees in Pakistan military to date. Scores of soldiers and civilians in Pakistan have suffered lower limb amputation. The availability of demographic data can improve the trauma and rehabilitation services for better understanding and management of such cases. There is a need to conduct large scale community-based epidemiological surveys to direct future policies and develop amputee rehabilitation services in the public sector. PMID:27186448

  4. Cost-Utility Analysis of Reconstruction Compared With Primary Amputation for Patients With Severe Lower Limb Trauma in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Mateo; Valderrama, Carlos O; Orozco, Luis E; Sánchez, Laura; Valderrama, Juan P; Lugo, Luz H

    2017-09-01

    To establish, from the health system perspective, the cost-utility relationship of limb reconstruction compared with primary amputation for patients older than 32 years with grade IIIB and IIIC severe lower limb trauma in Colombia, S.A. A Markov model was built including different short-term and long-term states that represent the main events that a patient could experience after a lower limb amputation or a reconstruction. A 42-year time horizon was considered for the base case. Transition probabilities were obtained from a systematic review of the clinical literature. The health outcome selected was the quality-adjusted life years. Costs were determined by expert consensus using the standard case methodology, and valuation of resources was conducted with national-level pricing manuals. Deterministic sensitivity, scenarios, and probabilistic analyses were conducted. In the base case, the reconstruction of the limb compared with primary amputation was a dominant strategy; that is, reconstruction provides more quality-adjusted life years at a lower cost. This result changed only when the time horizon was less than 6 years or when the probability of a secondary amputation was >65%. Limb reconstruction is a dominant strategy compared with primary amputation, which is a conclusion that holds in most scenarios this study examined. Therefore, it should be considered in patients who, according to the clinical criteria and the severity and characteristics of their trauma, can benefit from this technique. Economic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  5. Experimental Study and Characterization of SEMG Signals for Upper Limbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veer, Karan

    2015-04-01

    Surface electromyogram (SEMG) is used to measure the activity of superficial muscles and is an essential tool to carry out biomechanical assessments required for prosthetic design. Many previous attempts suggest that, electromyogram (EMG) signals have random nature. Here, dual channel evaluation of EMG signals acquired from the amputed subjects using computational techniques for classification of arm motion are presented. After recording data from four predefined upper arm motions, interpretation of signal was done for six statistical features. The signals are classified by the neural network (NN) and then interpretation was done using statistical technique to extract the effectiveness of recorded signals. The network performances are analyzed by considering the number of input features, hidden layer, learning algorithm and mean square error. From the results, it is observed that there exists calculative difference in amplitude gain across different motions and have great potential to classify arm motions. The outcome indicates that NN algorithm performs significantly better than other algorithms with classification accuracy (CA) of 96.40%. Analysis of variance technique presents the results to validate the effectiveness of recorded data to discriminate SEMG signals. Results are of significant thrust in identifying the operations that can be implemented for classifying upper limb movements suitable for prostheses design.

  6. [Indications for replantation of lower limbs after their traumatic amputation at the shin level].

    PubMed

    Milanov, N O; Gusami, G M

    1994-09-01

    From analysis of the results of replantation of 37 lower limbs at the level of the leg, which were amputated as the result of injury in 33 patients, the authors determine the tactical approach to the choice of indications for replantation. The authors believe that replantation at the level of the leg is always indicated in children if it is executable technically and the patient's somatic status presents no general contraindications. In other cases the formation of a stump and subsequent prosthetics should be considered more advisable.

  7. Compressive neuropathy in the upper limb

    PubMed Central

    Thatte, Mukund R.; Mansukhani, Khushnuma A.

    2011-01-01

    Entrampment neuropathy or compression neuropathy is a fairly common problem in the upper limb. Carpal tunnel syndrome is the commonest, followed by Cubital tunnel compression or Ulnar Neuropathy at Elbow. There are rarer entities like supinator syndrome and pronator syndrome affecting the Radial and Median nerves respectively. This article seeks to review comprehensively the pathophysiology, Anatomy and treatment of these conditions in a way that is intended for the practicing Hand Surgeon as well as postgraduates in training. It is generally a rewarding exercise to treat these conditions because they generally do well after corrective surgery. Diagnostic guidelines, treatment protocols and surgical technique has been discussed. PMID:22022039

  8. Does amputation offer any survival benefit over limb salvage in osteosarcoma patients with poor chemonecrosis and close margins?

    PubMed

    Reddy, K I A; Wafa, H; Gaston, C L; Grimer, R J; Abudu, A T; Jeys, L M; Carter, S R; Tillman, R M

    2015-01-01

    A poor response to chemotherapy (≤ 90% necrosis) for osteosarcomas leads to poorer survival and an increased risk of local recurrence, particularly if there is a close margin of excision. We evaluated whether amputation confers any survival benefit over limb salvage surgery (LSS) with narrow margins in patients who respond poorly to chemotherapy. We only analysed patients with an osteosarcoma of the limb, a poor response to chemotherapy and close margins on LSS (marginal/intralesional) or primary amputation: 360 patients (36 LSS (intralesional margins), 197 LSS (marginal margins) and 127 amputations) were included. Local recurrence developed in 13 (36%) following LSS with intralesional margins, and 39 (20%) following LSS with marginal margins. There was no local recurrence in patients who underwent amputation. The five-year survival for all patients was 41% (95% confidence interval (CI) 35 to 46), but for those treated by LSS with marginal margins was 46.2% (95% CI 38 to 53), 36.3% (95% CI 27 to 45) for those treated by amputation, and 28% (95 CI 14 to 44) for those treated by LSS with intralesional margins. Patients who had LSS and then developed local recurrence as a first event had the same survival as those who had primary amputation without local recurrence. Prophylactic adjuvant radiotherapy was used in 40 patients but had no discernible effect in preventing local recurrence. Although amputation offered better local control, it conferred no clear survival benefit over LSS with marginal margins in these patients with a poor overall prognosis.

  9. Cardiovascular risk factors among males with war-related bilateral lower limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Shahriar, S H; Masumi, M; Edjtehadi, F; Soroush, M R; Soveid, M; Mousavi, B

    2009-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the cardiovascular risk factors among 327 Iranian males with bilateral lower limb amputation.The average age at the time of amputation and at the time of the study was 20.6 (SD = 5.4) and 42 years (SD = 6.3), respectively. Below both knees was the most common level of amputation (37.6%). About 95.4% had at least one modifiable risk factor. Prevalence of risk factors included: hyperglycemia 13.1%, systolic hypertension 18.9%, diastolic hypertension 25.6%, abdominal obesity 82.5%, high total cholesterol 36.7%, low HDL 25.9%, high LDL 24.7%, high triglycerides 32.1%, and smoking 31.8%. The most common risk factor was abdominal obesity. Prevalence of coronary artery disease was similar to the general Iranian population but prevalence of risk factors was higher significantly. The majority of the cases seem to be susceptible to cardiovascular disease in near future. Some strategies are needed as a primary prevention to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  10. Pain and pain-related interference in adults with lower-limb amputation: comparison of knee-disarticulation, transtibial, and transfemoral surgical sites.

    PubMed

    Behr, James; Friedly, Janna; Molton, Ivan; Morgenroth, David; Jensen, Mark P; Smith, Douglas G

    2009-01-01

    Pain and pain-related interference with physical function have not been thoroughly studied in individuals who have undergone knee-disarticulation amputations. The principal aim of this study was to determine whether individuals with knee-disarticulation amputations have worse pain and pain-related interference with physical function than do individuals with transtibial or transfemoral amputations. We analyzed cross-sectional survey data provided by 42 adults with lower-limb amputations. These individuals consisted of 14 adults reporting knee-disarticulation amputation in one limb and best-matched cases (14 reporting transfemoral amputation and 14 reporting transtibial amputation) from a larger cross-sectional sample of 472 individuals. Participants were rigorously matched based on time since amputation, reason for amputation, age, sex, diabetes diagnosis, and pain before amputation. Continuous outcome variables were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. Categorical outcomes were analyzed by Pearson chi-square statistic. Given the relatively small sample size and power concerns, mean differences were also described by estimated effect size (Cohen's d). Of the 42 participants, 83% were male. They ranged in age from 36 to 85 (median = 55.1, standard deviation = 11.0). Most amputations were of traumatic origin (74%), and participants were on average 12.4 years from their amputations at the time of the survey. Individuals with transtibial amputation reported significantly more prosthesis use than did individuals with knee-disarticulation amputation. Amputation levels did not significantly differ in phantom limb pain, residual limb pain, back pain, and pain-related interference with physical function. Estimates of effect size, however, indicated that participants with knee-disarticulation amputation reported less phantom limb pain, phantom limb pain-related interference with physical function, residual limb pain, residual limb pain-related interference with physical

  11. Pain and pain-related interference in adults with lower-limb amputation: Comparison of knee-disarticulation, transtibial, and transfemoral surgical sites

    PubMed Central

    Behr, James; Friedly, Janna; Molton, Ivan; Morgenroth, David; Jensen, Mark P.; Smith, Douglas G.

    2011-01-01

    Pain and pain-related interference with physical function have not been thoroughly studied in individuals who have undergone knee-disarticulation amputations. The principal aim of this study was to determine whether individuals with knee-disarticulation amputations have worse pain and pain-related interference with physical function than do individuals with transtibial or transfemoral amputations. We analyzed cross-sectional survey data provided by 42 adults with lower-limb amputations. These individuals consisted of 14 adults reporting knee-disarticulation amputation in one limb and best-matched cases (14 reporting transfemoral amputation and 14 reporting transtibial amputation) from a larger cross-sectional sample of 472 individuals. Participants were rigorously matched based on time since amputation, reason for amputation, age, sex, diabetes diagnosis, and pain before amputation. Continuous outcome variables were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. Categorical outcomes were analyzed by Pearson chi-square statistic. Given the relatively small sample size and power concerns, mean differences were also described by estimated effect size (Cohen’s d). Of the 42 participants, 83% were male. They ranged in age from 36 to 85 (median = 55.1, standard deviation = 11.0). Most amputations were of traumatic origin (74%), and participants were on average 12.4 years from their amputations at the time of the survey. Individuals with transtibial amputation reported significantly more prosthesis use than did individuals with knee-disarticulation amputation. Amputation levels did not significantly differ in phantom limb pain, residual limb pain, back pain, and pain-related interference with physical function. Estimates of effect size, however, indicated that participants with knee-disarticulation amputation reported less phantom limb pain, phantom limb pain-related interference with physical function, residual limb pain, residual limb pain-related interference with

  12. Limb lengthening in fibular hemimelia type II: can it be an alternative to amputation?

    PubMed

    Zarzycki, Daniel; Jasiewicz, Barbara; Kacki, Wojciech; Koniarski, Arkadiusz; Kasprzyk, Marcin; Zarzycka, Maja; Tesiorowski, Maciej

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of our study was to analyze limb lengthening in fibular hemimelia type II. Ten patients underwent 16 tibia lengthenings. The mean tibia shortening was 5.8 cm. We used the Ilizarov technique in all cases. The mean follow-up time was 7.2 years. The mean lengthening was 23% of the former length. The healing index was 50.8 days/cm. In the final examination six patients were skeletally mature, equal limb length and functional foot positioning were achieved in four of them. Complications were observed during 14 lengthenings (87.5%). Although lengthening in fibular hemimelia is difficult, elongation with axis and foot correction may offer an alternative to amputation.

  13. Medium-term outcomes following limb salvage for severe open tibia fracture are similar to trans-tibial amputation.

    PubMed

    Penn-Barwell, J G; Myatt, R W; Bennett, P M; Sargeant, I D

    2015-02-01

    Extremity injuries define the surgical burden of recent conflicts. Current literature is inconclusive when assessing the merits of limb salvage over amputation. The aim of this study was to determine medium term functional outcomes in military casualties undergoing limb salvage for severe open tibia fractures, and compare them to equivalent outcomes for unilateral trans-tibial amputees. Cases of severe open diaphyseal tibia fractures sustained in combat between 2006 and 2010, as described in a previously published series, were contacted. Consenting individuals conducted a brief telephone interview and were asked to complete a SF-36 questionnaire. These results were compared to a similar cohort of 18 military patients who sustained a unilateral trans-tibial amputation between 2004 and 2010. Forty-nine patients with 57 severe open tibia fractures met the inclusion criteria. Telephone follow-up and SF-36 questionnaire data was available for 30 patients (61%). The median follow-up was 4 years (49 months, IQR 39-63). Ten of the 30 patients required revision surgery, three of which involved conversion from initial fixation to a circular frame for non- or mal-union. Twenty-two of the 30 patients (73%) recovered sufficiently to complete an age-standardised basic military fitness test. The median physical component score of SF-36 in the limb salvage group was 46 (IQR 35-54) which was similar to the trans-tibial amputation cohort (p=0.3057, Mann-Whitney). Similarly there was no difference in mental component scores between the limb salvage and amputation groups (p=0.1595, Mann-Whitney). There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients in either the amputation or limb salvage group reporting pain (p=0.1157, Fisher's exact test) or with respect to SF-36 physical pain scores (p=0.5258, Mann-Whitney). This study demonstrates that medium term outcomes for military patients are similar following trans-tibial amputation or limb salvage following combat trauma.

  14. Consumer design priorities for upper limb prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Biddiss, Elaine; Beaton, Dorcas; Chau, Tom

    2007-11-01

    To measure consumer satisfaction with upper limb prosthetics and provide an enumerated list of design priorities for future developments. A self-administered, anonymous survey collected information on participant demographics, history of and goals for prosthesis use, satisfaction, and design priorities. The questionnaire was available online and in paper format and was distributed through healthcare providers, community support groups, and one prosthesis manufacturer; 242 participants of all ages and levels of upper limb absence completed the survey. Rates of rejection for myoelectric hands, passive hands, and body-powered hooks were 39%, 53%, and 50%, respectively. Prosthesis wearers were generally satisfied with their devices while prosthesis rejecters were dissatisfied. Reduced prosthesis weight emerged as the highest priority design concern of consumers. Lower cost ranked within the top five design priorities for adult wearers of all device types. Life-like appearance is a priority for passive/cosmetic prostheses, while improved harness comfort, wrist movement, grip control and strength are required for body-powered devices. Glove durability, lack of sensory feedback, and poor dexterity were also identified as design priorities for electric devices. Design priorities reflect consumer goals for prosthesis use and vary depending on the type of prosthesis used and age. Future design efforts should focus on the development of more light-weight, comfortable prostheses.

  15. Cross-sectional study of alteration of phantom limb pain with visceral stimulation in military personnel with amputation.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Michael; Bennett Britton, Thomas M; Drew, Benjamin T; Phillip, Rhodri D

    2015-01-01

    While phantom limb pain is a well-recognized phenomenon, clinical experience has suggested that the augmentation of phantom limb pain with visceral stimulation is an issue for many military personnel with amputation (visceral stimulation being the sensation of the bowel or bladder either filling or evacuating). However, the prevalence of this phenomenon is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the alteration in phantom limb pain and the effect that visceral stimulation has on phantom limb pain intensity. A cross-sectional study of 75 military personnel who have lost one or both lower limbs completed a questionnaire to assess the prevalence of the alteration of phantom limb pain with visceral stimulation. Included in the questionnaire was a pain visual analog scale (VAS) graded from 0 to 10. Patients recorded the presence and intensity of phantom limb pain. They also recorded whether and how this pain altered with a need to micturate or micturition, and/or a need to defecate or defecation, again using a pain VAS. Time since amputation, level of amputation, and medications were also recorded. Patients reported a phantom limb pain prevalence of 85% with a mean VAS of 3.6. In all, 56% of patients reported a change in the severity of phantom limb pain with visceral stimuli. The mean increase in VAS for visceral stimulation was 2.5 +/- 1.6 for bladder stimulation and 2.9 +/- 2.0 for bowel stimulation. Of the patients questioned, 65% reported an improvement in symptoms over time. VAS scores were highest in the subgroup less than 6 mo postamputation. An increase in phantom limb pain with visceral stimulation is a common problem for military personnel with amputation.

  16. Altered microstructure rather than morphology in the corpus callosum after lower limb amputation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhichao; Li, Chuanming; Fan, Lingzhong; Jiang, Guangyao; Wu, Jixiang; Jiang, Tianzi; Yin, Xuntao; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The corpus callosum (CC) has been implicated in the reorganization of the brain following amputation. However, it is unclear which regions of the CC are involved in this process. In this study, we explored the morphometric and microstructural changes in CC subregions in patients with unilateral lower limb amputation. Thirty-eight patients and 38 age- and gender-matched normal controls were included. The CC was divided into five regions, and the area, thickness and diffusion parameters of each region were investigated. While morphometric analysis showed no significant differences between the two groups, amputees showed significant higher values in axial diffusivity, radial diffusivity and mean diffusivity in region II of the CC, which connects the bilateral premotor and supplementary motor areas. In contrast, the mean fractional anisotropy value of the fibers generated by these cortical areas, as measured by tractography, was significantly smaller in amputees. These results demonstrate that the interhemispheric pathways contributing to motor coordination and imagery are reorganized in lower limb amputees. PMID:28303959

  17. Ambulation of people with lower-limb amputations: relationship between capacity and performance measures.

    PubMed

    Parker, Kim; Kirby, R Lee; Adderson, James; Thompson, Kara

    2010-04-01

    To examine the relationship between measures of ambulation capacity obtained in a clinical setting and measures of ambulation performance in the community, and to explore what demographic and clinical variables influence ambulation performance in people with lower-limb amputations. A cross-sectional, correlational and descriptive study. Rehabilitation center and participants' homes and community environments. Community-dwelling people (N=52) with lower-limb amputations at the unilateral transfemoral (n=16), unilateral transtibial (n=30), and bilateral transtibial (n=6) levels. All had been fit with prostheses for over 1 year. Not applicable. Measures of ambulation capacity were the Locomotor Capabilities Index version 5, the 2-Minute Walk Test (2MWT), and the Timed Up and Go Test. Measures of ambulation performance included a commercially available step activity monitor (SAM; steps per day, minutes active per day, peak activity index) and self-reported performance with the Activity Restriction subscales of the Trinity Amputation and Prosthesis Experience Scales (TAPES). Most relationships among capacity and performance measures were in the moderate to high range (Spearman correlation coefficients, rho=.41-.78, P<.05). The highest correlation coefficient was between the 2MWT and SAM peak activity index (rho=.78, P=.000). A multivariate analysis found the 2MWT was significantly related to increased performance as measured by SAM mean steps per day (P=.026) and TAPES (P=.016). Depressive symptoms were also a significant predictor (P=.003) of decreased performance (TAPES). The 2MWT, a measure of ambulation capacity, correlates well with most SAM measures of ambulation performance. Exploratory regression analysis indicated that the 2MWT is related to ambulation performance, while depression is only related to self-reported performance. Copyright 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Lower limb salvage with a free fillet fibula flap harvested from the contralateral amputated leg].

    PubMed

    Bouyer, M; Corcella, D; Forli, A; Mesquida, V; Semere, A; Moutet, F

    2015-06-01

    We report a unusual case of "fillet flap" to reconstruct the lower limb with the amputated contralateral leg. This kind of procedure was first described by Foucher et al. in 1980 for traumatic hand surgery as the "bank finger". A 34-year-old man suffered a microlight accident with bilateral open legs fractures. A large skin defect of the left leg exposed the ankle, the calcaneus and a non-vascularized part of the tibial nerve (10 cm). The patient came to the OR for surgical debridement and had massive bone resection of the left calcaneus. The right leg showed limited skin defect at the lower part, exposing the medial side of the ankle and a tibial bone defect, measuring 10 cm. Salvage the left leg was impossible due to complex nerve, bones and skin associated injuries, so this leg was sacrificed and used as a donor limb, to harvest a free fibula flap for contralateral tibial reconstruction. At 18 months of follow-up, the patient was very satisfied, the clinical result was very good on both lower limbs and X-rays showed excellent integration of the free fibula flap. The patient had normal dailies occupations, can run and have bicycle sport practice with a functional left leg fit prosthesis. This case showed an original application of the "fillet flap concept" to resolve complex and rare traumatic situations interesting the both lower limbs. In our opinion, this strategy must be a part of the plastic surgeon skills in uncommon situations.

  19. Outcomes with respect to disabilities of the upper limb after hand allograft transplantation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Landin, Luis; Bonastre, Jorge; Casado-Sanchez, Cesar; Diez, Jesus; Ninkovic, Marina; Lanzetta, Marco; del Bene, Massimo; Schneeberger, Stefan; Hautz, Theresa; Lovic, Aleksandar; Leyva, Francisco; García-de-Lorenzo, Abelardo; Casado-Perez, Cesar

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this work is to compare disabilities of the upper limb before and after hand allograft transplantation (HAT), and to describe the side effects of immunosuppressive (IS) agents given to recipients of hand allografts. Clinical cases of HAT published between 1999 and 2011 in English, French, or German were reviewed systematically, with emphasis on comparing disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) scores before and after transplantation. Duration of ischemia, extent of amputation, and time since amputation were evaluated for their effect on intrinsic musculature function. Infectious, metabolic, and oncological complications because of IS therapy were recorded. Twenty-eight patients were reported in 56 clinical manuscripts. Among these patients, disabilities of the upper limb dropped by a mean of 27.6 (±19.04) points on the DASH score after HAT (P = 0.005). Lower DASH scores (P = 0.036) were recorded after secondary surgery on hand allografts. The presence of intrinsic muscle function was observed in 57% of the recipients. Duration of ischemia, extent of transplantation, and time since amputation were not associated statistically with the return of intrinsic musculature function. Three grafts were lost to follow-up because of noncompliance with immunosuppression, rejection, and arterial thrombosis, respectively. Fifty-two complications caused by IS agents were reported, and they were successfully managed medically or surgically. HAT recipients showed notable functional gains, but most complications resulted from the IS protocols.

  20. Immunolocalization of 5BrdU long retaining labeled cells and macrophage infiltration in the scarring limb of lizard after limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, L

    2016-06-01

    After limb amputation in lizards no regeneration occurs following massive inflammatory reaction. Light immunocytochemistry for CD68 and ultrastructural observations show that numerous macrophages persist for over 18days post-amputation in the limb and fibroblasts producing high levels of collagen are present underneath a differentiating wound epidermis. Injections of 5BrdU for 1 week in normal lizards followed by a 4 weeks chase period indicate that most Long Retention Cells are present in the dense connectives of the dermis and inter-muscle septa, sparse cells in bone marrow and epidermis and scattered cells in muscle satellite cells. Most of the fibrocytes forming the scarring outgrowth of the amputated limb likely derive from the proliferation of dermal and inter-muscle fibrocytes after amputation. Differently from the tail where autotomous planes limit the extension of the damage, in the limb the injury produces massive tissue damage that favors intense and lasting inflammation. Numerous CD68 labeled macrophages likely stimulate fibroblast activation and rapid production of collagen fibrils underneath the wound epidermis. The latter does not form a growing apical region but rapidly differentiates into a mature epidermis so that no distal elongation of the limb occurs and a scar is instead formed.

  1. Residual limb skin temperature and thermal comfort in people with amputation during activity in a cold environment.

    PubMed

    Segal, Ava D; Klute, Glenn K

    2016-01-01

    Thermal comfort remains a common problem for people with lower-limb amputation. Both donning a prosthesis and engaging in activity at room temperature can increase residual limb skin temperature; however, the effects of activity on skin temperature and comfort in more extreme environments remain unknown. We examined residual limb skin temperatures and perceived thermal comfort (PTC; 11-point Likert scale) of participants with unilateral transtibial amputation (n = 8) who were snowshoeing in a cold environment. Residual limb skin temperature increased by 3.9°C [3.0°C to 4.7°C] (mean difference [95% confidence interval (CI)], p < 0.001) after two 30 min exercise sessions separated by a 5 min rest session. Minimal cooling (-0.2°C [-1.1°C to 0.6°C]) occurred during the rest period. Similar changes in PTC were found for the residual limb, intact limb, and whole body, with a mean scale increase of 1.6 [1.1 to 2.1] and 1.3 [0.8 to 1.8] for the first and second exercise sessions, respectively (p < 0.001). Activity in a cold environment caused similar increases in residual limb skin temperature as those found in studies conducted at room temperature. Participants with amputation perceived warming as their skin temperature increased during exercise followed by the perception of cooling during rest, despite minimal associated decreases in skin temperature.

  2. A pilot study examining measures of balance and mobility in children with unilateral lower-limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Feick, Emma; Hamilton, Peggy-Rae; Luis, Marlene; Corbin, Melissa; Salback, Nancy M; Torres-Moreno, Ricardo; Andrysek, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with unilateral lower-limb amputation (LLA) have altered structure and physiology of their lower limbs which impairs their balance, mobility, physical function and participation in physical activities. As part of (re)habilitation, focus is given to improving gait and balance in order to enhance overall mobility, function, self-efficacy, and independence. However, the relationships amongst body impairments and physical activity limitations remain unclear, particularly in the pediatric population. To provide an examination of the relationships among balance and mobility measures in children with unilateral lower-limb amputation and able-bodied children. Cross-sectional prospective comparative pilot study. Spatiotemporal gait parameters and standing postural control were evaluated in children with lower-limb amputation (n = 10) and age-matched able-bodied children (n = 10) in a laboratory-based setting. Clinical tests for mobility and balance consisted of the 10-m walk test, the 6-min walk test, and the Community Balance and Mobility scale. Energy expenditure was estimated during the 6-min walk test using the Physiological Cost Index. Analysis included comparing variables between able-bodied and lower-limb amputation groups, as well as examining the correlations among them. Walking speed, distance, and functional balance (p < 0.05) were significantly diminished in children with lower-limb amputation compared to able-bodied children. For children with lower-limb amputation, reduced energy expenditure was associated with narrower step width and more symmetrical gait; better postural control and balance were associated with faster walking speeds (p < 0.05). A greater clinical understanding of gait and balance deficits in this population may help to improve rehabilitation outcomes and overall functional mobility. Improved understanding of deficits in children with lower-limb amputation (LLA) may lead to more targeted interventions and

  3. Outcomes of Critical Limb Ischemia in an Urban, Safety Net Hospital Population with High WIfI Amputation Scores

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Robert; Dunn, Joie; Clavijo, Leonardo; Shavelle, David; Rowe, Vincent; Woo, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients presenting to a public hospital with critical limb ischemia (CLI) typically have advanced disease with significant comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of revascularization on 1-year amputation rate of CLI patients presenting to Los Angeles County USC Medical Center, classified according to the Society for Vascular Surgery Wound, Ischemia and foot Infection (WIfI). Methods A retrospective review of patients who presented to a public hospital with CLI from February 2010 to July 2014 was performed. Patients were classified according to the WIfI system. Only patients with complete data who survived at least 12 months after presentation were included. Results Ninety-three patients with 98 affected limbs were included. The mean age was 62.8 years. Eighty-two patients (84%) had hypertension and 71 (72%) had diabetes. Fifty (57.5%) limbs had Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) C or D femoral–popliteal lesions and 82 (98%) had significant infrapopliteal disease. The majority had moderate or high WIfI amputation and revascularization scores. Eighty-four (86%) limbs underwent open, endovascular, or hybrid revascularization. Overall, one year major amputation (OYMA) rate was 26.5%. In limbs with high WIfI amputation score, the OYMA was 34.5%: 21.4% in those who were revascularized and 57% in those who were not. On univariable analysis, factors associated with increased risk of OYMA were nonrevascularization (P = 0.005), hyperlipidemia (P = 0.06), hemodialysis (P = 0.005), gangrene (P = 0.02), ulcer classification (P = 0.05), WIfI amputation score (P = 0.026), and WIfI wound grade (P = 0.04). On multivariable analysis, increasing WIfI amputation score (odds ratio [OR] 1.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0–3.39) was associated with increased risk of OYMA while revascularization (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.07–0.80) was associated with decreased risk of OYMA. Conclusions The OYMA rates in this population were consistent

  4. Outcomes of Critical Limb Ischemia in an Urban, Safety Net Hospital Population with High WIfI Amputation Scores.

    PubMed

    Ward, Robert; Dunn, Joie; Clavijo, Leonardo; Shavelle, David; Rowe, Vincent; Woo, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Patients presenting to a public hospital with critical limb ischemia (CLI) typically have advanced disease with significant comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of revascularization on 1-year amputation rate of CLI patients presenting to Los Angeles County USC Medical Center, classified according to the Society for Vascular Surgery Wound, Ischemia and foot Infection (WIfI). A retrospective review of patients who presented to a public hospital with CLI from February 2010 to July 2014 was performed. Patients were classified according to the WIfI system. Only patients with complete data who survived at least 12 months after presentation were included. Ninety-three patients with 98 affected limbs were included. The mean age was 62.8 years. Eighty-two patients (84%) had hypertension and 71 (72%) had diabetes. Fifty (57.5%) limbs had Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) C or D femoral-popliteal lesions and 82 (98%) had significant infrapopliteal disease. The majority had moderate or high WIfI amputation and revascularization scores. Eighty-four (86%) limbs underwent open, endovascular, or hybrid revascularization. Overall, one year major amputation (OYMA) rate was 26.5%. In limbs with high WIfI amputation score, the OYMA was 34.5%: 21.4% in those who were revascularized and 57% in those who were not. On univariable analysis, factors associated with increased risk of OYMA were nonrevascularization (P = 0.005), hyperlipidemia (P = 0.06), hemodialysis (P = 0.005), gangrene (P = 0.02), ulcer classification (P = 0.05), WIfI amputation score (P = 0.026), and WIfI wound grade (P = 0.04). On multivariable analysis, increasing WIfI amputation score (odds ratio [OR] 1.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-3.39) was associated with increased risk of OYMA while revascularization (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.07-0.80) was associated with decreased risk of OYMA. The OYMA rates in this population were consistent with those predicted by the

  5. Increased slow transport in axons of regenerating newt limbs after a nerve conditioning lesion made prior to amputation

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, C.E.

    1989-01-01

    The first part of this study shows that axonal density is constant in the limb stump of the next proximal to the area of traumatic nerve degeneration caused by limb amputation. The results of the second part of this work reveal that a nerve conditioning lesion made two weeks prior to amputation is associated with accelerated limb regeneration and that this accelerated limb regeneration is accompanied by an earlier arrival of axons. This is the first demonstration of naturally occurring limb regeneration being enhanced. In this study SCb cytoskeletal proteins were identified and measured using SDS-PAGE and liquid scintillation counting. Proteins were measured at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after {sup 35}S-methionine injection and the normal rate of SCb transport determined to be 0.19 mm/day. A single axotomy does not enhance the rate of SCb transport but does increase the amount of labeled SCb proteins that are transported. When a conditioning lesion is employed prior to limb amputation and SCb proteins are measured at 7, 14, and 21 days after injection, there is a twofold acceleration in the rate of SCb transport and an increase in the amount of SCb proteins transported in conditioned axons.

  6. How Depressive Levels Are Related to the Adults' Experiences of Lower-Limb Amputation: A Mixed Methods Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senra, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    The current pilot study aims to explore whether different adults' experiences of lower-limb amputation could be associated with different levels of depression. To achieve these study objectives, a convergent parallel mixed methods design was used in a convenience sample of 42 adult amputees (mean age of 61 years; SD = 13.5). All of them had…

  7. Four limb amputations due to peripheral gangrene from inotrope use – Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Chuan Han; Koo, Oon Thien; Howe, Tet Sen

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We present a rare case of 4 limb amputations due to peripheral gangrene which resulted from the use of inotropes for septic shock. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 72-year-old woman with no past medical history presented with fever and pain in bilateral big toes. She was diagnosed with Streptococcal pneumoniae septicaemia and was started on broad spectrum antibiotics, dopamine and noradrenaline in the medical intensive care unit. She developed peripheral gangrene of all 4 extremities due to microvascular spasm from inotrope use and 4 limb amputations were performed electively in a single stage. DISCUSSION The gangrene was contributed by the presence of disseminated intravascular coagulation and septic shock. There was no evidence of an autoimmune disorder or vasculitis on laboratory investigations and tissue histology. CONCLUSION Microvascular spasm is a rare complication of inotrope use which may lead to extensive peripheral gangrene. Anecdotal reports of reversal agents have been discussed. Four limb amputations are a reasonable option especially if done in an elective setting after the gangrene has demarcated itself. Rehabilitation with prosthesis after 4 limb amputations can result in good functional outcome. PMID:26232740

  8. Barriers and facilitators of participation in sports: a qualitative study on Dutch individuals with lower limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Bragaru, Mihai; van Wilgen, C P; Geertzen, Jan H B; Ruijs, Suzette G J B; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Dekker, Rienk

    2013-01-01

    Although individuals with lower limb amputation may benefit from participation in sports, less than 40% do so. To identify the barriers and facilitators that influence participation in sports for individuals with lower limb amputation. Qualitative study. Twenty six individuals with lower limb amputation, all originating from the Dutch provinces of Groningen and Drenthe, of which 13 athletes. Semi-structured interviews were used to gather information. Following thematic analysis, emerging themes were organized in three categories Technical, Social and Personal. Sport was perceived as enjoyable activity that would help participants to become and stay healthy, improve the number of social contacts, reduce phantom pain and decrease daily tension. Inadequate facilities, problematic transportation, trivialization from others, poor health and lack of motivation or the lack of a sports partner were barriers commonly mentioned by non-athletes. Remarkably, while all athletes were successful prosthetic users, the majority chose to participate in sports for which prosthesis was neither required nor needed. Each individual with lower limb amputation needs to be counselled according to the barriers and facilitators he/she personally experiences. Athletes appeared to be more proactive in searching for a solution and also appeared less discouraged by failing.

  9. How Depressive Levels Are Related to the Adults' Experiences of Lower-Limb Amputation: A Mixed Methods Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senra, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    The current pilot study aims to explore whether different adults' experiences of lower-limb amputation could be associated with different levels of depression. To achieve these study objectives, a convergent parallel mixed methods design was used in a convenience sample of 42 adult amputees (mean age of 61 years; SD = 13.5). All of them had…

  10. Barriers and Facilitators of Participation in Sports: A Qualitative Study on Dutch Individuals with Lower Limb Amputation

    PubMed Central

    Bragaru, Mihai; van Wilgen, C. P.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Ruijs, Suzette G. J. B.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Dekker, Rienk

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although individuals with lower limb amputation may benefit from participation in sports, less than 40% do so. Aim To identify the barriers and facilitators that influence participation in sports for individuals with lower limb amputation. Design Qualitative study. Participants Twenty six individuals with lower limb amputation, all originating from the Dutch provinces of Groningen and Drenthe, of which 13 athletes. Methods Semi-structured interviews were used to gather information. Following thematic analysis, emerging themes were organized in three categories Technical, Social and Personal. Results Sport was perceived as enjoyable activity that would help participants to become and stay healthy, improve the number of social contacts, reduce phantom pain and decrease daily tension. Inadequate facilities, problematic transportation, trivialization from others, poor health and lack of motivation or the lack of a sports partner were barriers commonly mentioned by non-athletes. Remarkably, while all athletes were successful prosthetic users, the majority chose to participate in sports for which prosthesis was neither required nor needed. Conclusions Each individual with lower limb amputation needs to be counselled according to the barriers and facilitators he/she personally experiences. Athletes appeared to be more proactive in searching for a solution and also appeared less discouraged by failing. PMID:23533655

  11. PREDICTING WALKING ABILITY FOLLOWING LOWER LIMB AMPUTATION: AN UPDATED SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW.

    PubMed

    Kahle, Jason T; Highsmith, M Jason; Schaepper, Hans; Johannesson, Anton; Orendurff, Michael S; Kaufman, Kenton

    2016-09-01

    There is not a clear clinical recommendation for the determination of prosthetic candidacy. Guidelines do not delineate which member(s) of the multidisciplinary team are responsible for prosthetic candidacy decisions and which factors will best predict a positive outcome. Also not clearly addressed is a patient-centered decision-making role. In a previous systematic review (SR), Sansam et al. reported on the prediction of walking ability following lower limb amputation using literature up to 2007. The search strategy was designed from the previous Sansam SR as an update of previously valuable predictive factors of prosthetic candidacy. An electronic literature search was executed from August 8, 2007, to December 31, 2015, using MEDLINE (Pubmed), Embase, The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (Ovid), and Cochrane. A total of 319 studies were identified through the electronic search. Of these, 298 were eliminated, leaving a total of 21 for full evaluation. Conclusions from this updated study are drawn from a total recruited sample (n) of 15,207 subjects. A total of 12,410 subjects completed the respective studies (18% attrition). This updated study increases the size of the original Sansam et al. report by including 137% more subjects for a total of 21,490 between the two articles Etiology, physical fitness, pre-amputation living status, amputation level, age, physical fitness, and comorbidities are included as moderate to strongly supported predictive factors of prosthetic candidacy. These factors are supported in an earlier literature review and should be strongly considered in a complete history and physical examination by a multidisciplinary team. Predictive factors should be part of the patient's healthcare record.

  12. PREDICTING WALKING ABILITY FOLLOWING LOWER LIMB AMPUTATION: AN UPDATED SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Kahle, Jason T.; Highsmith, M. Jason; Schaepper, Hans; Johannesson, Anton; Orendurff, Michael S.; Kaufman, Kenton

    2016-01-01

    There is not a clear clinical recommendation for the determination of prosthetic candidacy. Guidelines do not delineate which member(s) of the multidisciplinary team are responsible for prosthetic candidacy decisions and which factors will best predict a positive outcome. Also not clearly addressed is a patient-centered decision-making role. In a previous systematic review (SR), Sansam et al. reported on the prediction of walking ability following lower limb amputation using literature up to 2007. The search strategy was designed from the previous Sansam SR as an update of previously valuable predictive factors of prosthetic candidacy. An electronic literature search was executed from August 8, 2007, to December 31, 2015, using MEDLINE (Pubmed), Embase, The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (Ovid), and Cochrane. A total of 319 studies were identified through the electronic search. Of these, 298 were eliminated, leaving a total of 21 for full evaluation. Conclusions from this updated study are drawn from a total recruited sample (n) of 15,207 subjects. A total of 12,410 subjects completed the respective studies (18% attrition). This updated study increases the size of the original Sansam et al. report by including 137% more subjects for a total of 21,490 between the two articles Etiology, physical fitness, pre-amputation living status, amputation level, age, physical fitness, and comorbidities are included as moderate to strongly supported predictive factors of prosthetic candidacy. These factors are supported in an earlier literature review and should be strongly considered in a complete history and physical examination by a multidisciplinary team. Predictive factors should be part of the patient’s healthcare record. PMID:28066522

  13. Determinants of survival and major amputation after peripheral endovascular intervention for critical limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Vierthaler, Luke; Callas, Peter W; Goodney, Philip P; Schanzer, Andres; Patel, Virenda I; Cronenwett, Jack; Bertges, Daniel J

    2015-09-01

    Our objective was to analyze periprocedural and 1-year outcomes of peripheral endovascular intervention (PVI) for critical limb ischemia (CLI). We reviewed 1244 patients undergoing 1414 PVIs for CLI (rest pain, 29%; tissue loss, 71%) within the Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) from January 2010 to December 2011. Overall survival (OS), amputation-free survival (AFS), and freedom from major amputation at 1 year were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The number of arteries treated during each procedure were 1 (49%), 2 (35%), 3 (12%), and ≥4 (5%). Target arterial segments and TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus classifications were aortoiliac, 27% (A, 48%; B, 28%; C, 12%; and D, 12%); femoral-popliteal, 48% (A, 29%; B, 34%; C, 20%; and D, 17%); and infrapopliteal, 25% (A, 17%; B, 14%; C, 25%; D, 44%). Technical success was 92%. Complications included access site hematoma (5.0%), occlusion (0.3%), and distal embolization (2.4%). Mortality and major amputation rates were 2.8% and 2.2% at 30 days, respectively. Overall percutaneous or open reintervention rate was 8.0% during the first year. At 1-year, OS, AFS, and freedom from major amputation were 87%, 87%, and 94% for patients with rest pain and 80%, 71%, and 81% for patients with tissue loss. Independent predictors of reduced 1-year OS (C index = .74) included dialysis (HR, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.8-5.1; P < .01), emergency procedure (HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.0-6.2; P = .05), age >80 years (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.7-2.8; P < .01), not living at home preoperatively (HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.8; P < .01), creatinine >1.8 mg/dL (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3-2.8; P < .01), congestive heart failure (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3-2.2; P < .01), and chronic β-blocker use (HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-1.9; P = .03), whereas independent preoperative ambulation (HR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6-0.9; P = .014) was protective. Independent predictors of major

  14. Determinants of survival and major amputation after peripheral endovascular intervention for critical limb ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Vierthaler, Luke; Callas, Peter W.; Goodney, Philip P.; Schanzer, Andres; Patel, Virenda I.; Cronenwett, Jack; Bertges, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to analyze periprocedural and 1-year outcomes of peripheral endovascular intervention (PVI) for critical limb ischemia (CLI). Methods We reviewed 1244 patients undergoing 1414 PVIs for CLI (rest pain, 29%; tissue loss, 71%) within the Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) from January 2010 to December 2011. Overall survival (OS), amputation-free survival (AFS), and freedom from major amputation at 1 year were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The number of arteries treated during each procedure were 1 (49%), 2 (35%), 3 (12%), and ≥4 (5%). Target arterial segments and TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus classifications were aortoiliac, 27% (A, 48%; B, 28%; C, 12%; and D, 12%); femoral-popliteal, 48% (A, 29%; B, 34%; C, 20%; and D, 17%); and infrapopliteal, 25% (A, 17%; B, 14%; C, 25%; D, 44%). Technical success was 92%. Complications included access site hematoma (5.0%), occlusion (0.3%), and distal embolization (2.4%). Mortality and major amputation rates were 2.8% and 2.2% at 30 days, respectively. Overall percutaneous or open reintervention rate was 8.0% during the first year. At 1-year, OS, AFS, and freedom from major amputation were 87%, 87%, and 94% for patients with rest pain and 80%, 71%, and 81% for patients with tissue loss. Independent predictors of reduced 1-year OS (C index = .74) included dialysis (HR, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.8–5.1; P < .01), emergency procedure (HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.0–6.2; P = .05), age >80 years (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.7–2.8; P < .01), not living at home preoperatively (HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4–2.8; P < .01), creatinine >1.8 mg/dL (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3–2.8; P < .01), congestive heart failure (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3–2.2; P < .01), and chronic β-blocker use (HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0–1.9; P = .03), whereas independent preoperative ambulation (HR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6–0.9; P = .014) was

  15. Physical activity barriers and enablers in older Veterans with lower-limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Littman, Alyson J; Boyko, Edward J; Thompson, Mary Lou; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Sangeorzan, Bruce J; Arterburn, David E

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the types of physical activities that older individuals with lower-limb loss perform, correlates of regular physical activity (PA), and barriers and facilitators to PA. We conducted an exploratory study in 158 older Veterans from the Pacific Northwest with a partial foot (35%), below-knee (39%) and above-knee (26%) amputation. Ninety-eight percent of survey respondents were male, on average 65 yr of age and 15 yr postamputation; 36% of amputations were trauma-related. The most commonly reported physical activities were muscle strengthening (42%), yard work and/or gardening (30%), and bicycling (11%). Forty-three percent were classified as physically active based on weekly moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA. History of vigorous preamputation PA was positively associated with being active, while low wealth and watching ≥5 h/d of television/videos were inversely associated. While pain- and resource-related barriers to PA were most frequently reported, only knowledge-related and interest/motivation-related barriers were inversely associated with being active. Family support and financial assistance to join a gym were the most commonly reported factors that would facilitate PA. To increase PA in the older amputee population, interventions should address motivational issues, knowledge gaps, and television watching; reduce financial barriers to exercising; and consider involving family members.

  16. Persons with lower-limb amputation have impaired trunk postural control while maintaining seated balance.

    PubMed

    Hendershot, Brad D; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2013-07-01

    Abnormal mechanics of movement resulting from lower-limb amputation (LLA) may increase stability demands on the spinal column and/or alter existing postural control mechanisms and neuromuscular responses. A seated balance task was used to investigate the effects of LLA on trunk postural control and stability, among eight males with unilateral LLA (4 transtibial, 4 transfemoral), and eight healthy, non-amputation controls (matched by age, stature, and body mass). Traditional measures derived from center of pressure (COP) time series, and measures obtained from non-linear stabilogram diffusion analyses, were used to characterize trunk postural control. All traditional measures of postural control (95% ellipse area, RMS distance, and mean velocity) were significantly larger among participants with LLA. Non-linear stabilogram diffusion analyses also revealed significant differences in postural control among persons with LLA, but only in the antero-posterior direction. Normalized trunk muscle activity was also larger among participants with LLA. Larger COP-based sway measures among participants with LLA during seated balance suggest an association between LLA and reduced trunk postural control. Reductions in postural control and spinal stability may be a result of adaptations in functional tissue properties and/or neuromuscular responses, and may potentially be caused by repetitive exposure to abnormal gait and movement. Such alterations could then lead to an increased risk for spinal instability, intervertebral motions beyond physiological limits, and pain.

  17. Phantom phenomena and body scheme after limb amputation: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Pirowska, Aneta; Wloch, Tomasz; Nowobilski, Roman; Plaszewski, Maciej; Hocini, Abdellah; Ménager, Doménico

    2014-01-01

    Phantom phenomena are subject of various, often inconsistent, descriptions, and new concepts and treatment approaches emerge. The aim of the study is to describe contemporary terminology and developments in the field, and to share personal experience. A review of English and French language literature, published prior to 27th February, 2012, extracted from PubMed/MEDLINE, Google.fr, GoogleScholar databases, and by hand searching of selected full text papers and textbooks with correspondence to personal clinical experience was performed. The terminology and classification of phantom phenomena sensations, relations between intensity and character of phantom pain to the etiology and level of amputations, as well as the influence of presence and intensity of pre-operative limb pain and post-operative stump pain on phantom phenomena are described. The benefits of mirror therapy and early introduction of prosthesis and applying functional prosthesis are also presented, with a glance at other conservative and surgical treatment approaches.

  18. Autobiographical memory and psychological distress in a sample of upper-limb amputees.

    PubMed

    Luchetti, Martina; Montebarocci, Ornella; Rossi, Nicolino; Cutti, Andrea G; Sutin, Angelina R

    2014-01-01

    Amputation is a traumatic and life-changing event that can take years to adjust to. The present study (a) examines psychological adjustment in a specific trauma-exposed sample, (b) compares the phenomenology (e.g., vividness) of amputation-related memories to more recent memories, and (c) tests whether memory phenomenology is associated with psychological distress. A total of 24 upper-limb amputees recalled two autobiographical memories--an amputation-related memory and a recent memory--and rated the phenomenological qualities of each memory, including Vividness, Coherence, Emotional Intensity, Visual Perspective, and Distancing. Participants also completed self-rated measures of psychological distress and personality. The sample was generally well adjusted; participants showed no relevant symptoms of anxiety and depression, and personality scores were similar to the general population. There were no significant differences in phenomenology between the two types of memories recalled. Even though amputation-related memories were, on average, almost 20 years older than the recent memories, they retained their intense phenomenology. Despite the intensity of the memory, none of the phenomenological dimensions were associated with psychological distress. It is worth to further define which dimensions of phenomenology characterize memories of traumatic events, and their association with individuals' psychological reactions.

  19. Third degree open fractures and traumatic sub-/total amputations of the upper extremity: Outcome and relevance of the Mangled Extremity Severity Score.

    PubMed

    Fochtmann, A; Binder, H; Rettl, G; Starlinger, J; Aszmann, O; Sarahrudi, K; Hajdu, S

    2016-10-01

    Third degree open fractures and traumatic sub-/total amputations of the upper extremity represent severe injuries and are associated with a high rate of functional impairment of the affected extremity. More than 20 years ago, the Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) was introduced to predict amputation following severe lower extremity trauma. However, there have been few studies evaluating MESS in connection with the mangled upper limb. A retrospective medical chart review was performed of all patients diagnosed with the aforementioned fractures of the upper extremity treated at the Department of trauma surgery (level I trauma center) and the Clinical division of plastic and reconstructive surgery at the general hospital of Vienna between 1994 and 2014. Fifty-four out of 606 patients (9%) suffered from a total of 61 third degree open fractures or traumatic sub-/total amputations of the upper extremity (Gustilo-Anderson, type IIIA, n=30; Gustilo-Anderson, type IIIB, n=15; Gustilo-Anderson, type IIIC, n=9; traumatic sub-/total amputations, n=7). Thirty-seven out of 54 patients (69%) suffered fractures of the forearm, 10/54 (19%) patients of the humerus and 7/54 (13%) patients of the forearm and the humerus. The median MESS and Injury Severity Score (ISS) for all patients was 5 (range: 3-10) and 9 (range: 4-50), respectively. Seventeen out of 54 patients (31%) were diagnosed with a MESS≥7. Twenty-one out of 54 patients (39%) suffered severe vascular injuries and 22/54 (41%) patients suffered injuries of neural structures. Throughout the therapy process, 6/54 (11%) patients died. Definite limb salvage was achieved in 45 (94%) of the 48 survivors, of whom 9/45 (20%) subjects had a MESS≥7. It became apparent that definite limb salvage could be achieved in the mangled upper extremity regardless of MESS. It should be noted that in the current study, limb functionality was not assessed. However, without a standardized scoring system, there might be

  20. [Endo-exo prostheses : Osseointegrated percutaneously channeled implants for rehabilitation after limb amputation].

    PubMed

    Aschoff, H-H; Juhnke, D-L

    2016-05-01

    In 1999 the first endo-exo femoral prosthesis (EEFP) was implanted in Germany in a patient who had suffered a traumatic above-knee amputation. This procedure involves a skeletally anchored exoprosthetic device that is inserted into the residual femur. The distal part of the implant protrudes transcutaneously and allows attachment to a prosthetic limb which provides direct force transmission to the external prosthetic components. The technique originated from dental implantology and helps to avoid possible problems resulting from treatment of amputated limbs using socket prostheses. In the meantime, durability times of over 10 years have now helped to invalidate the initially well-founded reservations held against the procedure. What advantages can be achieved by osseointegrated and percutaneously channeled prostheses and which problems had to be overcome for treatment. Critical evaluation of data from patients operated on in Lübeck, Germany from January 2003 to December 2014. With osseointegrated and percutaneously channeled prostheses permanent durability times can be achieved. Infection-associated soft tissue problems at the site of skin protrusion (stoma) can be successfully prevented. The creation of this so-called stoma means acceptance of a possible bacterial portal of entry into the body. Patient satisfaction has so far been high, postoperative rehabilitation is simplified and the technique could possibly lower the costs of medical treatment. Endo-exo prostheses have proved to be successful for more than 15 years. A critical appraisal of the indications as well as a close cooperation between the surgeon, orthopedic technician and the associated rehabilitation facilities with the patient are the basis for the long-term success of this relatively new treatment approach.

  1. Single centre experience of the upper limb replantation and revascularisation.

    PubMed

    Visnjic, Milan M; Kovacevic, Predrag T; Paunkovic, Ljiljana M; Milenkovic, Sasa S

    2004-01-01

    Replantation is defined as reattachment of the amputated limb using the neurovascular and musculoskeletal structures in order to obtain the recovery of the limb. Fortunately, injuries causing limb amputation are rare. Adequate treatment within the optimal time scale can provide successful rehabilitation of the shape and function of the replanted part. We report the experience of our Clinical Centre (regional replantation centre) in the replantation of five forearms/hands and revascularisation of six hands between 1997 and 2001. The most frequent site of injury was the distal part of the forearm, while the major cause of injuries was a wood processing machine. The surgical procedures were performed under general anaesthesia within 2-6 hours after injury. Vascular anastomoses, nerve repair and muscle repair were performed following the external bone fixation. All patients were given anticoagulation treatment postoperatively. Thrombosis in the anastomotic site developed as an early complication in two patients who underwent thrombectomy; one of these patients developed gangrene and underwent amputation. Late postoperative results were good in 10 patients. One patient developed acral epidermolysis. Postoperative results after revascularisation were good in all patients.

  2. Cross-arm replantation for traumatic bilateral upper extremity amputations: a case report.

    PubMed

    Liang, Kailu; Zhong, Gang; Yin, Jiahui; Xiang, Zhou; Cen, Shiqiang; Huang, Fuguo

    2011-02-01

    A 40-year-old woman had her right extremity avulsed at the proximal upper arm level and the wrist and hand of her left extremity irretrievably injured in a traffic accident. The right distal forearm was surgically amputated and replanted onto the stump of the left distal forearm. New strategy for nerve repair was applied and the function recovery of the cross-replanted hand was favorable. We thought that cross-extremity replantation was indicated when the patient suffered from bilateral total or subtotal amputation at different levels and orthotopic replantation was impossible.

  3. Chronic low back pain in individuals with lower-limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Kusljugić, Ademir; Kapidzić-Duraković, Suada; Kudumović, Zijada; Cickusić, Amela

    2006-05-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common condition in individuals which experienced psychology and physical trauma. LBP is usually found in persons with lower-limb amputation (LLA), as the most common sign of somatisation or inappropriately made prostheses. Our goal was to investigate cases of chronic pain syndrome in persons with LLA and to determine factors, which influence their functional inability due to LBP. Pain after LLA has been studied. 37 persons, including 26 war veterans (70.2 %) and 11 (29.8 %) civilians with LLA due to an illness, were examined. All participants gave their informed consent and filled Oswestry index of disability due to chronic LBP, divided into 10 sections with 6 questions each, with marks in the range 0-5. The average age of 37 analyzed participants with LLA was 46.2+-10.92 years. 30 participants (81.1 %) were married, 4 (10.8 %) were single and 3 (8.1 %) were widows. 27 (73.0 %) participants had below the knee amputation, 5 (13.5 %) had above the knee amputation and 5 (13.5 %) had foot amputation. 33 (89.6 %) participants experienced chronic LBP in the last 2-10 years and 4 (10.8 %) did not have pains. According to Oswestry index for chronic pain higher level of social functionality was found in civilian amputees than in war veterans (p<0.05). Married civilian amputees have higher level of disability during seating (p<0.01), sleeping (p<0.01) and traveling (p<0.05). Higher level of social disorder among civilian amputees is due to the fact that they belong to older group of participants which usually have social integration at the lower degree. More serious problems during seating, traveling and sleeping among this group are probably due to co morbidity. Chronic LBP was found among 89.6 % of the participants. Higher level of social disorder, problems during seating, traveling and sleeping were identified in the civilian amputees and the married participants.

  4. Skeletal callus formation is a nerve‐independent regenerative response to limb amputation in mice and Xenopus

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Shinichirou; Takahashi, Yumiko; Satoh, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To clarify the mechanism of limb regeneration that differs between mammals (non‐regenerative) and amphibians (regenerative), responses to limb amputation and the accessory limb inducible surgery (accessory limb model, ALM) were compared between mice and Xenopus, focusing on the events leading to blastema formation. In both animals, cartilaginous calluses were formed around the cut edge of bones after limb amputation. They not only are morphologically similar but show other similarities, such as growth driven by undifferentiated cell proliferation and macrophage‐dependent and nerve‐independent induction. It appears that amputation callus formation is a common nerve‐independent regenerative response in mice and Xenopus. In contrast, the ALM revealed that the wound epithelium (WE) in Xenopus was innervated by many regenerating axons when a severed nerve ending was placed underneath it, whereas only a few axons were found within the WE in mice. Since nerves are involved in induction of the regeneration‐permissive WE in amphibians, whether or not nerves can interact with the WE might be one of the key processes separating successful nerve‐dependent blastema formation in Xenopus and failure in mice. PMID:27499875

  5. Early Post-operative Mortality After Major Lower Limb Amputation: A Systematic Review of Population and Regional Based Studies.

    PubMed

    van Netten, J J; Fortington, L V; Hinchliffe, R J; Hijmans, J M

    2016-02-01

    Lower limb amputation is often associated with a high risk of early post-operative mortality. Mortality rates are also increasingly being put forward as a possible benchmark for surgical performance. The primary aim of this systematic review is to investigate early post-operative mortality following a major lower limb amputation in population/regional based studies, and reported factors that might influence these mortality outcomes. Embase, PubMed, Cinahl and Psycinfo were searched for publications in any language on 30 day or in hospital mortality after major lower limb amputation in population/regional based studies. PRISMA guidelines were followed. A self developed checklist was used to assess quality and susceptibility to bias. Summary data were extracted for the percentage of the population who died; pooling of quantitative results was not possible because of methodological differences between studies. Of the 9,082 publications identified, results were included from 21. The percentage of the population undergoing amputation who died within 30 days ranged from 7% to 22%, the in hospital equivalent was 4-20%. Transfemoral amputation and older age were found to have a higher proportion of early post-operative mortality, compared with transtibial and younger age, respectively. Other patient factors or surgical treatment choices related to increased early post-operative mortality varied between studies. Early post-operative mortality rates vary from 4% to 22%. There are very limited data presented for patient related factors (age, comorbidities) that influence mortality. Even less is known about factors related to surgical treatment choices, being limited to amputation level. More information is needed to allow comparison across studies or for any benchmarking of acceptable mortality rates. Agreement is needed on key factors to be reported. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of a concurrent task on walking in persons with transfemoral amputation compared to persons without limb loss.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Sara J; Hafner, Brian J; Kelly, Valerie E

    2016-08-01

    Many people with lower limb loss report the need to concentrate on walking. This may indicate increased reliance on cognitive resources when walking compared to individuals without limb loss. This study quantified changes in walking associated with addition of a concurrent cognitive task in persons with transfemoral amputation using microprocessor knees compared to age- and sex-matched controls. Observational, cross-sectional study. Quantitative motion analysis was used to assess walking under both single-task (walking alone) and dual-task (walking while performing a cognitive task) conditions. Primary outcomes were walking speed, step width, step time asymmetry, and cognitive task response latency and accuracy. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to examine the effects of task (single-task and dual-task) and group (transfemoral amputation and control) for each outcome. No significant interactions between task and group were observed (all p > 0.11) indicating that a cognitive task did not differentially affect walking between groups. However, walking was slower with wider steps and more asymmetry in people with transfemoral amputation compared to controls under both conditions. Although there were significant differences in walking between people with transfemoral amputation and matched controls, the effects of a concurrent cognitive task on walking were similar between groups. The addition of a concurrent task did not differentially affect walking outcomes in people with and without transfemoral amputation. However, compared to people without limb loss, people with transfemoral amputation adopted a conservative walking strategy. This strategy may reduce the need to concentrate on walking but also contributed to notable gait deviations. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  7. Society for Vascular Surgery limb stage and patient risk correlate with outcomes in an amputation prevention program.

    PubMed

    Causey, Marlin W; Ahmed, Ayman; Wu, Bian; Gasper, Warren J; Reyzelman, Alex; Vartanian, Shant M; Hiramoto, Jade S; Conte, Michael S

    2016-06-01

    Clinical decision making and accurate outcomes comparisons in advanced limb ischemia require improved staging systems. The Society for Vascular Surgery Lower Extremity Threatened Limb Classification System (Wound extent, Ischemia, and foot Infection [WIfI]) was designed to stratify limb outcomes based on three major factors-wound extent, ischemia, and foot infection. The Project or Ex-Vivo vein graft Engineering via Transfection III (PREVENT) III (PIII) risk score was developed to stratify patients by expected amputation-free survival (AFS) after surgical revascularization. This study was designed to prospectively assess limb and patient-based staging for predicting outcomes of hospitalized patients in an amputation prevention program. This study undertook a retrospective analysis of prospectively gathered registry data of consecutive patients with limb-threatening conditions admitted to a fully integrated vascular/podiatry service over a 16-month period. Upon admission, limb risk was stratified using the WIfI system and patient risk was categorized using PIII classification. Patients were assessed for perioperative and postdischarge outcomes, and their relationship to staging at admission was analyzed. There were 174 threatened limbs (143 hospitalized patients) stratified by WIfI stage (1%-12%, 2%-28%, 3%-24%, 4%-28%, 5%-3%, unstaged-5%) and PIII risk (34% low, 49% moderate, and 17% high risk). Diabetes and end-stage renal disease were associated with WIfI stage (P = .006 and P = .018) and PIII risk (P = .003 and P < .001). Perioperative (30-day) events included 3% mortality, 8% major adverse cardiovascular events and 2.4% major amputation. There were 119 limbs (71%) that underwent revascularization, including 108 infrainguinal reconstructions (endovascular or open revascularization). Rate of revascularization increased with WIfI stage (P < .001), concomitant with the number of podiatric procedures, minor amputations, and initial hospital duration of stay

  8. [Changes in the somatosensory evoked potentials in patients with amputated limbs with and without phantom pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Reshetniak, V K; Kukushkin, M L; Ovechkin, A M; Smirnova, V S; Gnezdilov, A V

    1996-01-01

    Changes in the somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) were studied in patients with amputated limbs with and without phantom pain syndrome (PPS). Patients with PPS were found to develop hypersynchronous postdischarges following the components of SSEP, the amplitudes of the early components of SSEP (N1, P2, and N2) increase in response to stimulation of the stump nerves and the median nerve on the side of amputation, and EEG shows paroxysmal activity. The results indicate a stable increase of the excitability and reactivity of the central structures of the brain, reflecting the formation of a pathologic algic system in the structures regulating pain sensitivity.

  9. [The problems in replantation of limbs amputated through the arm region].

    PubMed

    Jabłecki, Jerzy; Kaczmarzyk, Janusz; Kaczmarzyk, Leszek; Lapczyński, Deodat; Kocieba, Ryszard

    2004-01-01

    The problems in replantation of arms were analysed on the ground of nine such replantations performed in Center of Replantations of Limbs in Trzebnica in the same number of patients (7 men, 2 children, 1 woman) during the seven year period 1993-2000. The range of age of the patients was from 12 to 62 years (35.5 on average). Among the problems discussed were such as qualification for the operation, operative technique (limb shortening, perfusion of vessels, half-open anastomosis of veins, neurotisation of remaining nerves) evaluation scale. Eight of the amputations were the results of crush-avulsion mechanism, one was guillotine-type. The patients required 15 secondary operations; all of them were able to perform an arm abduction and active flexion of the elbow joint. They all had at least protective sensibility on the palm. The results were rated (acc. to Chen-Yu scale) III(o)--four patients, IV(o)--four patients (one patient did not appear for control check-up). Despite of such a poor evaluation, all of the patients are satisfied with the operation.

  10. Treatment of phantom limb pain by cryoneurolysis of the amputated nerve.

    PubMed

    Moesker, Albert A; Karl, Helen W; Trescot, Andrea M

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiology of phantom limb pain (PLP) is multifactorial. It probably starts in the periphery and is amplified and modified in the central nervous system. A small group of patients with PLP were questioned as to the portion of the phantom limb affected by pain (e.g., "great toe," "thumb"). In the stump, the corresponding amputated nerve was located with a nerve stimulator. With correct placement and stimulation, the PLP could then be reproduced or exacerbated. A small dose of local anesthesia was then injected, resulting in the disappearance of the PLP. If a peripheral nerve injection gave temporary relief, our final treatment was cryoanalgesia at this location. Evaluation of 5 patients, followed for at least 2.5 years, yielded the following results: 3 patients had excellent results (100%, 95%, and 90% decrease in complaints, respectively), 1 patient had an acceptable result (40% decrease), and 1 patient had only a 20% decrease in pain. Although both central and peripheral components are likely involved in PLP, treatment of a peripheral pain locus with cryoanalgesia should be considered. We propose the identification of a peripheral etiology may help match patients to an appropriate therapy, and cryoanalgesia may result in long-term relief of PLP.

  11. Appropriateness of advanced upper limb prosthesis prescription for a patient with cognitive impairment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Barredo, Jennifer; Acluche, Frantzy; Disla, Roxanne; Fantini, Christopher; Fishelis, Leah; Sasson, Nicole; Resnik, Linda

    2017-08-01

    To describe a participant with scapulo-thoracic amputation and cognitive impairment trained to use the DEKA Arm and discuss factors relevant to the determination that he was not an appropriate candidate for independent home use of the device. The participant underwent 40 h of in-laboratory training with the DEKA Arm Advanced Upper Limb Prosthesis. Pre-training neuropsychological measures of cognition were collected. Qualitative and quantitative data related to functional performance, quality of life and pain were collected after 10 h of training, and at the conclusion of training. Using a constant comparative approach, data were binned into major themes; elements within each theme were identified. Six themes were relevant to the determination that the participant was inappropriate for home use of the DEKA Arm: physical and mental health; learning, memory and cognition; adult role function; functional performance; user safety and judgement and capacity for independent device use. Issues contraindicating unsupervised device use included: uncontrolled health symptoms, poor knowledge application, safety concerns, absenteeism and performance degradation under stress. The findings have implications for training with and prescription of the DEKA Arm and other complex upper limb prostheses. Further research is needed to develop a model to guide prescription of technologically complex upper limb prostheses. Implications for Rehabilitation Advanced upper limb prostheses, like the DEKA Arm, promise greater functionality, but also may be cognitively demanding, raising questions of when, and if, prescription is appropriate for patients with cognitive impairment. At this time, no formal criteria exist to guide prescription of advanced upper limb prostheses. Each clinical team applies their own informal standards in decision-making. In this case report, we described six factors that were considered in determining whether or not a research participant, with scapulo

  12. Benign monomelic amyotrophy with proximal upper limb involvement: case report.

    PubMed

    Neves, Marco Antonio Orsini; Freitas, Marcos R G de; Mello, Mariana Pimentel de; Dumard, Carlos Henrique; Freitas, Gabriel R de; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M

    2007-06-01

    Monomelic amyotrophy (MA) is a rare condition in which neurogenic amyotrophy is restricted to an upper or lower limb. Usually sporadic, it usually has an insidious onset with a mean evolution of 2 to 4 years following first clinical manifestations, which is, in turned, followed by stabilization. We report a case of 20-years-old man who presented slowly progressive amyotrophy associated with proximal paresis of the right upper limb, which was followed by clinical stabilization 4 years later. Eletroneuromyography revealed denervation along with myofasciculations in various muscle groups of the right upper limb. We call attention to this rare location of MA, as well as describe some theories concerning its pathophysiology .

  13. Primary Upper Limb Lymphedema: Case Report of a Rare Pathology

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, Michael EC

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Lymphedema is characterized by a defect in the lymphatic system that causes limb swelling. Impaired uptake and transport of lymphatic fluid through lymphatic vessels causes accumulation of protein-rich fluid in the interstitial spaces, which leads to swelling of the limb. Primary lymphedema often presents at birth. The rare cases that arise after age 35 years are described as lymphedema tarda. The great majority of patients with lymphedema have swelling of the lower limbs—upper limb lymphedema is a rare disorder. Case Presentation An 84-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of unilateral swelling of the right upper limb. There were no constitutional symptoms and no evidence of lymphadenopathy or systemic disease. Blood tests, carcinoembryonic antigen test, computed tomography scans, and venous Doppler ultrasound were all normal. The diagnosis was primary upper limb lymphedema. Discussion The swelling that occurs in upper limb lymphedema is permanent and usually extends to the hand. About one-third of patients with this condition also present with lower limb lymphedema. Thorough investigations are warranted in cases of unilateral upper limb lymphedema to rule out occult malignancy and systemic disease. PMID:28080951

  14. Geographic Variation of the Incidence Rate of Lower Limb Amputation in Australia from 2007-12

    PubMed Central

    Fortington, Lauren V.; Akram, Muhammad; Erbas, Bircan; Kohler, Friedbert

    2017-01-01

    In Australia, little is known about how the incidence rate (IR) of lower limb amputation (LLA) varies across the country. While studies in other economically developed countries have shown considerable geographic variation in the IR-LLA, mostly these have not considered whether the effect of common risk factors are the same across regions. Mapping variation of the IR-LLA, and the effect of common risk factors, is an important first step to focus research into areas of greatest need and support the development of regional specific hypotheses for in-depth examination. The aim of this study was to describe the geographic variation in the IR-LLA across Australia and understand whether the effect of common risk factors was the same across regions. Using hospital episode data from the Australian National Hospital Morbidity database and Australian Bureau of Statistics, the all-cause crude and age-standardised IR-LLA in males and females were calculated for the nation and each state and territory. Generalised Linear Models were developed to understand which factors influenced geographic variation in the crude IR-LLA. While the crude and age-standardised IR-LLA in males and females were similar in most states and territories, they were higher in the Northern Territory. The effect of older age, being male and the presence of type 2 diabetes was associated with an increase of IR-LLA in most states and territories. In the Northern Territory, the younger age at amputation confounded the effect of sex and type 2 diabetes. There are likely to be many factors not included in this investigation, such as Indigenous status, that may explain part of the variation in the IR-LLA not captured in our models. Further research is needed to identify regional- and population- specific factors that could be modified to reduce the IR-LLA in all states and territories of Australia. PMID:28118408

  15. Construct Validity of the Prosthetic Limb Users Survey of Mobility (PLUS-M) in Adults With Lower Limb Amputation.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Brian J; Gaunaurd, Ignacio A; Morgan, Sara J; Amtmann, Dagmar; Salem, Rana; Gailey, Robert S

    2017-02-01

    To assess construct validity of the Prosthetic Limb Users Survey of Mobility (PLUS-M), a self-report mobility measure for people with lower limb amputation (LLA). Cross-sectional study. Private prosthetic clinics (n=37). Current lower limb prosthesis users (N=199; mean age ± SD, 55.4±14.3y; 71.4% men) were assessed before receiving a replacement prosthesis, prosthetic socket, and/or prosthetic knee. Not applicable. Convergent construct validity was examined using correlations between participants' PLUS-M T-scores and measures of physical function, mobility, and balance, including the Amputee Mobility Predictor (AMP), timed Up and Go (TUG), Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System-Physical Function (PROMIS-PF), Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire-Mobility Subscale (PEQ-MS), and Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale. Known-groups construct validity was evaluated by comparing differences in PLUS-M T-scores among participants grouped by Medicare Functional Classification Level (MFCL). PLUS-M T-scores demonstrated a moderate positive relationship with AMP scores (ρ=.54, P<.001) and a moderate negative relationship with TUG times (ρ=-.56, P<.001). The PLUS-M also showed a strong positive relationship with PEQ-MS scores (ρ=.78, P<.001), ABC Scale scores (ρ=.81, P<.001), and PROMIS-PF T-scores (ρ=.81, P<.001). Significant differences (P<.05) in PLUS-M T-scores were found among groups of people classified by different MFCLs. Study results support the validity of the PLUS-M as a self-report measure of prosthetic mobility. Correlations between PLUS-M and measures of physical function, mobility, and balance indicate convergent construct validity. Similarly, significant differences in PLUS-M T-scores across MFCL groups provide evidence of known-groups construct validity. In summary, evidence indicates that PLUS-M has good construct validity among people with LLA. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by

  16. The Use of the 6-Min Walk Test as a Proxy for the Assessment of Energy Expenditure during Gait in Individuals with Lower-Limb Amputation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kark, Laurena; McIntosh, Andrew S.B; Simmons, Annea

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine, and compare, the utility of the 6-min walk test (6 MWT) and self-selected walking speed over 15 m as proxies for the assessment of energy expenditure during gait in individuals with lower-limb amputation. Patients with unilateral, transfemoral amputation (n = 6) and patients with unilateral,…

  17. The Use of the 6-Min Walk Test as a Proxy for the Assessment of Energy Expenditure during Gait in Individuals with Lower-Limb Amputation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kark, Laurena; McIntosh, Andrew S.B; Simmons, Annea

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine, and compare, the utility of the 6-min walk test (6 MWT) and self-selected walking speed over 15 m as proxies for the assessment of energy expenditure during gait in individuals with lower-limb amputation. Patients with unilateral, transfemoral amputation (n = 6) and patients with unilateral,…

  18. Minimal clinically important difference of the L Test for individuals with lower limb amputation: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Paula W; Miller, William C; Deathe, A Barry

    2015-12-01

    The L Test is a reliable/valid clinical evaluation of mobility that measures walking speed in seconds. It can be used with individuals with lower limb amputation. Responsiveness of the L Test is not yet determined. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine how well the L Test identified individuals with a lower limb amputation who have/have not undergone a minimal clinically important difference. Prospective follow-up study. In total, 33 individuals with lower limb amputation, deemed to require a major intervention, were recruited consecutively from a follow-up clinic. Participants completed the L Test at baseline and follow-up. A Global Rating Change scale was also completed at follow-up. The participants had a mean age ± standard deviation of 60 ± 13.0 years, and 81.8% had a transtibial amputation. The mean ± standard deviation for the L Test change scores was 6.0 ± 13.9. The area under the curve was 0.67, and the minimal clinically important difference was 4.5 s. The L Test identified individuals as having an important clinical change. Results must be interpreted with caution, as the accuracy, based on the Global Rating Change scale, is low. Further inquiry into the L Test is encouraged. The L Test can guide the clinical management of individuals with lower limb amputation. Results from this pilot study indicate that individuals with a lower limb amputation who improve by at least 4.5 s on the L Test after an intervention have likely undergone an important change. This result must be interpreted with caution given that the ability of the L Test to correctly identify individuals, who have and have not undergone an important change, using the Global Rating Change scale as the gold standard, is limited because this is a pilot study. It is plausible that the precision of the cut-point threshold could increase or decrease given a larger sample or when using a different method of identifying important clinical change. © The International Society for

  19. The Floating Upper Limb: Multiple Injuries Involving Ipsilateral, Proximal, Humeral, Supracondylar, and Distal Radial Limb.

    PubMed

    Manaan, Qazi; Bashir, Adil; Zahoor, Adnan; Mokhdomi, Taseem A; Danish, Qazi

    2016-09-01

    Floating arm injury represents a common yet complicated injury of the childhood severely associated with limb deformation and even morbidity, if not precisely addressed and credibly operated. Here, we report a rare floating upper limb case of a 9-year-old boy with multiple injuries of ipsilateral proximal humeral, supracondylar and distal radial limb. This is the first report to document such a combined floating elbow and floating arm injury in the same limb. In this report, we discuss the surgical procedures used and recovery of the patient monitored to ascertain the effectiveness of the method in limb reorganisation.

  20. The Floating Upper Limb: Multiple Injuries Involving Ipsilateral, Proximal, Humeral, Supracondylar, and Distal Radial Limb

    PubMed Central

    Manaan, Qazi; Bashir, Adil; Zahoor, Adnan; Mokhdomi, Taseem A.

    2016-01-01

    Floating arm injury represents a common yet complicated injury of the childhood severely associated with limb deformation and even morbidity, if not precisely addressed and credibly operated. Here, we report a rare floating upper limb case of a 9-year-old boy with multiple injuries of ipsilateral proximal humeral, supracondylar and distal radial limb. This is the first report to document such a combined floating elbow and floating arm injury in the same limb. In this report, we discuss the surgical procedures used and recovery of the patient monitored to ascertain the effectiveness of the method in limb reorganisation. PMID:27583121

  1. Lower-Limb Amputation and Effect of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder on Department of Veterans Affairs Outpatient Cost Trends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    C, Kerns RD, Clark ME, Cifu DX. Prevalence of chronic pain, posttraumatic stress disorder , and persistent postconcussive symptoms in OIF/OEF veter...Kilmer MT, Baker DG. Post-traumatic stress disorder , depression , and health-related quality of life in OEF/OIF veterans. Qual Life Res. 2012;21(1):99...JRRD Volume 52, Number 7, 2015Pages 827–838Lower-limb amputation and effect of posttraumatic stress disorder on Department of Veterans Affairs

  2. Development of an Upper Limb Motorized Assistive-Rehabilitative Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri, Masoud; Casolo, Federico

    While the number of people requiring help for the activities of daily living are increasing, several studies have been shown the effectiveness of robot training for upper limb functionality recovery. The robotic system described in this paper is an active end-effector based robot which can be used for assisting and rehabilitating of human upper limb. The robot is able to take into account desire of the patient for the support that patient needs to complete the task.

  3. Instrumented measurement of balance and postural control in individuals with lower limb amputation: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Jayakaran, Prasath; Johnson, Gillian M; Sullivan, S John; Nitz, Jennifer C

    2012-09-01

    Measurement of balance and postural performance that underpins activities of daily living is important in the rehabilitation of individuals with a lower limb amputation (LLA), and there are a number of methods and strategies available for this purpose. To provide an evidence-based choice of approach, this review aims to critically review the tasks and outcome measures utilized in studies investigating static and dynamic balance using instrumented measurement devices in individuals with a LLA. A systematic search was conducted on multiple databases using keyword or subject headings appropriate to the respective database. Articles investigating static or dynamic balance in adults with LLA by means of instrumented measures were considered for the review. A total of 21 articles were included in the review. The static balance ability of individuals with an LLA has been investigated thoroughly, but their dynamic balance attributes remain relatively unexplored. Although the individual studies do provide valuable information on balance ability in the LLA, the heterogeneity in study designs and measures did not allow an overall analysis of the tasks and the outcome measures used. On the basis of these findings, this review provides an insight into the measurement of balance in amputees to inform novice researchers and clinicians working with individuals with an LLA.

  4. Prostheses for persons with lower-limb amputations: an extra joint increases range of motion.

    PubMed

    Short, C A; O'Connell, C M; Kirby, R L; de Saint-Sardos, J J; Reid, C A

    1999-07-01

    This report describes two cases in which the addition of an extra joint enhanced range of motion and improved function in persons with unilateral lower-limb amputation. Both individuals had significant disability in the workplace and at home before this modification. In the first case, an individual with a hemipelvectomy had inadequate hip-joint flexion for maneuvering during photo shoots. In the second case, the individual's transfemoral prosthesis provided insufficient knee flexion for kneeling and working in tight spaces. In each case, a manual-locking, single-axis knee joint was added adjacent to the joint with the limited range of motion. In both cases, the addition of the second joint provided the increased flexibility needed. The first person's hip-flexion range improved from 125 degrees to 190 degrees, and the second person's knee-flexion range improved from 140 degrees to 170 degrees. In repeated follow-up, both patients remained highly satisfied with the intervention. The addition of an extra joint is an option that should be considered when inadequate range interferes with function.

  5. Functional Outcome After Lower Limb Amputation: Is Hyperhomocysteinemia a Predictive Factor?

    PubMed Central

    Brunelli, Stefano; Fusco, Augusto; Iosa, Marco; Ricciardi, Elena; Traballesi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lower limb amputation (LLA) is the drastic stage of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) where the hyperhomocysteinemia (H-HCY) seems to be a risk factor. Surprisingly, in literature the levels and the role of homocysteinemia (HCY) in persons with LLA are understudied. This study aims to investigate the level of HCY and its correlation with the functional outcomes after LLA. A case–control study to analyze HCY levels in amputees admitted in a rehabilitation hospital during an investigation period of 1.5 years. Barthel Index was used to assess the functional outcome. We enrolled 91 dysvascular amputees and 44 amputees for other reasons than PAD (controls). The mean level of HCY was found higher in dysvascular amputees (15.2 ± 7.5) compared to controls (11.0 ± 5.0, P < 0.0001) with a risk related ratio of 4.78. Normal Gaussian distribution of HCY was observed in controls, whereas in dysvascular amputees the data follow a double Gaussian distribution. Finally, a significant negative correlation was found between HCY and the effectiveness of rehabilitation (R = −0.37, P = 0.001) only in dysvascular amputees. Dysvascular amputees had a level of HCY significantly higher than amputees without PAD. H-HCY seems to influence the functional outcomes of the rehabilitative treatment only in LLA due to PAD. PMID:26656344

  6. Statin Therapy Reduces Future Risk of Lower-Limb Amputation in Patients With Diabetes and Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chien-Yi; Chen, Yung-Tai; Su, Yu-Wen; Chang, Chun-Chin; Huang, Po-Hsun; Lin, Shing-Jong

    2017-07-01

    Although there is evidence to support the beneficial effects of statins on major cardiovascular events, few studies address the protective effect of statins on limb outcome. To investigate whether the use of statin is associated with a risk reduction in lower-extremity amputation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Observational cohort study. A nationwide DM database in Taiwan from 2000 to 2011. A total of 69,332 patients aged ≥20 years with DM and PAD were identified. Patients were divided into three groups: 11,409 patients were statin users, 4430 patients used nonstatin lipid-lowering agents, and 53,493 patients were nonusers. The primary outcome was lower-extremity amputation. Secondary outcomes were in-hospital cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality. Compared with nonusers, statin users were associated with lower risks of lower-extremity amputation [adjusted hazard ration (aHR), 0.75; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.62 to 0.90], in-hospital cardiovascular death (aHR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.87), and all-cause mortality (aHR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.77). In the propensity score matching analysis, the effect of statin on the risk of lower-extremity amputation was consistent. Only statin users were associated with the risk reduction of lower-extremities amputation (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.97) and cardiovascular death (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.89) when taking competing risk of death into consideration. Compared with statin nonusers who were never treated with lipid-lowering drugs, this study found that statin users had a lower risk of lower-extremity amputation and cardiovascular death in patients with DM and PAD.

  7. Feasibility of the Nintendo WiiFit™ for improving walking in individuals with a lower limb amputation

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Bita; McLaren, Linda; Chapman, Paul; Finlayson, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility of the Nintendo WiiFit™ as an adjunct to usual therapy in individuals with a lower limb amputation. Methods: The study was a Multiple Baseline (AB) Single Subject Research Design. Subjects were ≥19 years old, had their first unilateral transtibial or transfemoral amputation  ≤12 months ago, and were participating in prosthetic training. WiiFit training was provided for 30 min, 5 times a week, for a minimum of 2 and a maximum of 6 weeks in addition to usual therapy. Feasibility indicators were safety, post-intervention fatigue and pain levels, adherence, and subject’s acceptability of the program as measured by the Short Feedback Questionnaire–modified (SFQ-M). The primary clinical outcome was walking capacity assessed by the 2 Minute Walk Test (2MWT). The secondary clinical outcomes were the Short Physical Performance Battery, L-test, and Activities-Specific Balance Confidence. Results: Subjects (4 transtibial; 2 transfemoral) had a median age of 48.5 years (range = 45–59 years). No adverse events associated with the intervention occurred. Median pain and fatigue levels were 1.3 (range = 0.5–3.5) and 3.1 (range = 1.4–4.1), respectively. Median adherence was 80%. Subjects found the WiiFit enjoyable and acceptable (median SFQ-M = 35). Five subjects showed statistical improvement on the 2MWT and four on the secondary outcomes (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The WiiFit intervention was found to be feasible in individuals with unilateral lower limb amputation. This research provides the foundation for future clinical research investigating the use of the WiiFit as a viable adjunctive therapy to improve outcomes in individuals with unilateral lower limb amputation who are participating in prosthetic training. PMID:26770676

  8. Ubiquitous human upper-limb motion estimation using wearable sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Wong, Wai-Choong; Wu, Jian-Kang

    2011-07-01

    Human motion capture technologies have been widely used in a wide spectrum of applications, including interactive game and learning, animation, film special effects, health care, navigation, and so on. The existing human motion capture techniques, which use structured multiple high-resolution cameras in a dedicated studio, are complicated and expensive. With the rapid development of microsensors-on-chip, human motion capture using wearable microsensors has become an active research topic. Because of the agility in movement, upper-limb motion estimation has been regarded as the most difficult problem in human motion capture. In this paper, we take the upper limb as our research subject and propose a novel ubiquitous upper-limb motion estimation algorithm, which concentrates on modeling the relationship between upper-arm movement and forearm movement. A link structure with 5 degrees of freedom (DOF) is proposed to model the human upper-limb skeleton structure. Parameters are defined according to Denavit-Hartenberg convention, forward kinematics equations are derived, and an unscented Kalman filter is deployed to estimate the defined parameters. The experimental results have shown that the proposed upper-limb motion capture and analysis algorithm outperforms other fusion methods and provides accurate results in comparison to the BTS optical motion tracker.

  9. Upper limb disorders among coopers in the Scotch whisky industry.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Fiona; Waclawski, Eugene

    2006-06-01

    Coopering is a physically demanding trade which has existed for >500 years. Anecdotal clinical evidence suggested increased prevalence of upper limb disorders in the population of coopers in one organization. To investigate the prevalence of upper limb disorders in coopers and non-coopers. To identify differences in prevalence, and any relationship between the findings and the work practices. Cross-sectional study of 108 coopers and 110 non-coopers. The Standardized Nordic questionnaire for the analysis of musculoskeletal symptoms was administered to all participants, who also underwent a clinical assessment for upper limb disorders. Coopers were more likely to report elbow pain in the past 12 months (OR 3.4; 95% CI: 1.8-6.2) and pain in the last 7 days (OR 4.7; 95% CI: 2.0-8.9) and this was likely to lead to prevention of activity in the past 12 months associated with the elbow (P < 0.05). Clinical evaluation highlighted a higher prevalence of upper limb disorders in coopers (OR 9.8; 95% CI: 3.9-24.3) with epicondylitis predominating (OR 8.4; 95% CI: 2.8-25.0). There was also a higher prevalence of problems in the wrist and hand among coopers (OR 8.15; 95% CI: 1.04-64; P = 0.03). Logistic regression analysis confirmed the risk of upper limb disorder in coopers (P < 0.03) accounting for age (P < 0.05) and years of service (P > 0.25). Coopers appear to be at an increased risk of upper limb disorders. Work practices have been reviewed and a number of changes have been implemented to reduce this risk. Further study of this group is merited in future to determine the effect of changes in work practice on the risk of upper limb disorders.

  10. Prevalence of upper limb disorders among female librarians.

    PubMed

    Pandy, R

    2013-09-01

    Work as a librarian involves exposure to potential risk factors for developing upper limb disorders. The prevalence of upper limb symptoms has, however, not previously been assessed in this occupational group. To estimate the 7-day and annual prevalence of self-reported neck and upper limb symptoms in librarians and to examine associations with specific tasks and ergonomic risk factors. A cross-sectional study using components of the standardized Nordic questionnaire. The study population consisted of librarians employed by a large local authority, and data collection was by means of a self-administered questionnaire. from studies on keyboard workers and on the general population were used as comparators. The 7-day prevalence of self-reported neck and upper limb pain in female librarians was 42% (95% confidence interval (CI) 33.7-50.5) and the annual prevalence was 65% (95% CI 56.6-72.8). The prevalence of reported wrist and hand pain increased with increased working involving a wide thumb-index span (P < 0.05) with a significant linear trend in prevalence with increasing exposure (P < 0.01). There was a strong association between reporting hand and/or wrist pain and awareness of work-related upper limb disorder (P < 0.05). The annual prevalence of self-reported upper limb symptoms among female librarians was high, but there was insufficient evidence to confirm whether the prevalence was higher than in the general population or among keyboard workers. Working with a wide thumb-index span was associated with reporting upper limb symptoms.

  11. Factors associated with interest in novel interfaces for upper limb prosthesis control

    PubMed Central

    Engdahl, Susannah M.; Chestek, Cynthia A.; Kelly, Brian; Davis, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Background Surgically invasive interfaces for upper limb prosthesis control may allow users to operate advanced, multi-articulated devices. Given the potential medical risks of these invasive interfaces, it is important to understand what factors influence an individual’s decision to try one. Methods We conducted an anonymous online survey of individuals with upper limb loss. A total of 232 participants provided personal information (such as age, amputation level, etc.) and rated how likely they would be to try noninvasive (myoelectric) and invasive (targeted muscle reinnervation, peripheral nerve interfaces, cortical interfaces) interfaces for prosthesis control. Bivariate relationships between interest in each interface and 16 personal descriptors were examined. Significant variables from the bivariate analyses were then entered into multiple logistic regression models to predict interest in each interface. Results While many of the bivariate relationships were significant, only a few variables remained significant in the regression models. The regression models showed that participants were more likely to be interested in all interfaces if they had unilateral limb loss (p ≤ 0.001, odds ratio ≥ 2.799). Participants were more likely to be interested in the three invasive interfaces if they were younger (p < 0.001, odds ratio ≤ 0.959) and had acquired limb loss (p ≤ 0.012, odds ratio ≥ 3.287). Participants who used a myoelectric device were more likely to be interested in myoelectric control than those who did not (p = 0.003, odds ratio = 24.958). Conclusions Novel prosthesis control interfaces may be accepted most readily by individuals who are young, have unilateral limb loss, and/or have acquired limb loss However, this analysis did not include all possible factors that may have influenced participant’s opinions on the interfaces, so additional exploration is warranted. PMID:28767716

  12. Using vacuum-assisted suspension to manage residual limb wounds in persons with transtibial amputation: a case series.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, Robert D; Sutton, Erin E; Kinor, Deborah; Schaeffer, Julia M; Fatone, Stefania

    2014-02-01

    Persons with amputation and residual limb wounds would benefit from the ability to continue wearing a prosthesis while healing. Sockets with vacuum-assisted suspension may reduce intra-socket motion and be less disruptive to wound healing. The purpose of this case series was to measure residual limb wound size over time in persons with transtibial amputation while using prostheses with vacuum-assisted suspension. Six subjects with residual limb wounds were fit with vacuum-assisted suspension sockets. Wound surface area was calculated using ImageJ software at the time of fit and each subsequent visit until closure. FINDINGS AND OUTCOME: Average wound surface area at initial measurement was 2.17 ± 0.65 cm(2). All subjects were instructed to continue their normal activity level while wounds healed, with a mean of 177.6 ± 113 days to wound closure. Results suggest that well-fitting sockets with vacuum-assisted suspension in compliant individuals did not preclude wound healing. Further research is required to substantiate these case-based observations. Residual limb wounds are typically treated by suspension of prosthetic use until healing occurs, increasing the risk of long-term prosthesis nonuse. Our results suggest that vacuum-assisted suspension sockets may be used while healing occurs.

  13. The Use of Electrical Impedance to Identify Intraneural Needle Placement in Human Peripheral Nerves: A Study on Amputated Human Limbs.

    PubMed

    Vydyanathan, Amaresh; Kosharskyy, Boleslav; Nair, Singh; Gritsenko, Karina; Kim, Ryung S; Wang, Dan; Shaparin, Naum

    2016-07-01

    Even as the use of peripheral nerve blockade in the perioperative setting is increasing, neural injury secondary to accidental intraneural injection remains a significant patient safety concern. Current modalities, including electrical stimulation and ultrasound imaging, still lack consistency and absolute reliability in both the detection and prevention of this complication. The measurement of electrical impedance (EI) could be an easy and valuable additional tool to detect intraneural needle placement. Our objectives in this study were to measure the change in EI with intraneural needle advancement in recently amputated human limbs. The study was conducted within 45 minutes of amputation. The nerves that were studied were the sciatic nerve in the popliteal fossa in above-knee amputations or the tibial nerve below the calf in below-knee amputations. The amputated limb was placed on a tray and under ultrasound imaging guidance, an insulated peripheral block needle connected to a nerve stimulator was placed extraneurally and subsequently advanced intraneurally. The experiment was repeated on the same nerve after exposure by surgical dissection. The differences in impedance measurements between intraneural and extraneural needle placement were compared. In the below-knee amputated extremity (tibial nerve, n = 6) specimens based on the ultrasound methods, mean ± SD for ultrasound-guided intraneural impedance was 10 ± 2 kΩ compared with an extraneural impedance of 6 ± 1.6 kΩ (P = 0.005). The difference between intraneural and extraneural impedance after open dissection was also significant when we repeated the analysis based on the same specimens (P = 0.005). Similarly, in the above-the-knee amputated extremity (sciatic nerve, n = 5) specimens, mean intraneural impedance was 35.2 ± 7.9 kΩ compared with an extraneural impedance of 25.2 ± 5.3 kΩ (P = 0.037). The difference between intraneural and extraneural impedance obtained after open dissection was also

  14. The role of amputation as an outcome measure in cellular therapy for critical limb ischemia: implications for clinical trial design

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells have been ascribed an important therapeutic role in No-Option Critical limb Ischemia (NO-CLI). One primary endpoint for evaluating NO-CLI therapy is major amputation (AMP), which is usually combined with mortality for AMP-free survival (AFS). Only a trial which is double blinded can eliminate physician and patient bias as to the timing and reason for AMP. We examined factors influencing AMP in a prospective double-blinded pilot RCT (2:1 therapy to control) of 48 patients treated with site of service obtained bone marrow cells (BMAC) as well as a systematic review of the literature. Methods Cells were injected intramuscularly in the CLI limbs as either BMAC or placebo (peripheral blood). Six month AMP rates were compared between the two arms. Both patient and treating team were blinded of the assignment in follow-up examinations. A search of the literature identified 9 NO-CLI trials, the control arms of which were used to determine 6 month AMP rates and the influence of tissue loss. Results Fifteen amputations occurred during the 6 month period, 86.7% of these during the first 4 months. One amputation occurred in a Rutherford 4 patient. The difference in amputation rate between patients with rest pain (5.6%) and those with tissue loss (46.7%), irrespective of treatment group, was significant (p = 0.0029). In patients with tissue loss, treatment with BMAC demonstrated a lower amputation rate than placebo (39.1% vs. 71.4%, p = 0.1337). The Kaplan-Meier time to amputation was longer in the BMAC group than in the placebo group (p = 0.067). Projecting these results to a pivotal trial, a bootstrap simulation model showed significant difference in AFS between BMAC and placebo with a power of 95% for a sample size of 210 patients. Meta-analysis of the literature confirmed a difference in amputation rate between patients with tissue loss and rest pain. Conclusions BMAC shows promise in improving AMP-free survival if the

  15. Post-amputation pain is associated with the recall of an impaired body representation in dreams-results from a nation-wide survey on limb amputees.

    PubMed

    Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Schredl, Michael; Diers, Martin; Reinhard, Iris; Foell, Jens; Trojan, Jörg; Fuchs, Xaver; Flor, Herta

    2015-01-01

    The experience of post-amputation pain such as phantom limb pain (PLP) and residual limb pain (RLP), is a common consequence of limb amputation, and its presence has negative effects on a person's well-being. The continuity hypothesis of dreams suggests that the presence of such aversive experiences in the waking state should be reflected in dream content, with the recalled body representation reflecting a cognitive proxy of negative impact. In the present study, we epidemiologically assessed the presence of post-amputation pain and other amputation-related information as well as recalled body representation in dreams in a sample of 3,234 unilateral limb amputees. Data on the site and time of amputation, residual limb length, prosthesis use, lifetime prevalence of mental disorders, presence of post-amputation pain, and presence of non-painful phantom phenomena were included in logistic regression analyses using recalled body representation in dreams (impaired, intact, no memory) as dependent variable. The effects of age, sex, and frequency of dream recall were controlled for. About 22% of the subjects indicated that they were not able to remember their body representation in dreams, another 24% of the amputees recalled themselves as always intact, and only a minority of less than 3% recalled themselves as always impaired. Almost 35% of the amputees dreamed of themselves in a mixed fashion. We found that lower-limb amputation as well as the presence of PLP and RLP was positively associated with the recall of an impaired body representation in dreams. The presence of non-painful phantom phenomena, however, had no influence. These results complement previous findings and indicate complex interactions of physical body appearance and mental body representation, probably modulated by distress in the waking state. The findings are discussed against the background of alterations in cognitive processes after amputation and hypotheses suggesting an innate body model.

  16. Post-Amputation Pain Is Associated with the Recall of an Impaired Body Representation in Dreams—Results from a Nation-Wide Survey on Limb Amputees

    PubMed Central

    Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Schredl, Michael; Diers, Martin; Reinhard, Iris; Foell, Jens; Trojan, Jörg; Fuchs, Xaver; Flor, Herta

    2015-01-01

    The experience of post-amputation pain such as phantom limb pain (PLP) and residual limb pain (RLP), is a common consequence of limb amputation, and its presence has negative effects on a person’s well-being. The continuity hypothesis of dreams suggests that the presence of such aversive experiences in the waking state should be reflected in dream content, with the recalled body representation reflecting a cognitive proxy of negative impact. In the present study, we epidemiologically assessed the presence of post-amputation pain and other amputation-related information as well as recalled body representation in dreams in a sample of 3,234 unilateral limb amputees. Data on the site and time of amputation, residual limb length, prosthesis use, lifetime prevalence of mental disorders, presence of post-amputation pain, and presence of non-painful phantom phenomena were included in logistic regression analyses using recalled body representation in dreams (impaired, intact, no memory) as dependent variable. The effects of age, sex, and frequency of dream recall were controlled for. About 22% of the subjects indicated that they were not able to remember their body representation in dreams, another 24% of the amputees recalled themselves as always intact, and only a minority of less than 3% recalled themselves as always impaired. Almost 35% of the amputees dreamed of themselves in a mixed fashion. We found that lower-limb amputation as well as the presence of PLP and RLP was positively associated with the recall of an impaired body representation in dreams. The presence of non-painful phantom phenomena, however, had no influence. These results complement previous findings and indicate complex interactions of physical body appearance and mental body representation, probably modulated by distress in the waking state. The findings are discussed against the background of alterations in cognitive processes after amputation and hypotheses suggesting an innate body model. PMID

  17. Prevalence of Phantom Limb Pain, Stump Pain, and Phantom Limb Sensation among the Amputated Cancer Patients in India: A Prospective, Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Arif; Bhatnagar, Sushma; Mishra, Seema; Khurana, Deepa; Joshi, Saurabh; Ahmad, Syed Mehmood

    2017-01-01

    The phantom limb pain (PLP) and phantom limb sensation (PLS) are very common among amputated cancer patients, and they lead to considerable morbidity. In spite of this, there is a lack of epidemiological data of this phenomenon among the Asian population. This study was done to provide the data from Indian population. The prevalence of PLP, stump pain (SP), and PLS was prospectively analyzed from the amputated cancer patients over a period of 2 years in Dr. B.R.A. Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. The risk factors and the impact of phantom phenomenon on patients were also noted. The prevalence of PLP was 41% at 3 and 12 months and 45.3% at 6 months, whereas that of SP and PLS was 14.4% and 71.2% at 3 months, 18.75% and 37.1% at 6 months, 15.8% and 32.4% at 12 months, respectively. There was higher prevalence of PLP and PLS among the patients with history of preamputation pain, smoking with proximal level of amputation, receiving general anesthesia, receiving intravenous (IV) opioid postoperative analgesia, and developing neuroma or infection. The prevalence of PLP and PLS was higher among the cancer amputees as compared to SP, and a few risk factors responsible for their higher prevalence were found in our study. The PLP and PLS lead to considerable morbidity in terms of sleep disturbance and depression.

  18. Prevalence of Phantom Limb Pain, Stump Pain, and Phantom Limb Sensation among the Amputated Cancer Patients in India: A Prospective, Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Arif; Bhatnagar, Sushma; Mishra, Seema; Khurana, Deepa; Joshi, Saurabh; Ahmad, Syed Mehmood

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The phantom limb pain (PLP) and phantom limb sensation (PLS) are very common among amputated cancer patients, and they lead to considerable morbidity. In spite of this, there is a lack of epidemiological data of this phenomenon among the Asian population. This study was done to provide the data from Indian population. Methods: The prevalence of PLP, stump pain (SP), and PLS was prospectively analyzed from the amputated cancer patients over a period of 2 years in Dr. B.R.A. Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. The risk factors and the impact of phantom phenomenon on patients were also noted. Results: The prevalence of PLP was 41% at 3 and 12 months and 45.3% at 6 months, whereas that of SP and PLS was 14.4% and 71.2% at 3 months, 18.75% and 37.1% at 6 months, 15.8% and 32.4% at 12 months, respectively. There was higher prevalence of PLP and PLS among the patients with history of preamputation pain, smoking with proximal level of amputation, receiving general anesthesia, receiving intravenous (IV) opioid postoperative analgesia, and developing neuroma or infection. Conclusion: The prevalence of PLP and PLS was higher among the cancer amputees as compared to SP, and a few risk factors responsible for their higher prevalence were found in our study. The PLP and PLS lead to considerable morbidity in terms of sleep disturbance and depression. PMID:28216859

  19. The Perception of Trauma Patients from Social Support in Adjustment to Lower-Limb Amputation: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Valizadeh, Sousan; Dadkhah, Behrouz; Mohammadi, Eissa; Hassankhani, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The effect of amputation on an individual's psychological condition as well as family and social relationships is undeniable because physical disability not just affects the psycho-social adjustment, but also the mental health. When compared to normal people, such people are mostly experiencing social isolation. On the other hand, social support is known as the most powerful force to cope with stressful situations and it allows patients to withstand problems. The present study aims to explain understanding the trauma of patients and the experience of support sources during the process of adaptation to a lower limb amputation. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted using qualitative content analysis. Participants included 20 patients with lower limb amputation due to trauma. Sampling was purposive initially and continued until data saturation. Unstructured interviews were used as the main method of data collection. Collected data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and constant comparison methods. Results: The main theme extracted from the data was support sources. The classes include “supportive family”, “gaining friends’ support”, “gaining morale from peers”, and “assurance and satisfaction with the workplace.” Conclusion: Given the high number of physical, mental and social problems in trauma patients, identifying and strengthening support sources can be effective in their adaptation with the disease and improvement of the quality of their life. PMID:25191013

  20. The influence of balance confidence on social activity after discharge from prosthetic rehabilitation for first lower limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Miller, William C; Deathe, A Barry

    2011-12-01

    Community living individuals with lower limb amputation have low balance confidence but the level of balance confidence in the first six months after discharge from prosthetic rehabilitation is not known. To determine if balance confidence levels differ after discharge from prosthetic rehabilitation and to determine if balance confidence at discharge predicts social activity at three months post-discharge while controlling for important covariates such as walking ability. Prospective study. Subjects (n = 65) experiencing their first unilateral transfemoral or transtibial amputation were recruited and followed-up one and three months post-discharge. Measures of balance confidence (Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale) and walking ability (L Test) collected at discharge were used to predict social activity (Frenchay Activities Index) at follow-up. Despite a 14-second mean improvement in walking ability the mean balance confidence scores did not change significantly between discharge (71.2/100) and at three-month follow-up (69.4/100). Confidence scores and basic walking ability at discharge were the two strongest predictors of three-month social activity. Multiple regression modelling indicated that balance confidence and walking ability explained 64% of the variance (standardized beta = 0.34 and -0.37 respectively) in social activity (adjusted R(2) = 39%). Balance confidence after discharge from prosthetic rehabilitation for lower limb amputation is low and scores do not improve over the first three months post-discharge despite improvements in walking ability. Discharge balance scores confidence independently predicts three-month social activity scores.

  1. Muscle metabolism changes with training in the nonamputated limb after vascular amputation: interest of phosphorus 31 NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dulieu, V; Casillas, J M; Maillefert, J F; Walker, P; Cottin, Y; Didier, J P; Brunotte, F

    1997-08-01

    To determine by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy the efficacy of training in improving aerobic metabolism of calf muscle in nonamputated limb after recent vascular amputation; to assess the possible associated microcirculatory changes; and to evaluate the need for noninvasive monitoring techniques during training in the nonamputated limb after recent vascular amputation. Prospective study, before and after training. Subjects served as their own controls and were compared with a control group. Rehabilitation center of a university hospital. Ten unilateral vascular amputated patients were included with ankle systolic index between 0.5 and 0.8 in the nonamputated limb, and 10 control subjects without cardiovascular disease or risk factors of atherosclerosis with ankle systolic index of >.95. Walking with prosthesis at self-selected velocity over increasing walking distance, arm training at a workload of 60% of a maximal arm test, and analytical exercises of the nonamputated leg (dynamic contractions against low resistance). Subjects received training as inpatients, 5 days a week. Before and after training, ankle systolic index, forefoot transcutaneous oxygen tension (TcPO2) and veno-arteriolar reflex, and digital plethysmography of the second toe with reactive hyperemia test were studied. Changes in calf muscle pH, phosphocreatine (PCr), and inorganic phosphate (Pi) were measured by 31P NMR spectroscopy at rest and during a plantar flexion-type incremental protocol. There was no significant difference in ankle systolic index (.63 +/- .10 vs .64 + .07) or in TcPO2 (42 +/- 11 vs 44 +/- 10mmHg), and there was reappearance of veno-arteriolar reflex in 3 cases, of a plethysmographic signal in 2 cases, and of the positivity of the reactive hyperemia test in 3 cases. No differences were found with 31P NMR spectroscopy at rest before and after training. At the same workload (1 watt) the difference of the ratio (PCr/(PCr + Pi)) of rest to effort (PCr depletion

  2. An event-related potential study on the time course of mental rotation in upper-limb amputees.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Yuanyuan; Guo, Xiaoli; Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Flor, Herta; Tong, Shanbao

    2017-05-01

    Mental rotation of body parts involves sequential cognitive processes, including visual processing, categorization and the mental rotation process itself. However, how these processes are affected by the amputation of a limb is still unclear. Twenty-five right upper-limb amputees and the same number of matched healthy controls participated in a hand mental rotation task. Thirty-two-channel electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded and the event-related potentials (ERPs) were analyzed. In the early visual processing phase, amputees and controls showed a similar P100. During the categorization phase, the amputees exhibited a decreased N200 compared with controls, and the decline was positively correlated with the time since amputation. In the mental rotation phase, controls had a larger ERP for the right upright hand than for the left upright hand, while amputees had a larger ERP for the left (intact) upright hand than for the right (affected) upright hand. Early visual processing was not affected by limb amputation. However, the perceptual salience of hand pictures decreased and the intact hand gained more significance in the amputees. Event-related potentials had the capability of showing the differences in categorization and mental rotation phases between amputees and controls. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Climbing stairs after outpatient rehabilitation for a lower-limb amputation.

    PubMed

    de Laat, Fred A; Rommers, Gerardus M; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Geertzen, Jan H; Roorda, Leo D

    2013-08-01

    To study the necessity and ability to climb stairs in persons after a lower-limb amputation (LLA) and the relation of this ability with personal and clinical variables. Cross-sectional study. Outpatient department of a rehabilitation center. Persons with an LLA (N=155; mean age ± SD, 64.1 ± 11.2y; 73% men). Not applicable. The necessity to climb stairs was assessed with the Prosthetic Profile of the Amputee. Several indicators of the ability to climb stairs were assessed including: (1) independence in climbing stairs with a handrail and (2) without a handrail, according to the Locomotor Capabilities Index; (3) numbers of floors actually climbed, according to a rating scale; and (4) limitations in climbing stairs, according to the Climbing Stairs Questionnaire (range, 0-100, with higher scores indicating less limitations). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between the ability to climb stairs and personal and clinical variables. Of the participants, 47% had to climb stairs. The ability to climb stairs was: (1) 62% independently climbed stairs with a handrail and (2) 21% without a handrail; (3) 32% didn't climb any stairs, 34% climbed half a floor or 1 floor, and 34% climbed ≥ 2 floors; (4) the median sum score (interquartile range) of the Climbing Stairs Questionnaire was 38 (19-63), indicating marked limitations. Older participants and women were less able to climb stairs with and without a handrail. A considerable number of persons with an LLA have to climb stairs in their home environment. Many of them, especially older participants and women, are particularly hampered in their ability to climb stairs. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Is Limb Salvage With Microwave-induced Hyperthermia Better Than Amputation for Osteosarcoma of the Distal Tibia?

    PubMed

    Han, Kang; Dang, Peiye; Bian, Na; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Tongtao; Fan, QingYu; Zhou, Yong; Zhao, Tingbao; Wang, Pingshan

    2017-06-01

    Amputation has been the standard surgical treatment for distal tibia osteosarcoma owing to its unique anatomic features. Preliminary research suggested that microwave-induced hyperthermia may have a role in treating osteosarcoma in some locations of the body (such as the pelvis), but to our knowledge, no comparative study has evaluated its efficacy in a difficult-to-treat location like the distal tibia. Does microwave-induced hyperthermia result in (1) improved survival, (2) decreased local recurrence, (3) improved Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) scores, or (4) fewer complications than amputation in patients with a distal tibial osteosarcoma? Between 2000 and 2015, we treated 79 patients for a distal tibia osteosarcoma without metastases. Of those, 52 were treated with microwave-induced hyperthermia, and 27 with amputation. Patients were considered eligible for microwave-induced hyperthermia if they had an at least 20-mm available distance from the tumor edge to the articular surface, good clinical and imaging response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and no pathologic fracture. Patients not meeting these indications were treated with amputation. In addition, if neither the posterior tibial artery nor the dorsalis pedis artery was salvageable, the patients were treated with amputation and were not included in any group in this study. A total of 13 other patients were treated with conventional limb-salvage resections and reconstructions (at the request of the patient, based on patient preference) and were not included in this study. All 79 patients in this retrospective study were available for followup at a minimum of 12 months (mean followup in the hyperthermia group, 79 months, range 12-158 months; mean followup in the amputation group, 95 months, range, 15-142 months). With the numbers available, the groups were no different in terms of sex, age, tumor grade, tumor stage, or tumor size. All statistical tests were two-sided, and a probability less than 0.05 was

  5. Upper limb malformations in DiGeorge syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Cormier-Daire, V.; Iserin, L.; Sidi, D.

    1995-03-13

    We report on upper limb anomalies in two children with a complete DiGeorge sequence: conotruncal defects, hypocalcemia, thymic aplasia, and facial anomalies. One child had preaxial polydactyly, and the other had club hands with hypoplastic first metacarpal. In both patients, molecular analysis documented a 22q11 deletion. To our knowledge, limb anomalies have rarely been reported in DiGeorge syndrome, and they illustrate the variable clinical expression of chromosome 22q11 deletions. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  6. A passively safe cable driven upper limb rehabilitation exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanyan; Fan, Jizhuang; Zhu, Yanhe; Zhao, Jie; Cai, Hegao

    2015-01-01

    When using upper limb exoskeletons that assist the movement of physically weak people, safety should be the most important index. In this paper, a passively safe, cable-driven upper limb exoskeleton with parallel actuated joints, which perfectly mimics human motions, is proposed. Compared with the existing upper limb exoskeletons which are mostly designed only considering the realization of functional properties, and having poor wearabity, a passively safe prototype for motion assistance based on human anatomy structure has been developed in our design. This design is based on the prior exoskeleton structure with the adoption of a gravity balanced device. The gravity balanced mechanism was confirmed in theory and simulation, showing it has a positive effect on balance.

  7. Therapeutic angiogenesis with intramuscular NV1FGF improves amputation-free survival in patients with critical limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Nikol, Sigrid; Baumgartner, Iris; Van Belle, Eric; Diehm, Curt; Visoná, Adriana; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Ferreira-Maldent, Nicole; Gallino, Augusto; Wyatt, Michael Graham; Wijesinghe, Lasantha Dinesh; Fusari, Melissa; Stephan, Dominique; Emmerich, Joseph; Pompilio, Giulio; Vermassen, Frank; Pham, Emmanuel; Grek, Vincent; Coleman, Michael; Meyer, François

    2008-05-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of intramuscular administration of NV1FGF, a plasmid-based angiogenic gene delivery system for local expression of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1), versus placebo, in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, European, multinational study, 125 patients in whom revascularization was not considered to be a suitable option, presenting with nonhealing ulcer(s), were randomized to receive eight intramuscular injections of placebo or 2.5 ml of NV1FGF at 0.2 mg/ml on days 1, 15, 30, and 45 (total 16 mg: 4 x 4 mg). The primary end point was occurrence of complete healing of at least one ulcer in the treated limb at week 25. Secondary end points included ankle brachial index (ABI), amputation, and death. There were 107 patients eligible for evaluation. Improvements in ulcer healing were similar for use of NV1FGF (19.6%) and placebo (14.3%; P = 0.514). However, the use of NV1FGF significantly reduced (by twofold) the risk of all amputations [hazard ratio (HR) 0.498; P = 0.015] and major amputations (HR 0.371; P = 0.015). Furthermore, there was a trend for reduced risk of death with the use of NV1FGF (HR 0.460; P = 0.105). The adverse event incidence was high, and similar between the groups. In patients with CLI, plasmid-based NV1FGF gene transfer was well tolerated, and resulted in a significantly reduced risk of major amputation when compared with placebo.

  8. [Therapeutic approach in vascular injuries of the lower extremity: Amputation or limb salvage].

    PubMed

    Ozal, E; Us, M H; Bingöl, H; Oz, B S; Kuralay, E; Tatar, H

    2001-07-01

    The management of lower extremity trauma with vasculary involvement should be directed toward to the salvage of the extremity or to the primary amputation according to the additional pathologies, parameters of the patient and the extremity. We investigated the efficiency of Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) system which is proposed as an grading system to evaluate the change to extremity salvage or the risk for onset of systemic complications. 81 patients with lower extremity trauma were analyzed according to MESS criteria. 79 of the patients were men and mean age was 23 +/- 4. Fourteen patients had higher MESS score. (MESS > 7). Seven of them were older than 50 years. Primary amputation was performed in four of these 7 patients. Vascular repair was performed in three of patients. Multiorgan failure was developed in two of them and both patients died. Secondary amputation was performed to another patients underwent vasculary repair who had MESS > 7 score. Primary amputation was not performed directly in young patients who had MESS > 7. Secondary amputation was required in two of these patients. MESS scoring system can easily predict amputation in older patients but may cause unnecessary amputation in young patients.

  9. Total and subtotal amputation of lower limbs treated by acute shortening, revascularization and early limb lengthening with ilizarov ring fixation - a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Kovoor, C C; George, V V; Jayakumar, R; Guild, A J; Bhaskar, D; Cyriac, A

    2015-10-01

    We present the results of 15 patients who sustained total or subtotal traumatic amputation of the lower limbs who were treated by acute limb shortening and stabilisation with external fixator, revascularization and early lengthening with Ilizarov ring fixator. The mean age of the patients was 28 years [5-38]. There were three females and 12 males. The mean Mangled Extremity Severity Score was 8.5 [range 6-11]. The mean amount of shortening done was 6.9cm [range 3-12.5] to enable revascularization and soft tissue repair. Three cases had to be amputated early because of failure of vascular repair. In the remaining 12 patients who were followed up the mean interval between revascularization and application of Ilizarov ring fixator was 4.7 weeks [range 3-10]. The mean follow up was 6.5 years [3-16 years]. Union occurred in all patients. Ten of the 12 patients returned to work and residual shortening was present in two cases. We conclude that whenever possible lower limb salvage should be undertaken.

  10. Phantom limb pain after amputation in diabetic patients does not differ from that after amputation in nondiabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Clark, Roger L; Bowling, Frank L; Jepson, Fergus; Rajbhandari, Satyan

    2013-05-01

    There is a commonly held belief that diabetic amputees experience less phantom limb pain than nondiabetic amputees because of the effects of diabetic peripheral neuropathy; however, evidence to verify this claim is scarce. In this study, a customised postal questionnaire was used to examine the effects of diabetes on the prevalence, characteristics, and intensity of phantom limb pain (PLP) and phantom sensations (PS) in a representative group of lower-limb amputees. Participants were divided into those who had self-reported diabetes (DM group) and those who did not (ND group). Participants with diabetes were further divided into those with long-duration diabetes (>10years) and those with short-duration diabetes. Two hundred questionnaires were sent, from which 102 responses were received. The overall prevalence of PLP was 85.6% and there was no significant difference between the DM group (82.0%) and the ND group (89.4%) (P=0.391). There was also no difference in the prevalence of PS: DM group (66.0%), ND group (70.2%) (P=0.665). The characteristics of the pain were very similar in both groups, with sharp/stabbing pain being most common. Using a 0-10 visual analogue scale, the average intensity of PLP was 3.89 (±0.40) for the DM group and 4.38 (±0.41) for the ND group, which was not a statistically significant difference (P=0.402). Length of time since diagnosis of diabetes showed no correlation with average PLP intensity. Our findings suggest that there is no large difference in the prevalence, characteristics, or intensity of PLP when comparing diabetic and nondiabetic amputees, though a larger adjusted comparison would be valuable.

  11. Myoelectric Activation Pattern Changes in the Involved Limb of Individuals With Transtibial Amputation During Locomotor State Transitions.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Bryson H; Hahn, Michael E

    2017-06-01

    To investigate whether lower extremity muscle activation patterns differ in the strides leading to locomotive state transitions in the involved limb of individuals with transtibial amputation. It is hypothesized that all transitions elicit activation differences between strides as the subjects move toward the transition event. Single-sample, observational study. University research center. Volunteer sample of persons with unilateral transtibial amputation (N=9; mean age, 48.8±12.1y; mean height, 1.74±0.09m; mean weight, 86.1±24.7kg) were recruited by posting flyers in local prosthetics clinics. Not applicable. Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activation from 7 muscles of the involved limb. Subjects walked across 8 different terrain conditions transitioning from level-ground to ramp/stair locomotion and vice versa. Statistical Parametric Mapping analysis of variance (α<.05) was used to assess muscle activation differences in the 3 pretransition gait cycles as subjects moved toward the terrain change. No muscle activation changes were observed in ramp transitions. All stair transitions elicited a myoelectric difference in at least 2 muscles. The transition from stair descent to level ground elicited change in the greatest number of muscles. Tibialis anterior activation was unchanged in all transitions. Muscle activation differences were observed in the involved limb of individuals with transtibial amputation during stair transitions, suggesting that those patterns may be successfully used in transition detection algorithms. It remains unknown whether ramp transitions can be successfully identified pretransition using electromyography. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Peripheral arterial disease and diabetes related lower limb amputations. Presentation of the epidemiological data and the analysis of potentialities in preventive strategy].

    PubMed

    Kolossváry, Endre; Járai, Zoltán; Farkas, Katalin

    2016-08-01

    Lower limb amputation as one of the most devastating consequences of peripheral arterial disease and diabetes mellitus needs peculiar attention. This review aims at comparing Hungarian and international amputation data. Realizing the great variability of the global amputation incidence and trends data, the main determinants of this variety are assessed. These factors involve methodological differences in reporting, demographic, epidemiological, economic, societal and cultural variation of the affected populations and differences in the health care service. The amputation hazard can be considered as an example of lifetime risk that can be characterized by complex interaction of contionuously changing risk factor pattern. In that sense an effective preventive strategy planning needs complex measure implementations that associate with multidisciplinary approach, timely complex preventive interventions and centralized vascular care. Research and development on amputation field shows clear priority that can contribute to the better understanding of this extremely complex scenario with significant public health consequences. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(32), 1266-1274.

  13. Physical and functional measures related to low back pain in individuals with lower-limb amputation: an exploratory pilot study.

    PubMed

    Friel, Karen; Domholdt, Elizabeth; Smith, Douglas G

    2005-01-01

    For this study, we compared the physical impairments and functional deficits of individuals with lower-limb amputation (LLA) for those with and without low back pain (LBP). Nineteen participants with LLA were placed into two groups based on visual analog scores of LBP. We assessed functional limitations, iliopsoas length, hamstring length, abdominal strength, back extensor strength, and back extensor endurance. Data analysis included correlations and t-tests. We found significant correlations between pain score and functional limitations, iliopsoas length, and back extensor endurance. We also detected significant differences in functional limitations, iliopsoas length, back extensor strength, and back extensor endurance between those with and without LBP. We saw significant differences in back extensor strength and back extensor endurance between those with transtibial and transfemoral amputations. Differences exist in physical measures of individuals with LLA with and without LBP. Clinicians should consider these impairments in individuals with amputation who experience LBP. Because of the participants' characteristics, these findings may be applicable to veterans with LLA.

  14. The Osseointegration Group of Australia Accelerated Protocol (OGAAP-1) for two-stage osseointegrated reconstruction of amputated limbs.

    PubMed

    Muderis, M Al; Tetsworth, K; Khemka, A; Wilmot, S; Bosley, B; Lord, S J; Glatt, V

    2016-07-01

    This study describes the Osseointegration Group of Australia's Accelerated Protocol two-stage strategy (OGAAP-1) for the osseointegrated reconstruction of amputated limbs. We report clinical outcomes in 50 unilateral trans-femoral amputees with a mean age of 49.4 years (24 to 73), with a minimum one-year follow-up. Outcome measures included the Questionnaire for persons with a Trans-Femoral Amputation, the health assessment questionnaire Short-Form-36 Health Survey, the Amputation Mobility Predictor scores presented as K-levels, 6 Minute Walk Test and timed up and go tests. Adverse events included soft-tissue problems, infection, fractures and failure of the implant. Our results demonstrated statistically significant improvements in all five outcome measures. A total of 27 patients experienced adverse events but at the conclusion of the study, all 50 were walking on osseointegrated prostheses. These results demonstrate that osseointegrated prostheses are a suitable alternative to socket-fit devices for amputees experiencing socket-related discomfort and that our strategy offers more rapid progress to walking than other similar protocols. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:952-60. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  15. A short overview of upper limb rehabilitation devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macovei, S.; Doroftei, I.

    2016-08-01

    As some studies show, the number of people over 65 years old increases constantly, leading to the need of solution to provide services regarding patient mobility. Diseases, accidents and neurologic problems affect hundreds of people every day, causing pain and lost of motor functions. The ability of using the upper limb is indispensable for a human being in everyday activities, making easy tasks like drinking a glass of water a real challenge. We can agree that physiotherapy promotes recovery, but not at an optimal level, due to limited financial and human resources. Hence, the need of robot-assisted rehabilitation emerges. A robot for upper-limb exercises should have a design that can accurately control interaction forces and progressively adapt assistance to the patients’ abilities and also to record the patient's motion and evolution. In this paper a short overview of upper limb rehabilitation devices is presented. Our goal is to find the shortcomings of the current developed devices in terms of utility, ease of use and costs, for future development of a mechatronic system for upper limb rehabilitation.

  16. Measuring continuous real-world upper-limb activity.

    PubMed

    Vega-Gonzalez, A; Bain, B J; Granat, M H

    2005-01-01

    The Strathclyde Upper-Limb Activity Monitor (SULAM) was used to assess real-world upper-limb activity. The SULAM consists of an electro-hydraulic activity-sensor which measures the vertical displacement of the wrist in relation to the shoulder. The aims of this study were to obtain a profile of upper-limb activity in two different populations (able-bodied participants and stroke patients) Ten able-bodied volunteers and ten stroke patients-wore the SULAM while performing their everyday activities. The outcome measures were movement time, its distribution in five vertical ranges, bimanual and unimanual movement time. There was a difference in the use of both upper-limbs for both groups, favouring the dominant/unaffected arm. This difference was only in two of the five ranges (chest to shoulder and shoulder to head for able-bodied participants; waist to chest and chest to shoulder for stroke patients). Bimanual movement was greater than unimanual movement for able-bodied participants whereas unimanual movement was greater than bimanual movement for stroke patients.

  17. Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy in the treatment of upper limb hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Malone, P. S.; Cameron, A. E.; Rennie, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    The technique of endoscopic sympathectomy is described and its value in the treatment of upper limb hyperhidrosis is reported in an initial series of 7 patients (13 sympathectomies). It is recommended as the treatment of choice for this condition. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:3954316

  18. Upper limb tendinitis and entrapment neuropathy in coal miners.

    PubMed

    Özdolap, Senay; Emre, Ufuk; Karamercan, Ayşe; Sarikaya, Selda; Köktürk, Fürüzan

    2013-05-01

    It is well-known that work-related upper limb musculoskeletal disorders, particularly tendinitis and nerve entrapment, remain a difficult and costly problem in industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate tendinitis and entrapment neuropathy of the upper limb of Turkish coal miners. Eighty coal miners and 43 age-matched clerical workers were included in the study. The evaluation procedures included collection of personal and clinical data, physical examination and bilateral electrodiagnostic testing. Subjects were examined to diagnose tendinitis and nerve entrapment of the upper limb. Bilateral median and ulnar nerves conduction tests were performed on all subjects. Data were collected between August 2011 and December 2011. There were 33 subjects with lateral epicondylitis, 10 with medial epicondylitis, and 22 with De Quervain's disease among the coal miners. There were seven subjects with lateral epicondylitis, eight with medial epicondylitis, and four with De Quervain's disease in the control group. The two groups significantly differed in the prevalences of lateral epicondylitis and De Quervain's disease (P = 0.024 and P =0.029, respectively). Sixteen subjects in the coal miners and 12 subjects in the controls had carpal tunnel syndrome (P = 0.66). Thirty-seven subjects in the coal miners had ulnar neuropathy of the elbow (UNE), while four subjects in the controls had UNE; this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Lateral epicondylitis, De Quervain disease, and ulnar neuropathy are common work-related upper limb disorders among coal miners. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [Upper thoracic sympathectomy in treatment of upper limb ischaemia in distal lesions of the arterial bed].

    PubMed

    Alukhanian, O A; Martirosian, Kh G; Aristov, D S; Kurganskiĭ, O V

    2013-01-01

    Analysed herein was efficacy of 76 videothoracoscopic upper chest sympathectomies performed for upper limb ischaemia in a total of 61 patients. Of these, 15 patients were found to suffer bilateral lesions. The findings of clinical follow up and instrumental examinations (laser Doppler flowmetry, rheovasography, measuring transcranial oxygen tension in tissues) made it possible to draw a conclusion on efficacy of upper chest sympathectomy in distal lesions of the vascular bed of the upper extremities.

  20. Preliminary development of a diabetic foot ulcer database from a wound electronic medical record: A tool to decrease limb amputations

    PubMed Central

    Golinko, Michael S.; Margolis, David J.; Tal, Adit; Hoffstad, Ole; Boulton, Andrew J. M.; Brem, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to create a practical standardized database of clinically relevant variables in the care of patients with diabetes and foot ulcers. Numerical clinical variables such as age, baseline laboratory values, and wound area were extracted from the wound electronic medical record (WEMR). A coding system was developed to translate narrative data, culture, and pathology reports into discrete, quantifiable variables. Using data extracted from the WEMR, a diabetic foot ulcer-specific database incorporated the following tables: (1) demographics, medical history, and baseline laboratory values; (2) vascular testing data; (3) radiology data; (4) wound characteristics; and (5) wound debridement data including pathology, culture results, and amputation data. The database contains variables that can be easily exported for analysis. Amputation was studied in 146 patients who had at least two visits (e.g., two entries in the database). Analysis revealed that 19 (13%) patients underwent 32 amputations (nine major and 23 minor) in 23 limbs. There was a decreased risk of amputation, 0.87 (0.78, 1.00), using a proportional hazards model, associated with an increased number of visits and entries in the WEMR. Further analysis revealed no significant difference in age, gender, HbA1c%, cholesterol, white blood cell count, or prealbumin at baseline, whereas hemoglobin and albumin were significantly lower in the amputee group (p < 0.05) than the nonamputee group. Fifty-nine percent of amputees had histological osteomyelitis based on operating room biopsy vs. 45% of non-amputees. In conclusion, tracking patients with a WEMR is a tool that could potentially increase patient safety and quality of care, allowing clinicians to more easily identify a nonhealing wound and intervene. This report describes a method of capturing data relevant to clinical care of a patient with a diabetic foot ulcer, and may enable clinicians to adapt such a system to their own patient population. PMID

  1. An exploratory phenomenological study exploring the experiences of people with systemic disease who have undergone lower limb amputation and its impact on their psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Washington, Elaine D; Williams, Anita E

    2016-02-01

    Amputation is a life-changing event accompanied by challenges for the affected person with time-dependent depression often used to quantify its level of impact on their psychological well-being. There are varied factors that contribute to this and its persistence. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences over time of people with diabetes and/or peripheral vascular disease following an amputation and the impact on their psychological well-being. To develop an understanding of the experience of living with an amputation and a chronic condition in order to help clinicians identify those in need of counselling support. A qualitative study utilising an iterative approach in line with the philosophy of interpretive phenomenology. Six participants who had experienced a lower limb amputation associated with peripheral vascular disease/diabetes were interviewed on two occasions (baseline and 4 months). An interpretative phenomenological approach was utilised for both data collection and analysis. For these participants, amputation was part of the chronology of their chronic disease. It was the individual's variable experience of health which impacted their psychological well-being rather than the length of time since amputation. The multivariable experience of amputation means that individually tailored counselling/psychological support is recommended. An understanding of how the experience of living with an amputation and a chronic condition may change over time will help clinicians to identify the ongoing need for counselling support. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  2. Immunological status in patients with lower limb amputation due to peripheral arterial disease before and after comprehensive rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Štefančič, Martin; Prešern-Štrukelj, Metka; Vidmar, Gaj; Kotnik, Vladimir; Kopitarl, Andreja Nataša; Ihan, Alojz

    2015-03-01

    The immunological status before and after a comprehensive rehabilitation program was studied. Seven persons (4 males, 3 females, mean age 71.4 years) after lower limb amputation due to peripheral arterial disease (PAD) were subject to standard comprehensive rehabilitation program for amputees of four-week duration, which included training in activities of daily living, daily exercise of various types, training of crutch-assisted gait and use of leg prosthesis, and mild transcutaneous electrical stimulation. Before and after rehabilitation, peripherial blood was collected and the number and ratio of white blood cells were determined and analysed for the expression of cell surface antigens (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD25, CD69), cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-4) and phagocytosis/oxidative killing functional tests. Due to strict patient selection criteria excluding serious accompanying disease, immunological parameters were within normal limits already before rehabilitation. After rehabilitation, an increase in oxidative burst was observed in monocytes and neutrophil granulocytes, but statistically significant only in monocytes. The expression of CD69 molecules by T cells and monocytes was significantly increased, as well as the expression of IL-4 by T cells. A significant decrease in the ratio of CD4 to CD8 cells was also found, but not a clinically critical one. It can therefore be concluded that the comprehensive rehabilitation treatment in patients with lower limb amputation due to PAD led to some--prevailingly positive--immunological changes, which were consistent with the patients' improved physical condition and clinical status.

  3. Upper Limb Multifactorial Movement Analysis in Brachial Plexus Birth Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bahm, Jorg

    2016-01-01

    Multifactorial motion analysis was first established for gait and then developed in the upper extremity. Recordings of infrared light reflecting sensitive passive markers in space, combined with surface eletromyographic recordings and/or transmitted forces, allow eclectic study of muscular coordination in the upper limb. Brachial plexus birth injury is responsible for various patterns of muscle weakness, imbalance, and/or simultaneous activation, soft tissue contractures, and bone-joint deformities, leading to individual motion patterns and adaptations, which we studied by means of motion analysis tools. We describe the technical development and examination setup to evaluate motion impairment and present first clinical results. Motion analysis is a reliable objective assessment tool allowing precise pre- and postoperative multimodal evaluation of upper limb function. Level of evidence: II. PMID:28077954

  4. Cognitive predictors of skilled performance with an advanced upper limb multifunction prosthesis: a preliminary analysis.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Laura; Correia, Stephen; Ahern, David; Barredo, Jennifer; Resnik, Linda

    2017-07-01

    Purpose The objectives were to 1) identify major cognitive domains involved in learning to use the DEKA Arm; 2) specify cognitive domain-specific skills associated with basic versus advanced users; and 3) examine whether baseline memory and executive function predicted learning. Method Sample included 35 persons with upper limb amputation. Subjects were administered a brief neuropsychological test battery prior to start of DEKA Arm training, as well as physical performance measures at the onset of, and following training. Multiple regression models controlling for age and including neuropsychological tests were developed to predict physical performance scores. Prosthetic performance scores were divided into quartiles and independent samples t-tests compared neuropsychological test scores of advanced scorers and basic scorers. Baseline neuropsychological test scores were used to predict change in scores on physical performance measures across time. Results Cognitive domains of attention and processing speed were statistically significantly related to proficiency of DEKA Arm use and predicted level of proficiency. Conclusions Results support use of neuropsychological tests to predict learning and use of a multifunctional prosthesis. Assessment of cognitive status at the outset of training may help set expectations for the duration and outcomes of treatment. Implications for Rehabilitation Cognitive domains of attention and processing speed were significantly related to level of proficiencyof an advanced multifunctional prosthesis (the DEKA Arm) after training. Results provide initial support for the use of neuropsychological tests to predict advanced learningand use of a multifunctional prosthesis in upper-limb amputees. Results suggest that assessment of patients' cognitive status at the outset of upper limb prosthetictraining may, in the future, help patients, their families and therapists set expectations for theduration and intensity of training and may help set

  5. Upper limb ischaemia after formation of dialysis fistula.

    PubMed

    Bojakowski, Krzysztof; Góra, Rafał; Jodkowski, Grzegorz; Andziak, Piotr

    2013-11-01

    Limb ischaemia caused by formation of dialysis fistula is rare but serious complication. The severity of symptoms may vary but rest pains and necrotic lesions are observed in most advance cases. In these patients different invasive procedures for treatment are performed - from simplest dialysis fistula ligation to complicated vascular reconstructions. The aim of the study was to evaluate treatment results of upper limb ischaemia triggered by dialysis fistula. We have analysed methods and results of treatment of 14 patients with symptomatic upper limb ischaemia caused by dialysis fistula treated in our department between 1st January, 2006 and 30th June, 2013. Treatment was subject to anatomical situation and clinical symptoms. In three patients the ligation of dialysis fistula was performed, four patients underwent inflow reconstruction - in one case by ligation of ligation of vein branch, in three patients by cephalic transfer of arterial anastomosis. In 2 patients hyperkinetic fistula aneurysm was excised and replaced by PTFE bypass, in three patients fistula reconstruction with DRIL method (distal revascularization - interval ligation) was performed, in one patient surgical operation of brachial artery stenosis was conducted. One patient underwent brachial artery angioplasty. Rest pains occurred in all patients (100%), regressive changes in 10 patients (71.4%). Eight patients (57.2%) had concomitant diabetes, seven (50%) ischaemic heart disease, five (35.5%) chronic lower limb ischemia and hyperparathyroidism was observed in fivepatients (35.5%). The imaging studies in all patients revealed pathological steal syndrome (stealing blood to the fistula), in majority concurrent with other pathologies - obstruction stenosis of peripheral artery, defects in blood out flow from the limb. As a result of the surgical treatment, symptoms of limb ischaemia subsided in all patients. Critical limb ischaemia caused by dialysis fistula is a dangerous complication. In most cases

  6. Lower limb amputation in England: prevalence, regional variation and relationship with revascularisation, deprivation and risk factors. A retrospective review of hospital data.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Naseer; Thomas, G Neil; Gill, Paramjit; Chan, Colin; Torella, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    We describe the prevalence of major lower limb amputation across England and its relationship with revascularisation, patient demography and disease risk factors. Retrospective cohort study. England 1 April 2003 to 31 March 2009. Patients aged 50-84 years. Age standardised prevalence rates were calculated using Hospital Episode Statistics as the numerator with census data as the denominator. The outcome measure 'amputation with revascularisation' was created if an amputation could be linked with a revascularisation. Logistic regression determined the odds of having an amputation with a revascularisation across England. Regression was performed unadjusted and repeated after controlling for demographic (age, sex, social deprivation) and disease risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, smoking). There were 25,312 amputations and 136,215 revascularisations, and 7543 cases were linked. The prevalence rate per 100,000 (95% confidence intervals) for amputation was 26.3 (26.0-26.6) with rates significantly higher in Northern England (North: 31.7; 31.0-32.3, Midlands: 26.0; 25.3-26.7, South: 23.1; 22.6-23.5). The revascularisation rate was 141.6 (140.8-142.3) with significantly higher rates again in Northern England (North: 182.1; 180.5-183.7, Midlands: 121.3; 119.8-122.9, South 124.9; 123.9-125.8). The odds of having an amputation with a revascularisation remained significantly higher in the North (OR 1.22; 1.13-1.33) even after controlling demographic and disease risk factors. There is a North-South divide in England for both major lower limb amputation and revascularisation. The higher odds of having an amputation with a revascularisation in the North were not fully explained by greater levels of deprivation or disease risk factors. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Influence of Immediate and Delayed Lower-Limb Amputation Compared with Lower-Limb Salvage on Functional and Mental Health Outcomes Post-Rehabilitation in the U.K. Military.

    PubMed

    Ladlow, Peter; Phillip, Rhodri; Coppack, Russell; Etherington, John; Bilzon, James; McGuigan, M Polly; Bennett, Alexander N

    2016-12-07

    Medical practitioners face difficult decisions over whether to amputate or to salvage a lower limb that has undergone trauma. To our knowledge, there has been little evidence reporting the impact of different surgical decisions on functional and mental health outcomes following intensive rehabilitation that might inform decision-making. This study is a retrospective, independent-group comparison of rehabilitation outcomes from a U.K. military complex trauma rehabilitation center. There were 100 procedures examined: 36 unilateral amputations (11 immediate-below-the-knee amputations, 15 delayed below-the-knee amputations, and 10 immediate above-the-knee amputations), 43 bilateral amputations, and 21 single-limb salvages (including 13 below-the-knee limb salvages); the patients had a mean age (and standard deviation) of 29 ± 6 years and a mean New Injury Severity Score of 34 ± 15 points. The outcome measures at completion of rehabilitation included a 6-minute walk test (6MWT), Defence Medical Rehabilitation Centre mobility and activities of daily living scores, screening for depression (Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]) and general anxiety disorder (General Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale [GAD-7]), mental health support, and pain scores. On completion of their rehabilitation, the unilateral amputation group walked significantly farther in 6 minutes (564 ± 92 m) than the limb-salvage group (483 ± 108 m; p < 0.05) and the bilateral amputation group (409 ± 106 m; p < 0.001). The delayed below-the-knee amputation group (595 ± 89 m) walked significantly farther than the group with limb salvage below the knee (472 ± 110 m; p < 0.05), and there was no significant difference between the group with delayed below-the-knee amputation and the group with immediate below-the-knee amputation (598 ± 63 m; p > 0.05). The limb-salvage group was less capable of running independently compared with all amputee groups. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were reported in mean

  8. Limb ischaemia and below-knee amputation following life-saving patent ductus arteriosus stent in a critically ill infant.

    PubMed

    Bharmanee, Apinya; Gowda, Srinath; Singh, Harinder R

    2015-08-01

    Limb ischaemia is a rare but catastrophic complication related to cardiac catheterisation. We report an infant weighing 3 kg with unrepaired tricuspid atresia type 1b, small patent ductus arteriosus, and ventricular septal defect presenting with cardiogenic shock owing to progressively reduced pulmonary blood flow from closing ventricular septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus. An emergency palliative ductal stent was successfully placed with marked clinical improvement. However, acute limb ischaemia developed necessitating above-knee amputation, despite medical management and vascular surgery. The cause of limb loss in our patient was catheterisation-related vascular injury causing arterial dissection-arterial thrombosis in the presence of shock and coagulopathy. This report emphasises the complexity in managing limb ischaemia associated with coagulopathy and highlights the importance of early recognition of reduced pulmonary flow in a single ventricle patient. Timely elective placement of a surgical systemic to pulmonary shunt would prevent catastrophic clinical presentation of compromised pulmonary flow and avoid the need for an emergent life-saving intervention and its associated complications.

  9. Radiofrequency upper thoracic sympathectomy in the treatment of critical upper limb ischemia--a case series.

    PubMed

    Gabrhelik, Tomas; Stehlik, Daniel; Adamus, Milan; Zalesak, Bohumil; Michalek, Pavel

    2013-06-01

    Patients with significant medical and social problems resulting from impaired perfusion of the upper limbs caused by micro- or macro-angiopathy are now frequent in clinical practice. Vasospastic disease of the upper limbs of combined origin is a difficult condition to treat by conservative methods and therapeutic strategies are usually multidisciplinary. In addition to standard pharmacotherapy, treatment may involve regional anaesthesia, thoracoscopic or radiofrequency sympathectomy and surgical treatment of defects, including plastic surgery. This paper describes our successful work in the treatment of upper limb critical ischemia using radiofrequency upper thoracic sympathectomy. In three case reports we present the results of radiofrequency thermolysis applied to treat patients with chronic defects of the hand and fingers. These patients were diagnosed with upper limb critical ischemia of combined origin, standard conservative treatment methods failed and surgical intervention was originally not indicated, however, radiofrequency thermolysis proved to be beneficial. Radiofrequency thoracic sympathectomy could improve peripheral perfusion of the upper limbs and thereby contribute to healing of chronic defects, reduction of pain and improvement in the quality of life of the patients.

  10. A Prosthesis to Train the Proprioceptive Capabilities of the Residual Limb of Military Personnel Recovering from Lower Limb Amputation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    10-1-0573 TITLE: A prosthesis to train the proprioceptive capabilities of the residual limb of military personnel recovering from lower limb...To) 1September2011-31August2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Prosthesis to Train the Proprioceptive Capabilities of the 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  11. Mirror treatment of lower limb phantom pain: a case study.

    PubMed

    MacLachlan, Malcolm; McDonald, Dympna; Waloch, Justine

    Phantom limb pain (PLP) can be an enduring and distressing experience for people with amputations. Previous research has shown that 'mirror treatment' can reduce PLP for some people who have an upper limb amputation, and that it can increase a sense of motor control over the phantom in people with lower limb amputations who are not reporting PLP. There has been no previous report of therapeutic 'mirror treatment' for lower-limb phantom pain. We present the first case study of the use of 'mirror treatment' in a person with a lower limb amputation who was reporting PLP at the time of treatment. During the intervention there was a significant reduction in his PLP, an increase in sense of motor control over the phantom and a change in aspects of the phantom limb that was experienced. This case study, conducted in a conventional clinical setting, supports the potential of 'mirror treatment' for PLP in people with a lower limb amputation.

  12. Congenital amputation involving the hands and feet: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yiltok, S J; Nnadozie, U U; Onche, I I; Ebune, O S; Osho, O P

    2008-01-01

    Congenital amputation of the limbs is not uncommon. However, it is very rare when this involves both the upper and lower limbs. This is a case report of a child who presented with congenital amputation involving both the upper and lower limbs. The patient was a 10-day-old baby girl that was delivered by a 21-year-old woman. She is the first and only child of the woman, whose pregnancy was uneventful and was carried to term. There is no family history of congenital anomalies. The findings on examination were: amputation of the index, middle and ring fingers at the level of metacarpophalangeal joints on both hands and a partial amputation (at the level of the middle phalanx) of the left little finger. There were forefoot amputations on both lower limbs. Scars were noticed over the amputation stumps with no associated congenital anomaly. Congenital amputation involving all limbs as an isolated entity is a rare condition; the cause of which is probably as a result of congenital amniotic bands.

  13. Motor Impairment Evaluation for Upper Limb in Stroke Patients on the Basis of a Microsensor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Shuai; Luo, Chun; Ye, Shiwei; Liu, Fei; Xie, Bin; Wang, Caifeng; Yang, Li; Huang, Zhen; Wu, Jiankang

    2012-01-01

    There has been an urgent need for an effective and efficient upper limb rehabilitation method for poststroke patients. We present a Micro-Sensor-based Upper Limb rehabilitation System for poststroke patients. The wearable motion capture units are attached to upper limb segments embedded in the fabric of garments. The body segment orientation…

  14. Motor Impairment Evaluation for Upper Limb in Stroke Patients on the Basis of a Microsensor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Shuai; Luo, Chun; Ye, Shiwei; Liu, Fei; Xie, Bin; Wang, Caifeng; Yang, Li; Huang, Zhen; Wu, Jiankang

    2012-01-01

    There has been an urgent need for an effective and efficient upper limb rehabilitation method for poststroke patients. We present a Micro-Sensor-based Upper Limb rehabilitation System for poststroke patients. The wearable motion capture units are attached to upper limb segments embedded in the fabric of garments. The body segment orientation…

  15. Spontaneous upper limb monoplegia secondary to probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Ahmed-Ramadan; Parmar, Nandita K; Sadek, Norah-Hager; Jaiganesh, Sanjana; Elkhodair, Samer; Jaiganesh, Thiagarajan

    2012-01-03

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a clinicopathological disorder characterised by vascular amyloid deposition initially in leptomeningeal and neocortical vessels, and later affecting cortical and subcortical regions. The presence of amyloid within the walls of these vessels leads to a propensity for primary intracerebral haemorrhage. We report the unusual case of a 77-year-old female who presented to our emergency department with sudden onset isolated hypoaesthesia and right upper limb monoplegia. A CT scan demonstrated a peripheral acute haematoma involving the left perirolandic cortices. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated previous superficial haemorrhagic events. One week following discharge the patient re-attended with multiple short-lived episodes of aphasia and jerking of the right upper limb. Further imaging demonstrated oedematous changes around the previous haemorrhagic insult. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is an overlooked cause of intracerebral haemorrhage; the isolated nature of the neurological deficit in this case illustrates the many guises in which it can present.

  16. Spontaneous upper limb monoplegia secondary to probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a clinicopathological disorder characterised by vascular amyloid deposition initially in leptomeningeal and neocortical vessels, and later affecting cortical and subcortical regions. The presence of amyloid within the walls of these vessels leads to a propensity for primary intracerebral haemorrhage. We report the unusual case of a 77-year-old female who presented to our emergency department with sudden onset isolated hypoaesthesia and right upper limb monoplegia. A CT scan demonstrated a peripheral acute haematoma involving the left perirolandic cortices. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated previous superficial haemorrhagic events. One week following discharge the patient re-attended with multiple short-lived episodes of aphasia and jerking of the right upper limb. Further imaging demonstrated oedematous changes around the previous haemorrhagic insult. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is an overlooked cause of intracerebral haemorrhage; the isolated nature of the neurological deficit in this case illustrates the many guises in which it can present. PMID:22214197

  17. Asymmetrical movements of the lumbopelvic region: is this a potential mechanism for low back pain in people with lower limb amputation?

    PubMed

    Devan, Hemakumar; Hendrick, Paul; Ribeiro, Daniel Cury; Hale, Leigh A; Carman, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a major secondary disabling condition following lower limb amputation including persons with above-knee and below-knee amputation. Whilst the increasing prevalence of this musculoskeletal problem in people with lower limb amputation is well recognised, the mechanisms of LBP in this population have been poorly explored. Asymmetrical movements and loading patterns have been found in persons following lower limb amputation and linked to the high prevalence of LBP in this population. However, some argue that such asymmetries are part of the 'normal' adaptive process following lower limb amputation. We hypothesise that there is potential for some of the kinematic and kinetic adaptations in the lumbopelvic and trunk region to be 'mal-adaptive', potentially acting as a contributing factor for the onset or maintenance of LBP symptoms in this population. Evidence for movement and muscle asymmetries around the lumbopelvic and lower limb region provides some support for an association between LBP and movement asymmetry in the general population. It is therefore reasonable to hypothesise that movement asymmetries will demonstrate an association with LBP in lower limb amputee populations. Previous studies investigating movement and loading patterns within this population have focused mainly on gait analysis. Therefore, there is a need for further research to investigate the presence and potential association of asymmetrical movement patterns of the lumbopelvic region with LBP in a range of specific functional tasks. Results of such studies will identify the asymmetrical movement patterns and functional tasks associated with LBP in this population. Furthermore, it will inform future case-control and longitudinal studies to specifically investigate the putative links for such asymmetrical movement patterns as risk factors to LBP in this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessing upper limb function: transcultural adaptation and validation of the Portuguese version of the Stroke Upper Limb Capacity Scale.

    PubMed

    Branco, João Paulo; Oliveira, Sandra; Páscoa Pinheiro, João; L Ferreira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Brachial hemiparesis is one of the most frequent sequelae of stroke, leading to important functional disability given the role of the upper limb in executing activities of daily living (ADL). The Stroke Upper Limb Capacity Scale (SULCS) is a stroke-specific assessment instrument that evaluates functional capacity of the upper limb based on the execution of 10 tasks. The objective of this study is the transcultural adaptation and psychometric validation of the Portuguese version of the SULCS. A Portuguese version of the SULCS was developed, using the process of forward-backward translation, after authorisation from the author of the original scale. Then, a multicentre study was conducted in Portuguese stroke patients (n = 122) to validate the psychometric properties of the instrument. The relationship between sociodemographic and clinical characteristics was used to test construct validity. The relationship between SULCS scores and other instruments was used to test criterion validity. Semantic and linguistic adaptation of the SULCS was executed without substantial issues and allowed the development of a Portuguese version. The application of this instrument suggested the existence of celling effect (19.7% of participants with maximum score). Reliability was demonstrated through the intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.98. As for construct validity, SULCS was sensible to muscle tonus and aphasia. SULCS classification impacted the scores of the Motor Evaluation Scale for Upper Extremity in Stroke (MESUPES) and the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS). The present version of SULCS shows valid and reliable cultural adaptation, with good reliability and stability.

  19. IncobotulinumtoxinA: A Review in Upper Limb Spasticity.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Yvette N; Scott, Lesley J

    2016-09-01

    Intramuscular incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin(®)) is indicated for the treatment or improvement of adult patients with upper limb spasticity (featured indication), cervical dystonia, blepharospasm and glabellar lines. It is a highly purified formulation of botulinum toxin type A that inhibits acetylcholine signalling at neuromuscular junctions, reducing muscle hypertonia. This narrative review discusses the clinical use of incobotulinumtoxinA in adults with upper limb spasticity and summarizes its pharmacological properties. In single-treatment phase 3 trials, compared with placebo, incobotulinumtoxinA treatment improved muscle tone, global spasticity, functional spasticity-related disability and some aspects of carer burden in adults with upper limb spasticity. These beneficial effects of incobotulinumtoxinA on muscle tone were generally maintained in extension studies, in which up to five additional incobotulinumtoxinA treatments were administered. Functional spasticity-related disability and carer burden were also reduced during longer-term incobotulinumtoxinA treatment. IncobotulinumtoxinA was generally well tolerated in clinical trials, with relatively few patients experiencing treatment-related adverse events, most of which were of mild to moderate intensity. No neutralizing antibodies that would potentially cause secondary nonresponse against incobotulinumtoxinA were detected after single and multiple treatments in these trials or in phase 3 and 4 trials of incobotulinumtoxinA in other indications, which may be an advantage of this purified formulation. Further research would help to more fully determine the impact of neurotoxin purification in terms of reducing the potential risk of immunogenic responses during long-term treatment. Hence, incobotulinumtoxinA is a useful treatment option for upper limb spasticity in adult patients.

  20. Quantification of upper limb kinetic asymmetries in front crawl swimming.

    PubMed

    Morouço, Pedro G; Marinho, Daniel A; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Marques, Mário C

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed at quantifying upper limb kinetic asymmetries in maximal front crawl swimming and to examine if these asymmetries would affect the contribution of force exertion to swimming performance. Eighteen high level male swimmers with unilateral breathing patterns and sprint or middle distance specialists, volunteered as participants. A load-cell was used to quantify the forces exerted in water by completing a 30s maximal front crawl tethered swimming test and a maximal 50 m free swimming was considered as a performance criterion. Individual force-time curves were obtained to calculate the mean and maximum forces per cycle, for each upper limb. Following, symmetry index was estimated and breathing laterality identified by questionnaire. Lastly, the pattern of asymmetries along the test was estimated for each upper limb using linear regression of peak forces per cycle. Asymmetrical force exertion was observed in the majority of the swimmers (66.7%), with a total correspondence of breathing laterality opposite to the side of the force asymmetry. Forces exerted by the dominant upper limb presented a higher decrease than from the non-dominant. Very strong associations were found between exerted forces and swimming performance, when controlling the isolated effect of symmetry index. Results point that force asymmetries occur in the majority of the swimmers, and that these asymmetries are most evident in the first cycles of a maximum bout. Symmetry index stood up as an influencing factor on the contribution of tethered forces over swimming performance. Thus, to some extent, a certain degree of asymmetry is not critical for short swimming performance.

  1. Pneumatic Muscle Actuated Rehabilitation Equipment of the Upper Limb Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deaconescu dr. eng. habil., Andrea, Prof.

    2017-06-01

    Rehabilitation equipment of the upper limb joints holds a key role in passive physical therapy. Within this framework, the paper presents two such pieces of equipment developed for the rehabilitation of elbow and of wrist and knuckles, respectively. The presented and discussed equipment is actuated by pneumatic muscles, its benefits being a low cost, simple and robust construction, as well as short response time to commands.

  2. Surveillance case definitions for work related upper limb pain syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, J. M.; Carter, J. T.; Birrell, L.; Gompertz, D.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish consensus case definitions for several common work related upper limb pain syndromes for use in surveillance or studies of the aetiology of these conditions. METHODS: A group of healthcare professionals from the disciplines interested in the prevention and management of upper limb disorders were recruited for a Delphi exercise. A questionnaire was used to establish case definitions from the participants, followed by a consensus conference involving the core group of 29 people. The draft conclusions were recirculated for review. RESULTS: Consensus case definitions were agreed for carpal tunnel syndrome, tenosynovitis of the wrist, de Quervain's disease of the wrist, epicondylitis, shoulder capsulitis (frozen shoulder), and shoulder tendonitis. The consensus group also identified a condition defined as "non-specific diffuse forearm pain" although this is essentially a diagnosis made by exclusion. The group did not have enough experience of the thoracic outlet syndrome to make recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: There was enough consensus between several health professionals from different disciplines to establish case definitions suitable for use in the studies of several work related upper limb pain syndromes. The use of these criteria should allow comparability between studies and centres and facilitate research in this field. The criteria may also be useful in surveillance programmes and as aids to case management.   PMID:9624281

  3. Balneotherapy in Treatment of Spastic Upper Limb after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Erceg-Rukavina, Tatjana; Stefanovski, Mihajlo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: After stroke, spasticity is often the main problem that prevents functional recovery. Pain occurs in up to 70% of patients during the first year post-stroke. Materials and methods: A total of 70 patients (30 female and 45 male) mean age (65.67) participated in prospective, controlled study. Inclusion criteria: ischaemic stroke, developed spasticity of upper limb, post-stroke interval <6 months. Exclusion criteria: contraindications for balneotherapy and inability to follow commands. Experimental group (Ex) (n=35) was treated with sulphurous baths (31°-33°C) and controlled group (Co) with taped water baths, during 21 days. All patients were additionally treated with kinesitherapy and cryotherapy. The outcome was evaluated using Modified Ashworth scale for spasticity and VAS scale for pain. The significance value was sat at p<0.05. Goal: To find out the effects of balneotherapy with sulphurous bath on spasticity and pain in affected upper limb. Results: Reduction in tone of affected upper limb muscles was significant in Ex group (p<0.05). Pain decreased significantly in Ex-group (p<0.01). Conclusion: Our results show that balneotherapy with sulphurous water reduces spasticity and pain significantly and can help in treatment of post-stroke patients. PMID:25870474

  4. Amputated limb by cerclage wire of femoral diaphyseal fracture: a case report.

    PubMed

    Won, Yougun; Yang, Kyu-Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Kyoun; Weaver, M J; Allen, Elizabeth M

    2016-12-01

    An entrapment of the femoral artery by cerclage wiring is a rare complication after spiral diaphyseal femoral fractures. We report the case of an 82-year-old female treated by an antegrade intramedullary nailing and multiple cable augmentation, which was then complicated by injury to the femoral artery that resulted in ipsilateral leg necrosis and amputation. The entrapment was caused by direct belting by the cable and resulted in a total obstruction of the femoral artery.

  5. Altered flexion-relaxation responses exist during asymmetric trunk flexion movements among persons with unilateral lower-limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Hendershot, Brad D; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2014-02-01

    Repetitive exposures to altered gait and movement following lower-limb amputation (LLA) have been suggested to contribute to observed alterations in passive tissue properties and neuromuscular control in/surrounding the lumbar spine. These alterations, in turn, may affect the synergy between passive and active tissues during trunk movements. Eight males with unilateral LLA and eight non-amputation controls completed quasi-static trunk flexion-extension movements in seven distinct conditions of rotation in the transverse plane: 0° (sagittally-symmetric), ±15°, ±30°, and ±45° (sagittally-asymmetric). Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the bilateral lumbar erector spinae and lumbar kinematics were simultaneously recorded. Peak lumbar flexion and EMG-off angles were determined, along with the difference ("DIFF") between these two angles and the magnitude of peak normalized EMG activities. Persons with unilateral LLA exhibited altered and asymmetric synergies between active and passive trunk tissues during both sagittally-symmetric and -asymmetric trunk flexion movements. Specifically, decreased and asymmetric passive contributions to trunk movements were compensated with increases in the magnitude and duration of active trunk muscle responses. Such alterations in trunk passive and active neuromuscular responses may result from repetitive exposures to abnormal gait and movement subsequent to LLA, and may increase the risk for LBP in this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A 24-month evaluation of a percutaneous osseointegrated limb-skin interface in an ovine amputation model.

    PubMed

    Jeyapalina, Sujee; Beck, James Peter; Agarwal, Jayant; Bachus, Kent N

    2017-10-04

    Percutaneous osseointegrated (OI) prostheses directly connect an artificial limb to the residual appendicular skeleton via a permanently implanted endoprosthesis with a bridging connector that protrudes through the skin. The resulting stoma produces unique medical and biological challenges. Previously, a study using a large animal amputation model indicated that infection could be largely prevented, for at least a 12-month period, but the terminal epithelium continued to downgrow. The current study was undertaken to test the longer-term efficacy of this implant construct to maintain a stable skin-implant interface for 24 months. Using the previously successful amputation and implantation surgical procedure, a total of eight sheep were fitted with a percutaneous OI prosthesis. Two animals were removed from the study due to early complications. Of the remaining six sheep, one (16.7%) became infected at 15-months post-implantation and five remained infection-free for the intended 24 months. The histological data of the remaining animals further confirmed the grossly observable epithelial downgrowth. Albeit a receding interface, it was clear that all animals that survived to the end of the study had residual fibrous soft-tissue ingrowth into, and debris within, the exposed titanium porous-coated surface. Overall, the data demonstrated that the porous coated subdermal barrier offered initial protection against infection. However, the fibrous skin attachment was continuously lysed over time by the down-growing epithelium.

  7. Upper limb kinematics after cervical spinal cord injury: a review.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Sébastien; Roby-Brami, Agnès; Reilly, Karen T; Rossetti, Yves; Collet, Christian; Rode, Gilles

    2015-01-30

    Although a number of upper limb kinematic studies have been conducted, no review actually addresses the key-features of open-chain upper limb movements after cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). The aim of this literature review is to provide a clear understanding of motor control and kinematic changes during open-chain upper limb reaching, reach-to-grasp, overhead movements, and fast elbow flexion movements after tetraplegia. Using data from MEDLINE between 1966 and December 2014, we examined temporal and spatial kinematic measures and when available electromyographic recordings. We included fifteen control case and three series case studies with a total of 164 SCI participants and 131 healthy control participants. SCI participants efficiently performed a broad range of tasks with their upper limb and movements were planned and executed with strong kinematic invariants like movement endpoint accuracy and minimal cost. Our review revealed that elbow extension without triceps brachii relies on increased scapulothoracic and glenohumeral movements providing a dynamic coupling between shoulder and elbow. Furthermore, contrary to normal grasping patterns where grasping is prepared during the transport phase, reaching and grasping are performed successively after SCI. The prolonged transport phase ensures correct hand placement while the grasping relies on wrist extension eliciting either whole hand or lateral grip. One of the main kinematic characteristics observed after tetraplegia is motor slowing attested by increased movement time. This could be caused by (i) decreased strength, (ii) triceps brachii paralysis which disrupts normal agonist-antagonist co-contractions, (iii) accuracy preservation at movement endpoint, and/or (iv) grasping relying on tenodesis. Another feature is a reduction of maximal superior reaching during overhead movements which could be caused by i) strength deficit in agonist muscles like pectoralis major, ii) strength deficit in proximal synergic

  8. Isolated Limb Perfusion with Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Melphalan for Locally Advanced Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Three Time Periods at Risk for Amputation

    PubMed Central

    van Ginkel, Robert J.; Thijssens, Katja M. J.; Pras, Elisabeth; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.; Suurmeijer, Albert J. H.

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term limb salvage rate and overall survival after isolated limb perfusion (ILP) with tumor necrosis factor alpha and melphalan for locally advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Methods From 1991 to 2003, 73 patients (36 men, 37 women, median age 54 [range 14–80] years) with biopsy-proven STS underwent 77 perfusions followed by delayed surgical resection, with or without adjuvant radiation. Limb salvage and overall survival curves were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results A total of 21 amputations (28%) were performed. Overall 1, 5, and 10 years’ limb salvage was 80.1% ± 4.8%, 68.2% ± 6.5%, and 60.6% ± 9.2%, respectively. We found that the risk of amputation was linked to three time periods. The first was within a year after perfusion, mainly as a result of massive necrosis of the tumor and overlying skin, resulting in soft tissue deficit or recurrent disease (n = 17). The second was within 5 years, with two amputations performed for late local recurrence. The third occurred 10 years after perfusion, with two amputations performed for critical leg ischemia. Another two patients developed a pathological fracture of the femur due to radiation osteonecrosis. These four patients received adjuvant radiotherapy. Overall, 1, 5, and 10 years’ survival was 82.9% ± 9.2%, 58.7% ± 13.1%, and 42.5% ± 18.2%, respectively. Conclusions ILP treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha and melphalan followed by delayed surgical resection and adjuvant radiation treatment is an effective limb salvage treatment regimen for locally advanced STS. However, we observed late morbidity, with two amputations performed for critical leg ischemia and two pathological fractures of the femur in patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy. PMID:17253101

  9. Characteristics of lower limb muscle activity during upper limb elevation in badminton players

    PubMed Central

    Masu, Yujiro; Nagai, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To clarify the characteristics of postural control in badminton players by examining their lower-limb muscle activity during upper-limb elevation. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen badminton players and 14 non-players were studied. The subjects were instructed to perform an upper-limb elevation task in order to measure the activities of the biceps femoris and biceps brachii. [Results] When elevating the dominant hand, the mean biceps femoris integrated electromyogram showed markedly higher values in the player group, for the contralateral compared with the ipsilateral leg. Similarly, when elevating the dominant hand, the difference in the maximum integrated electromyogram response time between the ipsilateral and contralateral legs was significantly smaller in the players compared with non-players. [Conclusion] It may be possible to reduce the time needed to elevate the dominant hand by shifting lower-limb activity from the ipsilateral to the contralateral leg more quickly, while increasing the rate of rise in contralateral leg muscle activity. PMID:27799681

  10. Myocutaneous Mucormycosis in a Diabetic Burnt Patient Led to Upper Extremity Amputation; A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ayaz, Mehdi; Moein, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare opportunistic fungal infection that can implicate cranial sinuses, brain, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and skin. Although it can occur in patients with competent and incompetent immunity such as patients with diabetes mellitus, lymphoma, leukemia and burns, but it has an aggressive, malignant and lethal course in patients with incompetent immunity. To enforce the importance of burn in patients with underlaying diseases such as diabetes, we are going to report a rare case of diabetic burnt patient complicated by right upper extremity myocutaneous mucormycosis. We selected this case to emphasis the importance of underlying disease (diabetes mellitus) with cutaneous burn, aggressive treatment of fungal infection in these patients and referring such case to burn center to prevent catastrophic results. A 50-year-old woman was introduced to us after several days of medical and surgical care of right upper extremity and trunk split-thickness burn. Due to gross muscle necrosis of right upper extremity and poor general condition of the patient, she was taken to the operating room that led to right upper extremity amputation and several times of aggressive debridement to save her life. Pathologic report was indicative of mucormycosis. We can conclude from this case that: 1) Burn, even partially thickness and with little body surface area, should be referred to burn center for better care 2) No response to usual medical treatment should make us more sensitive to consider the unusual causes of infection such as fungi 3) Suspected dead tissues should be excised aggressively especially if suspiciousness to wound sepsis and fungal infection is present especially in an immunocompromised patient. PMID:28246626

  11. Myocutaneous Mucormycosis in a Diabetic Burnt Patient Led to Upper Extremity Amputation; A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ayaz, Mehdi; Moein, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare opportunistic fungal infection that can implicate cranial sinuses, brain, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and skin. Although it can occur in patients with competent and incompetent immunity such as patients with diabetes mellitus, lymphoma, leukemia and burns, but it has an aggressive, malignant and lethal course in patients with incompetent immunity. To enforce the importance of burn in patients with underlaying diseases such as diabetes, we are going to report a rare case of diabetic burnt patient complicated by right upper extremity myocutaneous mucormycosis. We selected this case to emphasis the importance of underlying disease (diabetes mellitus) with cutaneous burn, aggressive treatment of fungal infection in these patients and referring such case to burn center to prevent catastrophic results. A 50-year-old woman was introduced to us after several days of medical and surgical care of right upper extremity and trunk split-thickness burn. Due to gross muscle necrosis of right upper extremity and poor general condition of the patient, she was taken to the operating room that led to right upper extremity amputation and several times of aggressive debridement to save her life. Pathologic report was indicative of mucormycosis. We can conclude from this case that: 1) Burn, even partially thickness and with little body surface area, should be referred to burn center for better care 2) No response to usual medical treatment should make us more sensitive to consider the unusual causes of infection such as fungi 3) Suspected dead tissues should be excised aggressively especially if suspiciousness to wound sepsis and fungal infection is present especially in an immunocompromised patient.

  12. Upper And Lower Limbs Disability And Personality Traits.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Tahira; Kazmi, Syeda Farhana; Rehman, Atiq Ur; Ahmed, Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    It is believed that the study of personality has the potentials to enhance our prognostic abilities and can better to expose the etiology of mental illness through the relationship of revealed mechanisms. The focus of this study was to investigate and compare the habitual patterns of behavior, thought and emotions of upper and lower limb physically disabled students in terms of personality traits. This cross sectional study consisted of 100 upper limbs and lower limbs disabled students taken from Kingston school Inclusive Education System Abottabad, Mashal special education system Haripur, Syed Ahmed Shaheed special education center Abottabad, Al-Munir Foundation Mansehra and Hera Special Education System Haripur and 100 normal students taken from Islamic International School Abottabad, Falcon Public School Haripur, Iqra Academy Mansehra and Alhamd International School Haripur of Hazara Division by purposive sampling technique. This study was conducted during the month of June 2013 to May 2014. Goldberg five big personality scale was used for measuring personality traits of physically disabled and normal students. The significant difference of personality traits scores between physically disabled students (M = 139.2, SD=12.0) and normal students (M=184.5, SD=13.2), t (198) =25.3, p<.05 was observed. Normal students have high scores as compared to physically disabled students on big five traits, i.e., Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability and Openness to Experience.

  13. Advances in upper limb stroke rehabilitation: a technology push.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Rui C V; Harwin, William S; Nagai, Kiyoshi; Johnson, Michelle

    2011-10-01

    Strokes affect thousands of people worldwide leaving sufferers with severe disabilities affecting their daily activities. In recent years, new rehabilitation techniques have emerged such as constraint-induced therapy, biofeedback therapy and robot-aided therapy. In particular, robotic techniques allow precise recording of movements and application of forces to the affected limb, making it a valuable tool for motor rehabilitation. In addition, robot-aided therapy can utilise visual cues conveyed on a computer screen to convert repetitive movement practice into an engaging task such as a game. Visual cues can also be used to control the information sent to the patient about exercise performance and to potentially address psychosomatic variables influencing therapy. This paper overviews the current state-of-the-art on upper limb robot-mediated therapy with a focal point on the technical requirements of robotic therapy devices leading to the development of upper limb rehabilitation techniques that facilitate reach-to-touch, fine motor control, whole-arm movements and promote rehabilitation beyond hospital stay. The reviewed literature suggest that while there is evidence supporting the use of this technology to reduce functional impairment, besides the technological push, the challenge ahead lies on provision of effective assessment of outcome and modalities that have a stronger impact transferring functional gains into functional independence.

  14. Treating Intractable Post-Amputation Phantom Limb Pain with Ambulatory Continuous Peripheral Nerve Blocks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    removed with instructions given over the telephone. We will call each week through the fourth week to see how you are doing. Four to sixteen weeks...resolve phantom limb and residual limb pain. The procedure, device and infusion are all FDA approved and have been used for over 20 years to decrease...on next page] 5) Guilty Feelings: 0 You don’t feel particularly guilty. 1 You feel guilty over many things you have done or should have done

  15. Upper and lower limb reciprocal tapping: evidence for gender biases.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Linda E

    2006-01-01

    According to D. Kimura's (2000) interpretation of the hunter-gatherer hypothesis, men are better at targeting tasks and women are better at fine-motor tasks because of their evolutionary experiences. The author applied that hypothesis to a lower limb pointing task, a task uninfluenced by hunting and gathering experience throughout history. Participants (39 women, 35 men) completed the P. M. Fitts (1954) task by using both their dominant right hand and foot. Results suggested that for both the upper and lower limbs, men move faster, particularly for the more difficult tasks. The hunter-gatherer hypothesis does not predict those data; rather, linear regression data suggest that gender differences in movement strategies affect motor performance. The author proposes that men and women preferentially adopt distinct strategies emphasizing speed for men and accuracy for women.

  16. Simultaneous Doppelgänger and limb amputation impression in right frontal opercular stroke.

    PubMed

    Chabwine, Joelle Nsimire; Granziera, Cristina; Vargas, Maria Isabel; Aboulaffia, Tatiana; Caratsch, Laurence; Schnider, Armin; Landis, Theodor; Perren, Fabienne

    2011-11-01

    A case is described of a patient who presented almost simultaneously the impression that his left arm was amputated and the feeling of the presence of his invisible Doppelgänger. While these body scheme disorders have both been described after (right) parietal lesions, a right frontal opercular ischaemic stroke was found in the neurological work up. Diffusion tensor imaging showed that the stroke involved the ventral bundle of the superior longitudinal fasciculus that connects the parietal to the frontal lobe. The unusual clinical presentation of this frontal lesion may have been due to a 'diaschisis'-like phenomenon via the superior longitudinal fasciculus.

  17. Adding dexmedetomidine to ropivacaine for lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve block for amputation of lower limb in high-risk patient-a case report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Guang; Ding, Yan-Ling; Han, Ai-Ping; Hu, Chang-Qing; Hao, Shi; Zhang, Fang-Fang; Li, Yong-Wang; Liu, Hu; Han, Zhe; Guo, De-Li; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The ischemia necrosis of limb frequently requires surgery of amputation. Lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve block is an ideal intra-operative anesthetic and post-operative antalgic technique for patients of amputation, especially for high-risk patients who have severe cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. However, the duration of analgesia of peripheral nerve block is hardly sufficient to avoid the postoperative pain and the usage of opioids. In this case, a 79-year-old man, with multiple cerebral infarcts, congestive heart failure, atrial flutter and syncope, was treated with an above knee amputation because of ischemia necrosis of his left lower limb. Dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg was added to 0.33% ropivacaine for lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve block in this case for intra-operative anesthesia and post-operative analgesia. The sensory function was blocked fully for surgery and the duration of analgesia maintained 26 hours with haemodynamic stability and moderate sedation. The patient did not complain pain and require any supplementary analgesics after surgery. This case showed that adding 1 μg/kg dexmedetomidine to ropivacaine for lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve block may be a feasible and safe technique for high-risk patients for lower limb surgery of amputation.

  18. Adding dexmedetomidine to ropivacaine for lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve block for amputation of lower limb in high-risk patient-a case report

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun-Guang; Ding, Yan-Ling; Han, Ai-Ping; Hu, Chang-Qing; Hao, Shi; Zhang, Fang-Fang; Li, Yong-Wang; Liu, Hu; Han, Zhe; Guo, De-Li; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The ischemia necrosis of limb frequently requires surgery of amputation. Lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve block is an ideal intra-operative anesthetic and post-operative antalgic technique for patients of amputation, especially for high-risk patients who have severe cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. However, the duration of analgesia of peripheral nerve block is hardly sufficient to avoid the postoperative pain and the usage of opioids. In this case, a 79-year-old man, with multiple cerebral infarcts, congestive heart failure, atrial flutter and syncope, was treated with an above knee amputation because of ischemia necrosis of his left lower limb. Dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg was added to 0.33% ropivacaine for lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve block in this case for intra-operative anesthesia and post-operative analgesia. The sensory function was blocked fully for surgery and the duration of analgesia maintained 26 hours with haemodynamic stability and moderate sedation. The patient did not complain pain and require any supplementary analgesics after surgery. This case showed that adding 1 μg/kg dexmedetomidine to ropivacaine for lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve block may be a feasible and safe technique for high-risk patients for lower limb surgery of amputation. PMID:26550393

  19. Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Therapy is Safe and Promotes Amputation Free Survival in Patients with Critical Limb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Michael P.; Lawson, Jeffrey H.; Rapp, Brian M.; Dalsing, Michael C.; Klein, Janet; Wilson, Michael G.; Hutchins, Gary D.; March, Keith L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this phase I open label non-randomized trial was to assess the safety and efficacy of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell (ABMNC) therapy in promoting amputation free survival (AFS) in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). Methods Between September 2005 and March 2009 twenty-nine patients (30 limbs), with a median age of 66 (range 23–84) (14 male,15 female) with CLI were enrolled . Twentyone limbs presented with rest pain (RP), six with RP and ulceration, and three with ulcer only. All patients were not candidates for surgical bypass due to absence of a patent artery below the knee and/or endovascular approaches to improving perfusion was not possible as determined by an independent vascular surgeon. Patients were treated with an average dose of 1.7 ± 0.7 × 109 ABMNC injected intramuscularly in the index limb distal to the anterior tibial tuberosity. The primary safety endpoint was accumulation of serious adverse events and the primary efficacy endpoint was AFS at one year. Secondary endpoints at 12 weeks post-treatment were changes in first toe pressure (FTP), toe-brachial index (TBI), ankle-brachial index (ABI), and transcutaneous oxygen measurements (TcPO2). Perfusion of the index limb was measured with PET-CT with intra-arterial infusion of H2O15. Rest pain (RP), using a 10-cm visual analog scale, quality of life using the VascuQuol questionnaire, and ulcer healing were assessed at each follow-up interval. Subpopulations of endothelial progenitor cells were quantified prior to ABMNC administration using immunocytochemistry and fluorescent activated cell sorting. Results There were two serious adverse events however there no procedure related deaths. Amputation-free survival at one-year was 86.3%. There was a significant increase in FTP (10.2+ 6.2 mmHg, P=.02) and TBI (0.10± 0.05, P=.02) and a trend in improvement in ABI (0.08±0.04, P=.73). Perfusion Index by PET-CT H2O15 increased by 19.3 ± 3.1 and RP decreased

  20. Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell therapy is safe and promotes amputation-free survival in patients with critical limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Michael P; Lawson, Jeffrey H; Rapp, Brian M; Dalsing, Michael C; Klein, Janet; Wilson, Michael G; Hutchins, Gary D; March, Keith L

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this Phase I open label nonrandomized trial was to assess the safety and efficacy of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell (ABMNC) therapy in promoting amputation-free survival (AFS) in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). Between September 2005 and March 2009, 29 patients (30 limbs), with a median age of 66 years (range, 23-84 years; 14 male, 15 female) with CLI were enrolled. Twenty-one limbs presented with rest pain (RP), six with RP and ulceration, and three with ulcer only. All patients were not candidates for surgical bypass due to absence of a patent artery below the knee and/or endovascular approaches to improving perfusion was not possible as determined by an independent vascular surgeon. Patients were treated with an average dose of 1.7 ± 0.7 × 10(9) ABMNC injected intramuscularly in the index limb distal to the anterior tibial tuberosity. The primary safety end point was accumulation of serious adverse events, and the primary efficacy end point was AFS at 1 year. Secondary end points at 12 weeks posttreatment were changes in first toe pressure (FTP), toe-brachial index (TBI), ankle-brachial index (ABI), and transcutaneous oxygen measurements (TcPO(2)). Perfusion of the index limb was measured with positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) with intra-arterial infusion of H(2)O(15). RP, using a 10-cm visual analogue scale, quality of life using the VascuQuol questionnaire, and ulcer healing were assessed at each follow-up interval. Subpopulations of endothelial progenitor cells were quantified prior to ABMNC administration using immunocytochemistry and fluorescent-activated cell sorting. There were two serious adverse events; however, there were no procedure-related deaths. Amputation-free survival at 1 year was 86.3%. There was a significant increase in FTP (10.2 ± 6.2 mm Hg; P = .02) and TBI (0.10 ± 0.05;P = .02) and a trend in improvement in ABI (0.08 ± 0.04; P = .73). Perfusion index by PET-CT H(2)O(15

  1. Amputation and prosthesis implantation shape body and peripersonal space representations.

    PubMed

    Canzoneri, Elisa; Marzolla, Marilena; Amoresano, Amedeo; Verni, Gennaro; Serino, Andrea

    2013-10-03

    Little is known about whether and how multimodal representations of the body (BRs) and of the space around the body (Peripersonal Space, PPS) adapt to amputation and prosthesis implantation. In order to investigate this issue, we tested BR in a group of upper limb amputees by means of a tactile distance perception task and PPS by means of an audio-tactile interaction task. Subjects performed the tasks with stimulation either on the healthy limb or the stump of the amputated limb, while wearing or not wearing their prosthesis. When patients performed the tasks on the amputated limb, without the prosthesis, the perception of arm length shrank, with a concurrent shift of PPS boundaries towards the stump. Conversely, wearing the prosthesis increased the perceived length of the stump and extended the PPS boundaries so as to include the prosthetic hand, such that the prosthesis partially replaced the missing limb.

  2. Amputation and prosthesis implantation shape body and peripersonal space representations

    PubMed Central

    Canzoneri, Elisa; Marzolla, Marilena; Amoresano, Amedeo; Verni, Gennaro; Serino, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about whether and how multimodal representations of the body (BRs) and of the space around the body (Peripersonal Space, PPS) adapt to amputation and prosthesis implantation. In order to investigate this issue, we tested BR in a group of upper limb amputees by means of a tactile distance perception task and PPS by means of an audio-tactile interaction task. Subjects performed the tasks with stimulation either on the healthy limb or the stump of the amputated limb, while wearing or not wearing their prosthesis. When patients performed the tasks on the amputated limb, without the prosthesis, the perception of arm length shrank, with a concurrent shift of PPS boundaries towards the stump. Conversely, wearing the prosthesis increased the perceived length of the stump and extended the PPS boundaries so as to include the prosthetic hand, such that the prosthesis partially replaced the missing limb. PMID:24088746

  3. Reliability of EMG normalisation methods for upper-limb muscles.

    PubMed

    Rota, Samuel; Rogowski, Isabelle; Champely, Stéphane; Hautier, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated different electromyographic (EMG) normalisation methods for upper-limb muscles. This assessment aimed at comparing the EMG amplitude and the reliability of EMG values obtained with each method. Eighteen male tennis players completed isometric maximal voluntary contractions and dynamic strength exercises (push-ups and chin-ups) on three separate test sessions over at least 7 days. Surface EMG activity of nine upper body muscles was recorded. For each muscle, an analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to compare maximal EMG amplitudes between test conditions. The intra-class correlation coefficient, the coefficient of variation and the standard error of measurement were calculated to determine the EMG reliability of each condition. On the basis of a compromise between maximal EMG amplitude and high reliability, the chin-ups appeared to be the optimal normalisation method for M. latissimus dorsi, M. posterior deltoid, M. biceps brachii, M. flexor carpi radialis and M. extensor carpi radialis. The push-ups seemed relevant to normalise M. anterior deltoid and M. triceps brachii activity, while isometric maximal voluntary contraction remained the most appropriate method for M. pectoralis major and M. middle deltoid. Thus, original methods are proposed to normalise EMG signal of upper-limb muscles.

  4. The Component Timed-Up-and-Go test: the utility and psychometric properties of using a mobile application to determine prosthetic mobility in people with lower limb amputations.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Sheila M; Gailey, Robert S; Bennett, Christopher L; Pasquina, Paul F; Kirk-Sanchez, Neva J; Gaunaurd, Ignacio A

    2017-08-01

    Using a custom mobile application to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Component Timed-Up-and-Go test to assess prosthetic mobility in people with lower limb amputation. Cross-sectional design. National conference for people with limb loss. A total of 118 people with non-vascular cause of lower limb amputation participated. Subjects had a mean age of 48 (±13.7) years and were an average of 10 years post amputation. Of them, 54% ( n = 64) of subjects were male. None. The Component Timed-Up-and-Go was administered using a mobile iPad application, generating a total time to complete the test and five component times capturing each subtask (sit to stand transitions, linear gait, turning) of the standard timed-up-and-go test. The outcome underwent test-retest reliability using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and convergent validity analyses through correlation with self-report measures of balance and mobility. The Component Timed-Up-and-Go exhibited excellent test-retest reliability with ICCs ranging from .98 to .86 for total and component times. Evidence of discriminative validity resulted from significant differences in mean total times between people with transtibial (10.1 (SD: ±2.3)) and transfemoral (12.76 (SD: ±5.1) amputation, as well as significant differences in all five component times ( P < .05). Convergent validity of the Component Timed-Up-and-Go was demonstrated through moderate correlations with the PLUS-M ( rs = -.56). The Component Timed-Up-and-Go is a reliable and valid clinical tool for detailed assessment of prosthetic mobility in people with non-vascular lower limb amputation. The iPad application provided a means to easily record data, contributing to clinical utility.

  5. Physical activity, ambulation, and comorbidities in people with diabetes and lower-limb amputation

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Roger J.; Murray, Amanda M.; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E.; Sherk, Kyle A.; Christiansen, Cory L.

    2017-01-01

    We characterized physical activity (PA) and its relation to physical function and number of comorbidities in people with diabetes and transtibial amputation (AMP), people with diabetes without AMP, and nondisabled adults without diabetes or AMP. Twenty-two individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and transtibial amputation (DM+AMP), 11 people with DM, and 13 nondisabled participants were recruited for this cross-sectional cohort study. Measures included PA volume and intensity, a Timed Up and Go test, a 2-min walk test, and number of comorbidities. The nondisabled group performed greater amounts of PA than the DM group, who performed greater amounts of PA than the DM+AMP group. PA was related to physical function in the DM group and in the DM+AMP group, whereas no such relationship existed in the nondisabled group. PA was not related to number of comorbidities in any group. These findings suggest the ability to walk may affect overall performance of PA. Alternately, PA may alleviate walking problems. This possibility is of interest because issues with walking may be modifiable by improved levels and intensity of PA. PA’s lack of relation to number of comorbidities suggests that factors beyond multiple morbidities account for group differences in PA. PMID:28355032

  6. The microwave limb sounder for the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, J. W.; Peckham, G. E.; Suttie, R. A.; Curtis, P. D.; Maddison, B. J.; Harwood, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder was designed to map the concentrations of trace gases from the stratosphere to the lower thermosphere, to improve understanding of the photochemical reactions which take place in this part of the atmosphere. The instrument will measure the intensity of thermal radiation from molecules in the atmosphere at frequencies corresponding to rotational absorption bands of chlorine monoxide, ozone, and water vapor. Molecular concentration profiles will be determined over a height range of 15 to 80 km (20 to 45 km for C10). The 57 deg inclination orbit proposed for the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite will allow global coverage.

  7. Work-related posttraumatic upper limb disorder. A case report.

    PubMed

    Capodaglio, P; Nigrelli, M P; Malaguti, S; Panigazzi, M; Pierobon, A

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we describe a patient with mor-sensory loss in the right forearm and hand, which persisted more than 2 years after work-related crush trauma of the left hand. Radiographic and electromyographic investigations, somatosensory evoked potentials, CT scans of the encephalus as well as the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and the Roarschach test have been performed. On the basis of these investigations, we think this represents a case of conversion disorder with somatic features. Included is a brief overview of other psychological illness with physical findings involving the upper limb.

  8. Exploring Selective Neural Electrical Stimulation for Upper Limb Function Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Tigra, Wafa; Guiraud, David; Andreu, David; Coulet, Bertrand; Gelis, Anthony; Fattal, Charles; Maciejasz, Pawel; Picq, Chloé; Rossel, Olivier; Teissier, Jacques; Coste, Christine Azevedo

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces a new approach of selective neural electrical stimulation of the upper limb nerves. Median and radial nerves of individuals with tetraplegia are stimulated via a multipolar cuff electrode to elicit movements of wrist and hand in acute conditions during a surgical intervention. Various configurations corresponding to various combinations of a 12-poles cuff electrode contacts are tested. Video recording and electromyographic (EMG) signals recorded via sterile surface electrodes are used to evaluate the selectivity of each stimulation configuration in terms of activated muscles. In this abstract we introduce the protocol and preliminary results will be presented during the conference. PMID:27478571

  9. Upper limb and eye movement coordination during reaching tasks in people with stroke.

    PubMed

    Meadmore, Katie L; Exell, Timothy A; Burridge, Jane H; Hughes, Ann-Marie; Freeman, Christopher T; Benson, Valerie

    2017-06-09

    To enhance understanding of the relationship between upper limb and eye movements during reaching tasks in people with stroke. Eye movements were recorded from 10 control participants and 8 chronic stroke participants during a visual orienting task (Experiment 1) and a series of reaching tasks (Experiment 2). Stroke participants completed the reaching tasks using (i) their less impaired upper limb, (ii) their more impaired upper limb without support, and (iii) their more impaired upper limb, with support (SaeboMAS gravitational support and/or electrical stimulation). Participants were tested individually and completed both experiments in the same session. Oculomotor control and the coordination between the upper limb and the oculomotor system were found to be intact in stroke participants when no limb movements were required, or when the less impaired upper limb was used. However, when the more impaired upper limb was used, success and accuracy in reaching decreased and patterns of eye movements changed, with an observed increase in eye movements to the limb itself. With upper limb support, patterns of hand-eye coordination were found to more closely resemble those of the control group. Deficits in upper limb motor systems result in changes in patterns of eye movement behavior during reaching tasks. These changes in eye movement behavior can be modulated by providing upper limb support. Implications for Rehabilitation Deficits in upper limb motor systems can result in changes in patterns of eye movement behavior during reaching tasks. Upper limb support can reduce deficits in hand-eye coordination. Stroke rehabilitation outcomes should consider motor and oculomotor performance.

  10. Upper limb injury in rugby union football: results of a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Usman, Juliana; McIntosh, Andrew Stuart

    2013-04-01

    There have been few in-depth studies of upper limb injury epidemiology in rugby union football, despite reports that they accounted for between 14% and 28% of all rugby injuries. To report on upper limb injury incidence, injury severity and to identify the risk factors associated with upper limb injuries, for example, level of play, season (years) and playing position. Prospective cohort study across five rugby seasons from 2004 to 2008. Formal rugby competitions-suburban, provincial and international. 1475 adult male rugby players in Colts, Grade and Elite competitions. An upper limb injury resulting in a missed game and its characteristics. A total of 61 598 athletic exposures (AE) and 606 upper limb injuries were recorded. About 66% of the injuries were to the shoulder. The overall upper limb injury incidence rate (IIR) was 9.84 injuries/1000 AE (95% CI 9.06 to 10.62). Statistically significant associations were found between upper limb injuries and level of play; and between shoulder injuries and playing position (p<0.05). No association was found between upper limb and shoulder injuries and study year. The overall upper limb IIR decreased as the level of play increased; 10.74 upper limb injuries/1000 AE (95% CI 9.93 to 11.56) in Colts to 6.07 upper limb injuries/1000 AE (95% CI 5.46 to 6.69) in Elite. The upper limb IIR decreased as the level of play increased indicating that age, level of skill and playing experience may be risk factors for upper limb injury.

  11. A survey on robotic devices for upper limb rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The existing shortage of therapists and caregivers assisting physically disabled individuals at home is expected to increase and become serious problem in the near future. The patient population needing physical rehabilitation of the upper extremity is also constantly increasing. Robotic devices have the potential to address this problem as noted by the results of recent research studies. However, the availability of these devices in clinical settings is limited, leaving plenty of room for improvement. The purpose of this paper is to document a review of robotic devices for upper limb rehabilitation including those in developing phase in order to provide a comprehensive reference about existing solutions and facilitate the development of new and improved devices. In particular the following issues are discussed: application field, target group, type of assistance, mechanical design, control strategy and clinical evaluation. This paper also includes a comprehensive, tabulated comparison of technical solutions implemented in various systems. PMID:24401110

  12. The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite microwave limb sounder instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barath, F. T.; Chavez, M. C.; Cofield, R. E.; Flower, D. A.; Frerking, M. A.; Gram, M. B.; Harris, W. M.; Holden, J. R.; Jarnot, R. F.; Kloezeman, W. G.

    1993-01-01

    The microwave limb sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) is the first satellite experiment using limb sounding techniques at microwave frequencies. Primary measurement objectives are stratospheric ClO, O3, H2O, temperature, and pressure. Measurements are of thermal emission: all are performed simultaneously and continuously and are not degraded by ice clouds or volcanic aerosols. The instrument has a 1.6-m mechanically scanning antenna system and contains heterodyne radiometers in spectral bands centred near 63, 183, and 205 GHz. The radiometers operate at ambient temperature and use Schottky-diode mixers with local oscillators derived from phase-locked Gunn oscillators. Frequency tripling by varactor multipliers generates the 183- and 205-GHz local oscillators, and quasi-optical techniques inject these into the mixers. Six 15-channel filter banks spectrally resolve stratospheric thermal emission lines and produce an output spectrum every 2 s. Thermal stability is sufficient for 'total power' measurements which do not require fast chopping. Radiometric calibration, consisting of measurements of cold space and an internal target, is performed every 65-s limb scan. Instrument in-orbit performance has been excellent, and all objectives are being met.

  13. The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite microwave limb sounder instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barath, F. T.; Chavez, M. C.; Cofield, R. E.; Flower, D. A.; Frerking, M. A.; Gram, M. B.; Harris, W. M.; Holden, J. R.; Jarnot, R. F.; Kloezeman, W. G.

    1993-01-01

    The microwave limb sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) is the first satellite experiment using limb sounding techniques at microwave frequencies. Primary measurement objectives are stratospheric ClO, O3, H2O, temperature, and pressure. Measurements are of thermal emission: all are performed simultaneously and continuously and are not degraded by ice clouds or volcanic aerosols. The instrument has a 1.6-m mechanically scanning antenna system and contains heterodyne radiometers in spectral bands centred near 63, 183, and 205 GHz. The radiometers operate at ambient temperature and use Schottky-diode mixers with local oscillators derived from phase-locked Gunn oscillators. Frequency tripling by varactor multipliers generates the 183- and 205-GHz local oscillators, and quasi-optical techniques inject these into the mixers. Six 15-channel filter banks spectrally resolve stratospheric thermal emission lines and produce an output spectrum every 2 s. Thermal stability is sufficient for 'total power' measurements which do not require fast chopping. Radiometric calibration, consisting of measurements of cold space and an internal target, is performed every 65-s limb scan. Instrument in-orbit performance has been excellent, and all objectives are being met.

  14. Limb amputation in hemoglobin SC disease after application of ice and elevation.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Sadia; Rice, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    A 31-year-old man with hemoglobin SC disease was admitted with acute chest syndrome, treated with antibiotics and ventilator support. His restrained right wrist and hand became swollen and cool, thought due to infiltration of an intravenous line. The hand was elevated, ice packs applied around the clock, and prophylactic low molecular weight heparin given. The arm quickly turned gangrenous. In spite of attempted thrombectomy and red blood cell exchange transfusion, amputation was required. Cold, elevation, and measures that reduce blood flow are known precipitators of sickling and crises. Vasoocclusion of the extremities to the point of gangrene is rarely reported in sickle cell disorders, and this case highlights the dangers of measures limiting blood flow in such patients.

  15. Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy for upper limb ischemia. A 16 year follow-up in a single center.

    PubMed

    Coveliers, Hans; Hoexum, Frank; Rauwerda, Jan A; Wisselink, Willem

    2016-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the long term results of Endoscopic Thoracic Sympathectomy (ETS) in the management of upper limb ischemia (ULI). We retrospectively reviewed the records of all consecutive patients who underwent ETS for ULI between January 1994 and May 2009. A standardized questionnaire was used to evaluate the long term success, morbidity and overall patient satisfaction. Thirty-five patients (20 female, mean age 49 years (range 23-79)) underwent bilateral (n = 9) and unilateral (n = 27) ETS procedures, respectively. Six patients had Primary (idiopathic) Raynaud Disease. Twenty-nine patients had upper limb ischemia secondary to systemic disorders (n = 12), embolic disease (n = 10), occlusion of the arteries of the arm (n = 5) or hypothenar hammer syndrome (n = 2). Tissue loss at time of surgery was present in nineteen patients. Short term beneficial effects were reported by 12 patients (63%). Eleven of the 35 patients experienced a total of 13 complications or adverse events, whereof 11 were minor or transient. Limb salvage was unsuccessful in three patients because of major amputations (n = 2) or severe functional impairment (n = 1). Necrotectomies or minor amputations without functional impairment were performed in 9 patients. Medium or long term follow up (mean 98 months (range 18-198) was available in 19 out of 22 living patients(86%). Long term beneficial effects were reported by 10 (53%). Overall patient satisfaction was 56%. Compensatory sweating was experienced by 11 patients (58%). Although the long term efficacy of ETS in our study was moderate (53%), due to its low invasiveness ETS is a valuable option in the management of ULI. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Trends in the incidence of lower limb amputation after implementation of a Multidisciplinary Diabetic Foot Unit.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Sara; Rubio, José Antonio; Álvarez, Julia; Ruiz-Grande, Fernando; Medina, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Incidence of lower extremity amputations (LEA) in the population with and without diabetes mellitus (DM) was assessed after implementation of a Multidisciplinary Diabetic Foot Unit (MDFU) during 2008. Non-traumatic LEA were analyzed, and those performed before (2001-2007) and after (2008-2014) introduction of the MDFU were compared. LEA were grouped by age and sex. Their incidence was expressed as a rate per 100,000 population per year, adjusted to the standard European population. A total of 664 LEA were performed during the 2001-2014 period, 486 (73%) of them in patients with DM. Total LEA incidence was 11.2/10(5) population in DM versus 3.9/10(5) in the population without DM. Incidence of major LEA in patients with DM significantly decreased from 6.1/10(5) population in the 2001-2007 period to 4.5/10(5) in the 2008-2014 period (p=.03). Joinpoint regression analysis also showed a reduction in the trend of incidence of major LEA in patients with DM, with an annual percentage change of -3.3% [95% CI, -6.2-0.3] (p=.025). No significant differences were found for all other incidences and trends in the diabetic and non-diabetic populations. Implementation of a MDFU has been shown to be associated with a significant reduction in major amputation rate in the diabetic population, although the results are not optimal yet. Both results and work at the MDFU should be improved. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Literature Review on Needs of Upper Limb Prosthesis Users

    PubMed Central

    Cordella, Francesca; Ciancio, Anna Lisa; Sacchetti, Rinaldo; Davalli, Angelo; Cutti, Andrea Giovanni; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Zollo, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    The loss of one hand can significantly affect the level of autonomy and the capability of performing daily living, working and social activities. The current prosthetic solutions contribute in a poor way to overcome these problems due to limitations in the interfaces adopted for controlling the prosthesis and to the lack of force or tactile feedback, thus limiting hand grasp capabilities. This paper presents a literature review on needs analysis of upper limb prosthesis users, and points out the main critical aspects of the current prosthetic solutions, in terms of users satisfaction and activities of daily living they would like to perform with the prosthetic device. The ultimate goal is to provide design inputs in the prosthetic field and, contemporary, increase user satisfaction rates and reduce device abandonment. A list of requirements for upper limb prostheses is proposed, grounded on the performed analysis on user needs. It wants to (i) provide guidelines for improving the level of acceptability and usefulness of the prosthesis, by accounting for hand functional and technical aspects; (ii) propose a control architecture of PNS-based prosthetic systems able to satisfy the analyzed user wishes; (iii) provide hints for improving the quality of the methods (e.g., questionnaires) adopted for understanding the user satisfaction with their prostheses. PMID:27242413

  18. Serious games for upper limb rehabilitation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Proença, João Pedro; Quaresma, Cláudia; Vieira, Pedro

    2017-03-30

    The aim of this research is to carry out a systematic review of the use of technological gaming platforms with serious games in the upper limb rehabilitation of patients with neuromotor disorders. Through a systematic review, the first two authors defined the inclusion criteria and extracted the data, resulting in 38 studies collected from B-On, PubMed and Medline. Ninety-two per cent of the selected articles were published since 2010. This review documents 35 different gaming platforms types. Twenty-one of the 38 articles included in this review conducted a clinical trial and of those only eight report improvements in the target population following the use of the games and platforms. This review concludes that a new paradigm is emerging in the rehabilitation field, characterized by the systematic use of technological gaming platforms with serious games in/for rehabilitation. The use of this approach seems to be beneficial. However, to facilitate the full integration of these platforms, it is necessary to conduct more research in this area, explore new approaches and carry out in-depth clinical studies into the benefits of these platforms. Implications for rehabilitation This review states that the use serious games and gaming platforms for upper limb rehabilitation are starting a new paradigm in the rehabilitation. For a full integration of this technologies in the rehabilitation field more studies are needed.

  19. Lesion Characteristics of Individuals With Upper Limb Spasticity After Stroke.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Daniel K; Climans, Seth A; Black, Sandra E; Gao, Fuqiang; Szilagyi, Gregory M; Mochizuki, George

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between lesion location and volume and upper limb spasticity after stroke. Ninety-seven stroke patients (51 with spasticity) were included in the analysis (age = 67.5 ± 13.3 years, 57 males). Lesions were traced from computed tomography and magnetic resonance images and coregistered to a symmetrical brain template. Lesion overlays from the nonspastic group were subtracted from the spastic group to determine the regions of the brain more commonly lesioned in spastic patients. Similar analysis was performed across groups of participants whose upper limb (elbow or wrist) Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) score ranged from 1 (mild) to 4 (severe). Following subtraction analysis and Fisher's exact test, the putamen was identified as the area most frequently lesioned in individuals with spasticity. More severe spasticity was associated with a higher lesion volume. This study establishes the neuroanatomical correlates of poststroke spasticity and describes the relationship between lesion characteristics and the severity of spasticity using mixed brain imaging modalities, including computed tomography imaging, which is more readily available to clinicians. Understanding the association between lesion location and volume with the development and severity of spasticity is an important first step toward predicting the development of spasticity after stroke. Such information could inform the implementation of intervention strategies during the recovery process to minimize the extent of impairment.

  20. A novel myoelectric training device for upper limb prostheses.

    PubMed

    Clingman, Ryan; Pidcoe, Peter

    2014-07-01

    A training system intended for myoelectric prosthetic hands for upper limb amputees was developed to assist in learning myoelectric control schemes and training muscle isolation. The trainer allowed a user to operate a remote controlled car by use of a control scheme commonly used in myoelectric prosthetic hands. The trainer was designed to be easy for therapists to use and more engaging for the user than current methods of signal training. Preliminary testing of the trainer was conducted with eight nonamputee adult volunteers. The results indicated that the trainer could be a useful tool for myoelectric training in upper limb amputees. All subjects' skill with the myoelectric control scheme improved over the course of testing, with the improvements being greater at the beginning of the training period than at the end. Whereas the individual subjects' performance varied greatly at the beginning of the training, the subjects had achieved a more uniform level of performance by the end of the training, approaching the minimum possible values for the assessments.

  1. Upper-limb power test in rock-climbing.

    PubMed

    Laffaye, G; Collin, J-M; Levernier, G; Padulo, J

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the present study was to validate a new ecological power-test on athletes of different levels and to assess rock climbers' profiles (boulderers vs. route climbers). 34 athletes divided into novice, skilled and elite groups performed the arm-jump board test (AJ). Power, time, velocity, and efficiency index were recorded. Validity was assessed by comparing the distance with the value extracted from the accelerometer (500 Hz) and the reliability of intra- and inter-session scores. Moreover, a principal component analysis (PCA) was used to assess the climbers' profiles. The AJ test was quite valid, showing a low systematic bias of -0.88 cm (-1.25%) and low limits of agreement (< 6%), and reliable ( Intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.98 and CV < 5%), and was able to distinguish between the 3 samples (p < 0.0001). There was a good correlation between relative upper-limb power (r = 0.70; p < 0.01) and the AJ score. Moreover, the PCA revealed an explosive profile for boulderers and either a weak and quick or slow profile for route climbers, revealing a biomechanical signature of the sub-discipline. The AJ test provides excellent absolute and relative reliabilities for climbing, and can effectively distinguish between climbing athletes of different competitive levels. Thus, the AJ may be suitable for field assessment of upper limb strength in climbing practitioners.

  2. Furniture dimensions and postural overload for schoolchildren's head, upper back and upper limbs.

    PubMed

    Batistão, Mariana Vieira; Sentanin, Anna Cláudia; Moriguchi, Cristiane Shinohara; Hansson, Gert-Åke; Coury, Helenice Jane Cote Gil; de Oliveira Sato, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how the fixed furniture dimensions match with students' anthropometry and to describe head, upper back and upper limbs postures and movements. Evaluation was performed in 48 students from a Brazilian state school. Furniture dimensions were measured with metric tape, movements and postures by inclinometers (Logger Tecknologi, Åkarp, Sweden). Seat height was high for 21% and low for 36% of the students; seat length was short for 45% and long for 9% and table height was high for 53% and low for 28%. Regression analysis showed that seat/popliteal height quotient is explained by 90th percentile of upper back inclination (β=0.410) and 90th percentile of right upper arm elevation (β=-0.293). For seat/thigh length quotient the significant variables were 90th percentile of upper back velocity (β=-0.282) and 90th percentile of right upper arm elevation (β=0.410). This study showed a relationship between furniture mismatch and postural overload. When the seat height is low students increase upper back left inclination and right upper arm elevation; when the seat is short students decrease the upper back flexion velocity and increase right upper arm elevation.

  3. Fall Detection in Individuals With Lower Limb Amputations Using Mobile Phones: Machine Learning Enhances Robustness for Real-World Applications.

    PubMed

    Shawen, Nicholas; Lonini, Luca; Mummidisetty, Chaithanya Krishna; Shparii, Ilona; Albert, Mark V; Kording, Konrad; Jayaraman, Arun

    2017-10-11

    Automatically detecting falls with mobile phones provides an opportunity for rapid response to injuries and better knowledge of what precipitated the fall and its consequences. This is beneficial for populations that are prone to falling, such as people with lower limb amputations. Prior studies have focused on fall detection in able-bodied individuals using data from a laboratory setting. Such approaches may provide a limited ability to detect falls in amputees and in real-world scenarios. The aim was to develop a classifier that uses data from able-bodied individuals to detect falls in individuals with a lower limb amputation, while they freely carry the mobile phone in different locations and during free-living. We obtained 861 simulated indoor and outdoor falls from 10 young control (non-amputee) individuals and 6 individuals with a lower limb amputation. In addition, we recorded a broad database of activities of daily living, including data from three participants' free-living routines. Sensor readings (accelerometer and gyroscope) from a mobile phone were recorded as participants freely carried it in three common locations-on the waist, in a pocket, and in the hand. A set of 40 features were computed from the sensors data and four classifiers were trained and combined through stacking to detect falls. We compared the performance of two population-specific models, trained and tested on either able-bodied or amputee participants, with that of a model trained on able-bodied participants and tested on amputees. A simple threshold-based classifier was used to benchmark our machine-learning classifier. The accuracy of fall detection in amputees for a model trained on control individuals (sensitivity: mean 0.989, 1.96*standard error of the mean [SEM] 0.017; specificity: mean 0.968, SEM 0.025) was not statistically different (P=.69) from that of a model trained on the amputee population (sensitivity: mean 0.984, SEM 0.016; specificity: mean 0.965, SEM 0

  4. The effects of prism glasses and intensive upper limb exercise on hemineglect, upper limb function, and activities of daily living in stroke patients: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Se-Il; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Park, So-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of visual field with prism glasses, and intensive upper limb functional training on reduction of hemineglect and improvement in upper limb function and activities of daily living in three stroke patients with hemineglect. [Subjects] This study included three stroke patients hospitalized in a sanatorium. [Methods] Intervention treatment involving prism glass use for 12 hours and 30 minutes and paretic side upper limb training was conducted 5 days a week for 15 weeks. Three upper limb training tasks (hitting a balloon, passing through a ring, and reading a newspaper) were performed for 10 minutes each session, for a total of 30 minutes. Line by Section, Motor-Free Visual Perception Test-3 (MVPT-3), Manual Function Test (MFT), Box & Block Test (BBT), and Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) were conducted before and after intervention. [Results] Subjects’ hemineglect decreased and upper limb function on the paretic side improved after intervention, which enhanced activities of daily living. [Conclusion] Prism glass use and paretic upper limb functional training effectively ameliorated stroke patients’ hemineglect and improved upper limb function. Future research should focus on prism glasses that provide a wide visual field for use in patients with different conditions. PMID:26834386

  5. Locomotor Performance During Rehabilitation of People With Lower Limb Amputation and Prosthetic Nonuse 12 Months After Discharge.

    PubMed

    Roffman, Caroline E; Buchanan, John; Allison, Garry T

    2016-07-01

    It is recognized that multifactorial assessments are needed to evaluate balance and locomotor function in people with lower limb amputation. There is no consensus on whether a single screening tool could be used to identify future issues with locomotion or prosthetic use. The purpose of this study was to determine whether different tests of locomotor performance during rehabilitation were associated with significantly greater risk of prosthetic abandonment at 12 months postdischarge. This was a retrospective cohort study. Data for descriptive variables and locomotor tests (ie, 10-Meter Walk Test [10MWT], Timed "Up & Go" Test [TUGT], Six-Minute Walk Test [6MWT], and Four Square Step Test [FSST]) were abstracted from the medical records of 201 consecutive participants with lower limb amputation. Participants were interviewed and classified as prosthetic users or nonusers at 12 months postdischarge. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze whether there were differences in locomotor performance. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to determine performance thresholds, and relative risk (RR) was calculated for nonuse. At 12 months postdischarge, 18% (n=36) of the participants had become prosthetic nonusers. Performance thresholds, area under the curve (AUC), and RR of nonuse (95% confidence intervals [CI]) were: for the 10MWT, if walking speed was ≤0.44 ms(-1) (AUC=0.743), RR of nonuse=2.76 (95% CI=1.83, 3.79; P<.0001); for the TUGT, if time was ≥21.4 seconds (AUC=0.796), RR of nonuse=3.17 (95% CI=2.17, 4.14; P<.0001); for the 6MWT, if distance was ≤191 m (AUC=0.788), RR of nonuse=2.84, (95% CI=2.05, 3.48; P<.0001); and for the FSST, if time was ≥36.6 seconds (AUC=0.762), RR of nonuse=2.76 (95% CI=1.99, 3.39; P<.0001). Missing data, potential recall bias, and assessment times that varied were limitations of the study. Locomotor performance during rehabilitation may predict future risk of prosthetic nonuse. It may be implied that the 10MWT

  6. Limb amputation among patients with surgically treated popliteal arterial injury: analysis of 15 years of experience in an urban trauma center in Cali, Colombia.

    PubMed

    García, A F; Sánchez, Á I; Millán, M; Carbonell, J P; Ferrada, R; Gutíerrez, M I; Peitzman, A B; Puyana, J C

    2012-06-01

    Popliteal arterial injuries carry a high risk of amputation. The currently available literature from both civilian and military experiences is characterized by a wide variation of recommendations for surgical management. We questioned how these recommendations have been applied in our practice. Therefore, we aimed to identify predictors of amputation after popliteal arterial injury. We conducted an observational study of 175 patients with popliteal arterial injuries who underwent surgical treatment from 1992 to 2006 at a level I trauma center in Cali, Colombia. Information on demographic characteristics, clinical information, and surgical management was collected from clinical records. The outcome measure was amputation within 30 days following the first surgical intervention. The amputation rate was 17.1%. A multivariable logistic regression model indicates that blunt mechanism (odds ratio [OR] 4.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-15.42), signs of ischemia (OR 5.29, 95% CI 1.48-18.91), ligation of the popliteal vein of the compromised limb during surgical exploration (OR 3.83, 95% CI 1.20-12.18), and the development of arterial thrombosis (OR 56.51, 95% CI 12.36-258) were found to be independent predictors of amputation. Fractures, popliteal venous injuries, prolonged time between injury and surgery, fasciotomies, and graft arterial repair were not statistically significant predictors of amputation. Emphasis on the early assessment and prompt identification of signs of ischemia after popliteal arterial injury continue to be the most important factor for reducing the risk of amputation, especially in blunt trauma. Vascular trauma teams must emphasize the need for the specialized management of popliteal veins. Clinical research is needed in order to identify means of decreasing arterial thrombosis after popliteal repair.

  7. Combined transcranial direct current stimulation and robotic upper limb therapy improves upper limb function in an adult with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Friel, Kathleen M; Lee, Peter; Soles, Lindsey V; Smorenburg, Ana R P; Kuo, Hsing-Ching; Gupta, Disha; Edwards, Dylan J

    2017-01-01

    Robotic therapy can improve upper limb function in hemiparesis. Excitatory transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can prime brain motor circuits before therapy. We tested safety and efficacy of tDCS plus robotic therapy in an adult with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (USCP). In each of 36 sessions, anodal tDCS (2 mA, 20 min) was applied over the motor map of the affected hand. Immediately after tDCS, the participant completed robotic therapy, using the shoulder, elbow, and wrist (MIT Manus). The participant sat in a padded chair with affected arm abducted, forearm supported, and hand grasping the robot handle. The participant controlled the robot arm with his affected arm to move a cursor from the center of a circle to each of eight targets (960 movements). Motor function was tested before, after, and six months after therapy with the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) and Fugl-Meyer (FM). Reaching accuracy on the robot task improved significantly after therapy. The WMFT and FM improved clinically meaningful amounts after therapy. The motor map of the affected hand expanded after therapy. Improvements were maintained six months after therapy. Combined tDCS and robotics safely improved upper limb function in an adult with USCP.

  8. Life habits and prosthetic profile of persons with lower-limb amputation during rehabilitation and at 3-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Zidarov, Diana; Swaine, Bonnie; Gauthier-Gagnon, Christiane

    2009-11-01

    To assess performance of life habits among persons with lower-limb amputation at admission, at discharge, and 3 months after rehabilitation discharge and describe their prosthetic profile at discharge and follow-up. Case series. Inpatient rehabilitation. Unilateral persons with lower-limb amputation (N=19; 14 men; mean age, 53.4+/-14.6y). Interdisciplinary rehabilitation. Life habits performance and prosthetic profile. In the daily activities subdomain, the lowest performances were observed for mobility and housing at all evaluation times. Within the social role subdomain, employment, recreation, and community life scores were the lowest for the 3 evaluations. Mean scores for all activities of daily living subdomain categories significantly increased (P<.05) during rehabilitation except for personal care and communication. Only community life (social roles subdomain) significantly increased during rehabilitation; life habits remained unchanged after discharge. Fifty-eight percent of patients at discharge versus 68.4% at follow-up used their prosthesis for more than 9 hours a day, and this increased significantly postdischarge (P=.017). Locomotor capability with prosthesis was similarly high at discharge and follow-up. Among persons with lower-limb amputation, social role life habits appear to be more disturbed than those associated with activities of daily living. At discharge, prosthetic wear and locomotor capabilities with prosthesis were high and tended to improve on return to the community.

  9. Diabetes effect on Quality of Life in the long-term after Limb salvage with Infrageniculate Bypasses accompanied with minor amputations

    PubMed Central

    Peker, Kivanc Derya; Aksoy, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Objective : To evaluate the quality of life in patients, who had their limbs salvaged with an infrageniculate bypass and minor amputation in the long term and to see if diabetics are prone to worse results. Methods: The patients with limb salvage following an infrageniculate bypass and minor amputation were asked to complete Short Form 36 at the last follow-up visit. The mean scores in diabetic and non-diabetic population were compared to each other .The mean follow-up period was 58±8 months. Results : Of 142 patients, 40 patients were eligible to be included in the study. 33 (82.5%) patients were male and 7 (17.5%) patients were female. The mean age at the time of intervention was 57±14 (33-83) years. The mean scores for eight domains of SF-36 evaluation ranged from 44 to 67 out of 100. There were no significant differences concerning the mean scores of any dimension between the diabetic and non-diabetic group. Conclusion : Despite a minor amputation, the functional outcome of limb salvage with an infrageniculate bypass is favorable and diabetes does not seem to have negative effect on the functional outcome and Quality of Life. PMID:25225523

  10. Socio-Occupational and Physical Outcomes More than 20 Years after Diagnosis for Osteosarcoma in Children and Adolescents: Limb Salvage versus Amputation

    PubMed Central

    Ottaviani, Giulia; Robert, Rhonda S.; Huh, Winston W.; Palla, Shana; Jaffe, Norman

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND To date, there has been relatively little research on very-long-term survivors of childhood and adolescent osteosarcoma. We sought to compare the very-long-term outcomes of osteosarcoma patients treated with either limb salvage procedures or amputation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty-eight long-term osteosarcoma patients surviving 20 or more years from diagnosis were divided into two groups according to whether they underwent amputation or limb salvage. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire about education, employment, annual income, marital status, health insurance, lifestyle, siblings, and all current and past health issues. RESULTS Education, employment, marital status, and health insurance did not differ significantly between the two groups of survivors, and they described themselves as similar to their siblings. Eight percent of survivors underwent secondary amputation due to complications with an endoprosthesis. The cumulative incidence of second primary neoplasms was 13%, and this was significantly higher in females and in survivors who underwent radiotherapy and had genetic predisposition. The second primary malignancies were breast cancer (ductal invasive carcinoma, ductal in situ carcinoma, leiomyosarcoma), mediastinal leiomyosarcoma, squamocellular carcinoma of the oral cavity and of the uterine cervix. Amputees required more assistive walking support than survivors who received limb salvage treatments (χ2 test, p <0.05). CONCLUSIONS Despite the many challenges that osteosarcoma survivors face, patients who survived over 20 years after their initial diagnosis reported having overall adjusted well to their physical limitations and were productive individuals. PMID:23907996

  11. Botulinum toxin treatment in upper limb spasticity: treatment consistency.

    PubMed

    Papavasiliou, Antigone S; Nikaina, Irene; Bouros, Panagiotis; Rizou, Ioanna; Filiopoulos, Constantine

    2012-05-01

    This study assessed treatment consistency of botulinum toxin administration in spastic upper limbs under pragmatic conditions, as derived through stability of dosages and between injections intervals. Over a period of 8 years, 153 children (81 with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy, 72 with unilateral) were treated according to accepted, experience-based guidelines with Botox and Dysport. Treatment response was based on assessment of spasticity and attainment of pre-determined goals at 3, 6 and 12 months post each treatment. Mean age at treatment onset was 6y 4mo (SD: 4y 10mo), median F/U, 2.5 years (4 months-6 8/12 years). Number of injection sessions was 1-10; few had more than 6 sessions. In 106 (69.28%) children, more than one anatomic regions of the limb were injected. Most (56.2%), had at least two injection sessions; median time interval between the sessions was 9 months (IQR: 4-35 months, similar for unilateral and bilateral cerebral palsy, p = 0.874). Children >4 years old at the first treatment had longer intervals between sessions (25.8%) compared to younger ones (p = 0.010). The mixed effects models demonstrated that botulinum toxin dosage was stable over subsequent visits (p = 0.144) and that intermediate intervals for subsequent visits were similar to the first one (p = 0.279). Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Microwave limb sounder. [measuring trace gases in the upper atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustincic, J. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Trace gases in the upper atmosphere can be measured by comparing spectral noise content of limb soundings with the spectral noise content of cold space. An offset Cassegrain antenna system and tiltable input mirror alternately look out at the limb and up at cold space at an elevation angle of about 22. The mirror can also be tilted to look at a black body calibration target. Reflection from the mirror is directed into a radiometer whose head functions as a diplexer to combine the input radiation and a local ocillator (klystron) beam. The radiometer head is comprised of a Fabry-Perot resonator consisting of two Fabry-Perot cavities spaced a number of half wavelengths apart. Incoming radiation received on one side is reflected and rotated 90 deg in polarization by the resonator so that it will be reflected by an input grid into a mixer, while the klystron beam received on the other side is also reflected and rotated 90 deg, but not without passing some energy to be reflected by the input grid into the mixer.

  13. Robotic assessment of upper limb motor function after stroke.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Sivakumar; Colombo, Roberto; Sterpi, Irma; Sanguineti, Vittorio; Burdet, Etienne

    2012-11-01

    Traditional assessment of a stroke subject's motor ability, carried out by a therapist who observes and rates the subject's motor behavior using ordinal measurements scales, is subjective, time consuming and lacks sensitivity. Rehabilitation robots, which have been the subject of intense inquiry over the last decade, are equipped with sensors that are used to develop objective measures of motor behaviors in a semiautomated way during therapy. This article reviews the current contributions of robot-assisted motor assessment of the upper limb. It summarizes the various measures related to movement performance, the models of motor recovery in stroke subjects and the relationship of robotic measures to standard clinical measures. It analyses the possibilities offered by current robotic assessment techniques and the aspects to address to make robotic assessment a mainstream motor assessment method.

  14. Assistive Control System for Upper Limb Rehabilitation Robot.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sung-Hua; Lien, Wei-Ming; Wang, Wei-Wen; Lee, Guan-De; Hsu, Li-Chun; Lee, Kai-Wen; Lin, Sheng-Yen; Lin, Chia-Hsun; Fu, Li-Chen; Lai, Jin-Shin; Luh, Jer-Junn; Chen, Wen-Shiang

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents an assistive control system with a special kinematic structure of an upper limb rehabilitation robot embedded with force/torque sensors. A dynamic human model integrated with sensing torque is used to simulate human interaction under three rehabilitation modes: active mode, assistive mode, and passive mode. The hereby proposed rehabilitation robot, called NTUH-ARM, provides 7 degree-of- freedom (DOF) motion and runs subject to an inherent mapping between the 7 DOFs of the robot arm and the 4 DOFs of the human arm. The Lyapunov theory is used to analyze the stability of the proposed controller design. Clinical trials have been conducted with six patients, one of which acts as a control. The results of these experiments are positive and STREAM assessment by physical therapists also reveals promising results.

  15. Monomelic amyotrophy: non progressive atrophy of the upper limb.

    PubMed

    Kiernan; Lethlean; Blum

    1999-07-01

    Monomelic amyotrophy is a rare clinical entity, resulting in wasting and weakness localized to the hand and forearm unilaterally, in the absence of any sensory or long tract signs. The onset of the disease is insidious, occurring in males before the age of 30 years, with a clinical course marked by non-progression. The case of a 19-year-old Indonesian male patient is presented, with a one year history of right upper limb weakness. Nerve conduction studies were normal, without evidence of conduction block. Electromyography showed changes of chronic partial denervation. Magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed an asymmetry of the spinal cord. Possible aetiological mechanisms for these changes are discussed. Copyright 1999 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  16. Multijoint upper limb torque estimation from sEMG measurements.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Diana R; Montano, L

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of joint torques through musculoskeletal models and measurements of muscle activations can be used for real-time control of robotic devices for rehabilitation. Many works developed models for analytic one joint motion, but less are found that develop models for functional multijoint movements. In this work we develop a methodology for tuning and optimizing Hill-based EMG-driven models oriented to the force control of robotic exoskeletons for the upper limb, selecting the more suitable parameters to be optimized. The model is tuned from experimental data obtained from healthy people. The torques estimated by that model will serve as reference for force-based control of an exoskeleton for rehabilitation.

  17. Upper limb assessment using a Virtual Peg Insertion Test.

    PubMed

    Fluet, Marie-Christine; Lambercy, Olivier; Gassert, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the initial evaluation of a Virtual Peg Insertion Test developed to assess sensorimotor functions of arm and hand using an instrumented tool, virtual reality and haptic feedback. Nine performance parameters derived from kinematic and kinetic data were selected and compared between two groups of healthy subjects performing the task with the dominant and non-dominant hand, as well as with a group of chronic stroke subjects suffering from different levels of upper limb impairment. Results showed significantly smaller grasping forces applied by the stroke subjects compared to the healthy subjects. The grasping force profiles suggest a poor coordination between position and grasping for the stroke subjects, and the collision forces with the virtual board were found to be indicative of sensory deficits. These preliminary results suggest that the analyzed parameters could be valid indicators of impairment. © 2011 IEEE

  18. The Effect of Upper Limb Massage on Infants' Venipuncture Pain.

    PubMed

    Chik, Yuen-Man; Ip, Wan-Yim; Choi, Kai-Chow

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of upper limb massage on relieving pain among infants undergoing venipuncture in Hong Kong. This study was a crossover, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Eighty infants at the neonatal intensive care unit were randomly assigned to 2 groups in different order to receive interventions. The massage first group (N = 40) received 2-minute massage before venipuncture on the first occasion then received usual care (control) on the second occasion, and vice versa in the massage second group (N = 40). The infants' behavior and physiological responses were recorded on two occasions: (1) right after the intervention and (2) during the first 30 seconds of venipuncture procedure. The mean pain scores (Premature Infant Pain Profile) were significantly lower in infants who received massage (massage first: 6.0 [standard deviation = 3.3]; massage second: 7.30 [standard deviation = 4.4]) versus control (massage first: 12.0 [standard deviation = 4.3]; massage second: 12.7 [standard deviation = 3.1]). The crude and adjusted generalized estimating equations model showed that the infants had significantly lower pain score when receiving massage as compared to receiving the control treatment, and there were no significant time and carryover effects: -6.03 (95% confidence interval: -7.67 to -4.38), p < .001 and -5.96 (95% confidence interval: -7.56 to -4.36), p < .001, respectively. Upper limb massage may be effective in decreasing infants' venipuncture pain perception. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Upper limb nerve entrapments in elite wheelchair racers.

    PubMed

    Boninger, M L; Robertson, R N; Wolff, M; Cooper, R A

    1996-01-01

    The prevalence of upper limb nerve injuries has been reported to be as high as 73% in individuals who rely on manual wheelchairs for mobility. Many authors hypothesize that the repetitive trauma to carpal canal structures caused by propelling a wheelchair is the reason for this high prevalence. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of nerve conduction abnormalities in a group of elite wheelchair racers whose wrists are exposed to additional propulsion-related trauma during training and competition. We performed bilateral upper limb nerve conduction studies on each athlete (n = 12). The racers pushed their chairs an average of 56 miles a week for training purposes. Fifty percent of the athletes (n = 6) had evidence of median mononeuropathy by nerve conduction. Of these 6 racers, 5 had evidence of mononeuropathy bilaterally, making a total of 11 positive hands of the 23 tested. Twenty-five percent of the athletes had evidence of ulnar mononeuropathy at the wrist, and 25% had evidence of ulnar mononeuropathy at the elbow. Seventeen percent of athletes had evidence of radial nerve injury. Years with a disability accounted for a significant amount of the variance in the mean median sensory amplitude (R2 = 0.511; P = 0.020) and the mean ulnar palmar amplitude (R2 = 0.605; P = 0.008). Variables not correlated with nerve conduction studies include age, hours per day in a wheelchair not spent training, years competing, and number of miles pushed in training. Despite the amount of time spent training these wheelchair athletes have a similar or lower prevalence of median mononeuropathy then reported in the general wheelchair-using population.

  20. Current evaluation of hydraulics to replace the cable force transmission system for body-powered upper-limb prostheses.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, M

    1990-01-01

    Present body-powered upper-limb prostheses use a cable control system employing World War II aircraft technology to transmit force from the body to the prosthesis for operation. The cable and associated hardware are located outside the prosthesis. Because individuals with arm amputations want prostheses that are natural looking with a smooth, soft outer surface, a design and development project was undertaken to replace the cable system with hydraulics located inside the prosthesis. Three different hydraulic transmission systems were built for evaluation, and other possibilities were explored. Results indicate that a hydraulic force transmission system remains an unmet challenge as a practical replacement for the cable system. The author was unable to develop a hydraulic system that meets the necessary dynamic requirements and is acceptable in size and appearance.

  1. Upper limb impairment is associated with use of assistive devices and unemployment in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Marrie, Ruth Ann; Cutter, Gary R; Tyry, Tuula; Cofield, Stacey S; Fox, Robert; Salter, Amber

    2017-04-01

    Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) frequently suffer from impaired sensory function, reduced strength and tremor in the upper limbs, which may interfere with upper limb function. However, upper limb impairment in MS is under-recognized and understudied. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of upper limb impairment in a large sample of persons with MS; the association between upper limb function and employment status in MS; and the frequency of use of assistive devices aimed at addressing upper limb impairments. We surveyed participants in the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) Registry regarding upper limb function using the ABILHAND questionnaire, and asked about use of assistive devices intended to improve the performance on upper limb activities. We evaluated the association between ABILHAND scores and current employment status using multivariable logistic regression analysis, and the association between ABILHAND scores and the use of an assistive device. Of 7463 eligible respondents, 5846 (78.3%) were female and mean (SD) age of 57.4 (10.2) years. The median (IQR) score on the ABILHAND was 45 (39-46). Higher levels of disability, as measured by the PDDS, correlated moderately with lower (worse) scores on the ABILHAND (r=-0.50; 95%CI: -0.48, -0.52). Over half of participants reported that they possessed an assistive device to aid upper limb function (3914, 56.0%). Older age, female sex, greater ambulatory disability, higher levels of fatigue, sensory impairment, spasticity and cognitive impairment, and visiting an occupational therapist were independently associated with increased odds of using an assistive device. After accounting for disability, perceived cognitive impairment, and fatigue, impaired upper limb function was associated with decreased odds of being employed (OR/1 point rise in ABILHAND 0.97; 95%CI: 0.96, 0.98). Upper limb impairment is common in older MS patients, and adversely affects the ability to perform

  2. A randomised double blind trial of the effect of pre-emptive epidural ketamine on persistent pain after lower limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, John A; Nimmo, Alastair F; Fleetwood-Walker, Susan M; Colvin, Lesley A

    2008-03-01

    Persistent pain has been reported in up to 80% of patients after limb amputation. The mechanisms are not fully understood, but nerve injury during amputation is important, with evidence for the crucial involvement of the spinal N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in central changes. The study objective was to assess the effect of pre-emptively modulating sensory input with epidural ketamine (an NMDA antagonist) on post-amputation pain and sensory processing. The study recruited 53 patients undergoing lower limb amputation who received a combined intrathecal/epidural anaesthetic for surgery followed by a randomised epidural infusion (Group K received racemic ketamine and bupivacaine; Group S received saline and bupivacaine). Neither general anaesthesia nor opioids were used during the peri-operative period. Pain characteristics were assessed for 12 months. The primary endpoint was incidence and severity of post-amputation pain. Persistent pain at one year was much less in both groups than in comparable studies, with no significant difference between groups (Group K=21% (3/14) and 50% (7/14); and Group S=33% (5/15) and 40% (6/15) for stump and phantom pain, respectively). Post-operative analgesia was significantly better in Group K, with reduced stump sensitivity. The intrathecal/epidural technique used, with peri-operative sensory attenuation, may have reduced ongoing sensitisation, reducing the overall incidence of persistent pain. The improved short-term analgesia and reduced mechanical sensitivity in Group K may reflect acute effects of ketamine on central sensitisation. Longer term effects on mood were detected in Group K that requires further study.

  3. Determining 1-Yr Prosthetic Use for Mobility Prognoses for Community-Dwelling Adults with Lower-Limb Amputation: Development of a Clinical Prediction Rule.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christopher Kevin; Young, Rebecca S; Ow-Wing, Carlyn; Karimi, Parisa

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a prognostic clinical prediction rule to identify people not achieving community walking level prosthetic use after 1 yr. This is a prospective longitudinal cohort study of community-dwelling adults with lower-limb amputations recruited from support groups and prosthetic clinics. Participants completed Activities-specific Balance Confidence and Houghton prosthetic use for mobility self-report scales and the Berg Balance Scale. The clinical prediction rule was developed using multivariate logistic regression, receiver operating curves, and probability statistics to identify people not achieving community walking level prosthetic use (Houghton scores <9) at 1 yr. Forty (74.1%) of 54 participants provided follow-up data. Participants averaged 57.0 ± 11.9 yrs old, and the most recent amputation had occurred an average of 6.6 ± 11.0 yrs ago. Seventy percent had vascular amputations and 52.5% had transtibial amputations. The clinical prediction rule predicted who would not reach the community prosthetic walking level with excellent accuracy (area under the curve >0.96) using four criteria: initial Houghton, Activities-specific Balance Confidence, and Berg Balance Scale tasks 9 (retrieve object from floor) and 10 (look behind over shoulders). Failure to exceed cutoff scores in two or more criteria yielded posttest probability of not reaching community walking prosthetic use 1 yr later for 90% of participants or higher. Accurate 1-yr prosthetic use for mobility prognoses can be obtained by screening prosthetic use, balance confidence, and balance ability to identify community-dwelling people with lower-limb amputations unlikely to achieve community walking prosthetic use.

  4. The effect of a supervised community-based exercise program on balance, balance confidence, and gait in individuals with lower limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Carol A; Williams, Jennifer E; Durham, Katey L; Hom, Selena C; Smith, Julie L

    2017-10-01

    Many individuals with lower limb loss report concern with walking ability after completing structured traditional rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of a supervised community-based exercise program on balance, balance confidence, and gait in individuals with lower limb amputation. Repeated measures. The supervised exercise program was offered biweekly for 6 weeks. The GAITRite System by CIR Systems, Inc., the Figure-of-8 Walk Test, and Activity-specific Balance Confidence Scale were used to measure clinical outcomes pre- and post-intervention. In total, 16 participants with lower limb amputation (mean age: 50.8 years) completed the study. A multivariate, repeated measures analysis of variance indicated a statistically significant effect of training across six clinical outcome measures ( F(6, 10) = 4.514, p = .018). Moderate effect sizes were found for the Figure-of-8 Walk Test ( η(2) = .586), Activity-specific Balance Confidence Scale ( η(2) = .504), and gait velocity at comfortable walking speed ( η(2) = .574). The average increase in gait speed was clinically meaningful at .14 m/s. The supervised community-based exercise program implemented in this study was designed to address specific functional needs for individuals with lower limb loss. Each participant experienced clinically meaningful improvements in balance, balance confidence, and walking ability. Clinical relevance The provision of a supervised community-based exercise program, after traditional rehabilitation, provides opportunity to offer a continuum of care that may enhance prosthetic functional ability and active participation in the community for individuals with lower limb amputation.

  5. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Mirror Therapy for Upper Extremity Phantom Limb Pain in Male Amputees.

    PubMed

    Finn, Sacha B; Perry, Briana N; Clasing, Jay E; Walters, Lisa S; Jarzombek, Sandra L; Curran, Sean; Rouhanian, Minoo; Keszler, Mary S; Hussey-Andersen, Lindsay K; Weeks, Sharon R; Pasquina, Paul F; Tsao, Jack W

    2017-01-01

    Phantom limb pain (PLP) is prevalent in patients post-amputation and is difficult to treat. We assessed the efficacy of mirror therapy in relieving PLP in unilateral, upper extremity male amputees. Fifteen participants from Walter Reed and Brooke Army Medical Centers were randomly assigned to one of two groups: mirror therapy (n = 9) or control (n = 6, covered mirror or mental visualization therapy). Participants were asked to perform 15 min of their assigned therapy daily for 5 days/week for 4 weeks. The primary outcome was pain as measured using a 100-mm Visual Analog Scale. Subjects in the mirror therapy group had a significant decrease in pain scores, from a mean of 44.1 (SD = 17.0) to 27.5 (SD = 17.2) mm (p = 0.002). In addition, there was a significant decrease in daily time experiencing pain, from a mean of 1,022 (SD = 673) to 448 (SD = 565) minutes (p = 0.003). By contrast, the control group had neither diminished pain (p = 0.65) nor decreased overall time experiencing pain (p = 0.49). A pain decrement response seen by the 10th treatment session was predictive of final efficacy. These results confirm that mirror therapy is an effective therapy for PLP in unilateral, upper extremity male amputees, reducing both severity and duration of daily episodes. NCT0030144 ClinicalTrials.gov.

  6. Characteristic MRI Findings of upper Limb Muscle Involvement in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1.

    PubMed

    Sugie, Kazuma; Sugie, Miho; Taoka, Toshio; Tonomura, Yasuyo; Kumazawa, Aya; Izumi, Tesseki; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Ueno, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the relation between muscle MRI findings and upper limb weakness with grip myotonia in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Seventeen patients with DM1 were evaluated by manual muscle strength testing and muscle MRI of the upper limbs. Many DM1 patients presenting with decreased grasping power frequently showed high intensity signals in the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) muscles on T1-weighted imaging. Patients presenting with upper limb weakness frequently also showed high intensity signals in the flexor pollicis longus, abductor pollicis longus, and extensor pollicis muscles. Disturbances of the distal muscles of the upper limbs were predominant in all DM1 patients. Some DM1 patients with a prolonged disease duration showed involvement of not only distal muscles but also proximal muscles in the upper limbs. Muscle involvement of the upper limbs on MRI strongly correlated positively with the disease duration or the numbers of CTG repeats. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide a detailed description of the distribution and severity of affected muscles of the upper limbs on MRI in patients with DM1. We conclude that muscle MRI findings are very useful for identifying affected muscles and predicting the risk of muscle weakness in the upper limbs of DM1 patients.

  7. Leg or foot amputation

    MedlinePlus

    Gittler M. Lower limb amputations. In: Frontera, WR, Silver JK, Rizzo TD, eds. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 119. Toy PC. General principles of amputations.In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, ...

  8. Bilateral Brachial Plexus Home Going Catheters After Digital Amputation for Patient With Upper Extremity Digital Gangrene

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Elsayed, Alaa A; Seif, John; Guirguis, Maged; Zaky, Sherif; Mounir-Soliman, Loran

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral nerve catheter placement is used to control surgical pain. Performing bilateral brachial plexus block with catheters is not frequently performed; and in our case sending patient home with bilateral brachial plexus catheters has not been reported up to our knowledge. Our patient is a 57 years old male patient presented with bilateral upper extremity digital gangrene on digits 2 through 4 on both sides with no thumb involvement. The plan was to do the surgery under sequential axillary blocks. On the day of surgery a right axillary brachial plexus block was performed under ultrasound guidance using 20 ml of 0.75% ropivacaine. Patient was taken to the OR and the right fingers amputation was carried out under mild sedation without problems. Left axillary brachial plexus block was then done as the surgeon was closing the right side, two hours after the first block was performed. The left axillary block was done also under ultrasound using 20 ml of 2% mepivacaine. The brachial plexus blocks were performed in a sequential manner. Surgery was unremarkable, and patient was transferred to post anesthetic care unit in stable condition. Over that first postoperative night, the patient complained of severe pain at the surgical sites with minimal pain relief with parentral opioids. We placed bilateral brachial plexus catheters (right axillary and left infra-clavicular brachial plexus catheters). Ropivacaine 0.2% infusion was started at 7 ml per hour basal rate only with no boluses on each side. The patient was discharged home with the catheters in place after receiving the appropriate education. On discharge both catheters were connected to a single ON-Q (I-flow Corporation, Lake Forest, CA) ball pump with a 750 ml reservoir using a Y connection and were set to deliver a fixed rate of 7 ml for each catheter. The brachial plexus catheters were removed by the patient on day 5 after surgery without any difficulty. Patient's postoperative course was otherwise unremarkable

  9. Interventions for improving upper limb function after stroke.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Alex; Farmer, Sybil E; Brady, Marian C; Langhorne, Peter; Mead, Gillian E; Mehrholz, Jan; van Wijck, Frederike

    2014-11-12

    Improving upper limb function is a core element of stroke rehabilitation needed to maximise patient outcomes and reduce disability. Evidence about effects of individual treatment techniques and modalities is synthesised within many reviews. For selection of effective rehabilitation treatment, the relative effectiveness of interventions must be known. However, a comprehensive overview of systematic reviews in this area is currently lacking. To carry out a Cochrane overview by synthesising systematic reviews of interventions provided to improve upper limb function after stroke. We comprehensively searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; the Database of Reviews of Effects; and PROSPERO (an international prospective register of systematic reviews) (June 2013). We also contacted review authors in an effort to identify further relevant reviews. We included Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of patients with stroke comparing upper limb interventions with no treatment, usual care or alternative treatments. Our primary outcome of interest was upper limb function; secondary outcomes included motor impairment and performance of activities of daily living. When we identified overlapping reviews, we systematically identified the most up-to-date and comprehensive review and excluded reviews that overlapped with this. Two overview authors independently applied the selection criteria, excluding reviews that were superseded by more up-to-date reviews including the same (or similar) studies. Two overview authors independently assessed the methodological quality of reviews (using a modified version of the AMSTAR tool) and extracted data. Quality of evidence within each comparison in each review was determined using objective criteria (based on numbers of participants, risk of bias, heterogeneity and review quality) to apply GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) levels of evidence. We resolved

  10. Amyoplasia involving only the upper limbs or only involving the lower limbs with review of the relevant differential diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Hall, Judith G

    2014-04-01

    Of individuals with Amyoplasia, 16.8% (94/560) involve only the upper limbs (Upper Limb Amyoplasia-ULA) and 15.2% (85/560) involve only the lower limbs (Lower Limb Amyoplasia-LLA). The accompanying paper deals with other forms of Amyoplasia [Hall et al., 2013] and discusses etiology. An excess of one of monozygotic (MZ) twins is seen in both groups (ULA 4/94 (4.3%), LLA 5/85 (5.9%)), gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities thought to be of vascular origin (bowel atresia and gastroschisis) (ULA 16/94 (17%), LLA 4/85 (4.7%)), small or partial absence of digits (ULA 6/94 (6.2%), LLA 8/85 (9.4%)), and umbilical cord wrapping around the limbs at birth (ULA 3/94 (3.2%), LLA 7/85 (8.2%)) (severe enough to leave a permanent groove). Pregnancy complications occurred in 42/60 (70%) of ULA and 36/54 (67%) of LLA. Prenatal diagnosis, after ultrasound usage became routine, occurred in only 7/25 (28%) of ULA and 5/12 (12%) of LLA. This series may represent an over estimate of the complications and associations occurring in ULA and LLA. Differential diagnoses separating LLA from the genetic forms of "lower limb only" arthrogryposis and ULA from "upper limb only" genetic forms of arthrogryposis and Erb's palsy is provided.

  11. An upper limb robot model of children limb for cerebral palsy neurorehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Yagna; Johnson, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Robot therapy has emerged in the last few decades as a tool to help patients with neurological injuries relearn motor tasks and improve their quality of life. The main goal of this study was to develop a simple model of the human arm for children affected with cerebral palsy (CP). The Simulink based model presented here shows a comparison for children with and without disabilities (ages 6-15) with normal and reduced range of motion in the upper limb. The model incorporates kinematic and dynamic considerations required for activities of daily living. The simulation was conducted using Matlab/Simulink and will eventually be integrated with a robotic counterpart to develop a physical robot that will provide assistance in activities of daily life (ADLs) to children with CP while also aiming to improve motor recovery.

  12. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Lower Limb Amputation in Patients with End-Stage Renal Failure on Dialysis: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Gilhotra, Rajit A; Rodrigues, Beverly T; Vangaveti, Venkat N; Malabu, Usman H

    2016-01-01

    Background. Renal dialysis has recently been recognised as a risk factor for lower limb amputation (LLA). However, exact rates and associated risk factors for the LLA are incompletely understood. Aim. Prevalence and risk factors of LLA in end-stage renal failure (ESRF) subjects on renal dialysis were investigated from the existing literature. Methods. Published data on the subject were derived from MEDLINE, PubMed, and Google Scholar search of English language literature from January 1, 1980, to July 31, 2015, using designated key words. Results. Seventy studies were identified out of which 6 full-text published studies were included in this systematic review of which 5 included patients on haemodialysis alone and one included patients on both haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. The reported findings on prevalence of amputation in the renal failure on dialysis cohort ranged from 1.7% to 13.4%. Five out of the six studies identified diabetes as the leading risk factor for amputation in subjects with ESRF on renal dialysis. Other risk factors identified were high haemoglobin A1c, elevated c-reactive protein, and low serum albumin. Conclusions. This review demonstrates high rate of LLA in ESRF patients receiving dialysis therapy. It has also identified diabetes and markers of inflammation as risk factors of amputation in ESRF subjects on dialysis.

  13. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Lower Limb Amputation in Patients with End-Stage Renal Failure on Dialysis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Vangaveti, Venkat N.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Renal dialysis has recently been recognised as a risk factor for lower limb amputation (LLA). However, exact rates and associated risk factors for the LLA are incompletely understood. Aim. Prevalence and risk factors of LLA in end-stage renal failure (ESRF) subjects on renal dialysis were investigated from the existing literature. Methods. Published data on the subject were derived from MEDLINE, PubMed, and Google Scholar search of English language literature from January 1, 1980, to July 31, 2015, using designated key words. Results. Seventy studies were identified out of which 6 full-text published studies were included in this systematic review of which 5 included patients on haemodialysis alone and one included patients on both haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. The reported findings on prevalence of amputation in the renal failure on dialysis cohort ranged from 1.7% to 13.4%. Five out of the six studies identified diabetes as the leading risk factor for amputation in subjects with ESRF on renal dialysis. Other risk factors identified were high haemoglobin A1c, elevated c-reactive protein, and low serum albumin. Conclusions. This review demonstrates high rate of LLA in ESRF patients receiving dialysis therapy. It has also identified diabetes and markers of inflammation as risk factors of amputation in ESRF subjects on dialysis. PMID:27529033

  14. Movement analysis of upper limb during resistance training using general purpose robot arm "PA10"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Yoshifumi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Suzuki, Takahiro; Hirose, Akinori; Ukai, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Nobuyuki

    2005-12-01

    In this paper we perform movement analysis of an upper limb during resistance training. We selected sanding training, which is one type of resistance training for upper limbs widely performed in occupational therapy. Our final aims in the future are to quantitatively evaluate the therapeutic effect of upper limb motor function during training and to develop a new rehabilitation training support system. For these purposes, first of all we perform movement analysis using a conventional training tool. By measuring upper limb motion during the sanding training we perform feature abstraction. Next we perform movement analysis using the simulated sanding training system. This system is constructed using the general purpose robot arm "PA10". This system enables us to measure the force/torque exerted by subjects and to easily change the load of resistance. The control algorithm is based on impedance control. We found these features of the upper limb motion during the sanding training.

  15. Results of neurolysis in established upper limb Volkmann's ischemic contracture

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Dinesh K; Thalanki, Srikiran; Patni, Poornima; Meena, Ram Khiladi; Bairawa, Dinesh; Bhatia, Chirag

    2016-01-01

    Background: Treatment of established cases of Volkmann's ischemic contracture (VIC) of upper limb is very tedious. Since the period of Volkmann, various experimental works are being performed for its treatment, but none are effective. Disabilities from nerve palsy and hand muscle paralysis are more problematic than any other deformity in VIC. To solve these problems, we conducted a study to see the result of neurolysis of median and ulnar nerve and their subcutaneous placement in established cases of VIC. Materials and Methods: Twelve cases of established VIC operated between July 2007 and August 2010 with complete records and followup were included in the study. VIC of lower limb and contracture of nonischemic etiology were excluded from the study. Their evaluation was done by the British Medical Research Council grading system for sensory and motor recovery. Followup was done for an average period of 24.3 months (range 15-30 months) (the average age was 8.3 years). Results: To study the results, we divided the cases into two series. One group consisted of cases which were operated within 6 months from onset of VIC. The second group consisted of cases which were operated after 6 months from onset of VIC. Our results revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups operated, though both had significant improvement in motor and sensory recovery in both median and ulnar nerve distribution. Conclusions: Neurolysis of the nerves definitely improved the outcome for motor and sensory components of median and ulnar nerves but the timing of the surgery did not play a role in the outcome contrary to the clinical assumption. This study can serve as a template and further such studies could help us find the answer to a long standing issue. PMID:27904214

  16. Sport prostheses and prosthetic adaptations for the upper and lower limb amputees: an overview of peer reviewed literature.

    PubMed

    Bragaru, Mihai; Dekker, Rienk; Geertzen, Jan H B

    2012-09-01

    Sport prostheses are used by both upper- and lower-limb amputees while participating in sports and other physical activities. Although the number of these devices has increased over the past decade, no overview of the peer reviewed literature describing them has been published previously. Such an overview will allow specialists to choose appropriate prostheses based on available scientific evidence rather than on personal experience or preference. To provide an overview of the sport prostheses as they are described by the papers published in peer reviewed literature. Literature review. Four electronic databases were searched using free text and Medical Subject Headings (MESH) terms. Papers were included if they concerned a prosthesis or a prosthetic adaptation used in sports. Papers were excluded if they did not originate from peer reviewed sources, if they concerned prostheses for body parts other than the upper or lower limbs, if they concerned amputations distal to the wrist or ankle, or if they were written in a language other than English. Twenty-four papers were included in this study. The vast majority contained descriptive data and consisted of expert opinions and technical notes. Data concerning the energy efficiency, technical characteristics and special mechanical properties of prostheses or prosthetic adaptations for sports, other than running, are scarce.

  17. Upper Limb Rehabilitation in People With Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lamers, Ilse; Maris, Anneleen; Severijns, Deborah; Dielkens, Wouter; Geurts, Sander; Van Wijmeersch, Bart; Feys, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Background There has been an increasing research interest in upper limb rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis (MS). The current changes in the research field inquire a new literature review. Objective This systematic review aimed to provide an overview of the upper limb rehabilitation strategies in people with MS (PwMS). Methods Articles published in PubMed and Web of Knowledge were selected when written in English, published in the past 25 years, peer reviewed, that included at least 5 PwMS, and described the effects of an intervention study including rehabilitation strategies targeting the upper limbs. Included articles were screened based on title/abstract and full text by 2 independent reviewers. Results Thirty articles met the criteria and were included for data extraction. Only half of the included studies investigated the effects of a training program specially targeted toward the upper limbs, while in the other studies, a general whole body therapy was used. The therapy content and dosage varied greatly between the different included studies. Multidisciplinary and robot-based rehabilitation were the most investigated rehabilitation strategies and showed to improve upper limb capacity. Strength and endurance training improved the upper limb body functions and structures but did not influence the upper limb capacity and performance. Conclusions The results of this systematic review indicated that different types of upper limb rehabilitation strategies can improve upper limb function in PwMS. Further research is necessary to compare directly the effects of different rehabilitation strategies and to investigate the optimal therapy dosage according to the upper limb disability level. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Upper Extremity Pulse Pressure Predicts Amputation-Free Survival after Lower Extremity Bypass.

    PubMed

    Wise, Eric S; Wergin, Justine E; Mace, Eric H; Kallos, Justiss A; Muhlestein, Whitney E; Shelburne, Nicholas J; Hocking, Kyle M; Brophy, Colleen M; Guzman, Raul J

    2017-07-01

    Increased pulse pressure reflects pathologic arterial stiffening and predicts cardiovascular events and mortality. The effect of pulse pressure on outcomes in lower extremity bypass patients remains unknown. We thus investigated whether preoperative pulse pressure could predict amputation-free survival in patients undergoing lower extremity bypass for atherosclerotic occlusive disease. An institutional database identified 240 included patients undergoing lower extremity bypass from 2005 to 2014. Preoperative demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, operative factors, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were recorded, and compared between patients with pulse pressures above and below 80 mm Hg. Factors were analyzed in bi- and multivariable models to assess independent predictors of amputation-free survival. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to evaluate the temporal effect of pulse pressure ≥80 mm Hg on amputation-free survival. Patients with a pulse pressure ≥80 mm Hg were older, male, and had higher systolic and lower diastolic pressures. Patients with pulse pressure <80 mm Hg demonstrated a survival advantage on Kaplan-Meier analysis at six months (log-rank P = 0.003) and one year (P = 0.005) postoperatively. In multivariable analysis, independent risk factors for decreased amputation-free survival at six months included nonwhite race, tissue loss, infrapopliteal target, and preoperative pulse pressure ≥80 mm Hg (hazard ratio 2.60; P = 0.02), while only tissue loss and pulse pressure ≥80 mm Hg (hazard ratio 2.30, P = 0.02) remained predictive at one year. Increased pulse pressure is independently associated with decreased amputation-free survival in patients undergoing lower extremity bypass. Further efforts to understand the relationship between increased arterial stiffness and poor outcomes in these patients are needed.

  19. Persons with unilateral lower-limb amputation have altered and asymmetric trunk mechanical and neuromuscular behaviors estimated using multidirectional trunk perturbations.

    PubMed

    Hendershot, Brad D; Bazrgari, Babak; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2013-07-26

    Among persons with unilateral lower-limb amputation (LLA), proximal compensations and preferential use of the sound limb during gait and movement may lead to chronic alterations and/or asymmetries in trunk mechanical and neuromuscular behaviors. Trunk stiffness, the magnitude and timing of maximum reflex force, and EMG reflex delays of superficial trunk muscles, were estimated here using multidirectional (anteriorly- and laterally-directed) position-controlled horizontal trunk perturbations (±5mm, applied at T8) with the pelvis immobilized. Alterations and asymmetries in these trunk behaviors were quantified and compared among eight males with unilateral LLA, and eight male non-amputation controls. During anteriorly-directed perturbations, trunk stiffness and maximum reflex force were 24% and 23% lower, respectively, among participants with LLA compared to non-amputation controls, and the timing of maximum reflex force was 8% later. During lateral perturbations, trunk stiffness and maximum reflex force were also significantly lower among participants with LLA, by 22% and 27%, respectively. Bilateral asymmetries were present in trunk stiffness and the timing of maximum reflex force among persons with LLA. Specifically, trunk stiffness was 20% lower and timing of maximum reflex force was 9% later during perturbations involving spinal tissues and muscles ipsilateral to the side of amputation. Reduced and asymmetric trunk mechanical and neuromuscular behaviors may suggest a condition of reduced trunk stability among individuals with LLA, which could be due to repeated exposure to altered and asymmetric gait and movement and/or compensatory muscle recruitment in response to lost or altered musculature subsequent to LLA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Upper limb malformations in chromosome 22q11 deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Shalev, S.A.; Dar, H.; Barel, H.; Borochowitz, Z.

    1996-03-29

    We read with interest the report of Cormier-Daire et al. in a recent issue of the journal, describing upper limb malformations in DiGeorge syndrome. We observed a family with this group of rare clinical expression of chromosome 22q11 deletions. The proposita was examined in our clinic when she was 4 years old. She was mildly mentally retarded. Clinical evaluation showed normal growth, long thin nose with squared tip, nasal speech, and abundant scalp hair and no cardiac anomalies. The girl was accompanied by her mother. Facial similarities were noted between the two. The mother reported to be treated with oral calcium due to hypoparathyroidism, diagnosed several years ago. Clinical evaluation showed wide flat face, short stature, mild mental retardation, slight hypertelorism, peculiar nose similar to her daughter`s, and nasal speech. No cardiac anomalies were found. Recently, a brother was born. Clinical examination documented large ventriculo-septal defect, retrognathia, narrow palpebral fissures, and long thin nose with squared tip. 1 ref.

  1. A hybrid system for upper limb movement restoration in quadriplegics.

    PubMed

    Varoto, Renato; Barbarini, Elisa Signoreto; Cliquet, Alberto

    2008-09-01

    Generally, quadriplegic individuals have difficulties performing object manipulation. Toward satisfactory manipulation, reach and grasp movements must be performed with voluntary control, and for that, grasp force feedback is essential. A hybrid system aiming at partial upper limb sensory-motor restoration for quadriplegics was built. Such device is composed of an elbow dynamic orthosis that provides elbow flexion/extension (range was approximately from 20 degrees to 120 degrees , and average angular speed was approximately 15 degrees /s) with forearm support, a wrist static orthosis and neuromuscular electrical stimulation for grasping generation, and a glove with force sensors that allows grasping force feedback. The glove presents two user interface modes: visual by light emitting diodes or audio emitted by buzzer. Voice control of the entire system (elbow dynamic orthosis and electrical stimulator) is performed by the patient. The movements provided by the hybrid system, combined with the scapular and shoulder movements performed by the patient, can aid quadriplegic individuals in tasks that involve reach and grasp movements.

  2. A preliminary study for quantitative assessment of upper limb proprioception.

    PubMed

    Contu, Sara; Hussain, Asif; Masia, Lorenzo; Campolo, Domenico

    2016-08-01

    Proprioception, or sense of position and movement of the body, strongly correlates with motor recovery of the hemiplegic arm. The evaluation of the awareness of the location of joints in space involves measuring the accuracy of joint-angle replication. Robotic devices allow an accurate manipulation of joint movements necessary to assess proprioceptive status. This study evaluated the proprioceptive performance of healthy subjects by mean of the H-Man, a planar robot designed for upper-limb rehabilitation to gather preliminary normative data for neurorehabilitation applications. Twelve participants were equally divided into Aged and Young groups and were asked to indicate when their dominant hand position matched a predefined target in the contralateral, sagittal and ipsilateral direction. Results indicated a better performance for movements towards the contralateral target in terms of both absolute and signed error while there was not a significant effect of age group. Error variability was not affected by the target location and participants' age. The present study established preliminary proprioceptive metrics that could assist in providing information about the normal range of proprioceptive acuity of healthy subjects of different age.

  3. [Diabetic gangrene and amputation].

    PubMed

    Bríza, J; Krska, Z

    1996-01-01

    The authors describe group of 60 patients with diabetic gangrena of lower extremity. In 24 cases was performed primary amputation (14 acral and 10 in thigh for sepsis). In 14 patients was carried out balloon angioplasty, in 6 bypass and in 16 a lumbal sympathectomy. The big amputation was necessary after the revascularization in 9 cases. A treatment of the diabetic foot have to be complex. Before amputation is the angiography necessary. It is enabled also by the balloon angioplasty. Microangiopathy with the good arteriography finding in main limb arteries make acral amputation possible.

  4. Development and validation of risk prediction equations to estimate future risk of blindness and lower limb amputation in patients with diabetes: cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hippisley-Cox, Julia; Coupland, Carol

    2015-11-11

    Is it possible to develop and externally validate risk prediction equations to estimate the 10 year risk of blindness and lower limb amputation in patients with diabetes aged 25-84 years? This was a prospective cohort study using routinely collected data from general practices in England contributing to the QResearch and Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) databases during the study period 1998-2014. The equations were developed using 763 QResearch practices (n=454,575 patients with diabetes) and validated in 254 different QResearch practices (n=142,419) and 357 CPRD practices (n=206,050). Cox proportional hazards models were used to derive separate risk equations for blindness and amputation in men and women that could be evaluated at 10 years. Measures of calibration and discrimination were calculated in the two validation cohorts. Risk prediction equations to quantify absolute risk of blindness and amputation in men and women with diabetes have been developed and externally validated. In the QResearch derivation cohort, 4822 new cases of lower limb amputation and 8063 new cases of blindness occurred during follow-up. The risk equations were well calibrated in both validation cohorts. Discrimination was good in men in the external CPRD cohort for amputation (D statistic 1.69, Harrell's C statistic 0.77) and blindness (D statistic 1.40, Harrell's C statistic 0.73), with similar results in women and in the QResearch validation cohort. The algorithms are based on variables that patients are likely to know or that are routinely recorded in general practice computer systems. They can be used to identify patients at high risk for prevention or further assessment. Limitations include lack of formally adjudicated outcomes, information bias, and missing data. Patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of blindness and amputation but generally do not have accurate assessments of the magnitude of their individual risks. The new algorithms calculate

  5. Development and validation of risk prediction equations to estimate future risk of blindness and lower limb amputation in patients with diabetes: cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Coupland, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Study question Is it possible to develop and externally validate risk prediction equations to estimate the 10 year risk of blindness and lower limb amputation in patients with diabetes aged 25-84 years? Methods This was a prospective cohort study using routinely collected data from general practices in England contributing to the QResearch and Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) databases during the study period 1998-2014. The equations were developed using 763 QResearch practices (n=454 575 patients with diabetes) and validated in 254 different QResearch practices (n=142 419) and 357 CPRD practices (n=206 050). Cox proportional hazards models were used to derive separate risk equations for blindness and amputation in men and women that could be evaluated at 10 years. Measures of calibration and discrimination were calculated in the two validation cohorts. Study answer and limitations Risk prediction equations to quantify absolute risk of blindness and amputation in men and women with diabetes have been developed and externally validated. In the QResearch derivation cohort, 4822 new cases of lower limb amputation and 8063 new cases of blindness occurred during follow-up. The risk equations were well calibrated in both validation cohorts. Discrimination was good in men in the external CPRD cohort for amputation (D statistic 1.69, Harrell’s C statistic 0.77) and blindness (D statistic 1.40, Harrell’s C statistic 0.73), with similar results in women and in the QResearch validation cohort. The algorithms are based on variables that patients are likely to know or that are routinely recorded in general practice computer systems. They can be used to identify patients at high risk for prevention or further assessment. Limitations include lack of formally adjudicated outcomes, information bias, and missing data. What this study adds Patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of blindness and amputation but generally do not have accurate

  6. Common Factors and Outcome in Late Upper Extremity Amputations After Military Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    posttraumatic stress disorder (4, 57%) fol- lowed by burn scars involving the face, head, or neck (3, 43%) and deep burn scars (3, 43%). All the...resection of large intestine; burn scars of face, head, or neck 3 Retirement orders pending at last follow-up 90 Amputation of arm below the insertion of...burn scars of face, head, or neck ; PTSD; deep burn scars 5 Permanently retired 90 Median nerve paralysis; TBI residuals; PTSD; loss of elbow

  7. Amputation in Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurjit; Chawla, S

    2006-01-01

    Foot ulcers and their complications are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetes. The present study examines the amputation risk criterion and the long term outcome in terms of amputations and mortality in patients with diabetic foot. 27 patients with diabetic foot lesions were studied. There were 15 patients with early lesions and 10 with advanced lesions. 15 patients were managed conservatively including local amputations and 12 with lower extremity amputations. 80% patients were males in 45-59 years of age group and all patients had more than 6 years of poorly controlled diabetes. Precipitating factors included walking barefoot, history of minor trauma, infection, callosities or burns in 86% of patients. Major lower limb amputations were common in irregularly treated, poorly controlled diabetics due to infection in a limb devitalized by angiopathy and desensitised by neuropathy. Diabetic foot ulcers are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Mortality was higher in ischaemic ulcers than neuropathic ulcers.

  8. [Forequarter amputation of the right upper chest: limitations of ultra radical interdisciplinary oncological surgery].

    PubMed

    Dragu, A; Hohenberger, W; Lang, W; Schmidt, J; Horch, R E

    2011-09-01

    Total forearm free flap procedures after forequarter amputations have been sparsely described in the literature. Using the amputated arm as a "free filet flap" remains a viable surgical option after radical forequarter amputations performed for the resection of large, invasive tumors of the shoulder or thoracic wall region. Using the forequarter specimen as a donor site seems favorable in that it eliminates the usual donor site morbidity. Nevertheless, in our patient with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and a fibrosarcoma suffering from severe pain and septic conditions - which failed to respond properly to conservative therapy - as well as rapidly progressive tumor ulceration despite repeated radiation therapy, we decided to attempt complete tumor removal by hemithoracectomy as a last resort. This decision was taken following multiple interdisciplinary consultations and thorough patient information. Although technically feasible with complete tumor removal and safe soft tissue free flap coverage, the postoperative course raises questions about the advisability of such ultra radical surgical procedures, as well as about the limitations of respiratory recovery after hemithoracectomy with removal of the sternum. Hence, based on our experience with such radical tumor surgery, we discuss the issues of diminished postoperative pulmonary function, intensive care possibilities and ethical issues. The English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink (under "Supplemental").

  9. Upper Quadrant Field Tests and Isokinetic Upper Limb Strength in Overhead Athletes.

    PubMed

    Borms, Dorien; Maenhout, Annelies; Cools, Ann M

    2016-10-01

    Isokinetic testing is used to determine possible deficits in upper extremity strength in overhead athletes. Given that isokinetic testing is restricted to a laboratory setting, field tests, such as the Seated Medicine Ball Throw (SMBT) and Upper Quarter Y-Balance Test (YBT-UQ), were developed to assess upper body performance. The relationships between these field tests and isokinetic strength have not been examined. To investigate the relationship between isokinetic strength testing for shoulder external and internal rotation and elbow flexion and extension and SMBT distance and YBT-UQ performance in overhead athletes. Cross-sectional study. Institutional laboratory. A total of 29 healthy overhead athletes (14 men, 15 women; age = 21.6 ± 2.5 years, height = 177.7 ± 9.7 cm, mass = 70.3 ± 11.5 kg). A Biodex dynamometer was used to measure the isokinetic strength of the shoulder and elbow muscles. Upper extremity performance was assessed using the SMBT and YBT-UQ. We used Pearson correlation coefficients and coefficients of determination to analyze the relationship between SMBT and YBT-UQ performance and the isokinetic strength variables. We observed moderate to strong correlations between the SMBT and isokinetic shoulder and elbow strength (r range = 0.595-0.855) but no correlations between the YBT-UQ and isokinetic strength variables. The shared variance between these strength variables and the SMBT ranged from 35.4% to 64.5% for shoulder strength and 58.5% to 73.1% for elbow strength. These findings suggested that the SMBT is a reliable, low-cost, and easy- and quick-to-administer alternative to isokinetic testing for evaluating upper extremity strength in a clinical setting. Performance on the YBT-UQ did not seem to be related to upper limb strength and, therefore, cannot be used for this purpose. Using the YBT-UQ for other purposes may have value.

  10. Facts about Upper and Lower Limb Reduction Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... can vary for each child. Potential treatments include: Prosthetics (artificial limbs) Orthotics (splints or braces) Surgery Rehabilitation (physical or occupational therapy) It is important to ...

  11. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TIMING OF EMERGENCY PROCEDURES AND LIMB AMPUTATION IN PATIENTS WITH OPEN TIBIA FRACTURE: UNITED STATES, 2003 – 2009

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Erika Davis; Davis, Matthew M.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2012-01-01

    Background We aimed to characterize patterns in the timing of initial emergency procedures for patients with open tibia fracture and examine the relationship between initial procedure timing and in-hospital amputation. Study Design Data were analyzed from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 2003–2009. Adult patients were included if they had a primary diagnosis code of open tibia fracture. Patients were excluded for the following: transferred from or to another hospital, an immediate amputation was performed, more than one amputation was performed, no emergency procedure was documented, or treated at a facility that did not perform any amputations. We evaluated the association between timing of the first procedure and the outcome of amputation using multiple logistic regression, controlled for patient risk factors and hospital characteristics. Results Of 7,560 patients included in the analysis, 1.3% (n=99 patients) underwent amputation on hospital day 2 or later. The majority of patients (52.6%) underwent first operative procedure on day 0 or 1. In adjusted analyses, timing of first operative procedure beyond the day of admission is associated with more than three times greater odds of amputation (day 1 OR 3.81, 95% CI 1.80–8.07). Conclusions Delay of first operative procedure beyond the day of admission appears to be associated with a significantly increased probability of amputation in patients with open tibia fracture. All practitioners involved in the management of patients with open tibia fracture should seek a solution for any barrier, other than medical stability of the patient, of achieving early operative intervention. PMID:22842411

  12. Lower-limb amputation following foot ulcers in patients with diabetes: classification systems, external validation and comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Monteiro-Soares, Matilde; Martins-Mendes, Daniela; Vaz-Carneiro, António; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to validate and compare the existing systems developed to stratify subjects with diabetic foot ulcers by risk of consequent lower extremity amputation. We conducted a prospective cohort study on a consecutive series of patients (mean age of 68 years; 64% male) with active ulcer who were attending our Hospital Diabetic Foot Clinic (n = 293) from January 2010 to March 2013. At baseline, we collected information on the participants' characteristics and the relevant variables. Afterwards, we assessed the predictive value of each variable and each system's prognostic accuracy for amputation occurrence. During a median follow-up of 91 days (interquartile range of 98), ulcers healed in 62% of the subjects. Major amputation occurred in 7% and minor occurred in 17%. Previous ulcer or amputation, ulcer area, and gangrene were associated with amputation occurrence. Nephropathy, pulses number, ulcer aetiology, depth, and number were associated with risk of amputation. Systems typically presented sensitivity values ≥80% and negative likelihood ratios ≤0.5 for the highest risk group; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve ranged from 0.56 to 0.83 and positive likelihood ratios from 1.0 to 5.9. If one chose only major amputation as an outcome, positive predictive values were lower, and negative predictive values tended to be higher. System stages, grades, scores, and/or prognostics were generally associated with amputation, presenting overall substantial accuracy values. Nevertheless, great improvement is possible. A multicentre study validating and refining the existing systems is needed to improve clinical decision-making in this area. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Serial splintage: Preoperative treatment of upper limb contracture.

    PubMed

    Puri, Vinita; Khare, Nishant; Venkateshwaran, N; Bharadwaj, Sumit; Choudhary, Sushant; Deshpande, Omkarnath; Borkar, Rupali

    2013-09-01

    The present study aimed to study the efficacy of preoperative splints in treatment of upper limb contractures and to evaluate the response of contracture to splints depending on the etiology and the joint involved. Ninety joints of 42 patients were studied. Patients age, gender, etiology, duration of contracture, contracture site and joint and type of contracture was noted. The range of motion of the involved joint was recorded. Serial static splints made of thermoplastic material were applied after customizing them for each patient. The range of motion and percentage movement was recorded at weekly interval and the splints were modified as per need. Time taken to reach a plateau stage was noted. To compare the statistical significance between two groups and more than two groups of continuous variable unpaired t-test and one way ANOVA respectively was applied. We considered differences to be statistically significant when the p value was below 0.05. The strength of relationship between the two continuous variables was analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis. Etiological factors were thermal burns (36.7%), electrical burns (13.3%), post traumatic (35.6%) and post cellulitis (14.4%). Age ranged from 2 to 70 years with a mean of 28.9±13.4 years. Sixty-two patients treated were males (68.9%) and 28 were female (31.1%). The mean range of motion present across all joints before starting the therapy was 54.7±23.6 degrees. The mean improvement in contracture angle obtained by serial splintage was 37.4±28.1 degrees. The mean time taken to achieve plateau was 23.6±3.2 days. Maximum improvement was seen in thermal burn contractures (41.2±30.3 degrees). Least improvement was seen in contractures due to cellulitis (6.5±16.2 degrees). This finding was statistically significant [F(3,86)=4.25, p=0.005]. Significant difference was seen in response to therapy based on the joint involved [F(3,86)=3.36, p=0.02]. Highest improvement in the range of motion was seen in the

  14. Upper limb muscle strength & endurance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Shah, Swati; Nahar, Pradeep; Vaidya, Savita; Salvi, Sundeep

    2013-10-01

    There are very few studies that have investigated the muscle strength and endurance of upper limbs (UL) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We undertook this study to measure and compare the skeletal muscle strength and endurance of UL in COPD patients and age matched healthy controls and to study the association between lung function parameters and UL muscle strength and endurance. Forty one COPD patients and 45 height and weight matched healthy subjects of the same age group were studied. UL skeletal muscle strength and endurance were measured using the hand grip dynamometer test. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV₁), forced expiratory flow during 25-75% FVC (FEF (25-75%)) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were measured. The handgrip muscle strength and endurance between the two groups were compared and correlations between FVC and FEV 1 with muscle strength and endurance were analyzed. The mean handgrip strength and mean muscle endurance in COPD patients were significantly lesser than the normal subjects in both males and females (P<0.001). There was significant positive correlation between muscle strength and FVC in males (r² =0.32, P<0.05); and between muscle strength and FEV₁ in females (r² =0.20, P<0.05). The study showed that the handgrip muscle strength decreases as the FVC and FEV₁ decrease in patients with COPD. Identifying those patients who have reduced strength and endurance will allow early interventions targeted at improving the quality of life of the patient.

  15. Predictors of return to work with upper limb disorders.

    PubMed

    Moshe, S; Izhaki, R; Chodick, G; Segal, N; Yagev, Y; Finestone, A S; Juven, Y

    2015-10-01

    Return to work (RTW) is a key goal in the proper management of upper limb disorders (ULDs). ULDs stem from diverse medical aetiologies and numerous variables can affect RTW. The abundance of factors, their complex interactions and the diversity of human behaviour make it difficult to pinpoint those at risk of not returning to work (NRTW) and to intervene effectively. To weigh various clinical, functional and occupational parameters that influence RTW in ULD sufferers and to identify significant predictors. A retrospective analysis of workers with ULD referred to an occupational health clinic and further examined by an occupational therapist. Functional assessment included objective and subject ive [Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score] parameters. Quantification of work requirements was based on definitions from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles web site. RTW status was confirmed by a follow-up telephone questionnaire. Among the 52 subjects, the RTW rate was 42%. The DASH score for the RTW group was 27 compared with 56 in the NRTW group (P < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, only the DASH score was found to be a significant independent predictor of RTW (P < 0.05). Physicians and rehabilitation staff should regard a high DASH score as a warning sign when assessing RTW prospects in ULD cases. It may be advisable to focus on workers with a large discrepancy between high DASH scores and low objective disability and to concentrate efforts appropriately. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Acupuncture in the Treatment of Upper-Limb Lymphedema

    PubMed Central

    Cassileth, Barrie R; Van Zee, Kimberly J; Yeung, K Simon; Coleton, Marci I; Cohen, Sara; Chan, Yi H; Vickers, Andrew J; Sjoberg, Daniel D; Hudis, Clifford A

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Current treatments for lymphedema after breast cancer treatment are expensive and require ongoing intervention. Clinical experience and our preliminary published results suggest that acupuncture is safe and potentially useful. This study evaluates the safety and potential efficacy of acupuncture on upper-limb circumference in women with lymphedema. METHODS Women with a clinical diagnosis of breast cancer−related lymphedema (BCRL) for 0.5-5 years and with affected arm circumference ≥2 cm larger than unaffected arm received acupuncture treatment twice weekly for 4 weeks. Affected and unaffected arm circumferences were measured before and after each acupuncture treatment. Response, defined as ≥30% reduction in circumference difference between affected/unaffected arms, was assessed. Monthly follow-up calls for 6 months thereafter were made to document any complications and self-reported lymphedema status. RESULTS Among 37 enrolled patients, 33 were evaluated; 4 discontinued due to time constraints. Mean reduction in arm circumference difference was 0.90 cm (95% CI, 0.72-1.07; P < .0005). Eleven patients (33%) exhibited a reduction of ≥30% after acupuncture treatment. Seventy-six percent of patients received all treatments; 21% missed 1 treatment, and another patient missed 2 treatments. During the treatment period, 14 of the 33 patients reported minor complaints, including mild local bruising or pain/tingling. There were no serious adverse events and no infections or severe exacerbations after 255 treatment sessions and 6 months of follow-up interviews. CONCLUSIONS Acupuncture for BCRL appears safe and may reduce arm circumference. Although these results await confirmation in a randomized trial, acupuncture can be considered for women with no other options for sustained arm circumference reduction. Cancer 2013;119:2455-2461. © 2013 American Cancer Society. PMID:23576267

  17. Incidentally diagnosed melorheostosis of upper limb: case report.

    PubMed

    Vyskocil, Vaclav; Koudela, Karel; Pavelka, Tomas; Stajdlova, Kristyna; Suchy, David

    2015-01-31

    Melorheostosis is quite a rare bone disease with still unclear ethiology. Although multifocal affection is highly debilitating with unfavorable prognosis, there is no clear consensus about therapeutical approach. There is still insufficient evidence in the literature for almost a century after the first description. Affected bone has a typical appearance of melting wax. Diagnosis is usually incidental with pain as a leading symptom. Diagnosis itself is relatively easy, routine X-ray examination is sufficient. Even though it could be easily overlooked and mistaken with other diseases. Melorheostosis is incurable, the therapy is mostly focused on maintaining patient quality of life. Presented case is unique in terms of extent of the affection (index finger, metacarp shaft, carpal bones, forearm, humerus and whole scapula) in combination with osteopoikilotic islands in other 3 regions (vertebrae, manubrium sterni and left collar bone). Currently there is only one such a case published in the literature (Campbell), but without osteopoikilotic islands. Melorheostosis was diagnosed in 26-year old female after injury as an incidental finding. This was quite surprising as the patient already suffered by limited movement in the upper limb and pain before the injury. Detailed examination were performed to confirm the diagnosis, no family history was found. Pharmacotherapy with bisphosphonates, non-steroidal antirheumatics and vasodilatans/rheologic drugs seemed to be effective to maintain the relatively good quality of patient life and good performance in daily routine. Questionable is further development of patient performance status and sustainability of conservative treatment in the long term follow up. Conservative treatment with bisphopshonates and COX-2 inhibitors in combination with naftidrofuryl can delay surgery solution.

  18. Non-traumatic lower limb amputation in patients with end-stage renal failure on dialysis: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Gilhotra, Rajit A; Rodrigues, Beverly T; Vangaveti, Venkat N; Kan, George; Porter, David; Sangla, Kunwarjit S; Malabu, Usman H

    2016-08-01

    End-stage renal failure (ESRF) and dialysis have been identified as a risk factor for lower limb amputations (LLAs). High rate of ESRF amongst the Australian population has been reported, however till date no study has been published identifying magnitude and risk factors of LLA in subjects on renal dialysis. The study aims to document trends in the prevalence and identify risk factors of non-traumatic LLA in Australian patients on dialysis. A retrospective review of all patients (218) who attended the regional dialysis center between 1st January 2009 and 31st December 2013 was conducted. Demographic, clinical and biochemical data were analyzed. We identified a high prevalence of 13.3% of LLAs amongst Australian patients with ESRF on dialysis at our center. The associated risk factors were the presence of diabetes (OR 1.67 [1.49-1.88] p < 0.001), history of foot ulceration (OR 81 [18.20-360.48] p < 0.001), peripheral arterial disease (OR 31.29 [9.02-108.56] p < 0.001), peripheral neuropathy (OR 31.29 [9.02-108.56] p < 0.001), foot deformity (OR 23.62 [5.82-95.93] p < 0.001), retinopathy (OR 6.08 [2.64-14.02] p < 0.001), dyslipidemia (OR 4.6 [1.05-20.05] p= 0.049) and indigenous background (OR 3.39 [1.38-8.33] p= 0.01). 75% of the amputees had aboriginal heritage. We also identified higher HbA1c and CRP levels as well as low serum albumin, hemoglobin and vitamin D levels to have a strong association with LLAs (p < 0.05). There is high prevalence of LLAs amongst Australian indigenous patients with diabetes on dialysis in North Queensland. Other strongly associated risk factors include history of foot ulceration, foot deformity and peripheral neuropathy as well as high HbA1c levels and low serum albumin levels.

  19. Demography and function of children with limb loss.

    PubMed

    Yigiter, K; Ulger, O; Sener, G; Akdogan, S; Erbahçeci, F; Bayar, K

    2005-08-01

    This retrospective study was designed for the period 1982-2002 to collect the basic data on the demography, level and side of the amputation, involved limbs, age, gender, and prosthetic functional level in children with limb loss. A total of 232 children were assessed through their prosthetic records. Seventy-two percent (195 children) presented lower-limb involvement, and 28% (77 children) had upper-limb loss. The age of the children varied between 1 and 15 years with a mean age of 9.90 +/- 2.32 years. Results of the study revealed that the leading amputation cause in children was congenital limb absence. The most frequent levels were determined as trans-tibial and trans-radial in lower and upper limbs, respectively. Findings showed that more boys (60%) were affected, and 84% of all amputations were found to be unilateral. It was also seen that right-side amputations (54%) were more common than left-side amputations (46%). The outcome of the study showed that 96% of children with lower-limb loss reached a functional gait pattern without any aids, while the percentage of independence in activities of daily living was found to be 88% in upper-limb loss.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Use of a Prophylactic Antibiotic for Patients Undergoing Lower Limb Amputation due to Diabetes or Vascular Illness in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Mateo; Orozco, Luis Esteban; Valderrama, Carlos Oliver; Londoño, Diana Isabel; Lugo, Luz Helena

    2017-04-01

    The use of a prophylactic antibiotic in an amputation surgery is a key element for the successful recovery of the patient. We aim to determine, from the perspective of the Colombian health system, the cost-effectiveness of administering a prophylactic antibiotic among patients undergoing lower limb amputation due to diabetes or vascular illness in Colombia. A decision tree was constructed to compare the use and nonuse of a prophylactic antibiotic. The probabilities of transition were obtained from studies identified from a systematic review of the clinical literature. The chosen health outcome was reduction in mortality due to prevention of infection. The costs were measured by expert consensus using the standard case methodology, and the resource valuation was carried out using national-level pricing manuals. Deterministic sensitivity, scenarios, and probabilistic analyses were conducted. In the base case, the use of a prophylactic antibiotic compared with nonuse was a dominant strategy. This result was consistent when considering different types of medications and when modifying most of the variables in the model. The use of a prophylactic antibiotic ceases to be dominant when the probability of infection is greater than 48%. The administration of a prophylactic antibiotic was a dominant strategy, which is a conclusion that holds in most cases examined; therefore, it is unlikely that the uncertainty around the estimation of costs and benefits change the results. We recommend creating policies oriented toward promoting the use of a prophylactic antibiotic during amputation surgery in Colombia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of the Houghton Scale to Classify Community and Household Walking Ability in People With Lower-Limb Amputation: Criterion-Related Validity.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christopher Kevin; Gibbs, William; Chen, Elizabeth Sell

    2016-07-01

    To examine the criterion-related validity of using the self-reported Houghton Scale to classify community-dwelling people with lower-limb amputation according to the suggested score ranges for independent community (Houghton Scale score ≥9), household and limited community (Houghton Scale scores 6-8), and limited household (Houghton Scale score ≤5) walking ability categories as referenced to performance-based balance ability and walking speed criteria. Cross-sectional cohort study. Community-based wellness walking programs in 8 states in the Mid-Atlantic, Midwest, and Southeast regions of the U.S. Volunteers (N=180; 66.5% men, n=118; mean age, 55.5±16y) 7.1±13.1 years since amputation, with transtibial-level amputation in 47% (n=79) and amputation caused by vascular disease in 49.4% (n=89). None. Self-reported data: Houghton Scale, Prosthetic Evaluation Questionnaire mobility subscale, and Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale. Clinical performance-based measures: balance ability assessed with 3 Berg Balance Scale (BBS) items and walking ability assessed with the timed Up and Go (TUG) test and 2-minute walk test (2MWT). The primary reference criteria were performance-based balance ability measured with the 3 BBS items and gait speed calculated from the 2MWT. On the Houghton Scale, 45.9% (78/170) of the participants scored ≥9, 30.6% (52/170) of the participants scored between 6 and 8, and 23.5% (40/170) of the participants scored ≤5. The Houghton Scale correlated with the Prosthetic Evaluation Questionnaire mobility subscale (r=.73), ABC Scale (r=.76), balance ability (r=.67), TUG test (r=-.67), and 2MWT (r=.73). The 3 Houghton Scale ability categories differed significantly from each other (P<.05) for all outcome measures: Prosthetic Evaluation Questionnaire mobility subscale, ABC Scale, balance ability, TUG test, and 2MWT. The Houghton Scale demonstrated criterion-related validity by differentiating community-dwelling people with lower-limb

  2. Risk factors of the upper limb disorders among cashiers in grocery retail industries: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhaidi, Muhammad Fareez Ahmad; Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    Cashiers have been appointed as one of top ten occupations in developing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) particularly on the upper limb. Many of the workers are still in high risk injury due to incorrect workstations and lack of employee education in basic biomechanical principles. Normally, cashiers are exposed in several risk factors such as awkward and static postures, repetition motion and forceful exertions. Thus, cashiers in supermarket are considered at risk from developing upper limb disorders (ULDs). This review evaluates selected papers that have studied risk factors of the upper limb disorders among cashiers in grocery retail industries. In addition, other studies from related industry were reviewed as applicable. In order to understand risk factors of the upper limb disorders among cashiers, it is recommended that future studies are needed in evaluating these risk factors among cashiers.

  3. Assessing upper limb function in nonambulant SMA patients: development of a new module.

    PubMed

    Mazzone, Elena; Bianco, Flaviana; Martinelli, Diego; Glanzman, Allan M; Messina, Sonia; De Sanctis, Roberto; Main, Marion; Eagle, Michelle; Florence, Julaine; Krosschell, Kristin; Vasco, Gessica; Pelliccioni, Marco; Lombardo, Marilena; Pane, Marika; Finkel, Richard; Muntoni, Francesco; Bertini, Enrico; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2011-06-01

    We report the development of a module specifically designed for assessing upper limb function in nonambulant SMA patients, including young children and those with severe contractures. The application of the module to a preschool cohort of 40 children (age 30-48 months) showed that all the items could be completed by 30 months. The module was also used in 45 nonambulant SMA patients (age 30 months to 27 years). Their scores were more variable than in the preschool cohort, ranging from 0 to 18. The magnitude of scores was not related to age (r=-0.19). The upper limb scores had a good correlation with the Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale, r=0.75, but the upper