Science.gov

Sample records for amyloid-like adhesins produced

  1. Amyloid-Like Adhesins Produced by Floc-Forming and Filamentous Bacteria in Activated Sludge▿

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Poul; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Otzen, Daniel; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2008-01-01

    Amyloid proteins (fimbriae or other microbial surface-associated structures) are expressed by many types of bacteria, not yet identified, in biofilms from various habitats, where they likely are of key importance to biofilm formation and biofilm properties. As these amyloids are potentially of great importance to the floc properties in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), the abundance of amyloid adhesins in activated sludge flocs from different WWTP and the identity of bacteria producing these were investigated. Amyloid adhesins were quantified using a combination of conformationally specific antibodies targeting amyloid fibrils, propidium iodide to target all fixed bacterial cells, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and digital image analysis. The biovolume fraction containing amyloid adhesins ranged from 10 to 40% in activated sludge from 10 different WWTP. The identity of bacteria producing amyloid adhesins was determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes in combination with antibodies or thioflavin T staining. Among the microcolony-forming bacteria, amyloids were primarily detected among Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria. A more detailed analysis revealed that many denitrifiers (from Thauera, Azoarcus, Zoogloea, and Aquaspirillum-related organisms) and Actinobacteria-related polyphosphate-accumulating organisms most likely produced amyloid adhesins, whereas nitrifiers did not. Many filamentous bacteria also expressed amyloid adhesins, including several Alphaproteobacteria (e.g., Meganema perideroedes), some Betaproteobacteria (e.g., Aquaspirillum-related filaments), Gammaproteobacteria (Thiothrix), Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi (e.g., Eikelboom type 1851), and some foam-forming Actinobacteria (e.g., Gordonia amarae). The results show that amyloid adhesins were an abundant component of activated sludge extracellular polymeric substances and seem to have unexpected, divers functions. PMID:18192426

  2. AFA and F17 adhesins produced by pathogenic Escherichia coli strains in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Le Bouguénec, C; Bertin, Y

    1999-01-01

    AFA and F17 are afimbrial and fimbrial adhesins, respectively, produced by pathogenic Escherichia coli strains in domestic animals. F17-related fimbriae are mainly detected on bovine and ovine E. coli associated with diarrhoea or septicaemia. The F17-G adhesin subunits recognize N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) receptors present on bovine intestinal cells. Some F17 subtypes also bind to GlcNAc receptors present on human uroepithelial and intestinal Caco-2 cells or to the laminin contained in the basement of mammalian membranes. F17 is often associated with other virulence factors (aerobactin, serum resistance, CNF2 toxin, K99, CS31A or AFA adhesins) on pathogenic E. coli. A cluster of only four genes is required to synthesize functional F17-related fimbrial structures. The hypothesis of multifunctional F17 fimbrial subunits is supported by the fact that: i) the N-terminal part of the adhesin subunit participates in receptor recognition, whereas the C-terminal part is required for biogenesis of the fimbrial filament; and ii) the interaction between structural and adhesin subunits seems to be crucial for the initiation of monomer polymerization. Recently, determinants related to the afa gene clusters from human pathogenic E. coli associated with intestinal and extra-intestinal infections were identified in strains isolated from calves and piglets with diarrhoea and septicaemia. Two afa-related gene clusters, designated afa-7 and afa-8, that encode afimbrial adhesins were cloned and characterized from bovine pathogenic E. coli. These animal afa gene clusters were plasmid and chromosome borne and were expressed by strains that produced other virulence factors such as CNF toxins, F17, PAP and CS31A adhesins. A high frequency of afa-8 and a low prevalence of afa-7 among bovine E. coli isolates were suggested by preliminary epidemiological studies. As with the human afa gene clusters, the animal ones encode an adhesive structure composed of two proteins: AfaE which

  3. Amyloid-like fibril elongation follows michaelis-menten kinetics.

    PubMed

    Milto, Katazyna; Botyriute, Akvile; Smirnovas, Vytautas

    2013-01-01

    A number of proteins can aggregate into amyloid-like fibrils. It was noted that fibril elongation has similarities to an enzymatic reaction, where monomers or oligomers would play a role of substrate and nuclei/fibrils would play a role of enzyme. The question is how similar these processes really are. We obtained experimental data on insulin amyloid-like fibril elongation at the conditions where other processes which may impact kinetics of fibril formation are minor and fitted it using Michaelis-Menten equation. The correlation of the fit is very good and repeatable. It speaks in favour of enzyme-like model of fibril elongation. In addition, obtained [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] values at different conditions may help in better understanding influence of environmental factors on the process of fibril elongation.

  4. EHEC Adhesins

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, Brian D.; Torres, Alfredo G.

    2014-01-01

    Adhesins are a group of proteins in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) that are involved in the attachment or colonization of this pathogen to abiotic (plastic or steel) and biological surfaces, such as those found in bovine and human intestines. This review provides the most up-to-date information on these essential adhesion factors, summarizing important historical discoveries and analyzing the current and future state of this research. In doing so, the proteins intimin and Tir are discussed in depth, especially regarding their role in the development of attaching and effacing lesions and in EHEC virulence. Further, a series of fimbrial proteins (Lpf1, Lpf2, curli, ECP, F9, ELF, Sfp, HCP, and type 1 fimbriae) are also described, emphasizing their various contributions to adherence and colonization of different surfaces and their potential use as genetic markers in detection and classification of different EHEC serotypes. This review also discusses the role of several autotransporter proteins (EhaA-D, EspP, Saa and Sab, and Cah), as well as other proteins associated with adherence, such as flagella, EibG, Iha, and OmpA. While these proteins have all been studied to varying degrees, all of the adhesins summarized in this chapter have been linked to different stages of the EHEC life cycle, making them good targets for the development of more effective diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:25635238

  5. Gallibacterium elongation factor-Tu possesses amyloid-like protein characteristics, participates in cell adhesion, and is present in biofilms.

    PubMed

    López-Ochoa, Jaqueline; Montes-García, J Fernando; Vázquez, Candelario; Sánchez-Alonso, Patricia; Pérez-Márquez, Victor M; Blackall, Patrick J; Vaca, Sergio; Negrete-Abascal, Erasmo

    2017-09-01

    Gallibacterium, which is a bacterial pathogen in chickens, can form biofilms. Amyloid proteins present in biofilms bind Congo red dye. The aim of this study was to characterize the cell-surface amyloid-like protein expressed in biofilms formed by Gallibacterium strains and determine the relationship between this protein and curli, which is an amyloid protein that is commonly expressed by members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The presence of amyloid-like proteins in outer membrane protein samples from three strains of G. anatis and one strain of Gallibacterium genomospecies 2 was evaluated. A protein identified as elongation factor-Tu (EF-Tu) by mass spectrometric analysis and in silico analysis was obtained from the G. anatis strain F149(T). This protein bound Congo red dye, cross-reacted with anti-curli polyclonal serum, exhibited polymerizing properties and was present in biofilms. This protein also reacted with pooled serum from chickens that were experimentally infected with G. anatis, indicating the in vivo immunogenicity of this protein. The recombinant EF-Tu purified protein, which was prepared from G. anatis 12656-12, polymerizes under in vitro conditions, forms filaments and interacts with fibronectin and fibrinogen, all of which suggest that this protein functions as an adhesin. In summary, EF-Tu from G. anatis presents amyloid characteristics, is present in biofilms and could be relevant for the pathogenesis of G. anatis.

  6. Bacterial Inclusion Bodies Contain Amyloid-Like Structure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Maji, Samir K; Sawaya, Michael R; Eisenberg, David; Riek, Roland

    2008-01-01

    Protein aggregation is a process in which identical proteins self-associate into imperfectly ordered macroscopic entities. Such aggregates are generally classified as amorphous, lacking any long-range order, or highly ordered fibrils. Protein fibrils can be composed of native globular molecules, such as the hemoglobin molecules in sickle-cell fibrils, or can be reorganized β-sheet–rich aggregates, termed amyloid-like fibrils. Amyloid fibrils are associated with several pathological conditions in humans, including Alzheimer disease and diabetes type II. We studied the structure of bacterial inclusion bodies, which have been believed to belong to the amorphous class of aggregates. We demonstrate that all three in vivo-derived inclusion bodies studied are amyloid-like and comprised of amino-acid sequence-specific cross-β structure. These findings suggest that inclusion bodies are structured, that amyloid formation is an omnipresent process both in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, and that amino acid sequences evolve to avoid the amyloid conformation. PMID:18684013

  7. Amyloid-like ribbons of amelogenins in enamel mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Karina M. M.; Zhai, Halei; Zhu, Li; Horst, Jeremy A.; Sitlin, Melody; Nguyen, Mychi; Wagner, Martin; Simpliciano, Cheryl; Milder, Melissa; Chen, Chun-Long; Ashby, Paul; Bonde, Johan; Li, Wu; Habelitz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Enamel, the outermost layer of teeth, is an acellular mineralized tissue that cannot regenerate; the mature tissue is composed of high aspect ratio apatite nanocrystals organized into rods and inter-rod regions. Amelogenin constitutes 90% of the protein matrix in developing enamel and plays a central role in guiding the hierarchical organization of apatite crystals observed in mature enamel. To date, a convincing link between amelogenin supramolecular structures and mature enamel has yet to be described, in part because the protein matrix is degraded during tissue maturation. Here we show compelling evidence that amelogenin self-assembles into an amyloid-like structure in vitro and in vivo. We show that enamel matrices stain positive for amyloids and we identify a specific region within amelogenin that self-assembles into β-sheets. We propose that amelogenin nanoribbons template the growth of apatite mineral in human enamel. This is a paradigm shift from the current model of enamel development. PMID:27009419

  8. Amyloid-like hierarchical helical fibrils and conformational reversibility in functional polyesters based on L-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Anantharaj, Santhanaraj; Jayakannan, Manickam

    2015-03-09

    The present investigation reports one of the first examples of synthetic polymers that capable of undergoing reversible conformation transformation and also self-assembled to hierarchical helical amyloid-like fibrils. A new temperature selective melt polycondensation reaction was developed for amino acid monomers L-aspartic acid and L-glutamic acid to produce high molecular weight linear functional polyesters. These new polyesters have hydrogen bonded urethane (or carbamate) units that are in-built in each repeating unit. The polymer chains have adapted expanded chain conformation through β-sheet hydrogen bonding interactions and produced twisted ribbon-like assemblies. These twisted ribbons have subsequently undergone interchain folding for making double helical structures. The double helical fibrils aligned together to produce amyloid-like fibrils of few micrometer in length. Upon chemical deprotection of the pendent urethane units; the resultant cationic functional polyester adapted coil-like conformation and exhibited spherical charged nanoparticles of 200 ± 20 nm in size. Dynamic light scattering and zeta potential measurements revealed that both the charge and size of the spherical structures could be varied by altering the diol segment length in the polymer backbone. The coil-like chains in the charged spherical particles could be reversibly expanded into amyloid-like fibrils via fluorophore chemical substitution using dansyl chloride. The dansyl-substituted polymer exhibited helical fibrils and strong fluorescence. Thus, the L-amino acid based polyesters exhibited complete reversible conformational changes from hierarchical helical amyloid-like fibrils to charged nanoparticles in a single polymer system. These new nonpeptide polyester analogues, their amyloid fibrils, cationic polymer assemblies and fluorescent fibrils are very new based on l-amino acids, which may be useful for a wide range of biomedical applications.

  9. Characterization of AfaE adhesins produced by extraintestinal and intestinal human Escherichia coli isolates: PCR assays for detection of Afa adhesins that do or do not recognize Dr blood group antigens.

    PubMed

    Le Bouguénec, C; Lalioui, L; du Merle, L; Jouve, M; Courcoux, P; Bouzari, S; Selvarangan, R; Nowicki, B J; Germani, Y; Andremont, A; Gounon, P; Garcia, M I

    2001-05-01

    Operons of the afa family are expressed by pathogenic Escherichia coli strains associated with intestinal and extraintestinal infections in humans and animals. The recently demonstrated heterogeneity of these operons (L. Lalioui, M. Jouve, P. Gounon, and C. Le Bouguénec, Infect. Immun. 67:5048-5059, 1999) was used to develop a new PCR assay for detecting all the operons of the afa family with a single genetic tool. This PCR approach was validated by investigating three collections of human E. coli isolates originating from the stools of infants with diarrhea (88 strains), the urine of patients with pyelonephritis (97 strains), and the blood of cancer patients (115 strains). The results obtained with this single test and those previously obtained with several PCR assays were closely correlated. The AfaE adhesins encoded by the afa operons are variable, particularly with respect to the primary sequence encoded by the afaE gene. The receptor binding specificities have not been determined for all of these adhesins; some recognize the Dr blood group antigen (Afa/Dr(+) adhesins) on the human decay-accelerating factor (DAF) as a receptor, and others (Afa/Dr(-) adhesins) do not. Thus, the afa operons detected in this study were characterized by subtyping the afaE gene using specific PCRs. In addition, the DAF-binding capacities of as-yet-uncharacterized AfaE adhesins were tested by various cellular approaches. The afaE8 subtype (Afa/Dr(-) adhesin) was found to predominate in afa-positive isolates from sepsis patients (75%); it was frequent in afa-positive pyelonephritis E. coli (55.5%) and absent from diarrhea-associated strains. In contrast, Afa/Dr(+) strains (regardless of the afaE subtype) were associated with both diarrhea (100%) and extraintestinal infections (44 and 25% in afa-positive pyelonephritis and sepsis strains, respectively). These data suggest that there is an association between the subtype of AfaE adhesin and the physiological site of the infection

  10. Amyloid-like ribbons of amelogenins in enamel mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Carneiro, Karina M. M.; Zhai, Halei; Zhu, Li; Horst, Jeremy A.; Sitlin, Melody; Nguyen, Mychi; Wagner, Martin; Simpliciano, Cheryl; Milder, Melissa; Chen, Chun-Long; Ashby, Paul; Bonde, Johan; Li, Wu; Habelitz, Stefan

    2016-03-24

    We report that enamel, the outermost layer of teeth, is an acellular mineralized tissue that cannot regenerate; the mature tissue is composed of high aspect ratio apatite nanocrystals organized into rods and inter-rod regions. Amelogenin constitutes 90% of the protein matrix in developing enamel and plays a central role in guiding the hierarchical organization of apatite crystals observed in mature enamel. To date, a convincing link between amelogenin supramolecular structures and mature enamel has yet to be described, in part because the protein matrix is degraded during tissue maturation. Here we show compelling evidence that amelogenin self-assembles into an amyloid-like structure in vitro and in vivo. We show that enamel matrices stain positive for amyloids and we identify a specific region within amelogenin that self-assembles into β-sheets. Lastly, we propose that amelogenin nanoribbons template the growth of apatite mineral in human enamel. This is a paradigm shift from the current model of enamel development.

  11. Immunocytochemistry of the AfaE adhesin and AfaD invasin produced by pathogenic Escherichia coli strains during interaction of the bacteria with HeLa cells by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gounon, P; Jouve, M; Le Bouguénec, C

    2000-04-01

    We used a recent scanning electron microscope equipped with field emission gun and highly sensitive detectors to develop a fast and simple protocol for double immunogold staining using 10- and 15-nm gold particles. We used this approach to analyse the afimbrial adhesive sheath produced by pathogenic Escherichia coli interacting with the surface of epithelial cells. We demonstrated that AfaE adhesin and AfaD invasin were exposed at the bacterial surface during the interaction. This method could be easily and widely extended to the study of the early invasion process of many bacterial and viral pathogens, by immunocytochemical probing.

  12. The Human Disease-Associated Aβ Amyloid Core Sequence Forms Functional Amyloids in a Fungal Adhesin

    PubMed Central

    Rameau, Rachele D.; Jackson, Desmond N.; Beaussart, Audrey; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is increasing evidence that many amyloids in living cells have physiological functions. On the surfaces of fungal cells, amyloid core sequences in adhesins can aggregate into 100- to 1,000-nm-wide patches to form high-avidity adhesion nanodomains on the cell surface. The nanodomains form through interactions that have amyloid-like properties: binding of amyloid dyes, perturbation by antiamyloid agents, and interaction with homologous sequences. To test whether these functional interactions are mediated by typical amyloid interactions, we substituted an amyloid core sequence, LVFFA, from human Aβ protein for the native sequence IVIVA in the 1,419-residue Candida albicans adhesin Als5p. The chimeric protein formed cell surface nanodomains and mediated cellular aggregation. The native sequence and chimeric adhesins responded similarly to the amyloid dye thioflavin T and to amyloid perturbants. However, unlike the native protein, the nanodomains formed by the chimeric protein were not force activated and formed less-robust aggregates under flow. These results showed the similarity of amyloid interactions in the amyloid core sequences of native Als5p and Aβ, but they also highlighted emergent properties of the native sequence. Also, a peptide composed of the Aβ amyloid sequence flanked by amino acids from the adhesin formed two-dimensional sheets with sizes similar to the cell surface patches of the adhesins. These results inform an initial model for the structure of fungal cell surface amyloid nanodomains. PMID:26758179

  13. Amyloid-like fibrils formed from intrinsically disordered caseins: physicochemical and nanomechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Pan, Kang; Zhong, Qixin

    2015-08-07

    Amyloid-like fibrils are studied because of their significance in understanding pathogenesis and creating functional materials. Amyloid-like fibrils have been studied by heating globular proteins at acidic conditions. In the present study, intrinsically disordered α-, β-, and κ-caseins were studied to form amyloid-like fibrils at pH 2.0 and 90 °C. No fibrils were observed for α-caseins, and acid hydrolysis was found to be the rate-limiting step of fibrillation of β- and κ-caseins. An increase of β-sheet structure was observed after fibrillation. Nanomechanic analysis of long amyloid-like fibrils using peak-force quantitative nanomechanical atomic force microscopy showed the lowest and highest Young's modulus for β-casein (2.35 ± 0.29 GPa) and κ-casein (4.14 ± 0.66 GPa), respectively. The dispersion with β-casein fibrils had a viscosity more than 10 and 5 times higher than those of κ-casein and β-lactoglobulin, respectively, at 0.1 s(-1) at comparable concentrations. The current findings may assist not only the understanding of amyloid fibril formation but also the development of novel functional materials from disordered proteins.

  14. Cooperative structural transitions in amyloid-like aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckmann, Timothy; Bhandari, Yuba R.; Chapagain, Prem P.; Gerstman, Bernard S.

    2017-04-01

    Amyloid fibril aggregation is associated with several horrific diseases such as Alzheimer's, Creutzfeld-Jacob, diabetes, Parkinson's, and others. Although proteins that undergo aggregation vary widely in their primary structure, they all produce a cross-β motif with the proteins in β-strand conformations perpendicular to the fibril axis. The process of amyloid aggregation involves forming myriad different metastable intermediate aggregates. To better understand the molecular basis of the protein structural transitions and aggregation, we report on molecular dynamics (MD) computational studies on the formation of amyloid protofibrillar structures in the small model protein ccβ, which undergoes many of the structural transitions of the larger, naturally occurring amyloid forming proteins. Two different structural transition processes involving hydrogen bonds are observed for aggregation into fibrils: the breaking of intrachain hydrogen bonds to allow β-hairpin proteins to straighten, and the subsequent formation of interchain H-bonds during aggregation into amyloid fibrils. For our MD simulations, we found that the temperature dependence of these two different structural transition processes results in the existence of a temperature window that the ccβ protein experiences during the process of forming protofibrillar structures. This temperature dependence allows us to investigate the dynamics on a molecular level. We report on the thermodynamics and cooperativity of the transformations. The structural transitions that occurred in a specific temperature window for ccβ in our investigations may also occur in other amyloid forming proteins but with biochemical parameters controlling the dynamics rather than temperature.

  15. Inhibition of Amyloid-like Fibril Formation of Trypsin by Red Wines.

    PubMed

    Kotormán, Márta; Kasi, Phanindra Babu; Halász, László; Borics, Attila

    2017-02-14

    The aim of the present study was to examine the potential role and applicability of dietary supplements in reducing the risk of development of amyloid diseases associated with the gastrointestinal tract, such as type II diabetes. Trypsin, a well-known serine protease was used as a model protein in our experiments. The effect of various red wines on the formation of amyloid-like fibrils of trypsin was studied in vitro, in aqueous ethanol, at pH 7.0. Turbidity measurements, aggregation kinetics experiments, Congo red binding assays and electronic circular dichroism spectroscopic measurements were used to follow the aggregation process in the presence or absence of various red wines. The results suggest that red wines effectively inhibit the formation of amyloid-like fibrils of trypsin and the inhibitory effect is dose-dependent. The extent of inhibition was found to be proportional to the total concentration of phenolic compounds.

  16. Amyloid-like aggregates of neuronal tau induced by formaldehyde promote apoptosis of neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Chun Lai; Wang, Xing Sheng; Liu, Ying; Perrett, Sarah; He, Rong Qiao

    2007-01-01

    Background The microtubule associated protein tau is the principle component of neurofibrillar tangles, which are a characteristic marker in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease; similar lesions are also observed after chronic alcohol abuse. Formaldehyde is a common environmental contaminant and also a metabolite of methanol. Although many studies have been done on methanol and formaldehyde intoxication, none of these address the contribution of protein misfolding to the pathological mechanism, in particular the effect of formaldehyde on protein conformation and polymerization. Results We found that unlike the typical globular protein BSA, the natively-unfolded structure of human neuronal tau was induced to misfold and aggregate in the presence of ~0.01% formaldehyde, leading to formation of amyloid-like deposits that appeared as densely staining granules by electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, and bound the amyloid-specific dyes thioflavin T and Congo Red. The amyloid-like aggregates of tau were found to induce apoptosis in the neurotypic cell line SH-SY5Y and in rat hippocampal cells, as observed by Hoechst 33258 staining, assay of caspase-3 activity, and flow cytometry using Annexin V and Propidium Iodide staining. Further experiments showed that Congo Red specifically attenuated the caspase-3 activity induced by amyloid-like deposits of tau. Conclusion The results suggest that low concentrations of formaldehyde can induce human tau protein to form neurotoxic aggregates, which could play a role in the induction of tauopathies. PMID:17241479

  17. Looking for a generic inhibitor of amyloid-like fibril formation among flavone derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Šneideris, Tomas; Baranauskienė, Lina; Cannon, Jonathan G.; Rutkienė, Rasa; Meškys, Rolandas

    2015-01-01

    A range of diseases is associated with amyloid fibril formation. Despite different proteins being responsible for each disease, all of them share similar features including beta-sheet-rich secondary structure and fibril-like protein aggregates. A number of proteins can form amyloid-like fibrils in vitro, resembling structural features of disease-related amyloids. Given these generic structural properties of amyloid and amyloid-like fibrils, generic inhibitors of fibril formation would be of interest for treatment of amyloid diseases. Recently, we identified five outstanding inhibitors of insulin amyloid-like fibril formation among the pool of 265 commercially available flavone derivatives. Here we report testing of these five compounds and of epi-gallocatechine-3-gallate (EGCG) on aggregation of alpha-synuclein and beta-amyloid. We used a Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence assay, relying on halftimes of aggregation as the measure of inhibition. This method avoids large numbers of false positive results. Our data indicate that four of the five flavones and EGCG inhibit alpha-synuclein aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner. However none of these derivatives were able to increase halftimes of aggregation of beta-amyloid. PMID:26421240

  18. Desmin modifications associate with amyloid-like oligomers deposition in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Agnetti, Giulio; Halperin, Victoria L; Kirk, Jonathan A; Chakir, Khalid; Guo, Yurong; Lund, Linda; Nicolini, Francesco; Gherli, Tiziano; Guarnieri, Carlo; Caldarera, Claudio M; Tomaselli, Gordon F; Kass, David A; Van Eyk, Jennifer E

    2014-04-01

    The ultimate cause of heart failure (HF) is not known to date. The cytoskeletal protein desmin is differentially modified and forms amyloid-like oligomers in HF. We postulated that desmin post-translational modifications (PTMs) could drive aberrant desmin aggregation in HF. Therefore, we identified these PTMs and investigated their impact on desmin amyloidogenicity in human and experimental HF. We detected increased levels of selectively phosphorylated and cleaved desmin in a canine pacing model of dyssynchronous HF (DHF) compared with either controls or animals treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). This unique animal model combines clinically relevant features with the possibility of a partly rescued phenotype. We confirmed analogous changes in desmin modifications in human HF and identified two phosphorylation sites within a glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) consensus sequence. Desmin-positive oligomers were also increased in DHF hearts compared with controls. Their amyloid properties were decreased by treatment with CRT or an anti-amyloid small molecule. Finally, we confirmed GSK3's involvement with desmin phosphorylation using an in vitro model. Based on these findings, we postulate a new mechanism of cardiac toxicity based on the PTM-driven accumulation of desmin amyloid-like oligomers. Phosphorylation and cleavage as well as oligomers formation are reduced by treatment (CRT) indicating a relationship between the three. Finally, the decrease of desmin amyloid-like oligomers with CRT or small molecules points both to a general mechanism of HF based on desmin toxicity that is independent of protein mutations and to novel potential therapies.

  19. EGCG disaggregates amyloid-like fibrils formed by Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 2

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekaran, Indu R.; Adda, Christopher G.; MacRaild, Christopher A.; Anders, Robin F.; Norton, Raymond S.

    2011-01-01

    Merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP2), one of the most abundant proteins on the surface of Plasmodium falciparum merozoites, is a promising malaria vaccine candidate. MSP2 is intrinsically unstructured and forms amyloid-like fibrils in solution. As this propensity of MSP2 to form fibrils in solution has the potential to impede its development as a vaccine candidate, finding an inhibitor that inhibits fibrillogenesis may enhance vaccine development. We have shown previously that EGCG inhibits the formation of MSP2 fibrils. Here we show that EGCG can alter the β-sheet-like structure of the fibril and disaggregate pre-formed fibrils of MSP2 into soluble oligomers. The fibril remodelling effects of EGCG and other flavonoids were characterized using Thioflavin T fluorescence assays, electron microscopy and other biophysical methods. PMID:21784057

  20. The cytotoxic Staphylococcus aureus PSMα3 reveals a cross-α amyloid-like fibril.

    PubMed

    Tayeb-Fligelman, Einav; Tabachnikov, Orly; Moshe, Asher; Goldshmidt-Tran, Orit; Sawaya, Michael R; Coquelle, Nicolas; Colletier, Jacques-Philippe; Landau, Meytal

    2017-02-24

    Amyloids are ordered protein aggregates, found in all kingdoms of life, and are involved in aggregation diseases as well as in physiological activities. In microbes, functional amyloids are often key virulence determinants, yet the structural basis for their activity remains elusive. We determined the fibril structure and function of the highly toxic, 22-residue phenol-soluble modulin α3 (PSMα3) peptide secreted by Staphylococcus aureus PSMα3 formed elongated fibrils that shared the morphological and tinctorial characteristics of canonical cross-β eukaryotic amyloids. However, the crystal structure of full-length PSMα3, solved de novo at 1.45 angstrom resolution, revealed a distinctive "cross-α" amyloid-like architecture, in which amphipathic α helices stacked perpendicular to the fibril axis into tight self-associating sheets. The cross-α fibrillation of PSMα3 facilitated cytotoxicity, suggesting that this assembly mode underlies function in S. aureus.

  1. Mechanical properties of amyloid-like fibrils defined by secondary structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortolini, C.; Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Wang, C.; Besenbacher, F.; Dong, M.

    2015-04-01

    Amyloid and amyloid-like fibrils represent a generic class of highly ordered nanostructures that are implicated in some of the most fatal neurodegenerative diseases. On the other hand, amyloids, by possessing outstanding mechanical robustness, have also been successfully employed as functional biomaterials. For these reasons, physical and chemical factors driving fibril self-assembly and morphology are extensively studied - among these parameters, the secondary structures and the pH have been revealed to be crucial, since a variation in pH changes the fibril morphology and net chirality during protein aggregation. It is important to quantify the mechanical properties of these fibrils in order to help the design of effective strategies for treating diseases related to the presence of amyloid fibrils. In this work, we show that by changing pH the mechanical properties of amyloid-like fibrils vary as well. In particular, we reveal that these mechanical properties are strongly related to the content of secondary structures. We analysed and estimated the Young's modulus (E) by comparing the persistence length (Lp) - measured from the observation of TEM images by using statistical mechanics arguments - with the mechanical information provided by peak force quantitative nanomechanical property mapping (PF-QNM). The secondary structure content and the chirality are investigated by means of synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SR-CD). Results arising from this study could be fruitfully used as a protocol to investigate other medical or engineering relevant peptide fibrils.Amyloid and amyloid-like fibrils represent a generic class of highly ordered nanostructures that are implicated in some of the most fatal neurodegenerative diseases. On the other hand, amyloids, by possessing outstanding mechanical robustness, have also been successfully employed as functional biomaterials. For these reasons, physical and chemical factors driving fibril self-assembly and morphology

  2. An Amyloid-Like Pathological Conformation of TDP-43 Is Stabilized by Hypercooperative Hydrogen Bonds.

    PubMed

    Mompeán, Miguel; Baralle, Marco; Buratti, Emanuele; Laurents, Douglas V

    2016-01-01

    TDP-43 is an essential RNA-binding protein forming aggregates in almost all cases of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and many cases of frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. TDP-43 consists of a folded N-terminal domain with a singular structure, two RRM RNA-binding domains, and a long disordered C-terminal region which plays roles in functional RNA regulatory assemblies as well as pernicious aggregation. Evidence from pathological mutations and seeding experiments strongly suggest that TDP-43 aggregates are pathologically relevant through toxic gain-of-harmful-function and/or harmful loss-of-native-function mechanisms. Recent, but not early, microscopy studies and the ability of TDP-43 aggregates to resist harsh treatment and to seed new pathological aggregates in vitro and in cells strongly suggest that TDP-43 aggregates have a self-templating, amyloid-like structure. Based on the importance of the Gln/Asn-rich 341-367 residue segment for efficient aggregation of endogenous TDP-43 when presented as a 12X-repeat and extensive spectroscopic and computational experiments, we recently proposed that this segment adopts a beta-hairpin structure that assembles in a parallel with a beta-turn configuration to form an amyloid-like structure. Here, we propose that this conformer is stabilized by an especially strong class of hypercooperative hydrogen bonding unique to Gln and Asn sidechains. The clinical existence of this conformer is supported by very recent LC-MS/MS characterization of TDP-43 from ex vivo aggregates, which show that residues 341-367 were protected in vivo from Ser phosphorylation, Gln/Asn deamidation and Met oxidation. Its distinct pattern of SDS-PAGE bands allows us to link this conformer to the exceptionally stable seed of the Type A TDP-43 proteinopathy.

  3. Induction of murine AA amyloidosis by various homogeneous amyloid fibrils and amyloid-like synthetic peptides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Cui, D; Hoshii, Y; Kawano, H; Une, Y; Gondo, T; Ishihara, T

    2007-11-01

    We investigated amyloid-enhancing factor (AEF) activity of amyloid fibrils extracted from amyloid-laden livers of mice, cow, cheetah, cat and swan. All amyloid fibrils were confirmed to be amyloid protein A (AA) by an immunohistochemical analysis. We found that these fibrils accelerated the deposition of amyloid in an experimental mouse model of AA amyloidosis. Furthermore, the degree of deposition was dependent on the concentration of fibrils. When we compared the minimal concentration of amyloid fibrils needed to induce deposition, we found that these fibrils showed different efficiencies. Murine amyloid fibril induced amyloid deposition more efficiently than cow, cat, cheetah or swan amyloid fibrils. These data suggest that amyloid deposition is preferentially induced by amyloid fibrils with the same primary sequence as the endogenous amyloid protein. We then analysed the AEF activity of synthetic peptides, synthesized corresponding to amino acids 1-15 of mouse SAA (mSAA), 2-15 of cow SAA (bSAA), 1-15 of cat SAA (cSAA), which was the same as cheetah, and the common amino acids 33-45 of these four SAA (aSAA). We found that mSAA, bSAA and cSAA formed amyloid-like fibrils in morphology and showed similar AEF properties to those of native amyloid fibrils. Although aSAA also formed highly ordered amyloid-like fibrils, it showed weaker AEF activity than the other synthetic fibrils. Our results indicate that amyloidosis is transmissible between species under certain conditions; however, the efficiency of amyloid deposition is species-specific and appears to be related to the primary amino acid sequence, especially the N-terminal segment of the amyloid protein.

  4. An Amyloid-Like Pathological Conformation of TDP-43 Is Stabilized by Hypercooperative Hydrogen Bonds

    PubMed Central

    Mompeán, Miguel; Baralle, Marco; Buratti, Emanuele; Laurents, Douglas V.

    2016-01-01

    TDP-43 is an essential RNA-binding protein forming aggregates in almost all cases of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and many cases of frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. TDP-43 consists of a folded N-terminal domain with a singular structure, two RRM RNA-binding domains, and a long disordered C-terminal region which plays roles in functional RNA regulatory assemblies as well as pernicious aggregation. Evidence from pathological mutations and seeding experiments strongly suggest that TDP-43 aggregates are pathologically relevant through toxic gain-of-harmful-function and/or harmful loss-of-native-function mechanisms. Recent, but not early, microscopy studies and the ability of TDP-43 aggregates to resist harsh treatment and to seed new pathological aggregates in vitro and in cells strongly suggest that TDP-43 aggregates have a self-templating, amyloid-like structure. Based on the importance of the Gln/Asn-rich 341–367 residue segment for efficient aggregation of endogenous TDP-43 when presented as a 12X-repeat and extensive spectroscopic and computational experiments, we recently proposed that this segment adopts a beta-hairpin structure that assembles in a parallel with a beta-turn configuration to form an amyloid-like structure. Here, we propose that this conformer is stabilized by an especially strong class of hypercooperative hydrogen bonding unique to Gln and Asn sidechains. The clinical existence of this conformer is supported by very recent LC-MS/MS characterization of TDP-43 from ex vivo aggregates, which show that residues 341–367 were protected in vivo from Ser phosphorylation, Gln/Asn deamidation and Met oxidation. Its distinct pattern of SDS-PAGE bands allows us to link this conformer to the exceptionally stable seed of the Type A TDP-43 proteinopathy. PMID:27909398

  5. MAAP: malarial adhesins and adhesin-like proteins predictor.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Faraz Alam; Kumar, Naveen; Bala Subramanyam, Mekapati; Gnanamani, Muthiah; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2008-02-15

    Malaria caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium is a dreaded disease, second only to tuberculosis. The emergence of parasites resistant to commonly used drugs and the lack of availability of vaccines aggravates the problem. One of the preventive approaches targets adhesion of parasites to host cells and tissues. Adhesion of parasites is mediated by proteins called adhesins. Abrogation of adhesion by either immunizing the host with adhesins or inhibiting the interaction using structural analogs of host cell receptors holds the potential to develop novel preventive strategies. The availability of complete genome sequence offers new opportunities for identifying adhesin and adhesin-like proteins. Development of computational algorithms can simplify this task and accelerate experimental characterization of the predicted adhesins from complete genomes. A curated positive dataset of experimentally known adhesins from Plasmodium species was prepared by careful examination of literature reports. "Controversial" or "hypothetical" adhesins were excluded. The negative dataset consisted of proteins representing various intracellular functions including information processing, metabolism, and interface (transporters). We did not include proteins likely to be on the surface with unknown adhesin properties or which are linked even indirectly to the adhesion process in either of the training sets. A nonhomology-based approach using 420 compositional properties of amino acid dipeptide and multiplet frequencies was used to develop MAAP Web server with Support Vector Machine (SVM) model classifier as its engine for the prediction of malarial adhesins and adhesin-like proteins. The MAAP engine has six SVM classifier models identified through an exhaustive search from 728 kernel parameters set. These models displayed an efficiency (Mathews correlation coefficient) of 0.860-0.967. The final prediction P(maap) score is the maximum score attained by a given

  6. Chaperonins induce an amyloid-like transformation of ovine prion protein: the fundamental difference in action between eukaryotic TRiC and bacterial GroEL.

    PubMed

    Kiselev, Georgy G; Naletova, Irina N; Sheval, Evgeny V; Stroylova, Yulia Y; Schmalhausen, Elena V; Haertlé, Thomas; Muronetz, Vladimir I

    2011-12-01

    Molecular chaperones have been shown to be involved in the processes taking place during the pathogenesis of various amyloid neurodegenerative diseases. However, contradictory literature reports suggest that different molecular chaperones can either stimulate or prevent the formation of amyloid structures from distinct amyloidogenic proteins. In the present work, we concentrated on the effects caused by two molecular chaperonins, ovine TRiC and bacterial GroEL, on the aggregation and conformational state of ovine PrP. Both chaperonins were shown to bind native PrP and to produce amyloid-like forms of ovine PrP enriched with beta-structures but, while GroEL acted in an ATP-dependent manner, TRiC was shown to cause the same effect only in the absence of Mg-ATP (i.e. in the inactive form). In the presence of chaperonin GroEL, ovine PrP was shown to form micellar particles, approximately 100-200nm in diameter, which were observed both by dynamic light scattering assay and by electron microscopy. The content of these particles was significantly higher in the presence of Mg-ATP and, only under these conditions, GroEL produced amyloid-like species enriched with beta-structures. TRiC was shown to induce the formation of amyloid fibrils observed by electron microscopy, but only in the absence of Mg-ATP. This study suggests the important role of the cytosolic chaperonin TRiC in the propagation of amyloid structures in vivo during the development of amyloid diseases and the possible role of the bacterial chaperonin GroEL, located in the intestinal microflora, in the induction of these diseases.

  7. Distribution of Amyloid-Like and Oligomeric Species from Protein Aggregation Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Silva, Alexandra; Almeida, Bruno; Fraga, Joana S; Taboada, Pablo; Martins, Pedro M; Macedo-Ribeiro, Sandra

    2017-09-14

    Amyloid fibrils and soluble oligomers are two types of protein aggregates associated with neurodegeneration. Classic therapeutic strategies try to prevent the nucleation and spread of amyloid fibrils, whilst diffusible oligomers have emerged as promising drug targets affecting downstream pathogenic processes. We developed a generic protein aggregation model and validate it against measured compositions of fibrillar and non-fibrillar assemblies of ataxin-3, a protein implicated in Machado-Joseph disease. The derived analytic rate-law equations can be used to 1) identify the presence of parallel aggregation pathways and 2) estimate the critical sizes of amyloid fibrils. The discretized population balance supporting our model is the first to quantitatively fit time-resolved measurements of size and composition of both amyloid-like and oligomeric species. The new theoretical framework can be used to screen a new class of drugs specifically targeting toxic oligomers. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Tensile deformation and failure of amyloid and amyloid-like protein fibrils.

    PubMed

    Solar, Max; Buehler, Markus J

    2014-03-14

    Here we report a series of full atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of six amyloid or amyloid-like protein fibrils in order to systematically understand the effect of different secondary structure motifs on the mechanical tensile and failure response of cross-β protein fibrils. We find a similar failure behavior across the six structures; an initial failure event occurs at small strains involving cooperative rupture of a group of hydrogen bonds, followed by a slow one-by-one hydrogen bond rupture process as the remaining β-sheets peel off with very low applied stress. We also find that the ultimate tensile strength of the protein fibrils investigated scales directly with the number of hydrogen bonds per unit area which break in the initial rupture event. Our results provide insights into structure-property relationships in protein fibrils important for disease and engineering applications and lay the groundwork for the development of materials selection criteria for the design of de novo amyloid-based functional biomaterials.

  9. Quantum dots induce charge-specific amyloid-like fibrillation of insulin at physiological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhanova, Alyona; Poly, Simon; Shemetov, Anton; Nabiev, Igor R.

    2012-10-01

    Agglomeration of some proteins may give rise to aggregates that have been identified as the main cause of amyloid diseases. For example, fibrillation of insulin is related to diabetes mellitus. Quantum dots (QDs) are of special interest as tagging agents for diagnostic and therapeutic studies due to their broad absorption spectra, narrow emission spectra, and high photostability. In this study, PEGylated CdSe/ZnS QDs have been shown to induce the formation of amyloid-like fibrils of human insulin under physiological conditions, this process being dependent on the variation of the surface charge of the nanoparticles (NPs) used. Circular dichroism (CD), protein secondary structure analysis, thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence assay, and the dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique have been used for comparative analysis of different stages of the fibrillation process. In particular, insulin secondary structure remodelling accompanied by a considerable increase in the rate of amyloid fiber formation have been observed after insulin was mixed with PEGylated QDs. Nanoparticles may significantly influence the rate of protein fibrillation and induce new mechanisms of amyloid diseases, as well as offer opportunities for their treatment.

  10. Interruptions between the triple helix peptides can promote the formation of amyloid-like fibrils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, Avanish; Hwang, Eileen; Brodsky, Barbara

    2010-03-01

    It has been reported that collagen can initiate or accelerate the formation of amyloid fibrils. Non-fibrillar collagen types have sites where the repeating (Gly-Xaa-Yaa)n sequences are interrupted by non- Gly-Xaa-Yaa sequences, and we are investigating the hypothesis that some of these interruptions can promote amyloid formation. Our experimental data show that model peptides containing an 8 or 9 residue interruption sequence between (Gly-Pro-Hyp)n domains have a strong propensity for self association to form fibrous structures. A peptide containing only the 9-residue interruption sequence forms amyloid like fibrils with anti-parallel β sheet. Computational analysis predicts that 33 out of 374 naturally occurring human non-fibrillar collagen sequences within or between triple-helical sequences have significant cross-β aggregation potential, including the 8 and 9 residue sequences studied in peptides. Further studies are in progress to investigate whether a triple-helix peptide promotes amyloidogenesis and whether amyloid interferes with collagen fibrillogenesis.

  11. Inhibition by flavonoids of amyloid-like fibril formation by Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 2.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekaran, Indu R; Adda, Christopher G; MacRaild, Christopher A; Anders, Robin F; Norton, Raymond S

    2010-07-20

    Merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP2) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein expressed abundantly on the surface of Plasmodium falciparum merozoites. The results of a phase 2 trial in Papua New Guinean children showed MSP2 to be a promising malaria vaccine candidate. MSP2 is intrinsically unstructured and forms amyloid-like fibrils under physiological conditions. Oligomers containing beta-strand interactions similar to those in amyloid fibrils may be a component of the fibrillar surface coat on P. falciparum merozoites. As the propensity of MSP2 to form fibrils in solution also has the potential to impede its development as a vaccine candidate, finding an inhibitor that specifically inhibits fibrillogenesis may enhance vaccine development. In this study, we tested the ability of three flavonoids, EGCG, baicalein, and resveratrol, to inhibit MSP2 fibrillogenesis and found marked inhibition with EGCG but not with the other two flavonoids. The inhibitory effect and the interactions of the flavonoids with MSP2 were characterized using NMR spectroscopy, thioflavin T fluorescence assays, electron microscopy, and other biophysical methods. EGCG stabilizes soluble oligomers and blocks fibrillogenesis by preventing the conformational transition of MSP2 from a random coil to an amyloidogenic beta-sheet structure. Structural comparison of the three flavonoids indicates an association between their propensity for autoxidation and their fibril inhibitory activity; the activity of EGCG can be attributed to the vicinal hydroxyl groups present in this flavonoid and their ability to form quinones. The molecular mechanism of fibril inhibition by EGCG appears to be complex and involves noncovalent binding followed by covalent modification of the protein. Although the addition of EGCG appears to be an effective means of stabilizing MSP2 in solution, the covalent modification of MSP2 would most likely not be acceptable in a vaccine formulation. However, these small

  12. The Biology of Neisseria Adhesins

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Miao-Chiu; Christodoulides, Myron

    2013-01-01

    Members of the genus Neisseria include pathogens causing important human diseases such as meningitis, septicaemia, gonorrhoea and pelvic inflammatory disease syndrome. Neisseriae are found on the exposed epithelia of the upper respiratory tract and the urogenital tract. Colonisation of these exposed epithelia is dependent on a repertoire of diverse bacterial molecules, extending not only from the surface of the bacteria but also found within the outer membrane. During invasive disease, pathogenic Neisseriae also interact with immune effector cells, vascular endothelia and the meninges. Neisseria adhesion involves the interplay of these multiple surface factors and in this review we discuss the structure and function of these important molecules and the nature of the host cell receptors and mechanisms involved in their recognition. We also describe the current status for recently identified Neisseria adhesins. Understanding the biology of Neisseria adhesins has an impact not only on the development of new vaccines but also in revealing fundamental knowledge about human biology. PMID:24833056

  13. Rationally designed mutations convert de novo amyloid-like fibrils into monomeric beta-sheet proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weixun; Hecht, Michael H

    2002-03-05

    Amyloid fibrils are associated with a variety of neurodegenerative maladies including Alzheimer's disease and the prion diseases. The structures of amyloid fibrils are composed of beta-strands oriented orthogonal to the fibril axis ("cross beta" structure). We previously reported the design and characterization of a combinatorial library of de novo beta-sheet proteins that self-assemble into fibrillar structures resembling amyloid. The libraries were designed by using a "binary code" strategy, in which the locations of polar and nonpolar residues are specified explicitly, but the identities of these residues are not specified and are varied combinatorially. The initial libraries were designed to encode proteins containing amphiphilic beta-strands separated by reverse turns. Each beta-strand was designed to be seven residues long, with polar (open circle) and nonpolar (shaded circle) amino acids arranged with an alternating periodicity ([see text]). The initial design specified the identical polar/nonpolar pattern for all of the beta-strands; no strand was explicitly designated to form the edges of the resulting beta-sheets. With all beta-strands preferring to occupy interior (as opposed to edge) locations, intermolecular oligomerization was favored, and the proteins assembled into amyloid-like fibrils. To assess whether explicit design of edge-favoring strands might tip the balance in favor of monomeric beta-sheet proteins, we have now redesigned the first and/or last beta-strands of several sequences from the original library. In the redesigned beta-strands, the binary pattern is changed from [see text] (K denotes lysine). The presence of a lysine on the nonpolar face of a beta-strand should disfavor fibrillar structures because such structures would bury an uncompensated charge. The nonpolar right arrow lysine mutations, therefore, would be expected to favor monomeric structures in which the [see text] sequences form edge strands with the charged lysine side

  14. Neisseria meningitidis Adhesin NadA Targets β1 Integrins

    PubMed Central

    Nägele, Virginie; Heesemann, Jürgen; Schielke, Stephanie; Jiménez-Soto, Luisa F.; Kurzai, Oliver; Ackermann, Nikolaus

    2011-01-01

    Meningococci are facultative-pathogenic bacteria endowed with a set of adhesins allowing colonization of the human upper respiratory tract, leading to fulminant meningitis and septicemia. The Neisseria adhesin NadA was identified in about 50% of N. meningitidis isolates and is closely related to the Yersinia adhesin YadA, the prototype of the oligomeric coiled-coil adhesin (Oca) family. NadA is known to be involved in cell adhesion, invasion, and induction of proinflammatory cytokines. Because of the enormous diversity of neisserial cell adhesins the analysis of the specific contribution of NadA in meningococcal host interactions is limited. Therefore, we used a non-invasive Y. enterocolitica mutant as carrier to study the role of NadA in host cell interaction. NadA was shown to be efficiently produced and localized in its oligomeric form on the bacterial surface of Y. enterocolitica. Additionally, NadA mediated a β1 integrin-dependent adherence with subsequent internalization of yersiniae by a β1 integrin-positive cell line. Using recombinant NadA24–210 protein and human and murine β1 integrin-expressing cell lines we could demonstrate the role of the β1 integrin subunit as putative receptor for NadA. Subsequent inhibition assays revealed specific interaction of NadA24–210 with the human β1 integrin subunit. Cumulatively, these results indicate that Y. enterocolitica is a suitable toolbox system for analysis of the adhesive properties of NadA, revealing strong evidence that β1 integrins are important receptors for NadA. Thus, this study demonstrated for the first time a direct interaction between the Oca-family member NadA and human β1 integrins. PMID:21471204

  15. Antibodies derived from an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) adhesin tip MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) against adherence of nine ETEC adhesins: CFA/I, CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4, CS5, CS6, CS21 and EtpA.

    PubMed

    Nandre, Rahul M; Ruan, Xiaosai; Duan, Qiangde; Sack, David A; Zhang, Weiping

    2016-06-30

    Diarrhea continues to be a leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years in developing countries. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a leading bacterial cause of children's diarrhea and travelers' diarrhea. ETEC bacteria initiate diarrheal disease by attaching to host receptors at epithelial cells and colonizing in small intestine. Therefore, preventing ETEC attachment has been considered the first line of defense against ETEC diarrhea. However, developing vaccines effectively against ETEC bacterial attachment encounters challenge because ETEC strains produce over 23 immunologically heterogeneous adhesins. In this study, we applied MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) approach to integrate epitopes from adhesin tips or adhesive subunits of CFA/I, CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4, CS5, CS6, CS21 and EtpA adhesins and to construct an adhesin tip MEFA peptide. We then examined immunogenicity of this tip MEFA in mouse immunization, and assessed potential application of this tip MEFA for ETEC vaccine development. Data showed that mice intraperitoneally immunized with this adhesin tip MEFA developed IgG antibody responses to all nine ETEC adhesins. Moreover, ETEC and E. coli bacteria expressing these nine adhesins, after incubation with serum of the immunized mice, exhibited significant reduction in attachment to Caco-2 cells. These results indicated that anti-adhesin antibodies induced by this adhesin tip MEFA blocked adherence of the most important ETEC adhesins, suggesting this multivalent tip MEFA may be useful for developing a broadly protective anti-adhesin vaccine against ETEC diarrhea.

  16. Direct Conversion of an Enzyme from Native-like to Amyloid-like Aggregates within Inclusion Bodies.

    PubMed

    Elia, Francesco; Cantini, Francesca; Chiti, Fabrizio; Dobson, Christopher Martin; Bemporad, Francesco

    2017-06-20

    The acylphosphatase from Sulfolobus solfataricus (Sso AcP) is a globular protein able to aggregate in vitro from a native-like conformational ensemble without the need for a transition across the major unfolding energy barrier. This process leads to the formation of assemblies in which the protein retains its native-like structure, which subsequently convert into amyloid-like aggregates. Here, we investigate the mechanism by which Sso AcP aggregates in vivo to form bacterial inclusion bodies after expression in E. coli. Shortly after the initiation of expression, Sso AcP is incorporated into inclusion bodies as a native-like protein, still exhibiting small but significant enzymatic activity. Additional experiments revealed that this overall process of aggregation is enhanced by the presence of the unfolded N-terminal region of the sequence and by destabilization of the globular segment of the protein. At later times, the Sso AcP molecules in the inclusion bodies lose their native-like properties and convert into β-sheet-rich amyloid-like structures, as indicated by their ability to bind thioflavin T and Congo red. These results show that the aggregation behavior of this protein is similar in vivo to that observed in vitro, and that, at least for a predominant part of the protein population, the transition from a native to an amyloid-like structure occurs within the aggregate state. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tuning calcium carbonate growth through physical confinement and templating with amyloid-like polypeptide aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colaco, Martin Francis

    that this methodology does not extend to three-dimensional confined systems, as the water has no method of escape. Through the addition of an insoluble hydroscopic polymer to our microreactors, amorphous calcium carbonate of controllable sizes can be grown. However, crystalline calcium carbonate cannot be grown without some type of templating. Studies of calcium carbonate templating have predominantly been performed on SAMs or in poorly characterized gels or protein films. The use of ordered protein or polypeptide aggregates for templating permits both geometry and charge surface density to be varied. We have studied the kinetics and final morphology of ordered aggregates of poly-L-glutamic acid and a copolymer of glutamic acid and alanine through experiments and simulations. Electrostatics, not structure, of the monomer appeared to be the dominating factor in the aggregation, as pH and salt concentration changes led to dramatic changes in the kinetics. Examining our experimental with existing models provided inconsistent results, so we developed a new model that yielded physically realistic rate constants, while generating better fits with longer lag phases and faster growths. However, despite the similarity of aggregation conditions, the two polypeptides yielded vastly different morphologies, with the PEA forming typical amyloid-like fibrils and PE forming larger, twisted lamellar aggregates. Templating with these aggregates also yielded dramatically different patterns. Polycrystalline rhombohedral calcite with smooth faces and edges grew on PEA fibrils, with minimal templating in evidence. However, on PE, numerous calcite crystals with triangular projections tracked the surface of the aggregate. The PE lamellae are characterized by extensive beta-sheet structure. In this conformation, the glutamic acid spacings on the surface of the aggregates can mimic the spacings of the carboxylates in the calcite lattice. In addition, the high negative charge density on the

  18. Amyloid-like aggregates formation by bovine apo-carbonic anhydrase in various alcohols: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Es-Haghi, Ali; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh; Sabbaghian, Marjan; Nemat-Gorgani, Mohsen

    2016-11-01

    Peptides and proteins convert from their native states to amyloid fibrillar aggregates in a number of pathological conditions. Characterizing these species could provide useful information on their pathogenicity and the key factors involved in their generation. In this study, we have observed the ability of the model protein apo-bovine carbonic anhydrase (apo-BCA) to form amyloid-like aggregates in the presence of halogenated and non-halogenated alcohols. Far-UV circular dichroism, ThT fluorescence, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering were used to characterize these structures. The concentration required for effective protein aggregation varied between the solvents, with non-halogenated alcohols acting in a wider range. These aggregates show amyloid-like structures as determined by specific techniques used for characterizing amyloid structures. Oligomers were obtained with various size distributions, but fibrillar structures were not observed. Use of halogenated alcohols resulted into smaller hydrodynamic radii, and most stable oligomers were formed in hexafluoropropan-2-ol (HFIP). At optimal concentrations used to generate these structures, the non-halogenated alcohols showed higher hydrophobicity, which may be related to the lower stability of the generated oligomers. These oligomers have the potential to be used as models in the search for effective treatments in proteinopathies.

  19. A genomic region involved in the formation of adhesin fibers in Bacillus cereus biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Caro-Astorga, Joaquín; Pérez-García, Alejandro; de Vicente, Antonio; Romero, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a bacterial pathogen that is responsible for many recurrent disease outbreaks due to food contamination. Spores and biofilms are considered the most important reservoirs of B. cereus in contaminated fresh vegetables and fruits. Biofilms are bacterial communities that are difficult to eradicate from biotic and abiotic surfaces because of their stable and extremely strong extracellular matrix. These extracellular matrixes contain exopolysaccharides, proteins, extracellular DNA, and other minor components. Although B. cereus can form biofilms, the bacterial features governing assembly of the protective extracellular matrix are not known. Using the well-studied bacterium B. subtilis as a model, we identified two genomic loci in B. cereus, which encodes two orthologs of the amyloid-like protein TasA of B. subtilis and a SipW signal peptidase. Deletion of this genomic region in B. cereus inhibited biofilm assembly; notably, mutation of the putative signal peptidase SipW caused the same phenotype. However, mutations in tasA or calY did not completely prevent biofilm formation; strains that were mutated for either of these genes formed phenotypically different surface attached biofilms. Electron microscopy studies revealed that TasA polymerizes to form long and abundant fibers on cell surfaces, whereas CalY does not aggregate similarly. Heterologous expression of this amyloid-like cassette in a B. subtilis strain lacking the factors required for the assembly of TasA amyloid-like fibers revealed (i) the involvement of this B. cereus genomic region in formation of the air-liquid interphase pellicles and (ii) the intrinsic ability of TasA to form fibers similar to the amyloid-like fibers produced by its B. subtilis ortholog. PMID:25628606

  20. HecA, a member of a class of adhesins produced by diverse pathogenic bacteria, contributes to the attachment, aggregation, epidermal cell killing, and virulence phenotypes of Erwinia chrysanthemi EC16 on Nicotiana clevelandii seedlings.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Clemencia M; Ham, Jong Hyun; Deng, Wen-Ling; Doyle, Jeff J; Collmer, Alan

    2002-10-01

    Erwinia chrysanthemi is representative of a broad class of bacterial pathogens that are capable of inducing necrosis in plants. The E. chrysanthemi EC16 hecA gene predicts a 3,850-aa member of the Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin family of adhesins. A hecATn7 mutant was reduced in virulence on Nicotiana clevelandii seedlings after inoculation without wounding. Epifluorescence and confocal laser-scanning microscopy observations of hecA and wild-type cells expressing the green fluorescent protein revealed that the mutant is reduced in its ability to attach and then form aggregates on leaves and to cause an aggregate-associated killing of epidermal cells. Cell killing also depended on production of the major pectate lyase isozymes and the type II, but not the type III, secretion pathway in E. chrysanthemi. HecA homologs were found in bacterial pathogens of plants and animals and appear to be unique to pathogens and universal in necrogenic plant pathogens. Phylogenetic comparison of the conserved two-partner secretion domains in the proteins and the 16S rRNA sequences in respective bacteria revealed the two datasets to be fundamentally incongruent, suggesting horizontal acquisition of these genes. Furthermore, hecA and its two homologs in Yersinia pestis had a G+C content that was 10% higher than that of their genomes and similar to that of plant pathogenic Ralstonia, Xylella, and Pseudomonas spp. Our data suggest that filamentous hemagglutinin-like adhesins are broadly important virulence factors in both plant and animal pathogens.

  1. Biophysical Investigation of the Membrane-Disrupting Mechanism of the Antimicrobial and Amyloid-Like Peptide Dermaseptin S9

    PubMed Central

    Caillon, Lucie; Killian, J. Antoinette; Lequin, Olivier; Khemtémourian, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    Dermaseptin S9 (Drs S9) is an atypical cationic antimicrobial peptide with a long hydrophobic core and with a propensity to form amyloid-like fibrils. Here we investigated its membrane interaction using a variety of biophysical techniques. Rather surprisingly, we found that Drs S9 induces efficient permeabilisation in zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles, but not in anionic phosphatidylglycerol (PG) vesicles. We also found that the peptide inserts more efficiently in PC than in PG monolayers. Therefore, electrostatic interactions between the cationic Drs S9 and anionic membranes cannot explain the selectivity of the peptide towards bacterial membranes. CD spectroscopy, electron microscopy and ThT fluorescence experiments showed that the peptide adopts slightly more β-sheet and has a higher tendency to form amyloid-like fibrils in the presence of PC membranes as compared to PG membranes. Thus, induction of leakage may be related to peptide aggregation. The use of a pre-incorporation protocol to reduce peptide/peptide interactions characteristic of aggregates in solution resulted in more α-helix formation and a more pronounced effect on the cooperativity of the gel-fluid lipid phase transition in all lipid systems tested. Calorimetric data together with 2H- and 31P-NMR experiments indicated that the peptide has a significant impact on the dynamic organization of lipid bilayers, albeit slightly less for zwitterionic than for anionic membranes. Taken together, our data suggest that in particular in membranes of zwitterionic lipids the peptide binds in an aggregated state resulting in membrane leakage. We propose that also the antimicrobial activity of Drs S9 may be a result of binding of the peptide in an aggregated state, but that specific binding and aggregation to bacterial membranes is regulated not by anionic lipids but by as yet unknown factors. PMID:24146759

  2. Computational studies of the structure, dynamics and native content of amyloid-like fibrils of ribonuclease A.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Giorgio; Meli, Massimiliano; De Simone, Alfonso

    2008-02-15

    The characterization at atomic resolution of amyloid-like protein aggregates is one of the fundamental problems of modern biology. In particular, the question whether native-like domains are retained or completely refolded in the amyloid state and the identification of possible mechanisms for macromolecular ordered aggregation represent major unresolved puzzles. To address these issues, in this article we examine the stability, dynamics, and conservation of native-like properties of several models of a previously designed amyloid-like fibril of RNase A (Sambashivan et al., Nature 2005; 437:266-269). Through the use of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have provided molecular-level insights into the role of different parts of the sequence on the stability of fibrils, the collective properties of supramolecular complexes, and the presence of native-like conformations and dynamics in supramolecular aggregates. We have been able to show that within the fibrils the three-dimensional globular domain-swapped units preserve the conformational, dynamical, and hydration properties typical of the monomeric state, providing a rationalization for the experimentally observed catalytic activity of fibrils. The nativeness of the globular domains is not affected by the amyloidogenic stretches, which determine the molecular recognition process underlying aggregation through the formation of a stable steric zipper motif. Moreover, through the study of the hydration features of a single sheet model, we have been able to show that polyglutamine stretches of the domain-swapped ribonuclease tend to minimize the interaction with water in favor of sidechain-sidechain interactions, shedding light on the factors leading to the supramolecular assembly of beta-sheet layers into dry steric zippers.

  3. FimH adhesin of Escherichia coli K1 type 1 fimbriae activates BV-2 microglia

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jongseok; Shin, Sooan; Teng, C.-H.; Hong, Suk Jin; Kim, Kwang Sik . E-mail: kwangkim@jhmi.edu

    2005-09-02

    The generation of intense inflammation in the subarachnoid space in response to meningitis-causing bacteria contributes to brain dysfunction and neuronal injury in bacterial meningitis. Microglia, the major immune effector cells in the central nervous system (CNS), become activated by bacterial components to produce proinflammatory immune mediators. In this study, we showed that FimH adhesin, a tip component of type 1 fimbriae of meningitis-causing Escherichia coli K1, activated the murine microglial cell line, BV-2, which resulted in the production of nitric oxide and the release of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}. Mitogen-activated protein kinases, ERK and p-38, and nuclear factor-{kappa}B were involved in FimH adhesin-mediated microglial activation. These findings suggest that FimH adhesin contributes to the CNS inflammatory response by virtue of activating microglia in E. coli meningitis.

  4. Fluorescence detection of lipid-induced oligomeric intermediates involved in lysozyme "amyloid-like" fiber formation driven by anionic membranes.

    PubMed

    Melo, Ana M; Ricardo, Joana C; Fedorov, Aleksander; Prieto, Manuel; Coutinho, Ana

    2013-03-14

    Recent findings implicate that "amyloid-like" fiber formation by several non-amyloidogenic proteins/peptides can be triggered by negatively charged lipid membranes. In order to elucidate the factors that govern the formation of these structures, the interaction of lysozyme with phosphatidylserine-containing lipid vesicles was studied by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements. Three consecutive stages in the interaction of Alexa488-fluorescently labeled lysozyme (Lz-A488) with acidic lipid vesicles were identified in ensemble average measurements. The variation of the mean fluorescence lifetime of Lz-A488 as a function of the surface coverage of the liposomes was quantitatively described by a cooperative partition model that assumes that monomeric lysozyme molecules partition into the bilayer surface and reversibly assemble into oligomers with k subunits (k ≥ 6). The global fit to the experimental data covering a wide range of experimental conditions was performed by taking into account electrostatic effects by means of the Gouy-Chapman theory using a single self-consistent pair of parameters (aggregation constant and stoichiometry). The lipid-protein supramolecular assemblies formed at a low lipid/protein molar ratio were further characterized by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy at the single-fiber level, which reported that quenched oligomers are the predominant species in these structures.

  5. Evaluation of protease resistance and toxicity of amyloid-like food fibrils from whey, soy, kidney bean, and egg white.

    PubMed

    Lassé, Moritz; Ulluwishewa, Dulantha; Healy, Jackie; Thompson, Dion; Miller, Antonia; Roy, Nicole; Chitcholtan, Kenny; Gerrard, Juliet A

    2016-02-01

    The structural properties of amyloid fibrils combined with their highly functional surface chemistry make them an attractive new food ingredient, for example as highly effective gelling agents. However, the toxic role of amyloid fibrils in disease may cause some concern about their food safety because it has not been established unequivocally if consumption of food fibrils poses a health risk to consumers. Here we present a study of amyloid-like fibrils from whey, kidney bean, soy bean, and egg white to partially address this concern. Fibrils showed varied resistance to proteolytic digestion in vitro by either Proteinase K, pepsin or pancreatin. The toxicity of mature fibrils was measured in vitro and compared to native protein, early-stage-fibrillar protein, and sonicated fibrils in two immortalised human cancer cell lines, Caco-2 and Hec-1a. There was no reduction in the viability of either Caco-2 or Hec-1a cells after treatment with a fibril concentration of up to 0.25 mg/mL.

  6. Piracy of adhesins: attachment of superinfecting pathogens to respiratory cilia by secreted adhesins of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Tuomanen, E

    1986-12-01

    Two proteins secreted by Bordetella pertussis are known to mediate adherence of these bacteria to mammalian respiratory cilia. When either ciliated cells or other pathogenic bacteria were pretreated with these adhesins, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus acquired the ability to adhere to cilia in vitro and in vivo. Such piracy of adhesins may contribute to superinfection in mucosal diseases such as whooping cough.

  7. Amyloid-like aggregation of provasopressin in diabetes insipidus and secretory granule sorting.

    PubMed

    Beuret, Nicole; Hasler, Franziska; Prescianotto-Baschong, Cristina; Birk, Julia; Rutishauser, Jonas; Spiess, Martin

    2017-01-26

    Aggregation of peptide hormone precursors in the trans-Golgi network is an essential process in the biogenesis of secretory granules in endocrine cells. It has recently been proposed that this aggregation corresponds to the formation of functional amyloids. Our previous finding that dominant mutations in provasopressin, which cause cell degeneration and diabetes insipidus, prevent native folding and produce fibrillar aggregates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) might thus reflect mislocalized amyloid formation by sequences that evolved to mediate granule sorting. Here we identified two sequences responsible for fibrillar aggregation of mutant precursors in the ER: the N-terminal vasopressin nonapeptide and the C-terminal glycopeptide. To test their role in granule sorting, the glycopeptide was deleted and/or vasopressin mutated to inactivate ER aggregation while still permitting precursor folding and ER exit. These mutations strongly reduced sorting into granules and regulated secretion in endocrine AtT20 cells. The same sequences - vasopressin and the glycopeptide - mediate physiological aggregation of the wild-type hormone precursor into secretory granules and the pathological fibrillar aggregation of disease mutants in the ER. These findings support the amyloid hypothesis for secretory granule biogenesis.

  8. Yersinia adhesins: An arsenal for infection.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Nandini; Wrobel, Agnieszka; Skurnik, Mikael; Leo, Jack C

    2016-10-01

    The Yersiniae are a group of Gram-negative coccobacilli inhabiting a wide range of habitats. The genus harbors three recognized human pathogens: Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis, which both cause gastrointestinal disease, and Y. pestis, the causative agent of plague. These three organisms have served as models for a number of aspects of infection biology, including adhesion, immune evasion, evolution of pathogenic traits, and retracing the course of ancient pandemics. The virulence of the pathogenic Yersiniae is heavily dependent on a number of adhesin molecules. Some of these, such as the Yersinia adhesin A and invasin of the enteropathogenic species, and the pH 6 antigen of Y. pestis, have been extensively studied. However, genomic sequencing has uncovered a host of other adhesins present in these organisms, the functions of which are only starting to be investigated. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on the adhesin molecules present in the Yersiniae, and their functions and putative roles in the infection process. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Formaldehyde at Low Concentration Induces Protein Tau into Globular Amyloid-Like Aggregates In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Chun Lai; Wei, Yan; Chen, Xinyong; Liu, Yan Ying; Dui, Wen; Liu, Ying; Davies, Martyn C.; Tendler, Saul J.B.; He, Rong Giao

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that neurodegeneration is closely related to misfolding and aggregation of neuronal tau. Our previous results show that neuronal tau aggregates in formaldehyde solution and that aggregated tau induces apoptosis of SH-SY5Y and hippocampal cells. In the present study, based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) observation, we have found that formaldehyde at low concentrations induces tau polymerization whilst acetaldehyde does not. Neuronal tau misfolds and aggregates into globular-like polymers in 0.01–0.1% formaldehyde solutions. Apart from globular-like aggregation, no fibril-like polymerization was observed when the protein was incubated with formaldehyde for 15 days. SDS-PAGE results also exhibit tau polymerizing in the presence of formaldehyde. Under the same experimental conditions, polymerization of bovine serum albumin (BSA) or α-synuclein was not markedly detected. Kinetic study shows that tau significantly misfolds and polymerizes in 60 minutes in 0.1% formaldehyde solution. However, presence of 10% methanol prevents protein tau from polymerization. This suggests that formaldehyde polymerization is involved in tau aggregation. Such aggregation process is probably linked to the tau's special “worm-like” structure, which leaves the ε-amino groups of Lys and thiol groups of Cys exposed to the exterior. Such a structure can easily bond to formaldehyde molecules in vitro and in vivo. Polymerizing of formaldehyde itself results in aggregation of protein tau. Immunocytochemistry and thioflavin S staining of both endogenous and exogenous tau in the presence of formaldehyde at low concentrations in the cell culture have shown that formaldehyde can induce tau into amyloid-like aggregates in vivo during apoptosis. The significant protein tau aggregation induced by formaldehyde and the severe toxicity of the aggregated tau to neural cells may suggest that toxicity of methanol and formaldehyde ingestion is related to tau misfolding and

  10. Unlocked Concanavalin A Forms Amyloid-like Fibrils from Coagulation of Long-lived “Crinkled” Intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Vetri, Valeria; Leone, Maurizio; Morozova-Roche, Ludmilla A.; Vestergaard, Bente; Foderà, Vito

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the early events during amyloid aggregation processes is crucial to single out the involved molecular mechanisms and for designing ad hoc strategies to prevent and reverse amyloidogenic disorders. Here, we show that, in conditions in which the protein is positively charged and its conformational flexibility is enhanced, Concanavalin A leads to fibril formation via a non-conventional aggregation pathway. Using a combination of light scattering, circular dichroism, small angle X-ray scattering, intrinsic (Tryptophan) and extrinsic (ANS) fluorescence and confocal and 2-photon fluorescence microscopy we characterize the aggregation process as a function of the temperature. We highlight a multi-step pathway with the formation of an on-pathway long-lived intermediate and a subsequent coagulation of such “crinkled” precursors into amyloid-like fibrils. The process results in a temperature-dependent aggregation-coagulation pathway, with the late phase of coagulation determined by the interplay between hydrophobic and electrostatic forces. Our data provide evidence for the complex aggregation pathway for a protein with a highly flexible native conformation. We demonstrate the possibility to generate a long-lived intermediate whose proportion and occurrence are easily tunable by experimental parameters (i.e. temperature). As a consequence, in the case of aggregation processes developing through well-defined energy barriers, our results can open the way to new strategies to induce more stable in vitro on-pathway intermediate species through a minute change in the initial conformational flexibility of the protein. This will allow isolating and experimentally studying such transient species, often indicated as relevant in neurodegenerative diseases, both in terms of structural and cytotoxic properties. PMID:23874809

  11. Ionic self-complementarity induces amyloid-like fibril formation in an isolated domain of a plant copper metallochaperone protein

    PubMed Central

    Mira, Helena; Vilar, Marçal; Esteve, Vicent; Martinell, Marc; Kogan, Marcelo J; Giralt, Ernest; Salom, David; Mingarro, Ismael; Peñarrubia, Lola; Pérez-Payá, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    Background Arabidopsis thaliana copper metallochaperone CCH is a functional homologue of yeast antioxidant ATX1, involved in cytosolic copper transport. In higher plants, CCH has to be transported to specialised cells through plasmodesmata, being the only metallochaperone reported to date that leaves the cell where it is synthesised. CCH has two different domains, the N-terminal domain conserved among other copper-metallochaperones and a C-terminal domain absent in all the identified non-plant metallochaperones. The aim of the present study was the biochemical and biophysical characterisation of the C-terminal domain of the copper metallochaperone CCH. Results The conformational behaviour of the isolated C-domain in solution is complex and implies the adoption of mixed conformations in different environments. The ionic self-complementary peptide KTEAETKTEAKVDAKADVE, derived from the C-domain of CCH, adopts and extended conformation in solution with a high content in β-sheet structure that induces a pH-dependent fibril formation. Freeze drying electron microscopy studies revealed the existence of well ordered amyloid-like fibrils in preparations from both the C-domain and its derivative peptide. Conclusion A number of proteins related with copper homeostasis have a high tendency to form fibrils. The determinants for fibril formation, as well as the possible physiological role are not fully understood. Here we show that the plant exclusive C-domain of the copper metallochaperone CCH has conformational plasticity and forms fibrils at defined experimental conditions. The putative influence of these properties with plant copper delivery will be addressed in the future. PMID:15180901

  12. In situ analysis of Bacillus licheniformis biofilms: amyloid-like polymers and eDNA are involved in the adherence and aggregation of the extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Randrianjatovo-Gbalou, I; Rouquette, P; Lefebvre, D; Girbal-Neuhauser, E; Marcato-Romain, C-E

    2017-05-01

    This study attempts to determine which of the exopolymeric substances are involved in the adherence and aggregation of a Bacillus licheniformis biofilm. The involvement of extracellular proteins and eDNA were particularly investigated using DNase and proteinase K treatment. The permeability of the biofilms increased fivefold after DNase I treatment. The quantification of the matrix components showed that, irrespective to the enzyme tested, eDNA and amyloid-like polymers were removed simultaneously. Size-exclusion chromatography analyses supported these observations and revealed the presence of associated nucleic acid and protein complexes in the biofilm lysates. These data suggest that some extracellular DNA and amyloid-like proteins were closely interlaced within the matrix. Finally, confocal laser scanning microscopy imaging gave supplementary clues about the 3D organization of the biofilms, confirming that eDNA and exoproteins were essentially layered under and around the bacterial cells, whereas the amyloid-like fractions were homogeneously distributed within the matrix. These results confirm that some DNA-amyloid complexes play a key role in the modulation of the mechanical resistance of B. licheniformis biofilms. The study highlights the need to consider the whole structure of biofilms and to target the interactions between matrix components. A better understanding of B. licheniformis biofilm physiology and the structural organization of the matrix will strengthen strategies of biofilm control. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Antibodies from multiple sclerosis patients preferentially recognize hyperglucosylated adhesin of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Walvoort, Marthe T. C.; Testa, Chiara; Eilam, Raya; Aharoni, Rina; Nuti, Francesca; Rossi, Giada; Real-Fernandez, Feliciana; Lanzillo, Roberta; Brescia Morra, Vincenzo; Lolli, Francesco; Rovero, Paolo; Imperiali, Barbara; Papini, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    In autoimmune diseases, there have been proposals that exogenous “molecular triggers”, i.e., specific this should be ‘non-self antigens’ accompanying infectious agents, might disrupt control of the adaptive immune system resulting in serious pathologies. The etiology of the multiple sclerosis (MS) remains unclear. However, epidemiologic data suggest that exposure to infectious agents may be associated with increased MS risk and progression may be linked to exogenous, bacterially-derived, antigenic molecules, mimicking mammalian cell surface glycoconjugates triggering autoimmune responses. Previously, antibodies specific to a gluco-asparagine (N-Glc) glycopeptide, CSF114(N-Glc), were identified in sera of an MS patient subpopulation. Since the human glycoproteome repertoire lacks this uniquely modified amino acid, we turned our attention to bacteria, i.e., Haemophilus influenzae, expressing cell-surface adhesins including N-Glc, to establish a connection between H. influenzae infection and MS. We exploited the biosynthetic machinery from the opportunistic pathogen H. influenzae (and the homologous enzymes from A. pleuropneumoniae) to produce a unique set of defined glucosylated adhesin proteins. Interestingly we revealed that a hyperglucosylated protein domain, based on the cell-surface adhesin HMW1A, is preferentially recognized by antibodies from sera of an MS patient subpopulation. In conclusion the hyperglucosylated adhesin is the first example of an N-glucosylated native antigen that can be considered a relevant candidate for triggering pathogenic antibodies in MS. PMID:28008952

  14. Neisseria meningitidis adhesin NadA targets beta1 integrins: functional similarity to Yersinia invasin.

    PubMed

    Nägele, Virginie; Heesemann, Jürgen; Schielke, Stephanie; Jiménez-Soto, Luisa F; Kurzai, Oliver; Ackermann, Nikolaus

    2011-06-10

    Meningococci are facultative-pathogenic bacteria endowed with a set of adhesins allowing colonization of the human upper respiratory tract, leading to fulminant meningitis and septicemia. The Neisseria adhesin NadA was identified in about 50% of N. meningitidis isolates and is closely related to the Yersinia adhesin YadA, the prototype of the oligomeric coiled-coil adhesin (Oca) family. NadA is known to be involved in cell adhesion, invasion, and induction of proinflammatory cytokines. Because of the enormous diversity of neisserial cell adhesins the analysis of the specific contribution of NadA in meningococcal host interactions is limited. Therefore, we used a non-invasive Y. enterocolitica mutant as carrier to study the role of NadA in host cell interaction. NadA was shown to be efficiently produced and localized in its oligomeric form on the bacterial surface of Y. enterocolitica. Additionally, NadA mediated a β1 integrin-dependent adherence with subsequent internalization of yersiniae by a β1 integrin-positive cell line. Using recombinant NadA(24-210) protein and human and murine β1 integrin-expressing cell lines we could demonstrate the role of the β1 integrin subunit as putative receptor for NadA. Subsequent inhibition assays revealed specific interaction of NadA(24-210) with the human β1 integrin subunit. Cumulatively, these results indicate that Y. enterocolitica is a suitable toolbox system for analysis of the adhesive properties of NadA, revealing strong evidence that β1 integrins are important receptors for NadA. Thus, this study demonstrated for the first time a direct interaction between the Oca-family member NadA and human β1 integrins.

  15. Carbohydrate Receptors of Bacterial Adhesins: Implications and Reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlsen, K.; Oelschlaeger, T. A.; Hacker, J.; Khan, A. S.

    Bacteria entering a host depend on adhesins to achieve colonization. Adhesins are bacterial surface structures mediating binding to host surficial areas. Most adhesins are composed of one or several proteins. Usually a single bacterial strain is able to express various adhesins. The adhesion type expressed may influence host-, tissue or even cell tropism of Gram-negative and of Gram-positive bacteria. The binding of fimbrial as well as of afimbrial adhesins of Gram-negative bacteria to host carbohydrate structures (=receptors) has been elucidated in great detail. In contrast, in Gram-positives, most well studied adhesins bind to proteinaceous partners. Nevertheless, for both bacterial groups the binding of bacterial adhesins to eukaryotic carbohydrate receptors is essential for establishing colonization or infection. The characterization of this interaction down to the submolecular level provides the basis for strategies to interfere with this early step of infection which should lead to the prevention of subsequent disease. However, this goal will not be achieved easily because bacterial adherence is not a monocausal event but rather mediated by a variety of adhesins.

  16. Detection of pap, sfa and afa adhesin-encoding operons in uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains: relationship with expression of adhesins and production of toxins.

    PubMed

    Blanco, M; Blanco, J E; Alonso, M P; Mora, A; Balsalobre, C; Muñoa, F; Juárez, A; Blanco, J

    1997-12-01

    A total of 243 Escherichia coli strains isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (UTI) were investigated for the presence of pap, sfa and afa adhesin-encoding operons by using the polymerase chain reaction. It was found that 54%, 53% and 2% of the strains exhibited the pap, sfa and afa genotypes, respectively. Pap+ and/or sfa+ strains were more frequent in cases of acute pyelonephritis (94%) than in cases of cystitis (67%) (P < 0.001) and asymptomatic bacteriuria (57%) (P < 0.001). The pap and/or sfa operons were found in 90% of strains expressing mannose-resistant haemagglutination (MRHA) versus 37% of MRHA-negative strains (P < 0.001). The presence of pap and sfa operons was especially significant in strains belonging to MRHA types III (100%) (without P adhesins) and IVa (97%) (expressing the specific Gal-Gal binding typical of P adhesins). Both pap and sfa operons were closely associated with toxigenic E. coli producing alpha-haemolysin (Hly+) and/or the cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1. There was an apparent correlation between the pap and sfa operons and the O serogroups of the strains. Thus, 93% of strains belonging to O1, O2, O4, O6, O7, O14, O15, O18, O22, O75 and O83 possessed pap and/or sfa operons, versus only 32% of strains belonging to other serogroups (P < 0.001). The results obtained in this study confirm the usefulness of our MRHA typing system for presumptive identification of pathogenic E. coli exhibiting different virulence factors. Thus, 85% of strains that possessed both pap and sfa adhesin-encoding operons showed MRHA types III or IVa previously associated with virulence of E. coli strains that cause UTI and bacteraemia.

  17. [The influence of dipole modifiers on the channel-forming activity of amyloid and amyloid-like peptides in lipid bilayers].

    PubMed

    Efimova, S S; Zakharov, V V; Ostroumova, O S

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the steady-state transmembrane current induced by amyloid and amyloid-like peptides in lipid bilayers in the presence of dipole modifiers. It has been shown that the addition of dipole modifier, phloretin, to the membrane bathing solutions leads to an increase in the multichannel activity of amyloid beta-peptide fragment 25-35, [Gly35]-amyloid beta-peptide fragment 25--35, prion protein fragment 106-126 and amyloid-like peptides myr-BASP1 (1--13), myr-BASP1(1--19) and GAP-43(1--40). We have found that the effect of phloretin is not the result of dipole potential changes due to adsorption of this modifier on the membrane. Using the various fragments of amyloid beta-peptide, presenilin, prion protein and neuronal proteins BASP1 and GAP-43 allowes to conclude that the steady-state peptide-induced transmembrane current in the case of addition of phloretin is due to the electrostatic interaction between the positively charged channel-forming agents and negatively charged dipole modifier. The results obtained by electron microscopy have demonstrated that this interaction increases degree of peptide oligomerization.

  18. Adhesin contribution to nanomechanical properties of the virulent Bordetella pertussis envelope.

    PubMed

    Arnal, L; Serra, D O; Cattelan, N; Castez, M F; Vázquez, L; Salvarezza, R C; Yantorno, O M; Vela, M E

    2012-05-15

    Adherence to a biological surface allows bacteria to colonize and persist within the host and represents an essential first step in the pathogenesis of most bacterial diseases. Consequently, the physicochemical properties of the outer membrane in bacteria play a key role for attachment to surfaces and therefore for biofilm formation. Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the respiratory tract of humans, producing whooping cough or pertussis, a highly infectious disease. B. pertussis uses various adhesins exposed on its surface to promote cell-surface and cell-cell interactions. The most dominant adhesin function is displayed by filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA). B. pertussis Tohama I wild-type (Vir+) strain and two defective mutants, an avirulent (Vir-) and a FHA-deficient (FHA-) B. pertussis strains were studied by AFM under physiological conditions to evaluate how the presence or absence of adhesins affects the mechanical properties of the B. pertussis cell surface. Quantitative information on the nanomechanical properties of the bacterial envelope was obtained by AFM force-volume analysis. These studies suggested that the presence of virulence factors is correlated with an increase in the average membrane rigidity, which is largely influenced by the presence of FHA. Moreover, for this system we built a nanoscale stiffness map that reveals an inhomogeneous spatial distribution of Young modulus as well as the presence of rigid nanodomains on the cell surface.

  19. Salt anions promote the conversion of HypF-N into amyloid-like oligomers and modulate the structure of the oligomers and the monomeric precursor state.

    PubMed

    Campioni, Silvia; Mannini, Benedetta; López-Alonso, Jorge P; Shalova, Irina N; Penco, Amanda; Mulvihill, Estefania; Laurents, Douglas V; Relini, Annalisa; Chiti, Fabrizio

    2012-12-07

    An understanding of the solution factors contributing to the rate of aggregation of a protein into amyloid oligomers, to the modulation of the conformational state populated prior to aggregation and to the structure/morphology of the resulting oligomers is one of the goals of present research in this field. We have studied the influence of six different salts on the conversion of the N-terminal domain of Escherichiacoli HypF (HypF-N) into amyloid-like oligomers under conditions of acidic pH. Our results show that salts having different anions (NaCl, NaClO(4), NaI, Na(2)SO(4)) accelerate oligomerization with an efficacy that follows the electroselectivity series of the anions (SO(4)(2-)≥ ClO(4)(-)>I(-)>Cl(-)). By contrast, salts with different cations (NaCl, LiCl, KCl) have similar effects. We also investigated the effect of salts on the structure of the final and initial states of HypF-N aggregation. The electroselectivity series does not apply to the effect of anions on the structure of the oligomers. By contrast, it applies to their effect on the content of secondary structure and on the exposure of hydrophobic clusters of the monomeric precursor state. The results therefore indicate that the binding of anions to the positively charged residues of HypF-N at low pH is the mechanism by which salts modulate the rate of oligomerization and the structure of the monomeric precursor state but not the structure of the resulting oligomers. Overall, the data contribute to rationalize the effect of salts on amyloid-like oligomer formation and to explain the role of charged biological macromolecules in protein aggregation processes.

  20. Structures of the Toxoplasma gliding motility adhesin

    PubMed Central

    Song, Gaojie; Springer, Timothy A.

    2014-01-01

    Micronemal protein 2 (MIC2) is the key adhesin that supports gliding motility and host cell invasion by Toxoplasma gondii. With a von Willebrand factor A (VWA) domain and six thrombospondin repeat domains (TSR1–6) in its ectodomain, MIC2 connects to the parasite actomyosin system through its cytoplasmic tail. MIC2-associated protein (M2AP) binds noncovalently to the MIC2 ectodomain. MIC2 and M2AP are stored in micronemes as proforms. We find that the MIC2–M2AP ectodomain complex is a highly elongated 1:1 monomer with M2AP bound to the TSR6 domain. Crystal structures of N-terminal fragments containing the VWA and TSR1 domains for proMIC2 and MIC2 reveal a closed conformation of the VWA domain and how it associates with the TSR1 domain. A long, proline-rich, disulfide-bonded pigtail loop in TSR1 overlaps the VWA domain. Mannose α-C-linked to Trp-276 in TSR1 has an unusual 1C4 chair conformation. The MIC2 VWA domain includes a mobile α5-helix and a 22-residue disordered region containing two disulfide bonds in place of an α6-helix. A hydrophobic residue in the prodomain binds to a pocket adjacent to the α7-helix that pistons in opening of the VWA domain to a putative high-affinity state. PMID:24639528

  1. The Collagen-Binding Adhesin Is a Virulence Factor in Staphylococcus aureus Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Rhem, Marcus N.; Lech, Elizabeth M.; Patti, Joseph M.; McDevitt, Damien; Höök, Magnus; Jones, Dan B.; Wilhelmus, Kirk R.

    2000-01-01

    A collagen-binding strain of Staphylococcus aureus produced suppurative inflammation in a rabbit model of soft contact lens-associated bacterial keratitis more often than its collagen-binding-negative isogenic mutant. Reintroduction of the cna gene on a multicopy plasmid into the mutant helped it regain its corneal adherence and infectivity. The topical application of a collagen-binding peptide before bacterial challenge decreased S. aureus adherence to deepithelialized corneas. These data suggest that the collagen-binding adhesin is involved in the pathogenesis of S. aureus infection of the cornea. PMID:10816547

  2. Adhesins of human pathogens from the genus Yersinia.

    PubMed

    Leo, Jack C; Skurnik, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria of the Gram-negative genus Yersinia are environmentally ubiquitous. Three species are of medical importance: the intestinal pathogens Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis, and the plague bacillus Y. pestis. The two former species, spread by contaminated food or water, cause a range of gastrointestinal symptoms and, rarely, sepsis. On occasion, the primary infection is followed by autoimmune sequelae such as reactive arthritis. Plague is a systemic disease with high mortality. It is a zoonosis spread by fleas, or more rarely by droplets from individuals suffering from pneumonic plague. Y. pestis is one of the most virulent of bacteria, and recent findings of antibiotic-resistant strains together with its potential use as a bioweapon have increased interest in the species. In addition to being significant pathogens in their own right, the yersiniae have been used as model systems for a number of aspects of pathogenicity. This chapter reviews the molecular mechanisms of adhesion in yersiniae. The enteropathogenic species share three adhesins: invasin, YadA and Ail. Invasin is the first adhesin required for enteric infection; it binds to β(1) integrins on microfold cells in the distal ileum, leading to the ingestion of the bacteria and allows them to cross the intestinal epithelium. YadA is the major adhesin in host tissues. It is a multifunctional protein, conferring adherence to cells and extracellular matrix components, serum and phagocytosis resistance, and the ability to autoagglutinate. Ail has a minor role in adhesion and serum resistance. Y. pestis lacks both invasin and YadA, but expresses several other adhesins. These include the pH 6 antigen and autotransporter adhesins. Also the plasminogen activator of Y. pestis can mediate adherence to host cells. Although the adhesins of the pathogenic yersiniae have been studied extensively, their exact roles in the biology of infection remain elusive.

  3. Self-assembly of flexible β-strands into immobile amyloid-like β-sheets in membranes as revealed by solid-state 19F NMR.

    PubMed

    Wadhwani, Parvesh; Strandberg, Erik; Heidenreich, Nico; Bürck, Jochen; Fanghänel, Susanne; Ulrich, Anne S

    2012-04-18

    The cationic peptide [KIGAKI](3) was designed as an amphiphilic β-strand and serves as a model for β-sheet aggregation in membranes. Here, we have characterized its molecular conformation, membrane alignment, and dynamic behavior using solid-state (19)F NMR. A detailed structure analysis of selectively (19)F-labeled peptides was carried out in oriented DMPC bilayers. It showed a concentration-dependent transition from monomeric β-strands to oligomeric β-sheets. In both states, the rigid (19)F-labeled side chains project straight into the lipid bilayer but they experience very different mobilities. At low peptide-to-lipid ratios ≤1:400, monomeric [KIGAKI](3) swims around freely on the membrane surface and undergoes considerable motional averaging, with essentially uncoupled φ/ψ torsion angles. The flexibility of the peptide backbone in this 2D plane is reminiscent of intrinsically unstructured proteins in 3D. At high concentrations, [KIGAKI](3) self-assembles into immobilized β-sheets, which are untwisted and lie flat on the membrane surface as amyloid-like fibrils. This is the first time the transition of monomeric β-strands into oligomeric β-sheets has been characterized by solid-state NMR in lipid bilayers. It promises to be a valuable approach for studying membrane-induced amyloid formation of many other, clinically relevant peptide systems.

  4. Polysaccharide intercellular adhesin in biofilm: structural and regulatory aspects

    PubMed Central

    Arciola, Carla Renata; Campoccia, Davide; Ravaioli, Stefano; Montanaro, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the leading etiologic agents of implant-related infections. Biofilm formation is the main pathogenetic mechanism leading to the chronicity and irreducibility of infections. The extracellular polymeric substances of staphylococcal biofilms are the polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), extracellular-DNA, proteins, and amyloid fibrils. PIA is a poly-β(1-6)-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG), partially deacetylated, positively charged, whose synthesis is mediated by the icaADBC locus. DNA sequences homologous to ica locus are present in many coagulase-negative staphylococcal species, among which S. lugdunensis, however, produces a biofilm prevalently consisting of proteins. The product of icaA is an N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase that synthetizes PIA oligomers from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. The product of icaD gives optimal efficiency to IcaA. The product of icaC is involved in the externalization of the nascent polysaccharide. The product of icaB is an N-deacetylase responsible for the partial deacetylation of PIA. The expression of ica locus is affected by environmental conditions. In S. aureus and S. epidermidis ica-independent alternative mechanisms of biofilm production have been described. S. epidermidis and S. aureus undergo to a phase variation for the biofilm production that has been ascribed, in turn, to the transposition of an insertion sequence in the icaC gene or to the expansion/contraction of a tandem repeat naturally harbored within icaC. A role is played by the quorum sensing system, which negatively regulates biofilm formation, favoring the dispersal phase that disseminates bacteria to new infection sites. Interfering with the QS system is a much debated strategy to combat biofilm-related infections. In the search of vaccines against staphylococcal infections deacetylated PNAG retained on the surface of S. aureus favors opsonophagocytosis and is a potential candidate for immune-protection. PMID

  5. The apicomplexan glideosome and adhesins -- structures and function

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Lauren E.; Bosch, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The apicomplexan family of pathogens, which includes Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii, are primarily obligate intracellular parasites and invade multiple cell types. These parasites express extracellular membrane protein receptors, adhesins, to form specific pathogen-host cell interaction complexes. Various adhesins are used to invade a variety of cell types. The receptors are linked to an actomyosin motor, which is part of a complex comprised of many proteins known as the invasion machinery or glideosome. To date, reviews on invasion have focused primarily on the molecular pathways and signals of invasion, with little or no structural information presented. Over 75 structures of parasite receptors and glideosome proteins have been deposited with the Protein Data Bank. These structures include adhesins, motor proteins, bridging proteins, inner membrane complex and cytoskeletal proteins, as well as co-crystal structures with peptides and antibodies. These structures provide information regarding key interactions necessary for target receptor engagement, machinery complex formation, how force is transmitted, and the basis of inhibitory antibodies. Additionally, these structures can provide starting points for the development of antibodies and inhibitory molecules targeting protein-protein interactions, with the aim to inhibit invasion. This review provides an overview of the parasite adhesin protein families, the glideosome components, glideosome architecture, and discuss recent work regarding alternative models. PMID:25764948

  6. T4 Phage Tail Adhesin Gp12 Counteracts LPS-Induced Inflammation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Miernikiewicz, Paulina; Kłopot, Anna; Soluch, Ryszard; Szkuta, Piotr; Kęska, Weronika; Hodyra-Stefaniak, Katarzyna; Konopka, Agnieszka; Nowak, Marcin; Lecion, Dorota; Kaźmierczak, Zuzanna; Majewska, Joanna; Harhala, Marek; Górski, Andrzej; Dąbrowska, Krystyna

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages that infect Gram-negative bacteria often bind to the bacterial surface by interaction of specific proteins with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Short tail fiber proteins (tail adhesin, gp12) mediate adsorption of T4-like bacteriophages to Escherichia coli, binding surface proteins or LPS. Produced as a recombinant protein, gp12 retains its ability to bind LPS. Since LPS is able to exert a major impact on the immune response in animals and in humans, we have tested LPS-binding phage protein gp12 as a potential modulator of the LPS-induced immune response. We have produced tail adhesin gp12 in a bacterial expression system and confirmed its ability to form trimers and to bind LPS in vitro by dynamic light scattering. This product had no negative effect on mammalian cell proliferation in vitro. Further, no harmful effects of this protein were observed in mice. Thus, gp12 was used in combination with LPS in a murine model, and it decreased the inflammatory response to LPS in vivo, as assessed by serum levels of cytokines IL-1 alpha and IL-6 and by histopathological analysis of spleen, liver, kidney and lungs. Thus, in future studies gp12 may be considered as a potential tool for modulating and specifically for counteracting LPS-related physiological effects in vivo. PMID:27471503

  7. Identification of a Collagen Type I Adhesin of Bacteroides fragilis

    PubMed Central

    Galvão, Bruna P. G. V.; Weber, Brandon W.; Rafudeen, Mohamed S.; Ferreira, Eliane O.; Patrick, Sheila; Abratt, Valerie R.

    2014-01-01

    Bacteroides fragilis is an opportunistic pathogen which can cause life threatening infections in humans and animals. The ability to adhere to components of the extracellular matrix, including collagen, is related to bacterial host colonisation. Collagen Far Western analysis of the B. fragilis outer membrane protein (OMP) fraction revealed the presence two collagen adhesin bands of ∼31 and ∼34 kDa. The collagen adhesins in the OMP fraction were separated and isolated by two-dimensional SDS-PAGE and also purified by collagen affinity chromatography. The collagen binding proteins isolated by both these independent methods were subjected to tandem mass spectroscopy for peptide identification and matched to a single hypothetical protein encoded by B. fragilis NCTC 9343 (BF0586), conserved in YCH46 (BF0662) and 638R (BF0633) and which is designated in this study as cbp1 (collagen binding protein). Functionality of the protein was confirmed by targeted insertional mutagenesis of the cbp1 gene in B. fragilis GSH18 which resulted in the specific loss of both the ∼31 kDa and the ∼34 kDa adhesin bands. Purified his-tagged Cbp1, expressed in a B. fragilis wild-type and a glycosylation deficient mutant, confirmed that the cbp1 gene encoded the observed collagen adhesin, and showed that the 34 kDa band represents a glycosylated version of the ∼31 kDa protein. Glycosylation did not appear to be required for binding collagen. This study is the first to report the presence of collagen type I adhesin proteins in B. fragilis and to functionally identify a gene encoding a collagen binding protein. PMID:24618940

  8. Lectin-Glycan Interaction Network-Based Identification of Host Receptors of Microbial Pathogenic Adhesins

    PubMed Central

    Ielasi, Francesco S.; Alioscha-Perez, Mitchel; Donohue, Dagmara; Claes, Sandra; Sahli, Hichem; Schols, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The first step in the infection of humans by microbial pathogens is their adherence to host tissue cells, which is frequently based on the binding of carbohydrate-binding proteins (lectin-like adhesins) to human cell receptors that expose glycans. In only a few cases have the human receptors of pathogenic adhesins been described. A novel strategy—based on the construction of a lectin-glycan interaction (LGI) network—to identify the potential human binding receptors for pathogenic adhesins with lectin activity was developed. The new approach is based on linking glycan array screening results of these adhesins to a human glycoprotein database via the construction of an LGI network. This strategy was used to detect human receptors for virulent Escherichia coli (FimH adhesin), and the fungal pathogens Candida albicans (Als1p and Als3p adhesins) and C. glabrata (Epa1, Epa6, and Epa7 adhesins), which cause candidiasis. This LGI network strategy allows the profiling of potential adhesin binding receptors in the host with prioritization, based on experimental binding data, of the most relevant interactions. New potential targets for the selected adhesins were predicted and experimentally confirmed. This methodology was also used to predict lectin interactions with envelope glycoproteins of human-pathogenic viruses. It was shown that this strategy was successful in revealing that the FimH adhesin has anti-HIV activity. PMID:27406561

  9. K88 Fimbrial Adhesin Targeting of Microspheres Containing Gentamicin Made with Albumin Glycated with Lactose

    PubMed Central

    Sarabia-Sainz, Andre-i; Sarabia-Sainz, Hector Manuel; Ramos-Clamont Montfort, Gabriela; Mata-Haro, Veronica; Guzman-Partida, Ana María; Guzman, Roberto; Garcia-Soto, Mariano; Vazquez-Moreno, Luz

    2015-01-01

    The formulation and characterization of gentamicin-loaded microspheres as a delivery system targeting enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (E. coli K88) was investigated. Glycated albumin with lactose (BSA-glucose-β (4-1) galactose) was used as the microsphere matrix (MS-Lac) and gentamicin included as the transported antibiotic. The proposed target strategy was that exposed galactoses of MS-Lac could be specifically recognized by E. coli K88 adhesins, and the delivery of gentamicin would inhibit bacterial growth. Lactosylated microspheres (MS-Lac1, MS-Lac2 and MS-Lac3) were obtained using a water-in-oil emulsion, containing gentamicin, followed by crosslinking with different concentrations of glutaraldehyde. Electron microscopy displayed spherical particles with a mean size of 10–17 µm. In vitro release of gentamicin from MS-Lac was best fitted to a first order model, and the antibacterial activity of encapsulated and free gentamicin was comparable. MS-Lac treatments were recognized by plant galactose-specific lectins from Ricinus communis and Sophora japonica and by E. coli K88 adhesins. Results indicate MS-Lac1, produced with 4.2 mg/mL of crosslinker, as the best treatment and that lactosylated microsphere are promising platforms to obtain an active, targeted system against E. coli K88 infections. PMID:26389896

  10. K88 Fimbrial Adhesin Targeting of Microspheres Containing Gentamicin Made with Albumin Glycated with Lactose.

    PubMed

    Sarabia-Sainz, Andre-I; Sarabia-Sainz, Hector Manuel; Montfort, Gabriela Ramos-Clamont; Mata-Haro, Veronica; Guzman-Partida, Ana María; Guzman, Roberto; Garcia-Soto, Mariano; Vazquez-Moreno, Luz

    2015-09-16

    The formulation and characterization of gentamicin-loaded microspheres as a delivery system targeting enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (E. coli K88) was investigated. Glycated albumin with lactose (BSA-glucose-β (4-1) galactose) was used as the microsphere matrix (MS-Lac) and gentamicin included as the transported antibiotic. The proposed target strategy was that exposed galactoses of MS-Lac could be specifically recognized by E. coli K88 adhesins, and the delivery of gentamicin would inhibit bacterial growth. Lactosylated microspheres (MS-Lac1, MS-Lac2 and MS-Lac3) were obtained using a water-in-oil emulsion, containing gentamicin, followed by crosslinking with different concentrations of glutaraldehyde. Electron microscopy displayed spherical particles with a mean size of 10-17 µm. In vitro release of gentamicin from MS-Lac was best fitted to a first order model, and the antibacterial activity of encapsulated and free gentamicin was comparable. MS-Lac treatments were recognized by plant galactose-specific lectins from Ricinus communis and Sophora japonica and by E. coli K88 adhesins. Results indicate MS-Lac1, produced with 4.2 mg/mL of crosslinker, as the best treatment and that lactosylated microsphere are promising platforms to obtain an active, targeted system against E. coli K88 infections.

  11. A novel Plasmodium falciparum rhoptry associated adhesin mediates erythrocyte invasion through the sialic-acid dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Gaurav; Reddy, K. Sony; Pandey, Alok Kumar; Mian, Syed Yusuf; Singh, Hina; Mittal, Shivani Arora; Amlabu, Emmanuel; Bassat, Quique; Mayor, Alfredo; Chauhan, Virander Singh; Gaur, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum merozoites is central to blood-stage infection and malaria pathogenesis. This intricate process is coordinated by multiple parasite adhesins that bind erythrocyte receptors and mediate invasion through several alternate pathways. P. falciparum expresses 2700 genes during the blood-stages, of which the identity and function of many remains unknown. Here, we have identified and characterized a novel P. falciparum rhoptry associated adhesin (PfRA) that mediates erythrocyte invasion through the sialic-acid dependent pathway. PfRA appears to play a significant functional role as it is conserved across different Plasmodium species. It is localized in the rhoptries and further translocated to the merozoite surface. Both native and recombinant PfRA specifically bound erythrocytes in a sialic-acid dependent, chymotrypsin and trypsin resistant manner, which was abrogated by PfRA antibodies confirming a role in erythrocyte invasion. PfRA antibodies inhibited erythrocyte invasion and in combination with antibodies against other parasite ligands produced an additive inhibitory effect, thus validating its important role in erythrocyte invasion. We have thus identified a novel P. falciparum adhesin that binds with a sialic acid containing erythrocyte receptor. Our observations substantiate the strategy to block P. falciparum erythrocyte invasion by simultaneously targeting multiple conserved merozoite antigens involved in alternate invasion pathways. PMID:27383149

  12. Lipoprotein CD0873 is a novel adhesin of Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Kovacs-Simon, Andrea; Leuzzi, Rosanna; Kasendra, Magdalena; Minton, Nigel; Titball, Richard W; Michell, Stephen L

    2014-07-15

    Clostridium difficile is a cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis, a healthcare-associated intestinal disease. Colonization of the gut is a critical step in the course of infection. The C. difficile lipoprotein CD0873 was identified as a putative adhesin through a bioinformatics approach. Surface exposure of CD0873 was confirmed and a CD0873 mutant was generated. The CD0873 mutant showed a significant reduction in adherence to Caco-2 cells and wild-type bacteria preincubated with anti-CD0873 antibodies showed significantly decreased adherence to Caco-2 cells. In addition, we demonstrated that purified recombinant CD0873 protein alone associates with Caco-2 cells. This is the first definitive identification of a C. difficile adhesin, which now allows work to devise improved measures for preventing and treating disease.

  13. Localization and characterization of Xylella fastidiosa haemagglutinin adhesins.

    PubMed

    Voegel, Tanja M; Warren, Jeremy G; Matsumoto, Ayumi; Igo, Michele M; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C

    2010-07-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a gram-negative, xylem-inhabiting, plant-pathogenic bacterium responsible for several important diseases including Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevines. The bacteria form biofilms in grapevine xylem that contribute to the occlusion of the xylem vessels. X. fastidiosa haemagglutinin (HA) proteins are large afimbrial adhesins that have been shown to be crucial for biofilm formation. Little is known about the mechanism of X. fastidiosa HA-mediated cell-cell aggregation or the localization of the adhesins on the cell. We generated anti-HA antibodies and show that X. fastidiosa HAs are present in the outer membrane and secreted both as soluble proteins and in membrane vesicles. Furthermore, the HA pre-proteins are processed from the predicted molecular mass of 360 kDa to a mature 220 kDa protein. Based on this information, we are evaluating a novel form of potential resistance against PD by generating HA-expressing transgenic grapevines.

  14. Accelerated and Adaptive Evolution of Yeast Sexual Adhesins

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xianfa; Qiu, Wei-Gang; Lipke, Peter N.

    2011-01-01

    There is a recent emergence of interest in the genes involved in gametic recognition as drivers of reproductive isolation. The recent population genomic sequencing of two species of sexually primitive yeasts (Liti G, Carter DM, Moses AM, Warringer J, Parts L, James SA, Davey RP, Roberts IN, Burt A, Koufopanou V et al. [23 co-authors]. 2009. Population genomics of domestic and wild yeasts. Nature 458:337–341.) has provided data for systematic study of the roles these genes play in the early evolution of sex and speciation. Here, we discovered that among genes encoding cell surface proteins, the sexual adhesin genes have evolved significantly more rapidly than others, both within and between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its closest relative S. paradoxus. This result was supported by analyses using the PAML pairwise model, a modified McDonald–Kreitman test, and the PAML branch model. Moreover, using a combination of a new statistic of neutrality, an information theory–based measure of evolutionary variability, and functional characterization of amino acid changes, we found that a higher proportion of amino acid changes are fixed in the sexual adhesins than in other proteins and a greater proportion of the fixed amino acid changes either between the two species or the two subgroups of S. paradoxus are functionally dissimilar or radically different. These results suggest that the accelerated evolution of sexual adhesin genes may facilitate speciation, or incipient speciation, and promote sexual selection in general. PMID:21633112

  15. Biorecognition of Escherichia coli K88 adhesin for glycated porcine albumin.

    PubMed

    Sarabia-Sainz, Andre-i; Ramos-Clamont, Gabriela; Candia-Plata, Ma María del Carmen; Vázquez-Moreno, Luz

    2009-03-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) that expresses galactose-reactive lectins, like K88 adhesin, causes high mortality among piglets. Carbohydrates that compete for adhesion could serve as an alternative for disease prevention. Porcine serum albumin (PSA) was modified by non-enzymatic glycation with lactose to produce PSA-Lac or PSA-Glc beta (1-4) Gal, as confirmed by reduction of available free amino groups, increased molecular mass and by Ricinus communis lectin recognition. E. coli K88 binds to PSA-Lac treatments containing three and four lactoses, respectively. In addition, PSA-Lac partially inhibited K88 strain adherence to mucins. These results suggest that neoglycoconjugates obtained by non-enzymatic glycation of proteins may serve in the prophylaxis of piglets' diarrhea.

  16. Detection of the biofilm component polysaccharide intercellular adhesin in Staphylococcus aureus infected cow udders.

    PubMed

    Schönborn, Sarah; Krömker, Volker

    2016-11-30

    Biofilms are communities of microorganisms embedded in a self-produced extracellular matrix made up of polymeric substances. They reduce the effects of antibiotics and allow the microorganisms to evade the innate immune system. This can lead to persistent or recurrent infections. In dairy cow herds, mastitis is a serious problem. The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of biofilms in the udders of dairy cows infected with Staphylococcus (S.) aureus, because biofilms may affect the response to treatment of bovine mastitis. Immunofluorescence staining of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), a component of S. aureus biofilms, was carried out based on swabs taken from different areas of S. aureus infected udders. We were able to demonstrate the presence of PIA in S. aureus infected bovine udders. However, the applied method is invasive and therefore only really suitable for scientific research and not for clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of plasmid-borne afa-3 gene clusters encoding afimbrial adhesins expressed by Escherichia coli strains associated with intestinal or urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Le Bouguenec, C; Garcia, M I; Ouin, V; Desperrier, J M; Gounon, P; Labigne, A

    1993-12-01

    The afa gene clusters encode afimbrial adhesins (AFA) that are expressed by uropathogenic and diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli strains and belong to a family of hemagglutinins recognizing the Dr blood group antigen as a receptor. This family so far includes AFA-I and AFA-III as well as the Dr and F1845 adhesins (B. Nowicki, A. Labigne, S. Moseley, R. Hull, S. Hull, and J. Moulds, Infect. Immun. 58:279-281, 1990). Reported in this work is the genetic organization of the afa-3 gene cluster cloned from a uropathogenic E. coli strain (A30) which expressed a subtype of AFA designated AFA-III. The amino acid sequence of AFA-III was deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the afaE3 gene and was found to be highly homologous to that of the Dr adhesin (98.1% identity). A polymerase chain reaction assay was developed to detect the presence of afa-3 gene clusters in E. coli strains. Study of the genetic support of the afa-3 gene clusters in the strains which showed positive amplification revealed that they were always located on large, 100-kb plasmids whether the strains originated from patients with cystitis or with diarrhea. Moreover, the cloned afa-3 gene clusters from A30 and from the diarrhea-associated strain AL845 appeared to be carried by 9-kb plasmid regions which displayed a similar genetic organization. Chloramphenicol was reported to be a potent inhibitor of receptor binding by the Dr adhesin (Nowicki et al., Infect. Immun. 58:279-281, 1990). AFA-III expressed by strains AL845 and AL847 appeared to mediate, like the Dr adhesin, chloramphenicol-sensitive hemagglutination, whereas AFA-III produced by A30 conferred chloramphenicol-resistant adherence. A comparison of the sequences of these four proteins indicated that the amino acid at position 52 of the processed AFA could be part of the receptor-binding domain.

  18. Afa, a diffuse adherence fibrillar adhesin associated with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Keller, Rogéria; Ordoñez, Juana G; de Oliveira, Rosana R; Trabulsi, Luiz R; Baldwin, Thomas J; Knutton, Stuart

    2002-05-01

    O55 is one of the most frequent enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) O serogroups implicated in infantile diarrhea in developing countries. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis analysis showed that this serogroup includes two major electrophoretic types (ET), designated ET1 and ET5. ET1 corresponds to typical EPEC, whilst ET5 comprises strains with different combinations of virulence genes, including those for localized adherence (LA) and diffuse adherence (DA). Here we report that ET5 DA strains possess a DA adhesin, designated EPEC Afa. An 11.6-kb chromosomal region including the DA adhesin operon from one O55:H(-) ET5 EPEC strain was sequenced and found to encode a protein with 98% identity to AfaE-1, an adhesin associated with uropathogenic E. coli. Although described as an afimbrial adhesin, we show that both AfaE-1 and EPEC Afa possess fine fibrillar structures. This is the first characterization and demonstration of an Afa adhesin associated with EPEC.

  19. Evolution of Salmonella enterica Virulence via Point Mutations in the Fimbrial Adhesin

    PubMed Central

    Kisiela, Dagmara I.; Chattopadhyay, Sujay; Libby, Stephen J.; Karlinsey, Joyce E.; Fang, Ferric C.; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Kramer, Jeremy J.; Beskhlebnaya, Viktoriya; Samadpour, Mansour; Grzymajlo, Krzysztof; Ugorski, Maciej; Lankau, Emily W.; Mackie, Roderick I.; Clegg, Steven; Sokurenko, Evgeni V.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas the majority of pathogenic Salmonella serovars are capable of infecting many different animal species, typically producing a self-limited gastroenteritis, serovars with narrow host-specificity exhibit increased virulence and their infections frequently result in fatal systemic diseases. In our study, a genetic and functional analysis of the mannose-specific type 1 fimbrial adhesin FimH from a variety of serovars of Salmonella enterica revealed that specific mutant variants of FimH are common in host-adapted (systemically invasive) serovars. We have found that while the low-binding shear-dependent phenotype of the adhesin is preserved in broad host-range (usually systemically non-invasive) Salmonella, the majority of host-adapted serovars express FimH variants with one of two alternative phenotypes: a significantly increased binding to mannose (as in S. Typhi, S. Paratyphi C, S. Dublin and some isolates of S. Choleraesuis), or complete loss of the mannose-binding activity (as in S. Paratyphi B, S. Choleraesuis and S. Gallinarum). The functional diversification of FimH in host-adapted Salmonella results from recently acquired structural mutations. Many of the mutations are of a convergent nature indicative of strong positive selection. The high-binding phenotype of FimH that leads to increased bacterial adhesiveness to and invasiveness of epithelial cells and macrophages usually precedes acquisition of the non-binding phenotype. Collectively these observations suggest that activation or inactivation of mannose-specific adhesive properties in different systemically invasive serovars of Salmonella reflects their dynamic trajectories of adaptation to a life style in specific hosts. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that point mutations are the target of positive selection and, in addition to horizontal gene transfer and genome degradation events, can contribute to the differential pathoadaptive evolution of Salmonella. PMID:22685400

  20. Glycan microarray analysis of Candida glabrata adhesin ligand specificity.

    PubMed

    Zupancic, Margaret L; Frieman, Matthew; Smith, David; Alvarez, Richard A; Cummings, Richard D; Cormack, Brendan P

    2008-05-01

    The Candida glabrata genome encodes at least 23 members of the EPA (epithelial adhesin) family responsible for mediating adherence to host cells. To better understand the mechanism by which the Epa proteins contribute to pathogenesis, we have used glycan microarray analysis to characterize their carbohydrate-binding specificities. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains surface-expressing the N-terminal ligand-binding domain of the Epa proteins, we found that the three Epa family members functionally identified as adhesins in Candida glabrata (Epa1, Epa6 and Epa7) bind to ligands containing a terminal galactose residue. However, the specificity of the three proteins for glycans within this class varies, with Epa6 having a broader specificity range than Epa1 or Epa7. This result is intriguing given the close homology between Epa6 and Epa7, which are 92% identical at the amino acid level. We have mapped a five-amino-acid region within the N-terminal ligand-binding domain that accounts for the difference in specificity of Epa6 and Epa7 and show that these residues contribute to adherence to both epithelial and endothelial cell lines in vitro.

  1. Cohesive Properties of the Caulobacter crescentus Holdfast Adhesin Are Regulated by a Novel c-di-GMP Effector Protein

    PubMed Central

    Sprecher, Kathrin S.; Hug, Isabelle; Nesper, Jutta; Potthoff, Eva; Mahi, Mohamed-Ali; Sangermani, Matteo; Kaever, Volkhard; Schwede, Torsten; Vorholt, Julia

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT When encountering surfaces, many bacteria produce adhesins to facilitate their initial attachment and to irreversibly glue themselves to the solid substrate. A central molecule regulating the processes of this motile-sessile transition is the second messenger c-di-GMP, which stimulates the production of a variety of exopolysaccharide adhesins in different bacterial model organisms. In Caulobacter crescentus, c-di-GMP regulates the synthesis of the polar holdfast adhesin during the cell cycle, yet the molecular and cellular details of this control are currently unknown. Here we identify HfsK, a member of a versatile N-acetyltransferase family, as a novel c-di-GMP effector involved in holdfast biogenesis. Cells lacking HfsK form highly malleable holdfast structures with reduced adhesive strength that cannot support surface colonization. We present indirect evidence that HfsK modifies the polysaccharide component of holdfast to buttress its cohesive properties. HfsK is a soluble protein but associates with the cell membrane during most of the cell cycle. Coincident with peak c-di-GMP levels during the C. crescentus cell cycle, HfsK relocalizes to the cytosol in a c-di-GMP-dependent manner. Our results indicate that this c-di-GMP-mediated dynamic positioning controls HfsK activity, leading to its inactivation at high c-di-GMP levels. A short C-terminal extension is essential for the membrane association, c-di-GMP binding, and activity of HfsK. We propose a model in which c-di-GMP binding leads to the dispersal and inactivation of HfsK as part of holdfast biogenesis progression. PMID:28325767

  2. Natural proteoglycan receptor analogs determine the dynamics of Opa adhesin-mediated gonococcal infection of Chang epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    van Putten, J P; Hayes, S F; Duensing, T D

    1997-01-01

    Many bacterial pathogens possess a complex machinery for the induction and/or secretion of factors that promote their uptake by mammalian cells. We searched for the molecular basis of the 60- to 90-min lag time in the interaction of Neisseria gonorrhoeae carrying the heparin-binding Opa adhesin with Chang epithelial cells. Infection assays in the presence of chloramphenicol demonstrated that the Opa-mediated gonococcal infection of Chang cells required bacterial protein synthesis when the microorganisms were derived from GC agar but not when grown in liquid media. Further analysis indicated that contact with agar ingredients rather than the growth state of the microorganisms determined the infection dynamics. DEAE chromatography of GC agar extracts and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses and testing of collected fractions in infection assays identified negatively charged high-molecular-weight polysaccharides in the agar as inhibitors of the cellular infection. Electron microscopy showed that agar-grown gonococci were surrounded by a coat of alcian blue-positive material, probably representing accreted polysaccharides. Similar antiphagocytic material was isolated from bovine serum, indicating that in biological fluids gonococci producing the heparin-binding Opa adhesin may become covered with externally derived polysaccharides as well. Binding assays with gonococci and epithelial proteoglycan receptors revealed that polysaccharides derived from agar or serum compete with the proteoglycans for binding of the heparin-binding Opa adhesin and thus act as receptor analogs. Growth of gonococci in a polysaccharide-free environment resulted in optimal proteoglycan receptor binding and rapid bacterial entry into Chang cells. The recognition that gonococci with certain phenotypes can recruit surface polysaccharides that determine in vitro infection dynamics adds a different dimension to the well-recognized biological significance of genetic

  3. Adhesins and Host Serum Factors Drive Yop Translocation by Yersinia into Professional Phagocytes during Animal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado-Arocho, Francisco J.; Green, Carlos; Fisher, Michael L.; Paczosa, Michelle K.; Mecsas, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia delivers Yops into numerous types of cultured cells, but predominantly into professional phagocytes and B cells during animal infection. The basis for this cellular tropism during animal infection is not understood. This work demonstrates that efficient and specific Yop translocation into phagocytes by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Yptb) is a multi-factorial process requiring several adhesins and host complement. When WT Yptb or a multiple adhesin mutant strain, ΔailΔinvΔyadA, colonized tissues to comparable levels, ΔailΔinvΔyadA translocated Yops into significantly fewer cells, demonstrating that these adhesins are critical for translocation into high numbers of cells. However, phagocytes were still selectively targeted for translocation, indicating that other bacterial and/or host factors contribute to this function. Complement depletion showed that complement-restricted infection by ΔailΔinvΔyadA but not WT, indicating that adhesins disarm complement in mice either by prevention of opsonophagocytosis or by suppressing production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, in the absence of the three adhesins and complement, the spectrum of cells targeted for translocation was significantly altered, indicating that Yersinia adhesins and complement direct Yop translocation into neutrophils during animal infection. In summary, these findings demonstrate that in infected tissues, Yersinia uses adhesins both to disarm complement-dependent killing and to efficiently translocate Yops into phagocytes. PMID:23818844

  4. Adhesins and host serum factors drive Yop translocation by yersinia into professional phagocytes during animal infection.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Arocho, Francisco J; Green, Carlos; Fisher, Michael L; Paczosa, Michelle K; Mecsas, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia delivers Yops into numerous types of cultured cells, but predominantly into professional phagocytes and B cells during animal infection. The basis for this cellular tropism during animal infection is not understood. This work demonstrates that efficient and specific Yop translocation into phagocytes by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Yptb) is a multi-factorial process requiring several adhesins and host complement. When WT Yptb or a multiple adhesin mutant strain, ΔailΔinvΔyadA, colonized tissues to comparable levels, ΔailΔinvΔyadA translocated Yops into significantly fewer cells, demonstrating that these adhesins are critical for translocation into high numbers of cells. However, phagocytes were still selectively targeted for translocation, indicating that other bacterial and/or host factors contribute to this function. Complement depletion showed that complement-restricted infection by ΔailΔinvΔyadA but not WT, indicating that adhesins disarm complement in mice either by prevention of opsonophagocytosis or by suppressing production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, in the absence of the three adhesins and complement, the spectrum of cells targeted for translocation was significantly altered, indicating that Yersinia adhesins and complement direct Yop translocation into neutrophils during animal infection. In summary, these findings demonstrate that in infected tissues, Yersinia uses adhesins both to disarm complement-dependent killing and to efficiently translocate Yops into phagocytes.

  5. The role of filamentous hemagglutinin adhesin in adherence and biofilm formation in Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC19606(T).

    PubMed

    Darvish Alipour Astaneh, Shakiba; Rasooli, Iraj; Mousavi Gargari, Seyed Latif

    2014-09-01

    Filamentous hemagglutinin adhesins (FHA) are key factors for bacterial attachment and subsequent cell accumulation on substrates. Here an FHA-like Outer membrane (OM) adhesin of Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC19606(T) was displayed on Escherichia coli. The candidate autotransporter (AT) genes were identified in A. baumannii ATCC19606(T) genome. The exoprotein (FhaB1) and transporter (FhaC1) were produced independently within the same cell (FhaB1C1). The fhaC1 was mutated. In vitro adherence to epithelial cells of the recombinant FhaB1C1 and the mutant strains were compared with A. baumanni ATCC19606(T). A bivalent chimeric protein (K) composed of immunologically important portions of fhaB1 (B) and fhaC1 (C) was constructed. The mice vaccinated with chimeric protein were challenged with A. baumannii ATCC19606(T) and FhaB1C1 producing recombinant E. coli. Mutations in the fhaC1 resulted in the absence of FhaB1 in the OM. Expression of FhaB1C1 enhanced the adherence of recombinant bacteria to A546 bronchial cell line. The results revealed association of FhaB1 with bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. Immunization with a combination of recombinant B and K proteins proved protective against A. baumanni ATCC19606(T). The findings may be applied in active and passive immunization strategies against A. baumannii.

  6. Adhesins involved in attachment to abiotic surfaces by Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Berne, Cécile; Ducret, Adrien; Hardy, Gail G; Brun, Yves V.

    2015-01-01

    During the first step of biofilm formation, initial attachment is dictated by physicochemical and electrostatic interactions between the surface and the bacterial envelope. Depending upon the nature of these interactions, attachment can be transient or permanent. To achieve irreversible attachment, bacterial cells have developed a series of surface adhesins promoting specific or non-specific adhesion under various environmental conditions. This chapter will review the recent advances in our understanding of the secretion, assembly and regulation of the bacterial adhesins during biofilm formation with a particular emphasis on the fimbrial, non-fimbrial and discrete polysaccharide adhesins in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26350310

  7. Platelet receptors for the Streptococcus sanguis adhesin and aggregation-associated antigens are distinguished by anti-idiotypical monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Gong, K; Wen, D Y; Ouyang, T; Rao, A T; Herzberg, M C

    1995-01-01

    Platelets aggregate in response to an adhesin and the platelet aggregation-associated protein (PAAP) expressed on the cell surfaces of certain strains of Streptococcus sanguis. We sought to identify the corresponding PAAP receptor and accessory adhesin binding sites on platelets. Since the adhesion(s) of S. sanguis for platelets has not been characterized, an anti-idiotype (anti-id) murine monoclonal antibody (MAb2) strategy was developed. First, MAb1s that distinguished the adhesin and PAAP antigens on the surface of S. sanguis I 133-79 were selected. Fab fragments of MAb1.2 (immunoglobulin G2b [IgG2b]; 70 pmol) reacted with 5 x 10(7) cells of S. sanguis to completely inhibit the aggregation of human platelets in plasma. Under similar conditions, MAb1.1 (IgG1) inhibited the adhesion of S. sanguis cells to platelets by a maximum of 34%, with a comparatively small effect on platelet aggregation. Together, these two MAb1s inhibited S. sanguis-platelet adhesion by 63%. In Western immunoblots, both MAb1s reacted with S. sanguis 133-79 87- and 150-kDa surface proteins and MAb1.2 also reacted with purified type I collagen. The hybridomas producing MAb1.1 and MAb1.2 were then injected into BALB/c mice. Enlarged spleens were harvested, and a panel of MAb2 hybridomas was prepared. To identify anti-ids against the specific MAb1s, the MAb2 panel was screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for reaction with rabbit polyclonal IgG antibodies against the 87- and 150-kDa antigens. The reactions between the specific rabbit antibodies and anti-ids were inhibited by the 87- and 150-kDa antigens. When preincubated with platelets, MAb2.1 (counterpart of MAb1.1) inhibited adhesion to platelets maximally by 46% and MAb2.2 (anti-MAb1.2) inhibited adhesion to platelets maximally by 35%. Together, both MAb2s inhibited the adhesion of S. sanguis to platelets by 81%. MAb2.2 also inhibited induction of platelet aggregation. MAb2.2 immunoprecipitated a biotinylated platelet membrane

  8. Mycobacterium tuberculosis adhesins: potential biomarkers as anti-tuberculosis therapeutic and diagnostic targets.

    PubMed

    Govender, Viveshree S; Ramsugit, Saiyur; Pillay, Manormoney

    2014-09-01

    Adhesion to host cells is a precursor to host colonization and evasion of the host immune response. Conversely, it triggers the induction of the immune response, a process vital to the host's defence against infection. Adhesins are microbial cell surface molecules or structures that mediate the attachment of the microbe to host cells and thus the host-pathogen interaction. They also play a crucial role in bacterial aggregation and biofilm formation. In this review, we discuss the role of adhesins in the pathogenesis of the aetiological agent of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We also provide insight into the structure and characteristics of some of the characterized and putative M. tuberculosis adhesins. Finally, we examine the potential of adhesins as targets for the development of tuberculosis control strategies.

  9. Oral Immunization with Recombinant Lactobacillus acidophilus Expressing the Adhesin Hp0410 of Helicobacter pylori Induces Mucosal and Systemic Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hongying, Fan; Xianbo, Wu; Fang, Yu; Yang, Bai

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is relatively common worldwide and is closely related to gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, chronic gastritis, and stomach ulcers. Therefore, a safe and effective method for preventing H. pylori infection is urgently needed. Given that developing an effective vaccine against H. pylori is one of the best alternatives, H. pylori adhesin Hp0410 was expressed in the food-grade bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus. The recombinant live bacterial vaccine was then used to orally vaccinate mice, and the immunoprotective effects of Hp0410-producing strains were investigated. H. pylori colonization in the stomach of mice immunized with the recombinant L. acidophilus was significantly reduced, in comparison with that in control groups. Furthermore, mucosal secretory IgA antibodies were elicited in the mucosal tissue of mice immunized with the recombinant bacteria, and specific anti-Hp0410 IgG responses were also detected in mouse serum. There was a significant increase in the level of protection against gastric Helicobacter infection following a challenge with H. pylori Sydney strain 1 (SS1). Our results collectively indicate that adhesin Hp0410 is a promising candidate vaccine antigen, and recombinant L. acidophilus expressing Hp0410 is likely to constitute an effective, low-cost, live bacterial vaccine against H. pylori. PMID:24285819

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of the afa-7 and afa-8 gene clusters encoding afimbrial adhesins in Escherichia coli strains associated with diarrhea or septicemia in calves.

    PubMed

    Lalioui, L; Jouve, M; Gounon, P; Le Bouguenec, C

    1999-10-01

    The afa gene clusters, which encode proteins involved in adhesion to epithelial cells, from Escherichia coli strains associated with urinary and intestinal infections in humans have been characterized. Pathogenic isolates of bovine and porcine origin that possess afa-related sequences have recently been described. We report in this work the cloning and characterization of the afa-7 and afa-8 gene clusters from bovine isolates. Hybridization and sequencing experiments revealed that despite similarity in genetic organization, the afa-7 and afa-8 genes, and the well-characterized afa-3 operon expressed by human-pathogenic isolates, correspond to three different members of the afa family of gene clusters. However, like the afa-3 gene cluster, both the afa-7 and afa-8 gene clusters were found to encode an afimbrial adhesin (AfaE) and an invasin (AfaD). The AfaD peptides encoded by the three gene clusters were only 45% identical, but functional complementation experiments indicated that they belong to the same family of invasins. Hemagglutination and adhesion assays demonstrated that the AfaE-VII and AfaE-VIII adhesins bind to different receptors and that these receptors are not the human decay-accelerating factor recognized to be the receptor of all previously described AfaE adhesins. The AfaE-VIII adhesin is very similar to the M agglutinin of human-uropathogenic strains. We used PCR assays to screen 25 bovine strains for afaD and afaE genes of either the afa-7 or afa-8 gene cluster. The afa-8 gene cluster was highly prevalent in bovine isolates previously reported to carry afa-related sequences (23 of 24 strains), particularly in strains producing cytotoxic necrotizing factors (16 of 16 strains). The location of the afa-8 gene cluster on the plasmids or chromosome of these isolates suggests that it could be carried by a mobile element, facilitating its dissemination among bovine-pathogenic E. coli strains.

  11. Localization of adhesins on the surface of a pathogenic bacterial envelope through atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Arnal, L; Longo, G; Stupar, P; Castez, M F; Cattelan, N; Salvarezza, R C; Yantorno, O M; Kasas, S; Vela, M E

    2015-11-07

    Bacterial adhesion is the first and a significant step in establishing infection. This adhesion normally occurs in the presence of flow of fluids. Therefore, bacterial adhesins must be able to provide high strength interactions with their target surface in order to maintain the adhered bacteria under hydromechanical stressing conditions. In the case of B. pertussis, a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for pertussis, a highly contagious human respiratory tract infection, an important protein participating in the adhesion process is a 220 kDa adhesin named filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), an outer membrane and also secreted protein that contains recognition domains to adhere to ciliated respiratory epithelial cells and macrophages. In this work, we obtained information on the cell-surface localization and distribution of the B. pertussis adhesin FHA using an antibody-functionalized AFM tip. Through the analysis of specific molecular recognition events we built a map of the spatial distribution of the adhesin which revealed a non-homogeneous pattern. Moreover, our experiments showed a force induced reorganization of the adhesin on the surface of the cells, which could explain a reinforced adhesive response under external forces. This single-molecule information contributes to the understanding of basic molecular mechanisms used by bacterial pathogens to cause infectious disease and to gain insights into the structural features by which adhesins can act as force sensors under mechanical shear conditions.

  12. Glycosaminoglycan binding by Borrelia burgdorferi adhesin BBK32 specifically and uniquely promotes joint colonization

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Pin; Chen, Qiang; Ritchie, Jennifer A.; Dufour, Nicholas P.; Fischer, Joshua R.; Coburn, Jenifer; Leong, John M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Microbial pathogens that colonize multiple tissues commonly produce adhesive surface proteins that mediate attachment to cells and/or extracellular matrix in target organs. Many of these ‘adhesins’ bind to multiple ligands, complicating efforts to understand the role of each ligand-binding activity. Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, produces BBK32, first identified as a fibronectin-binding adhesin that promotes skin and joint colonization. BBK32 also binds to glycosaminoglycan (GAG), which, like fibronectin is ubiquitously present on cell surfaces. To determine which binding activity is relevant for BBK32-promoted infectivity, we generated a panel of BBK32 truncation and internal deletion mutants, and identified variants specifically defective for binding to either fibronectin or GAG. These variants promoted bacterial attachment to different mammalian cell types in vitro, suggesting that fibronectin and GAG binding may play distinct roles during infection. Intravenous inoculation of mice with a high-passage non-infectious B. burgdorferi strain that produced wild type BBK32 or BBK32 mutants defective for GAG or fibronectin binding, revealed that only GAG-binding activity was required for significant localization to joints at 60 minutes post-infection. An otherwise infectious B. burgdorferi strain producing BBK32 specifically deficient in fibronectin binding was fully capable of both skin and joint colonization in the murine model, whereas a strain producing BBK32 selectively attenuated for GAG binding colonized the inoculation site but not knee or tibiotarsus joints. Thus, the BBK32 fibronectin- and GAG-binding activities are separable in vivo, and BBK32-mediated GAG binding, but not fibronectin binding, contributes to joint colonization. PMID:25486989

  13. Cooperation of Adhesin Alleles in Salmonella-Host Tropism

    PubMed Central

    De Masi, Leon; Yue, Min; Hu, Changmin; Rakov, Alexey V.; Rankin, Shelley C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Allelic combinations and host specificities for three fimbrial adhesins, FimH, BcfD, and StfH, were compared for 262 strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Newport, a frequent human and livestock pathogen. Like FimH, BcfD had two major alleles (designated A and B), whereas StfH had two allelic groups, each with two alleles (subgroup A1 and A2 and subgroup B1 and B2). The most prevalent combinations of FimH/BcfD/StfH alleles in S. Newport were A/A/A1 and B/B/B1. The former set was most frequently found in bovine and porcine strains, whereas the latter combination was most frequently found in environmental and human isolates. Bacteria genetically engineered to express Fim, Bcf, or Stf fimbriae on their surface were tested with the different alleles for binding to human, porcine, and bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The major allelic combinations with bovine and porcine strains (A/A/A1) or with human isolates (B/B/B1) provided at least two alleles capable of binding significantly better than the other alleles to an intestinal epithelial cell line from the respective host(s). However, each combination of alleles kept at least one allele mediating binding to an intestinal epithelial cell from another host. These findings indicated that allelic variation in multiple adhesins of S. Newport contributes to bacterial adaptation to certain preferential hosts without losing the capacity to maintain a broad host range. IMPORTANCE Salmonella enterica remains a leading foodborne bacterial pathogen in the United States; infected livestock serve often as the source of contaminated food products. A study estimated that over a billion Salmonella gastroenteritis cases and up to 33 million typhoid cases occur annually worldwide, with 3.5 million deaths. Although many Salmonella strains with a broad host range present preferential associations with certain host species, it is not clear what determines the various levels of host adaptation. Here, causal properties of host

  14. Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses a cyclic-di-GMP-regulated adhesin to reinforce the biofilm extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Borlee, Bradley R; Goldman, Aaron D; Murakami, Keiji; Samudrala, Ram; Wozniak, Daniel J; Parsek, Matthew R

    2010-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the principal pathogen of cystic fibrosis patients, forms antibiotic-resistant biofilms promoting chronic colonization of the airways. The extracellular (EPS) matrix is a crucial component of biofilms that provides the community multiple benefits. Recent work suggests that the secondary messenger, cyclic-di-GMP, promotes biofilm formation. An analysis of factors specifically expressed in P. aeruginosa under conditions of elevated c-di-GMP, revealed functions involved in the production and maintenance of the biofilm extracellular matrix. We have characterized one of these components, encoded by the PA4625 gene, as a putative adhesin and designated it cdrA. CdrA shares structural similarities to extracellular adhesins that belong to two-partner secretion systems. The cdrA gene is in a two gene operon that also encodes a putative outer membrane transporter, CdrB. The cdrA gene encodes a 220 KDa protein that is predicted to be rod-shaped protein harbouring a beta-helix structural motif. Western analysis indicates that the CdrA is produced as a 220 kDa proprotein and processed to 150 kDa before secretion into the extracellular medium. We demonstrated that cdrAB expression is minimal in liquid culture, but is elevated in biofilm cultures. CdrAB expression was found to promote biofilm formation and auto-aggregation in liquid culture. Aggregation mediated by CdrA is dependent on the Psl polysaccharide and can be disrupted by adding mannose, a key structural component of Psl. Immunoprecipitation of Psl present in culture supernatants resulted in co-immunoprecipitation of CdrA, providing additional evidence that CdrA directly binds to Psl. A mutation in cdrA caused a decrease in biofilm biomass and resulted in the formation of biofilms exhibiting decreased structural integrity. Psl-specific lectin staining suggests that CdrA either cross-links Psl polysaccharide polymers and/or tethers Psl to the cells, resulting in increased biofilm structural

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses a cyclic-di-GMP-regulated adhesin to reinforce the biofilm extracellular matrix

    PubMed Central

    Borlee, Bradley R; Goldman, Aaron D; Murakami, Keiji; Samudrala, Ram; Wozniak, Daniel J; Parsek, Matthew R

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the principal pathogen of cystic fibrosis patients, forms antibiotic-resistant biofilms promoting chronic colonization of the airways. The extracellular (EPS) matrix is a crucial component of biofilms that provides the community multiple benefits. Recent work suggests that the secondary messenger, cyclic-di-GMP, promotes biofilm formation. An analysis of factors specifically expressed in P. aeruginosa under conditions of elevated c-di-GMP, revealed functions involved in the production and maintenance of the biofilm extracellular matrix. We have characterized one of these components, encoded by the PA4625 gene, as a putative adhesin and designated it cdrA. CdrA shares structural similarities to extracellular adhesins that belong to two-partner secretion systems. The cdrA gene is in a two gene operon that also encodes a putative outer membrane transporter, CdrB. The cdrA gene encodes a 220 KDa protein that is predicted to be rod-shaped protein harbouring a β-helix structural motif. Western analysis indicates that the CdrA is produced as a 220 kDa proprotein and processed to 150 kDa before secretion into the extracellular medium. We demonstrated that cdrAB expression is minimal in liquid culture, but is elevated in biofilm cultures. CdrAB expression was found to promote biofilm formation and auto-aggregation in liquid culture. Aggregation mediated by CdrA is dependent on the Psl polysaccharide and can be disrupted by adding mannose, a key structural component of Psl. Immunoprecipitation of Psl present in culture supernatants resulted in co-immunoprecipitation of CdrA, providing additional evidence that CdrA directly binds to Psl. A mutation in cdrA caused a decrease in biofilm biomass and resulted in the formation of biofilms exhibiting decreased structural integrity. Psl-specific lectin staining suggests that CdrA either cross-links Psl polysaccharide polymers and/or tethers Psl to the cells, resulting in increased biofilm structural

  16. Aeromonas Flagella (Polar and Lateral) Are Enterocyte Adhesins That Contribute to Biofilm Formation on Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Kirov, Sylvia M.; Castrisios, Marika; Shaw, Jonathan G.

    2004-01-01

    Aeromonas spp. (gram-negative, aquatic bacteria which include enteropathogenic strains) have two distinct flagellar systems, namely a polar flagellum for swimming in liquid and multiple lateral flagella for swarming over surfaces. Only ∼60% of mesophilic strains can produce lateral flagella. To evaluate flagellar contributions to Aeromonas intestinal colonization, we compared polar and lateral flagellar mutant strains of a diarrheal isolate of Aeromonas caviae for the ability to adhere to the intestinal cell lines Henle 407 and Caco-2, which have the characteristic features of human intestinal enterocytes. Strains lacking polar flagella were virtually nonadherent to these cell lines, while loss of the lateral flagellum decreased adherence by ∼60% in comparison to the wild-type level. Motility mutants (unable to swim or swarm in agar assays) had adhesion levels of ∼50% of wild-type values, irrespective of their flagellar expression. Flagellar mutant strains were also evaluated for the ability to form biofilms in a borosilicate glass tube model which was optimized for Aeromonas spp. (broth inoculum, with a 16- to 20-h incubation at 37°C). All flagellar mutants showed a decreased ability to form biofilms (at least 30% lower than the wild type). For the chemotactic motility mutant cheA, biofilm formation decreased >80% from the wild-type level. The complementation of flagellar phenotypes (polar flagellar mutants) restored biofilms to wild-type levels. We concluded that both flagellar types are enterocyte adhesins and need to be fully functional for optimal biofilm formation. PMID:15039313

  17. The Staphylococcal Biofilm: Adhesins, regulation, and host response

    PubMed Central

    Paharik, Alexandra E.; Horswill, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    The Staphylococci comprise a diverse genus of Gram-positive, non-motile commensal organisms that inhabit the skin and mucous membranes of humans and other mammals. In general, Staphylococci are benign members of the natural flora, but many species have the capacity to be opportunistic pathogens, mainly infecting individuals who have medical device implants or are otherwise immunocompromised. S. aureus and S. epidermidis are a major source of hospital-acquired infections and are the most common causes of surgical site infections and central line-associated bloodstream infections. The ability of Staphylococci to form biofilms in vivo makes them highly resistant to chemotherapeutics and leads to chronic diseases. These biofilm infections include osteomyelitis, endocarditis, medical device implants, and persistence in the cystic fibrosis lung. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of our current understanding of Staphylococcal biofilm formation, with an emphasis on adhesins and regulation, while also addressing how Staphylococcal biofilms interact with the immune system. On the whole, this review will provide a thorough picture of biofilm formation of the Staphylococcus genus and how this mode of growth impacts the host. PMID:27227309

  18. Salicylic acid enhances Staphylococcus aureus extracellular adhesin protein expression.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Lucía P; Barbagelata, María S; Cheung, Ambrose L; Sordelli, Daniel O; Buzzola, Fernanda R

    2011-11-01

    One of the virulence factors required by Staphylococcus aureus at the early stages of infection is Eap, a secreted adhesin that binds many host proteins and is upregulated by the two-component regulatory system saeRS. The S. aureus Newman strain harbors a mutation in saeS that is thought to be responsible for the high level of Eap expression in this strain. This study was designed to ascertain whether salicylic acid (SAL) affects the expression of Eap and the internalization of S. aureus into epithelial cells. The strain Newman treated with SAL exhibited increased levels of eap transcription and protein expression. Furthermore, SAL treatment increased the eap promoter activity. SAL treatment enhanced Eap expression in the Newman and in other S. aureus strains that do not carry the mutation in saeS. Internalization of S. aureus eap and sae mutants into the MAC-T epithelial cells was significantly decreased compared with the wild-type counterparts. In conclusion, we demonstrated that a low concentration of SAL increased S. aureus Eap expression possibly due to enhancement of sae. SAL may create the conditions for S. aureus persistence in the host, not only by decreasing the capsular polysaccharide expression as shown before, but also by enhancing Eap expression.

  19. Structure of a Burkholderia pseudomallei Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesin Head

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Thomas E.; Phan, Isabelle; Abendroth, Jan; Dieterich, Shellie H.; Masoudi, Amir; Guo, Wenjin; Hewitt, Stephen N.; Kelley, Angela; Leibly, David; Brittnacher, Mitch J.; Staker, Bart L.; Miller, Samuel I.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Myler, Peter J.; Stewart, Lance J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Pathogenic bacteria adhere to the host cell surface using a family of outer membrane proteins called Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins (TAAs). Although TAAs are highly divergent in sequence and domain structure, they are all conceptually comprised of a C-terminal membrane anchoring domain and an N-terminal passenger domain. Passenger domains consist of a secretion sequence, a head region that facilitates binding to the host cell surface, and a stalk region. Methodology/Principal Findings Pathogenic species of Burkholderia contain an overabundance of TAAs, some of which have been shown to elicit an immune response in the host. To understand the structural basis for host cell adhesion, we solved a 1.35 Å resolution crystal structure of a BpaA TAA head domain from Burkholderia pseudomallei, the pathogen that causes melioidosis. The structure reveals a novel fold of an intricately intertwined trimer. The BpaA head is composed of structural elements that have been observed in other TAA head structures as well as several elements of previously unknown structure predicted from low sequence homology between TAAs. These elements are typically up to 40 amino acids long and are not domains, but rather modular structural elements that may be duplicated or omitted through evolution, creating molecular diversity among TAAs. Conclusions/Significance The modular nature of BpaA, as demonstrated by its head domain crystal structure, and of TAAs in general provides insights into evolution of pathogen-host adhesion and may provide an avenue for diagnostics. PMID:20862217

  20. Sticky Matrix: Adhesion Mechanism of the Staphylococcal Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin.

    PubMed

    Formosa-Dague, Cécile; Feuillie, Cécile; Beaussart, Audrey; Derclaye, Sylvie; Kucharíková, Soňa; Lasa, Iñigo; Van Dijck, Patrick; Dufrêne, Yves F

    2016-03-22

    The development of bacterial biofilms on surfaces leads to hospital-acquired infections that are difficult to fight. In Staphylococci, the cationic polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) forms an extracellular matrix that connects the cells together during biofilm formation, but the molecular forces involved are unknown. Here, we use advanced force nanoscopy techniques to unravel the mechanism of PIA-mediated adhesion in a clinically relevant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain. Nanoscale multiparametric imaging of the structure, adhesion, and elasticity of bacteria expressing PIA shows that the cells are surrounded by a soft and adhesive matrix of extracellular polymers. Cell surface softness and adhesion are dramatically reduced in mutant cells deficient for the synthesis of PIA or under unfavorable growth conditions. Single-cell force spectroscopy demonstrates that PIA promotes cell-cell adhesion via the multivalent electrostatic interaction with polyanionic teichoic acids on the S. aureus cell surface. This binding mechanism rationalizes, at the nanoscale, the well-known ability of PIA to strengthen intercellular adhesion in staphylococcal biofilms. Force nanoscopy offers promising prospects for understanding the fundamental forces in antibiotic-resistant biofilms and for designing anti-adhesion compounds targeting matrix polymers.

  1. Architecture and adhesive activity of the Haemophilus influenzae Hsf adhesin.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Shane E; Yeo, Hye-Jeong; Juehne, Twyla; St Geme, Joseph W

    2005-07-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b is an important cause of meningitis and other serious invasive diseases and initiates infection by colonizing the upper respiratory tract. Among the major adhesins in H. influenzae type b is a nonpilus protein called Hsf, a large protein that forms fiber-like structures on the bacterial surface and shares significant sequence similarity with the nontypeable H. influenzae Hia autotransporter. In the present study, we characterized the structure and adhesive activity of Hsf. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of Hsf revealed three regions with high-level homology to the HiaBD1 and HiaBD2 binding domains in Hia. Based on examination of glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins corresponding to these regions, two of the three had adhesive activity and one was nonadhesive in assays with cultured epithelial cells. Structural modeling demonstrated that only the two regions with adhesive activity harbored an acidic binding pocket like the binding pocket identified in the crystal structure of HiaBD1. Consistent with these results, disruption of the acidic binding pockets in the adhesive regions eliminated adhesive activity. These studies advance our understanding of the architecture of Hsf and the family of trimeric autotransporters and provide insight into the structural determinants of H. influenzae type b adherence.

  2. Mapping the Binding Domain of the F18 Fimbrial Adhesin

    PubMed Central

    Smeds, A.; Pertovaara, M.; Timonen, T.; Pohjanvirta, T.; Pelkonen, S.; Palva, A.

    2003-01-01

    F18 fimbrial Esherichia coli strains are associated with porcine postweaning diarrhea and pig edema disease. Recently, the FedF subunit was identified as the adhesin of the F18 fimbriae. In this study, adhesion domains of FedF were further studied by constructing deletions within the fedF gene and expressing FedF proteins with deletions either together with the other F18 fimbrial subunits or as fusion proteins tagged with maltose binding protein. The region essential for adhesion to porcine intestinal epithelial cells was mapped between amino acid residues 60 and 109 of FedF. To map the binding domain even more closely, all eight charged amino acid residues within this region were independently replaced by alanine. Three of these single point mutants expressing F18 fimbriae exhibited significantly diminished capabilities to adhere to porcine epithelial cells in vitro. In addition, a triple point mutation and a double point mutation completely abolished receptor adhesiveness. The result further confirmed that the region between amino acid residues 60 and 109 is essential for the binding of F18 fimbriae to their receptor. In addition, the adhesion capability of the binding domain was eliminated after treatment with iodoacetamide, suggesting the formation of a disulfide bridge between Cys-63 and Cys-83, whereas Cys-111 and Cys-116 could be deleted without affecting the binding ability of FedF. PMID:12654838

  3. Expression of Candida glabrata adhesins following exposure to chemical preservatives

    PubMed Central

    Mundy, Renee Domergue; Cormack, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    In Candida glabrata, an opportunistic yeast pathogen, adherence to host cells is mediated in part by the Epa family of adhesins, which are encoded largely at subtelomeric loci where they are subject to transcriptional silencing. In analyzing the regulation of the subtelomeric EPA6 gene, we found that its transcription is highly induced after exposure to methylparaben, propylparaben or sorbate. These weak acid-related chemicals are widely used as antifungal preservatives in many consumer goods, including over-the-counter (OTC) vaginal products. Culture of C. glabrata in a variety of vaginal products induced expression of EPA6, leading to increased adherence to cultured human cells as well as primary human vaginal epithelial cells. We present evidence that paraben/sorbate-induction of EPA6 expression involves both preservative stress and growth under hypoxic conditions. We further show that activation of EPA6 transcription depends on the Flo8 and Mss11 transcription factors and does not require the classical weak acid transcription factors War1 or Msn2/Msn4. We conclude that exposure of C. glabrata to commonly used preservatives can alter expression of virulence-related genes. PMID:19426114

  4. Serine-Rich Repeat Adhesins Contribute to Streptococcus gordonii-Induced Maturation of Human Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Eun Byeol; Kim, Sun Kyung; Seo, Ho Seong; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in the induction of immunity by recognition, capture, process, and presentation of antigens from infectious microbes. Streptococcus gordonii is able to cause life-threatening systemic diseases such as infective endocarditis. Serine-rich repeat (SRR) glycoproteins of S. gordonii are sialic acid-binding adhesins mediating the bacterial adherence to the host and the development of infective endocarditis. Thus, the SRR adhesins are potentially involved in the bacterial adherence to DCs and the maturation and activation of DCs required for the induction of immunity to S. gordonii. Here, we investigated the phenotypic and functional changes of human monocyte-derived DCs treated with wild-type S. gordonii or the SRR adhesin-deficient mutant. The mutant poorly bound to DCs and only weakly increased the expression of CD83, CD86, MHC class II, and PD-L1 on DCs compared with the wild-type. In addition, the mutant induced lower levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12 than the wild-type in DCs. When DCs sensitized with the mutant were co-cultured with autologous T cells, they induced weaker proliferation and activation of T cells than DCs stimulated with the wild-type. Blockade of SRR adhesin with 3′-sialyllactose markedly reduced S. gordonii binding and internalization, causing attenuation of the bacterial immunostimulatory potency in DC maturation. Collectively, our results suggest that SRR adhesins of S. gordonii are important for maturation and activation of DCs. PMID:28408901

  5. A Structural Model for Binding of the Serine-Rich Repeat Adhesin GspB to Host Carbohydrate Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Pyburn, Tasia M.; Bensing, Barbara A.; Xiong, Yan Q.; Melancon, Bruce J.; Tomasiak, Thomas M.; Ward, Nicholas J.; Yankovskaya, Victoria; Oliver, Kevin M.; Cecchini, Gary; Sulikowski, Gary A.; Tyska, Matthew J.; Sullam, Paul M.; Iverson, T.M.

    2014-10-02

    GspB is a serine-rich repeat (SRR) adhesin of Streptococcus gordonii that mediates binding of this organism to human platelets via its interaction with sialyl-T antigen on the receptor GPIb{alpha}. This interaction appears to be a major virulence determinant in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis. To address the mechanism by which GspB recognizes its carbohydrate ligand, we determined the high-resolution x-ray crystal structure of the GspB binding region (GspB{sub BR}), both alone and in complex with a disaccharide precursor to sialyl-T antigen. Analysis of the GspB{sub BR} structure revealed that it is comprised of three independently folded subdomains or modules: (1) an Ig-fold resembling a CnaA domain from prokaryotic pathogens; (2) a second Ig-fold resembling the binding region of mammalian Siglecs; (3) a subdomain of unique fold. The disaccharide was found to bind in a pocket within the Siglec subdomain, but at a site distinct from that observed in mammalian Siglecs. Confirming the biological relevance of this binding pocket, we produced three isogenic variants of S. gordonii, each containing a single point mutation of a residue lining this binding pocket. These variants have reduced binding to carbohydrates of GPIb{alpha}. Further examination of purified GspB{sub BR}-R484E showed reduced binding to sialyl-T antigen while S. gordonii harboring this mutation did not efficiently bind platelets and showed a significant reduction in virulence, as measured by an animal model of endocarditis. Analysis of other SRR proteins revealed that the predicted binding regions of these adhesins also had a modular organization, with those known to bind carbohydrate receptors having modules homologous to the Siglec and Unique subdomains of GspBBR. This suggests that the binding specificity of the SRR family of adhesins is determined by the type and organization of discrete modules within the binding domains, which may affect the tropism of organisms for different tissues.

  6. Identification of novel adhesins of M. tuberculosis H37Rv using integrated approach of multiple computational algorithms and experimental analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Puniya, Bhanwar Lal; Parween, Shahila; Nahar, Pradip; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria interacting with eukaryotic host express adhesins on their surface. These adhesins aid in bacterial attachment to the host cell receptors during colonization. A few adhesins such as Heparin binding hemagglutinin adhesin (HBHA), Apa, Malate Synthase of M. tuberculosis have been identified using specific experimental interaction models based on the biological knowledge of the pathogen. In the present work, we carried out computational screening for adhesins of M. tuberculosis. We used an integrated computational approach using SPAAN for predicting adhesins, PSORTb, SubLoc and LocTree for extracellular localization, and BLAST for verifying non-similarity to human proteins. These steps are among the first of reverse vaccinology. Multiple claims and attacks from different algorithms were processed through argumentative approach. Additional filtration criteria included selection for proteins with low molecular weights and absence of literature reports. We examined binding potential of the selected proteins using an image based ELISA. The protein Rv2599 (membrane protein) binds to human fibronectin, laminin and collagen. Rv3717 (N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase) and Rv0309 (L,D-transpeptidase) bind to fibronectin and laminin. We report Rv2599 (membrane protein), Rv0309 and Rv3717 as novel adhesins of M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Our results expand the number of known adhesins of M. tuberculosis and suggest their regulated expression in different stages.

  7. Neisseria Adhesin A Variation and Revised Nomenclature Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Bambini, Stefania; De Chiara, Matteo; Muzzi, Alessandro; Mora, Marirosa; Lucidarme, Jay; Brehony, Carina; Borrow, Ray; Masignani, Vega; Comanducci, Maurizio; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Jolley, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria adhesin A (NadA), involved in the adhesion and invasion of Neisseria meningitidis into host tissues, is one of the major components of Bexsero, a novel multicomponent vaccine licensed for protection against meningococcal serogroup B in Europe, Australia, and Canada. NadA has been identified in approximately 30% of clinical isolates and in a much lower proportion of carrier isolates. Three protein variants were originally identified in invasive meningococci and named NadA-1, NadA-2, and NadA-3, whereas most carrier isolates either lacked the gene or harbored a different variant, NadA-4. Further analysis of isolates belonging to the sequence type 213 (ST-213) clonal complex identified NadA-5, which was structurally similar to NadA-4, but more distantly related to NadA-1, -2, and -3. At the time of this writing, more than 89 distinct nadA allele sequences and 43 distinct peptides have been described. Here, we present a revised nomenclature system, taking into account the complete data set, which is compatible with previous classification schemes and is expandable. The main features of this new scheme include (i) the grouping of the previously named NadA-2 and NadA-3 variants into a single NadA-2/3 variant, (ii) the grouping of the previously assigned NadA-4 and NadA-5 variants into a single NadA-4/5 variant, (iii) the introduction of an additional variant (NadA-6), and (iv) the classification of the variants into two main groups, named groups I and II. To facilitate querying of the sequences and submission of new allele sequences, the nucleotide and amino acid sequences are available at http://pubmlst.org/neisseria/NadA/. PMID:24807056

  8. Localization of adhesins on the surface of a pathogenic bacterial envelope through atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, L.; Longo, G.; Stupar, P.; Castez, M. F.; Cattelan, N.; Salvarezza, R. C.; Yantorno, O. M.; Kasas, S.; Vela, M. E.

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial adhesion is the first and a significant step in establishing infection. This adhesion normally occurs in the presence of flow of fluids. Therefore, bacterial adhesins must be able to provide high strength interactions with their target surface in order to maintain the adhered bacteria under hydromechanical stressing conditions. In the case of B. pertussis, a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for pertussis, a highly contagious human respiratory tract infection, an important protein participating in the adhesion process is a 220 kDa adhesin named filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), an outer membrane and also secreted protein that contains recognition domains to adhere to ciliated respiratory epithelial cells and macrophages. In this work, we obtained information on the cell-surface localization and distribution of the B. pertussis adhesin FHA using an antibody-functionalized AFM tip. Through the analysis of specific molecular recognition events we built a map of the spatial distribution of the adhesin which revealed a non-homogeneous pattern. Moreover, our experiments showed a force induced reorganization of the adhesin on the surface of the cells, which could explain a reinforced adhesive response under external forces. This single-molecule information contributes to the understanding of basic molecular mechanisms used by bacterial pathogens to cause infectious disease and to gain insights into the structural features by which adhesins can act as force sensors under mechanical shear conditions.Bacterial adhesion is the first and a significant step in establishing infection. This adhesion normally occurs in the presence of flow of fluids. Therefore, bacterial adhesins must be able to provide high strength interactions with their target surface in order to maintain the adhered bacteria under hydromechanical stressing conditions. In the case of B. pertussis, a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for pertussis, a highly contagious human respiratory tract

  9. Immunogenicity of a prototype enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli adhesin vaccine in mice and nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Sincock, Stephanie A; Hall, Eric R; Woods, Colleen M; O'Dowd, Aisling; Poole, Steven T; McVeigh, Annette L; Nunez, Gladys; Espinoza, Nereyda; Miller, Milagros; Savarino, Stephen J

    2016-01-04

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are the most common cause of bacterial diarrhea in young children in developing countries and in travelers. Efforts to develop an ETEC vaccine have intensified in the past decade, and intestinal colonization factors (CFs) are somatic components of most investigational vaccines. CFA/I and related Class 5 fimbrial CFs feature a major stalk-forming subunit and a minor, antigenically conserved tip adhesin. We hypothesized that the tip adhesin is critical for stimulating antibodies that specifically inhibit ETEC attachment to the small intestine. To address this, we compared the capacity of donor strand complemented CfaE (dscCfaE), a stabilized form of the CFA/I fimbrial tip adhesin, and CFA/I fimbriae to elicit anti-adhesive antibodies in mice, using hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) as proxy for neutralization of intestinal adhesion. When given with genetically attenuated heat-labile enterotoxin LTR192G as adjuvant by intranasal (IN) or orogastric (OG) vaccination, dscCfaE exceeded CFA/I fimbriae in eliciting serum HAI titers and anti-CfaE antibody titers. Based on these findings, we vaccinated Aotus nancymaae nonhuman primates (NHP) with dscCfaE alone or admixed with one of two adjuvants, LTR192G and cholera toxin B-subunit, by IN and OG administration. Only IN vaccination with dscCfaE with either adjuvant elicited substantial serum HAI titers and IgA and IgG anti-adhesin responses, with the latter detectable a year after vaccination. In conclusion, we have shown that dscCfaE elicits robust HAI and anti-adhesin antibody responses in both mice and NHPs when given with adjuvant by IN vaccination, encouraging further evaluation of an ETEC adhesin-based vaccine approach.

  10. Differential expression of putative adhesin genes of Actinobacillus suis grown in in vivo-like conditions.

    PubMed

    Bujold, Adina R; Labrie, Josée; Jacques, Mario; MacInnes, Janet I

    2016-11-15

    Actinobacillus suis is an opportunistic pathogen that resides in the tonsils of the soft palate of swine. Unknown stimuli can cause this organism to invade the host, resulting in septicaemia and sequelae including death. To better understand its pathogenesis, the expression of several adhesin genes was evaluated by semi-quantitative real-time PCR in A. suis grown in conditions that mimic the host environment, including different nutrient and oxygen levels, exponential and stationary phases of growth, and in the presence of the stress hormone epinephrine. Fifty micromolar epinephrine did not affect the growth rate or expression of A. suis adhesin genes, but there was a significant growth phase effect for many genes. Most adhesin genes were also differentially expressed during anoxic static growth or aerobic growth, and in this study, all genes were differentially expressed in either exponential or stationary phase. Based on the time*treatment interactions observed in the anoxic study, a model of persistence of A. suis in the host environment in biofilm and planktonic states is proposed. Biofilm dynamics were further studied using wild type and isogenic mutants of the type IVb pilin (Δ flp1), the OmpA outer membrane protein (ΔompA), and the fibronectin-binding (ΔcomE1) genes. Disruption of these adhesin genes affected the early stages of biofilm formation, but in most cases, biofilm formation of the mutant strains was similar to that of the wild type by 24h of incubation. We postulate that other adhesins may have overlapping functions that can compensate for those of the missing adhesins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Contribution of the collagen adhesin Acm to pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecium in experimental endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R; Singh, Kavindra V; Murray, Barbara E

    2008-09-01

    Enterococcus faecium is a multidrug-resistant opportunist causing difficult-to-treat nosocomial infections, including endocarditis, but there are no reports experimentally demonstrating E. faecium virulence determinants. Our previous studies showed that some clinical E. faecium isolates produce a cell wall-anchored collagen adhesin, Acm, and that an isogenic acm deletion mutant of the endocarditis-derived strain TX0082 lost collagen adherence. In this study, we show with a rat endocarditis model that TX0082 Deltaacm::cat is highly attenuated versus wild-type TX0082, both in established (72 h) vegetations (P < 0.0001) and for valve colonization 1 and 3 hours after infection (P or=50-fold reduction relative to an Acm producer) were found in three of these five nonadherent isolates, including the sequenced strain TX0016, by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, indicating that acm transcription is downregulated in vitro in these isolates. However, examination of TX0016 cells obtained directly from infected rat vegetations by flow cytometry showed that Acm was present on 40% of cells grown during infection. Finally, we demonstrated a significant reduction in E. faecium collagen adherence by affinity-purified anti-Acm antibodies from E. faecium endocarditis patient sera, suggesting that Acm may be a potential immunotarget for strategies to control this emerging pathogen.

  12. Receptor affinity purification of a lipid-binding adhesin from Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Lingwood, C A; Wasfy, G; Han, H; Huesca, M

    1993-01-01

    Our previous work has shown that Helicobacter pylori specifically recognizes gangliotetraosylceramide, gangliotriaosylceramide, and phosphatidylethanolamine in vitro. This binding specificity is shared by exoenzyme S from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and monoclonal antibodies against this adhesin prevent the attachment of H. pylori to its lipid receptors. We now report the use of a novel, versatile affinity matrix to purify a 63-kDa exoenzyme S-like adhesin from H. pylori which is responsible for the lipid-binding specificity of this organism. Images PMID:8500882

  13. FungalRV: adhesin prediction and immunoinformatics portal for human fungal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The availability of sequence data of human pathogenic fungi generates opportunities to develop Bioinformatics tools and resources for vaccine development towards benefitting at-risk patients. Description We have developed a fungal adhesin predictor and an immunoinformatics database with predicted adhesins. Based on literature search and domain analysis, we prepared a positive dataset comprising adhesin protein sequences from human fungal pathogens Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Coccidioides immitis, Coccidioides posadasii, Histoplasma capsulatum, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Pneumocystis carinii, Pneumocystis jirovecii and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The negative dataset consisted of proteins with high probability to function intracellularly. We have used 3945 compositional properties including frequencies of mono, doublet, triplet, and multiplets of amino acids and hydrophobic properties as input features of protein sequences to Support Vector Machine. Best classifiers were identified through an exhaustive search of 588 parameters and meeting the criteria of best Mathews Correlation Coefficient and lowest coefficient of variation among the 3 fold cross validation datasets. The "FungalRV adhesin predictor" was built on three models whose average Mathews Correlation Coefficient was in the range 0.89-0.90 and its coefficient of variation across three fold cross validation datasets in the range 1.2% - 2.74% at threshold score of 0. We obtained an overall MCC value of 0.8702 considering all 8 pathogens, namely, C. albicans, C. glabrata, A. fumigatus, B. dermatitidis, C. immitis, C. posadasii, H. capsulatum and P. brasiliensis thus showing high sensitivity and specificity at a threshold of 0.511. In case of P. brasiliensis the algorithm achieved a sensitivity of 66.67%. A total of 307 fungal adhesins and adhesin like proteins were predicted from the entire proteomes of eight human pathogenic fungal species. The immunoinformatics

  14. The afimbrial adhesive sheath encoded by the afa-3 gene cluster of pathogenic Escherichia coli is composed of two adhesins.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M I; Gounon, P; Courcoux, P; Labigne, A; Le Bouguenec, C

    1996-02-01

    The afa-3 gene cluster determines the formation of an afimbrial adhesive sheath that is expressed by uropathogenic as well as diarrhoea-associated Escherichia coli strains. It contains six genes (afaA-afaF), among which the afaE3 gene is known to code for the structural AfaE-III adhesin (previously designated AFA-III), whereas no role has yet been identified for the afaD gene product. The afa-3 gene cluster is closely related to the daa operon that codes for an adhesin, the F1845 adhesin, which is highly related to the AfaE-III adhesin; however, unlike the AfaE-III adhesin, F1845 is a fimbrial adhesin. Reported in this work is the construction of chimeras between the afa-3 and daa operons. Analyses of the phenotypes conferred by these afa-3/daa chimeric clusters allowed us to conclude that the biogenesis of a fimbrial or an afimbrial adhesin is fully determined by the amino acid sequence of the AfaE-III and F1845 adhesins. Moreover, the role of the AfaD product in the biosynthesis of the afimbrial sheath was assessed by immunogold and immunofluorescence experiments. The AfaD and the AfaE-III products were purified and used to raise rabbit and mouse antisera. Similar to AfaE-III, AfaD was found to be a surface-exposed protein as well as an adhesin; both AfaD and AfaE-III are concomittantly expressed by the bacterial cell. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that the afimbrial adhesive sheath expressed by pathogenic E. coli is composed of two adhesins.

  15. Heterologous Expression of Bartonella Adhesin A in Escherichia coli by Exchange of Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesin Domains Results in Enhanced Adhesion Properties and a Pathogenic Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Schmidgen, Thomas; Kaiser, Patrick O.; Ballhorn, Wibke; Franz, Bettina; Göttig, Stephan; Linke, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Human-pathogenic Bartonella henselae causes cat scratch disease and vasculoproliferative disorders. An important pathogenicity factor of B. henselae is the trimeric autotransporter adhesin (TAA) Bartonella adhesin A (BadA), which is modularly constructed, consisting of a head, a long and repetitive neck-stalk module, and a membrane anchor. BadA is involved in bacterial autoagglutination, binding to extracellular matrix proteins and host cells, and in proangiogenic reprogramming. The slow growth of B. henselae and limited tools for genetic manipulation are obstacles for detailed examination of BadA and its domains. Here, we established a recombinant expression system for BadA mutants in Escherichia coli allowing functional analysis of particular BadA domains. Using a BadA mutant lacking 21 neck-stalk repeats (BadA HN23), the BadA HN23 signal sequence was exchanged with that of E. coli OmpA, and the BadA membrane anchor was additionally replaced with that of Yersinia adhesin A (YadA). Constructs were cloned in E. coli, and hybrid protein expression was detected by immunoblotting, fluorescence microscopy, and flow cytometry. Functional analysis revealed that BadA hybrid proteins mediate autoagglutination and binding to collagen and endothelial cells. In vivo, expression of this BadA construct correlated with higher pathogenicity of E. coli in a Galleria mellonella infection model. PMID:24682330

  16. Importance of adhesins in the recurrence of pharyngeal infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Aniela; Scioscia, Natalia; Geoffroy, Enrique; Ponce, Iván; García, Patricia

    2017-04-01

    Pharyngo-amygdalitis is the most common infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes). Reinfection with strains of different M types commonly occurs. However, a second infection with a strain of the same M type can still occur and is referred to as recurrence. We aimed to assess whether recurrence of S. pyogenes could be associated to erythromycin resistance, biofilm formation or surface adhesins like fibronectin-binding proteins and pilus proteins, both located in the fibronectin-binding, collagen-binding, T-antigen (FCT) region. We analyed clinical isolates of S. pyogenes obtained from children with multiple positive cultures of throat swabs. We analysed potential associations between M types, clonal patterns, biofilm production and FCT types with their capacity of producing a recurrent infection. We genetically defined recurrence as an infection with the same M type (same strain) and reinfection as an infection with a different M type. No differences were observed between recurrent and reinfection isolates in relation to erythromycin resistance, presence and number of domains of prtF1 gene, and biofilm formation capacity; the only significant difference was the higher frequency of FCT-4 type among recurrent isolates. However, when all the factors that could contribute to recurrence (erythromycin resistance, biofilm production, presence of prtF1 gene and FCT-4 type) were analysed together, we observed that recurrent isolates have a higher number of factors than reinfection isolates. Recurrence seems not to be associated with biofilm formation. However, pili and fibronectin-binding proteins could be associated with recurrence because FCT-4 isolates which harbour two fibronectin-binding proteins are more frequent among recurrent isolates.

  17. Host determinants of expression of the helicobacter pylori BabA adhesin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Expression of the Helicobacter pylori blood group antigen binding adhesin A (BabA) is more common in strains isolated from patients with peptic ulcer disease or gastric cancer, rather than asymptomatic colonization. BabA is highly polymorphic genetically and functionally among different clinical is...

  18. Prokaryotic High-Level Expression System in Producing Adhesin Recombinant Protein E of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Minoo; Bouzari, Saeed; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Najar Peerayeh, Shahin; Jafari, Anis

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adhesion protein E (PE) of Haemophilus influenzae is a 16 - 18 kDa protein with 160 amino acids which causes adhesion to epithelial cells and acts as a major factor in pathogenesis. Objectives: In this study, we performed cloning, expression and purification of PE as a candidate antigen for vaccine design upon further study. Materials and Methods: At first, the pe gene of NTHi ATCC 49766 strain (483 bp) was amplified by PCR. Then, to sequence the resulted amplicon, it was cloned into TA vector (pTZ57R/T). In the next step, the sequenced gene was sub-cloned in pBAD/gIII A vector and transformed into competent Escherichia coli TOP10. For overexpression, the recombinant bacteria were grown in broth medium containing arabinose and the recombinant protein was purified using metal affinity chromatography (Ni-nitrilotriacetic acid) (Ni-NTA agarose). Finally, the protein was detected using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophores (SDS-PAG) and confirmed by western blotting. Results: The cloned gene was confirmed by PCR, restriction digestion and sequencing. The sequenced gene was searched for homology in GenBank and 99% similarity was found to the already deposited genes in GenBank. Then we obtained PE using Ni-NTA agarose with up to 7 mg/mL concentration. Conclusions: The pe gene was successfully cloned and confirmed by sequencing. Finally, PE was obtained with high concentration. Due to high homology and similarity among the pe gene from NTHi ATCC 49766 and other NTHi strains in GenBank, we believe that the protein is a universal antigen to be used as a vaccine design candidate and further studies to evaluate its immunogenicity is underway. PMID:26034537

  19. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of the afa-7 and afa-8 Gene Clusters Encoding Afimbrial Adhesins in Escherichia coli Strains Associated with Diarrhea or Septicemia in Calves

    PubMed Central

    Lalioui, Lila; Jouve, Mabel; Gounon, Pierre; Le Bouguenec, Chantal

    1999-01-01

    The afa gene clusters, which encode proteins involved in adhesion to epithelial cells, from Escherichia coli strains associated with urinary and intestinal infections in humans have been characterized. Pathogenic isolates of bovine and porcine origin that possess afa-related sequences have recently been described. We report in this work the cloning and characterization of the afa-7 and afa-8 gene clusters from bovine isolates. Hybridization and sequencing experiments revealed that despite similarity in genetic organization, the afa-7 and afa-8 genes, and the well-characterized afa-3 operon expressed by human-pathogenic isolates, correspond to three different members of the afa family of gene clusters. However, like the afa-3 gene cluster, both the afa-7 and afa-8 gene clusters were found to encode an afimbrial adhesin (AfaE) and an invasin (AfaD). The AfaD peptides encoded by the three gene clusters were only 45% identical, but functional complementation experiments indicated that they belong to the same family of invasins. Hemagglutination and adhesion assays demonstrated that the AfaE-VII and AfaE-VIII adhesins bind to different receptors and that these receptors are not the human decay-accelerating factor recognized to be the receptor of all previously described AfaE adhesins. The AfaE-VIII adhesin is very similar to the M agglutinin of human-uropathogenic strains. We used PCR assays to screen 25 bovine strains for afaD and afaE genes of either the afa-7 or afa-8 gene cluster. The afa-8 gene cluster was highly prevalent in bovine isolates previously reported to carry afa-related sequences (23 of 24 strains), particularly in strains producing cytotoxic necrotizing factors (16 of 16 strains). The location of the afa-8 gene cluster on the plasmids or chromosome of these isolates suggests that it could be carried by a mobile element, facilitating its dissemination among bovine-pathogenic E. coli strains. PMID:10496877

  20. An extracellular Staphylococcus epidermidis polysaccharide: relation to Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin and its implication in phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The skin commensal and opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis is a leading cause of hospital-acquired and biomaterial-associated infections. The polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), a homoglycan composed of β-1,6-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues, synthesized by enzymes encoded in icaADBC is a major functional factor in biofilm accumulation, promoting virulence in experimental biomaterial-associated S. epidermidis infection. Extracellular mucous layer extracts of S. epidermidis contain another major polysaccharide, referred to as 20-kDa polysaccharide (20-kDaPS), composed mainly out of glucose, N-acetylglucosamine, and being partially sulfated. 20-kDaPS antiserum prevents adhesion of S. epidermidis on endothelial cells and development of experimental keratitis in rabbits. Here we provide experimental evidence that 20-kDaPS and PIA represent distinct molecules and that 20-kDaPS is implicated in endocytosis of S. epidermidis bacterial cells by human monocyte-derived macrophages. Results Analysis of 75 clinical coagulase-negative staphylococci from blood-cultures and central venous catheter tips indicated that 20-kDaPS is expressed exclusively in S. epidermidis but not in other coagulase-negative staphylococcal species. Tn917-insertion in various locations in icaADBC in mutants M10, M22, M23, and M24 of S. epidermidis 1457 are abolished for PIA synthesis, while 20-kDaPS expression appears unaltered as compared to wild-type strains using specific anti-PIA and anti-20-kDaPS antisera. While periodate oxidation and dispersin B treatments abolish immuno-reactivity and intercellular adhesive properties of PIA, no abrogative activity is exerted towards 20-kDaPS immunochemical reactivity following these treatments. PIA polysaccharide I-containing fractions eluting from Q-Sepharose were devoid of detectable 20-kDaPS using specific ELISA. Preincubation of non-20-kDaPS-producing clinical strain with increasing amounts of 20-kDaPS inhibits

  1. Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli infection in T84 cell monolayers induces increased neutrophil transepithelial migration, which in turn promotes cytokine-dependent upregulation of decay-accelerating factor (CD55), the receptor for Afa/Dr adhesins.

    PubMed

    Bétis, Fréderic; Brest, Patrick; Hofman, Véronique; Guignot, Julie; Kansau, Imad; Rossi, Bernard; Servin, Alain; Hofman, Paul

    2003-04-01

    Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are inflammatory bowel diseases thought to involve strains of Escherichia coli. We report here that two wild-type Afa/Dr diffusely adhering E. coli (DAEC) strains, C1845 and IH11128, which harbor the fimbrial F1845 adhesin and the Dr hemagglutinin, respectively, and the E. coli laboratory strain HB101, transformed with the pSSS1 plasmid to produce Afa/Dr F1845 adhesin, all induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) production and transepithelial migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) in polarized monolayers of the human intestinal cell line T84 grown on semipermeable filters. We observed that after PMNL migration, expression of decay-accelerating factor (DAF, or CD55), the brush border-associated receptor for Afa/Dr adhesins, was strongly enhanced, increasing the adhesion of Afa/Dr DAEC bacteria. When examining the mechanism by which DAF expression was enhanced, we observed that the PMNL transepithelial migration induced epithelial synthesis of tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-1beta, which in turn promoted the upregulation of DAF.

  2. Immunologic properties and therapeutic efficacy of a multivalent epitope-based vaccine against four Helicobacter pylori adhesins (urease, Lpp20, HpaA, and CagL) in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Guo, Le; Yin, Runting; Xu, Guangxian; Gong, Xiaojuan; Chang, Zisong; Hong, Dantong; Liu, Hongpeng; Ding, Shuqin; Han, Xuebo; Li, Yuan; Tang, Feng; Liu, Kunmei

    2017-08-29

    Therapeutic vaccination is a desirable alternative for controlling Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Attachment to the gastric mucosa is the first step in establishing bacterial colonization, and adhesins, which are on the surface of H. pylori, play a pivotal role in binding to human gastric mucosa. In the present study, we constructed a multivalent epitope-based vaccine named CFAdE with seven carefully selected antigenic fragments from four H. pylori adhesins (urease, Lpp20, HpaA and CagL). The specificity, immunogenicity and ability to produce neutralizing antibodies of CFAdE were evaluated in BALB/c mice. After that, its therapeutic efficacy and protective immune mechanisms were explored in H. pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils. The results indicated that CFAdE could induce comparatively high levels of specific antibodies against urease, Lpp20, HpaA and CagL. Additionally, oral therapeutic immunization with CFAdE plus polysaccharide adjuvant (PA) significantly decreased H. pylori colonization compared with oral immunization with urease plus PA, and the protection was correlated with IgG and sIgA antibody and antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells. This study indicated that the multivalent epitope-based vaccine, which targeted multiple adhesins in adherence of H. pylori to the gastric mucosa, is more effective than the univalent vaccine targeting urease only. This multivalent epitope-based vaccine may be a promising therapeutic candidate vaccine against H. pylori infection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Amyloid-producing odontogenic tumour (calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour) in the mandible of a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Kang, M-S; Park, M-S; Kwon, S-W; Ma, S-A; Cho, D-Y; Kim, D-Y; Kim, Y

    2006-01-01

    A 13-year-old male tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) had a marked mandibular swelling noticed 12 months earlier and associated with progressive anorexia and weight loss. Radiological and post-mortem examination revealed a mass (13x15 cm) which was firm and poorly defined, with destruction of the adjacent bone tissue. Histologically, the mass was poorly demarcated, with infiltrative growth, and composed of nests, cords and islands of epithelial cells with characteristic basal cell features. Also observed were extensive squamous metaplasia, ghost cells, stellate reticulum, and fibroblastic connective tissue stroma containing inflammatory cells. A prominent feature of this tumour consisted of abundant nodular deposits of congophilic amyloid-like material with partial mineralization (Liesegang rings). Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells and the amyloid-like material were positive for pancytokeratin and negative for vimentin. The findings supported the diagnosis of an amyloid-producing odontogenic tumour (APOT), also known as calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour in man and animals.

  4. Vaccination with a recombinant fragment of collagen adhesin provides protection against Staphylococcus aureus-mediated septic death.

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, I M; Patti, J M; Bremell, T; Höök, M; Tarkowski, A

    1998-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Morbidity and mortality due to infections such as sepsis, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, and invasive endocarditis remain high despite the use of antibiotics. The emergence of antibiotic resistant super bugs mandates that alternative strategies for the prevention and treatment of S. aureus infections are developed. We investigated the ability of vaccination with a recombinant fragment of the S. aureus collagen adhesin to protect mice against sepsis-induced death. Actively immunized NMRI mice were intravenously inoculated with the S. aureus clinical isolate strain Phillips. 14 d after inoculation, mortality in the collagen adhesin-vaccinated group was only 13%, compared with 87% in the control antigen immunized group (P < 0.001). To determine if the protective effect was antibody mediated, we passively immunized naive mice with collagen adhesin-specific antibodies. Similar to the active immunization strategy, passive transfer of collagen adhesin-specific antibodies protected mice against sepsis-induced death. In vitro experiments indicated that S. aureus opsonized with sera from collagen adhesin immunized mice promoted phagocytic uptake and enhanced intracellular killing compared with bacteria opsonized with sera from control animals. These results indicate that the collagen adhesin is a viable target in the development of immunotherapeutics against S. aureus. PMID:9637697

  5. Proteomic analysis of hyperadhesive Candida glabrata clinical isolates reveals a core wall proteome and differential incorporation of adhesins.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Molero, Emilia; de Boer, Albert D; Dekker, Henk L; Moreno-Martínez, Ana; Kraneveld, Eef A; Ichsan; Chauhan, Neeraj; Weig, Michael; de Soet, Johannes J; de Koster, Chris G; Bader, Oliver; de Groot, Piet W J

    2015-12-01

    Attachment to human host tissues or abiotic medical devices is a key step in the development of infections by Candida glabrata. The genome of this pathogenic yeast codes for a large number of adhesins, but proteomic work using reference strains has shown incorporation of only few adhesins in the cell wall. By making inventories of the wall proteomes of hyperadhesive clinical isolates and reference strain CBS138 using mass spectrometry, we describe the cell wall proteome of C. glabrata and tested the hypothesis that hyperadhesive isolates display differential incorporation of adhesins. Two clinical strains (PEU382 and PEU427) were selected, which both were hyperadhesive to polystyrene and showed high surface hydrophobicity. Cell wall proteome analysis under biofilm-forming conditions identified a core proteome of about 20 proteins present in all C. glabrata strains. In addition, 12 adhesin-like wall proteins were identified in the hyperadherent strains, including six novel adhesins (Awp8-13) of which only Awp12 was also present in CBS138. We conclude that the hyperadhesive capacity of these two clinical C. glabrata isolates is correlated with increased and differential incorporation of cell wall adhesins. Future studies should elucidate the role of the identified proteins in the establishment of C. glabrata infections.

  6. Bacteriophage adhesin-coated long-period gratings for bacterial lipopolysaccharide recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koba, Marcin; Śmietana, Mateusz; Brzozowska, Ewa; Górska, Sabina; Mikulic, Predrag; Bock, Wojtek J.

    2014-05-01

    In this work we report an application of the optical fiber long-period gratings (LPGs) working near the dispersion turning point of higher order cladding modes for bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) recognition. We show that when the LPG is functionalized with the bacteriophage adhesin, it is capable of very specific LPS detection. Thus, we compare label-free binding effect for specific to the adhesin LPS-positive and non-specific LPS-negative. The resonance wavelength shift induced by the LPS-positive reaches 2.9 nm, while for LPS-negative the shift is negligible. The LPG-based sensing structure allows for monitoring of the binding phenomenon in real time and with good accuracy.

  7. Structural Basis for Sialoglycan Binding by the Streptococcus sanguinis SrpA Adhesin.

    PubMed

    Bensing, Barbara A; Loukachevitch, Lioudmila V; McCulloch, Kathryn M; Yu, Hai; Vann, Kendra R; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Anderson, Spencer; Chen, Xi; Sullam, Paul M; Iverson, T M

    2016-04-01

    Streptococcus sanguinisis a leading cause of infective endocarditis, a life-threatening infection of the cardiovascular system. An important interaction in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis is attachment of the organisms to host platelets.S. sanguinisexpresses a serine-rich repeat adhesin, SrpA, similar in sequence to platelet-binding adhesins associated with increased virulence in this disease. In this study, we determined the first crystal structure of the putative binding region of SrpA (SrpABR) both unliganded and in complex with a synthetic disaccharide ligand at 1.8 and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively. We identified a conserved Thr-Arg motif that orients the sialic acid moiety and is required for binding to platelet monolayers. Furthermore, we propose that sequence insertions in closely related family members contribute to the modulation of structural and functional properties, including the quaternary structure, the tertiary structure, and the ligand-binding site.

  8. Programming controlled adhesion of E. coli to target surfaces, cells, and tumors with synthetic adhesins.

    PubMed

    Piñero-Lambea, Carlos; Bodelón, Gustavo; Fernández-Periáñez, Rodrigo; Cuesta, Angel M; Álvarez-Vallina, Luis; Fernández, Luis Ángel

    2015-04-17

    In this work we report synthetic adhesins (SAs) enabling the rational design of the adhesion properties of E. coli. SAs have a modular structure comprising a stable β-domain for outer membrane anchoring and surface-exposed immunoglobulin domains with high affinity and specificity that can be selected from large repertoires. SAs are constitutively and stably expressed in an E. coli strain lacking a conserved set of natural adhesins, directing a robust, fast, and specific adhesion of bacteria to target antigenic surfaces and cells. We demonstrate the functionality of SAs in vivo, showing that, compared to wild type E. coli, lower doses of engineered E. coli are sufficient to colonize solid tumors expressing an antigen recognized by the SA. In addition, lower levels of engineered bacteria were found in non-target tissues. Therefore, SAs provide stable and specific adhesion capabilities to E. coli against target surfaces of interest for diverse applications using live bacteria.

  9. Programming Controlled Adhesion of E. coli to Target Surfaces, Cells, and Tumors with Synthetic Adhesins

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this work we report synthetic adhesins (SAs) enabling the rational design of the adhesion properties of E. coli. SAs have a modular structure comprising a stable β-domain for outer membrane anchoring and surface-exposed immunoglobulin domains with high affinity and specificity that can be selected from large repertoires. SAs are constitutively and stably expressed in an E. coli strain lacking a conserved set of natural adhesins, directing a robust, fast, and specific adhesion of bacteria to target antigenic surfaces and cells. We demonstrate the functionality of SAs in vivo, showing that, compared to wild type E. coli, lower doses of engineered E. coli are sufficient to colonize solid tumors expressing an antigen recognized by the SA. In addition, lower levels of engineered bacteria were found in non-target tissues. Therefore, SAs provide stable and specific adhesion capabilities to E. coli against target surfaces of interest for diverse applications using live bacteria. PMID:25045780

  10. Oxygen promotes biofilm formation of Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 through a diguanylate cyclase and an adhesin

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chao; Cheng, Yuan-Yuan; Yin, Hao; Song, Xiang-Ning; Li, Wen-Wei; Zhou, Xian-Xuan; Zhao, Li-Ping; Tian, Li-Jiao; Han, Jun-Cheng; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Although oxygen has been reported to regulate biofilm formation by several Shewanella species, the exact regulatory mechanism mostly remains unclear. Here, we identify a direct oxygen-sensing diguanylate cyclase (DosD) and reveal its regulatory role in biofilm formation by Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 under aerobic conditions. In vitro and in vivo analyses revealed that the activity of DosD culminates to synthesis of cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) in the presence of oxygen. DosD regulates the transcription of bpfA operon which encodes seven proteins including a large repetitive adhesin BpfA and its cognate type I secretion system (TISS). Regulation of DosD in aerobic biofilms is heavily dependent on an adhesin BpfA and the TISS. This study offers an insight into the molecular mechanism of oxygen-stimulated biofilm formation by S. putrefaciens CN32. PMID:23736081

  11. Oxygen promotes biofilm formation of Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 through a diguanylate cyclase and an adhesin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chao; Cheng, Yuan-Yuan; Yin, Hao; Song, Xiang-Ning; Li, Wen-Wei; Zhou, Xian-Xuan; Zhao, Li-Ping; Tian, Li-Jiao; Han, Jun-Cheng; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Although oxygen has been reported to regulate biofilm formation by several Shewanella species, the exact regulatory mechanism mostly remains unclear. Here, we identify a direct oxygen-sensing diguanylate cyclase (DosD) and reveal its regulatory role in biofilm formation by Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 under aerobic conditions. In vitro and in vivo analyses revealed that the activity of DosD culminates to synthesis of cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) in the presence of oxygen. DosD regulates the transcription of bpfA operon which encodes seven proteins including a large repetitive adhesin BpfA and its cognate type I secretion system (TISS). Regulation of DosD in aerobic biofilms is heavily dependent on an adhesin BpfA and the TISS. This study offers an insight into the molecular mechanism of oxygen-stimulated biofilm formation by S. putrefaciens CN32.

  12. Fatal Attraction: How Bacterial Adhesins Affect Host Signaling and What We Can Learn from Them

    PubMed Central

    Stones, Daniel H.; Krachler, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The ability of bacterial species to colonize and infect host organisms is critically dependent upon their capacity to adhere to cellular surfaces of the host. Adherence to cell surfaces is known to be essential for the activation and delivery of certain virulence factors, but can also directly affect host cell signaling to aid bacterial spread and survival. In this review we will discuss the recent advances in the field of bacterial adhesion, how we are beginning to unravel the effects adhesins have on host cell signaling, and how these changes aid the bacteria in terms of their survival and evasion of immune responses. Finally, we will highlight how the exploitation of bacterial adhesins may provide new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of a wide range of bacterial infections. PMID:25625516

  13. Metastability of Helicobacter pylori bab adhesin genes and dynamics in Lewis b antigen binding

    PubMed Central

    Bäckström, Anna; Lundberg, Carina; Kersulyte, Dangeruta; Berg, Douglas E.; Borén, Thomas; Arnqvist, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Heterogeneity among Helicobacter pylori strains in gastric epithelial adherence is postulated to contribute to pathogen fitness in the physiologically diverse human population. H. pylori adherence to ABO and Lewis b (Leb) blood group antigens in the human stomach is mediated by the blood group antigen-binding adhesin BabA. Approximately 70% of Swedish and U.S. H. pylori clinical isolates exhibit Leb binding, but here we show that the babA gene is present in each of 10 Leb-nonbinding strains. Fluorescence microscopy identified occasional bacterial cells with a Leb-binding phenotype in populations of Leb-nonbinding strains. Thus, nonbinding seemed to be a metastable phenotype. To model metastable transition into the virulence-associated Leb-binding mode, Leb-binding clones were isolated from nonadherent strains by panning with Leb-magnetic beads and characterized. Strain 17875 has two babA genes, babA1 (silent) and babA2 (expressed). We found that a babA2-cam derivative of strain 17875 regained Leb binding by recombination of the formerly silent babA1 gene into the expressed and partially homologous babB locus. The chimeric BabB/A adhesin binds Leb with an affinity similar to that of wild-type BabA adhesin, but its expression level was lower and was subject to phase variation through slipped-strand mispairing. Equivalent results were obtained with strain NCTC11638. We propose that adhesin metastability and heterogeneity contributes to bacterial fitness and results in some clones having potential for periodic activation and deactivation of virulence appropriate for intensity of the host response to infection. PMID:15557006

  14. Functional Characterization of a Mucus-Specific LPXTG Surface Adhesin from Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ▿

    PubMed Central

    von Ossowski, Ingemar; Satokari, Reetta; Reunanen, Justus; Lebeer, Sarah; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C. J.; Vanderleyden, Jos; de Vos, Willem M.; Palva, Airi

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the wealth of clinical evidence supporting the health benefits of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in humans, there is still a lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its probiosis. Current knowledge suggests that the health-promoting effects of this probiotic strain might be partly dependent on its persistence in the intestine and adhesion to mucosal surfaces. Moreover, L. rhamnosus GG contains mucus-binding pili that might also explain the occupation of its ecological niche as a comparatively less stringent allochthonous intestine-dwelling bacterium. To uncover additional surface proteins involved in mucosal adhesion, we investigated the adherence properties of the only predicted protein (LGG_02337) in L. rhamnosus GG that exhibits homology with a known mucus-binding domain. We cloned a recombinant form of the gene for this putative mucus adhesin and established that the purified protein readily adheres to human intestinal mucus. We also showed that this mucus adhesin is visibly distributed throughout the cell surface and participates in the adhesive interaction between L. rhamnosus GG and mucus, although less prominently than the mucus-binding pili in this strain. Based on primary structural comparisons, we concluded that the current annotation of the LGG_02337 protein likely does not accurately reflect its predicted properties, and we propose that this mucus-specific adhesin be called the mucus-binding factor (MBF). Finally, we interpret our results to mean that L. rhamnosus GG MBF, as an active mucus-specific surface adhesin with a presumed ancillary involvement in pilus-mediated mucosal adhesion, plays a part in the adherent mechanisms during intestinal colonization by this probiotic. PMID:21602388

  15. Mechanical forces regulate the reactivity of a thioester bond in a bacterial adhesin

    PubMed Central

    Echelman, Daniel J.; Lee, Alex Q.; Fernández, Julio M.

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria must withstand large mechanical shear forces when adhering to and colonizing hosts. Recent structural studies on a class of Gram-positive bacterial adhesins have revealed an intramolecular Cys-Gln thioester bond that can react with surface-associated ligands to covalently anchor to host surfaces. Two other examples of such internal thioester bonds occur in certain anti-proteases and in the immune complement system, both of which react with the ligand only after the thioester bond is exposed by a proteolytic cleavage. We hypothesized that mechanical forces in bacterial adhesion could regulate thioester reactivity to ligand analogously to such proteolytic gating. Studying the pilus tip adhesin Spy0125 of Streptococcus pyogenes, we developed a single molecule assay to unambiguously resolve the state of the thioester bond. We found that when Spy0125 was in a folded state, its thioester bond could be cleaved with the small-molecule nucleophiles methylamine and histamine, but when Spy0125 was mechanically unfolded and subjected to forces of 50–350 piconewtons, thioester cleavage was no longer observed. For folded Spy0125 without mechanical force exposure, thioester cleavage was in equilibrium with spontaneous thioester reformation, which occurred with a half-life of several minutes. Functionally, this equilibrium reactivity allows thioester-containing adhesins to sample potential substrates without irreversible cleavage and inactivation. We propose that such reversible thioester reactivity would circumvent potential soluble inhibitors, such as histamine released at sites of inflammation, and allow the bacterial adhesin to selectively associate with surface-bound ligands. PMID:28348083

  16. Cluster analysis identifies aminoacid compositional features that indicate Toxoplasma gondii adhesin proteins

    PubMed Central

    Arenas, Ailan F; Salcedo, Gladys E; Moncada, Diego M; Erazo, Diego A; Osorio, Juan F; Gomez-Marin, Jorge E

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii invade host cells using a multi-step process that depends on the regulated secretion of adhesions. To identify key primary sequence features of adhesins in this parasite, we analyze the relative frequency of individual amino acids, their dipeptide frequencies, and the polarity, polarizability and Van der Waals volume of the individual amino acids by using cluster analysis. This method identified cysteine as a key amino acid in the Toxoplasma adhesin group. The best vector algorithm of non-concatenated features was for 2 attributes: the single amino acid relative frequency and the dipeptide frequency. Polarity, polarizability and Van der Waals volume were not good classificatory attributes. Single amino acid attributes clustered unambiguously 67 apicomplexan hypothetical adhesins. This algorithm was also useful for clustering hypothetical Toxoplasma target host receptors. All of the cluster performances had over 70% sensitivity and 80% specificity. Compositional aminoacid data can be useful for improving machine learning-based prediction software when homology and structural data are not sufficient. PMID:23144551

  17. Identification of amino acids in the Dr adhesin required for binding to decay-accelerating factor.

    PubMed

    Van Loy, Cristina P; Sokurenko, Evgeni V; Samudrala, Ram; Moseley, Steve L

    2002-07-01

    Members of the Dr family of adhesins of Escherichia coli recognize as a receptor the Dr(a) blood-group antigen present on the complement regulatory and signalling molecule, decay-accelerating factor (DAF). One member of this family, the Dr haemagglutinin, also binds to a second receptor, type IV collagen. Structure/function information regarding these adhesins has been limited and domains directly involved in the interaction with DAF have not been determined. We devised a strategy to identify amino acids in the Dr haemagglutinin that are specifically involved in the interaction with DAF. The gene encoding the adhesive subunit, draE, was subjected to random mutagenesis and used to complement a strain defective for its expression. The resulting mutants were enriched and screened to obtain those that do not bind to DAF, but retain binding to type IV collagen. Individual amino acid changes at positions 10, 63, 65, 75, 77, 79 and 131 of the mature DraE sequence significantly reduced the ability of the DraE adhesin to bind DAF, but not collagen. Over half of the mutants obtained had substitutions within amino acids 63-81. Analysis of predicted structures of DraE suggest that these proximal residues may cluster to form a binding domain for DAF.

  18. The malate synthase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a linked surface protein that behaves as an anchorless adhesin

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). This is a pulmonary mycosis acquired by inhalation of fungal airborne propagules that can disseminate to several organs and tissues leading to a severe form of the disease. Adhesion and invasion to host cells are essential steps involved in the internalization and dissemination of pathogens. Inside the host, P. brasiliensis may use the glyoxylate cycle for intracellular survival. Results Here, we provide evidence that the malate synthase of P. brasiliensis (PbMLS) is located on the fungal cell surface, and is secreted. PbMLS was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and polyclonal antibody was obtained against this protein. By using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, PbMLS was detected in the cytoplasm and in the cell wall of the mother, but mainly of budding cells of the P. brasiliensis yeast phase. PbMLSr and its respective polyclonal antibody produced against this protein inhibited the interaction of P. brasiliensis with in vitro cultured epithelial cells A549. Conclusion These observations indicated that cell wall-associated PbMLS could be mediating the binding of fungal cells to the host, thus contributing to the adhesion of fungus to host tissues and to the dissemination of infection, behaving as an anchorless adhesin. PMID:20034376

  19. An Acinetobacter trimeric autotransporter adhesin reaped from cells exhibits its nonspecific stickiness via a highly stable 3D structure

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimoto, Shogo; Nakatani, Hajime; Iwasaki, Keita; Hori, Katsutoshi

    2016-01-01

    Trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs), cell surface proteins of Gram-negative bacteria, mediate bacterial adhesion to host cells and extracellular matrix proteins. However, AtaA, a TAA in the nonpathogenic Acinetobacter sp. strain Tol 5, shows nonspecific, high adhesiveness to abiotic material surfaces as well as to biotic surfaces. AtaA is a homotrimer of polypeptides comprising 3,630 amino acids and forms long nanofibers; therefore, it is too large and structurally complex to be produced as a recombinant protein. In this study, we isolated AtaA’s passenger domain (AtaA PSD), which is translocated to the cell surface through the C-terminal transmembrane domain and exhibits biological functions, using a new method. We introduced a protease recognition site and reaped AtaA nanofibers 225 nm in length from the cell surface through proteolytic cleavage with a specific protease. Biochemical and biophysical analyses of the purified native AtaA PSD revealed that it has a stable structure under alkaline and acidic conditions. Temperatures above 80 °C, which disrupted AtaA’s higher-order structure but maintained the full-length AtaA polypeptide, inactivated AtaA’s nonspecific adhesiveness, suggesting that the stickiness of AtaA requires its 3D structure. This finding refutes the widespread but vague speculation that large unfolded polypeptides readily stick to various surfaces. PMID:27305955

  20. Structure of a 1.5-MDa adhesin that binds its Antarctic bacterium to diatoms and ice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shuaiqi; Stevens, Corey A.; Vance, Tyler D. R.; Olijve, Luuk L. C.; Graham, Laurie A.; Campbell, Robert L.; Yazdi, Saeed R.; Escobedo, Carlos; Bar-Dolev, Maya; Yashunsky, Victor; Braslavsky, Ido; Langelaan, David N.; Smith, Steven P.; Allingham, John S.; Voets, Ilja K.; Davies, Peter L.

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial adhesins are modular cell-surface proteins that mediate adherence to other cells, surfaces, and ligands. The Antarctic bacterium Marinomonas primoryensis uses a 1.5-MDa adhesin comprising over 130 domains to position it on ice at the top of the water column for better access to oxygen and nutrients. We have reconstructed this 0.6-μm-long adhesin using a “dissect and build” structural biology approach and have established complementary roles for its five distinct regions. Domains in region I (RI) tether the adhesin to the type I secretion machinery in the periplasm of the bacterium and pass it through the outer membrane. RII comprises ~120 identical immunoglobulin-like β-sandwich domains that rigidify on binding Ca2+ to project the adhesion regions RIII and RIV into the medium. RIII contains ligand-binding domains that join diatoms and bacteria together in a mixed-species community on the underside of sea ice where incident light is maximal. RIV is the ice-binding domain, and the terminal RV domain contains several “repeats-in-toxin” motifs and a noncleavable signal sequence that target proteins for export via the type I secretion system. Similar structural architecture is present in the adhesins of many pathogenic bacteria and provides a guide to finding and blocking binding domains to weaken infectivity. PMID:28808685

  1. Demarcating SurA Activities Required for Outer Membrane Targeting of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Adhesins

    PubMed Central

    Obi, Ikenna R.

    2013-01-01

    SurA is a periplasmic protein folding factor involved in chaperoning and trafficking of outer membrane proteins across the Gram-negative bacterial periplasm. In addition, SurA also possesses peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity. We have previously reported that in enteropathogenic Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, SurA is needed for bacterial virulence and envelope integrity. In this study, we investigated the role of SurA in the assembly of important Yersinia adhesins. Using genetic mutation, biochemical characterization, and an in vitro-based bacterial host cell association assay, we confirmed that surface localization of the invasin adhesin is dependent on SurA. As a surA deletion also has some impact on the levels of individual components of the BAM complex in the Yersinia outer membrane, abolished invasin surface assembly could reflect both a direct loss of SurA-dependent periplasmic targeting and a potentially compromised BAM complex assembly platform in the outer membrane. To various degrees, the assembly of two other adhesins, Ail and the pH 6 antigen fibrillum PsaA, also depends on SurA. Consequently, loss of SurA leads to a dramatic reduction in Yersinia attachment to eukaryotic host cells. Genetic complementation of surA deletion mutants indicated a prominent role for SurA chaperone function in outer membrane protein assembly. Significantly, the N terminus of SurA contributed most of this SurA chaperone function. Despite a dominant chaperoning role, it was also evident that SurA isomerization activity did make a modest contribution to this assembly process. PMID:23589578

  2. Yersinia infection tools—characterization of structure and function of adhesins

    PubMed Central

    Mikula, Kornelia M.; Kolodziejczyk, Robert; Goldman, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Among the seventeen species of the Gram-negative genus Yersinia, three have been shown to be virulent and pathogenic to humans and animals—Y. enterocolitica, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. pestis. In order to be so, they are armoured with various factors that help them adhere to tissues and organelles, cross the cellular barrier and escape the immune system during host invasion. The group of proteins that mediate pathogen–host interactions constitute adhesins. Invasin, Ail, YadA, YadB, YadC, Pla, and pH 6 antigen belong to the most prominent and best-known Yersinia adhesins. They act at different times and stages of infection complementing each other by their ability to bind a variety of host molecules such as collagen, fibronectin, laminin, β1 integrins, and complement regulators. All the proteins are anchored in the bacterial outer membrane (OM), often forming rod-like or fimbrial-like structures that protrude to the extracellular milieu. Structural studies have shown that the anchor region forms a β-barrel composed of 8, 10, or 12 antiparallel β-strands. Depending on the protein, the extracellular part can be composed of several domains belonging to the immunoglobulin fold superfamily, or form a coiled-coil structure with globular head domain at the end, or just constitute several loops connecting individual β-strands in the β-barrel. Those extracellular regions define the activity of each adhesin. This review focuses on the structure and function of these important molecules, and their role in pathogenesis. PMID:23316485

  3. Biodiversity-based identification and functional characterization of the mannose-specific adhesin of Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Pretzer, Gabriele; Snel, Johannes; Molenaar, Douwe; Wiersma, Anne; Bron, Peter A; Lambert, Jolanda; de Vos, Willem M; van der Meer, Roelof; Smits, Mari A; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2005-09-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a frequently encountered inhabitant of the human intestinal tract, and some strains are marketed as probiotics. Their ability to adhere to mannose residues is a potentially interesting characteristic with regard to proposed probiotic features such as colonization of the intestinal surface and competitive exclusion of pathogens. In this study, the variable capacity of 14 L. plantarum strains to agglutinate Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a mannose-specific manner was determined and subsequently correlated with an L. plantarum WCFS1-based genome-wide genotype database. This led to the identification of four candidate mannose adhesin-encoding genes. Two genes primarily predicted to code for sortase-dependent cell surface proteins displayed a complete gene-trait match. Their involvement in mannose adhesion was corroborated by the finding that a sortase (srtA) mutant of L. plantarum WCFS1 lost the capacity to agglutinate S. cerevisiae. The postulated role of these two candidate genes was investigated by gene-specific deletion and overexpression in L. plantarum WCFS1. Subsequent evaluation of the mannose adhesion capacity of the resulting mutant strains showed that inactivation of one candidate gene (lp_0373) did not affect mannose adhesion properties. In contrast, deletion of the other gene (lp_1229) resulted in a complete loss of yeast agglutination ability, while its overexpression quantitatively enhanced this phenotype. Therefore, this gene was designated to encode the mannose-specific adhesin (Msa; gene name, msa) of L. plantarum. Domain homology analysis of the predicted 1,000-residue Msa protein identified known carbohydrate-binding domains, further supporting its role as a mannose adhesin that is likely to be involved in the interaction of L. plantarum with its host in the intestinal tract.

  4. Bartonella henselae Pap31, an Extracellular Matrix Adhesin, Binds the Fibronectin Repeat III13 Module

    PubMed Central

    Dabo, S. M.; Confer, A. W.; Anderson, B. E.; Gupta, Snehalata

    2006-01-01

    Bartonella henselae wound-associated infections suggest involvement of extracellular matrix molecules in adhesion and invasion. Pap31 was previously identified as a hemin-binding protein. Our recent studies suggest the protein is an adhesin that is recognized by the host's immune systems. In this study we examined the interactions of B. henselae Pap31 with fibronectin (Fn), heparin (Hep), and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The cloned gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified Pap31 protein elicited strong antibody responses in mice and was reactive with rabbit anti-live B. henselae and mouse anti-Pap31 antibodies by Western blotting. Pap31 bound to immobilized Fn and to HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner and to Hep. Fn fragment-binding assays identified the Hep-1 and Hep-2 binding domains of human Fn and in particular the 12-13FnIII repeat module as primary binding sites for this adhesin. Furthermore, Pap31 binding to the above Fn fragments could be inhibited by Hep, suggesting a common binding site involving the 13FnIII repeat module on the Hep-2 domain of Fn. Adherence of intact B. henselae to HUVECs was inhibited by increasing concentrations of anti-Pap31 antibodies. In addition, purified Pap31 coprecipitated effectively with Fn and anti-Fn antibodies. Taken together, these data suggest that Pap31 is an Fn-binding protein mediating the B. henselae-host interaction(s), and they implicate the 13FnIII repeat module as an important binding site for this adhesin on the Fn molecule. These interactions may be important initial steps leading to bacterial attachment and colonization that promote the establishment of B. henselae infections in vivo. PMID:16622186

  5. Yersinia infection tools-characterization of structure and function of adhesins.

    PubMed

    Mikula, Kornelia M; Kolodziejczyk, Robert; Goldman, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Among the seventeen species of the Gram-negative genus Yersinia, three have been shown to be virulent and pathogenic to humans and animals-Y. enterocolitica, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. pestis. In order to be so, they are armoured with various factors that help them adhere to tissues and organelles, cross the cellular barrier and escape the immune system during host invasion. The group of proteins that mediate pathogen-host interactions constitute adhesins. Invasin, Ail, YadA, YadB, YadC, Pla, and pH 6 antigen belong to the most prominent and best-known Yersinia adhesins. They act at different times and stages of infection complementing each other by their ability to bind a variety of host molecules such as collagen, fibronectin, laminin, β1 integrins, and complement regulators. All the proteins are anchored in the bacterial outer membrane (OM), often forming rod-like or fimbrial-like structures that protrude to the extracellular milieu. Structural studies have shown that the anchor region forms a β-barrel composed of 8, 10, or 12 antiparallel β-strands. Depending on the protein, the extracellular part can be composed of several domains belonging to the immunoglobulin fold superfamily, or form a coiled-coil structure with globular head domain at the end, or just constitute several loops connecting individual β-strands in the β-barrel. Those extracellular regions define the activity of each adhesin. This review focuses on the structure and function of these important molecules, and their role in pathogenesis.

  6. Biodiversity-Based Identification and Functional Characterization of the Mannose-Specific Adhesin of Lactobacillus plantarum

    PubMed Central

    Pretzer, Gabriele; Snel, Johannes; Molenaar, Douwe; Wiersma, Anne; Bron, Peter A.; Lambert, Jolanda; de Vos, Willem M.; van der Meer, Roelof; Smits, Mari A.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2005-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a frequently encountered inhabitant of the human intestinal tract, and some strains are marketed as probiotics. Their ability to adhere to mannose residues is a potentially interesting characteristic with regard to proposed probiotic features such as colonization of the intestinal surface and competitive exclusion of pathogens. In this study, the variable capacity of 14 L. plantarum strains to agglutinate Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a mannose-specific manner was determined and subsequently correlated with an L. plantarum WCFS1-based genome-wide genotype database. This led to the identification of four candidate mannose adhesin-encoding genes. Two genes primarily predicted to code for sortase-dependent cell surface proteins displayed a complete gene-trait match. Their involvement in mannose adhesion was corroborated by the finding that a sortase (srtA) mutant of L. plantarum WCFS1 lost the capacity to agglutinate S. cerevisiae. The postulated role of these two candidate genes was investigated by gene-specific deletion and overexpression in L. plantarum WCFS1. Subsequent evaluation of the mannose adhesion capacity of the resulting mutant strains showed that inactivation of one candidate gene (lp_0373) did not affect mannose adhesion properties. In contrast, deletion of the other gene (lp_1229) resulted in a complete loss of yeast agglutination ability, while its overexpression quantitatively enhanced this phenotype. Therefore, this gene was designated to encode the mannose-specific adhesin (Msa; gene name, msa) of L. plantarum. Domain homology analysis of the predicted 1,000-residue Msa protein identified known carbohydrate-binding domains, further supporting its role as a mannose adhesin that is likely to be involved in the interaction of L. plantarum with its host in the intestinal tract. PMID:16109954

  7. Filamentous hemagglutinin of Bordetella pertussis: a key adhesin with immunomodulatory properties?

    PubMed

    Villarino Romero, Rodrigo; Osicka, Radim; Sebo, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The filamentous hemagglutinin of pathogenic Bordetellae is a prototype of a large two-partner-system-secreted and β-structure-rich bacterial adhesin. It exhibits several binding activities that may facilitate bacterial adherence to airway mucosa and host phagocytes in the initial phases of infection. Despite three decades of research on filamentous hemagglutinin, there remain many questions on its structure-function relationships, integrin interactions and possible immunomodulatory signaling capacity. Here we review the state of knowledge on this important virulence factor and acellular pertussis vaccine component. Specific emphasis is placed on outstanding questions that are yet to be answered.

  8. Autocatalytic association of proteins by covalent bond formation: a Bio Molecular Welding toolbox derived from a bacterial adhesin.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, J; Cartannaz, J; Tourcier, G; Contreras-Martel, C; Kleman, J P; Morlot, C; Vernet, T; Di Guilmi, A M

    2017-03-02

    Unusual intramolecular cross-links present in adhesins from Gram-positive bacteria have been used to develop a generic process amenable to biotechnology applications. Based on the crystal structure of RrgA, the Streptococcus pneumoniae pilus adhesin, we provide evidence that two engineered protein fragments retain their ability to associate covalently with high specificity, in vivo and in vitro, once isolated from the parent protein. We determined the optimal conditions for the assembly of the complex and we solved its crystal structure at 2 Å. Furthermore, we demonstrate biotechnological applications related to antibody production, nanoassembly and cell-surface labeling based on this process we named Bio Molecular Welding.

  9. MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen)-Novel Technology for Structural Vaccinology, Proof from Computational and Empirical Immunogenicity Characterization of an Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) Adhesin MEFA

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Qiangde; Lee, Kuo Hao; Nandre, Rahul M; Garcia, Carolina; Chen, Jianhan; Zhang, Weiping

    2017-01-01

    Vaccine development often encounters the challenge of virulence heterogeneity. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) bacteria producing immunologically heterogeneous virulence factors are a leading cause of children’s diarrhea and travelers’ diarrhea. Currently, we do not have licensed vaccines against ETEC bacteria. While conventional methods continue to make progress but encounter challenge, new computational and structure-based approaches are explored to accelerate ETEC vaccine development. In this study, we applied a structural vaccinology concept to construct a structure-based multiepitope fusion antigen (MEFA) to carry representing epitopes of the seven most important ETEC adhesins [CFA/I, CFA/II (CS1–CS3), CFA/IV (CS4–CS6)], simulated antigenic structure of the CFA/I/II/IV MEFA with computational atomistic modeling and simulation, characterized immunogenicity in mouse immunization, and examined the potential of structure-informed vaccine design for ETEC vaccine development. A tag-less recombinant MEFA protein (CFA/I/II/IV MEFA) was effectively expressed and extracted. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated that this MEFA immunogen maintained a stable secondary structure and presented epitopes on the protein surface. Empirical data showed that mice immunized with the tagless CFA/I/II/IV MEFA developed strong antigen-specific antibody responses, and mouse serum antibodies significantly inhibited in vitro adherence of bacteria expressing these seven adhesins. These results revealed congruence of antigen immunogenicity between computational simulation and empirical mouse immunization and indicated this tag-less CFA/I/II/IV MEFA potentially an antigen for a broadly protective ETEC vaccine, suggesting a potential application of MEFA-based structural vaccinology for vaccine design against ETEC and likely other pathogens. PMID:28944092

  10. In vitro Paracoccidioides brasiliensis biofilm and gene expression of adhesins and hydrolytic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Sardi, Janaina de Cássia Orlandi; Pitangui, Nayla de Souza; Voltan, Aline Raquel; Braz, Jaqueline Derissi; Machado, Marcelo Pelajo; Fusco Almeida, Ana Marisa; Mendes Giannini, Maria Jose Soares

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioides species are dimorphic fungi that initially infect the lungs but can also spread throughout the body. The spreading infection is most likely due to the formation of a biofilm that makes it difficult for the host to eliminate the infection. Biofilm formation is crucial for the development of infections and confines the pathogen to an extracellular matrix. Its presence is associated with antimicrobial resistance and avoidance of host defenses. This current study provides the first description of biofilm formation by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb18) and an analysis of gene expression, using real-time PCR, associated with 3 adhesins and 2 hydrolytic enzymes that could be associated with the virulence profile. Biofilm formation was analyzed using fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Metabolic activity was determined using the XTT reduction assay. P. brasiliensis was able to form mature biofilm in 144 h with a thickness of 100 μm. The presence of a biofilm was found to be associated with an increase in the expression of adhesins and enzymes. GP43, enolase, GAPDH and aspartyl proteinase genes were over-expressed, whereas phospholipase was down-regulated in biofilm. The characterization of biofilm formed by P. brasiliensis may contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of paracoccidioidomycosis as well as the search for new therapeutic alternatives; while improving the effectiveness of treatment. PMID:26055497

  11. Surface contact stimulates the just-in-time deployment of bacterial adhesins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guanglai; Brown, Pamela J.B.; Tang, Jay X.; Xu, Jing; Quardokus, Ellen M.; Fuqua, Clay; Brun, Yves V.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The attachment of bacteria to surfaces provides advantages such as increasing nutrient access and resistance to environmental stress. Attachment begins with a reversible phase, often mediated by surface structures such as flagella and pili, followed by a transition to irreversible attachment, typically mediated by polysaccharides. Here we show that the interplay between pili and flagellum rotation stimulates the rapid transition between reversible and polysaccharide-mediated irreversible attachment. We found that reversible attachment of Caulobacter crescentus cells is mediated by motile cells bearing pili and that their contact with a surface results in the rapid pili-dependent arrest of flagellum rotation and concurrent stimulation of polar holdfast adhesive polysaccharide. Similar stimulation of polar adhesin production by surface contact occurs in Asticcacaulis biprosthecum and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Therefore, single bacterial cells respond to their initial contact with surfaces by triggering just-in-time adhesin production. This mechanism restricts stable attachment to intimate surface interactions, thereby maximizing surface attachment, discouraging non-productive self-adherence, and preventing curing of the adhesive. PMID:22053824

  12. Surface contact stimulates the just-in-time deployment of bacterial adhesins.

    PubMed

    Li, Guanglai; Brown, Pamela J B; Tang, Jay X; Xu, Jing; Quardokus, Ellen M; Fuqua, Clay; Brun, Yves V

    2012-01-01

    The attachment of bacteria to surfaces provides advantages such as increasing nutrient access and resistance to environmental stress. Attachment begins with a reversible phase, often mediated by surface structures such as flagella and pili, followed by a transition to irreversible attachment, typically mediated by polysaccharides. Here we show that the interplay between pili and flagellum rotation stimulates the rapid transition between reversible and polysaccharide-mediated irreversible attachment. We found that reversible attachment of Caulobacter crescentus cells is mediated by motile cells bearing pili and that their contact with a surface results in the rapid pili-dependent arrest of flagellum rotation and concurrent stimulation of polar holdfast adhesive polysaccharide. Similar stimulation of polar adhesin production by surface contact occurs in Asticcacaulis biprosthecum and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Therefore, single bacterial cells respond to their initial contact with surfaces by triggering just-in-time adhesin production. This mechanism restricts stable attachment to intimate surface interactions, thereby maximizing surface attachment, discouraging non-productive self-adherence, and preventing curing of the adhesive.

  13. BigA is a novel adhesin of Brucella that mediates adhesion to epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Czibener, Cecilia; Merwaiss, Fernando; Guaimas, Francisco; Del Giudice, Mariela Giselda; Serantes, Diego Armando Rey; Spera, Juan Manuel; Ugalde, Juan Esteban

    2016-04-01

    Adhesion to cells is the initial step in the infectious cycle of basically all pathogenic bacteria, and to do so, microorganisms have evolved surface molecules that target different cellular receptors. Brucella is an intracellular pathogen that infects a wide range of mammals whose virulence is completely dependent on the capacity to replicate in phagocytes. Although much has been done to elucidate how Brucella multiplies in macrophages, we still do not understand how bacteria invade epithelial cells to perform a replicative cycle or what adhesion molecules are involved in the process. We report the identification in Brucella abortus of a novel adhesin that harbours a bacterial immunoglobulin-like domain and demonstrate that this protein is involved in the adhesion to polarized epithelial cells such as the Caco-2 and Madin-Darby canine kidney models targeting the bacteria to the cell-cell interaction membrane. While deletion of the gene significantly reduced adhesion, over-expression dramatically increased it. Addition of the recombinant protein to cells induced cytoskeleton rearrangements and showed that this adhesin targets proteins of the cell-cell interaction membrane in confluent cultures. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Role of Staphylococcus aureus surface adhesins in orthopaedic device infections: are results model-dependent?

    PubMed

    Darouiche, R O; Landon, G C; Patti, J M; Nguyen, L L; Fernau, R C; McDevitt, D; Greene, C; Foster, T; Klima, M

    1997-01-01

    Bacterial colonisation of prosthetic material can lead to clinical infection or implant failure, or both, often requiring removal of the device. Adherence of Staphylococcus aureus to bioprosthetic materials is mediated by adhesins belonging to the MSCRAMM (microbial surface components recognising adhesive matrix molecules) family of microbial cell surface proteins. The objective of this study was to compare the virulence of a mutant strain of S. aureus Newman that possesses all three fibrinogen-, fibronectin- and collagen-binding MSCRAMMs (MSCRAMM-positive strain) with that of a mutant strain that lacks all three types of MSCRAMMs (MSCRAMM-negative strain) in a rabbit model of orthopaedic device-related infection. After a hole was drilled into the knee joint of each animal, a group of 10 rabbits was inoculated with the MSCRAMM-positive strain and another group of 10 rabbits received the MSCRAMM-negative strain. A stainless steel screw was then placed into the drilled hole. Two weeks later, the rabbits were killed and serum samples, bone tissue and implants were harvested for bacteriological and histopathological evaluation. No significant difference in infection rates was demonstrated between the two groups. The ability to delineate the role of S. aureus surface adhesins in causing orthopaedic device-related infection could be model-dependent.

  15. Human monocytes/macrophages are a target of Neisseria meningitidis Adhesin A (NadA).

    PubMed

    Franzoso, Susanna; Mazzon, Cristina; Sztukowska, Maryta; Cecchini, Paola; Kasic, Tihana; Capecchi, Barbara; Tavano, Regina; Papini, Emanuele

    2008-05-01

    Specific surface proteins of Neisseria meningitidis have been proposed to stimulate leukocytes during tissue invasion and septic shock. In this study, we demonstrate that the adhesin N. meningitidis Adhesin A (NadA) involved in the colonization of the respiratory epithelium by hypervirulent N. meningitidis B strains also binds to and activates human monocytes/macrophages. Expression of NadA on the surface on Escherichia coli does not increase bacterial-monocyte association, but a NadA-positive strain induced a significantly higher amount of TNF-alpha and IL-8 compared with the parental NadA-negative strain, suggesting that NadA has an intrinsic stimulatory action on these cells. Consistently, highly pure, soluble NadA(Delta351-405), a proposed component of an antimeningococcal vaccine, efficiently stimulates monocytes/macrophages to secrete a selected pattern of cytokines and chemotactic factors characterized by high levels of IL-8, IL-6, MCP-1, and MIP-1alpha and low levels of the main vasoactive mediators TNF-alpha and IL-1. NadA(Delta351-405) also inhibited monocyte apoptosis and determined its differentiation into a macrophage-like phenotype.

  16. Identification and Characterization of an Escorter for Two Secretory Adhesins in Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, Matthias; Viebig, Nicola; Brecht, Susan; Fourmaux, Marie-Noelle; Soete, Martine; Di Cristina, Manlio; Dubremetz, Jean François; Soldati, Dominique

    2001-01-01

    The intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii shares with other members of the Apicomplexa a common set of apical structures involved in host cell invasion. Micronemes are apical secretory organelles releasing their contents upon contact with host cells. We have identified a transmembrane micronemal protein MIC6, which functions as an escorter for the accurate targeting of two soluble proteins MIC1 and MIC4 to the micronemes. Disruption of MIC1, MIC4, and MIC6 genes allowed us to precisely dissect their contribution in sorting processes. We have mapped domains on these proteins that determine complex formation and targeting to the organelle. MIC6 carries a sorting signal(s) in its cytoplasmic tail whereas its association with MIC1 involves a lumenal EGF-like domain. MIC4 binds directly to MIC1 and behaves as a passive cargo molecule. In contrast, MIC1 is linked to a quality control system and is absolutely required for the complex to leave the early compartments of the secretory pathway. MIC1 and MIC4 bind to host cells, and the existence of such a complex provides a plausible mechanism explaining how soluble adhesins act. We hypothesize that during invasion, MIC6 along with adhesins establishes a bridge between the host cell and the parasite. PMID:11157983

  17. A study on the efficacy of the recombinant Yersinia adhesin A vaccine against yersiniosis in the early phase

    PubMed Central

    TSUGO, Kosuke; NAKAMURA, Shin-ichi; YAMANAKA, Hiroko; UNE, Yumi

    2017-01-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Y. ptb) is a zoonotic pathogenic bacterial species of the family Enterobacteriaceae and causes yersiniosis, an acute intestinal infection in humans and animals. Y. ptb is often implicated in lethal epidemics in zoo animals and reductions in the breeding population, but a valid prevention method has not been established. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a vaccine for yersiniosis control. The immunogenicity of one of the adhesion factors involved in pathogenic mechanisms of Y. ptb, Yersinia adhesin A (YadA), was investigated. BALB/c mice were divided into 3 groups: in group 1, mice received insoluble recombinant YadA (rYadA) produced in genetically engineered Escherichia coli (100 µg/dose); in group 2, mice received inactivated Y. ptb with strong expression of YadA (20 mg/dose);and in group 3, mice received phosphate-buffered saline (0.2 ml/dose). All interventions were administered subcutaneously twice at an interval of 1 week. One week after the second administration, Y. ptb (107 cells/mouse) was inoculated orally. As a result, the survival rate was 100% in group 1, 60% in group 2, and 0% in group 3. The anti-YadA antibody titer increased in a stepwise fashion in groups 1 and 2. The present study results suggest that rYadA shows promise as a protective antigen against yersiniosis. This study concluded that vaccination against Y. ptb may become available as a new method to prevent lethal epidemics in animals. PMID:28320976

  18. Flavobacterium johnsoniae GldK, GldL, GldM, and SprA Are Required for Secretion of the Cell Surface Gliding Motility Adhesins SprB and RemA

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Abhishek; Johnston, Joseph J.; van Baaren, Jessica M.

    2013-01-01

    Flavobacterium johnsoniae cells move rapidly over surfaces by gliding motility. Gliding results from the movement of adhesins such as SprB and RemA along the cell surface. These adhesins are delivered to the cell surface by a Bacteroidetes-specific secretion system referred to as the type IX secretion system (T9SS). GldN, SprE, SprF, and SprT are involved in secretion by this system. Here we demonstrate that GldK, GldL, GldM, and SprA are each also involved in secretion. Nonpolar deletions of gldK, gldL, or gldM resulted in the absence of gliding motility and in T9SS defects. The mutant cells produced SprB and RemA proteins but failed to secrete them to the cell surface. The mutants were resistant to phages that use SprB or RemA as a receptor, and they failed to attach to glass, presumably because of the absence of cell surface adhesins. Deletion of sprA resulted in similar but slightly less dramatic phenotypes. sprA mutant cells failed to secrete SprB and RemA, but cells remained susceptible to some phages and retained some limited ability to glide. The phenotype of the sprA mutant was similar to those previously described for sprE and sprT mutants. SprA, SprE, and SprT are needed for secretion of SprB and RemA but may not be needed for secretion of other proteins targeted to the T9SS. Genetic and molecular experiments demonstrate that gldK, gldL, gldM, and gldN form an operon and suggest that the proteins encoded by these genes may interact to form part of the F. johnsoniae T9SS. PMID:23667240

  19. The mRNA Decay Pathway Regulates the Expression of the Flo11 Adhesin and Biofilm Formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Tricia L.; Qu, Yue; Uwamahoro, Nathalie; Quenault, Tara; Beilharz, Traude H.; Traven, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of the FLO11 adhesin is a model for gene expression control by extracellular signals and developmental switches. We establish that the major mRNA decay pathway regulates FLO11 expression. mRNA deadenylation of transcriptional repressors of FLO11 by the exonuclease Ccr4 keeps their levels low, thereby allowing FLO11 transcription. PMID:22595243

  20. The knockdown of each component of the cysteine proteinase-adhesin complex of Entamoeba histolytica (EhCPADH) affects the expression of the other complex element as well as the in vitro and in vivo virulence.

    PubMed

    Ocádiz-Ruiz, Ramón; Fonseca, Wendy; Linford, Alicia S; Yoshino, Timothy P; Orozco, Esther; Rodríguez, Mario A

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite causative of human amoebiasis, disease responsible for 40 000-100 000 deaths annually. The cysteine proteinase-adhesin complex of this parasite (EhCPADH) is a heterodimeric protein formed by a cysteine protease (EhCP112) and an adhesin (EhADH) that plays an important role in the cytopathic mechanism of this parasite. The coding genes for EhCP112 and EhADH are adjacent in the E. histolytica genome, suggesting that their expression may be co-regulated, but this hypothesis has not yet been confirmed. Here, we performed the knockdown of EhCP112 and EhADH using gene-specific short-hairpin RNAs (shRNA), and the effect of these knockdowns on the expression of both complex components as well as on the in vitro and in vivo virulence was analysed. Results showed that the knockdown of one of the EhCPADH components produced a simultaneous downregulation of the other protein. Accordingly, a concomitant reduction in the overall expression of the complex was observed. The downregulation of each component also produced a significant decrease in the in vitro and in vivo virulence of trophozoites. These results demonstrated that the expression of EhCP112 and EhADH is co-regulated and confirmed that the EhCPADH complex plays an important role in E. histolytica virulence.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus adherence to Candida albicans hyphae is mediated by the hyphal adhesin Als3p

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Brian M.; Ovchinnikova, Ekaterina S.; Krom, Bastiaan P.; Schlecht, Lisa Marie; Zhou, Han; Hoyer, Lois L.; Busscher, Henk J.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    The bacterium Staphylococcus (St.) aureus and the opportunistic fungus Candida albicans are currently among the leading nosocomial pathogens, often co-infecting critically ill patients, with high morbidity and mortality. Previous investigations have demonstrated preferential adherence of St. aureus to C. albicans hyphae during mixed biofilm growth. In this study, we aimed to characterize the mechanism behind this observed interaction. C. albicans adhesin-deficient mutant strains were screened by microscopy to identify the specific receptor on C. albicans hyphae recognized by St. aureus. Furthermore, an immunoassay was developed to validate and quantify staphylococcal binding to fungal biofilms. The findings from these experiments implicated the C. albicans adhesin agglutinin-like sequence 3 (Als3p) in playing a major role in the adherence process. This association was quantitatively established using atomic force microscopy, in which the adhesion force between single cells of the two species was significantly reduced for a C. albicans mutant strain lacking als3. Confocal microscopy further confirmed these observations, as St. aureus overlaid with a purified recombinant Als3 N-terminal domain fragment (rAls3p) exhibited robust binding. Importantly, a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae heterologously expressing Als3p was utilized to further confirm this adhesin as a receptor for St. aureus. Although the parental strain does not bind bacteria, expression of Als3p on the cell surface conferred upon the yeast the ability to strongly bind St. aureus. To elucidate the implications of these in vitro findings in a clinically relevant setting, an ex vivo murine model of co-infection was designed using murine tongue explants. Fluorescent microscopic images revealed extensive hyphal penetration of the epithelium typical of C. albicans mucosal infection. Interestingly, St. aureus bacterial cells were only seen within the epithelial tissue when associated with the invasive

  2. Staphylococcus aureus adherence to Candida albicans hyphae is mediated by the hyphal adhesin Als3p.

    PubMed

    Peters, Brian M; Ovchinnikova, Ekaterina S; Krom, Bastiaan P; Schlecht, Lisa Marie; Zhou, Han; Hoyer, Lois L; Busscher, Henk J; van der Mei, Henny C; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2012-12-01

    The bacterium Staphylococcus (St.) aureus and the opportunistic fungus Candida albicans are currently among the leading nosocomial pathogens, often co-infecting critically ill patients, with high morbidity and mortality. Previous investigations have demonstrated preferential adherence of St. aureus to C. albicans hyphae during mixed biofilm growth. In this study, we aimed to characterize the mechanism behind this observed interaction. C. albicans adhesin-deficient mutant strains were screened by microscopy to identify the specific receptor on C. albicans hyphae recognized by St. aureus. Furthermore, an immunoassay was developed to validate and quantify staphylococcal binding to fungal biofilms. The findings from these experiments implicated the C. albicans adhesin agglutinin-like sequence 3 (Als3p) in playing a major role in the adherence process. This association was quantitatively established using atomic force microscopy, in which the adhesion force between single cells of the two species was significantly reduced for a C. albicans mutant strain lacking als3. Confocal microscopy further confirmed these observations, as St. aureus overlaid with a purified recombinant Als3 N-terminal domain fragment (rAls3p) exhibited robust binding. Importantly, a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae heterologously expressing Als3p was utilized to further confirm this adhesin as a receptor for St. aureus. Although the parental strain does not bind bacteria, expression of Als3p on the cell surface conferred upon the yeast the ability to strongly bind St. aureus. To elucidate the implications of these in vitro findings in a clinically relevant setting, an ex vivo murine model of co-infection was designed using murine tongue explants. Fluorescent microscopic images revealed extensive hyphal penetration of the epithelium typical of C. albicans mucosal infection. Interestingly, St. aureus bacterial cells were only seen within the epithelial tissue when associated with the invasive

  3. Detection specificity studies of bacteriophage adhesin-coated long-period grating-based biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koba, Marcin; Śmietana, Mateusz; Brzozowska, Ewa; Górska, Sabina; Mikulic, Predrag; Cusano, Andrea; Bock, Wojtek J.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we present a label-free detection specificity study of an optical fiber long-period grating (LPG) biosensor working near the dispersion turning point of higher order cladding modes. The LPG sensor functionalized with bacteriophage adhesin is tested with specific and non-specific bacteria dry weight. We show that such biosensor is able to selectively bind, thus recognize different bacteria. We use bacteria dry weights of E. coli B as positive test and E. coli K12 and Salmonella enterica as negative tests. The resonance wavelength shift induced by E. coli B reaches over 90 nm, while for E. coli K12 and Salmonella enterica approximately 40 and 20 nm, respectively.

  4. Expression and purification of the mannose recognition domain of the FimH adhesin.

    PubMed

    Schembri, M A; Hasman, H; Klemm, P

    2000-07-15

    Type 1 fimbriae have been shown to be specifically required for Escherichia coli colonisation and pathogenesis of the urinary tract. These structural organelles mediate specific adhesion to alpha-D-mannosides by virtue of the FimH adhesin. FimH is a two-domain protein in which the N-terminal domain contains the receptor-binding site and the C-terminal domain is required for organelle integration. To date, FimH has only been isolated as a complex with the system-specific chaperone FimC. Here we report that a functional form of the FimH receptor-binding domain can be readily isolated and characterised by replacing the C-terminal domain with a histidine tag.

  5. Anchorless cell surface proteins function as laminin-binding adhesins in Lactobacillus rhamnosus FSMM22.

    PubMed

    Aryantini, Ni Putu Desy; Kondoh, Daisuke; Nishiyama, Keita; Yamamoto, Yuji; Mukai, Takao; Sujaya, I Nengah; Urashima, Tadasu; Fukuda, Kenji

    2017-03-01

    Anchorless cell surface proteins (CSPs) were extracted with 1 M lithium chloride solution from Lactobacillus rhamnosus FSMM22. Loss of the anchorless CSPs resulted in a 2-fold decrease in FSMM22 cells bound to a constitutive extracellular matrix glycoprotein, laminin, in vitro. DNA-binding protein HU, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase and 30S ribosomal protein S19 (RpsS) were identified by mass spectrometry in the extract as laminin-binding adhesins. Among the four proteins, RpsS was immunohistochemically confirmed to exist on the cell surface. Our findings strongly suggest that anchorless CSPs can enhance bacterial adhesion to the host. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Ca2+-stabilized adhesin helps an Antarctic bacterium reach out and bind ice

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Tyler D. R.; Olijve, Luuk L. C.; Campbell, Robert L.; Voets, Ilja K.; Davies, Peter L.; Guo, Shuaiqi

    2014-01-01

    The large size of a 1.5-MDa ice-binding adhesin [MpAFP (Marinomonas primoryensis antifreeze protein)] from an Antarctic Gram-negative bacterium, M. primoryensis, is mainly due to its highly repetitive RII (Region II). MpAFP_RII contains roughly 120 tandem copies of an identical 104-residue repeat. We have previously determined that a single RII repeat folds as a Ca2+-dependent immunoglobulin-like domain. Here, we solved the crystal structure of RII tetra-tandemer (four tandem RII repeats) to a resolution of 1.8 Å. The RII tetra-tandemer reveals an extended (~190-Å × ~25-Å), rod-like structure with four RII-repeats aligned in series with each other. The inter-repeat regions of the RII tetra-tandemer are strengthened by Ca2+ bound to acidic residues. SAXS (small-angle X-ray scattering) profiles indicate the RII tetra-tandemer is significantly rigidified upon Ca2+ binding, and that the protein's solution structure is in excellent agreement with its crystal structure. We hypothesize that >600 Ca2+ help rigidify the chain of ~120 104-residue repeats to form a ~0.6 μm rod-like structure in order to project the ice-binding domain of MpAFP away from the bacterial cell surface. The proposed extender role of RII can help the strictly aerobic, motile bacterium bind ice in the upper reaches of the Antarctic lake where oxygen and nutrients are most abundant. Ca2+-induced rigidity of tandem Ig-like repeats in large adhesins might be a general mechanism used by bacteria to bind to their substrates and help colonize specific niches. PMID:24892750

  7. Re-Evaluation of a Bacterial Antifreeze Protein as an Adhesin with Ice-Binding Activity

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shuaiqi; Garnham, Christopher P.; Whitney, John C.; Graham, Laurie A.; Davies, Peter L.

    2012-01-01

    A novel role for antifreeze proteins (AFPs) may reside in an exceptionally large 1.5-MDa adhesin isolated from an Antarctic Gram-negative bacterium, Marinomonas primoryensis. MpAFP was purified from bacterial lysates by ice adsorption and gel electrophoresis. We have previously reported that two highly repetitive sequences, region II (RII) and region IV (RIV), divide MpAFP into five distinct regions, all of which require mM Ca2+ levels for correct folding. Also, the antifreeze activity is confined to the 322-residue RIV, which forms a Ca2+-bound beta-helix containing thirteen Repeats-In-Toxin (RTX)-like repeats. RII accounts for approximately 90% of the mass of MpAFP and is made up of ∼120 tandem 104-residue repeats. Because these repeats are identical in DNA sequence, their number was estimated here by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Structural homology analysis by the Protein Homology/analogY Recognition Engine (Phyre2) server indicates that the 104-residue RII repeat adopts an immunoglobulin beta-sandwich fold that is typical of many secreted adhesion proteins. Additional RTX-like repeats in RV may serve as a non-cleavable signal sequence for the type I secretion pathway. Immunodetection shows both repeated regions are uniformly distributed over the cell surface. We suggest that the development of an AFP-like domain within this adhesin attached to the bacterial outer surface serves to transiently bind the host bacteria to ice. This association would keep the bacteria within the upper reaches of the water column where oxygen and nutrients are potentially more abundant. This novel envirotactic role would give AFPs a third function, after freeze avoidance and freeze tolerance: that of transiently binding an organism to ice. PMID:23144980

  8. Ca2+-stabilized adhesin helps an Antarctic bacterium reach out and bind ice.

    PubMed

    Vance, Tyler D R; Olijve, Luuk L C; Campbell, Robert L; Voets, Ilja K; Davies, Peter L; Guo, Shuaiqi

    2014-07-04

    The large size of a 1.5-MDa ice-binding adhesin [MpAFP (Marinomonas primoryensis antifreeze protein)] from an Antarctic Gram-negative bacterium, M. primoryensis, is mainly due to its highly repetitive RII (Region II). MpAFP_RII contains roughly 120 tandem copies of an identical 104-residue repeat. We have previously determined that a single RII repeat folds as a Ca2+-dependent immunoglobulin-like domain. Here, we solved the crystal structure of RII tetra-tandemer (four tandem RII repeats) to a resolution of 1.8 Å. The RII tetra-tandemer reveals an extended (~190-Å × ~25-Å), rod-like structure with four RII-repeats aligned in series with each other. The inter-repeat regions of the RII tetra-tandemer are strengthened by Ca2+ bound to acidic residues. SAXS (small-angle X-ray scattering) profiles indicate the RII tetra-tandemer is significantly rigidified upon Ca2+ binding, and that the protein's solution structure is in excellent agreement with its crystal structure. We hypothesize that >600 Ca2+ help rigidify the chain of ~120 104-residue repeats to form a ~0.6 μm rod-like structure in order to project the ice-binding domain of MpAFP away from the bacterial cell surface. The proposed extender role of RII can help the strictly aerobic, motile bacterium bind ice in the upper reaches of the Antarctic lake where oxygen and nutrients are most abundant. Ca2+-induced rigidity of tandem Ig-like repeats in large adhesins might be a general mechanism used by bacteria to bind to their substrates and help colonize specific niches.

  9. New adhesin of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli related to the Afa/Dr/AAF family.

    PubMed

    Boisen, Nadia; Struve, Carsten; Scheutz, Flemming; Krogfelt, Karen A; Nataro, James P

    2008-07-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an important cause of diarrhea worldwide. We analyzed 17 Danish EAEC strains, isolated in the course of a case control study, for phenotypic and genotypic properties. The strains belonged to at least 14 different serotypes. Using PCR to investigate the prevalence of various putative virulence genes, we found that all but two strains were typical EAEC, as they harbored all or part of the previously described AggR regulon. The majority of the strains harbored genes encoding aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAF). The most common was AAF/I, found in nine strains; eight strains carried no known AAF-related genes. We utilized TnphoA mutagenesis to localize the aggregative adherence (AA) adhesin from one typical EAEC strain, C1010-00, which lacked a known AAF. We identified a TnphoA insertion in a hypothetical Dr-related pilin deposited in GenBank as HdaA. Four additional Danish strains harbored HdaA, and all but one displayed AA to HEp-2 cells. By using PCR primers derived from the pilins and ushers from the three AAF and Hda, we found that 16 of 17 strains exhibited evidence of one of these factors; importantly, the one negative strain also lacked the aggR gene. Cloning of the complete Hda gene cluster and expression in E. coli DH5alpha resulted in AA and complementation of the C1010-00 nonadherent mutant. Four related adhesins have now been found to confer AA in typical EAEC strains; our data suggest that, together, these variants may account for AA in the large majority of strains.

  10. Characterization of the Modular Design of the Autolysin/Adhesin Aaa from Staphylococcus Aureus

    PubMed Central

    Hirschhausen, Nina; Schlesier, Tim; Peters, Georg; Heilmann, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of serious and life-threatening infections, such as endocarditis, osteomyelitis, pneumonia, and sepsis. Its adherence to various host structures is crucial for the establishment of diseases. Adherence may be mediated by a variety of adhesins, among them the autolysin/adhesins Atl and Aaa. Aaa is composed of three N-terminal repeated sequences homologous to a lysin motif (LysM) that can confer cell wall attachment and a C-terminally located cysteine, histidine-dependent amidohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP) domain having bacteriolytic activity in many proteins. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we show by surface plasmon resonance that the LysM domain binds to fibrinogen, fibronectin, and vitronectin respresenting a novel adhesive function for this domain. Moreover, we demonstrated that the CHAP domain not only mediates the bacteriolytic activity, but also adherence to fibrinogen, fibronectin, and vitronectin, thus demonstrating for the first time an adhesive function for this domain. Adherence of an S. aureus aaa mutant and the complemented aaa mutant is slightly decreased and increased, respectively, to vitronectin, but not to fibrinogen and fibronectin, which might at least in part result from an increased expression of atl in the aaa mutant. Furthermore, an S. aureus atl mutant that showed enhanced adherence to fibrinogen, fibronectin, and endothelial cells also demonstrated increased aaa expression and production of Aaa. Thus, the redundant functions of Aaa and Atl might at least in part be interchangeable. Lastly, RT-PCR and zymographic analysis revealed that aaa is negatively regulated by the global virulence gene regulators agr and SarA. Conclusions/Significance We identified novel functions for two widely distributed protein domains, LysM and CHAP, i.e. the adherence to the extracellular matrix proteins fibrinogen, fibronectin, and vitronectin. The adhesive properties of Aaa might promote S. aureus

  11. Role of Yops and adhesins in resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica to phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Grosdent, Nadine; Maridonneau-Parini, Isabelle; Sory, Marie-Paule; Cornelis, Guy R

    2002-08-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a pathogen endowed with two adhesins, Inv and YadA, and with the Ysc type III secretion system, which allows extracellular adherent bacteria to inject Yop effectors into the cytosol of animal target cells. We tested the influence of all of these virulence determinants on opsonic and nonopsonic phagocytosis by PU5-1.8 and J774 mouse macrophages, as well as by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). The adhesins contributed to phagocytosis in the absence of opsonins but not in the presence of opsonins. In agreement with previous results, YadA counteracted opsonization. In every instance, the Ysc-Yop system conferred a significant level of resistance to phagocytosis. Nonopsonized single-mutant bacteria lacking either YopE, -H, -T, or -O were phagocytosed significantly more by J774 cells and by PMNs. Opsonized bacteria were phagocytosed more than nonopsonized bacteria, and mutant bacteria lacking either YopH, -T, or -O were phagocytosed significantly more by J774 cells and by PMNs than were wild-type (WT) bacteria. Opsonized mutants lacking only YopE were phagocytosed significantly more than were WT bacteria by PMNs but not by J774 cells. Thus, YopH, -T, and -O were involved in all of the phagocytic processes studied here but YopE did not play a clear role in guarding against opsonic phagocytosis by J774. Mutants lacking YopP and YopM were, in every instance, as resistant as WT bacteria. Overexpression of YopE, -H, -T, or -O alone did not confer resistance to phagocytosis, although it affected the cytoskeleton. These results show that YopH, YopT, YopO, and, in some instances, YopE act synergistically to increase the resistance of Y. enterocolitica to phagocytosis by macrophages and PMNs.

  12. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Plasmodium falciparum Adhesin Involved in Erythrocyte Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Hans, Nidhi; Singh, Shailja; Pandey, Alok K.; Reddy, K. Sony; Gaur, Deepak; Chauhan, Virander S.

    2013-01-01

    Malaria remains a major health problem worldwide. All clinical symptoms of malaria are attributed to the asexual blood stages of the parasite life cycle. Proteins resident in apical organelles and present on the surface of P. falciparum merozoites are considered promising candidates for the development of blood stage malaria vaccines. In the present study, we have identified and characterized a microneme associated antigen, PfMA [PlasmoDB Gene ID: PF3D7_0316000, PFC0700c]. The gene was selected by applying a set of screening criteria such as transcriptional upregulation at late schizogony, inter-species conservation and the presence of signal sequence or transmembrane domains. The gene sequence of PfMA was found to be conserved amongst various Plasmodium species. We experimentally demonstrated that the transcript for PfMA was expressed only in the late blood stages of parasite consistent with a putative role in erythrocyte invasion. PfMA was localized by immunofluorescence and immuno-electron microscopy to be in the micronemes, an apical organelle of merozoites. The functional role of the PfMA protein in erythrocyte invasion was identified as a parasite adhesin involved in direct attachment with the target erythrocyte. PfMA was demonstrated to bind erythrocytes in a sialic acid independent, chymotrypsin and trypsin resistant manner and its antibodies inhibited P. falciparum erythrocyte invasion. Invasion of erythrocytes is a complex multistep process that involves a number of redundant ligand-receptor interactions many of which still remain unknown and even uncharacterized. Our work has identified and characterized a novel P. falciparum adhesin involved in erythrocyte invasion. PMID:24058628

  13. Staphylococcus aureus of bovine origin: genetic diversity, prevalence and the expression of adhesin-encoding genes.

    PubMed

    Klein, Raphael Contelli; Fabres-Klein, Mary Hellen; Brito, Maria Aparecida V Paiva; Fietto, Luciano Gomes; Ribon, Andréa de Oliveira Barros

    2012-11-09

    Staphylococcus aureus is a well-armed pathogen that is a leading cause of bovine mastitis. Attempts to define a set of bacterial proteins that are crucial for infection have failed. The identification of these proteins is important to define biomarkers that can be used for diagnostic purposes and to identify potential vaccine targets. In this study, seven genes that encode virulence factors were analyzed in 85 bacterial isolates that were derived from animals with bovine mastitis. The clfB, spa, sdrCDE and fnBP genes were detected in 91.8%, 85.9%, 85.9% and 63.5% of the isolates, respectively. At least one gene was present in all of the strains, while the most prevalent combination was clfB and sdrCDE (82.4%). The genetic diversity of the isolates was high and allowed for clustering into more than 40 groups, with each group containing bacteria collected from different locations. The gene expression of the four most prevalent adhesins was examined in nine genetically distinct strains. No common pattern of expression was observed for the genes, suggesting that the capacity of S. aureus to cause infection may rely on differential expression of the virulence factors in different isolates. Our results conclude that using only one antigen is unlikely to provide effective protection against bovine mastitis and suggest that a combination of at least three adhesins may be more suitable for developing preventive therapies. We also conclude that the characterization of isolates distributed worldwide is necessary to improve our understanding of pathogenesis in the natural populations of S. aureus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Adhesins of Leptospira interrogans Mediate the Interaction to Fibrinogen and Inhibit Fibrin Clot Formation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Rosane; Domingos, Renan F.; Siqueira, Gabriela H.; Fernandes, Luis G.; Souza, Natalie M.; Vieira, Monica L.; de Morais, Zenaide M.; Vasconcellos, Silvio A.; Nascimento, Ana L. T. O.

    2013-01-01

    We report in this work that Leptospira strains, virulent L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni, attenuated L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni and saprophytic L. biflexa serovar Patoc are capable of binding fibrinogen (Fg). The interaction of leptospires with Fg inhibits thrombin- induced fibrin clot formation that may affect the haemostatic equilibrium. Additionally, we show that plasminogen (PLG)/plasmin (PLA) generation on the surface of Leptospira causes degradation of human Fg. The data suggest that PLA-coated leptospires were capable to employ their proteolytic activity to decrease one substrate of the coagulation cascade. We also present six leptospiral adhesins and PLG- interacting proteins, rLIC12238, Lsa33, Lsa30, OmpL1, rLIC11360 and rLIC11975, as novel Fg-binding proteins. The recombinant proteins interact with Fg in a dose-dependent and saturable fashion when increasing protein concentration was set to react to a fix human Fg concentration. The calculated dissociation equilibrium constants (KD) of these reactions ranged from 733.3±276.8 to 128±89.9 nM for rLIC12238 and Lsa33, respectively. The interaction of recombinant proteins with human Fg resulted in inhibition of fibrin clot by thrombin-catalyzed reaction, suggesting that these versatile proteins could mediate Fg interaction in Leptospira. Our data reveal for the first time the inhibition of fibrin clot by Leptospira spp. and presents adhesins that could mediate these interactions. Decreasing fibrin clot would cause an imbalance of the coagulation cascade that may facilitate bleeding and help bacteria dissemination PMID:24009788

  15. The Binding of Plasmodium falciparum Adhesins and Erythrocyte Invasion Proteins to Aldolase Is Enhanced by Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Suraya A.; Martin, Stephen R.; Howell, Steven A.; Grainger, Munira; Moon, Robert W.; Green, Judith L.

    2016-01-01

    Aldolase has been implicated as a protein coupling the actomyosin motor and cell surface adhesins involved in motility and host cell invasion in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. It binds to the cytoplasmic domain (CTD) of type 1 membrane proteins of the thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) family. Other type 1 membrane proteins located in the apical organelles of merozoites, the form of the parasite that invades red blood cells, including apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and members of the erythrocyte binding ligand (EBL) and reticulocyte binding homologue (RH) protein families have been implicated in host cell binding and invasion. Using a direct binding method we confirm that TRAP and merozoite TRAP (MTRAP) bind aldolase and show that the interaction is mediated by more than just the C-terminal six amino acid residues identified previously. Single amino acid substitutions in the MTRAP CTD abolished binding to aldolase. The CTDs of AMA1 and members of the EBL and RH protein families also bound to aldolase. MTRAP competed with AMA1 and RH4 for binding to aldolase, indicating overlapping binding sites. MTRAP CTD was phosphorylated in vitro by both calcium dependent kinase 1 (CDPK1) and protein kinase A, and this modification increased the affinity of binding to aldolase by ten-fold. Phosphorylation of the CTD of members of the EBL and RH protein families also increased their affinity for aldolase in some cases. To examine whether or not MTRAP expressed in asexual blood stage parasites is phosphorylated, it was tagged with GFP, purified and analysed, however no phosphorylation was detected. We propose that CTD binding to aldolase may be dynamically modulated by phosphorylation, and there may be competition for aldolase binding between different CTDs. The use and efficiency of alternate invasion pathways may be determined by the affinity of adhesins and cell invasion proteins for aldolase, in addition to their host ligand specificity. PMID

  16. Defining Potential Vaccine Targets of Haemophilus ducreyi Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesin DsrA.

    PubMed

    Fusco, William G; Choudhary, Neelima R; Stewart, Shelley M; Alam, S Munir; Sempowski, Gregory D; Elkins, Christopher; Leduc, Isabelle

    2015-04-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi is the causative agent of the sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease chancroid. Strains of H. ducreyi are grouped in two classes (I and II) based on genotypic and phenotypic differences, including those found in DsrA, an outer membrane protein belonging to the family of multifunctional trimeric autotransporter adhesins. DsrA is a key serum resistance factor of H. ducreyi that prevents binding of natural IgM at the bacterial surface and functions as an adhesin to fibronectin, fibrinogen, vitronectin, and human keratinocytes. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were developed to recombinant DsrA (DsrA(I)) from prototypical class I strain 35000HP to define targets for vaccine and/or therapeutics. Two anti-DsrAI MAbs bound monomers and multimers of DsrA from genital and non-genital/cutaneous H. ducreyi strains in a Western blot and reacted to the surface of the genital strains; however, these MAbs did not recognize denatured or native DsrA from class II strains. In a modified extracellular matrix protein binding assay using viable H. ducreyi, one of the MAbs partially inhibited binding of fibronectin, fibrinogen, and vitronectin to class I H. ducreyi strain 35000HP, suggesting a role for anti-DsrA antibodies in preventing binding of H. ducreyi to extracellular matrix proteins. Standard ELISA and surface plasmon resonance using a peptide library representing full-length, mature DsrAI revealed the smallest nominal epitope bound by one of the MAbs to be MEQNTHNINKLS. Taken together, our findings suggest that this epitope is a potential target for an H. ducreyi vaccine.

  17. The Binding of Plasmodium falciparum Adhesins and Erythrocyte Invasion Proteins to Aldolase Is Enhanced by Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Suraya A; Martin, Stephen R; Howell, Steven A; Grainger, Munira; Moon, Robert W; Green, Judith L; Holder, Anthony A

    2016-01-01

    Aldolase has been implicated as a protein coupling the actomyosin motor and cell surface adhesins involved in motility and host cell invasion in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. It binds to the cytoplasmic domain (CTD) of type 1 membrane proteins of the thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) family. Other type 1 membrane proteins located in the apical organelles of merozoites, the form of the parasite that invades red blood cells, including apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and members of the erythrocyte binding ligand (EBL) and reticulocyte binding homologue (RH) protein families have been implicated in host cell binding and invasion. Using a direct binding method we confirm that TRAP and merozoite TRAP (MTRAP) bind aldolase and show that the interaction is mediated by more than just the C-terminal six amino acid residues identified previously. Single amino acid substitutions in the MTRAP CTD abolished binding to aldolase. The CTDs of AMA1 and members of the EBL and RH protein families also bound to aldolase. MTRAP competed with AMA1 and RH4 for binding to aldolase, indicating overlapping binding sites. MTRAP CTD was phosphorylated in vitro by both calcium dependent kinase 1 (CDPK1) and protein kinase A, and this modification increased the affinity of binding to aldolase by ten-fold. Phosphorylation of the CTD of members of the EBL and RH protein families also increased their affinity for aldolase in some cases. To examine whether or not MTRAP expressed in asexual blood stage parasites is phosphorylated, it was tagged with GFP, purified and analysed, however no phosphorylation was detected. We propose that CTD binding to aldolase may be dynamically modulated by phosphorylation, and there may be competition for aldolase binding between different CTDs. The use and efficiency of alternate invasion pathways may be determined by the affinity of adhesins and cell invasion proteins for aldolase, in addition to their host ligand specificity.

  18. A Processed Multidomain Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Adhesin Binds Fibronectin, Plasminogen, and Swine Respiratory Cilia

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Lisa M.; Deutscher, Ania T.; Jenkins, Cheryl; Kuit, Tracey A.; Falconer, Linda; Minion, F. Chris; Crossett, Ben; Padula, Matthew; Dixon, Nicholas E.; Djordjevic, Steven P.; Walker, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Porcine enzootic pneumonia is a chronic respiratory disease that affects swine. The etiological agent of the disease, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, is a bacterium that adheres to cilia of the swine respiratory tract, resulting in loss of cilia and epithelial cell damage. A M. hyopneumoniae protein P116, encoded by mhp108, was investigated as a potential adhesin. Examination of P116 expression using proteomic analyses observed P116 as a full-length protein and also as fragments, ranging from 17 to 70 kDa in size. A variety of pathogenic bacterial species have been shown to bind the extracellular matrix component fibronectin as an adherence mechanism. M. hyopneumoniae cells were found to bind fibronectin in a dose-dependent and saturable manner. Surface plasmon resonance was used to show that a recombinant C-terminal domain of P116 bound fibronectin at physiologically relevant concentrations (KD 24 ± 6 nm). Plasmin(ogen)-binding proteins are also expressed by many bacterial pathogens, facilitating extracellular matrix degradation. M. hyopneumoniae cells were found to also bind plasminogen in a dose-dependent and saturable manner; the C-terminal domain of P116 binds to plasminogen (KD 44 ± 5 nm). Plasminogen binding was abolished when the C-terminal lysine of P116 was deleted, implicating this residue as part of the plasminogen binding site. P116 fragments adhere to the PK15 porcine kidney epithelial-like cell line and swine respiratory cilia. Collectively these data suggest that P116 is an important adhesin and virulence factor of M. hyopneumoniae. PMID:20813843

  19. A processed multidomain mycoplasma hyopneumoniae adhesin binds fibronectin, plasminogen, and swine respiratory cilia.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Lisa M; Deutscher, Ania T; Jenkins, Cheryl; Kuit, Tracey A; Falconer, Linda; Minion, F Chris; Crossett, Ben; Padula, Matthew; Dixon, Nicholas E; Djordjevic, Steven P; Walker, Mark J

    2010-10-29

    Porcine enzootic pneumonia is a chronic respiratory disease that affects swine. The etiological agent of the disease, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, is a bacterium that adheres to cilia of the swine respiratory tract, resulting in loss of cilia and epithelial cell damage. A M. hyopneumoniae protein P116, encoded by mhp108, was investigated as a potential adhesin. Examination of P116 expression using proteomic analyses observed P116 as a full-length protein and also as fragments, ranging from 17 to 70 kDa in size. A variety of pathogenic bacterial species have been shown to bind the extracellular matrix component fibronectin as an adherence mechanism. M. hyopneumoniae cells were found to bind fibronectin in a dose-dependent and saturable manner. Surface plasmon resonance was used to show that a recombinant C-terminal domain of P116 bound fibronectin at physiologically relevant concentrations (K(D) 24 ± 6 nm). Plasmin(ogen)-binding proteins are also expressed by many bacterial pathogens, facilitating extracellular matrix degradation. M. hyopneumoniae cells were found to also bind plasminogen in a dose-dependent and saturable manner; the C-terminal domain of P116 binds to plasminogen (K(D) 44 ± 5 nm). Plasminogen binding was abolished when the C-terminal lysine of P116 was deleted, implicating this residue as part of the plasminogen binding site. P116 fragments adhere to the PK15 porcine kidney epithelial-like cell line and swine respiratory cilia. Collectively these data suggest that P116 is an important adhesin and virulence factor of M. hyopneumoniae.

  20. Versatility of Biofilm Matrix Molecules in Staphylococcus epidermidis Clinical Isolates and Importance of Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin Expression during High Shear Stress.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Carolyn R; Hoang, Tra-My N; Sudbeck, Craig M; Alawi, Malik; Tolo, Isaiah E; Robinson, D Ashley; Horswill, Alexander R; Rohde, Holger; Fey, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a leading cause of hospital-associated infections, including those of intravascular catheters, cerebrospinal fluid shunts, and orthopedic implants. Multiple biofilm matrix molecules with heterogeneous characteristics have been identified, including proteinaceous, polysaccharide, and nucleic acid factors. Two of the best-studied components in S. epidermidis include accumulation-associated protein (Aap) and polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), produced by the enzymatic products of the icaADBC operon. Biofilm composition varies by strain as well as environmental conditions, and strains producing PIA-mediated biofilms are more robust. Clinically, biofilm-mediated infections occur in a variety of anatomical sites with diverse physiological properties. To test the hypothesis that matrix composition exhibits niche specificity, biofilm-related genetic and physical properties were compared between S. epidermidis strains isolated from high-shear and low-shear environments. Among a collection of 105 clinical strains, significantly more isolates from high-shear environments carried the icaADBC operon than did those from low-shear settings (43.9% versus 22.9%, P < 0.05), while there was no significant difference in the presence of aap (77.2% versus 75.0%, P > 0.05). Additionally, a significantly greater number of high-shear isolates were capable of forming biofilm in vitro in a microtiter assay (82.5% versus 45.8%, P < 0.0001). However, even among high-shear clinical isolates, less than half contained the icaADBC locus; therefore, we selected for ica-negative variants with increased attachment to abiotic surfaces to examine PIA-independent biofilm mechanisms. Sequencing of selected variants identified substitutions capable of enhancing biofilm formation in multiple genes, further highlighting the heterogeneity of S. epidermidis biofilm molecules and mechanisms. IMPORTANCEStaphylococcus epidermidis is a leading cause of infections related

  1. Versatility of Biofilm Matrix Molecules in Staphylococcus epidermidis Clinical Isolates and Importance of Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin Expression during High Shear Stress

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Carolyn R.; Hoang, Tra-My N.; Sudbeck, Craig M.; Alawi, Malik; Tolo, Isaiah E.; Robinson, D. Ashley; Horswill, Alexander R.; Rohde, Holger

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus epidermidis is a leading cause of hospital-associated infections, including those of intravascular catheters, cerebrospinal fluid shunts, and orthopedic implants. Multiple biofilm matrix molecules with heterogeneous characteristics have been identified, including proteinaceous, polysaccharide, and nucleic acid factors. Two of the best-studied components in S. epidermidis include accumulation-associated protein (Aap) and polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), produced by the enzymatic products of the icaADBC operon. Biofilm composition varies by strain as well as environmental conditions, and strains producing PIA-mediated biofilms are more robust. Clinically, biofilm-mediated infections occur in a variety of anatomical sites with diverse physiological properties. To test the hypothesis that matrix composition exhibits niche specificity, biofilm-related genetic and physical properties were compared between S. epidermidis strains isolated from high-shear and low-shear environments. Among a collection of 105 clinical strains, significantly more isolates from high-shear environments carried the icaADBC operon than did those from low-shear settings (43.9% versus 22.9%, P < 0.05), while there was no significant difference in the presence of aap (77.2% versus 75.0%, P > 0.05). Additionally, a significantly greater number of high-shear isolates were capable of forming biofilm in vitro in a microtiter assay (82.5% versus 45.8%, P < 0.0001). However, even among high-shear clinical isolates, less than half contained the icaADBC locus; therefore, we selected for ica-negative variants with increased attachment to abiotic surfaces to examine PIA-independent biofilm mechanisms. Sequencing of selected variants identified substitutions capable of enhancing biofilm formation in multiple genes, further highlighting the heterogeneity of S. epidermidis biofilm molecules and mechanisms. IMPORTANCE Staphylococcus epidermidis is a leading cause of

  2. The Afa/Dr adhesins of diffusely adhering Escherichia coli stimulate interleukin-8 secretion, activate mitogen-activated protein kinases, and promote polymorphonuclear transepithelial migration in T84 polarized epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bétis, Fréderic; Brest, Patrick; Hofman, Véronique; Guignot, Julie; Bernet-Camard, Marie-Françoise; Rossi, Bernard; Servin, Alain; Hofman, Paul

    2003-03-01

    Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (Afa/Dr DAEC) strains cause symptomatic urinary tract and intestinal infections. The proinflammatory effects of Afa/Dr DAEC strains in vitro have been not investigated to date. In the present study, we used confluent polarized monolayers of intestinal cell line T84 to evaluate the consequences of epithelial infection by Afa/Dr DAEC strains in terms of proinflammatory response. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) migration across the epithelial barrier was induced after incubation of the T84 monolayers with the wild-type Afa/Dr DAEC strain C1845 harboring the fimbrial F1845 adhesin and strain IH11128 harboring the Dr hemagglutinin, and the E. coli laboratory strain HB101 was transformed with the pSSS1 plasmid, producing Afa/Dr F1845 adhesin. PMNL migrations were correlated with a basolateral secretion of interleukin-8 by T84 cells and were abolished after incubation of epithelial cells with an anti-decay accelerating factor (DAF) antibody that recognized the short consensus repeat 3 domain of DAF (monoclonal antibody 1H4). Moreover, Afa/Dr DAEC strains induced tyrosine phosphorylation of several T84 proteins and activated the mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein, P38, and Jun-C kinases). These data demonstrated for the first time that, in vitro, Afa/Dr DAEC strains exert a proinflammatory signal in intestinal epithelial cells.

  3. Efficiency of Direct Microscopy of Stool Samples Using an Antigen-Specific Adhesin Test for Entamoeba Histolytica

    PubMed Central

    İrvem, Arzu; Özdil, Kamil; Çalışkan, Zuhal; Yücel, Muhterem

    2016-01-01

    Background: E. histolytica is among the common causes of acute gastroenteritis. The pathogenic species E. histolytica and the nonpathogenic species E. dispar cannot be morphologically differentiated, although correct identification of these protozoans is important for treatment and public health. In many laboratories, the screening of leukocytes, erythrocytes, amoebic cysts, trophozoites and parasite eggs is performed using Native-Lugol’s iodine for pre-diagnosis. Aims: In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of E. histolytica in stool samples collected from 788 patients residing in the Anatolian region of İstanbul who presented with gastrointestinal complaints. We used the information obtained to evaluate the effectiveness of microscopic examinations when used in combination with the E. histolytica adhesin antigen test. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study Methods: Preparations of stool samples stained with Native-Lugol’s iodine were evaluated using the E. histolytica adhesin test and examined using standard light microscopy at ×40 magnification. Pearson’s Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used for statistical analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used for multivariate analysis. Results: Of 788 samples, 38 (4.8%) were positive for E. histolytica adhesin antigens. When evaluated together with the presences of erythrocytes, leukocytes, cysts, and trophozoites, respectively, using logistic regression analysis, leukocyte positivity was significantly higher. The odds ratio of leukocyte positivity increased adhesin test-positivity by 2,530-fold (95% CI=1.01–6.330). Adhesin test-positivity was significant (p=0.047). Conclusion: In line with these findings, the consistency between the presence of cysts and erythrocytes and adhesin test-positivity was found to be highly significant, but that of higher levels of leukocytes was found to be discordant. It was concluded that leukocytes and trophozoites were easily misjudged

  4. Signature-Tagged Mutagenesis in a Chicken Infection Model Leads to the Identification of a Novel Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Fimbrial Adhesin

    PubMed Central

    Antão, Esther-Maria; Ewers, Christa; Gürlebeck, Doreen; Preisinger, Rudolf; Homeier, Timo; Li, Ganwu; Wieler, Lothar H.

    2009-01-01

    The extraintestinal pathogen, avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC), known to cause systemic infections in chickens, is responsible for large economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. In order to identify genes involved in the early essential stages of pathogenesis, namely adhesion and colonization, Signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) was applied to a previously established lung colonization model of infection by generating and screening a total of 1,800 mutants of an APEC strain IMT5155 (O2:K1:H5; Sequence type complex 95). The study led to the identification of new genes of interest, including two adhesins, one of which coded for a novel APEC fimbrial adhesin (Yqi) not described for its role in APEC pathogenesis to date. Its gene product has been temporarily designated ExPEC Adhesin I (EA/I) until the adhesin-specific receptor is identified. Deletion of the ExPEC adhesin I gene resulted in reduced colonization ability by APEC strain IMT5155 both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, complementation of the adhesin gene restored its ability to colonize epithelial cells in vitro. The ExPEC adhesin I protein was successfully expressed in vitro. Electron microscopy of an afimbriate strain E. coli AAEC189 over-expressed with the putative EA/I gene cluster revealed short fimbrial-like appendages protruding out of the bacterial outer membrane. We observed that this adhesin coding gene yqi is prevalent among extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) isolates, including APEC (54.4%), uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) (65.9%) and newborn meningitic E. coli (NMEC) (60.0%), and absent in all of the 153 intestinal pathogenic E. coli strains tested, thereby validating the designation of the adhesin as ExPEC Adhesin I. In addition, prevalence of EA/I was most frequently associated with the B2 group of the EcoR classification and ST95 complex of the multi locus sequence typing (MLST) scheme, with evidence of a positive selection within this highly pathogenic complex. This is the first

  5. Competitive inhibition of adherence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Clostridium difficile to intestinal epithelial cell line Lovo by purified adhesin of Bifidobacterium adolescentis 1027

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Shi-Shun; Zhang, Zhen-Shu; Wang, Ji-De; Lai, Zhuo-Sheng; Wang, Qun-Ying; Pan, Ling-Jia; Ren, Yue-Xin

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To observe competitive inhibition of adherence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) to intestinal epithelial cell line Lovo by purified adhesin of Bifidobacterium adolescentis 1027 (B. ado 1027). METHODS: The binding of bacteria to intestinal epithelial cell line Lovo was counted by adhesion assay. The inhibition of adherence of ETEC, EPEC and C. difficile to intestinal epithelial cell line Lovo by purified adhesin of B. ado 1027 was evaluated quantitatively by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The purified adhesin at the concentration of 10 µg/mL, 20 µg/mL and 30 µg/mL except at 1 µg/mL and 5 µg/mL could inhibit significantly the adhesion of ETEC, EPEC and C. difficile to intestinal epithelial cell line Lovo. Moreover, we observed that a reduction in bacterial adhesion was occurred with increase in the concentration of adhesin, and MFI (Mean fluorescent intensity) was decreased with increase in the concentration of adhesin. CONCLUSION: The purified adhesin of B. ado 1027 can inhibit the adhesion of ETEC, EPEC and C. difficile to intestinal epithelial cell line Lovo in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:15162538

  6. Regulation of Expression of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Nonfimbrial Adhesin TosA by PapB Homolog TosR in Conjunction with H-NS and Lrp

    PubMed Central

    Engstrom, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a major burden to human health. The overwhelming majority of UTIs are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains. Unlike some pathogens, UPEC strains do not have a fixed core set of virulence and fitness factors but do have a variety of adhesins and regulatory pathways. One such UPEC adhesin is the nonfimbrial adhesin TosA, which mediates adherence to the epithelium of the upper urinary tract. The tos operon is AT rich, resides on pathogenicity island aspV, and is not expressed under laboratory conditions. Because of this, we hypothesized that tosA expression is silenced by H-NS. Lrp, based on its prominent function in the regulation of other adhesins, is also hypothesized to contribute to tos operon regulation. Using a variety of in vitro techniques, we mapped both the tos operon promoter and TosR binding sites. We have now identified TosR as a dual regulator of the tos operon, which could control the tos operon in association with H-NS and Lrp. H-NS is a negative regulator of the tos operon, and Lrp positively regulates the tos operon. Exogenous leucine also inhibits Lrp-mediated tos operon positive regulation. In addition, TosR binds to the pap operon, which encodes another important UPEC adhesin, P fimbria. Induction of TosR synthesis reduces production of P fimbria. These studies advance our knowledge of regulation of adhesin expression associated with uropathogen colonization of a host. PMID:26755158

  7. Rifampicin enhances activity of daptomycin and vancomycin against both a polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA)-dependent and -independent Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm.

    PubMed

    Olson, Michael E; Slater, Shawn R; Rupp, Mark E; Fey, Paul D

    2010-10-01

    This study addressed the efficacy of daptomycin, vancomycin, rifampicin, daptomycin/rifampicin and vancomycin/rifampicin against a polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA)-dependent and -independent Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm using flow cell and guinea pig tissue cage models. The flow cell model of both PIA-dependent and -independent biofilms demonstrated that the viable cell count after treatment with daptomycin/rifampicin was significantly lower (P<0.05) than after treatment with vancomycin, vancomycin/rifampicin, daptomycin or rifampicin alone. To validate these observations, a guinea pig tissue cage model was used. The results demonstrated that the addition of rifampicin to daptomycin or vancomycin sterilized 5/6 tissues cages colonized with S. epidermidis 1457 (PIA producing). Similar results were noted with S. epidermidis 1457 icaADBC::dhfr (non-PIA producing), where daptomycin/rifampicin and vancomycin/rifampicin sterilized 5/6 and 6/6 tissue cages, respectively. There was no statistical difference in comparison with the no-treatment control when both 1457 and 1457 icaADBC::dhfr were treated with vancomycin and daptomycin alone. Furthermore, treatment with rifampicin alone sterilized 5/6 and 3/6 1457 and 1457 icaADBC::dhfr tissue cages, respectively. Interpretation of these data suggests that rifampicin is highly active against S. epidermidis biofilms and both vancomycin and daptomycin are effective at reducing the subpopulation of bacteria that develop rifampicin resistance.

  8. Autocatalytic association of proteins by covalent bond formation: a Bio Molecular Welding toolbox derived from a bacterial adhesin

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, J.; Cartannaz, J.; Tourcier, G.; Contreras-Martel, C.; Kleman, J. P.; Morlot, C.; Vernet, T.; Di Guilmi, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Unusual intramolecular cross-links present in adhesins from Gram-positive bacteria have been used to develop a generic process amenable to biotechnology applications. Based on the crystal structure of RrgA, the Streptococcus pneumoniae pilus adhesin, we provide evidence that two engineered protein fragments retain their ability to associate covalently with high specificity, in vivo and in vitro, once isolated from the parent protein. We determined the optimal conditions for the assembly of the complex and we solved its crystal structure at 2 Å. Furthermore, we demonstrate biotechnological applications related to antibody production, nanoassembly and cell-surface labeling based on this process we named Bio Molecular Welding. PMID:28252635

  9. The dynamics and pH-dependence of Ag43 adhesins' self-association probed by atomic force spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquot, Adrien; Sakamoto, Chizuko; Razafitianamarahavo, Angelina; Caillet, Céline; Merlin, Jenny; Fahs, Ahmad; Ghigo, Jean-Marc; Duval, Jérôme F. L.; Beloin, Christophe; Francius, Grégory

    2014-10-01

    Self-associating auto-transporter (SAAT) adhesins are two-domain cell surface proteins involved in bacteria auto-aggregation and biofilm formation. Antigen 43 (Ag43) is a SAAT adhesin commonly found in Escherichia coli whose variant Ag43a has been shown to promote persistence of uropathogenic E. coli within the bladder. The recent resolution of the tri-dimensional structure of the 499 amino-acids' β-domain in Ag43a has shed light on the possible mechanism governing the self-recognition of SAAT adhesins, in particular the importance of trans-interactions between the L shaped β-helical scaffold of two α-domains of neighboring adhesins. In this study, we use single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) and dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) to unravel the dynamics of Ag43-self association under various pH and molecular elongation rate conditions that mimic the situations encountered by E. coli in its natural environment. Results evidenced an important stretchability of Ag43α with unfolding of sub-domains leading to molecular extension as long as 150 nm. Nanomechanical analysis of molecular stretching data suggested that self-association of Ag43 can lead to the formation of dimers and tetramers driven by rapid and weak cis- as well as slow but strong trans-interaction forces with a magnitude as large as 100-250 pN. The dynamics of cis- and trans-interactions were demonstrated to be strongly influenced by pH and applied shear force, thus suggesting that environmental conditions can modulate Ag43-mediated aggregation of bacteria at the molecular level.Self-associating auto-transporter (SAAT) adhesins are two-domain cell surface proteins involved in bacteria auto-aggregation and biofilm formation. Antigen 43 (Ag43) is a SAAT adhesin commonly found in Escherichia coli whose variant Ag43a has been shown to promote persistence of uropathogenic E. coli within the bladder. The recent resolution of the tri-dimensional structure of the 499 amino-acids' β-domain in Ag43a has shed

  10. Association of IS1016 with the hia Adhesin Gene and Biotypes V and I in Invasive Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae▿

    PubMed Central

    Satola, Sarah W.; Napier, Brooke; Farley, Monica M.

    2008-01-01

    A subset of invasive nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) strains has evidence of IS1016, an insertion element associated with division I H. influenzae capsule serotypes. We examined IS1016-positive invasive NTHI isolates collected as part of Active Bacterial Core Surveillance within the Georgia Emerging Infections Program for the presence or absence of hmw1 and hmw2 (two related adhesin genes that are common in NTHI but absent in encapsulated H. influenzae) and hia (homologue of hsf, an encapsulated H. influenzae adhesin gene). Isolates were serotyped using slide agglutination, confirmed as NTHI strains using PCR capsule typing, and biotyped. Two hundred twenty-nine invasive NTHI isolates collected between August 1998 and December 2006 were screened for IS1016; 22/229 (9.6%) were positive. Nineteen of 201 previously identified IS1016-positive invasive NTHI isolates collected between January 1989 and July 1998 were also examined. Forty-one IS1016-positive and 56 randomly selected IS1016-negative invasive NTHI strains were examined. The hia adhesin was present in 39 of 41 (95%) IS1016-positive NTHI strains and 1 of 56 (1.8%) IS1016-negative NTHI strains tested; hmw (hmw1, hmw2, or both) was present in 50 of 56 (89%) IS1016-negative NTHI isolates but in only 5 of 41 (12%; all hmw2) IS1016-positive NTHI isolates. IS1016-positive NTHI strains were more often biotype V (P < 0.001) or biotype I (P = 0.04) than IS1016-negative NTHI strains, which were most often biotype II. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed the expected genetic diversity of NTHI with some clustering based on IS1016, hmw or hia, and biotypes. A significant association of IS1016 with biotypes V and I and the presence of hia adhesins was found among invasive NTHI. IS1016-positive NTHI strains may represent a unique subset of NTHI strains, with characteristics more closely resembling those of encapsulated H. influenzae. PMID:18794287

  11. Lactobacillus reuteri Surface Mucus Adhesins Upregulate Inflammatory Responses Through Interactions With Innate C-Type Lectin Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bene, Krisztián P.; Kavanaugh, Devon W.; Leclaire, Charlotte; Gunning, Allan P.; MacKenzie, Donald A.; Wittmann, Alexandra; Young, Ian D.; Kawasaki, Norihito; Rajnavolgyi, Eva; Juge, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    The vertebrate gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri exhibits strain-specific adhesion and health-promoting properties. Here, we investigated the role of the mucus adhesins, CmbA and MUB, upon interaction of L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 strains with human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs). We showed that mucus adhesins increased the capacity of L. reuteri strains to interact with moDCs and promoted phagocytosis. Our data also indicated that mucus adhesins mediate anti- and pro-inflammatory effects by the induction of interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 cytokines. L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 were exclusively able to induce moDC-mediated Th1 and Th17 immune responses. We further showed that purified MUB activates moDCs and induces Th1 polarized immune responses associated with increased IFNγ production. MUB appeared to mediate these effects via binding to C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), as shown using cell reporter assays. Blocking moDCs with antibodies against DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) or Dectin-2 did not affect the uptake of the MUB-expressing strain, but reduced the production of TNF-α and IL-6 by moDCs significantly, in line with the Th1 polarizing capacity of moDCs. The direct interaction between MUB and CLRs was further confirmed by atomic force spectroscopy. Taken together these data suggest that mucus adhesins expressed at the cell surface of L. reuteri strains may exert immunoregulatory effects in the gut through modulating the Th1-promoting capacity of DCs upon interaction with C-type lectins. PMID:28326063

  12. Association of IS1016 with the hia adhesin gene and biotypes V and I in invasive nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Satola, Sarah W; Napier, Brooke; Farley, Monica M

    2008-11-01

    A subset of invasive nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) strains has evidence of IS1016, an insertion element associated with division I H. influenzae capsule serotypes. We examined IS1016-positive invasive NTHI isolates collected as part of Active Bacterial Core Surveillance within the Georgia Emerging Infections Program for the presence or absence of hmw1 and hmw2 (two related adhesin genes that are common in NTHI but absent in encapsulated H. influenzae) and hia (homologue of hsf, an encapsulated H. influenzae adhesin gene). Isolates were serotyped using slide agglutination, confirmed as NTHI strains using PCR capsule typing, and biotyped. Two hundred twenty-nine invasive NTHI isolates collected between August 1998 and December 2006 were screened for IS1016; 22/229 (9.6%) were positive. Nineteen of 201 previously identified IS1016-positive invasive NTHI isolates collected between January 1989 and July 1998 were also examined. Forty-one IS1016-positive and 56 randomly selected IS1016-negative invasive NTHI strains were examined. The hia adhesin was present in 39 of 41 (95%) IS1016-positive NTHI strains and 1 of 56 (1.8%) IS1016-negative NTHI strains tested; hmw (hmw1, hmw2, or both) was present in 50 of 56 (89%) IS1016-negative NTHI isolates but in only 5 of 41 (12%; all hmw2) IS1016-positive NTHI isolates. IS1016-positive NTHI strains were more often biotype V (P < 0.001) or biotype I (P = 0.04) than IS1016-negative NTHI strains, which were most often biotype II. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed the expected genetic diversity of NTHI with some clustering based on IS1016, hmw or hia, and biotypes. A significant association of IS1016 with biotypes V and I and the presence of hia adhesins was found among invasive NTHI. IS1016-positive NTHI strains may represent a unique subset of NTHI strains, with characteristics more closely resembling those of encapsulated H. influenzae.

  13. The F18 fimbrial adhesin FedF is highly conserved among F18+Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Tiels, P; Verdonck, F; Smet, A; Goddeeris, B; Cox, E

    2005-10-31

    F18+Escherichia coli cause postweaning diarrhoea and oedema disease in newly weaned piglets. Protection against these diseases can be established by preventing the fimbrial adhesion of these bacteria to the enterocytes of the porcine intestine. To test a vaccine against F18+E. coli consisting of the adhesin of F18 fimbriae, FedF, the conservation of the FedF subunit had to be examined. Therefore, the fedF sequence of 37 F18+E. coli isolates from different countries was determined and compared to the fedF gene of the F18ab reference strain F107/86. The amino acid sequence of the mature FedF from the individual F18+E. coli isolates was 96-100% identical to that from E. coli F107/86, but the overall homology was 90.4%. Hyper variable regions were not found in the FedF sequence. The FedF sequence was conserved over the different countries and between the two antigenic variants, F18ab and F18ac, suggesting that F18ab and F18ac strains have the same receptor. Furthermore, the conserved C-terminal region in the FedF adhesin suggests that the F18 fimbriae, in analogy with type 1 and P pili, are assembled by a donor strand mechanism. In conclusion, the reported conservation of FedF supports the usefulness of the fimbrial adhesin as a subunit vaccine against F18+E. coli infection.

  14. Fap2 of Fusobacterium nucleatum is a galactose-inhibitable adhesin involved in coaggregation, cell adhesion, and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Coppenhagen-Glazer, S; Sol, A; Abed, J; Naor, R; Zhang, X; Han, Y W; Bachrach, G

    2015-03-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum is a common oral anaerobe involved in periodontitis that is known to translocate and cause intrauterine infections. In the oral environment, F. nucleatum adheres to a large diversity of species, facilitating their colonization and creating biological bridges that stabilize the multispecies dental biofilm. Many of these interactions (called coadherences or coaggregations) are galactose sensitive. Galactose-sensitive interactions are also involved in the binding of F. nucleatum to host cells. Hemagglutination of some F. nucleatum strains is also galactose sensitive, suggesting that a single galactose-sensitive adhesin might mediate the interaction of fusobacteria with many partners and targets. In order to identify the fusobacterial galactose-sensitive adhesin, a system for transposon mutagenesis in fusobacteria was created. The mutant library was screened for hemagglutination deficiency, and three clones were isolated. All three clones were found to harbor the transposon in the gene coding for the Fap2 outer membrane autotransporter. The three fap2 mutants failed to show galactose-inhibitable coaggregation with Porphyromonas gingivalis and were defective in cell binding. A fap2 mutant also showed a 2-log reduction in murine placental colonization compared to that of the wild type. Our results suggest that Fap2 is a galactose-sensitive hemagglutinin and adhesin that is likely to play a role in the virulence of fusobacteria.

  15. Label-free Gram-negative bacteria detection using bacteriophage-adhesin-coated long-period gratings

    PubMed Central

    Brzozowska, Ewa; Koba, Marcin; Śmietana, Mateusz; Górska, Sabina; Janik, Monika; Gamian, Andrzej; Bock, Wojtek J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel application of a highly sensitive sensor based on long-period gratings (LPGs) coated with T4 bacteriophage adhesin for Gram-negative bacteria detection. We show here, that the sensor evidently recognizes Escherichia coli K-12 (PCM2560), whereas in the reference tests – ELISA and BIAcore – the results are questionable. For LPGs sensor the resonant wavelength shift observed for E. coli K-12 was approximately half of that measured for E.coli B (positive control). The BIAcore readings (RU) for E. coli K-12 were at 10% level of the signal obtained for E .coli B. These results confirm the improved sensitivity of the LPGs sensor. Moreover, we also show that application of adhesin may allow for efficient detection of E. coli O111 (PCM418), Klebsiella pneumoniae O1 (PCM1) and Yersinia enterocolitica O1 (PCM1879). The specificity of binding bacteria by the adhesin is discussed and it is determined by a distinct region of lipopolysaccharide receptors and/or by the presence of outer-membrane protein C in an outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:27231592

  16. A Conserved Glycine Residue of Trimeric Autotransporter Domains Plays a Key Role in Yersinia Adhesin A Autotransport▿

    PubMed Central

    Grosskinsky, Ulrike; Schütz, Monika; Fritz, Michaela; Schmid, Yvonne; Lamparter, Marina C.; Szczesny, Pawel; Lupas, Andrei N.; Autenrieth, Ingo B.; Linke, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    The Yersinia adhesin A (YadA) is a trimeric autotransporter adhesin of enteric yersiniae. It consists of three major domains: a head mediating adherence to host cells, a stalk involved in serum resistance, and an anchor that forms a membrane pore and is responsible for the autotransport function. The anchor contains a glycine residue, nearly invariant throughout trimeric autotransporter adhesins, that faces the pore lumen. To address the role of this glycine, we replaced it with polar amino acids of increasing side chain size and expressed wild-type and mutant YadA in Escherichia coli. The mutations did not impair the YadA-mediated adhesion to collagen and to host cells or the host cell cytokine production, but they decreased the expression levels and stability of YadA trimers with increasing side chain size. Likewise, autoagglutination and resistance to serum were decreased in these mutants. We found that the periplasmic protease DegP is involved in the degradation of YadA and that in an E. coli degP deletion strain, mutant versions of YadA were expressed almost to wild-type levels. We conclude that the conserved glycine residue affects both the export and the stability of YadA and consequently some of its putative functions in pathogenesis. PMID:17921300

  17. Characterization of porcine intestinal receptors for the K88ac fimbrial adhesin of Escherichia coli as mucin-type sialoglycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, A K; Baker, D R; Bosworth, B T; Casey, T A; Benfield, D A; Francis, D H

    1994-01-01

    We have previously identified two K88ac adhesion receptors (210 and 240 kDa) which are present in membrane preparations from adhesive but not nonadhesive porcine intestinal brush border cells; these adhesin receptors are postulated to be important determinants of the susceptibility of pigs to K88ac+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections (A.K. Erickson, J.A. Willgohs, S.Y. McFarland, D.A. Benfield, and D.F. Francis, Infect. Immun. 60:983-988, 1992). We now describe a procedure for the purification of these two receptors. Receptors were solubilized from adhesive intestinal brush border vesicles using deoxycholate and were purified by gel filtration chromatography on Sepharose CL-4B and then by hydroxyapatite chromatography. Amino acid compositional analyses indicated that the two receptors have similar amino acid compositions. The most distinguishing characteristic of both receptors is a high percentage of threonine and proline residues. Neuraminidase treatment caused the K88ac adhesin receptors to migrate with a slower mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels, indicating that these receptors are sialoglycoproteins. Results from lectin-binding studies indicated that the receptors contain O-linked oligosaccharides composed of galactosyl (beta-1,3)N-acetylgalactosamine, alpha-linked fucose, galactosyl(beta-1,4)N-acetylglucosamine, sialic acid, galactose, and N-acetylgalactosamine. Collectively, these characteristics indicate that the K88ac adhesin receptors are mucin-type sialoglycoproteins. Images PMID:7960120

  18. Relationship between virulence factor genes in bovine Staphylococcus aureus subclinical mastitis isolates and binding to anti-adhesin antibodies.

    PubMed

    Scarpa, Melania; Piccinini, Renata; Brun, Paola; Grillo, Alessia; Palù, Giorgio; Mengoli, Carlo; Daprà, Valentina; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Zecconi, Alfonso

    2010-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common aetiologic agent of contagious bovine mastitis. It is characterized by a wide array of virulence factors. The differences among strains jeopardize the development of effective vaccines against Staph. aureus mastitis. We tested the immunogenicity of a peptide subunit vaccine coding for three different adhesion factors, fibrinogen-binding protein (Efb), fibronectin-binding protein A (FnbpA) and clumping factor A (ClfA). Then we evaluated the influence of some virulence factors on the ability of specific anti-adhesin antibodies to react with sixteen Staph. aureus strains isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis. Immunization with the recombinant adhesins stimulated a strong humoural (IgG and IgA) and mucosal IgA immune response in all animals tested. Hyperimmune serum recognized with diverse efficiency the sixteen Staph. aureus strains and this circumstance correlated well with the level of expression of adhesins. Among the different virulence factors considered to classify strains, spa gene polymorphisms showed the strongest influence on isolate reactions to hyperimmune serum. Our results indicate the importance of a disease- and environment-specific analysis of isolates. Thus, as opposed to other pathogens to obtain an effective vaccine we should characterize multiple strains and identify the prevalent virulence factors expressed.

  19. The Haemophilus ducreyi trimeric autotransporter adhesin DsrA protects against an experimental infection in the swine model of chancroid.

    PubMed

    Fusco, William G; Choudhary, Neelima R; Routh, Patty A; Ventevogel, Melissa S; Smith, Valerie A; Koch, Gary G; Almond, Glen W; Orndorff, Paul E; Sempowski, Gregory D; Leduc, Isabelle

    2014-06-24

    Adherence of pathogens to cellular targets is required to initiate most infections. Defining strategies that interfere with adhesion is therefore important for the development of preventative measures against infectious diseases. As an adhesin to host extracellular matrix proteins and human keratinocytes, the trimeric autotransporter adhesin DsrA, a proven virulence factor of the Gram-negative bacterium Haemophilus ducreyi, is a potential target for vaccine development. A recombinant form of the N-terminal passenger domain of DsrA from H. ducreyi class I strain 35000HP, termed rNT-DsrAI, was tested as a vaccine immunogen in the experimental swine model of H. ducreyi infection. Viable homologous H. ducreyi was not recovered from any animal receiving four doses of rNT-DsrAI administered with Freund's adjuvant at two-week intervals. Control pigs receiving adjuvant only were all infected. All animals receiving the rNT-DsrAI vaccine developed antibody endpoint titers between 3.5 and 5 logs. All rNT-DsrAI antisera bound the surface of the two H. ducreyi strains used to challenge immunized pigs. Purified anti-rNT-DsrAI IgG partially blocked binding of fibrinogen at the surface of viable H. ducreyi. Overall, immunization with the passenger domain of the trimeric autotransporter adhesin DsrA accelerated clearance of H. ducreyi in experimental lesions, possibly by interfering with fibrinogen binding.

  20. UpaG, a New Member of the Trimeric Autotransporter Family of Adhesins in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Jaione; Mabbett, Amanda N.; Ulett, Glen C.; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Wecker, Karine; Totsika, Makrina; Schembri, Mark A.; Ghigo, Jean-Marc; Beloin, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    The ability of Escherichia coli to colonize both intestinal and extraintestinal sites is driven by the presence of specific virulence factors, among which are the autotransporter (AT) proteins. Members of the trimeric AT adhesin family are important virulence factors for several gram-negative pathogens and mediate adherence to eukaryotic cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. In this study, we characterized a new trimeric AT adhesin (UpaG) from uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). Molecular analysis of UpaG revealed that it is translocated to the cell surface and adopts a multimeric conformation. We demonstrated that UpaG is able to promote cell aggregation and biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces in CFT073 and various UPEC strains. In addition, UpaG expression resulted in the adhesion of CFT073 to human bladder epithelial cells, with specific affinity to fibronectin and laminin. Prevalence analysis revealed that upaG is strongly associated with E. coli strains from the B2 and D phylogenetic groups, while deletion of upaG had no significant effect on the ability of CFT073 to colonize the mouse urinary tract. Thus, UpaG is a novel trimeric AT adhesin from E. coli that mediates aggregation, biofilm formation, and adhesion to various ECM proteins. PMID:18424525

  1. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria bound to the porcine intestinal mucosa and an analysis of their moonlighting adhesins

    PubMed Central

    KINOSHITA, Hideki; OHUCHI, Satoko; ARAKAWA, Kensuke; WATANABE, Masamichi; KITAZAWA, Haruki; SAITO, Tadao

    2016-01-01

    The adhesion of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to the intestinal mucosa is one of the criteria in selecting for probiotics. Eighteen LAB were isolated from porcine intestinal mucin (PIM): ten strains of Lactobacillus, six strains of Weissella, and two strains of Streptococcus. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) for phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) extracts from the LAB, many bands were detected in half of the samples, while a few and/or no clear bands were detected in the other half. All six of the selected LAB showed adhesion to PIM. L. johnsonii MYU 214 and MYU 221 showed adhesion at more than 10%. W. viridescens MYU 208, L. reuteri MYU 213, L. mucosae MYU 225, and L. agilis MYU 227 showed medium levels of adhesion at 5.9–8.3%. In a comprehensive analysis for the adhesins in the PBS extracts using a receptor overlay analysis, many moonlighting proteins were detected and identified as candidates for adhesins: GroEL, enolase, and elongation factor Tu in MYU 208; peptidase C1, enolase, formyl-CoA transferase, phosphoglyceromutase, triosephosphate isomerase, and phosphofructokinase in MYU 221; and DnaK, enolase, and phosphoglycerate kinase in MYU 227. These proteins in the PBS extracts, which included such things as molecular chaperones and glycolytic enzymes, may play important roles as adhesins. PMID:27867805

  2. X-ray crystal structures of Staphylococcus aureus collagen adhesin and sortases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Yinong

    For many gram-positive bacteria, adhesion to host tissues is the first critical step in developing an infection. The adhesion is mediated by a superfamily of bacterial surface proteins, called MSCRAMM (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules), which in most cases are covalently attached to the cell wall peptidoglycan. Collagen adhesin (CNA) from Staphylococcus aureus, one of the MSCRAMMs, is responsible for bacterial binding to collagen molecules. CNA and other MSCRAMMs are anchored to the cell wall by a transpeptidase, sortase. The knowledge about how bacterial surface proteins adhere to host molecules and how they are sorted onto the cell wall is crucial for the design of novel antibiotics against bacterial infections. The crystal structures of CNA31--344 (residue 31 to 334), a truncation of CNA's collagen binding region, and CNA31--344 in complex with a collagen peptide were determined. CNA31--344 contains two domains, and between them is a big hole formed by a loop connecting the two domains. In the structure of CNA31--344-collagen complex, the collagen peptide is locked in the hole formed by the two domains of CNA 31--344. We reason that the two domains of CNA31--344 are open in the physiological condition, and close up when binding to collagen. This binding mechanism may be common for other bacterial collagen adhesins. There are two known sortases in Staphylococcus aureus. Sortase A is responsible for anchoring most MSCRAMMs that have a LPXTG (X represents any amino acid) sorting motif and sortase B for a bacterial ion acquisition protein. The crystal structures of both sortases indicate that they share a common catalytic mechanism. Unlike typical cysteine transpeptidases, sortases may use a novel Cys-Arg catalytic dyad instead of a Cys-His pair. All other sortases found in gram-positive bacteria may have similar active site architecture and employ the same catalytic dyad because the critical residues are all conserved among them

  3. Identification of the mucin-binding adhesin of Pseudomonas cepacia isolated from patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Sajjan, S U; Forstner, J F

    1992-01-01

    In previous experiments, we have shown that isolates of Pseudomonas cepacia from sputa of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), particularly those with severe lung infection, exhibited specific binding to purified respiratory or intestinal mucins (U. Sajjan, M. Corey, M. Karmali, and J. Forstner, J. Clin. Invest. 89:648-656, 1992). The present report describes the identification of the adhesin as a protein located on fimbriae of mucin-binding P. cepacia. From a total of 53 isolates available (from 22 patients with CF), we used three mucin-binding and three non-mucin-binding isolates for our experiments. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of crude P. cepacia homogenates was performed, the separated proteins were blotted onto nitrocellulose and overlaid with purified mucin, and mucin-binding components were detected with an antimucin antibody and then a second-antibody-alkaline phosphatase conjugate system. Only mucin-binding isolates exhibited a positively stained band at an Mr of 22,000. The 22-kDa protein was purified, and a polyclonal antibody specific for it was developed in rabbits. By electron microscopy and immunogold labelling, both the antibody and mucin (separately) were localized to pili present over the entire surface of the bacterial cells. Non-mucin-binding isolates did not have (or had very few) pili and did not stain with either mucin or the antibody to the 22-kDa protein. The purified 22-kDa protein and its antibody were each able to inhibit piliated P. cepacia binding to mucin. The amino acid composition of the 22-kDa protein was dissimilar to those of the major pilin proteins of Escherichia coli (type 1 pilus) and P. aeruginosa (PAK and PAO1 strains). Both the pili of P. aeruginosa PAK and PAO1 and antibodies to these pili failed to inhibit P. cepacia binding to mucin. Thus, P. cepacia adhesion to mucin is mediated by a pilin-associated 22-kDa protein which differs from epithelial-cell-binding pilin proteins of P. aeruginosa

  4. Evidence for the Sialylation of PilA, the PI-2a Pilus-Associated Adhesin of Streptococcus agalactiae Strain NEM316

    PubMed Central

    Morello, Eric; Mallet, Adeline; Konto-Ghiorghi, Yoan; Chaze, Thibault; Mistou, Michel-Yves; Oliva, Giulia; Oliveira, Liliana; Di Guilmi, Anne-Marie; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Dramsi, Shaynoor

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (or Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a commensal bacterium present in the intestinal and urinary tracts of approximately 30% of humans. We and others previously showed that the PI-2a pilus polymers, made of the backbone pilin PilB, the tip adhesin PilA and the cell wall anchor protein PilC, promote adhesion to host epithelia and biofilm formation. Affinity-purified PI-2a pili from GBS strain NEM316 were recognized by N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuNAc, also known as sialic acid) specific lectins such as Elderberry Bark Lectin (EBL) suggesting that pili are sialylated. Glycan profiling with twenty different lectins combined with monosaccharide composition by HPLC suggested that affinity-purified PI-2a pili are modified by N-glycosylation and decorated with sialic acid attached to terminal galactose. Analysis of various relevant mutants in the PI-2a pilus operon by flow-cytometry and electron microscopy analyses pointed to PilA as the pilus subunit modified by glycosylation. Double labeling using PilB antibody and EBL lectin, which specifically recognizes N-acetylneuraminic acid attached to galactose in α-2, 6, revealed a characteristic binding of EBL at the tip of the pilus structures, highly reminiscent of PilA localization. Expression of a secreted form of PilA using an inducible promoter showed that this recombinant PilA binds specifically to EBL lectin when produced in the native GBS context. In silico search for potentially glycosylated asparagine residues in PilA sequence pointed to N427 and N597, which appear conserved and exposed in the close homolog RrgA from S. pneumoniae, as likely candidates. Conversion of these two asparagyl residues to glutamyl resulted in a higher instability of PilA. Our results provide the first evidence that the tip PilA adhesin can be glycosylated, and suggest that this modification is critical for PilA stability and may potentially influence interactions with the host. PMID:26407005

  5. Prevalence of adhesin and toxin genes in E. coli strains isolated from diarrheic and non-diarrheic pigs from smallholder herds in northern and eastern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ikwap, Kokas; Larsson, Jenny; Jacobson, Magdalena; Owiny, David Okello; Nasinyama, George William; Nabukenya, Immaculate; Mattsson, Sigbrit; Aspan, Anna; Erume, Joseph

    2016-08-05

    Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) significantly contribute to diarrhea in piglets and weaners. The smallholder pig producers in Uganda identified diarrhea as one of the major problems especially in piglets. The aim of this study was to; i) characterize the virulence factors of E. coli strains isolated from diarrheic and non-diarrheic suckling piglets and weaners from smallholder herds in northern and eastern Uganda and ii) identify and describe the post-mortem picture of ETEC infection in severely diarrheic piglets. Rectal swab samples were collected from 83 piglets and weaners in 20 herds and isolated E. coli were characterized by PCR, serotyping and hemolysis. The E. coli strains carried genes for the heat stable toxins STa, STb and EAST1 and adhesins F4 and AIDA-I. The genes for the heat labile toxin LT and adhesins F5, F6, F18 and F41 were not detected in any of the E. coli isolates. Where the serogroup could be identified, E. coli isolates from the same diarrheic pig belonged to the same serogroup. The prevalence of EAST1, STb, Stx2e, STa, AIDA-I, and F4 in the E. coli isolates from suckling piglets and weaners (diarrheic and non-diarrheic combined) was 29, 26.5, 2.4, 1.2, 16, and 8.4 %, respectively. However the prevalence of F4 and AIDA-I in E. coli from diarrheic suckling piglets alone was 22.2 and 20 %, respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of the individual virulence factors in E. coli from the diarrheic and non-diarrheic pigs (p > 0.05). The main ETEC strains isolated from diarrheic and non-diarrheic pigs included F4/STb/EAST1 (7.2 %), F4/STb (1.2 %), AIDA/STb/EAST1 (8 %) and AIDA/STb (8 %). At post-mortem, two diarrheic suckling piglets carrying ETEC showed intact intestinal villi, enterocytes and brush border but with a layer of cells attached to the brush border, suggestive of ETEC infections. This study has shown that the F4 fimbriae is the most predominant in E. coli from diarrheic piglets in the study area and

  6. Structure, function and contribution of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) to Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation and pathogenesis of biomaterial-associated infections.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Holger; Frankenberger, Stephanie; Zähringer, Ulrich; Mack, Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is of major importance in infections associated with indwelling medical devices. The tight pathogenic association is essentially linked to the species ability to form adherent biofilms on artificial surfaces. Aiming at identifying novel targets for vaccination or therapy much effort has been made to unravel the molecular mechanisms leading to S. epidermidis biofilm formation. At present, polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) is the best studied factor involved in S. epidermidis biofilm accumulation. PIA is a glycan of beta-1,6-linked 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranosyl residues of which 15 % are non-N-acetylated. PIA-producing S. epidermidis are widespread in clinical strain collections and PIA synthesis has been shown to be essential for S. epidermidis virulence. Moreover, PIA homologues have been identified in many other staphylococcal species, including the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, and also Gram-negative human pathogens, suggesting that it might represent a more general pathogenicity principle in biofilm-related infections. In this review the current knowledge about the structure and biosynthesis of PIA is summarized. Additionally, information on its role in pathogenesis of biomaterial-related and other type of infections and the potential use of PIA and related compounds for prevention of infection is discussed. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Trichomonas vaginalis: the adhesins AP51 and AP65 bind heme and hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Ardalan, Shahed; Lee, B Craig; Garber, Gary E

    2009-04-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the cause of human trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Although acquisition of iron by binding to host hemoglobin through distinct receptor(s) has been described, no specific heme- or hemoglobin-binding site has been reported in this parasite. To determine the presence of hemoglobin-binding protein(s), membrane proteins were subjected to hemoglobin-affinity chromatography. Eluted proteins were analysed by SDS-PAGE. Two protein bands of 48 and 63 kDa were detected. Competition assay with an excess amount of hemoglobin or hemin in hemoglobin-affinity chromatography could block the 63- and 48-kDa bands, respectively. Further analysis by mass spectrometry indicated that the 48- and 63-kDa proteins had identity with two T. vaginalis adhesins: AP51 and AP65, respectively. This study confirms the existence of multifunctional proteins in T. vaginalis, and suggested that AP51 and AP65, besides serving as adhesion molecules, could also act as heme- and hemoglobin-binding proteins.

  8. Apa is a trimeric autotransporter adhesin of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae responsible for autoagglutination and host cell adherence.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Longwen; Zhou, Liang; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Du, ChongTao; Gao, Yu; Ji, Qun; Yang, Shuxin; Wang, Yu; Han, Wenyu; Langford, P R; Lei, Liancheng

    2012-10-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, and adherence to host cells is a key step in the pathogenic process. Although trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) were identified in many pathogenic bacteria in recent years, none in A. pleuropneumoniae have been characterized. In this study, we identified a TAA from A. pleuropneumoniae, Apa, and characterized the contribution of its amino acid residues to the adhesion process. Sequence analysis of the C-terminal amino acid residues of Apa revealed the presence of a putative translocator domain and six conserved HsfBD1-like or HsfBD2-like binding domains. Western blot analysis revealed that the 126 C-terminal amino acids of Apa could form trimeric molecules. By confocal laser scanning microscopy, one of these six domains (ApaBD3) was determined to mediate adherence to epithelial cells. Adherence assays and adherence inhibition assays using a recombinant E. coli- ApaBD3 strain which expressed ApaBD3 on the surface of E. coli confirmed that this domain was responsible for the adhesion activity. Moreover, cellular enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays demonstrated that ApaBD3 mediated high-level adherence to epithelial cell lines. Intriguingly, autoagglutination was observed with the E. coli- ApaBD3 strain, and this phenomenon was dependent upon the association of the expressed ApaBD3 with the C-terminal translocator domain. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The Streptococcus pneumoniae adhesin PsrP binds to Keratin 10 on lung cells

    PubMed Central

    Shivshankar, Pooja; Sanchez, Carlos; Rose, Lloyd F.; Orihuela, Carlos J.

    2009-01-01

    Pneumococcal serine-rich repeat protein (PsrP) is a pathogenicity island encoded adhesin that mediates attachment to lung cells. It is a member of the Serine-rich repeat protein (SRRP) family and the largest bacterial protein known. PsrP production by S. pneumoniae was confirmed by immunoblotting and a truncated version of the protein was determined to be glycosylated. Using isogenic psrP mutants complemented with various PsrP constructs and competitive inhibition assays with recombinant proteins, we determined that PsrP requires an extended SRR2 domain for function and that adhesion is mediated through amino acids 273-341 of its Basic Region (BR) domain. Affinity chromatography, immunoprecipitation, ELISA, FACS, and immunofluorescent co-localization studies determined that PsrP binds to Keratin 10 (K10) on the surface of lung but not nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. Unglycosylated K10 bound to wild type but not psrP deficient pneumococci; suggesting that unlike other SRRPs, PsrP-mediated adhesion was independent of lectin activity. Finally, mice immunized with recombinant (r)PsrPBR had significantly less bacteria in their blood and improved survival versus controls following intranasal challenge. We conclude that the BR domain of PsrP binds to K10 in a lectin-independent manner; that K10 is expressed on lung cells; and that vaccination with rPsrPBR is protective against pneumococcal disease. PMID:19627498

  10. Cooperative role for tetraspanins in adhesin-mediated attachment of bacterial species to human epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Green, Luke R; Monk, Peter N; Partridge, Lynda J; Morris, Paul; Gorringe, Andrew R; Read, Robert C

    2011-06-01

    The tetraspanins are a superfamily of transmembrane proteins with diverse functions and can form extended microdomains within the plasma membrane in conjunction with partner proteins, which probably includes receptors for bacterial adhesins. Neisseria meningitidis, the causative agent of meningococcal disease, attaches to host nasopharyngeal epithelial cells via type IV pili and opacity (Opa) proteins. We examined the role of tetraspanin function in Neisseria meningitidis adherence to epithelial cells. Tetraspanins CD9, CD63, and CD151 were expressed by HEC-1-B and DETROIT 562 cells. Coincubation of cells with antibodies against all three tetraspanin molecules used individually or in combination, with recombinant tetraspanin extracellular domains (EC2), or with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) significantly reduced adherence of Neisseria meningitidis. In contrast, recombinant CD81, a different tetraspanin, had no effect on meningococcal adherence. Antitetraspanin antibodies reduced the adherence to epithelial cells of Neisseria meningitidis strain derivatives expressing Opa and pili significantly more than isogenic strains lacking these determinants. Adherence to epithelial cells of strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Neisseria lactamica, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus pneumoniae was also reduced by pretreatment of cells with tetraspanin antibodies and recombinant proteins. These data suggest that tetraspanins are required for optimal function of epithelial adhesion platforms containing specific receptors for Neisseria meningitidis and potentially for multiple species of bacteria.

  11. sae is essential for expression of the staphylococcal adhesins Eap and Emp.

    PubMed

    Harraghy, Niamh; Kormanec, Jan; Wolz, Christiane; Homerova, Dagmar; Goerke, Christiane; Ohlsen, Knut; Qazi, Saara; Hill, Philip; Herrmann, Mathias

    2005-06-01

    Eap and Emp are two Staphylococcus aureus adhesins initially described as extracellular matrix binding proteins. Eap has since emerged as being important in adherence to and invasion of eukaryotic cells, as well as being described as an immunomodulator and virulence factor in chronic infections. This paper describes the mapping of the transcription start point of the eap and emp promoters. Moreover, using reporter-gene assays and real-time PCR in defined regulatory mutants, environmental conditions and global regulators affecting expression of eap and emp were investigated. Marked differences were found in expression of eap and emp between strain Newman and the 8325 derivatives SH1000 and 8325-4. Moreover, both genes were repressed in the presence of glucose. Analysis of expression of both genes in various regulatory mutants revealed that sarA and agr were involved in their regulation, but the data suggested that there were additional regulators of both genes. In a sae mutant, expression of both genes was severely repressed. sae expression was also reduced in the presence of glucose, suggesting that repression of eap and emp in glucose-containing medium may, in part, be a consequence of a decrease in expression of sae.

  12. Antibody Response to Fibronectin-Binding Adhesin FnbpA in Patients with Staphylococcus aureus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Casolini, Fabrizia; Visai, Livia; Joh, Danny; Conaldi, Pier Giulio; Toniolo, Antonio; Höök, Magnus; Speziale, Pietro

    1998-01-01

    We have analyzed antibody reactivity to a fibronectin-binding microbial surface component that recognizes adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMM) in blood plasma collected from patients with staphylococcal infections. All patients had elevated levels of anti-MSCRAMM antibodies compared to those of young children who, presumably, had not been exposed to staphylococcal infections. The anti-MSCRAMM antibodies preferentially reacted with the ligand-binding repeat domain of the adhesin. However, these antibodies did not inhibit fibronectin binding. Essentially, all patients had antibodies which specifically recognized the fibronectin-MSCRAMM complex but not the isolated components. Epitopes recognized by these anti-ligand-induced binding sites antibodies were found in each repeat unit of the MSCRAMM. These results demonstrate that staphylococci have bound fibronectin some time during infection and that each repeat unit in the MSCRAMM can engage in ligand binding. Furthermore, our previously proposed model, suggesting that an unordered structure in the MSCRAMM undergoes a conformational change upon ligand binding (K. House-Pompeo, Y. Xu, D. Joh, P. Speziale, and M. Höök, J. Biol. Chem. 271:1379–1384, 1996), is presumably operational in patients during infections. PMID:9784554

  13. Catch-bond mechanism of the bacterial adhesin FimH.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Maximilian M; Jakob, Roman P; Eras, Jonathan; Baday, Sefer; Eriş, Deniz; Navarra, Giulio; Bernèche, Simon; Ernst, Beat; Maier, Timm; Glockshuber, Rudi

    2016-03-07

    Ligand-receptor interactions that are reinforced by mechanical stress, so-called catch-bonds, play a major role in cell-cell adhesion. They critically contribute to widespread urinary tract infections by pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. These pathogens attach to host epithelia via the adhesin FimH, a two-domain protein at the tip of type I pili recognizing terminal mannoses on epithelial glycoproteins. Here we establish peptide-complemented FimH as a model system for fimbrial FimH function. We reveal a three-state mechanism of FimH catch-bond formation based on crystal structures of all states, kinetic analysis of ligand interaction and molecular dynamics simulations. In the absence of tensile force, the FimH pilin domain allosterically accelerates spontaneous ligand dissociation from the FimH lectin domain by 100,000-fold, resulting in weak affinity. Separation of the FimH domains under stress abolishes allosteric interplay and increases the affinity of the lectin domain. Cell tracking demonstrates that rapid ligand dissociation from FimH supports motility of piliated E. coli on mannosylated surfaces in the absence of shear force.

  14. Single-Molecule Imaging and Functional Analysis of Als Adhesins and Mannans during Candida albicans Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Beaussart, Audrey; Alsteens, David; El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Lipke, Peter N.; Kucharíková, Sona; Van Dijck, Patrick; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2012-01-01

    Cellular morphogenesis in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans is associated with changes in cell wall composition that play important roles in biofilm formation and immune responses. Yet, how fungal morphogenesis modulates the biophysical properties and interactions of the cell surface molecules is poorly understood, mainly owing to the paucity of high-resolution imaging techniques. Here, we use single-molecule atomic force microscopy to localize and analyze the key components of the surface of living C. albicans cells during morphogenesis. We show that the yeast-to-hypha transition leads to a major increase in the distribution, adhesion, unfolding and extension of Als adhesins and their associated mannans on the cell surface. We also find that morphogenesis dramatically increases cell surface hydrophobicity. These molecular changes are critical for microbe-host interactions, including adhesion, colonization, and biofilm formation. The single-molecule experiments presented here offer promising prospects for understanding how microbial pathogens use cell surface molecules to modulate biofilm and immune interactions. PMID:23145462

  15. Staphylococcus epidermidis Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin Production Significantly Increases during Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Stress

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Cuong; Kidder, Joshua B.; Jacobson, Erik R.; Otto, Michael; Proctor, Richard A.; Somerville, Greg A.

    2005-01-01

    Staphylococcal polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) is important for the development of a mature biofilm. PIA production is increased during growth in a nutrient-replete or iron-limited medium and under conditions of low oxygen availability. Additionally, stress-inducing stimuli such as heat, ethanol, and high concentrations of salt increase the production of PIA. These same environmental conditions are known to repress tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity, leading us to hypothesize that altering TCA cycle activity would affect PIA production. Culturing Staphylococcus epidermidis with a low concentration of the TCA cycle inhibitor fluorocitrate dramatically increased PIA production without impairing glucose catabolism, the growth rate, or the growth yields. These data lead us to speculate that one mechanism by which staphylococci perceive external environmental change is through alterations in TCA cycle activity leading to changes in the intracellular levels of biosynthetic intermediates, ATP, or the redox status of the cell. These changes in the metabolic status of the bacteria result in the attenuation or augmentation of PIA production. PMID:15838022

  16. The Translocation Domain in Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins Is Necessary and Sufficient for Trimerization and Autotransportation

    PubMed Central

    Mikula, Kornelia M.; Leo, Jack C.; Łyskowski, Andrzej; Kedracka-Krok, Sylwia; Pirog, Artur

    2012-01-01

    Trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) comprise one of the secretion pathways of the type V secretion system. The mechanism of their translocation across the outer membrane remains unclear, but it most probably occurs by the formation of a hairpin inside the β-barrel translocation unit, leading to transportation of the passenger domain from the C terminus to the N terminus through the lumen of the β-barrel. We further investigated the phenomenon of autotransportation and the rules that govern it. We showed by coexpressing different Escherichia coli immunoglobulin-binding (Eib) proteins that highly similar TAAs could form stochastically mixed structures (heterotrimers). We further investigated this phenomenon by coexpressing two more distantly related TAAs, EibA and YadA. These, however, did not form heterotrimers; indeed, coexpression was lethal to the cells, leading to elimination of one or another of the genes. However, substituting in either protein the barrel of the other one so that the barrels were identical led to formation of heterotrimers as for Eibs. Our work shows that trimerization of the β-barrel, but not the passenger domain, is necessary and sufficient for TAA secretion while the passenger domain is not. PMID:22155776

  17. Restriction fragment length polymorphism in the adhesin gene hpaA of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Evans, D G; Evans, D J; Lampert, H C; Graham, D Y

    1995-08-01

    To assess the degree of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in the Helicobacter pylori adhesin gene hpaA and to determine the molecular basis of RFLP in this gene. A 375-bp, polymerase chain reaction-amplified internal sequence of hpaA, obtained from 50 different H. pylori isolates, was restricted with Sau3A and HinfI, individually. Polymerase chain reaction products representing different RFLP types were sequenced. Seven different polymorphic types were found in hpaA. Base substitutions at only four positions, two in Sau3A and two in HinfI sites, account for all of the RFLP types, including the size of the restriction fragments determined by gel electrophoresis. Most, 90%, of the base substitutions are very conservative, i.e., either do not change the encoded amino acid or substitute a homologous amino acid, and cause no detectable antigenic or functional effect on hpaA. The region of hpaA encoding the receptor-binding motif was particularly well conserved. RFLP typing of hpaA using Sau3A and HinfI provides an additional tool for comparing the genetic relatedness of H. pylori isolates collected during epidemiological and/or treatment studies.

  18. Streptococcal Adhesin P (SadP) contributes to Streptococcus suis adhesion to the human intestinal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, Maria Laura; Willemse, Niels; Zaccaria, Edoardo; Pannekoek, Yvonne; van der Ende, Arie; Schultsz, Constance

    2017-01-01

    Background Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen, causing meningitis and septicemia. We previously demonstrated that the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is an entry site for zoonotic S. suis infection. Here we studied the contribution of Streptococcal adhesin Protein (SadP) to host-pathogen interaction at GIT level. Methods SadP expression in presence of Intestinal Epithelial Cells (IEC) was compared with expression of other virulence factors by measuring transcript levels using quantitative Real Time PCR (qRT-PCR). SadP variants were identified by phylogenetic analysis of complete DNA sequences. The interaction of SadP knockout and complementation mutants with IEC was tested in vitro. Results Expression of sadP was significantly increased in presence of IEC. Sequence analysis of 116 invasive strains revealed five SadP sequence variants, correlating with genotype. SadP1, present in zoonotic isolates of clonal complex 1, contributed to binding to both human and porcine IEC and translocation across human IEC. Antibodies against the globotriaosylceramide Gb3/CD77 receptor significantly inhibited adhesion to human IEC. Conclusion SadP is involved in the host-pathogen interaction in the GIT. Differences between SadP variants may determine different affinities to the Gb3/CD77 host-receptor, contributing to variation in adhesion capacity to host IEC and thus to S. suis zoonotic potential. PMID:28407026

  19. The urease enzyme of Helicobacter pylori does not function as an adhesin.

    PubMed

    Clyne, M; Drumm, B

    1996-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori urease is essential for colonization of the gastric mucosa irrespective of whether the stomach is acidic or hypochlorhydric. It has therefore been speculated that the enzyme functions as an adhesin. The aim of this study was to compare the adherence of H. pylori N6 with the adherence of an isogenic urease-negative mutant, strain N6(ureB::TnKm), to gastric cells. Strain N6 originated from a patient with gastritis. Strain N6(ureB::TnKm) is specifically modified in the gene which encodes the large subunit of urease, UreB, and hence does not form a UreA-UreB enzyme complex. We have used flow cytometry to assess the adherence of H. pylori to the cells. We have also used phase-contrast microscopy to assess the adherence of the organism to Kato III cells. In the absence of urea both strains bound to Kato III cells and to primary gastric cells. Binding of both strains to the cells occurred rapidly. The presence of urea in the incubation medium decreased the binding of strain N6 to the cells. This was due to a rise in the pH of the incubation medium, which caused loss of viability of the organism. Urea had no effect on the adherence of strain N6(ureB::TnKm). We conclude that the urease of H. pylori does not play a role in the adherence of the organism to gastric cells.

  20. Effect of allicin on the production of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin in Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Villalón, G; Pérez-Giraldo, C

    2011-03-01

    Polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) is the main agglutination agent in the biofilm forming strain Staphylococcus epidermidis. To find an explanation for the observed inhibition of biofilm formation by allicin, we studied the effect of allicin on PIA production in samples treated with sub MIC doses of allicin and compared this with a control culture without allicin. Bacteria (Staph. epidermidis ATCC 35984) were grown in glass tubes, and PIA was extracted by vortex vibration using microbeads and NN dimethyl acetamide/LiCl as solvent. The extracts were filtered and passed through size exclusion columns. Chromatographic fractions were analysed with an excess of sodium metaperiodate and the excess was determined spectrophotometrically using 2,4,6-tripyridyl-s-triazine. The amount of exopolysaccharides in samples previously treated with allicin is significantly lower than in the control. This finding suggests a specific enzymatic inhibition in PIA synthesis. This study provides an insight into the mechanism of biofilm formation, and is a biochemical model for PIA inhibition by allicin. The analysis proposed may be useful in studies of production of exopolysaccharides responsible for adherence and agglutination of Staph. epidermidis. Prevention of biofilm formation by allicin opens up a new field of in vitro studies and permits us to envisage future clinical applications. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Catch-bond mechanism of the bacterial adhesin FimH

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Maximilian M.; Jakob, Roman P.; Eras, Jonathan; Baday, Sefer; Eriş, Deniz; Navarra, Giulio; Bernèche, Simon; Ernst, Beat; Maier, Timm; Glockshuber, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    Ligand–receptor interactions that are reinforced by mechanical stress, so-called catch-bonds, play a major role in cell–cell adhesion. They critically contribute to widespread urinary tract infections by pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. These pathogens attach to host epithelia via the adhesin FimH, a two-domain protein at the tip of type I pili recognizing terminal mannoses on epithelial glycoproteins. Here we establish peptide-complemented FimH as a model system for fimbrial FimH function. We reveal a three-state mechanism of FimH catch-bond formation based on crystal structures of all states, kinetic analysis of ligand interaction and molecular dynamics simulations. In the absence of tensile force, the FimH pilin domain allosterically accelerates spontaneous ligand dissociation from the FimH lectin domain by 100,000-fold, resulting in weak affinity. Separation of the FimH domains under stress abolishes allosteric interplay and increases the affinity of the lectin domain. Cell tracking demonstrates that rapid ligand dissociation from FimH supports motility of piliated E. coli on mannosylated surfaces in the absence of shear force. PMID:26948702

  2. Interaction of Mycobacterium leprae with human airway epithelial cells: adherence, entry, survival, and identification of potential adhesins by surface proteome analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carlos A M; Danelishvili, Lia; McNamara, Michael; Berredo-Pinho, Márcia; Bildfell, Robert; Biet, Franck; Rodrigues, Luciana S; Oliveira, Albanita V; Bermudez, Luiz E; Pessolani, Maria C V

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the in vitro interaction between Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of leprosy, and human alveolar and nasal epithelial cells, demonstrating that M. leprae can enter both cell types and that both are capable of sustaining bacterial survival. Moreover, delivery of M. leprae to the nasal septum of mice resulted in macrophage and epithelial cell infection in the lung tissue, sustaining the idea that the airways constitute an important M. leprae entry route into the human body. Since critical aspects in understanding the mechanisms of infection are the identification and characterization of the adhesins involved in pathogen-host cell interaction, the nude mouse-derived M. leprae cell surface-exposed proteome was studied to uncover potentially relevant adhesin candidates. A total of 279 cell surface-exposed proteins were identified based on selective biotinylation, streptavidin-affinity purification, and shotgun mass spectrometry; 11 of those proteins have been previously described as potential adhesins. In vitro assays with the recombinant forms of the histone-like protein (Hlp) and the heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA), considered to be major mycobacterial adhesins, confirmed their capacity to promote bacterial attachment to epithelial cells. Taking our data together, they suggest that the airway epithelium may act as a reservoir and/or portal of entry for M. leprae in humans. Moreover, our report sheds light on the potentially critical adhesins involved in M. leprae-epithelial cell interaction that may be useful in designing more effective tools for leprosy control.

  3. Interaction of Mycobacterium leprae with Human Airway Epithelial Cells: Adherence, Entry, Survival, and Identification of Potential Adhesins by Surface Proteome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Carlos A. M.; Danelishvili, Lia; McNamara, Michael; Berredo-Pinho, Márcia; Bildfell, Robert; Biet, Franck; Rodrigues, Luciana S.; Oliveira, Albanita V.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the in vitro interaction between Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of leprosy, and human alveolar and nasal epithelial cells, demonstrating that M. leprae can enter both cell types and that both are capable of sustaining bacterial survival. Moreover, delivery of M. leprae to the nasal septum of mice resulted in macrophage and epithelial cell infection in the lung tissue, sustaining the idea that the airways constitute an important M. leprae entry route into the human body. Since critical aspects in understanding the mechanisms of infection are the identification and characterization of the adhesins involved in pathogen-host cell interaction, the nude mouse-derived M. leprae cell surface-exposed proteome was studied to uncover potentially relevant adhesin candidates. A total of 279 cell surface-exposed proteins were identified based on selective biotinylation, streptavidin-affinity purification, and shotgun mass spectrometry; 11 of those proteins have been previously described as potential adhesins. In vitro assays with the recombinant forms of the histone-like protein (Hlp) and the heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA), considered to be major mycobacterial adhesins, confirmed their capacity to promote bacterial attachment to epithelial cells. Taking our data together, they suggest that the airway epithelium may act as a reservoir and/or portal of entry for M. leprae in humans. Moreover, our report sheds light on the potentially critical adhesins involved in M. leprae-epithelial cell interaction that may be useful in designing more effective tools for leprosy control. PMID:23670556

  4. SgrA, a nidogen-binding LPXTG surface adhesin implicated in biofilm formation, and EcbA, a collagen binding MSCRAMM, are two novel adhesins of hospital-acquired Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Antoni P A; van Luit-Asbroek, Miranda; Schapendonk, Claudia M E; van Wamel, Willem J B; Braat, Johanna C; Wijnands, Lucas M; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L

    2009-11-01

    Hospital-acquired Enterococcus faecium isolates responsible for nosocomial outbreaks and invasive infections are enriched in the orf2351 and orf2430 genes, encoding the SgrA and EcbA LPXTG-like cell wall-anchored proteins, respectively. These two surface proteins were characterized to gain insight into their function, since they may have favored the rapid emergence of this nosocomial pathogen. We are the first to identify a surface adhesin among bacteria (SgrA) that binds to the extracellular matrix molecules nidogen 1 and nidogen 2, which are constituents of the basal lamina. EcbA is a novel E. faecium MSCRAMM (microbial surface component recognizing adhesive matrix molecules) that binds to collagen type V. In addition, both SgrA and EcbA bound to fibrinogen; however, SgrA targeted the alpha and beta chains, whereas EcbA bound to the gamma chain of fibrinogen. An E. faecium sgrA insertion mutant displayed reduced binding to both nidogens and fibrinogen. SgrA did not mediate binding of E. faecium cells to biotic materials, such as human intestinal epithelial cells, human bladder cells, and kidney cells, while this LPXTG surface adhesin is implicated in E. faecium biofilm formation. The acm and scm genes, encoding two other E. faecium MSCRAMMs, were expressed at the mRNA level together with sgrA during all phases of growth, whereas ecbA was expressed only in exponential and late exponential phase, suggesting orchestrated expression of these adhesins. Expression of these surface proteins, which bind to extracellular matrix proteins and are involved in biofilm formation (SgrA), may contribute to the pathogenesis of hospital-acquired E. faecium infections.

  5. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Etcheverría, Analía Inés; Padola, Nora Lía

    2013-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) cause hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in humans. Outbreaks are linked to bovine food sources. STEC O157:H7 has been responsible for the most severe outbreaks worldwide. However, non-O157 serotypes have emerged as important enteric pathogens in several countries. The main virulence factor of STEC is the production of Shiga toxins 1 and 2. Additional virulence markers are a plasmid-encoded enterohemolysin (ehxA), an autoagglutinating adhesin (Saa), a catalase-peroxidase (katP), an extracellular serine protease (espP), a zinc metalloprotease (stcE), a subtilase cytotoxin (subAB), among others. Other virulence factors are intimin and adhesins that had a roll in the adherence of STEC to bovine colon. This review focuses on the virulence traits of STEC and especially on those related to the adhesion to bovine colon. The known of the interaction between STEC and the bovine host is crucial to develop strategies to control cattle colonization. PMID:23624795

  6. TrmFO, a Fibronectin-Binding Adhesin of Mycoplasma bovis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yongpeng; Zhu, Hongmei; Wang, Jiayao; Huang, Jing; Khan, Farhan Anwar; Zhang, Jingjing; Guo, Aizhen; Chen, Xi

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is an important pathogenic mycoplasma, causing the cattle industry serious economic losses. Adhesion is a crucial step in the mycoplasmas’ infection and colonization process; fibronectin (Fn), an extracellular matrix glycoprotein, is a molecular bridge between the bacterial adhesins and host cell receptors. The present study was designed to characterize the Fn-binding ability of methylenetetrahydrofolate-tRNA-(uracil-5-)-methyltransferase (TrmFO) and its role in M. bovis cytoadherence. The trmFO (MBOV_RS00785) gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli BL21, and polyclonal antibodies against the recombinant TrmFO (rTrmFO) were raised in rabbits. Immunoblotting demonstrated that TrmFO was an immunogenic component, and the TrmFO expression was conserved in different M. bovis isolates. The mycoplasmacidal assay further showed that in the presence of complement, rabbit anti-recombinant TrmFO serum exhibited remarkable mycoplasmacidal efficacy. TrmFO was detected in both the M. bovis membrane and cytoplasm. By ligand dot blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) binding assay, we found that rTrmFO bound Fn in a dose-dependent manner. Immunostaining visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that rTrmFO had capacity to adhere to the embryonic bovine lung (EBL) cells. In addition, the adhesion of M. bovis and rTrmFO to EBL cells could be inhibited by anti-rTrmFO antibodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to characterize the Fn-binding ability of TrmFO and its role in the bacterial adhesion to host cells. PMID:28792486

  7. Arrangement of the Translocator of the Autotransporter Adhesin Involved in Diffuse Adherence on the Bacterial Surface

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Daniel; Benz, Inga; Tapadar, Damini; Buddenborg, Christian; Greune, Lilo; Schmidt, M. Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Autotransporters of gram-negative bacteria are single-peptide secretion systems that consist of a functional N-terminal α-domain (“passenger”) fused to a C-terminal β-domain (“translocator”). How passenger proteins are translocated through the outer membrane has not been resolved, and at present essentially three different models are discussed. In the widely accepted “hairpin model” the passenger proteins are translocated through a channel formed by the β-barrel of the translocator that is integrated in the outer membrane. This model has been challenged by a recent proposal for a general autotransporter model suggesting that there is a hexameric translocation pore that is generated by the oligomerization of six β-domains. A third model suggests that conserved Omp85 participates in autotransporter integration and passenger protein translocation. To examine these models, in this study we investigated the presence of putative oligomeric structures of the translocator of the autotransporter adhesin involved in diffuse adherence (AIDA) in vivo by cross-linking techniques. Furthermore, the capacity of isolated AIDA fusion proteins to form oligomers was studied in vitro by several complementary analytical techniques, such as analytical gel filtration, electron microscopy, immunogold labeling, and cross-linking of recombinant autotransporter proteins in which different passenger proteins were fused to the AIDA translocator. Our results show that the AIDA translocator is mostly present as a monomer. Only a fraction of the AIDA autotransporter was found to form dimers on the bacterial surface and in solution. Higher-order structures, such as hexamers, were not detected either in vivo or in vitro and can therefore be excluded as functional moieties for the AIDA autotransporter. PMID:15972470

  8. TrmFO, a Fibronectin-Binding Adhesin of Mycoplasma bovis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yongpeng; Zhu, Hongmei; Wang, Jiayao; Huang, Jing; Khan, Farhan Anwar; Zhang, Jingjing; Guo, Aizhen; Chen, Xi

    2017-08-09

    Mycoplasma bovis is an important pathogenic mycoplasma, causing the cattle industry serious economic losses. Adhesion is a crucial step in the mycoplasmas' infection and colonization process; fibronectin (Fn), an extracellular matrix glycoprotein, is a molecular bridge between the bacterial adhesins and host cell receptors. The present study was designed to characterize the Fn-binding ability of methylenetetrahydrofolate-tRNA-(uracil-5-)-methyltransferase (TrmFO) and its role in M. bovis cytoadherence. The trmFO (MBOV_RS00785) gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli BL21, and polyclonal antibodies against the recombinant TrmFO (rTrmFO) were raised in rabbits. Immunoblotting demonstrated that TrmFO was an immunogenic component, and the TrmFO expression was conserved in different M. bovis isolates. The mycoplasmacidal assay further showed that in the presence of complement, rabbit anti-recombinant TrmFO serum exhibited remarkable mycoplasmacidal efficacy. TrmFO was detected in both the M. bovis membrane and cytoplasm. By ligand dot blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) binding assay, we found that rTrmFO bound Fn in a dose-dependent manner. Immunostaining visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that rTrmFO had capacity to adhere to the embryonic bovine lung (EBL) cells. In addition, the adhesion of M. bovis and rTrmFO to EBL cells could be inhibited by anti-rTrmFO antibodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to characterize the Fn-binding ability of TrmFO and its role in the bacterial adhesion to host cells.

  9. Blastomyces Virulence Adhesin-1 Protein Binding to Glycosaminoglycans Is Enhanced by Protein Disulfide Isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Beaussart, Audrey; Brandhorst, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Blastomyces adhesin-1 (BAD-1) protein mediates the virulence of the yeast Blastomyces dermatitidis, in part by binding host lung tissue, the extracellular matrix, and cellular receptors via glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as heparan sulfate. The tandem repeats that make up over 90% of BAD-1 appear in their native state to be tightly folded into an inactive conformation, but recent work has shown that they become activated and adhesive upon reduction of a disulfide linkage. Here, atomic force microscopy (AFM) of a single BAD-1 molecule interacting with immobilized heparin revealed that binding is enhanced upon treatment with protein disulfide isomerase and dithiothreitol (PDI/DTT). PDI/DTT treatment of BAD-1 induced a plateau effect in atomic force signatures that was consistent with sequential rupture of tandem binding domains. Inhibition of PDI in murine macrophages blunted BAD-1 binding to heparin in vitro. Based on AFM, we found that a short Cardin-Weintraub sequence paired with a WxxWxxW sequence in the first, degenerate repeat at the N terminus of BAD-1 was sufficient to initiate heparin binding. Removal of half of the 41 BAD-1 tandem repeats led to weaker adhesion, illustrating their role in enhanced binding. Mass spectroscopy of the tandem repeat revealed that the PDI-induced interaction with heparin is characterized by ruptured disulfide bonds and that cysteine thiols remain reduced. Further binding studies showed direct involvement of thiols in heparin ligation. Thus, we propose that the N-terminal domain of BAD-1 governs the initial association with host GAGs and that proximity to GAG-associated host PDI catalyzes activation of additional binding motifs conserved within the tandem repeats, leading to enhanced avidity and availability of reduced thiols. PMID:26396244

  10. The Streptococcus gordonii Adhesin CshA Protein Binds Host Fibronectin via a Catch-Clamp Mechanism*♦

    PubMed Central

    Back, Catherine R.; Sztukowska, Maryta N.; Till, Marisa; Lamont, Richard J.; Jenkinson, Howard F.; Nobbs, Angela H.; Race, Paul R.

    2017-01-01

    Adherence of bacteria to biotic or abiotic surfaces is a prerequisite for host colonization and represents an important step in microbial pathogenicity. This attachment is facilitated by bacterial adhesins at the cell surface. Because of their size and often elaborate multidomain architectures, these polypeptides represent challenging targets for detailed structural and functional characterization. The multifunctional fibrillar adhesin CshA, which mediates binding to both host molecules and other microorganisms, is an important determinant of colonization by Streptococcus gordonii, an oral commensal and opportunistic pathogen of animals and humans. CshA binds the high-molecular-weight glycoprotein fibronectin (Fn) via an N-terminal non-repetitive region, and this protein-protein interaction has been proposed to promote S. gordonii colonization at multiple sites within the host. However, the molecular details of how these two proteins interact have yet to be established. Here we present a structural description of the Fn binding N-terminal region of CshA, derived from a combination of X-ray crystallography, small angle X-ray scattering, and complementary biophysical methods. In vitro binding studies support a previously unreported two-state “catch-clamp” mechanism of Fn binding by CshA, in which the disordered N-terminal domain of CshA acts to “catch” Fn, via formation of a rapidly assembled but also readily dissociable pre-complex, enabling its neighboring ligand binding domain to tightly clamp the two polypeptides together. This study presents a new paradigm for target binding by a bacterial adhesin, the identification of which will inform future efforts toward the development of anti-adhesive agents that target S. gordonii and related streptococci. PMID:27920201

  11. That's my story, and I'm sticking to it—an update on B. burgdorferi adhesins

    PubMed Central

    Brissette, Catherine A.; Gaultney, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Adhesion is the initial event in the establishment of any infection. Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease, possesses myriad proteins termed adhesins that facilitate contact with its vertebrate hosts. B. burgdorferi adheres to host tissues through interactions with host cells and extracellular matrix, as well as other molecules present in serum and extracellular fluids. These interactions, both general and specific, are critical in the establishment of infection. Modulation of borrelial adhesion to host tissues affects the microorganisms's ability to colonize, disseminate, and persist. In this review, we update the current knowledge on structure, function, and role in pathogenesis of these “sticky” B. burgdorferi infection-associated proteins. PMID:24772392

  12. Amyloid-like interactions within nucleoporin FG hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Ader, Christian; Frey, Steffen; Maas, Werner; Schmidt, Hermann Broder; Görlich, Dirk; Baldus, Marc

    2010-04-06

    The 62 kDa FG repeat domain of the nucleoporin Nsp1p forms a hydrogel-based, sieve-like permeability barrier that excludes inert macromolecules but allows rapid entry of nuclear transport receptors (NTRs). We found that the N-terminal part of this domain, which is characterized by Asn-rich inter-FG spacers, forms a tough hydrogel. The C-terminal part comprises charged inter-FG spacers, shows low gelation propensity on its own, but binds the N-terminal part and passivates the FG hydrogel against nonselective interactions. It was previously shown that a hydrophobic collapse involving Phe residues is required for FG hydrogel formation. Using solid-state NMR spectroscopy, we now identified two additional types of intragel interactions, namely, transient hydrophobic interactions between Phe and methyl side chains as well as intermolecular beta-sheets between the Asn-rich spacer regions. The latter appear to be the kinetically most stable structures within the FG hydrogel. They are also a central feature of neuronal inclusions formed by Asn/Gln-rich amyloid and prion proteins. The cohesive properties of FG repeats and the Asn/Gln-rich domain from the yeast prion Sup35p appear indeed so similar to each other that these two modules interact in trans. Our data, therefore, suggest a fully unexpected cellular function of such interchain beta-structures in maintaining the permeability barrier of nuclear pores. They provide an explanation for how contacts between FG repeats might gain the kinetic stability to suppress passive fluxes through nuclear pores and yet allow rapid NTR passage.

  13. Amyloid-like ribbons of amelogenins in enamel mineralization

    DOE PAGES

    Carneiro, Karina M. M.; Zhai, Halei; Zhu, Li; ...

    2016-03-24

    We report that enamel, the outermost layer of teeth, is an acellular mineralized tissue that cannot regenerate; the mature tissue is composed of high aspect ratio apatite nanocrystals organized into rods and inter-rod regions. Amelogenin constitutes 90% of the protein matrix in developing enamel and plays a central role in guiding the hierarchical organization of apatite crystals observed in mature enamel. To date, a convincing link between amelogenin supramolecular structures and mature enamel has yet to be described, in part because the protein matrix is degraded during tissue maturation. Here we show compelling evidence that amelogenin self-assembles into an amyloid-likemore » structure in vitro and in vivo. We show that enamel matrices stain positive for amyloids and we identify a specific region within amelogenin that self-assembles into β-sheets. Lastly, we propose that amelogenin nanoribbons template the growth of apatite mineral in human enamel. This is a paradigm shift from the current model of enamel development.« less

  14. Differential recognition of members of the carcinoembryonic antigen family by Afa/Dr adhesins of diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (Afa/Dr DAEC).

    PubMed

    Berger, Cedric N; Billker, Oliver; Meyer, Thomas F; Servin, Alain L; Kansau, Imad

    2004-05-01

    Little is known about the molecular bases underlying the virulence of diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) harbouring the Afa/Dr family of adhesins. These adhesins recognize as receptors the GPI-anchored proteins CD55 (decay-accelerating factor, DAF) and CD66e (carcinoembryonic antigen, CEA). CD66e is a member of the CEA-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAM) family, comprising seven members. We analysed the interactions of Afa/Dr DAEC with the CEACAMs using CEACAM-expressing CHO and HeLa cells. The results demonstrate that only E. coli expressing a subfamily of Afa/Dr adhesins, named here Afa/Dr-I, including Dr, F1845 and AfaE-III adhesins, bound onto CHO cells expressing CEACAM1, CEA or CEACAM6. Whereas all the Afa/Dr adhesins elicit recruitment of CD55 around adhering bacteria, only the Afa/Dr-I subfamily elicits the recruitment of CEACAM1, CEA and CEACAM6. In addition, although CEACAM3 is not recognized as a receptor by the subfamily of Afa/Dr adhesins, it is recruited around bacteria in HeLa cells. The recruited CEACAM1, CEA and CEACAM6 around adhering bacteria resist totally or in part a detergent extraction, whereas the recruited CEACAM3 does not. Finally, the results show that recognition of CEA and CEACAM6, but not CEACAM1, is accompanied by tight attachment to bacteria of cell surface microvilli-like extensions, which are elongated. Moreover, recognition of CEA is accompanied by an activation of the Rho GTPase Cdc42 and by a phosphorylation of ERM, which in turn elicit the observed cell surface microvilli-like extensions.

  15. Immune responses induced by replication-defective adenovirus expressing the C-terminal portion of the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae P97 adhesin.

    PubMed

    Okamba, F R; Moreau, E; Cheikh Saad Bouh, K; Gagnon, C A; Massie, B; Arella, M

    2007-06-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia, colonizes the respiratory cilia of affected swine, causing significant economic losses to swine production worldwide. Vaccination is the most cost-effective strategy for the control and prevention of this disease. The goal of this study was to design and evaluate a replication-defective recombinant adenovirus, rAdP97c, expressing the C-terminal portion of P97 adhesin (P97c), an important pathogenesis-associated protein of M. hyopneumoniae, as a new vaccine candidate against M. hyopneumoniae infection. P97c-specific immune responses were evaluated in BALB/c mice following intranasal and intramuscular inoculation with rAdP97c. Mice inoculated by both routes of immunization produced significant levels of specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in the serum and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALs). Animals immunized intranasally also produced a significant level of P97c-specific IgA in BALs. Intramuscular inoculation of rAdP97c induced a systemic and mucosal Th1-type biased response, evidenced by the predominance of IgG2a in the serum and BALs, whereas intranasal inoculation resulted in a mixed Th1/Th2-type response (balanced levels of IgG1 and IgG2a) in both sytemic and mucosal compartments. P97c-specific antibodies were able to inhibit the growth of M. hyopneumoniae cells in vitro. These data suggest that rAdP97c vaccine may represent a new strategy for controlling infection by M. hyopneumoniae.

  16. Potential use of a recombinant replication-defective adenovirus vector carrying the C-terminal portion of the P97 adhesin protein as a vaccine against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in swine.

    PubMed

    Okamba, Faust René; Arella, Maximilien; Music, Nedzad; Jia, Jian Jun; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Gagnon, Carl A

    2010-07-05

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae causes severe economic losses to the swine industry worldwide and the prevention of its related disease, enzootic porcine pneumonia, remains a challenge. The P97 adhesin protein of M. hyopneumoniae should be a good candidate for the development of a subunit vaccine because antibodies produced against P97 could prevent the adhesion of the pathogen to the respiratory epithelial cells in vitro. In the present study, a P97 recombinant replication-defective adenovirus (rAdP97c) subunit vaccine efficiency was evaluated in pigs. The rAdP97c vaccine was found to induce both strong P97 specific humoral and cellular immune responses. The rAdP97c vaccinated pigs developed a lower amount of macroscopic lung lesions (18.5 + or - 9.6%) compared to the unvaccinated and challenged animals (45.8 + or - 11.5%). rAdP97c vaccine reduced significantly the severity of inflammatory response and the amount of M. hyopneumoniae in the respiratory tract. Furthermore, the average daily weight gain was slightly improved in the rAdP97c vaccinated pigs (0.672 + or - 0.068 kg/day) compared to the unvaccinated and challenged animals (0.568 + or - 0.104 kg/day). A bacterin-based commercial vaccine (Suvaxyn MH-one) was more efficient to induce a protective immune response than rAdP97c even if it did not evoke a P97 specific immune response. These results suggest that immunodominant antigens other than P97 adhesin are also important in the induction of a protective immune response and should be taken into account in the future development of M. hyopneumoniae subunit vaccines. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploiting chimeric human antibodies to characterize a protective epitope of Neisseria adhesin A, one of the Bexsero vaccine components.

    PubMed

    Bertoldi, Isabella; Faleri, Agnese; Galli, Barbara; Lo Surdo, Paola; Liguori, Alessia; Norais, Nathalie; Santini, Laura; Masignani, Vega; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Giuliani, Marzia Monica

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria adhesin A (NadA) is one of the antigens of Bexsero, the recently licensed multicomponent vaccine against serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB). NadA belongs to the class of oligomeric coiled-coil adhesins and is able to mediate adhesion and invasion of human epithelial cells. As a vaccine antigen, NadA has been shown to induce high levels of bactericidal antibodies; however, the domains important for protective response are still unknown. In order to further investigate its immunogenic properties, we have characterized the murine IgG1 mAb (6E3) that was able to recognize the 2 main antigenic variants of NadA on the surface of MenB strains. The epitope targeted by mAb 6E3 was mapped by hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and shown to be located on the coiled-coil stalk region of NadA (aa 206-249). Although no serum bactericidal activity was observed for murine IgG1 mAb 6E3, functional activity was restored when using chimeric antibodies in which the variable regions of the murine mAb 6E3 were fused to human IgG3 constant regions, thus confirming the protective nature of the mAb 6E3 epitope. The use of chimeric antibody molecules will enable future investigations of complement-mediated antibody functionality independently of the Fc-mediated differences in complement activation. © FASEB.

  18. How do they stick together? Bacterial adhesins implicated in the binding of bacteria to the human gastrointestinal mucins.

    PubMed

    Ringot-Destrez, Bélinda; Kalach, Nicolas; Mihalache, Adriana; Gosset, Pierre; Michalski, Jean-Claude; Léonard, Renaud; Robbe-Masselot, Catherine

    2017-04-15

    The gastrointestinal mucosal surface is the primary interface between internal host tissues and the vast microbiota. Mucins, key components of mucus, are high-molecular-weight glycoproteins characterized by the presence of many O-linked oligosaccharides to the core polypeptide. They play many biological functions, helping to maintain cellular homeostasis and to establish symbiotic relationships with complex microbiota. Mucin O-glycans exhibit a huge variety of peripheral sequences implicated in the binding of bacteria to the mucosal tissues, thereby playing a key role in the selection of specific species and in the tissue tropism displayed by commensal and pathogenic bacteria. Bacteria have evolved numerous strategies to colonize host mucosae, and among these are modulation of expression of cell surface adhesins which allow bacteria to bind to mucins. However, despite well structurally characterized adhesins and lectins, information on the nature and structure of oligosaccharides recognized by bacteria is still disparate. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the structure of epithelial mucin O-glycans and the interaction between host and commensal or pathogenic bacteria mediated by mucins. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  19. BslA, the S-layer adhesin of B. anthracis, is a virulence factor for anthrax pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kern, Justin; Schneewind, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    Microbial pathogens use adhesive surface proteins to bind to and interact with host tissues, events that are universal for the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. A surface adhesin of Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, required to mediate these steps has not been discovered. Previous work identified BslA, an S-layer protein, to be necessary and sufficient for adhesion of the anthrax vaccine strain, Bacillus anthracis Sterne, to host cells. Here we asked whether encapsulated bacilli require BslA for anthrax pathogenesis in guinea pigs. Compared with the highly virulent parent strain B. anthracis Ames, bslA mutants displayed a dramatic increase in the lethal dose and in mean time-to-death. Whereas all tissues of animals infected with B. anthracis Ames contained high numbers of bacilli, only few vegetative forms could be recovered from internal organs of animals infected with the bslA mutant. Surface display of BslA occurred at the poles of encapsulated bacilli and enabled the binding of vegetative forms to host cells. Together these results suggest that BslA functions as the surface adhesin of the anthrax pathogen B. anthracis strain Ames.

  20. High resolution studies of the Afa/Dr adhesin DraE and its interaction with chloramphenicol.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, David; Anderson, Kirstine L; Billington, Jason; Cota, Ernesto; Simpson, Peter; Urvil, Petri; Rabuzin, Filip; Roversi, Pietro; Nowicki, Bogdan; du Merle, Laurence; Le Bouguénec, Chantal; Matthews, Stephen; Lea, Susan M

    2004-11-05

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli expressing Afa/Dr adhesins are able to cause both urinary tract and diarrheal infections. The Afa/Dr adhesins confer adherence to epithelial cells via interactions with the human complement regulating protein, decay accelerating factor (DAF or CD55). Two of the Afa/Dr adhesions, AfaE-III and DraE, differ from each other by only three residues but are reported to have several different properties. One such difference is disruption of the interaction between DraE and CD55 by chloramphenicol, whereas binding of AfaE-III to CD55 is unaffected. Here we present a crystal structure of a strand-swapped trimer of wild type DraE. We also present a crystal structure of this trimer in complex with chloramphenicol, as well as NMR data supporting the binding position of chloramphenicol within the crystal. The crystal structure reveals the precise atomic basis for the sensitivity of DraE-CD55 binding to chloramphenicol and demonstrates that in contrast to other chloramphenicol-protein complexes, drug binding is mediated via recognition of the chlorine "tail" rather than via intercalation of the benzene rings into a hydrophobic pocket.

  1. A potential pathogenic factor from Mycoplasma hominis is a TLR2-dependent, macrophage-activating, P50-related adhesin.

    PubMed

    Hasebe, Akira; Mu, Hong-Hua; Cole, Barry C

    2014-09-01

    Mycoplasma hominis has been implicated in many inflammatory conditions of the human urogenital tract in particular amniotic infections that lead to fetal and neonatal disease and pre-term labor. The mechanisms responsible are poorly defined. Biochemical and immunological methods were used to extract, purify, and characterize an inflammatory component present in M. hominis. We isolated and purified to homogeneity a 40-kDa bioactive lipoprotein from M. hominis that was a potent TLR2-dependent, CD14-independent activator of the human THP-1 macrophage cell line. Homology searches of the N-terminal sequence revealed that 22 of the first 23 residues were identical to those seen for the phase-variable M. hominis p50 adhesin. The truncated P50t lipoprotein importantly retained its adhesive properties for human macrophages. The unique adhesin/macrophage activator may play a key role in M. hominis infections by triggering an inflammatory cytokine cascade. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. In vitro effect of temperature on the conformational structure and collagen binding of SdrF, a Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesin.

    PubMed

    Di Poto, Antonella; Papi, Massimiliano; Trivedi, Sheetal; Maiorana, Alessandro; Gavazzo, Paola; Vassalli, Massimo; Lowy, Franklin D; De Spirito, Marco; Montanaro, Lucio; Imbriani, Marcello; Arciola, Carla Renata; Visai, Livia

    2015-07-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is the leading etiologic agent of device-related infections. S. epidermidis is able to bind, by means of the adhesins of its cell wall, the host matrix proteins filming the artificial surfaces. Thence, bacteria cling to biomaterials and infection develops. The effect of temperature on integrity, structure, and biological activity of the collagen-binding adhesin (SdrF) of S. epidermidis has been here investigated. By cloning in E. coli XL1-Blue, a recombinant of the SdrF binding domain B (rSdrFB), carrying an N-terminal polyhistidine, was obtained. Purification was by HiTrap(TM) Chelating HP columns. Assessment of purity, molecular weight, and integrity was by SDS-PAGE. The rSdrFB-collagen binding was investigated by ELISA. A full three-dimensional reconstruction of rSdrFB was achieved by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). At 25 °C, rSdrFB bound to type I collagen in a dose-dependent, saturable manner, with a Kd of 2.48 × 10(-7) M. When temperature increased from 25 to 37 °C, a strong conformational change occurred, together with the abolition of the rSdrFB-collagen binding. The rSdrFB integrity was not affected by temperature variation. SdrFB-collagen binding is switched on/off depending on the temperature. Implications with the infection pathogenesis are enlightened.

  3. Evaluation of the role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pili (MTP) as an adhesin, invasin, and cytokine inducer of epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ramsugit, Saiyur; Pillay, Balakrishna; Pillay, Manormoney

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to assess the involvement of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pili (MTP) as an adhesin, invasin, and cytokine inducer in the M. tuberculosis-epithelial cell interaction. A MTP-deficient strain of M. tuberculosis demonstrated a significant reduction of 69.39% (p=0.047) and 56.20% (p=0.033) in its ability to adhere to and invade A549 pulmonary epithelial cells, respectively, in comparison with the wild-type strain. Complementation of the MTP-deficient mutant restored its adhesion and invasion capacity back to the wild-type levels. Overall, it was found that similar concentrations of IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, G-CSF, IFN-γ, MCP-1, and TNF-α were induced in A549 cells infected with the MTP-proficient and MTP-deficient strains. However, at 48h post-infection, the MTP-deficient mutant induced significantly lower levels of TNF-α than the wild-type strain (p=0.033). Furthermore, at 72h post-infection, the mutant induced significantly higher levels of IL-8 than the wild-type (p=0.005). We conclude that MTP is an adhesin/invasin of epithelial cells and, while playing a role in M. tuberculosis entry, they do not appear to largely influence the epithelial cell cytokine response.

  4. Use of Atomic Force Microscopy to Study the Multi-Modular Interaction of Bacterial Adhesins to Mucins

    PubMed Central

    Gunning, A. Patrick; Kavanaugh, Devon; Thursby, Elizabeth; Etzold, Sabrina; MacKenzie, Donald A.; Juge, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    The mucus layer covering the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium is critical in selecting and maintaining homeostatic interactions with our gut bacteria. However, the molecular details of these interactions are not well understood. Here, we provide mechanistic insights into the adhesion properties of the canonical mucus-binding protein (MUB), a large multi-repeat cell–surface adhesin found in Lactobacillus inhabiting the GI tract. We used atomic force microscopy to unravel the mechanism driving MUB-mediated adhesion to mucins. Using single-molecule force spectroscopy we showed that MUB displayed remarkable adhesive properties favouring a nanospring-like adhesion model between MUB and mucin mediated by unfolding of the multiple repeats constituting the adhesin. We obtained direct evidence for MUB self-interaction; MUB–MUB followed a similar binding pattern, confirming that MUB modular structure mediated such mechanism. This was in marked contrast with the mucin adhesion behaviour presented by Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a mammalian lectin characterised by a single carbohydrate binding domain (CRD). The binding mechanisms reported here perfectly match the particular structural organization of MUB, which maximizes interactions with the mucin glycan receptors through its long and linear multi-repeat structure, potentiating the retention of bacteria within the outer mucus layer. PMID:27834807

  5. Did I Pick the Right Colony? Pitfalls in the Study of Regulation of the Phase Variable Antigen 43 Adhesin

    PubMed Central

    Ghigo, Jean-Marc; Beloin, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Ag43 is an abundant outer membrane autotransporter adhesin present in most commensal and pathogenic Escherichia coli. Expression of the agn43 gene is characterized by a regulated reversible switch or phase variation between the agn43 ON and agn43 OFF states. Although the agn43 regulatory switch leads to a heterogeneous population of ON and OFF bacteria, studies of Ag43 seldom consider potential biases associated with phase variation. We monitored agn43 ON/OFF phase-variation status genetically and phenotypically and we show that the use of populations with random agn43 ON or OFF status could result in misleading conclusions about Ag43 function or regulation. In particular, we demonstrate that Lrp and MqsR, previously identified as agn43 regulators, do not regulate agn43 expression or ON/OFF switch frequency. We also show that biofilm formation in dynamic flow conditions does not influence agn43 ON/OFF switching but physically selects aggregating agn43 ON cells. This indicates that misinterpretation is possible when studying gene expression within biofilms. Finally, we provide evidence that ignoring the initial agn43 ON/OFF status of the E. coli populations studied is likely to bias analyses of phenotypes associated with other E. coli adhesins. This study therefore emphasizes the importance of monitoring Ag43 phase variation and indicates that caution is required when interpreting experiments using strains that are neither deleted for agn43 nor carefully assessed for agn43 ON/OFF status. PMID:24039985

  6. Interaction of Candida albicans cell wall Als3 protein with Streptococcus gordonii SspB adhesin promotes development of mixed-species communities.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Richard J; Nobbs, Angela H; Vickerman, M Margaret; Barbour, Michele E; Jenkinson, Howard F

    2010-11-01

    Candida albicans colonizes human mucosa and prosthetic surfaces associated with artificial joints, catheters, and dentures. In the oral cavity, C. albicans coexists with numerous bacterial species, and evidence suggests that bacteria may modulate fungal growth and biofilm formation. Streptococcus gordonii is found on most oral cavity surfaces and interacts with C. albicans to promote hyphal and biofilm formation. In this study, we investigated the role of the hyphal-wall protein Als3p in interactions of C. albicans with S. gordonii. Utilizing an ALS3 deletion mutant strain, it was shown that cells were not affected in initial adherence to the salivary pellicle or in hyphal formation in the planktonic phase. However, the Als3(-) mutant was unable to form biofilms on the salivary pellicle or deposited S. gordonii DL1 wild-type cells, and after initial adherence, als3Δ/als3Δ (ΔALS3) cells became detached concomitant with hyphal formation. In coaggregation assays, S. gordonii cells attached to, and accumulated around, hyphae formed by C. albicans wild-type cells. However, streptococci failed to attach to hyphae produced by the ΔALS3 mutant. Saccharomyces cerevisiae S150-2B cells expressing Als3p, but not control cells, supported binding of S. gordonii DL1. However, S. gordonii Δ(sspA sspB) cells deficient in production of the surface protein adhesins SspA and SspB showed >50% reduced levels of binding to S. cerevisiae expressing Als3p. Lactococcus lactis cells expressing SspB bound avidly to S. cerevisiae expressing Als3p, but not to S150-2B wild-type cells. These results show that recognition of C. albicans by S. gordonii involves Als3 protein-SspB protein interaction, defining a novel mechanism in fungal-bacterial communication.

  7. The Pix pilus adhesin of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain X2194 (O2 : K(-): H6) is related to Pap pili but exhibits a truncated regulatory region.

    PubMed

    Lügering, Andreas; Benz, Inga; Knochenhauer, Sabine; Ruffing, Michael; Schmidt, M Alexander

    2003-06-01

    Adhesins provide a major advantage for uropathogenic Escherichia coli in establishing urinary tract infections (UTIs). A novel gene cluster responsible for the expression of a filamentous adhesin of the pyelonephritogenic E. coli strain X2194 has been identified, molecularly cloned, and characterized. The 'pix operon' contains eight open reading frames which exhibit significant sequence homology to corresponding genes in the pap operon encoding P pili, the prevalent E. coli adhesins in non-obstructive acute pyelonephritis in humans. Although a pixB gene corresponding to the PapB regulator was identified, a papI homologue could not be found in the pix operon. Instead, a fragment of the R6 gene of the highly uropathogenic E. coli strain CFT073 was identified upstream of pixB. The R6 gene is located in a pathogenicity island containing several pilus-encoding sequences and shows homology to a transposase of Chelatobacter heintzii. In a pixA-lacZ fusion system it was demonstrated that the expression of Pix pili is regulated at the transcriptional level by the R6 gene sequence. A significantly reduced transcription was observed by deleting this fragment and by lowering the growth temperature from 37 to 26 degrees C. In contrast to other filamentous adhesin systems, Pix pili are mainly expressed in the steady state growth phase and were not repressed by the addition of glucose.

  8. A FaeG-FedF-LT192 fusion elicits protective anti-adhesin and antitoxin antibodies against porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains expressing K88 or F18 fimbriae and heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) toxins are the major cause of diarrhea in young pigs. Effective vaccines inducing anti-adhesin (anti-K88 & anti-F18) and antitoxin (anti-LT & anti-ST) 5 immunity would provide ...

  9. Detection of pap, sfa, afa, foc, and fim Adhesin-Encoding Operons in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates Collected From Patients With Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rahdar, Masoud; Rashki, Ahmad; Miri, Hamid Reza; Rashki Ghalehnoo, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) with its virulence factors is the most prevalent cause of urinary tract infection (UTI). Objectives; This study aimed to determine the occurrence of fim, pap, sfa, and afa genes among 100 UPEC isolates collected from patients diagnosed with UTI. Materials and Methods A total of 100 UPEC isolates were obtained from urine samples of patients with UTI. The prevalence of 5 virulence genes encoding type 1 fimbriae (fimH), pili associated with pyelonephritis (pap), S and F1C fimbriae (sfa and foc) and afimbrial adhesins (afa) were determined through PCR method. We also investigated the phylogenetic background of all isolates. In addition, the distribution of adhesin-encoding operons between the phylogroups was assessed. Results: The prevalence of genes encoding for fimbrial adhesive systems was 95% for fim, 57% for pap, 16% for foc, and 81% for sfa. The operons encoding for afa afimbrial adhesins were identified in 12% of isolates. The various combinations of detected genes were designated as virulence patterns. The fim gene, which occurred in strains from all phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2, and D) was evaluated and no significant differences were found among these groups. Conversely, significant differences were observed in relation to pap, afa, foc, and sfa operons. Conclusions: These results indicate that the PCR method is a powerful genotypic assay for the detection of adhesin-encoding operons. Thus, this assay can be recommended for clinical use to detect virulent urinary E. coli strains, as well as epidemiological studies. PMID:26464770

  10. Induction of inflammatory mediators from human polymorphonuclear granulocytes and rat mast cells by haemolysin-positive and -negative E. coli strains with different adhesins.

    PubMed Central

    Scheffer, J; Vosbeck, K; König, W

    1986-01-01

    We investigated the role of various E. coli strains that expressed different adhesins and/or generated haemolysin with regard to the induction of inflammatory mediators, e.g. histamine release from rat mast cells as well as the chemiluminescence response and the release of lipoxygenase transformation products from human polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Our data show that the degree of haemagglutination did not parallel the induction of the chemiluminescence response. Haemolysin-negative bacteria with different adhesins induced more 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid as compared to haemolysin-positive bacteria, which generated more leukotriene B4 as compared to 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. Among the leukotrienes, more leukotriene B4 as compared to leukotriene C4 was released from peripheral leucocytes. Studies with rat mast cells showed that histamine release was dependent on the haemolysin activity expressed by washed bacteria or present within the bacterial culture supernatant. Histamine release was markedly diminished when haemolysin activity decayed. Several haemolysin-negative bacteria with defined adhesins also released histamine, suggesting that, in addition to haemolysin, other factors contribute to mediator release. Thus, various properties of bacteria (e.g. adhesins, haemolysin) may participate to varying degrees in the induction of inflammatory mediators, e.g. oxygen radicals, lipoxygenase transformation products, leucotrienes and histamine. PMID:2433215

  11. Oral Streptococci Utilize a Siglec-Like Domain of Serine-Rich Repeat Adhesins to Preferentially Target Platelet Sialoglycans in Human Blood

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lingquan; Bensing, Barbara A.; Thamadilok, Supaporn; Yu, Hai; Lau, Kam; Chen, Xi; Ruhl, Stefan; Sullam, Paul M.; Varki, Ajit

    2014-01-01

    Damaged cardiac valves attract blood-borne bacteria, and infective endocarditis is often caused by viridans group streptococci. While such bacteria use multiple adhesins to maintain their normal oral commensal state, recognition of platelet sialoglycans provides an intermediary for binding to damaged valvular endocardium. We use a customized sialoglycan microarray to explore the varied binding properties of phylogenetically related serine-rich repeat adhesins, the GspB, Hsa, and SrpA homologs from Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis species, which belong to a highly conserved family of glycoproteins that contribute to virulence for a broad range of Gram-positive pathogens. Binding profiles of recombinant soluble homologs containing novel sialic acid-recognizing Siglec-like domains correlate well with binding of corresponding whole bacteria to arrays. These bacteria show multiple modes of glycan, protein, or divalent cation-dependent binding to synthetic glycoconjugates and isolated glycoproteins in vitro. However, endogenous asialoglycan-recognizing clearance receptors are known to ensure that only fully sialylated glycans dominate in the endovascular system, wherein we find these particular streptococci become primarily dependent on their Siglec-like adhesins for glycan-mediated recognition events. Remarkably, despite an excess of alternate sialoglycan ligands in cellular and soluble blood components, these adhesins selectively target intact bacteria to sialylated ligands on platelets, within human whole blood. These preferred interactions are inhibited by corresponding recombinant soluble adhesins, which also preferentially recognize platelets. Our data indicate that circulating platelets may act as inadvertent Trojan horse carriers of oral streptococci to the site of damaged endocardium, and provide an explanation why it is that among innumerable microbes that gain occasional access to the bloodstream, certain viridans group streptococci have a

  12. The Three-dimensional Structure of the Extracellular Adhesion Domain of the Sialic Acid-binding Adhesin SabA from Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Siew Siew; Nguyen, Stanley Thai Son; Perry, Andrew J.; Day, Christopher J.; Panjikar, Santosh; Tiralongo, Joe; Whisstock, James C.; Kwok, Terry

    2014-01-01

    The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is a major cause of acute chronic gastritis and the development of stomach and duodenal ulcers. Chronic infection furthermore predisposes to the development of gastric cancer. Crucial to H. pylori survival within the hostile environment of the digestive system are the adhesins SabA and BabA; these molecules belong to the same protein family and permit the bacteria to bind tightly to sugar moieties LewisB and sialyl-LewisX, respectively, on the surface of epithelial cells lining the stomach and duodenum. To date, no representative SabA/BabA structure has been determined, hampering the development of strategies to eliminate persistent H. pylori infections that fail to respond to conventional therapy. Here, using x-ray crystallography, we show that the soluble extracellular adhesin domain of SabA shares distant similarity to the tetratricopeptide repeat fold family. The molecule broadly resembles a golf putter in shape, with the head region featuring a large cavity surrounded by loops that vary in sequence between different H. pylori strains. The N-terminal and C-terminal helices protrude at right angles from the head domain and together form a shaft that connects to a predicted outer membrane protein-like β-barrel trans-membrane domain. Using surface plasmon resonance, we were able to detect binding of the SabA adhesin domain to sialyl-LewisX and LewisX but not to LewisA, LewisB, or LewisY. Substitution of the highly conserved glutamine residue 159 in the predicted ligand-binding pocket abrogates the binding of the SabA adhesin domain to sialyl-LewisX and LewisX. Taken together, these data suggest that the adhesin domain of SabA is sufficient in isolation for specific ligand binding. PMID:24375407

  13. Dra/AfaE adhesin of uropathogenic Dr/Afa+ Escherichia coli mediates mortality in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Wroblewska-Seniuk, K; Selvarangan, R; Hart, A; Pladzyk, R; Goluszko, P; Jafari, A; du Merle, L; Nowicki, S; Yallampalli, C; Le Bouguénec, C; Nowicki, B

    2005-11-01

    Escherichia coli bearing adhesins of the Dr/Afa family frequently causes urogenital infections during pregnancy in humans and has been associated with mortality in pregnant rats. Two components of the adhesin, Dra/AfaE and Dra/AfaD, considered virulence factors, are responsible for bacterial binding and internalization. We hypothesize that gestational mortality caused by Dr/Afa+ E. coli is mediated by one of these two proteins, Dra/AfaE or Dra/AfaD. In this study, using afaE and/or afaD mutants, we investigated the role of the afaE and afaD genes in the mortality of pregnant rats from intrauterine infection. Sprague-Dawley rats, on the 17th day of pregnancy, were infected with the E. coli afaE+ afaD and afaE afaD+ mutants. The clinical E. coli strain (afaE+ afaD+) and the afaE afaD double mutant were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The mortality rate was evaluated 24 h after infection. The highest maternal mortality was observed in the group infected with the afaE+ afaD+ strain, followed by the group infected with the afaE+ afaD strain. The mortality was dose dependent. The afaE afaD double mutant did not cause maternal mortality, even with the highest infection dose. The in vivo studies corresponded with the invasion assay, where the afaE+ strains were the most invasive (afaE+ afaD strain > afaE+ afaD+ strain), while the afaE mutant strains (afaE afaD+ and afaE afaD strains) seemed to be noninvasive. This study shows for the first time that the afaE gene coding for the AfaE subunit of Dr/Afa adhesin is involved in the lethal outcome of gestational infection in rats. This lethal effect associated with AfaE correlates with the invasiveness of afaE+ E. coli strains in vitro.

  14. BgaA acts as an adhesin to mediate attachment of some pneumococcal strains to human epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Limoli, Dominique H.; Sladek, Julie A.; Fuller, Lindsey A.; Singh, Anirudh K.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization of the respiratory tract is an essential precursor for pneumococcal disease. To colonize efficiently, bacteria must adhere to the epithelial-cell surface. S. pneumoniae possesses surface-associated exoglycosidases that are capable of sequentially deglycosylating human glycans. Two exoglycosidases, neuraminidase (NanA) and β-galactosidase (BgaA), have previously been shown to contribute to S. pneumoniae adherence to human epithelial cells, as deletion of either of these genes results in reduced adherence. It has been suggested that these enzymes may modulate adherence by cleaving sugars to reveal a receptor on host cells. Pretreatment of epithelial cells with exogenous neuraminidase restores the adherence of a nanA mutant, whereas pretreatment with β-galactosidase does not restore the adherence of a bgaA mutant. These data suggest that BgaA may not function to reveal a receptor, and implicate an alternative role for BgaA in adherence. Here we demonstrate that β-galactosidase activity is not required for BgaA-mediated adherence. Addition of recombinant BgaA (rBgaA) to adherence assays and pretreatment of epithelial cells with rBgaA both significantly reduced the level of adherence of the parental strain, but not the BgaA mutant. One possible explanation of these data is that BgaA is acting as an adhesin and that rBgaA is binding to the receptor, preventing bacterial binding. A bead-binding assay demonstrated that BgaA can bind directly to human epithelial cells, supporting the hypothesis that BgaA is an adhesin. Preliminary characterization of the epithelial-cell receptor suggests that it is a glycan in the context of a glycosphingolipid. To further establish the relevance of this adherence mechanism, we demonstrated that BgaA-mediated adherence contributed to adherence of a recent clinical isolate to primary human epithelial cells. Together, these data suggest a novel role for BgaA as an adhesin and suggest that this

  15. Dra/AfaE Adhesin of Uropathogenic Dr/Afa+ Escherichia coli Mediates Mortality in Pregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wroblewska-Seniuk, K.; Selvarangan, R.; Hart, A.; Pladzyk, R.; Goluszko, P.; Jafari, A.; du Merle, L.; Nowicki, S.; Yallampalli, C.; Le Bouguénec, C.; Nowicki, B.

    2005-01-01

    Escherichia coli bearing adhesins of the Dr/Afa family frequently causes urogenital infections during pregnancy in humans and has been associated with mortality in pregnant rats. Two components of the adhesin, Dra/AfaE and Dra/AfaD, considered virulence factors, are responsible for bacterial binding and internalization. We hypothesize that gestational mortality caused by Dr/Afa+ E. coli is mediated by one of these two proteins, Dra/AfaE or Dra/AfaD. In this study, using afaE and/or afaD mutants, we investigated the role of the afaE and afaD genes in the mortality of pregnant rats from intrauterine infection. Sprague-Dawley rats, on the 17th day of pregnancy, were infected with the E. coli afaE+ afaD and afaE afaD+ mutants. The clinical E. coli strain (afaE+ afaD+) and the afaE afaD double mutant were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The mortality rate was evaluated 24 h after infection. The highest maternal mortality was observed in the group infected with the afaE+ afaD+ strain, followed by the group infected with the afaE+ afaD strain. The mortality was dose dependent. The afaE afaD double mutant did not cause maternal mortality, even with the highest infection dose. The in vivo studies corresponded with the invasion assay, where the afaE+ strains were the most invasive (afaE+ afaD strain > afaE+ afaD+ strain), while the afaE mutant strains (afaE afaD+ and afaE afaD strains) seemed to be noninvasive. This study shows for the first time that the afaE gene coding for the AfaE subunit of Dr/Afa adhesin is involved in the lethal outcome of gestational infection in rats. This lethal effect associated with AfaE correlates with the invasiveness of afaE+ E. coli strains in vitro. PMID:16239563

  16. Characterization of Nonenterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strains Producing F17 Fimbriae Isolated from Diarrheic Lambs and Goat Kids

    PubMed Central

    Cid, D.; Sanz, R.; Marín, I.; de Greve, H.; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, J. A.; Amils, R.; de la Fuente, R.

    1999-01-01

    Forty-five ovine and caprine nonenterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains producing F17-related fimbriae were characterized with respect to the fimbrial structural subunit and adhesin subtypes produced. In addition, several characteristics related to the virulence of strains producing F17 fimbriae were studied. Most of the strains (73%) possessed the f17cA structural subunit gene, whereas the f17aA and f17dA genes were detected only on three (6%) and two (4%) strains, respectively. The f17bA gene was not detected. All but one of these strains possessed the f17G genes of the adhesin subfamily II. The only strain having the f17G gene of subfamily I possessed the structural subunit gene f17dA. Sequencing of the f17A and f17G genes of four selected strains confirmed the association of f17cA and f17dA structural subunit genes with the f17G genes of the adhesin subfamily II. These results indicated that adhesins of the subfamily II are prominent among ovine and caprine isolates and that they are indistinctly associated with the F17 structural subunit subtypes on these field strains. CS31A- and CNF2-related genes were not detected. Most of the strains adhered in vitro to ovine intestinal brush borders (36 of 45) and agglutinated the erythrocytes of different species in the presence of d-mannose (39 of 45). F17-positive strains produced colicin V (57%) and were resistant to the bactericidal effect of serum (91%) in significantly higher percentages than F17-negative strains (34% produced colicin V, and 66% were serum resistant). Thus, most of the studied ovine and caprine strains showed phenotypic characteristics of septicemic strains. PMID:10203489

  17. Dimeric and Trimeric Fusion Proteins Generated with Fimbrial Adhesins of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Luna-Pineda, Víctor M.; Reyes-Grajeda, Juan Pablo; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; Saldaña-Ahuactzi, Zeus; Ochoa, Sara A.; Maldonado-Bernal, Carmen; Cázares-Domínguez, Vicenta; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia; Arellano-Galindo, José; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the main etiologic agent. Fimbriae assembled on the bacterial surface are essential for adhesion to the urinary tract epithelium. In this study, the FimH, CsgA, and PapG adhesins were fused to generate biomolecules for use as potential target vaccines against UTIs. The fusion protein design was generated using bioinformatics tools, and template fusion gene sequences were synthesized by GenScript in the following order fimH-csgA-papG-fimH-csgA (fcpfc) linked to the nucleotide sequence encoding the [EAAAK]5 peptide. Monomeric (fimH, csgA, and papG), dimeric (fimH-csgA), and trimeric (fimH-csgA-papG) genes were cloned into the pLATE31 expression vector and generated products of 1040, 539, 1139, 1442, and 2444 bp, respectively. Fusion protein expression in BL21 E. coli was induced with 1 mM IPTG, and His-tagged proteins were purified under denaturing conditions and refolded by dialysis using C-buffer. Coomassie blue-stained SDS-PAGE gels and Western blot analysis revealed bands of 29.5, 11.9, 33.9, 44.9, and 82.1 kDa, corresponding to FimH, CsgA, PapG, FC, and FCP proteins, respectively. Mass spectrometry analysis by MALDI-TOF/TOF revealed specific peptides that confirmed the fusion protein structures. Dynamic light scattering analysis revealed the polydispersed state of the fusion proteins. FimH, CsgA, and PapG stimulated the release of 372–398 pg/mL IL-6; interestingly, FC and FCP stimulated the release of 464.79 pg/mL (p ≤ 0.018) and 521.24 pg/mL (p ≤ 0.002) IL-6, respectively. In addition, FC and FCP stimulated the release of 398.52 pg/mL (p ≤ 0.001) and 450.40 pg/mL (p ≤ 0.002) IL-8, respectively. High levels of IgA and IgG antibodies in human sera reacted against the fusion proteins, and under identical conditions, low levels of IgA and IgG antibodies were detected in human urine. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies

  18. Dimeric and Trimeric Fusion Proteins Generated with Fimbrial Adhesins of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Luna-Pineda, Víctor M; Reyes-Grajeda, Juan Pablo; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; Saldaña-Ahuactzi, Zeus; Ochoa, Sara A; Maldonado-Bernal, Carmen; Cázares-Domínguez, Vicenta; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia; Arellano-Galindo, José; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the main etiologic agent. Fimbriae assembled on the bacterial surface are essential for adhesion to the urinary tract epithelium. In this study, the FimH, CsgA, and PapG adhesins were fused to generate biomolecules for use as potential target vaccines against UTIs. The fusion protein design was generated using bioinformatics tools, and template fusion gene sequences were synthesized by GenScript in the following order fimH-csgA-papG-fimH-csgA (fcpfc) linked to the nucleotide sequence encoding the [EAAAK]5 peptide. Monomeric (fimH, csgA, and papG), dimeric (fimH-csgA), and trimeric (fimH-csgA-papG) genes were cloned into the pLATE31 expression vector and generated products of 1040, 539, 1139, 1442, and 2444 bp, respectively. Fusion protein expression in BL21 E. coli was induced with 1 mM IPTG, and His-tagged proteins were purified under denaturing conditions and refolded by dialysis using C-buffer. Coomassie blue-stained SDS-PAGE gels and Western blot analysis revealed bands of 29.5, 11.9, 33.9, 44.9, and 82.1 kDa, corresponding to FimH, CsgA, PapG, FC, and FCP proteins, respectively. Mass spectrometry analysis by MALDI-TOF/TOF revealed specific peptides that confirmed the fusion protein structures. Dynamic light scattering analysis revealed the polydispersed state of the fusion proteins. FimH, CsgA, and PapG stimulated the release of 372-398 pg/mL IL-6; interestingly, FC and FCP stimulated the release of 464.79 pg/mL (p ≤ 0.018) and 521.24 pg/mL (p ≤ 0.002) IL-6, respectively. In addition, FC and FCP stimulated the release of 398.52 pg/mL (p ≤ 0.001) and 450.40 pg/mL (p ≤ 0.002) IL-8, respectively. High levels of IgA and IgG antibodies in human sera reacted against the fusion proteins, and under identical conditions, low levels of IgA and IgG antibodies were detected in human urine. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies

  19. The role of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) in Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion to host tissues and subsequent antibiotic tolerance.

    PubMed

    Costa, A R; Henriques, M; Oliveira, R; Azeredo, J

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) in Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion to host tissues and subsequent antibiotic tolerance. The adherence of S. epidermidis 1457 and the mutant defective in PIA production (1457-M10) to urinary epithelium and endothelium was estimated by colony counting. Minimum bactericidal concentration and mean reduction of cellular activity (XTT) following antibiotic exposure was determined for planktonic and adhered bacteria. S. epidermidis 1457 adhered to a greater extent to both cells than the mutant strain. The adhered strains had a significantly higher antimicrobial tolerance than their planktonic counterparts. The mutant strain was, in general, the most susceptible to the antibiotics assayed. In conclusion, PIA may influence S. epidermidis adherence to host tissues and their antimicrobial susceptibility. Initial adhesion may be the main step for the acquisition of resistance in S. epidermidis.

  20. Structural and Functional Analysis of Cell Wall-anchored Polypeptide Adhesin BspA in Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Rego, Sara; Heal, Timothy J; Pidwill, Grace R; Till, Marisa; Robson, Alice; Lamont, Richard J; Sessions, Richard B; Jenkinson, Howard F; Race, Paul R; Nobbs, Angela H

    2016-07-29

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) is the predominant cause of early-onset infectious disease in neonates and is responsible for life-threatening infections in elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Clinical manifestations of GBS infection include sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis. Here, we describe BspA, a deviant antigen I/II family polypeptide that confers adhesive properties linked to pathogenesis in GBS. Heterologous expression of BspA on the surface of the non-adherent bacterium Lactococcus lactis confers adherence to scavenger receptor gp340, human vaginal epithelium, and to the fungus Candida albicans Complementary crystallographic and biophysical characterization of BspA reveal a novel β-sandwich adhesion domain and unique asparagine-dependent super-helical stalk. Collectively, these findings establish a new bacterial adhesin structure that has in effect been hijacked by a pathogenic Streptococcus species to provide competitive advantage in human mucosal infections. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Proteus mirabilis uroepithelial cell adhesin (UCA) fimbria plays a role in the colonization of the urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, Rafael; Scavone, Paola; Umpiérrez, Ana; Maskell, Duncan J; Zunino, Pablo

    2013-03-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in humans. Proteus mirabilis is an opportunistic pathogen, capable of causing severe UTIs, with serious kidney damage that may even lead to death. Several virulence factors are involved in the pathogenicity of this bacterium. Among these, adherence to the uroepithelium mediated by fimbriae appears to be a significant bacterial attribute related to urovirulence. Proteus mirabilis expresses several types of fimbriae that could be involved in the pathogenesis of UTI, including uroepithelial cell adhesin (UCA). In this report, we used an uropathogenic P. mirabilis wild-type strain and an isogenic ucaA mutant unable to express UCA to study the pathogenic role of this fimbria in UTI. Ability of the mutant to adhere to desquamated uroepithelial cells and to infect mice using different experimental UTI models was significantly impaired. These results allow us to conclude that P. mirabilis UCA plays an important role in the colonization of the urinary tract.

  2. Structural and Functional Analysis of Cell Wall-anchored Polypeptide Adhesin BspA in Streptococcus agalactiae*

    PubMed Central

    Rego, Sara; Heal, Timothy J.; Pidwill, Grace R.; Till, Marisa; Robson, Alice; Lamont, Richard J.; Sessions, Richard B.; Jenkinson, Howard F.; Race, Paul R.; Nobbs, Angela H.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) is the predominant cause of early-onset infectious disease in neonates and is responsible for life-threatening infections in elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Clinical manifestations of GBS infection include sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis. Here, we describe BspA, a deviant antigen I/II family polypeptide that confers adhesive properties linked to pathogenesis in GBS. Heterologous expression of BspA on the surface of the non-adherent bacterium Lactococcus lactis confers adherence to scavenger receptor gp340, human vaginal epithelium, and to the fungus Candida albicans. Complementary crystallographic and biophysical characterization of BspA reveal a novel β-sandwich adhesion domain and unique asparagine-dependent super-helical stalk. Collectively, these findings establish a new bacterial adhesin structure that has in effect been hijacked by a pathogenic Streptococcus species to provide competitive advantage in human mucosal infections. PMID:27311712

  3. Number of positive blood cultures, biofilm formation, and adhesin genes in differentiating true coagulase-negative staphylococci bacteremia from contamination.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou-Olivgeri, I; Giormezis, N; Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, M; Zotou, A; Kolonitsiou, F; Koutsileou, K; Fligou, F; Marangos, M; Anastassiou, E D; Spiliopoulou, I

    2016-01-01

    The significance of the number of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS)-positive blood cultures remains obscure in regards to determining true bacteremia versus contamination. The goal of this study was to determine the predictors of real CNS bloodstream infection among intensive care unit (ICU) patients. ICU patients with at least one CNS-positive blood culture were identified from the microbiology database. Biofilm formation was tested by glass tube and microtiter plate assay. mecA gene, ica operon genes (icaA, icaB, icaD), and adhesin genes (aap, bap, atlE, fbe, fnbA) were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). CNS were recovered from 120 septic episodes, 20 of which were true CNS bacteremias, whereas from the remaining 100 episodes, the isolated CNS were characterized as contaminants. The number of positive blood cultures was significantly associated with true CNS bacteremia. Nineteen true bacteremic Staphylococcus epidermidis strains were compared to 38 contaminants. Biofilm synthesis was documented in 37 isolates associated with the presence of the ica operon (p = 0.048). There were 39, 26, 38, 21, and 10 strains positive for the presence of atlE, bap, fbe, aap, and fnbA genes, respectively. Rifampicin resistance, absence of severe sepsis, number of S. epidermidis-positive blood cultures, and absence of the bap gene were independently associated with true S. epidermidis bacteremia as compared to contaminant strains. The number of positive blood cultures is associated with true CNS bacteremia. The presence of adhesin genes may play a role in differentiating true infection from contamination, whereas absence of the bap gene is associated with true S. epidermidis bacteremia.

  4. Adhesin expression in matched nasopharyngeal and middle ear isolates of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae from children with acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Krasan, G P; Cutter, D; Block, S L; St Geme, J W

    1999-01-01

    The HMW1 and HMW2 proteins, Hia, and hemagglutinating pili are important adherence factors in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. To gain insight into the relative importance of these adhesins in nasopharyngeal colonization and localized respiratory tract disease, we assessed their expression in matched nasopharyngeal and middle ear isolates of nontypeable H. influenzae from 17 children with acute otitis media. In all patients, including 11 with bilateral disease, the matched isolates were isogenic based on total protein profiles and genomic fingerprints. Of the nasopharyngeal isolates, 14 expressed only HMW1/HMW2-like proteins, 1 expressed only Hia, 1 expressed only pili, and 1 expressed both Hia and pili. Further analysis revealed concordance between nasopharyngeal isolates and the matched middle ear isolates for expression of the HMW1/HMW2-like proteins and Hia. In contrast, in the two children whose nasopharynges were colonized by piliated organisms, the corresponding middle ear isolates were nonpiliated and could not be enriched for piliation. Nevertheless, Southern analysis revealed that these two middle ear isolates contained all five hif genes required for pilus biogenesis and had no evidence of major genetic rearrangement. In summary, the vast majority of isolates of nontypeable H. influenzae associated with acute otitis media express HMW1/HMW2-like proteins, with expression present in both the nasopharynx and the middle ear. A smaller fraction of nasopharyngeal isolates express pili, while isogenic strains recovered from the middle ear are often refractory to enrichment for piliation. We speculate that the HMW adhesins and Hia are important at multiple steps in the pathogenesis of otitis media while pili contribute to early colonization and then become dispensable.

  5. Maternal Vaccination with a Fimbrial Tip Adhesin and Passive Protection of Neonatal Mice against Lethal Human Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Luiz, Wilson B.; Rodrigues, Juliana F.; Crabb, Joseph H.

    2015-01-01

    Globally, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a leading cause of childhood and travelers' diarrhea, for which an effective vaccine is needed. Prevalent intestinal colonization factors (CFs) such as CFA/I fimbriae and heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) are important virulence factors and protective antigens. We tested the hypothesis that donor strand-complemented CfaE (dscCfaE), a stabilized form of the CFA/I fimbrial tip adhesin, is a protective antigen, using a lethal neonatal mouse ETEC challenge model and passive dam vaccination. For CFA/I-ETEC strain H10407, which has been extensively studied in volunteers, an inoculum of 2 × 107 bacteria resulted in 50% lethal doses (LD50) in neonatal DBA/2 mice. Vaccination of female DBA/2 mice with CFA/I fimbriae or dscCfaE, each given with a genetically attenuated LT adjuvant (LTK63) by intranasal or orogastric delivery, induced high antigen-specific serum IgG and fecal IgA titers and detectable milk IgA responses. Neonates born to and suckled by dams antenatally vaccinated with each of these four regimens showed 78 to 93% survival after a 20× LD50 challenge with H10407, compared to 100% mortality in pups from dams vaccinated with sham vaccine or LTK63 only. Crossover experiments showed that high pup survival rates after ETEC challenge were associated with suckling but not birthing from vaccinated dams, suggesting that vaccine-specific milk antibodies are protective. In corroboration, preincubation of the ETEC inoculum with antiadhesin and antifimbrial bovine colostral antibodies conferred a dose-dependent increase in pup survival after challenge. These findings indicate that the dscCfaE fimbrial tip adhesin serves as a protective passive vaccine antigen in this small animal model and merits further evaluation. PMID:26371126

  6. Role of β1 integrins and bacterial adhesins for Yop injection into leukocytes in Yersinia enterocolitica systemic mouse infection.

    PubMed

    Deuschle, Eva; Keller, Birgit; Siegfried, Alexandra; Manncke, Birgit; Spaeth, Tanja; Köberle, Martin; Drechsler-Hake, Doreen; Reber, Julia; Böttcher, Ralph T; Autenrieth, Stella E; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Bohn, Erwin; Schütz, Monika

    2016-02-01

    Injection of Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) into host cells by a type III secretion system is an important immune evasion mechanism of Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye). In this process Ye invasin (Inv) binds directly while Yersinia adhesin A (YadA) binds indirectly via extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins to β1 integrins on host cells. Although leukocytes turned out to be an important target of Yop injection by Ye, it was unclear which Ye adhesins and which leukocyte receptors are required for Yop injection. To explain this, we investigated the role of YadA, Inv and β1 integrins for Yop injection into leukocytes and their impact on the course of systemic Ye infection in mice. Ex vivo infection experiments revealed that adhesion of Ye via Inv or YadA is sufficient to promote Yop injection into leukocytes as revealed by a β-lactamase reporter assay. Serum factors inhibit YadA- but not Inv-mediated Yop injection into B and T cells, shifting YadA-mediated Yop injection in the direction of neutrophils and other myeloid cells. Systemic Ye mouse infection experiments demonstrated that YadA is essential for Ye virulence and Yop injection into leukocytes, while Inv is dispensable for virulence and plays only a transient and minor role for Yop injection in the early phase of infection. Ye infection of mice with β1 integrin-depleted leukocytes demonstrated that β1 integrins are dispensable for YadA-mediated Yop injection into leukocytes, but contribute to Inv-mediated Yop injection. Despite reduced Yop injection into leukocytes, β1 integrin-deficient mice exhibited an increased susceptibility for Ye infection, suggesting an important role of β1 integrins in immune defense against Ye. This study demonstrates that Yop injection into leukocytes by Ye is largely mediated by YadA exploiting, as yet unknown, leukocyte receptors.

  7. Structural and Functional Analysis of a New Subfamily of Glycosyltransferases Required for Glycosylation of Serine-rich Streptococcal Adhesins

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Fan; Erlandsen, Heidi; Ding, Lei; Li, Jingzhi; Huang, Ying; Zhou, Meixian; Liang, Xiaobo; Ma, Jinbiao; Wu, Hui

    2011-09-16

    Serine-rich repeat glycoproteins (SRRPs) are a growing family of bacterial adhesins found in many streptococci and staphylococci; they play important roles in bacterial biofilm formation and pathogenesis. Glycosylation of this family of adhesins is essential for their biogenesis. A glucosyltransferase (Gtf3) catalyzes the second step of glycosylation of a SRRP (Fap1) from an oral streptococcus, Streptococcus parasanguinis. Although Gtf3 homologs are highly conserved in SRRP-containing streptococci, they share minimal homology with functionally known glycosyltransferases. We report here the 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of Gtf3. The structural analysis indicates that Gtf3 forms a tetramer and shares significant structural homology with glycosyltransferases from GT4, GT5, and GT20 subfamilies. Combining crystal structural analysis with site-directed mutagenesis and in vitro glycosyltransferase assays, we identified residues that are required for UDP- or UDP-glucose binding and for oligomerization of Gtf3 and determined their contribution to the enzymatic activity of Gtf3. Further in vivo studies revealed that the critical amino acid residues identified by the structural analysis are crucial for Fap1 glycosylation in S. parasanguinis in vivo. Moreover, Gtf3 homologs from other streptococci were able to rescue the gtf3 knock-out mutant of S. parasanguinis in vivo and catalyze the sugar transfer to the modified SRRP substrate in vitro, demonstrating the importance and conservation of the Gtf3 homologs in glycosylation of SRRPs. As the Gtf3 homologs only exist in SRRP-containing streptococci, we conclude that the Gtf3 homologs represent a unique subfamily of glycosyltransferases.

  8. Suppression subtractive hybridization identifies an autotransporter adhesin gene of E. coli IMT5155 specifically associated with avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC).

    PubMed

    Dai, Jianjun; Wang, Shaohui; Guerlebeck, Doreen; Laturnus, Claudia; Guenther, Sebastian; Shi, Zhenyu; Lu, Chengping; Ewers, Christa

    2010-09-09

    Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) represent a phylogenetically diverse group of bacteria which are implicated in a large range of infections in humans and animals. Although subgroups of different ExPEC pathotypes, including uropathogenic, newborn meningitis causing, and avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) share a number of virulence features, there still might be factors specifically contributing to the pathogenesis of a certain subset of strains or a distinct pathotype. Thus, we made use of suppression subtractive hybridization and compared APEC strain IMT5155 (O2:K1:H5; sequence type complex 95) with human uropathogenic E. coli strain CFT073 (O6:K2:H5; sequence type complex 73) to identify factors which may complete the currently existing model of APEC pathogenicity and further elucidate the position of this avian pathotype within the whole ExPEC group. Twenty-eight different genomic loci were identified, which are present in IMT5155 but not in CFT073. One of these loci contained a gene encoding a putative autotransporter adhesin. The open reading frame of the gene spans a 3,498 bp region leading to a putative 124-kDa adhesive protein. A specific antibody was raised against this protein and expression of the adhesin was shown under laboratory conditions. Adherence and adherence inhibition assays demonstrated a role for the corresponding protein in adhesion to DF-1 chicken fibroblasts. Sequence analyses revealed that the flanking regions of the chromosomally located gene contained sequences of mobile genetic elements, indicating a probable spread among different strains by horizontal gene transfer. In accordance with this hypothesis, the adhesin was found to be present not only in different phylogenetic groups of extraintestinal pathogenic but also of commensal E. coli strains, yielding a significant association with strains of avian origin. We identified a chromosomally located autotransporter gene in a highly virulent APEC strain which confers increased

  9. A recombinant chimera composed of R1 repeat region of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae P97 adhesin with Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit elicits immune response in mice.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Fabricio Rochedo; Moreira, Angela Nunes; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio

    2006-07-17

    Swine mycoplasmal pneumonia (SMP), caused by fastidious bacterium Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, is the most important respiratory disease in swine breeding. The commonly used vaccines to control this disease consist of inactivated whole cells (bacterins), whose production cost is high and the efficiency is limited. The objective of this study was to develop and to evaluate in BALB/c mice a recombinant subunit vaccine (rLTBR1) containing the R1 region of P97 adhesin of M. hyopneumoniae (R1) fused to the B subunit of the heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LTB). rLTBR1 formed functional oligomers that presented high affinity to GM1 ganglioside. Mice inoculated with rLTBR1 by intranasal (IN) or intramuscular (IM) route produced high levels of anti-R1 systemic and mucosal antibodies (IgA), which recognized the native P97. On the other hand, mice inoculated with the inactivated whole cell vaccine did not produce anti-R1 antibodies. The administration route influenced the modulation of the immune response by LTB, showing that IM rLTBR1 induced Th2-biased immune responses and IN rLTBR1 induced Th1-biased immune responses. rLTBR1 administrated by IN route also induced IFN-gamma secretion by lymphocytes. rLTBR1 may constitute a new strategy for preventing infection by M. hyopneumoniae and may have potential for developing vaccines against other infectious diseases as well.

  10. Antibodies to the HMW1/HMW2 and Hia Adhesins of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Mediate Broad-Based Opsonophagocytic Killing of Homologous and Heterologous Strains

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Linda E.

    2014-01-01

    The HMW1/HMW2 and Hia proteins are highly immunogenic surface adhesins of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Approximately 75% of NTHi strains express HMW1/HMW2 adhesins, and most of the remaining 25% express an Hia adhesin. Our objective in this study was to assess the ability of antisera raised against purified HMW1/HMW2 proteins or recombinant Hia proteins to mediate opsonophagocytic killing of a large panel of unrelated NTHi strains. Native HMW1/HMW2 proteins were purified from three HMW1/HMW2-expressing NTHi strains. Recombinant fusion proteins expressing surface-exposed segments of either of two prototype Hia proteins were purified from Escherichia coli transformants. Immune sera raised in guinea pigs were assessed for their ability to mediate killing of NTHi in an opsonophagocytic assay with the HL-60 phagocytic cell line. The three HMW1/HMW2 antisera mediated killing of 22 of 65, 43 of 65, and 28 of 65 unrelated HMW1/HMW2-expressing NTHi strains, respectively. As a group, the three sera mediated killing of 48 of 65 HMW1/HMW2-expressing strains. The two Hia immune sera mediated killing of 12 of 24 and 13 of 24 unrelated Hia-expressing NTHi strains, respectively. Together, they mediated killing of 15 of 24 Hia-expressing strains. Neither the HMW1/HMW2 nor the Hia antisera mediated killing of NTHi expressing the alternative adhesin type. Antibodies directed against native HMW1/HMW2 proteins and recombinant Hia proteins are capable of mediating broad-based opsonophagocytic killing of homologous and heterologous NTHi strains. A vaccine formulated with a limited number of HMW1/HMW2 and Hia proteins might provide protection against disease caused by most NTHi strains. PMID:24574538

  11. Pathogenesis of human diffusely adhering Escherichia coli expressing Afa/Dr adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC): current insights and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Servin, Alain L

    2014-10-01

    The pathogenicity and clinical pertinence of diffusely adhering Escherichia coli expressing the Afa/Dr adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC) in urinary tract infections (UTIs) and pregnancy complications are well established. In contrast, the implication of intestinal Afa/Dr DAEC in diarrhea is still under debate. These strains are age dependently involved in diarrhea in children, are apparently not involved in diarrhea in adults, and can also be asymptomatic intestinal microbiota strains in children and adult. This comprehensive review analyzes the epidemiology and diagnosis and highlights recent progress which has improved the understanding of Afa/Dr DAEC pathogenesis. Here, I summarize the roles of Afa/Dr DAEC virulence factors, including Afa/Dr adhesins, flagella, Sat toxin, and pks island products, in the development of specific mechanisms of pathogenicity. In intestinal epithelial polarized cells, the Afa/Dr adhesins trigger cell membrane receptor clustering and activation of the linked cell signaling pathways, promote structural and functional cell lesions and injuries in intestinal barrier, induce proinflammatory responses, create angiogenesis, instigate epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like events, and lead to pks-dependent DNA damage. UTI-associated Afa/Dr DAEC strains, following adhesin-membrane receptor cell interactions and activation of associated lipid raft-dependent cell signaling pathways, internalize in a microtubule-dependent manner within urinary tract epithelial cells, develop a particular intracellular lifestyle, and trigger a toxin-dependent cell detachment. In response to Afa/Dr DAEC infection, the host epithelial cells generate antibacterial defense responses. Finally, I discuss a hypothetical role of intestinal Afa/Dr DAEC strains that can act as "silent pathogens" with the capacity to emerge as "pathobionts" for the development of inflammatory bowel disease and intestinal carcinogenesis.

  12. Protection of gerbils from amebic liver abscess by immunization with a recombinant protein derived from the 170-kilodalton surface adhesin of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, T; Stanley, S L

    1994-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica causes extensive morbidity and mortality worldwide through intestinal infection and amebic liver abscess. Here we show that vaccination of gerbils, a standard model for amebic liver abscess, with recombinant proteins derived from the 170-kDa galactose-binding adhesin of E. histolytica and the serine-rich E. histolytica protein or a combination of the two recombinant antigens provides excellent protection against subsequent hepatic challenge with virulent E. histolytica trophozoites. PMID:8188384

  13. Pathogenesis of Human Diffusely Adhering Escherichia coli Expressing Afa/Dr Adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC): Current Insights and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The pathogenicity and clinical pertinence of diffusely adhering Escherichia coli expressing the Afa/Dr adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC) in urinary tract infections (UTIs) and pregnancy complications are well established. In contrast, the implication of intestinal Afa/Dr DAEC in diarrhea is still under debate. These strains are age dependently involved in diarrhea in children, are apparently not involved in diarrhea in adults, and can also be asymptomatic intestinal microbiota strains in children and adult. This comprehensive review analyzes the epidemiology and diagnosis and highlights recent progress which has improved the understanding of Afa/Dr DAEC pathogenesis. Here, I summarize the roles of Afa/Dr DAEC virulence factors, including Afa/Dr adhesins, flagella, Sat toxin, and pks island products, in the development of specific mechanisms of pathogenicity. In intestinal epithelial polarized cells, the Afa/Dr adhesins trigger cell membrane receptor clustering and activation of the linked cell signaling pathways, promote structural and functional cell lesions and injuries in intestinal barrier, induce proinflammatory responses, create angiogenesis, instigate epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like events, and lead to pks-dependent DNA damage. UTI-associated Afa/Dr DAEC strains, following adhesin-membrane receptor cell interactions and activation of associated lipid raft-dependent cell signaling pathways, internalize in a microtubule-dependent manner within urinary tract epithelial cells, develop a particular intracellular lifestyle, and trigger a toxin-dependent cell detachment. In response to Afa/Dr DAEC infection, the host epithelial cells generate antibacterial defense responses. Finally, I discuss a hypothetical role of intestinal Afa/Dr DAEC strains that can act as “silent pathogens” with the capacity to emerge as “pathobionts” for the development of inflammatory bowel disease and intestinal carcinogenesis. PMID:25278576

  14. Helicobacter pylori Strains from Duodenal Ulcer Patients Exhibit Mixed babA/B Genotypes with Low Levels of BabA Adhesin and Lewis b Binding.

    PubMed

    Saberi, Samaneh; Schmidt, Alexej; Eybpoosh, Sana; Esmaili, Maryam; Talebkhan, Yeganeh; Mohajerani, Nazanin; Oghalaie, Akbar; Eshagh Hosseini, Mahmoud; Mohagheghi, Mohammad Ali; Bugaytova, Jeanna; Borén, Thomas; Mohammadi, Marjan

    2016-10-01

    BabA is a Helicobacter pylori cell surface adhesin, which binds to the ABO/Le(b) histo-blood group antigens (Le(b)) and serves as a virulence factor. H. pylori single colonies were isolated from 156 [non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) = 97, duodenal ulcer (DU) = 34, gastric cancer (GC) = 25)] patients. babA and babB genes were evaluated by gene/locus-specific PCR. BabA protein expression and Le(b) binding activity were determined by immunoblotting and ELISA, respectively. The combined categorization of H. pylori strains based on high, low or no levels of BabA expression and Le(b) binding, produced 4 groups: (I) BabA-high/Le(b)-high (36 %), (II) BabA-low/Le(b)-low (26 %), (III) BabA-neg/Le(b)-low (30 %) and (IV) BabA-neg/Le(b)-neg (8 %) strains. The majority (63 %) of the BabA-low/Le(b)-low strains exhibited mixed babA/B genotypes as compared to merely 18 % of the BabA-high/Le(b)-high, 15 % of the BabA-neg/Le(b)-neg and 11 % of the BabA-neg/Le(b)-low (P = 0.0001) strains. In contrast to NUD strains, the great majority (70 %) of DU strains were BabA-low/Le(b)-low (11 %, P = 0.0001), which compared to NUD strains, enhanced the risk of DU by 18.8-fold. In parallel, infection with babA/B mixed genotype strains amplified the risk of DU by 3.6-fold (vs. babA-positive: P = 0.01) to 6.9-fold (vs. babA-negative: P = 0.007). Here, we show higher prevalence of mixed babA/B genotypes among BabA-low/Le(b)-low clinical strains. Recombination of babA and babB genes across their loci may yield lower BabA expression and lower Le(b) binding activity. We conclude that H. pylori strains with lower Le(b) binding activity are better adapted for colonization of the gastric metaplastic patches in the duodenum and enhance the risk of duodenal ulcers.

  15. Protective Immunoglobulin A and G Antibodies Bind to Overlapping Intersubunit Epitopes in the Head Domain of Type 1 Reovirus Adhesin σ1

    PubMed Central

    Helander, Anna; Miller, Cathy L.; Myers, Kimberly S.; Neutra, Marian R.; Nibert, Max L.

    2004-01-01

    Nonfusogenic mammalian orthoreovirus (reovirus) is an enteric pathogen of mice and a useful model for studies of how an enteric virus crosses the mucosal barrier of its host and is subject to control by the mucosal immune system. We recently generated and characterized a new murine immunoglobulin A (IgA)-class monoclonal antibody (MAb), 1E1, that binds to the adhesin fiber, σ1, of reovirus type 1 Lang (T1L) and thereby neutralizes the infectivity of that strain in cell culture. 1E1 is produced in hybridoma cultures as a mixture of monomers, dimers, and higher polymers and is protective against peroral challenges with T1L either when the MAb is passively administered or when it is secreted into the intestines of mice bearing subcutaneous hybridoma tumors. In the present study, selection and analysis of mutants resistant to neutralization by 1E1 identified the region of T1L σ1 to which the MAb binds. The region bound by a previously characterized type 1 σ1-specific neutralizing IgG MAb, 5C6, was identified in the same way. Each of the 15 mutants isolated and analyzed was found to be much less sensitive to neutralization by either 1E1 or 5C6, suggesting the two MAbs bind to largely overlapping regions of σ1. The tested mutants retained the capacity to recognize specific glycoconjugate receptors on rabbit M cells and cultured epithelial cells, even though viral binding to epithelial cells was inhibited by both MAbs. S1 sequence determinations for 12 of the mutants identified σ1 mutations at four positions between residues 415 and 447, which contribute to forming the receptor-binding head domain. When aligned with the σ1 sequence of reovirus type 3 Dearing (T3D) and mapped onto the previously reported crystal structure of the T3D σ1 trimer, the four positions cluster on the side of the σ1 head, across the interface between two subunits. Three such interface-spanning epitopes are thus present per σ1 trimer and require the intact quaternary structure of the head

  16. Atomic force and super-resolution microscopy support a role for LapA as a cell-surface biofilm adhesin of Pseudomonas fluorescens

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Ivan E.; Boyd, Chelsea D.; Newell, Peter D.; Schwartz, Mary E.; Turnbull, Lynne; Johnson, Michael S.; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.; O’Toole, George A.; Camesano, Terri A.

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescence Pf0-1 requires the large repeat protein LapA for stable surface attachment. This study presents direct evidence that LapA is a cell-surface-localized adhesin. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed a significant twofold reduction in adhesion force for mutants lacking the LapA protein on the cell surface compared to the wild-type strain. Deletion of lapG, a gene encoding a periplasmic cysteine protease that functions to release LapA from the cell surface, resulted in a twofold increase in the force of adhesion. Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) revealed the presence of the LapA protein on the cell surface, consistent with its role as an adhesin. The protein is only visualized in the cytoplasm for a mutant of the ABC transporter responsible for translocating LapA to the cell surface. Together, these data highlight the power of combining the use of AFM and 3D-SIM with genetic studies to demonstrate that LapA, a member of a large group of RTX-like repeat proteins, is a cell-surface adhesin. PMID:23064158

  17. Identification and phenotypic characterization of a second collagen adhesin, Scm, and genome-based identification and analysis of 13 other predicted MSCRAMMs, including four distinct pilus loci, in Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Sillanpää, Jouko; Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R.; Prakash, Vittal P.; Qin, Xiang; Hook, Magnus; Weinstock, George M.; Murray, Barbara E.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Attention has recently been drawn to Enterococcus faecium because of an increasing number of nosocomial infections caused by this species and its resistance to multiple antibacterial agents. However, relatively little is known about pathogenic determinants of this organism. We have previously identified a cell wall anchored collagen adhesin, Acm, produced by some isolates of E. faecium, and a secreted antigen, SagA, exhibiting broad spectrum binding to extracellular matrix proteins. Here, we analyzed the draft genome of strain TX0016 for potential MSCRAMMs (microbial surface component recognizing adhesive matrix molecules). Genome-based bioinformatics identified 22 predicted cell wall anchored E. faeciumsurface proteins (Fms) of which 15 (including Acm) have typical characteristics of MSCRAMMs including predicted folding into a modular architecture with multiple immunoglobulin-like domains. Functional characterization of one (Fms10, redesignated Scm for second collagen adhesin of E. faeciu m) revealed that recombinant Scm65 (A- and B-domains) and Scm36 (A-domain) bound efficiently to collagen type V in a concentration dependent manner, bound considerably less to collagen type I and fibrinogen, and differed from Acm in their binding specificities to collagen types IV and V. Results from far-UV circular dichroism of recombinant Scm36 and of Acm37 indicated that these proteins are rich in β-sheets, supporting our folding predictions. Whole-cell ELISA and FACS analyses unambiguously demonstrated surface expression of Scm in most E. faecium isolates. Strikingly, 11 of the 15 predicted MSCRAMMs clustered in four loci, each with a class C sortase gene; 9 of these showed similarity to Enterococcus faecalis Ebp pilus subunits and also contained motifs essential for pilus assembly. Antibodies against one of the predicted major pilus proteins, Fms9 (redesignated as EbpCfm), detected a “ladder” pattern of high-molecular weight protein bands in a Western blot

  18. Identification and phenotypic characterization of a second collagen adhesin, Scm, and genome-based identification and analysis of 13 other predicted MSCRAMMs, including four distinct pilus loci, in Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Sillanpää, Jouko; Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R; Prakash, Vittal P; Qin, Xiang; Höök, Magnus; Weinstock, George M; Murray, Barbara E

    2008-10-01

    Attention has recently been drawn to Enterococcus faecium because of an increasing number of nosocomial infections caused by this species and its resistance to multiple antibacterial agents. However, relatively little is known about the pathogenic determinants of this organism. We have previously identified a cell-wall-anchored collagen adhesin, Acm, produced by some isolates of E. faecium, and a secreted antigen, SagA, exhibiting broad-spectrum binding to extracellular matrix proteins. Here, we analysed the draft genome of strain TX0016 for potential microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs). Genome-based bioinformatics identified 22 predicted cell-wall-anchored E. faecium surface proteins (Fms), of which 15 (including Acm) had characteristics typical of MSCRAMMs, including predicted folding into a modular architecture with multiple immunoglobulin-like domains. Functional characterization of one [Fms10; redesignated second collagen adhesin of E. faecium (Scm)] revealed that recombinant Scm(65) (A- and B-domains) and Scm(36) (A-domain) bound to collagen type V efficiently in a concentration-dependent manner, bound considerably less to collagen type I and fibrinogen, and differed from Acm in their binding specificities to collagen types IV and V. Results from far-UV circular dichroism measurements of recombinant Scm(36) and of Acm(37) indicated that these proteins were rich in beta-sheets, supporting our folding predictions. Whole-cell ELISA and FACS analyses unambiguously demonstrated surface expression of Scm in most E. faecium isolates. Strikingly, 11 of the 15 predicted MSCRAMMs clustered in four loci, each with a class C sortase gene; nine of these showed similarity to Enterococcus faecalis Ebp pilus subunits and also contained motifs essential for pilus assembly. Antibodies against one of the predicted major pilus proteins, Fms9 (redesignated EbpC(fm)), detected a 'ladder' pattern of high-molecular-mass protein bands in a

  19. Nucleotide sequence of the afimbrial-adhesin-encoding afa-3 gene cluster and its translocation via flanking IS1 insertion sequences.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M I; Labigne, A; Le Bouguenec, C

    1994-12-01

    The afa gene clusters encode afimbrial adhesins (AFAs) that are expressed by uropathogenic and diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli strains. The plasmid-borne afa-3 gene cluster is responsible for the biosynthesis of the AFA-III adhesin that belongs to the Dr family of hemagglutinins. Reported in this work is the nucleotide sequence of the 9.2-kb insert of the recombinant plasmid pILL61, which contains the afa-3 gene cluster cloned from a cystitis-associated E. coli strain (A30). The afa-3 gene cluster was shown to contain six open reading frames, designated afaA to afaF. It was organized in two divergent transcriptional units. Five of the six Afa products showed marked homologies with proteins encoded by previously described adhesion systems that allowed us to attribute to each of them a putative function in the biogenesis of the AFA-III adhesin. AfaE was identified as the structural adhesin product, whereas AfaB and AfaC were recognized as periplasmic chaperone and outer membrane anchor proteins, respectively. The AfaA and AfaF products were shown to be homologous to the PapI-PapB transcriptional regulatory proteins. No function could be attributed to the AfaD product, the gene of which was previously shown to be dispensable for the synthesis of a functional adhesin. Upstream of the afa-3 gene cluster, a 1.2-kb region was found to be 96% identical to the RepFIB sequence of one of the enterotoxigenic E. coli plasmids (P307), suggesting a common ancestor plasmid. This region contains an integrase-like gene (int). Sequence analysis revealed the presence of an IS1 element between the int gene and the afa-3 gene cluster. Two other IS1 elements were detected and located in the vicinity of the afa-3 gene cluster by hybridization experiments. The afa-3 gene cluster was therefore found to be flanked by two IS1 elements in direct orientation and two in opposite orientations. The afa-3 gene cluster, flanked by two directly oriented IS1 elements, was shown to translocate

  20. Nucleotide sequence of the afimbrial-adhesin-encoding afa-3 gene cluster and its translocation via flanking IS1 insertion sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, M I; Labigne, A; Le Bouguenec, C

    1994-01-01

    The afa gene clusters encode afimbrial adhesins (AFAs) that are expressed by uropathogenic and diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli strains. The plasmid-borne afa-3 gene cluster is responsible for the biosynthesis of the AFA-III adhesin that belongs to the Dr family of hemagglutinins. Reported in this work is the nucleotide sequence of the 9.2-kb insert of the recombinant plasmid pILL61, which contains the afa-3 gene cluster cloned from a cystitis-associated E. coli strain (A30). The afa-3 gene cluster was shown to contain six open reading frames, designated afaA to afaF. It was organized in two divergent transcriptional units. Five of the six Afa products showed marked homologies with proteins encoded by previously described adhesion systems that allowed us to attribute to each of them a putative function in the biogenesis of the AFA-III adhesin. AfaE was identified as the structural adhesin product, whereas AfaB and AfaC were recognized as periplasmic chaperone and outer membrane anchor proteins, respectively. The AfaA and AfaF products were shown to be homologous to the PapI-PapB transcriptional regulatory proteins. No function could be attributed to the AfaD product, the gene of which was previously shown to be dispensable for the synthesis of a functional adhesin. Upstream of the afa-3 gene cluster, a 1.2-kb region was found to be 96% identical to the RepFIB sequence of one of the enterotoxigenic E. coli plasmids (P307), suggesting a common ancestor plasmid. This region contains an integrase-like gene (int). Sequence analysis revealed the presence of an IS1 element between the int gene and the afa-3 gene cluster. Two other IS1 elements were detected and located in the vicinity of the afa-3 gene cluster by hybridization experiments. The afa-3 gene cluster was therefore found to be flanked by two IS1 elements in direct orientation and two in opposite orientations. The afa-3 gene cluster, flanked by two directly oriented IS1 elements, was shown to translocate

  1. Inhibitory effect of the human liver-derived antimicrobial peptide hepcidin 20 on biofilms of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA)-positive and PIA-negative strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Brancatisano, Franca Lisa; Maisetta, Giuseppantonio; Di Luca, Mariagrazia; Esin, Semih; Bottai, Daria; Bizzarri, Ranieri; Campa, Mario; Batoni, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis plays a major role in biofilm-related medical device infections. Herein the anti-biofilm activity of the human liver-derived antimicrobial peptide hepcidin 20 (hep20) was evaluated against polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA)-positive and PIA-negative clinical isolates of S. epidermidis. Hep20 markedly inhibited biofilm formation and bacterial cell metabolism of PIA-positive and PIA-negative strains, but the decrease in biofilm biomass only partially correlated with a decrease in viable bacteria. Confocal microscope images revealed that, in the presence of hep20, both PIA-positive and PIA-negative strains formed biofilms with altered architectures and reduced amounts of extracellular matrix. Co-incubation of hep20 with vancomycin produced no synergistic effect, evaluated as number of viable cells, both in preventing biofilm formation and in treating preformed biofilms. In contrast, biofilms obtained in the presence of hep20, and then exposed to vancomycin, displayed an increased susceptibility to vancomycin. These results suggest that hep20 may inhibit the production/accumulation of biofilm extracellular matrix.

  2. The GPI Anchor Signal Sequence Dictates the Folding and Functionality of the Als5 Adhesin from Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Mohammad Faiz; Yadav, Bhawna; Kumar, Pravin; Puri, Amrita; Mazumder, Mohit; Ali, Anwar; Gourinath, Samudrala; Muthuswami, Rohini; Komath, Sneha Sudha

    2012-01-01

    Background Proteins destined to be Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored are translocated into the ER lumen completely before the C-terminal GPI anchor attachment signal sequence (SS) is removed by the GPI-transamidase and replaced by a pre-formed GPI anchor precursor. Does the SS have a role in dictating the conformation and function of the protein as well? Methodology/Principal Findings We generated two variants of the Als5 protein without and with the SS in order to address the above question. Using a combination of biochemical and biophysical techniques, we show that in the case of Als5, an adhesin of C. albicans, the C-terminal deletion of 20 amino acids (SS) results in a significant alteration in conformation and function of the mature protein. Conclusions/Significance We propose that the locking of the conformation of the precursor protein in an alternate conformation from that of the mature protein is one probable strategy employed by the cell to control the behaviour and function of proteins intended to be GPI anchored during their transit through the ER. PMID:22509405

  3. Identification of Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte and HL-60 Cell Receptors for Adhesins of Streptococcus gordonii and Actinomyces naeslundii

    PubMed Central

    Ruhl, Stefan; Cisar, John O.; Sandberg, Ann L.

    2000-01-01

    Interactions of oral streptococci and actinomyces with polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), mediated by sialic acid- and Gal/GalNAc-reactive adhesins, respectively, result in activation of the PMNs and thereby may contribute to the initiation of oral inflammation. Sialidase treatment of PMNs or HL-60 cells abolished adhesion of Streptococcus gordonii but was required for adhesion of Actinomyces naeslundii. The same effects of sialidase were noted for adhesion of these bacteria to a major 150-kDa surface glycoprotein of either PMNs or undifferentiated HL-60 cells and to a 130-kDa surface glycoprotein of differentiated HL-60 cells. These glycoproteins were both identified as leukosialin (CD43) by immunoprecipitation with a specific monoclonal antibody (MAb). Adhesion of streptococci and actinomyces to a 200-kDa minor PMN surface glycoprotein was also detected by bacterial overlay of untreated and sialidase-treated nitrocellulose transfers, respectively. This glycoprotein was identified as leukocyte common antigen (CD45) by immunoprecipitation with a specific MAb. CD43 and CD45 both possess extracellular mucinlike domains in addition to intracellular domains that are implicated in signal transduction. Consequently, the interactions of streptococci and actinomyces with the mucinlike domains of these mammalian cell surface glycoproteins result not only in adhesion but, in addition, may represent the initial step in PMN activation by these bacteria. PMID:11035744

  4. Elongated fibrillar structure of a streptococcal adhesin assembled by the high-affinity association of [alpha]- and PPII-helices

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, Matthew R.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Patel, Manisha H.; Robinette, Rebekah A.; Crowley, Paula J.; Michalek, Suzanne; Brady, L. Jeannine; Deivanayagam, Champion

    2010-08-18

    Streptococcus mutans antigen I/II (AgI/II) is a cell surface-localized protein adhesin that interacts with salivary components within the salivary pellicle. AgI/II contributes to virulence and has been studied as an immunological and structural target, but a fundamental understanding of its underlying architecture has been lacking. Here we report a high-resolution (1.8 {angstrom}) crystal structure of the A{sub 3}VP{sub 1} fragment of S. mutans AgI/II that demonstrates a unique fibrillar form (155 {angstrom}) through the interaction of two noncontiguous regions in the primary sequence. The A{sub 3} repeat of the alanine-rich domain adopts an extended {alpha}-helix that intertwines with the P{sub 1} repeat polyproline type II (PPII) helix to form a highly extended stalk-like structure heretofore unseen in prokaryotic or eukaryotic protein structures. Velocity sedimentation studies indicate that full-length AgI/II that contains three A/P repeats extends over 50 nanometers in length. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that the high-affinity association between the A{sub 3} and P{sub 1} helices is enthalpically driven. Two distinct binding sites on AgI/II to the host receptor salivary agglutinin (SAG) were identified by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The current crystal structure reveals that AgI/II family proteins are extended fibrillar structures with the number of alanine- and proline-rich repeats determining their length.

  5. Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins in Members of the Burkholderia Cepacia Complex: A Multifunctional Family of Proteins Implicated in Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Mil-Homens, Dalila; Fialho, Arsénio M.

    2011-01-01

    Trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) are multimeric surface proteins exclusively found in bacteria. They are involved in various biological traits of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria including adherence, biofilm formation, invasion, survival within eukaryotic cells, serum resistance, and cytotoxicity. TAAs have a modular architecture composed by a conserved membrane-anchored C-terminal domain and a variable number of stalk and head domains. In this study, a bioinformatic approach has been used to analyze the distribution and architecture of TAAs among Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) genomes. Fifteen genomes were probed revealing a total of 74 encoding sequences. Compared with other bacterial species, the Bcc genomes contain a large number of TAAs (two genes to up to eight genes, such as in B. cenocepacia). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the TAAs grouped into at least eight distinct clusters. TAAs with serine-rich repeats are clearly well separated from others, thereby representing a different evolutionary lineage. Comparative gene mapping across Bcc genomes reveals that TAA genes are inserted within conserved synteny blocks. We further focused our analysis on the epidemic strain B. cenocepacia J2315 in which seven TAAs were annotated. Among these, three TAA-encoding genes (BCAM019, BCAM0223, and BCAM0224) are organized into a cluster and are candidates for multifunctional virulence factors. Here we review the current insights into the functional role of BCAM0224 as a model locus. PMID:22919579

  6. Cooperative Role for Tetraspanins in Adhesin-Mediated Attachment of Bacterial Species to Human Epithelial Cells ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Green, Luke R.; Monk, Peter N.; Partridge, Lynda J.; Morris, Paul; Gorringe, Andrew R.; Read, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    The tetraspanins are a superfamily of transmembrane proteins with diverse functions and can form extended microdomains within the plasma membrane in conjunction with partner proteins, which probably includes receptors for bacterial adhesins. Neisseria meningitidis, the causative agent of meningococcal disease, attaches to host nasopharyngeal epithelial cells via type IV pili and opacity (Opa) proteins. We examined the role of tetraspanin function in Neisseria meningitidis adherence to epithelial cells. Tetraspanins CD9, CD63, and CD151 were expressed by HEC-1-B and DETROIT 562 cells. Coincubation of cells with antibodies against all three tetraspanin molecules used individually or in combination, with recombinant tetraspanin extracellular domains (EC2), or with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) significantly reduced adherence of Neisseria meningitidis. In contrast, recombinant CD81, a different tetraspanin, had no effect on meningococcal adherence. Antitetraspanin antibodies reduced the adherence to epithelial cells of Neisseria meningitidis strain derivatives expressing Opa and pili significantly more than isogenic strains lacking these determinants. Adherence to epithelial cells of strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Neisseria lactamica, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus pneumoniae was also reduced by pretreatment of cells with tetraspanin antibodies and recombinant proteins. These data suggest that tetraspanins are required for optimal function of epithelial adhesion platforms containing specific receptors for Neisseria meningitidis and potentially for multiple species of bacteria. PMID:21464080

  7. The Bps polysaccharide of Bordetella pertussis promotes colonization and biofilm formation in the nose by functioning as an adhesin

    PubMed Central

    Conover, Matt S.; Sloan, Gina Parise; Love, Cheraton F.; Sukumar, Neelima; Deora, Rajendar

    2010-01-01

    Summary Many respiratory pathogens establish persistent infection or a carrier state in the human nasopharynx without overt disease symptoms but the presence of these in the lungs usually results in disease. Although the anatomy and microenvironments between nasopharynx and lungs are different, a virulence factor with an organ-specific function in the colonization of the nasopharynx is unknown. In contrast to the severity of pertussis and mortality in non vaccinated young children, Bordetella pertussis results in milder and prolonged cough in vaccinated adolescents and adults. Individuals harboring bacteria in the nasopharynx serve as reservoirs for intra-familial and nosocomial transmission. We show that the Bps polysaccharide of B. pertussis is critical for initial colonization of the mouse nose and the trachea but not of the lungs. Our data reveal a biofilm lifestyle for B. pertussis in the nose and the requirement of Bps in this developmental process. Bps functions as an adhesin by promoting adherence of B. pertussis and E. coli to human nasal but not to human lung epithelia. Patient serum specifically recognized Bps suggesting its expression during natural human infections. We describe the first bacterial factor that exhibits a differential role in colonization and adherence between the nasopharynx and the lungs. PMID:20633227

  8. Leptospira surface adhesin (Lsa21) induces Toll like receptor 2 and 4 mediated inflammatory responses in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Faisal, Syed M.; Varma, Vivek P.; Subathra, M.; Azam, Sarwar; Sunkara, Anil K.; Akif, Mohd; Baig, Mirza. S.; Chang, Yung-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is zoonotic and emerging infectious disease of global importance. Little is understood about Leptospira pathogenesis and host immune response. In the present work we have investigated how Leptospira modulates the host innate immune response mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) via surface exposed proteins. We screened Leptospira outer membrane/surface proteins for their ability to activate/inhibit TLR2/4 signaling in HEK293 cell lines. Of these the 21 kDa Leptospira surface adhesin, Lsa21 had strong TLR2 and TLR4 activity leading to production of proinflammatory cytokines and expression of costimulatory molecules in mouse macrophages. This activity of Lsa21 on innate response was dependent on activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) via stimulating the rapid phosphorylation of p38, JNK and activation of transcription factor NF-κB. Additionally, neutralizing antibodies against TLR2 and TLR4 significantly inhibited cytokine secretion and attenuated Lsa21 induced phosphorylation of p38 and JNK. Furthermore, Lsa21 induced cytokine levels were significantly lower in TLR2−/− and TLR4−/− than in wild type mouse macrophage cell lines. Confocal microscopy and molecular docking confirmed that Lsa21 interacted with both TLR2 and TLR4. These results indicate that Lsa21 is a potent TLR2 and TLR4 agonist that induces strong innate response and may play important role in Leptospira pathogenesis. PMID:27996041

  9. A genome-wide association study identifies a horizontally transferred bacterial surface adhesin gene associated with antimicrobial resistant strains

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masato; Shibayama, Keigo; Yahara, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenems are a class of last-resort antibiotics; thus, the increase in bacterial carbapenem-resistance is a serious public health threat. Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the microorganisms that can acquire carbapenem-resistance; it causes severe nosocomial infection, and is notoriously difficult to control in hospitals. Recently, a machine-learning approach was first used to analyze the genome sequences of hundreds of susceptible and resistant A. baumannii strains, including those carrying commonly acquired resistant mechanisms, to build a classifier that can predict strain resistance. A complementary approach is to explore novel genetic elements that could be associated with the antimicrobial resistance of strains, independent of known mechanisms. Therefore, we carefully selected A. baumannii strains, spanning various genotypes, from public genome databases, and conducted the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of carbapenem resistance. We employed a recently developed method, capable of identifying any kind of genetic variation and accounting for bacterial population structure, and evaluated its effectiveness. Our study identified a surface adhesin gene that had been horizontally transferred to an ancestral branch of A. baumannii, as well as a specific region of that gene that appeared to accumulate multiple individual variations across the different branches of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains. PMID:27892531

  10. Assessment of Pasteurella multocida A Lipopolysaccharide, as an Adhesin in an In Vitro Model of Rabbit Respiratory Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Stefany; Esquinas, Paula; Patiño, Pilar; Martínez, Nhora

    2017-01-01

    The role of the P. multocida lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a putative adhesin during the early stages of infection with this bacterium in the respiratory epithelium of rabbits was investigated. By light microscopy and double enzyme labeling of nasal septa tissues, the amount of bacteria attached to the respiratory epithelium and the amount of LPS present in goblet cells at different experimental times were estimated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and LPS labeling with colloidal gold particles were also used to determine the exact location of LPS in the cells. Septa that were challenged with LPS of P. multocida and 30 minutes later with P. multocida showed more adherent bacteria and more severe lesions than the other treatments. Free LPS was observed in the lumen of the nasal septum, forming bilamellar structures and adhering to the cilia, microvilli, cytoplasmic membrane, and cytoplasm of epithelial ciliated and goblet cells. The above findings suggest that P. multocida LPS plays an important role in the process of bacterial adhesion and that it has the ability of being internalized into host cells. PMID:28251016

  11. The EPA2 adhesin encoding gene is responsive to oxidative stress in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Cepeda, Jacqueline; Orta-Zavalza, Emmanuel; Cañas-Villamar, Israel; Arreola-Gómez, Jorge; Pérez-Cornejo, Gloria Patricia; Hernández-Carballo, Carmen Yudith; Gutiérrez-Escobedo, Guadalupe; Castaño, Irene; De Las Peñas, Alejandro

    2015-11-01

    Candida glabrata has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen in both mucosal and bloodstream infections. C. glabrata contains 67 adhesin-like glycosylphosphatidylinositol-cell-wall proteins (GPI-CWPs), which are classified into seven groups and the largest is the Epa family. Epa proteins are very diverse and their expression is differentially regulated. Like many of the EPA genes, EPA2 is localized in a subtelomeric region where it is subject to chromatin-based transcriptional silencing and its role remains largely unexplored. In this study, we show that EPA2 gene is induced specifically in vitro in the presence of oxidative stress generated by H2O2. This induction is dependent on both Yap1 and Skn7, whereas Msn4 represses EPA2 expression. Interestingly, EPA2 is not induced during phagocytosis, but its expression can be identified in the liver in a murine model of systemic infection. Epa2 has no effect on the virulence of C. glabrata. The work presented herein provides a foundation for future studies to dissect the molecular mechanism(s) by which EPA2 of C. glabrata can be induced in the presence of oxidative stress in a region subject to subtelomeric silencing.

  12. Serotype 3 pneumococci sequester platelet-derived human thrombospondin-1 via the adhesin and immune evasion protein Hic.

    PubMed

    Binsker, Ulrike; Kohler, Thomas P; Krauel, Krystin; Kohler, Sylvia; Habermeyer, Johanna; Schwertz, Hansjörg; Hammerschmidt, Sven

    2017-04-07

    Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3 strains emerge frequently within clinical isolates of invasive diseases. Bacterial invasion into deeper tissues is associated with colonization and immune evasion mechanisms. Thus, pneumococci express a versatile repertoire of surface proteins sequestering and interacting specifically with components of the human extracellular matrix and serum. Hic, a PspC-like pneumococcal surface protein, possesses vitronectin and factor H binding activity. Here, we show that heterologously expressed Hic domains interact, similar to the classical PspC molecule, with human matricellular thrombospondin-1 (hTSP-1). Binding studies with isolated human thrombospondin-1 and various Hic domains suggest that the interaction between hTSP-1 and Hic differs from binding to vitronectin and factor H. Binding of Hic to hTSP-1 is inhibited by heparin and chondroitin sulfate A, indicating binding to the N-terminal globular domain or type I repeats of hTSP-1. Competitive inhibition experiments with other pneumococcal hTSP-1 adhesins demonstrated that PspC and PspC-like Hic recognize similar domains, whereas PavB and Hic can bind simultaneously to hTSP-1. In conclusion, Hic binds specifically hTSP-1; however, truncation in the N-terminal part of Hic decreases the binding activity, suggesting that the full length of the α-helical regions of Hic is required for an optimal interaction.

  13. Phage display revisited: Epitope mapping of a monoclonal antibody directed against Neisseria meningitidis adhesin A using the PROFILER technology

    PubMed Central

    Cariccio, Veronica Lanza; Domina, Maria; Benfatto, Salvatore; Venza, Mario; Venza, Isabella; Faleri, Agnese; Bruttini, Marco; Bartolini, Erika; Giuliani, Marzia Monica; Santini, Laura; Brunelli, Brunella; Norais, Nathalie; Borgogni, Erica; Midiri, Angelina; Galbo, Roberta; Romeo, Letizia; Biondo, Carmelo; Masignani, Vega; Teti, Giuseppe; Felici, Franco; Beninati, Concetta

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is a strong need for rapid and reliable epitope mapping methods that can keep pace with the isolation of increasingly larger numbers of mAbs. We describe here the identification of a conformational epitope using Phage-based Representation OF ImmunoLigand Epitope Repertoire (PROFILER), a recently developed high-throughput method based on deep sequencing of antigen-specific lambda phage-displayed libraries. A novel bactericidal monoclonal antibody (mAb 9F11) raised against Neisseria meningitidis adhesin A (NadA), an important component of the Bexsero® anti-meningococcal vaccine, was used to evaluate the technique in comparison with other epitope mapping methods. The PROFILER technology readily identified NadA fragments that were capable of fully recapitulating the reactivity of the entire antigen against mAb 9F11. Further analysis of these fragments using mutagenesis and hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass-spectrometry allowed us to identify the binding site of mAb 9F11 (A250-D274) and an adjoining sequence (V275-H312) that was also required for the full functional reconstitution of the epitope. These data suggest that, by virtue of its ability to detect a great variety of immunoreactive antigen fragments in phage-displayed libraries, the PROFILER technology can rapidly and reliably identify epitope-containing regions and provide, in addition, useful clues for the functional characterization of conformational mAb epitopes. PMID:26963435

  14. Expression of the meningococcal adhesin NadA is controlled by a transcriptional regulator of the MarR family.

    PubMed

    Schielke, Stephanie; Huebner, Claudia; Spatz, Carolin; Nägele, Virginie; Ackermann, Nikolaus; Frosch, Matthias; Kurzai, Oliver; Schubert-Unkmeir, Alexandra

    2009-05-01

    Two closely related pathogenic species have evolved in the genus Neisseria: N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae, which occupy different host niches and cause different clinical entities. In contrast to the pathogen N. gonorrhoeae, N. meningitidis is a commensal and only rarely becomes invasive. Little is known about the genetic background of the entirely different lifestyles in these closely related species. Meningococcal NMB1843 encodes a transcriptional regulator of the MarR family. The gonococcal homologue FarR regulates expression of farAB, mediating fatty acid resistance. We show that NmFarR also directly interacts with NmfarAB. Yet, by contrast to N. gonorrhoeae, no significant sensitivity to fatty acids was observed in a DeltafarR mutant due to intrinsic resistance of meningococci. Further analyses identified an NmFarR-repressed protein absent from N. gonorrhoeae. This protein is the meningococcus-specific adhesin and vaccine component NadA that has most likely been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. NmFarR binds to a 16 base pair palindromic repeat within the nadA promoter. De-repression of nadA resulted in significantly higher association of a DeltafarR strain with epithelial cells. Hence NmFarR has gained control over a meningococcus-specific gene involved in host colonization and thus contributed to divergent niche adaptation in pathogenic Neisseriae.

  15. Structural basis for mechanical force regulation of the adhesin FimH via finger trap-like beta sheet twisting.

    PubMed

    Le Trong, Isolde; Aprikian, Pavel; Kidd, Brian A; Forero-Shelton, Manu; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Rajagopal, Ponni; Rodriguez, Victoria; Interlandi, Gianluca; Klevit, Rachel; Vogel, Viola; Stenkamp, Ronald E; Sokurenko, Evgeni V; Thomas, Wendy E

    2010-05-14

    The Escherichia coli fimbrial adhesive protein, FimH, mediates shear-dependent binding to mannosylated surfaces via force-enhanced allosteric catch bonds, but the underlying structural mechanism was previously unknown. Here we present the crystal structure of FimH incorporated into the multiprotein fimbrial tip, where the anchoring (pilin) domain of FimH interacts with the mannose-binding (lectin) domain and causes a twist in the beta sandwich fold of the latter. This loosens the mannose-binding pocket on the opposite end of the lectin domain, resulting in an inactive low-affinity state of the adhesin. The autoinhibition effect of the pilin domain is removed by application of tensile force across the bond, which separates the domains and causes the lectin domain to untwist and clamp tightly around the ligand like a finger-trap toy. Thus, beta sandwich domains, which are common in multidomain proteins exposed to tensile force in vivo, can undergo drastic allosteric changes and be subjected to mechanical regulation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Crystal Structure of FadA Adhesin from Fusobacterium nucleatum Reveals a Novel Oligomerization Motif, the Leucine Chain

    SciTech Connect

    Nithianantham, Stanley; Xu, Minghua; Yamada, Mitsunori; Ikegami, Akihiko; Shoham, Menachem; Han, Yiping W.

    2009-04-07

    Many bacterial appendages have filamentous structures, often composed of repeating monomers assembled in a head-to-tail manner. The mechanisms of such linkages vary. We report here a novel protein oligomerization motif identified in the FadA adhesin from the Gram-negative bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum. The 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of the secreted form of FadA (mFadA) reveals two antiparallel {alpha}-helices connected by an intervening 8-residue hairpin loop. Leucine-leucine contacts play a prominent dual intra- and intermolecular role in the structure and function of FadA. First, they comprise the main association between the two helical arms of the monomer; second, they mediate the head-to-tail association of monomers to form the elongated polymers. This leucine-mediated filamentous assembly of FadA molecules constitutes a novel structural motif termed the 'leucine chain.' The essential role of these residues in FadA is corroborated by mutagenesis of selected leucine residues, which leads to the abrogation of oligomerization, filament formation, and binding to host cells.

  17. A distinct sortase SrtB anchors and processes a streptococcal adhesin AbpA with a novel structural property

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiaobo; Liu, Bing; Zhu, Fan; Scannapieco, Frank A.; Haase, Elaine M.; Matthews, Steve; Wu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Surface display of proteins by sortases in Gram-positive bacteria is crucial for bacterial fitness and virulence. We found a unique gene locus encoding an amylase-binding adhesin AbpA and a sortase B in oral streptococci. AbpA possesses a new distinct C-terminal cell wall sorting signal. We demonstrated that this C-terminal motif is required for anchoring AbpA to cell wall. In vitro and in vivo studies revealed that SrtB has dual functions, anchoring AbpA to the cell wall and processing AbpA into a ladder profile. Solution structure of AbpA determined by NMR reveals a novel structure comprising a small globular α/β domain and an extended coiled-coil heliacal domain. Structural and biochemical studies identified key residues that are crucial for amylase binding. Taken together, our studies document a unique sortase/adhesion substrate system in streptococci adapted to the oral environment rich in salivary amylase. PMID:27492581

  18. A food-grade fimbrial adhesin FaeG expression system in Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Lu, W W; Wang, T; Wang, Y; Xin, M; Kong, J

    2016-03-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection is the major cause of diarrhea in neonatal piglets. The fimbriae as colonizing factor in the pathogenesis of ETEC constitute a primary target for vaccination against ETEC. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are attractive tools to deliver antigens at the mucosal level. With the safety of genetically modified LAB in mind, a food-grade secretion vector (pALRc or pALRb) was constructed with DNA entirely from LAB, including the replicon, promoter, signal peptide, and selection marker alanine racemase gene (alr). To evaluate the feasibility of the system, the nuclease gene (nuc) from Staphylococcus aureus was used as a reporter to be expressed in both Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus casei. Subsequently, the extracellular secretion of the fimbrial adhesin FaeG of ETEC was confirmed by Western blot analysis. These results showed that this food-grade expression system has potential as the delivery vehicle for the safe use of genetically modified LAB for the development of vaccines against ETEC infection.

  19. Defensins attenuate cytokine responses yet enhance antibody responses to Porphyromonas gingivalis adhesins in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kohlgraf, Karl G; Ackermann, Abbey; Lu, Xiaoying; Burnell, Kindra; Bélanger, Myriam; Cavanaugh, Joseph E; Xie, Hua; Progulske-Fox, Ann; Brogden, Kim A

    2010-01-01

    Aim Our aim is to assess the ability of human neutrophil peptide α-defensins (HNPs) and human β-defensins (HBDs) to attenuate proinflammatory cytokine responses and enhance antibody responses to recombinant hemagglutinin B (rHagB) or recombinant fimbrillin A (rFimA) from Porphyromonas gingivalis 381 in mice. Materials & methods In the first study, C57BL/6 mice were given 10 μg rHagB or rFimA without and with 1 μg HNP1, HNP2, HBD1, HBD2 or HBD3. At 24 h, mice were euthanized and cytokine concentrations were determined in nasal wash fluid (NWF), bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, saliva and serum. In the second study, C57BL/6 mice were given 10 μg rHagB or rFimA without and with 1 μg HNPs or HBDs similarly on days 0, 7 and 14. At 21 days, mice were euthanized and rHagB- and rFimA-specific antibody responses were determined in NWF, bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, saliva and serum. Results Mice given rHagB + HNP2, rHagB + HBD1 and rHagB + HBD3 produced significantly lower (p < 0.05) IL-6 responses than mice given rHagB alone. Mice given rHagB + HNP1, rHagB + HNP2, rHagB + HBD1 and rHagB + HBD3 produced significantly lower (p < 0.05) keratinocyte-derived chemokine responses than mice given rHagB alone. Mice given rFimA produced very low levels of IL-6 and only moderate levels of keratinocyte-derived chemokine in NWF that were not attenuated by prior incubation of rFimA with any defensin. Mice given rHagB + HNP1 produced a significantly higher (p < 0.05) serum IgG antibody response than mice given rHagB alone and mice given rFimA + HNP2 produced a higher, but not significant, antibody response. Conclusion The ability of HNPs and HBDs to attenuate proinflammatory cytokine responses in murine NWF and enhance IgG antibody responses in serum was dependent upon both the defensin and antigen of P. gingivalis. PMID:20020833

  20. Functional inclusion bodies produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Fabián; Gasser, Brigitte; Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro; Roldán, Mònica; Villegas, Sandra; Puxbaum, Verena; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Unzueta, Ugutz; Vázquez, Esther; Garcia-Fruitós, Elena; Mattanovich, Diethard; Villaverde, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs) are non-toxic protein aggregates commonly produced in recombinant bacteria. They are formed by a mixture of highly stable amyloid-like fibrils and releasable protein species with a significant extent of secondary structure, and are often functional. As nano structured materials, they are gaining biomedical interest because of the combination of submicron size, mechanical stability and biological activity, together with their ability to interact with mammalian cell membranes for subsequent cell penetration in absence of toxicity. Since essentially any protein species can be obtained as IBs, these entities, as well as related protein clusters (e.g., aggresomes), are being explored in biocatalysis and in biomedicine as mechanically stable sources of functional protein. One of the major bottlenecks for uses of IBs in biological interfaces is their potential contamination with endotoxins from producing bacteria. To overcome this hurdle, we have explored here the controlled production of functional IBs in the yeast Pichia pastoris (Komagataella spp.), an endotoxin-free host system for recombinant protein production, and determined the main physicochemical and biological traits of these materials. Quantitative and qualitative approaches clearly indicate the formation of IBs inside yeast, similar in morphology, size and biological activity to those produced in E. coli, that once purified, interact with mammalian cell membranes and penetrate cultured mammalian cells in absence of toxicity. Structurally and functionally similar from those produced in E. coli, the controlled production of IBs in P. pastoris demonstrates that yeasts can be used as convenient platforms for the biological fabrication of self-organizing protein materials in absence of potential endotoxin contamination and with additional advantages regarding, among others, post-translational modifications often required for protein functionality.

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Minor Pilins Prime Type IVa Pilus Assembly and Promote Surface Display of the PilY1 Adhesin*

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Ylan; Sugiman-Marangos, Seiji; Harvey, Hanjeong; Bell, Stephanie D.; Charlton, Carmen L.; Junop, Murray S.; Burrows, Lori L.

    2015-01-01

    Type IV pili (T4P) contain hundreds of major subunits, but minor subunits are also required for assembly and function. Here we show that Pseudomonas aeruginosa minor pilins prime pilus assembly and traffic the pilus-associated adhesin and anti-retraction protein, PilY1, to the cell surface. PilV, PilW, and PilX require PilY1 for inclusion in surface pili and vice versa, suggestive of complex formation. PilE requires PilVWXY1 for inclusion, suggesting that it binds a novel interface created by two or more components. FimU is incorporated independently of the others and is proposed to couple the putative minor pilin-PilY1 complex to the major subunit. The production of small amounts of T4P by a mutant lacking the minor pilin operon was traced to expression of minor pseudopilins from the P. aeruginosa type II secretion (T2S) system, showing that under retraction-deficient conditions, T2S minor subunits can prime T4P assembly. Deletion of all minor subunits abrogated pilus assembly. In a strain lacking the minor pseudopilins, PilVWXY1 and either FimU or PilE comprised the minimal set of components required for pilus assembly. Supporting functional conservation of T2S and T4P minor components, our 1.4 Å crystal structure of FimU revealed striking architectural similarity to its T2S ortholog GspH, despite minimal sequence identity. We propose that PilVWXY1 form a priming complex for assembly and that PilE and FimU together stably couple the complex to the major subunit. Trafficking of the anti-retraction factor PilY1 to the cell surface allows for production of pili of sufficient length to support adherence and motility. PMID:25389296

  2. Structural mechanisms underlying sequence-dependent variations in GAG affinities of decorin binding protein A, a Borrelia burgdorferi adhesin.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Ashli M; Wang, Xu

    2015-05-01

    Decorin-binding protein A (DBPA) is an important surface adhesin of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. DBPA facilitates the bacteria's colonization of human tissue by adhering to glycosaminoglycan (GAG), a sulfated polysaccharide. Interestingly, DBPA sequence variation among different strains of Borrelia spirochetes is high, resulting in significant differences in their GAG affinities. However, the structural mechanisms contributing to these differences are unknown. We determined the solution structures of DBPAs from strain N40 of B. burgdorferi and strain PBr of Borrelia garinii, two DBPA variants whose GAG affinities deviate significantly from strain B31, the best characterized version of DBPA. Our structures revealed that significant differences exist between PBr DBPA and B31/N40 DBPAs. In particular, the C-terminus of PBr DBPA, unlike C-termini from B31 and N40 DBPAs, is positioned away from the GAG-binding pocket and the linker between helices one and two of PBr DBPA is highly structured and retracted from the GAG-binding pocket. The repositioning of the C-terminus allowed the formation of an extra GAG-binding epitope in PBr DBPA and the retracted linker gave GAG ligands more access to the GAG-binding epitopes than other DBPAs. Characterization of GAG ligands' interactions with wild-type (WT) PBr and mutants confirmed the importance of the second major GAG-binding epitope and established the fact that the two epitopes are independent of one another and the new epitope is as important to GAG binding as the traditional epitope.

  3. A novel lily anther-specific gene encodes adhesin-like proteins associated with exine formation during anther development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming-Che; Yang, Cheng-Shou; Wang, Co-Shine

    2014-01-01

    The anther-specific gene LLA1271 isolated from lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) anthers is novel and exists in two forms. The protein encoded by LLA1271 may represent an adhesin-like protein first found in higher plants. The protein contains a typical N-terminal signal peptide followed by a highly conserved repeat domain. The LLA1271 gene is temporally expressed at the phase of microspore development. RNA blot and RNA in situ hybridization analyses demonstrated that the gene was expressed both in the tapetum and in the microspore. The gene is endo- and exogenously induced by gibberellin. Studies with the gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor uniconazole and an inhibitor of ethylene activity, 2,5-norbornadien (NBD), revealed that LLA1271 is negatively regulated by ethylene, and a cross-talk of regulation between gibberellin and ethylene occurs in young anthers. The treatment with NBD caused the tapetum to become densely cytoplasmic and highly polarized, whereas uniconazole arrested tapetal development in a state close to that of a tapetum without treatment. The LLA1271 protein is heat stable and heterogeneous. An immunoblot of separated protein fractions of the anther revealed that the LLA1271 protein was detected in protein fraction of the microspore released from the cell wall by treatment with either 0.5% or 2% Triton X-100. Ectopic expression of LLA1271 resulted in impaired stamen and low pollen germination. Scanning electron microscopy of TAP::LLA1271 pollen showed distorted exine formation and patterning. The LLA1271 protein once synthesized in both the tapetum and microspore is secreted and deposited on the surface of microspores, moderately affecting exine formation and patterning. PMID:24591055

  4. Characterization and functional analysis of AatB, a novel autotransporter adhesin and virulence factor of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhuge, Xiangkai; Wang, Shaohui; Fan, Hongjie; Pan, Zihao; Ren, Jianluan; Yi, Li; Meng, Qingmei; Yang, Xuqiu; Lu, Chengping; Dai, Jianjun

    2013-07-01

    Autotransporter (AT) proteins constitute a large family of extracellular proteins that contribute to bacterial virulence. A novel AT adhesin gene, aatB, was identified in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) DE205B via genomic analyses. The open reading frame of aatB was 1,017 bp, encoding a putative 36.3-kDa protein which contained structural motifs characteristic for AT proteins: a signal peptide, a passenger domain, and a translocator domain. The predicted three-dimensional structure of AatB consisted of two distinct domains, the C-terminal β-barrel translocator domain and an N-terminal passenger domain. The prevalence analyses of aatB in APEC indicated that aatB was detected in 26.4% (72/273) of APEC strains and was strongly associated with phylogenetic groups D and B2. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses revealed that AatB expression was increased during infection in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, AatB could elicit antibodies in infected ducks, suggesting that AatB is involved in APEC pathogenicity. Thus, APEC DE205B strains with a mutated aatB gene and mutated strains complemented with the aatB gene were constructed. Inactivation of aatB resulted in a reduced capacity to adhere to DF-1 cells, defective virulence capacity in vivo, and decreased colonization capacity in lung during systemic infection compared with the capacities of the wild-type strain. Furthermore, these capacities were restored in the complementation strains. These results indicated that AatB makes a significant contribution to APEC virulence through bacterial adherence to host tissues in vivo and in vitro. In addition, biofilm formation assays with strain AAEC189 expressing AatB indicated that AatB mediates biofilm formation.

  5. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii.

    PubMed

    Lima, Bruno P; Shi, Wenyuan; Lux, Renate

    2017-02-07

    To successfully colonize the oral cavity, bacteria must directly or indirectly adhere to available oral surfaces. Fusobacterium nucleatum plays an important role in oral biofilm community development due to its broad adherence abilities, serving as a bridge between members of the oral biofilm that cannot directly bind to each other. In our efforts to characterize the molecular mechanisms utilized by F. nucleatum to physically bind to key members of the oral community, we investigated the involvement of F. nucleatum outer membrane proteins in its ability to bind to the pioneer biofilm colonizer, Streptococcus gordonii. Here, we present evidence that in addition to the previously characterized fusobacterial adhesin RadD, the interaction between F. nucleatum ATCC 23726 and S. gordonii V288 involves a second outer membrane protein, which we named coaggregation mediating protein A (CmpA). We also characterized the role of CmpA in dual-species biofilm formation with S. gordonii V288, evaluated growth-phase-dependent as well as biofilm expression profiles of radD and cmpA, and confirmed an important role for CmpA, especially under biofilm growth conditions. Our findings underscore the complex set of specific interactions involved in physical binding and thus community integration of interacting bacterial species. This complex set of interactions could have critical implications for the formation and maturation of the oral biofilms in vivo, and could provide clues to the mechanism behind the distribution of organisms inside the human oral cavity.

  6. Structural Basis for Toughness and Flexibility in the C-terminal Passenger Domain of an Acinetobacter Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesin*

    PubMed Central

    Koiwai, Kotaro; Hartmann, Marcus D.; Linke, Dirk; Lupas, Andrei N.; Hori, Katsutoshi

    2016-01-01

    Trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) on the cell surface of Gram-negative pathogens mediate bacterial adhesion to host cells and extracellular matrix proteins. However, AtaA, a TAA in the nonpathogenic Acinetobacter sp. strain Tol 5, shows nonspecific high adhesiveness to abiotic material surfaces as well as to biotic surfaces. It consists of a passenger domain secreted by the C-terminal transmembrane anchor domain (TM), and the passenger domain contains an N-terminal head, N-terminal stalk, C-terminal head (Chead), and C-terminal stalk (Cstalk). The Chead-Cstalk-TM fragment, which is conserved in many Acinetobacter TAAs, has by itself the head-stalk-anchor architecture of a complete TAA. Here, we show the crystal structure of the Chead-Cstalk fragment, AtaA_C-terminal passenger domain (CPSD), providing the first view of several conserved TAA domains. The YadA-like head (Ylhead) of the fragment is capped by a unique structure (headCap), composed of three β-hairpins and a connector motif; it also contains a head insert motif (HIM1) before its last inner β-strand. The headCap, Ylhead, and HIM1 integrally form a stable Chead structure. Some of the major domains of the CPSD fragment are inherently flexible and provide bending sites for the fiber between segments whose toughness is ensured by topological chain exchange and hydrophobic core formation inside the trimer. Thus, although adherence assays using in-frame deletion mutants revealed that the characteristic adhesive sites of AtaA reside in its N-terminal part, the flexibility and toughness of the CPSD part provide the resilience that enables the adhesive properties of the full-length fiber across a wide range of conditions. PMID:26698633

  7. NADH Oxidase Functions as an Adhesin in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Elicits a Protective Immune Response in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ohayon, Ariel; Dotan, Shahar; Malka, Itai; Azriel, Shalhevet; Shagan, Marilou; Portnoi, Maxim; Kafka, Daniel; Nahmani, Hannie; Porgador, Angel; Gershoni, Johnatan M.; Morrison, Donald A.; Mitchell, Andrea; Tal, Michael; Ellis, Ronald; Dagan, Ron; Nebenzahl, Yaffa Mizrachi

    2013-01-01

    The initial event in disease caused by S. pneumoniae is adhesion of the bacterium to respiratory epithelial cells, mediated by surface expressed molecules including cell-wall proteins. NADH oxidase (NOX), which reduces free oxygen to water in the cytoplasm, was identified in a non-lectin enriched pneumococcal cell-wall fraction. Recombinant NOX (rNOX) was screened with sera obtained longitudinally from children and demonstrated age-dependent immunogenicity. NOX ablation in S. pneumoniae significantly reduced bacterial adhesion to A549 epithelial cells in vitro and their virulence in the intranasal or intraperitoneal challenge models in mice, compared to the parental strain. Supplementation of Δnox WU2 with the nox gene restored its virulence. Saturation of A549 target cells with rNOX or neutralization of cell-wall residing NOX using anti-rNOX antiserum decreased adhesion to A549 cells. rNOX-binding phages inhibited bacterial adhesion. Moreover, peptides derived from the human proteins contactin 4, chondroitin 4 sulfotraferase and laminin5, homologous to the insert peptides in the neutralizing phages, inhibited bacterial adhesion to the A549 cells. Furthermore, rNOX immunization of mice elicited a protective immune response to intranasal or intraperitoneal S. pneumoniae challenge, whereas pneumococcal virulence was neutralized by anti-rNOX antiserum prior to intraperitoneal challenge. Our results suggest that in addition to its enzymatic activity, NOX contributes to S. pneumoniae virulence as a putative adhesin and thus peptides derived from its target molecules may be considered for the treatment of pneumococcal infections. Finally, rNOX elicited a protective immune response in both aerobic and anaerobic environments, which renders NOX a candidate for future pneumococcal vaccine. PMID:23577197

  8. Identification of a supramolecular functional architecture of Streptococcus mutans adhesin P1 on the bacterial cell surface.

    PubMed

    Heim, Kyle P; Sullan, Ruby May A; Crowley, Paula J; El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Tang, Wenxing; Besingi, Richard; Dufrene, Yves F; Brady, L Jeannine

    2015-04-03

    P1 (antigen I/II) is a sucrose-independent adhesin of Streptococcus mutans whose functional architecture on the cell surface is not fully understood. S. mutans cells subjected to mechanical extraction were significantly diminished in adherence to immobilized salivary agglutinin but remained immunoreactive and were readily aggregated by fluid-phase salivary agglutinin. Bacterial adherence was restored by incubation of postextracted cells with P1 fragments that contain each of the two known adhesive domains. In contrast to untreated cells, glutaraldehyde-treated bacteria gained reactivity with anti-C-terminal monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), whereas epitopes recognized by mAbs against other portions of the molecule were masked. Surface plasmon resonance experiments demonstrated the ability of apical and C-terminal fragments of P1 to interact. Binding of several different anti-P1 mAbs to unfixed cells triggered release of a C-terminal fragment from the bacterial surface, suggesting a novel mechanism of action of certain adherence-inhibiting antibodies. We also used atomic force microscopy-based single molecule force spectroscopy with tips bearing various mAbs to elucidate the spatial organization and orientation of P1 on living bacteria. The similar rupture lengths detected using mAbs against the head and C-terminal regions, which are widely separated in the tertiary structure, suggest a higher order architecture in which these domains are in close proximity on the cell surface. Taken together, our results suggest a supramolecular organization in which additional P1 polypeptides, including the C-terminal segment originally identified as antigen II, associate with covalently attached P1 to form the functional adhesive layer.

  9. A Repetitive DNA Element Regulates Expression of the Helicobacter pylori Sialic Acid Binding Adhesin by a Rheostat-like Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Vallström, Anna; Olofsson, Annelie; Öhman, Carina; Rakhimova, Lena; Borén, Thomas; Engstrand, Lars; Brännström, Kristoffer; Arnqvist, Anna

    2014-01-01

    During persistent infection, optimal expression of bacterial factors is required to match the ever-changing host environment. The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori has a large set of simple sequence repeats (SSR), which constitute contingency loci. Through a slipped strand mispairing mechanism, the SSRs generate heterogeneous populations that facilitate adaptation. Here, we present a model that explains, in molecular terms, how an intergenically located T-tract, via slipped strand mispairing, operates with a rheostat-like function, to fine-tune activity of the promoter that drives expression of the sialic acid binding adhesin, SabA. Using T-tract variants, in an isogenic strain background, we show that the length of the T-tract generates multiphasic output from the sabA promoter. Consequently, this alters the H. pylori binding to sialyl-Lewis x receptors on gastric mucosa. Fragment length analysis of post-infection isolated clones shows that the T-tract length is a highly variable feature in H. pylori. This mirrors the host-pathogen interplay, where the bacterium generates a set of clones from which the best-fit phenotypes are selected in the host. In silico and functional in vitro analyzes revealed that the length of the T-tract affects the local DNA structure and thereby binding of the RNA polymerase, through shifting of the axial alignment between the core promoter and UP-like elements. We identified additional genes in H. pylori, with T- or A-tracts positioned similar to that of sabA, and show that variations in the tract length likewise acted as rheostats to modulate cognate promoter output. Thus, we propose that this generally applicable mechanism, mediated by promoter-proximal SSRs, provides an alternative mechanism for transcriptional regulation in bacteria, such as H. pylori, which possesses a limited repertoire of classical trans-acting regulatory factors. PMID:24991812

  10. Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Colonization following Intradermal, Sublingual, or Oral Vaccination with EtpA Adhesin

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qingwei; Vickers, Tim J.

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a common cause of diarrhea. Extraordinary antigenic diversity has prompted a search for conserved antigens to complement canonical approaches to ETEC vaccine development. EtpA, an immunogenic extracellular ETEC adhesin relatively conserved in the ETEC pathovar, has previously been shown to be a protective antigen following intranasal immunization. These studies were undertaken to explore alternative routes of EtpA vaccination that would permit use of a double mutant (R192G L211A) heat-labile toxin (dmLT) adjuvant. Here, oral vaccination with EtpA adjuvanted with dmLT afforded significant protection against small intestinal colonization, and the degree of protection correlated with fecal IgG, IgA, or total fecal antibody responses to EtpA. Sublingual vaccination yielded compartmentalized mucosal immune responses with significant increases in anti-EtpA fecal IgG and IgA, and mice vaccinated via this route were also protected against colonization. In contrast, while intradermal (i.d.) vaccination achieved high levels of both serum and fecal antibodies against both EtpA and dmLT, mice vaccinated via the i.d. route were not protected against subsequent colonization and the avidity of serum IgG and IgA EtpA-specific antibodies was significantly lower after i.d. immunization compared to other routes. Finally, we demonstrate that antiserum from vaccinated mice significantly impairs binding of LT to cognate GM1 receptors and shows near complete neutralization of toxin delivery by ETEC in vitro. Collectively, these data provide further evidence that EtpA could complement future vaccine strategies but also suggest that additional effort will be required to optimize its use as a protective immunogen. PMID:27226279

  11. Spiroplasma eriocheiris Adhesin-Like Protein (ALP) Interacts with Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) Domain Proteins to Facilitate Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Libo; Liu, Yuhan; Gao, Qi; Xu, Xuechuan; Ning, Mingxiao; Bi, Jingxiu; Liu, Hui; Liu, Min; Gu, Wei; Wang, Wen; Meng, Qingguo

    2017-01-01

    Spiroplasma eriocheiris is a novel pathogen found in recent years, causing the tremor disease (TD) of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. Like Spiroplasma mirum, S. eriocheiris infects the newborn mouse (adult mice are not infected) and can cause cataract. Adhesion-related protein is an important protein involved in the interaction between pathogen and host. In this study, the Adhesin-like Protein (ALP) of S. eriocheiris was detected on its outer membrane by using immune electron microscopy, and was found to be involved in the bacterium's infection of mouse embryo fibroblasts (3T6-Swiss albino). Yeast two-hybrid analysis demonstrated that ALP interacts with a diverse group of mouse proteins. The interactions between recombinant partial fibulin7 (FBLN7; including two epidermal growth factor [EGF] domains) and ALP were confirmed by Far-western blotting and colocalization. We synthetized the domains of FBLN7 [EGF domain: amino acids 136–172 and complement control protein (CCP) domain: 81–134 amino acids], and demonstrated that only EGF domain of FBLN7 can interact with ALP. Because the EGF domain has high degree of similarity to EGF, it can activate the downstream EGFR signaling pathway, in key site amino acids. The EGFR pathway in 3T6 cells was restrained after rALP stimulation resulting from competitive binding of ALP to EGF. The unborn mouse, newborn mouse, and the adult mouse with cataract have a small amount of expressed FBLN7; however, none was detected in the brain and very little expression was seen in the eye of normal adult mice. In short, ALP as a S. eriocheiris surface protein, is critical for infection and further supports the role of ALP in S. eriocheiris infection by competitive effection of the EGF/EGFR axis of the target cells. PMID:28184355

  12. Characterization and Functional Analysis of AatB, a Novel Autotransporter Adhesin and Virulence Factor of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    ZhuGe, Xiangkai; Wang, Shaohui; Fan, Hongjie; Pan, Zihao; Ren, Jianluan; Yi, Li; Meng, Qingmei; Yang, Xuqiu; Lu, Chengping

    2013-01-01

    Autotransporter (AT) proteins constitute a large family of extracellular proteins that contribute to bacterial virulence. A novel AT adhesin gene, aatB, was identified in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) DE205B via genomic analyses. The open reading frame of aatB was 1,017 bp, encoding a putative 36.3-kDa protein which contained structural motifs characteristic for AT proteins: a signal peptide, a passenger domain, and a translocator domain. The predicted three-dimensional structure of AatB consisted of two distinct domains, the C-terminal β-barrel translocator domain and an N-terminal passenger domain. The prevalence analyses of aatB in APEC indicated that aatB was detected in 26.4% (72/273) of APEC strains and was strongly associated with phylogenetic groups D and B2. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses revealed that AatB expression was increased during infection in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, AatB could elicit antibodies in infected ducks, suggesting that AatB is involved in APEC pathogenicity. Thus, APEC DE205B strains with a mutated aatB gene and mutated strains complemented with the aatB gene were constructed. Inactivation of aatB resulted in a reduced capacity to adhere to DF-1 cells, defective virulence capacity in vivo, and decreased colonization capacity in lung during systemic infection compared with the capacities of the wild-type strain. Furthermore, these capacities were restored in the complementation strains. These results indicated that AatB makes a significant contribution to APEC virulence through bacterial adherence to host tissues in vivo and in vitro. In addition, biofilm formation assays with strain AAEC189 expressing AatB indicated that AatB mediates biofilm formation. PMID:23630958

  13. XacFhaB adhesin, an important Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri virulence factor, is recognized as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern.

    PubMed

    Garavaglia, Betiana S; Zimaro, Tamara; Abriata, Luciano A; Ottado, Jorgelina; Gottig, Natalia

    2016-12-01

    Adhesion to host tissue is one of the key steps of the bacterial pathogenic process. Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri possesses a non-fimbrial adhesin protein, XacFhaB, required for bacterial attachment, which we have previously demonstrated to be an important virulence factor for the development of citrus canker. XacFhaB is a 4753-residue-long protein with a predicted β-helical fold structure, involved in bacterial aggregation, biofilm formation and adhesion to the host. In this work, to further characterize this protein and considering its large size, XacFhaB was dissected into three regions based on bioinformatic and structural analyses for functional studies. First, the capacity of these protein regions to aggregate bacterial cells was analysed. Two of these regions were able to form bacterial aggregates, with the most amino-terminal region being dispensable for this activity. Moreover, XacFhaB shows features resembling pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are recognized by plants. As PAMPs activate plant basal immune responses, the role of the three XacFhaB regions as elicitors of these responses was investigated. All adhesin regions were able to induce basal immune responses in host and non-host plants, with a stronger activation by the carboxyl-terminal region. Furthermore, pre-infiltration of citrus leaves with XacFhaB regions impaired X. citri ssp. citri growth, confirming the induction of defence responses and restraint of citrus canker. This work reveals that adhesins from plant pathogens trigger plant defence responses, opening up new pathways for the development of protective strategies for disease control. © 2016 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Anaplasma marginale Outer Membrane Protein A Is an Adhesin That Recognizes Sialylated and Fucosylated Glycans and Functionally Depends on an Essential Binding Domain.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Kathryn S; Seidman, David; Oki, Aminat T; Izac, Jerilyn; Emani, Sarvani; Oliver, Lee D; Miller, Daniel P; Tegels, Brittney K; Kannagi, Reiji; Marconi, Richard T; Carlyon, Jason A

    2017-03-01

    Anaplasma marginale causes bovine anaplasmosis, a debilitating and potentially fatal tick-borne infection of cattle. Because A. marginale is an obligate intracellular organism, its adhesins that mediate entry into host cells are essential for survival. Here, we demonstrate that A. marginale outer membrane protein A (AmOmpA; AM854) contributes to the invasion of mammalian and tick host cells. AmOmpA exhibits predicted structural homology to OmpA of A. phagocytophilum (ApOmpA), an adhesin that uses key lysine and glycine residues to interact with α2,3-sialylated and α1,3-fucosylated glycan receptors, including 6-sulfo-sialyl Lewis x (6-sulfo-sLe(x)). Antisera against AmOmpA or its predicted binding domain inhibits A. marginale infection of host cells. Residues G55 and K58 are contributory, and K59 is essential for recombinant AmOmpA to bind to host cells. Enzymatic removal of α2,3-sialic acid and α1,3-fucose residues from host cell surfaces makes them less supportive of AmOmpA binding. AmOmpA is both an adhesin and an invasin, as coating inert beads with it confers adhesiveness and invasiveness. Recombinant forms of AmOmpA and ApOmpA competitively antagonize A. marginale infection of host cells, but a monoclonal antibody against 6-sulfo-sLe(x) fails to inhibit AmOmpA adhesion and A. marginale infection. Thus, the two OmpA proteins bind related but structurally distinct receptors. This study provides a detailed understanding of AmOmpA function, identifies its essential residues that can be targeted by blocking antibody to reduce infection, and determines that it binds to one or more α2,3-sialylated and α1,3-fucosylated glycan receptors that are unique from those targeted by ApOmpA.

  15. Crystallization and X-ray analysis of the extracellular adhesion domain of Helicobacter pylori adhesin A: the significance of the cation composition in the crystallization precipitant.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ling; Zhang, Jinyong; Cui, Liwei; Liu, Dong; Ma, Bo; Wang, Shufeng; Li, Haibo; Wu, Yuzhang; Liu, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Adherence to host cells is a crucial step in the process of bacterial infection, which is usually mediated by a number of outer membrane proteins identified as adhesins. Helicobacter pylori adhesin A (HpaA) is a member of the adhesin family that mediates the adherence of Helicobacter pylori to gastric epithelial cells, and consequently assists the bacteria in becoming a life-long colonizer of the human stomach. In this study, two constructs were made for the production of truncated HpaA proteins comprising residues 31-260 and 53-260, respectively. The products of both constructs were crystallized, but only the protein from the shorter construct (residues 53-260) formed crystals that were capable of diffraction. In the subsequent optimization trials, crystals in different forms were unexpectedly obtained by using lithium sulfate and ammonium sulfate as the precipitant. An X-ray data set was collected to 1.95 Å resolution on beamline BL18U1 at SSRF using a crystal grown with 1.92 M lithium sulfate, which belonged to space group P65 with unit-cell parameters a = b = 95.42, c = 54.72 Å, γ = 120°, while another crystal grown with 1.9 M ammonium sulfate diffracted to 2.60 Å resolution and the collected data set was indexed in space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 121.01, b = 190.56, c = 106.31 Å. The collection of diffraction data has established a solid basis for structure determination.

  16. The soluble recombinant Neisseria meningitidis adhesin NadA(Δ351-405) stimulates human monocytes by binding to extracellular Hsp90.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Paola; Tavano, Regina; Polverino de Laureto, Patrizia; Franzoso, Susanna; Mazzon, Cristina; Montanari, Paolo; Papini, Emanuele

    2011-01-01

    The adhesin NadA favors cell adhesion/invasion by hypervirulent Neisseria meningitidis B (MenB). Its recombinant form NadA(Δ351-405,) devoid of the outer membrane domain, is an immunogenic candidate for an anti-MenB vaccine able to stimulate monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. In this study we investigated the molecular mechanism of NadA(Δ351-405) cellular effects in monocytes. We show that NadA(Δ351-405) (against which we obtained polyclonal antibodies in rabbits), binds to hsp90, but not to other extracellular homologous heat shock proteins grp94 and hsp70, in vitro and on the surface of monocytes, in a temperature dependent way. Pre-incubation of monocytes with the MenB soluble adhesin interfered with the binding of anti-hsp90 and anti-hsp70 antibodies to hsp90 and hsp70 at 37°C, a condition in which specific cell-binding occurs, but not at 0°C, a condition in which specific cell-binding is very diminished. Conversely, pre-incubation of monocytes with anti-hsp90 and anti-hsp70 antibodies did not affected NadA(Δ351-405) cell binding in any temperature condition, indicating that it associates to another receptor on their plasma membrane and then laterally diffuses to encounter hsp90. Consistently, polymixin B interfered with NadA(Δ351-405) /hsp90 association, abrogated the decrease of anti-hsp90 antibodies binding to the cell surface due to NadA(Δ351-405) and inhibited adhesin-induced cytokine/chemokine secretion without affecting monocyte-adhesin binding. Co-stimulation of monocytes with anti-hsp90 antibodies and NadA(Δ351-405) determined a stronger but polymixin B insensitive cell activation. This indicated that the formation of a recombinant NadA/hsp90/hsp70 complex, although essential for full monocyte stimulation, can be replaced by anti-hsp90 antibody/hsp90 binding. Finally, the activation of monocytes by NadA(Δ351-405) alone or in the presence of anti-hsp90 antibodies were both inhibited by neutralizing anti-TLR4 antibodies, but not by

  17. The Soluble Recombinant Neisseria meningitidis Adhesin NadAΔ351–405 Stimulates Human Monocytes by Binding to Extracellular Hsp90

    PubMed Central

    Cecchini, Paola; Tavano, Regina; Polverino de Laureto, Patrizia; Franzoso, Susanna; Mazzon, Cristina; Montanari, Paolo; Papini, Emanuele

    2011-01-01

    The adhesin NadA favors cell adhesion/invasion by hypervirulent Neisseria meningitidis B (MenB). Its recombinant form NadAΔ351–405, devoid of the outer membrane domain, is an immunogenic candidate for an anti-MenB vaccine able to stimulate monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. In this study we investigated the molecular mechanism of NadAΔ351–405 cellular effects in monocytes. We show that NadAΔ351–405 (against which we obtained polyclonal antibodies in rabbits), binds to hsp90, but not to other extracellular homologous heat shock proteins grp94 and hsp70, in vitro and on the surface of monocytes, in a temperature dependent way. Pre-incubation of monocytes with the MenB soluble adhesin interfered with the binding of anti-hsp90 and anti-hsp70 antibodies to hsp90 and hsp70 at 37°C, a condition in which specific cell-binding occurs, but not at 0°C, a condition in which specific cell-binding is very diminished. Conversely, pre-incubation of monocytes with anti-hsp90 and anti-hsp70 antibodies did not affected NadAΔ351–405 cell binding in any temperature condition, indicating that it associates to another receptor on their plasma membrane and then laterally diffuses to encounter hsp90. Consistently, polymixin B interfered with NadAΔ351–405 /hsp90 association, abrogated the decrease of anti-hsp90 antibodies binding to the cell surface due to NadAΔ351–405 and inhibited adhesin-induced cytokine/chemokine secretion without affecting monocyte-adhesin binding. Co-stimulation of monocytes with anti-hsp90 antibodies and NadAΔ351–405 determined a stronger but polymixin B insensitive cell activation. This indicated that the formation of a recombinant NadA/hsp90/hsp70 complex, although essential for full monocyte stimulation, can be replaced by anti-hsp90 antibody/hsp90 binding. Finally, the activation of monocytes by NadAΔ351–405 alone or in the presence of anti-hsp90 antibodies were both inhibited by neutralizing anti-TLR4 antibodies, but not by

  18. Transcription profile of Trichophyton rubrum conidia grown on keratin reveals the induction of an adhesin-like protein gene with a tandem repeat pattern.

    PubMed

    Bitencourt, Tamires Aparecida; Macedo, Claudia; Franco, Matheus Eloy; Assis, Amanda Freire; Komoto, Tatiana Takahasi; Stehling, Eliana Guedes; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira; Malavazi, Iran; Marins, Mozart; Fachin, Ana Lúcia

    2016-03-18

    Trichophyton rubrum is a cosmopolitan filamentous fungus that can infect human keratinized tissue (skin, nails and, rarely, hair) and is the major agent of all chronic and recurrent dermatophytoses. The dermatophyte infection process is initiated through the release of arthroconidial adhesin, which binds to the host stratum corneum. The conidia then germinate, and fungal hyphae invade keratinized skin structures through the secretion of proteases. Although arthroconidia play a central role in pathogenesis, little is known about the dormancy and germination of T. rubrum conidia and the initiation of infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the transcriptional gene expression profile of T. rubrum conidia during growth on keratin- or elastin-containing medium, mimicking superficial and deep dermatophytosis, respectively. A transcriptional profiling analysis was conducted using a custom oligonucleotide-based microarray by comparing T. rubrum conidia grown on elastin and keratin substrates. This comparison shows differences according to protein source used, but consisted of a very small set of genes, which could be attributed to the quiescent status of conidia. The modulated genes were related to the dormancy, survival and germination of conidia, including genes involved in the respiratory chain, signal transduction and lipid metabolism. However, an induction of a great number of proteases occurred when T. rubrum was grown in the presence of keratin such as the subtilisin family of proteases (Sub 1 and Sub 3) and leucine aminopeptidase (Lap 1 and Lap 2). Interestingly, keratin also promoted the up-regulation of a gene encoding an adhesin-like protein with a tandem repeat sequence. In silico analysis showed that the protein contains a domain related to adhesin that may play a role in host-pathogen interactions. The expression of this adhesin-like gene was also induced during the co-culture of T. rubrum with a human keratinocyte cell line, confirming its

  19. Genetic evidence for host specificity in the adhesin-encoding genes hxaA of Helicobacter acinonyx, hnaA of H. nemestrinae and hpaA of H. pylori.

    PubMed

    Evans, D G; Lampert, H C; Nakano, H; Eaton, K A; Burnens, A P; Bronsdon, M A; Evans, D J

    1995-09-22

    Gastric and non-gastric species of Helicobacter were examined for the presence of the adhesin-encoding gene, hpaA, from the human-associated gastric Helicobacter H. pylori (Hp), and for adhesin subunit protein HpaA. Amplification of a 375-bp internal DNA fragment of hpaA by PCR demonstrated the presence of the gene in Hp and in two closely related gastric Helicobacters, H. nemestrinae (Hn) and H. acinonyx (Hx), but not in the more distantly related H. felis (Hf) and H. mustelae (Hm). The non-gastric Helicobacters, H. canis (Hc), H. muridarum (Hr), H. fennelliae (He) and H. cinaedi (Hi), were all negative for hpaA. An immunoblot assay of water extracts with adhesin-specific antibody confirmed these results. The deduced amino acid (aa) sequences of Hp HpaA and Hn adhesin A (hereafter termed HnaA) are very similar, having identical receptor-binding motifs (rbm); also, the hemagglutination (HA) properties of Hn and Hp cells were indistinguishable. In contrast, the rbm of Hx adhesin A (hereafter termed HxaA), compared to that of Hp, contained a non-conservative aa substitution (Ile to Thr); also, there was variance in five consecutive aa from 10 to 14 residues upstream from the rbm. We conclude that these aa substitutions in HxaA are probably responsible for the difference in receptor recognition of this adhesin, as evidenced by the resistance of Hx HA to inhibition with N-acetylneuraminyl-alpha(2,3)-lactose. These results are consistent with the biological similarity between the natural host(s) of Hp and Hn; i.e., human and non-human primates, and the dissimilarity between these hosts and the feline host, the cheetah.

  20. Structure determination and analysis of a haemolytic gingipain adhesin domain from Porphyromonas gingivalis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, N.; Yun, P.; Nadkarni, M.A.; Ghadikolaee, N.B.; Nguyen, K.A.; Lee, M.; Hunter, N.; Collyer, C.A.

    2010-08-27

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is an obligately anaerobic bacterium recognized as an aetiological agent of adult periodontitis. P. gingivalis produces cysteine proteinases, the gingipains. The crystal structure of a domain within the haemagglutinin region of the lysine gingipain (Kgp) is reported here. The domain was named K2 as it is the second of three homologous structural modules in Kgp. The K2 domain structure is a 'jelly-roll' fold with two anti-parallel {beta}-sheets. This fold topology is shared with adhesive domains from functionally diverse receptors such as MAM domains, ephrin receptor ligand binding domains and a number of carbohydrate binding modules. Possible functions of K2 were investigated. K2 induced haemolysis of erythrocytes in a dose-dependent manner that was augmented by the blocking of anion transport. Further, cysteine-activated arginine gingipain RgpB, which degrades glycophorin A, sensitized erythrocytes to the haemolytic effect of K2. Cleaved K2, similar to that found in extracted Kgp, lacks the haemolytic activity indicating that autolysis of Kgp may be a staged process which is artificially enhanced by extraction of the protein. The data indicate a functional role for K2 in the integrated capacity conferred by Kgp to enable the porphyrin auxotroph P. gingivalis to capture essential haem from erythrocytes.

  1. Biofilm Formation by Psychrobacter arcticus and the Role of a Large Adhesin in Attachment to Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Koid, Cassandra; Tiedje, James M.; Schultzhaus, Janna N.

    2013-01-01

    Psychrobacter arcticus strain 273-4, an isolate from a Siberian permafrost core, is capable of forming biofilms when grown in minimal medium under laboratory conditions. Biofilms form at 4 to 22°C when acetate is supplied as the lone carbon source and with 1 to 7% sea salt. P. arcticus is also capable of colonizing quartz sand. Transposon mutagenesis identified a gene important for biofilm formation by P. arcticus. Four transposon mutants were mapped to a 20.1-kbp gene, which is predicted to encode a protein of 6,715 amino acids (Psyc_1601). We refer to this open reading frame as cat1, for cold attachment gene 1. The cat1 mutants are unable to form biofilms at levels equivalent to that of the wild type, and there is no impact on the planktonic growth characteristics of the strains, indicating a specific role in biofilm formation. Through time course studies of the static microtiter plate assay, we determined that cat1 mutants are unable to form biofilms equivalent to that of the wild type under all conditions tested. In flow cell experiments, cat1 mutants initially are unable to attach to the surface. Over time, however, they form microcolonies, an architecture very different from that produced by wild-type biofilms. Our results demonstrate that Cat1 is involved in the initial stages of bacterial attachment to surfaces. PMID:23603675

  2. Molecular Basis for Strain Variation in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Adhesin Flo11p

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Lipke, Peter N.; Dranginis, Anne M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT FLO11 encodes a yeast cell wall flocculin that mediates a variety of adhesive phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Flo11p is implicated in many developmental processes, including flocculation, formation of pseudohyphae, agar invasion, and formation of microbial mats and biofilms. However, Flo11p mediates different processes in different yeast strains. To investigate the mechanisms by which FLO11 determines these differences in colony morphology, flocculation, and invasion, we studied gene structure, function, and expression levels. Nonflocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae Σ1278b cells exhibited significantly higher FLO11 mRNA expression, especially in the stationary phase, than highly flocculent S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus. The two strains varied in cell surface hydrophobicity, and Flo11p contributed significantly to surface hydrophobicity in S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus but not in strain Σ1278b. Sequencing of the FLO11 gene in S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus revealed strain-specific differences, including a 15-amino-acid insertion in the adhesion domain. Flo11p adhesion domains from strain Σ1278b and S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus were expressed and used to coat magnetic beads. The adhesion domain from each strain bound preferentially to homologous cells, and the preferences were independent of the cells in which the adhesion domains were produced. These results are consistent with the idea that strain-specific variations in the amino acid sequences in the adhesion domains cause different Flo11p flocculation activities. The results also imply that strain-specific differences in expression levels, posttranslational modifications, and allelic differences outside the adhesion domains have little effect on flocculation. IMPORTANCE As a nonmotile organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae employs the cell surface flocculin Flo11/Muc1 as an important means of adapting to environmental change. However, there is a great deal of strain variation in the

  3. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and its SpaC pilus adhesin modulate inflammatory responsiveness and TLR-related gene expression in the fetal human gut

    PubMed Central

    Ganguli, Kriston; Collado, Maria Carmen; Rautava, Jaana; Lu, Lei; Satokari, Reetta; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Reunanen, Justus; de Vos, Willem M.; Palva, Airi; Isolauri, Erika; Salminen, Seppo; Walker, W. Allan; Rautava, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    Background Bacterial contact in utero modulates fetal and neonatal immune responses. Maternal probiotic supplementation reduces the risk of immune-mediated disease in the infant. We investigated the immunomodulatory properties of live Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and its SpaC pilus adhesin in human fetal intestinal models. Methods TNF-α mRNA expression was measured by qPCR in a human fetal intestinal organ culture model exposed to live L. rhamnosus GG and proinflammatory stimuli. Binding of recombinant SpaC pilus protein to intestinal epithelial cells was assessed in human fetal intestinal organ culture and the human fetal intestinal epithelial cell line H4 by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence, respectively. TLR-related gene expression in fetal ileal organ culture after exposure to recombinant SpaC was assessed by qPCR. Results Live L. rhamnosus GG significantly attenuates pathogen-induced TNF-α mRNA expression in the human fetal gut. Recombinant SpaC protein was found to adhere to the fetal gut and to modulate varying levels of TLR-related gene expression. Conclusion The human fetal gut is responsive to luminal microbes. L. rhamnosus GG significantly attenuates fetal intestinal inflammatory responses to pathogenic bacteria. The L. rhamnosus GG pilus adhesin SpaC binds to immature human intestinal epithelial cells and directly modulates intestinal epithelial cell innate immune gene expression. PMID:25580735

  4. Comparison of Surface Proteomes of Adherence Variants of Listeria Monocytogenes Using LC-MS/MS for Identification of Potential Surface Adhesins

    PubMed Central

    Tiong, Hung King; Hartson, Steven D.; Muriana, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of Listeria monocytogenes to adhere and form biofilms leads to persistence in food processing plants and food-associated listeriosis. The role of specific surface proteins as adhesins to attach Listeria cells to various contact surfaces has not been well characterized to date. In prior research comparing different methods for surface protein extraction, the Ghost urea method revealed cleaner protein content as verified by the least cytoplasmic protein detected in surface extracts using LC-MS/MS. The same technique was utilized to extract and detect surface proteins among two surface-adherent phenotypic strains of L. monocytogenes (i.e., strongly and weakly adherent). Of 640 total proteins detected among planktonic and sessile cells, 21 protein members were exclusively detected in the sessile cells. Relative LC-MS/MS detection and quantification of surface-extracted proteins from the planktonic weakly adherent (CW35) and strongly adherent strains (99-38) were examined by protein mass normalization of proteins. We found that L. monocytogenes 99-38 exhibited a total of 22 surface proteins that were over-expressed: 11 proteins were detected in surface extracts of both sessile and planktonic 99-38 that were ≥5-fold over-expressed while another 11 proteins were detected only in planktonic 99-38 cells that were ≥10-fold over-expressed. Our results suggest that these protein members are worthy of further investigation for their involvement as surface adhesins. PMID:27196934

  5. Project Produce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfinger, Donna M.

    2005-01-01

    The grocery store produce section used to be a familiar but rather dull place. There were bananas next to the oranges next to the limes. Broccoli was next to corn and lettuce. Apples and pears, radishes and onions, eggplants and zucchinis all lay in their appropriate bins. Those days are over. Now, broccoli may be next to bok choy, potatoes beside…

  6. Project Produce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfinger, Donna M.

    2005-01-01

    The grocery store produce section used to be a familiar but rather dull place. There were bananas next to the oranges next to the limes. Broccoli was next to corn and lettuce. Apples and pears, radishes and onions, eggplants and zucchinis all lay in their appropriate bins. Those days are over. Now, broccoli may be next to bok choy, potatoes beside…

  7. Structural insight in the inhibition of adherence of F4 fimbriae producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli by llama single domain antibodies.

    PubMed

    Moonens, Kristof; Van den Broeck, Imke; Okello, Emmanuel; Pardon, Els; De Kerpel, Maia; Remaut, Han; De Greve, Henri

    2015-02-24

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli that cause neonatal and post-weaning diarrhea in piglets express F4 fimbriae to mediate attachment towards host receptors. Recently we described how llama single domain antibodies (VHHs) fused to IgA, produced in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds and fed to piglets resulted in a progressive decline in shedding of F4 positive ETEC bacteria. Here we present the structures of these inhibiting VHHs in complex with the major adhesive subunit FaeG. A conserved surface, distant from the lactose binding pocket, is targeted by these VHHs, highlighting the possibility of targeting epitopes on single-domain adhesins that are non-involved in receptor binding.

  8. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of adhesin gene hpaA from different Helicobacter pylori strains of Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yu; Mao, Xu-Hu; Zeng, Wei-Kun; Ma, Li-Ming; Jing, Shen-Rong; Zou, Quan-Ming

    2005-05-07

    To assess the variability of adhesin gene hpaA between different Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) strains with PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Twelve different H pylori strains were chosen to amplify the 710-bp segments of gene hpaA. These strains were NCTC11637, SS1; Chongqing clinical isolates CCS9801, CCS9802, CCS9803, CCS9806, CCS9809, CCS9810, CCS9813, which were gained from patients of gastritis; Mongolia gerbil adapted H pylori strains (abbreviation MG), which were gained from the following steps: gastric mucosal specimens of Mongolia gerbils infected by clinical isolate CCS9803 were cultured and detected, the positive H pylori strains were named as the first generation of Mongolia gerbil adapted H pylori strains (abbreviation MG1) and then were subcultured with healthy Mongolia gerbil to generate MG2, in turn to gain the ninth generation (abbreviation MG9). All hpaA segments, obtained from 12 different H pylori strains, were digested by HhaI and HaeIII individually and analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. In all 12 strains, the 710-bp PCR products were successfully amplified and products were cloned to pMD18-T vector respectively, then the recombinant plasmids were digested simultaneously with NcoI and XhoI to recover the small fragments. The objective fragments from 12 different H pylori strains digested with Hae III could be seen as 4 types of bands and 5 types with Hha I. According to the hpaA RFLP patterns, the 12 H pylori strains could be divided into 5 groups: group I, NCTC11637 and SS1; group II, CCS9809, which RFLP type digested with HaeIII was the same as strains of group I, but HhaI RFLP showed difference compared with the other groups; group III, CCS9810; group IV, CCS9803; group V: CCS9801, CCS9802, CCS9806, CCS9813, MG1, MG3 and MG9. The sequence data of 12 hpaA segments were analyzed by DNAsis software and it was observed that: (1) The homologies of base pair and amino acid sequence between strains NCTC11637, SS1, CCS

  9. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of adhesin gene hpaA from different Helicobacter pylori strains of Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yu; Mao, Xu-Hu; Zeng, Wei-Kun; Ma, Li-Ming; Jing, Shen-Rong; Zou, Quan-Ming

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the variability of adhesin gene hpaA between different Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) strains with PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). METHODS: Twelve different H pylori strains were chosen to amplify the 710-bp segments of gene hpaA. These strains were NCTC11637, SS1; Chongqing clinical isolates CCS9801, CCS9802, CCS9803, CCS9806, CCS9809, CCS9810, CCS9813, which were gained from patients of gastritis; Mongolia gerbil adapted H pylori strains (abbreviation MG), which were gained from the following steps: gastric mucosal specimens of Mongolia gerbils infected by clinical isolate CCS9803 were cultured and detected, the positive H pylori strains were named as the first generation of Mongolia gerbil adapted H pylori strains (abbreviation MG1) and then were subcultured with healthy Mongolia gerbil to generate MG2, in turn to gain the ninth generation (abbreviation MG9). All hpaA segments, obtained from 12 different H pylori strains, were digested by HhaI and HaeIII individually and analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: In all 12 strains, the 710-bp PCR products were successfully amplified and products were cloned to pMD18-T vector respectively, then the recombinant plasmids were digested simultaneously with NcoI and XhoI to recover the small fragments. The objective fragments from 12 different H pylori strains digested with Hae III could be seen as 4 types of bands and 5 types with Hha I. According to the hpaA RFLP patterns, the 12 H pylori strains could be divided into 5 groups: group I, NCTC11637 and SS1; group II, CCS9809, which RFLP type digested with HaeIII was the same as strains of group I, but HhaI RFLP showed difference compared with the other groups; group III, CCS9810; group IV, CCS9803; group V: CCS9801, CCS9802, CCS9806, CCS9813, MG1, MG3 and MG9. The sequence data of 12 hpaA segments were analyzed by DNAsis software and it was observed that: (1) The homologies of base pair and amino acid sequence between strains

  10. Vaccine efficacy of the attenuated Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae YS-19 expressing a recombinant protein of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae P97 adhesin against mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine.

    PubMed

    Shimoji, Yoshihiro; Oishi, Eiji; Muneta, Yoshihiro; Nosaka, Hideji; Mori, Yasuyuki

    2003-01-17

    The attenuated Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae YS-19 strain was constructed for the purpose of delivering the C-terminal portion of the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae P97 adhesin to the mucosal surface of the respiratory tract of pigs. In this study, the efficacy of the YS-19 vaccine against mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine was evaluated. Animal experiments revealed that intranasal immunization of pigs with the YS-19 strain significantly reduced the severity of pneumonic lung lesions caused by M. hyopneumoniae infection. In YS-19-immunized pigs, P97-specific serum antibodies were not detected. However, when stimulated with the P97 protein, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the YS-19-immunized pigs had a significantly higher stimulation index (P<0.05) than that of cells from control pigs at 7 days post-challenge.

  11. Identification of a Latin American-specific BabA adhesin variant through whole genome sequencing of Helicobacter pylori patient isolates from Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Thorell, Kaisa; Hosseini, Shaghayegh; Palacios Gonzales, Reyna Victoria Palacios; Chaotham, Chatchai; Graham, David Y.; Paszat, Lawrence; Rabeneck, Linda; Lundin, Samuel B.; Nookaew, Intawat; Sjoling, Asa

    2016-02-29

    In this study, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans and this infection can lead to gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. H. pylori is one of the most genetically variable human pathogens and the ability of the bacterium to bind to the host epithelium as well as the presence of different virulence factors and genetic variants within these genes have been associated with disease severity. Nicaragua has particularly high gastric cancer incidence and we therefore studied Nicaraguan clinical H. pylori isolates for factors that could contribute to cancer risk. The complete genomes of fifty-two Nicaraguan H. pylorii isolates were sequenced and assembled de novo, and phylogenetic and virulence factor analyses were performed. The Nicaraguan isolates showed phylogenetic relationship with West African isolates in whole-genome sequence comparisons and with Western and urban South-and Central American isolates using MLSA (Multi-locus sequence analysis). A majority, 77 % of the isolates carried the cancer-associated virulence gene cagA and also the s1/i1/m1 vacuolating cytotoxin, vacA allele combination, which is linked to increased severity of disease. Specifically, we also found that Nicaraguan isolates have a blood group-binding adhesin (BabA) variant highly similar to previously reported BabA sequences from Latin America, including from isolates belonging to other phylogenetic groups. These BabA sequences were found to be under positive selection at several amino acid positions that differed from the global collection of isolates. In conclusion, the discovery of a Latin American BabA variant, independent of overall phylogenetic background, suggests hitherto unknown host or environmental factors within the Latin American population giving H. pylori isolates carrying this adhesin variant a selective advantage, which could affect pathogenesis and risk for sequelae through specific adherence

  12. Identification of a Latin American-specific BabA adhesin variant through whole genome sequencing of Helicobacter pylori patient isolates from Nicaragua

    DOE PAGES

    Thorell, Kaisa; Hosseini, Shaghayegh; Palacios Gonzales, Reyna Victoria Palacios; ...

    2016-02-29

    In this study, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans and this infection can lead to gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. H. pylori is one of the most genetically variable human pathogens and the ability of the bacterium to bind to the host epithelium as well as the presence of different virulence factors and genetic variants within these genes have been associated with disease severity. Nicaragua has particularly high gastric cancer incidence and we therefore studied Nicaraguan clinical H. pylori isolates for factors that could contribute to cancer risk. The complete genomes ofmore » fifty-two Nicaraguan H. pylorii isolates were sequenced and assembled de novo, and phylogenetic and virulence factor analyses were performed. The Nicaraguan isolates showed phylogenetic relationship with West African isolates in whole-genome sequence comparisons and with Western and urban South-and Central American isolates using MLSA (Multi-locus sequence analysis). A majority, 77 % of the isolates carried the cancer-associated virulence gene cagA and also the s1/i1/m1 vacuolating cytotoxin, vacA allele combination, which is linked to increased severity of disease. Specifically, we also found that Nicaraguan isolates have a blood group-binding adhesin (BabA) variant highly similar to previously reported BabA sequences from Latin America, including from isolates belonging to other phylogenetic groups. These BabA sequences were found to be under positive selection at several amino acid positions that differed from the global collection of isolates. In conclusion, the discovery of a Latin American BabA variant, independent of overall phylogenetic background, suggests hitherto unknown host or environmental factors within the Latin American population giving H. pylori isolates carrying this adhesin variant a selective advantage, which could affect pathogenesis and risk for sequelae through specific adherence properties.« less

  13. Role of Ca²⁺ in folding the tandem β-sandwich extender domains of a bacterial ice-binding adhesin.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuaiqi; Garnham, Christopher P; Karunan Partha, Sarathy; Campbell, Robert L; Allingham, John S; Davies, Peter L

    2013-11-01

    A Ca(2+) -dependent 1.5-MDa antifreeze protein present in an Antarctic Gram-negative bacterium, Marinomonas primoryensis (MpAFP), has recently been reassessed as an ice-binding adhesin. The non-ice-binding region II (RII), one of five distinct domains in MpAFP, constitutes ~ 90% of the protein. RII consists of ~ 120 tandem copies of an identical 104-residue sequence. We used the Protein Homology/analogy Recognition Engine server to define the boundaries of a single 104-residue RII construct (RII monomer). CD demonstrated that Ca(2+) is required for RII monomer folding, and that the monomer is fully structured at a Ca(2+) /protein molar ratio of 10 : 1. The crystal structure of the RII monomer was solved to a resolution of 1.35 Å by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion and molecular replacement methods with Ca(2+) as the heavy atom to obtain phase information. The RII monomer folds as a Ca(2+) -bound immunoglobulin-like β-sandwich. Ca(2+) ions are coordinated at the interfaces between each RII monomer and its symmetry-related molecules, suggesting that these ions may be involved in the stabilization of the tandemly repeated RII. We hypothesize that > 600 Ca(2+) ions help to rigidify the chain of 104-residue repeats in order to project the ice-binding domain of MpAFP away from the bacterial cell surface. The proposed role of RII is to help the strictly aerobic bacterium bind surface ice in an Antarctic lake for better access to oxygen and nutrients. This work may give insights into other bacterial proteins that resemble MpAFP, especially those of the large repeats-in-toxin family that have been characterized as adhesins exported via the type I secretion pathway.

  14. Mutation of Tyr137 of the universal Escherichia coli fimbrial adhesin FimH relaxes the tyrosine gate prior to mannose binding

    PubMed Central

    Rabbani, Said; Krammer, Eva-Maria; Roos, Goedele; Zalewski, Adam; Preston, Roland; Eid, Sameh; Zihlmann, Pascal; Prévost, Martine; Lensink, Marc F.; Thompson, Andrew; Ernst, Beat; Bouckaert, Julie

    2017-01-01

    The most prevalent diseases manifested by Escherichia coli are acute and recurrent bladder infections and chronic inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn’s disease. E. coli clinical isolates express the FimH adhesin, which consists of a mannose-specific lectin domain connected via a pilin domain to the tip of type 1 pili. Although the isolated FimH lectin domain has affinities in the nanomolar range for all high-mannosidic glycans, differentiation between these glycans is based on their capacity to form predominantly hydrophobic interactions within the tyrosine gate at the entrance to the binding pocket. In this study, novel crystal structures of tyrosine-gate mutants of FimH, ligand-free or in complex with heptyl α-d-O-mannopyranoside or 4-biphenyl α-d-O-mannopyranoside, are combined with quantum-mechanical calculations and molecular-dynamics simulations. In the Y48A FimH crystal structure, a large increase in the dynamics of the alkyl chain of heptyl α-d-O-mannopyranoside attempts to compensate for the absence of the aromatic ring; however, the highly energetic and stringent mannose-binding pocket of wild-type FimH is largely maintained. The Y137A mutation, on the other hand, is the most detrimental to FimH affinity and specificity: (i) in the absence of ligand the FimH C-terminal residue Thr158 intrudes into the mannose-binding pocket and (ii) ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid interacts strongly with Glu50, Thr53 and Asn136, in spite of multiple dialysis and purification steps. Upon mutation, pre-ligand-binding relaxation of the backbone dihedral angles at position 137 in the tyrosine gate and their coupling to Tyr48 via the interiorly located Ile52 form the basis of the loss of affinity of the FimH adhesin in the Y137A mutant. PMID:28250938

  15. BtaE, an adhesin that belongs to the trimeric autotransporter family, is required for full virulence and defines a specific adhesive pole of Brucella suis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ranwez, Verónica; Posadas, Diana M; Van der Henst, Charles; Estein, Silvia M; Arocena, Gastón M; Abdian, Patricia L; Martín, Fernando A; Sieira, Rodrigo; De Bolle, Xavier; Zorreguieta, Angeles

    2013-03-01

    Brucella is responsible for brucellosis, one of the most common zoonoses worldwide that causes important economic losses in several countries. Increasing evidence indicates that adhesion of Brucella spp. to host cells is an important step to establish infection. We have previously shown that the BmaC unipolar monomeric autotransporter mediates the binding of Brucella suis to host cells through cell-associated fibronectin. Our genome analysis shows that the B. suis genome encodes several additional potential adhesins. In this work, we characterized a predicted trimeric autotransporter that we named BtaE. By expressing btaE in a nonadherent Escherichia coli strain and by phenotypic characterization of a B. suis ΔbtaE mutant, we showed that BtaE is involved in the binding of B. suis to hyaluronic acid. The B. suis ΔbtaE mutant exhibited a reduction in the adhesion to HeLa and A549 epithelial cells compared with the wild-type strain, and it was outcompeted by the wild-type strain in the binding to HeLa cells. The knockout btaE mutant showed an attenuated phenotype in the mouse model, indicating that BtaE is required for full virulence. BtaE was immunodetected on the bacterial surface at one cell pole. Using old and new pole markers, we observed that both the BmaC and BtaE adhesins are consistently associated with the new cell pole, suggesting that, in Brucella, the new pole is functionally differentiated for adhesion. This is consistent with the inherent polarization of this bacterium, and its role in the invasion process.

  16. BtaE, an Adhesin That Belongs to the Trimeric Autotransporter Family, Is Required for Full Virulence and Defines a Specific Adhesive Pole of Brucella suis

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Ranwez, Verónica; Posadas, Diana M.; Van der Henst, Charles; Estein, Silvia M.; Arocena, Gastón M.; Abdian, Patricia L.; Martín, Fernando A.; Sieira, Rodrigo; De Bolle, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Brucella is responsible for brucellosis, one of the most common zoonoses worldwide that causes important economic losses in several countries. Increasing evidence indicates that adhesion of Brucella spp. to host cells is an important step to establish infection. We have previously shown that the BmaC unipolar monomeric autotransporter mediates the binding of Brucella suis to host cells through cell-associated fibronectin. Our genome analysis shows that the B. suis genome encodes several additional potential adhesins. In this work, we characterized a predicted trimeric autotransporter that we named BtaE. By expressing btaE in a nonadherent Escherichia coli strain and by phenotypic characterization of a B. suis ΔbtaE mutant, we showed that BtaE is involved in the binding of B. suis to hyaluronic acid. The B. suis ΔbtaE mutant exhibited a reduction in the adhesion to HeLa and A549 epithelial cells compared with the wild-type strain, and it was outcompeted by the wild-type strain in the binding to HeLa cells. The knockout btaE mutant showed an attenuated phenotype in the mouse model, indicating that BtaE is required for full virulence. BtaE was immunodetected on the bacterial surface at one cell pole. Using old and new pole markers, we observed that both the BmaC and BtaE adhesins are consistently associated with the new cell pole, suggesting that, in Brucella, the new pole is functionally differentiated for adhesion. This is consistent with the inherent polarization of this bacterium, and its role in the invasion process. PMID:23319562

  17. Intramolecular isopeptide but not internal thioester bonds confer proteolytic and significant thermal stability to the S. pyogenes pilus adhesin Spy0125.

    PubMed

    Walden, Miriam; Crow, Allister; Nelson, Miles D; Banfield, Mark J

    2014-03-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes and other Gram-positive bacterial pathogens present long macromolecular filaments known as pili on their surface that mediate adhesion and colonization. These pili are covalent polymers, assembled by sortases. Typically, they comprise a putative adhesin at their tip, a backbone subunit present in multiple copies and a basal subunit that is covalently anchored to the peptidoglycan layer of the cell surface. The crystal structures of pilin subunits revealed the presence of unusual covalent linkages in these proteins, including intramolecular isopeptide and internal thioester bonds. The intramolecular isopeptide bonds in backbone pilins are important for protein stability. Here, using both the wild-type protein and a set of mutants, we assessed the proteolytic and thermal stability of the S. pyogenes pilus tip adhesin Spy0125, in the presence and absence of its intramolecular isopeptide and internal thioester bonds. We also determined a crystal structure of the internal thioester bond variant Spy0125(Cys426Ala). We find that mutations in the intramolecular isopeptide bonds compromise the stability of Spy0125. Using limited proteolysis and thermal denaturation assays, we could separate the contribution of each intramolecular isopeptide bond to Spy0125 stability. In contrast, mutation in the internal thioester bond had a lesser effect on protein stability and the crystal structure is essentially identical to wild type. This work suggests that the internal thioester in Spy0125, although having a minor contributory role, is not required for protein stability and must have a different primary function, most likely mediating a covalent interaction with host cell ligands.

  18. Variability in the insect and plant adhesins, Mad1 and Mad2, within the fungal genus metarhizium suggest plant adaptation as an evolutionary force.

    PubMed

    Wyrebek, Michael; Bidochka, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Several species of the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium are associated with certain plant types and genome analyses suggested a bifunctional lifestyle; as an insect pathogen and as a plant symbiont. Here we wanted to explore whether there was more variation in genes devoted to plant association (Mad2) or to insect association (Mad1) overall in the genus Metarhizium. Greater divergence within the genus Metarhizium in one of these genes may provide evidence for whether host insect or plant is a driving force in adaptation and evolution in the genus Metarhizium. We compared differences in variation in the insect adhesin gene, Mad1, which enables attachment to insect cuticle, and the plant adhesin gene, Mad2, which enables attachment to plants. Overall variation for the Mad1 promoter region (7.1%), Mad1 open reading frame (6.7%), and Mad2 open reading frame (7.4%) were similar, while it was higher in the Mad2 promoter region (9.9%). Analysis of the transcriptional elements within the Mad2 promoter region revealed variable STRE, PDS, degenerative TATA box, and TATA box-like regions, while this level of variation was not found for Mad1. Sequences were also phylogenetically compared to EF-1α, which is used for species identification, in 14 isolates representing 7 different species in the genus Metarhizium. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the Mad2 phylogeny is more congruent with 5' EF-1α than Mad1. This would suggest that Mad2 has diverged among Metarhizium lineages, contributing to clade- and species-specific variation, while it appears that Mad1 has been largely conserved. While other abiotic and biotic factors cannot be excluded in contributing to divergence, these results suggest that plant relationships, rather than insect host, have been a major driving factor in the divergence of the genus Metarhizium.

  19. Mannose-inhibitable adhesins and T3-T7 receptors of Klebsiella pneumoniae inhibit phagocytosis and intracellular killing by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Pruzzo, C; Debbia, E; Satta, G

    1982-01-01

    It has recently been shown that Klebsiella pneumoniae strains adhere to human epithelial cells and that adherence is mediated by mannose-inhibitable adhesins which are also receptors for coliphages T3 and T7. We have now found that Klebsiella strain K59, which adheres to human epithelial cells and carries the receptors for coliphages T3 and T7, adheres to human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) at 4 degrees C. Strains KRTT1 and KRTT2, which are spontaneous mutants unable to adsorb coliphages T3 and T7 and adhere to human epithelial cells, at this temperature did not adhere to PMN. Adherence of K59 cells to PMN at 4 degrees C was inhibited by D-mannose, by UV-inactivated T7 phages, and by pepsin-digested anti-K59 antibodies absorbed with KRTT1 cells. At 37 degrees C the number of PMN with KRTT bacteria associated was fourfold higher than at 4 degrees C. On the contrary, the number of PMN with K59 bacteria associated at this temperature was fourfold lower than at 4 degrees C. Phagocytosis and intracellular killing experiments performed at 37 degrees C showed that KRTT1 and KRTT2 were phagocytized and killed at a higher rate than K59. After blocking of the mannose-inhibitable adhesins and T3-T7 receptors (MIAT) by D-mannose, UV-inactivated bacteriophage T7, or specific antibodies, K59 cells became more sensitive to phagocytosis and intracellular killing at 37 degrees C. K59 cells lysogenic for prophage AP3 were approximately as sensitive to phagocytosis and intracellular killing by human PMN as strains KRTT1 and KRTT2. Unencapsulated Klebsiella strains isolated from clinical specimens were found to carry MIAT most often. Four such strains were found much more resistant to phagocytosis and intracellular killing than their spontaneous mutants resistant to bacteriophages T3 and T7. PMID:7047402

  20. UafB is a serine-rich repeat adhesin of Staphylococcus saprophyticus that mediates binding to fibronectin, fibrinogen and human uroepithelial cells.

    PubMed

    King, Nathan P; Beatson, Scott A; Totsika, Makrina; Ulett, Glen C; Alm, Richard A; Manning, Paul A; Schembri, Mark A

    2011-04-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is an important cause of urinary tract infection (UTI), particularly among young women, and is second only to uropathogenic Escherichia coli as the most frequent cause of UTI. The molecular mechanisms of urinary tract colonization by S. saprophyticus remain poorly understood. We have identified a novel 6.84 kb plasmid-located adhesin-encoding gene in S. saprophyticus strain MS1146 which we have termed uro-adherence factor B (uafB). UafB is a glycosylated serine-rich repeat protein that is expressed on the surface of S. saprophyticus MS1146. UafB also functions as a major cell surface hydrophobicity factor. To characterize the role of UafB we generated an isogenic uafB mutant in S. saprophyticus MS1146 by interruption with a group II intron. The uafB mutant had a significantly reduced ability to bind to fibronectin and fibrinogen. Furthermore, we show that a recombinant protein containing the putative binding domain of UafB binds specifically to fibronectin and fibrinogen. UafB was not involved in adhesion in a mouse model of UTI; however, we observed a striking UafB-mediated adhesion phenotype to human uroepithelial cells. We have also identified genes homologous to uafB in other staphylococci which, like uafB, appear to be located on transposable elements. Thus, our data indicate that UafB is a novel adhesin of S. saprophyticus that contributes to cell surface hydrophobicity, mediates adhesion to fibronectin and fibrinogen, and exhibits tropism for human uroepithelial cells.

  1. Emerging ST121/agr4 community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with strong adhesin and cytolytic activities: trigger for MRSA pneumonia and fatal aspiration pneumonia in an influenza-infected elderly.

    PubMed

    Wan, T-W; Tomita, Y; Saita, N; Konno, K; Iwao, Y; Hung, W-C; Teng, L-J; Yamamoto, T

    2016-09-01

    The pathogenesis of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) pneumonia in influenza-infected elderly individuals has not yet been elucidated in detail. In the present study, a 92-year-old man infected with influenza developed CA-MRSA pneumonia. His CA-MRSA was an emerging type, originated in ST121/agr4 S. aureus, with diversities of Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)(-)/spat5110/SCCmecV(+) versus PVL(+)/spat159((etc.))/SCCmec (-), but with common virulence potentials of strong adhesin and cytolytic activities. Resistance to erythromycin/clindamycin (inducible-type) and gentamicin was detected. Pneumonia improved with the administration of levofloxacin, but with the subsequent development of fatal aspiration pneumonia. Hence, characteristic CA-MRSA with strong adhesin and cytolytic activities triggered influenza-related sequential complications.

  2. The Fusobacterium nucleatum Outer Membrane Protein RadD Is an Arginine-Inhibitable Adhesin Required for Inter-Species Adherence and the Structured Architecture of Multi-Species Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Christopher W.; Lux, Renate; Haake, Susan Kinder; Shi, Wenyuan

    2009-01-01

    Summary A defining characteristic of the suspected periodontal pathogen Fusobacterium nucleatum is its ability to adhere to a plethora of oral bacteria. This distinguishing feature is suggested to play an important role in oral biofilm formation and pathogenesis, with fusobacteria proposed to serve as central “bridging organisms” in the architecture of the oral biofilm bringing together species which would not interact otherwise. Previous studies indicate that these bacterial interactions are mediated by galactose- or arginine-inhibitable adhesins although genetic evidence for the role and nature of these proposed adhesins remains elusive. To characterize these adhesins at the molecular level, the genetically transformable F. nucleatum strain ATCC 23726 was screened for adherence properties, and arginine inhibitable adhesion was evident, while galactose-inhibitable adhesion was not detected. Six potential arginine binding proteins were isolated from the membrane fraction of F. nucleatum ATCC 23726 and identified via mass spectroscopy as members of the outer membrane family of proteins in F. nucleatum. Inactivation of the genes encoding these six candidates for arginine-inhibitable adhesion and two additional homologues revealed that only a mutant derivative carrying an insertion in Fn1526 (now designated as radD) demonstrated significantly decreased co-aggregation with representatives of the Gram-positive “early oral colonizers”. Lack of the 350 kDa outer membrane protein encoded by radD resulted in the failure to form the extensive structured biofilm observed with the parent strain when grown in the presence of Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 10556. These findings indicate that radD is responsible for arginine-inhibitable adherence of F. nucleatum and provides definitive molecular evidence that F. nucleatum adhesins play a vital role in inter-species adherence and multispecies biofilm formation. PMID:19007407

  3. A high-molecular-weight outer membrane protein of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae exhibits similarity to non-fimbrial adhesins of animal pathogenic bacteria and is required for optimum virulence.

    PubMed

    Ray, Suvendra K; Rajeshwari, R; Sharma, Yogendra; Sonti, Ramesh V

    2002-11-01

    Transposon insertions in a novel 3.798 kb open reading frame (ORF) of the rice pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) cause virulence deficiency and altered colony/lawn morphology. This ORF encodes a protein, XadA, of 1,265 amino acids that exhibits significant similarity to non-fimbrial adhesins of animal pathogenic bacteria such as Yersinia YadA and Moraxella UspA1. An interesting feature is that the YadA similarity region is repeated six times within the XadA sequence and encompasses almost the entire length of the protein. Anti-XadA antibodies identified a 110 kDa outer membrane protein that was sensitive to protease treatment of whole cells. XadA expression is induced in minimal medium. Homology modelling suggests that XadA adopts a beta-helix conformation-like pertactin, a non-fimbrial adhesin of Bordetella pertussis. This work is the first characterization of a non-fimbrial adhesin-like molecule in a plant pathogenic bacterium. It extends our knowledge about the repertoire of homologous virulence factors that are deployed by animal and plant pathogenic bacteria to include functions potentially involved in adhesion.

  4. Dynamics of Lewis b binding and sequence variation of the babA adhesin gene during chronic Helicobacter pylori infection in humans.

    PubMed

    Nell, Sandra; Kennemann, Lynn; Schwarz, Sandra; Josenhans, Christine; Suerbaum, Sebastian

    2014-12-16

    Helicobacter pylori undergoes rapid microevolution during chronic infection, but very little is known about how this affects host interaction factors. The best-studied adhesin of H. pylori is BabA, which mediates binding to the blood group antigen Lewis b [Le(b)]. To study the dynamics of Le(b) adherence during human infection, we analyzed paired H. pylori isolates obtained sequentially from chronically infected individuals. A complete loss or significant reduction of Le(b) binding was observed in strains from 5 out of 23 individuals, indicating that the Le(b) binding phenotype is quite stable during chronic human infection. Sequence comparisons of babA identified differences due to mutation and/or recombination in 12 out of 16 strain pairs analyzed. Most amino acid changes were found in the putative N-terminal extracellular adhesion domain. One strain pair that had changed from a Le(b) binding to a nonbinding phenotype was used to study the role of distinct sequence changes in Le(b) binding. By transformations of the nonbinding strain with a babA gene amplified from the binding strain, H. pylori strains with mosaic babA genes were generated. Recombinants were enriched for a gain of Le(b) binding by biopanning or for BabA expression on the bacterial surface by pulldown assay. With this approach, we identified several amino acid residues affecting the strength of Le(b) binding. Additionally, the data showed that the C terminus of BabA, which is predicted to encode an outer membrane β-barrel domain, plays an essential role in the biogenesis of this protein. Helicobacter pylori causes a chronic infection of the human stomach that can lead to ulcers and cancer. The bacterium can bind to gastric epithelial cells with specialized outer membrane proteins. The best-studied protein is the BabA adhesin which binds to the Lewis b blood group antigen. Since H. pylori is a bacterium with very high genetic variability, we asked whether babA evolves during chronic infection and

  5. Co-ordinate action of bacterial adhesins and human carcinoembryonic antigen receptors in enhanced cellular invasion by capsulate serum resistant Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Helen A; Griffiths, Natalie J; Hill, Darryl J; Virji, Mumtaz

    2007-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) is a human specific opportunistic pathogen that occasionally penetrates mucosal barriers via the action of adhesins and invasins and evades host immune mechanisms during further dissemination via capsule expression. From in vitro studies, the primary adhesion of capsulate bacteria is believed to be mediated by polymeric pili, followed by invasion via outer membrane adhesins such as Opa proteins. As the latter requires the surface capsule to be down-modulated, invading bacteria would be serum sensitive and thus avirulent. However, there is recent evidence that capsulate bacteria may interact via Opa proteins when host cells express high levels of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs), their target receptors. Such a situation may arise following increased circulation of inflammatory cytokines that upregulate certain adhesion molecules on host cells. In this study, using a tetracycline controlled expression system, we have developed cell lines with inducible CEACAM expression to mimic post-inflammation state of target tissues and analysed the interplay between the three surface components capsule, pili and Opa proteins in cellular interactions. With two distinct cell lines, not only the level but also the rate of adhesion of capsulate Opa-expressing Nm increased concurrently with CEACAM density. Moreover, when threshold levels of receptor were reached, cellular invasion ensued in an Opa-dependent manner. In studies with cell lines intrinsically expressing pilus receptors, notable synergism in cellular interactions between pili and Opa of several meningococcal strains was observed and was independent of capsule type. A number of internalized bacteria were shown to express capsule and when directly isolated from host cells, these bacteria were as serum resistant as the inoculated phenotype. Furthermore, we observed that agents that block Opa-CEACAM binding substantially reduced cellular invasion, while maintaining

  6. The expression of adhesin EF-Tu in response to mucin and its role in Lactobacillus adhesion and competitive inhibition of enteropathogens to mucin.

    PubMed

    Dhanani, A S; Bagchi, T

    2013-08-01

    To analyse the expression of EF-Tu in Lactobacillus strains with response to mucin exposure and its role in interfering with adhesion of enteropathogens to mucin. The Lactobacillus strains were analysed for their ability to adhere to immobilized mucin in microtiter plates. Lactobacillus delbrueckii M and Lactobacillus plantarum CS24.2 showed statistically significant adhesion to mucin, which was similar to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, the best binding probiotic strain. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lact. delbrueckii M, Lact. plantarum CS23 and Lact. plantarum CS24.2 were able to effectively antagonize the adhesion of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi to mucin. In the presence of Lactobacillus adhesin - EF-Tu, the adhesion of Lact. delbrueckii M and the strains of Lact. plantarum to mucin was significantly inhibited. Similarly, EF-Tu also reduced the adhesion of enteropathogens to mucin. Furthermore, the relative fold change in gene expression analysis showed significant up-regulation of EF-Tu gene in the strains of Lact. plantarum and Lact. delbrueckii M when exposed to mucin for 3 h. The study shows the significant role of EF-Tu in lactobacilli adhesion and enteropathogens inhibition. The study suggests EF-Tu as an important factor linked to the Lactobacillus adhesion as well as enteropathogen inhibition. Lactobacillus plantarum CS23 and Lact. plantarum CS24.2 can be used as potential probiotic strains. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Detection of fusobacterium nucleatum and fadA adhesin gene in patients with orthodontic gingivitis and non-orthodontic periodontal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Liu, Yi; Wang, Jianning; Guo, Yang; Zhang, Yujie; Xiao, Shuiqing

    2014-01-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum is one of the most abundant gram-negative bacilli colonizing the subgingival plaque and closely associated with periodontal disease. However it is unclear whether F. nucleatum is involved in gingival inflammation under orthodontic appliance. A novel adhesin, FadA, which is unique to oral Fusobacteria, is required for F. nucleatum binding and invasion to epithelial cells and thus may play an important role in colonization of Fusobacterium in the host. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of F. nucleatum and its virulence factor FadA adhesion gene (fadA) in 169 subgingival biofilm samples from 55 cases of gingivitis patients with orthodontic appliances, 49 cases of gingivitis patients without orthodontic treatment, 35 cases of periodontitis patients and 30 cases of periodontally healthy people via PCR. The correlations between the F. nucleatum/fadA and gingivitis index(GI)was also analyzed. The detection rate of F. nucleatum/fadA in periodontitis group and non-orthodontic gingivitis group was higher than the other two groups (p<0.01) while it was higher in orthodontic gingivitis group than in health people (p<0.05). An obviously positive correlation was observed between the prevalence of F. nucleatum/fadA and GI. F. nucleatum carrying fadA may be more closely related to the development of gingivitis and periodontal disease compared with orthodontic gingivitis.

  8. Two autonomous structural modules in the fimbrial shaft adhesin FimA mediate Actinomyces interactions with streptococci and host cells during oral biofilm development

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Arunima; Devarajan, Bharanidharan; Reardon, Melissa E.; Dwivedi, Prabhat; Krishnan, Vengadesan; Cisar, John O.; Das, Asis; Narayana, Sthanam V.L.; Ton-That, Hung

    2011-09-06

    By combining X-ray crystallography and modelling, we describe here the atomic structure of distinct adhesive moieties of FimA, the shaft fimbrillin of Actinomyces type 2 fimbriae, which uniquely mediates the receptor-dependent intercellular interactions between Actinomyces and oral streptococci as well as host cells during the development of oral biofilms. The FimA adhesin is built with three IgG-like domains, each of which harbours an intramolecular isopeptide bond, previously described in several Gram-positive pilins. Genetic and biochemical studies demonstrate that although these isopeptide bonds are dispensable for fimbrial assembly, cell-cell interactions and biofilm formation, they contribute significantly to the proteolytic stability of FimA. Remarkably, FimA harbours two autonomous adhesive modules, which structurally resemble the Staphylococcus aureus Cna B domain. Each isolated module can bind the plasma glycoprotein asialofetuin as well as the polysaccharide receptors present on the surface of oral streptococci and epithelial cells. Thus, FimA should serve as an excellent paradigm for the development of therapeutic strategies and elucidating the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between cellular receptors and Gram-positive fimbriae.

  9. Inhibition and Reversal of Microbial Attachment by an Antibody with Parasteric Activity against the FimH Adhesin of Uropathogenic E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Friend, Della; Jalan, Aachal; Gupta, Shivani; Interlandi, Gianluca; Liu, Yan; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Rodriguez, Victoria B.; Sumida, John P.; Strong, Roland K.; Wu, Xue-Ru; Thomas, Wendy E.; Sokurenko, Evgeni V.

    2015-01-01

    Attachment proteins from the surface of eukaryotic cells, bacteria and viruses are critical receptors in cell adhesion or signaling and are primary targets for the development of vaccines and therapeutic antibodies. It is proposed that the ligand-binding pocket in receptor proteins can shift between inactive and active conformations with weak and strong ligand-binding capability, respectively. Here, using monoclonal antibodies against a vaccine target protein - fimbrial adhesin FimH of uropathogenic Escherichia coli, we demonstrate that unusually strong receptor inhibition can be achieved by antibody that binds within the binding pocket and displaces the ligand in a non-competitive way. The non-competitive antibody binds to a loop that interacts with the ligand in the active conformation of the pocket but is shifted away from ligand in the inactive conformation. We refer to this as a parasteric inhibition, where the inhibitor binds adjacent to the ligand in the binding pocket. We showed that the receptor-blocking mechanism of parasteric antibody differs from that of orthosteric inhibition, where the inhibitor replaces the ligand or allosteric inhibition where the inhibitor binds at a site distant from the ligand, and is very potent in blocking bacterial adhesion, dissolving surface-adherent biofilms and protecting mice from urinary bladder infection. PMID:25974133

  10. More than a marine propeller--the flagellum of the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 is the major adhesin mediating binding to human mucus.

    PubMed

    Troge, Anja; Scheppach, Wolfgang; Schroeder, Bjoern O; Rund, Stefan A; Heuner, Klaus; Wehkamp, Jan; Stange, Eduard F; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A

    2012-12-01

    The flagellum of the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) is not just responsible for motility, but also for EcN's ability to induce the production of human β-defensin 2. Here, we report a third function of this EcN organell. In this study we investigated the role of the EcN flagellum in adhesion to different host tissues by ex vivo and in vitro studies. Ex vivo studies with cryosections of human gut biopsies revealed that the flagellum of EcN is most likely important for efficient adhesion to the human intestinal tract. These results and in vitro studies with different epithelial cells indicated that the presence of mucus is important for efficient mediation of adhesion by the flagellum of EcN. We observed direct interaction between isolated flagella from EcN wild type and porcine mucin 2 as well as human mucus. However, we could not observe any interaction of the flagella with murine mucus. For the first time, we identified the mucus component gluconate as one receptor for the binding of flagella from EcN and were able to exclude the flagellin domain D3 as a responsible interaction partner. We propose that the flagellum of EcN is its major adhesin in vivo, which enables this probiotic strain to compete efficiently for binding sites on host tissue with several bacterial pathogens.

  11. O-mannosylation of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis adhesin Apa is crucial for T cell antigenicity during infection but is expendable for protection.

    PubMed

    Nandakumar, Subhadra; Kannanganat, Sunil; Dobos, Karen M; Lucas, Megan; Spencer, John S; Fang, Sunan; McDonald, Melissa A; Pohl, Jan; Birkness, Kristin; Chamcha, Venkateswarlu; Ramirez, Melissa V; Plikaytis, Bonnie B; Posey, James E; Amara, Rama Rao; Sable, Suraj B

    2013-01-01

    Glycosylation is the most abundant post-translational polypeptide chain modification in nature. Although carbohydrate modification of protein antigens from many microbial pathogens constitutes important components of B cell epitopes, the role in T cell immunity is not completely understood. Here, using ELISPOT and polychromatic flow cytometry, we show that O-mannosylation of the adhesin, Apa, of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is crucial for its T cell antigenicity in humans and mice after infection. However, subunit vaccination with both mannosylated and non-mannosylated Apa induced a comparable magnitude and quality of T cell response and imparted similar levels of protection against Mtb challenge in mice. Both forms equally improved waning BCG vaccine-induced protection in elderly mice after subunit boosting. Thus, O-mannosylation of Apa is required for antigenicity but appears to be dispensable for its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in mice. These results have implications for the development of subunit vaccines using post-translationally modified proteins such as glycoproteins against infectious diseases like tuberculosis.

  12. O-mannosylation of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Adhesin Apa Is Crucial for T Cell Antigenicity during Infection but Is Expendable for Protection

    PubMed Central

    Dobos, Karen M.; Lucas, Megan; Spencer, John S.; Fang, Sunan; McDonald, Melissa A.; Pohl, Jan; Birkness, Kristin; Chamcha, Venkateswarlu; Ramirez, Melissa V.; Plikaytis, Bonnie B.; Posey, James E.; Amara, Rama Rao

    2013-01-01

    Glycosylation is the most abundant post-translational polypeptide chain modification in nature. Although carbohydrate modification of protein antigens from many microbial pathogens constitutes important components of B cell epitopes, the role in T cell immunity is not completely understood. Here, using ELISPOT and polychromatic flow cytometry, we show that O-mannosylation of the adhesin, Apa, of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is crucial for its T cell antigenicity in humans and mice after infection. However, subunit vaccination with both mannosylated and non-mannosylated Apa induced a comparable magnitude and quality of T cell response and imparted similar levels of protection against Mtb challenge in mice. Both forms equally improved waning BCG vaccine-induced protection in elderly mice after subunit boosting. Thus, O-mannosylation of Apa is required for antigenicity but appears to be dispensable for its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in mice. These results have implications for the development of subunit vaccines using post-translationally modified proteins such as glycoproteins against infectious diseases like tuberculosis. PMID:24130497

  13. Dynamic Expression of the BabA Adhesin and Its BabB Paralog during Helicobacter pylori Infection in Rhesus Macaques.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Lori M; Gideonsson, Pär; Canfield, Don R; Borén, Thomas; Solnick, Jay V

    2017-06-01

    Most Helicobacter pylori strains express the BabA adhesin, which binds to ABO/Leb blood group antigens on gastric mucin and epithelial cells and is found more commonly in strains that cause peptic ulcers or gastric cancer, rather than asymptomatic infection. We and others have previously reported that in mice, gerbils, and rhesus macaques, expression of babA is lost, either by phase variation or by gene conversion, in which the babB paralog recombines into the babA locus. The functional significance of loss of babA expression is unknown. Here we report that in rhesus monkeys, there is independent selective pressure for loss of babA and for overexpression of BabB, which confers a fitness advantage. Surprisingly, loss of babA by phase variation or gene conversion is not dependent on the capacity of BabA protein to bind Leb, which suggests that it may have other, unrecognized functions. These findings have implications for the role of outer membrane protein diversity in persistent H. pylori infection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. The bvg-repressed gene brtA, encoding biofilm-associated surface adhesin, is expressed during host infection by Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Sayaka; Shinzawa, Naoaki; Nakamura, Keiji; Ishigaki, Keisuke; Abe, Hiroyuki; Horiguchi, Yasuhiko

    2016-02-01

    Bordetella species display phase modulation between Bvg(+) and Bvg(-) phases. Because expression of known virulence factors is up-regulated in the Bvg(+) phase, bacteria in this phase are considered competent for infection. However, the Bvg(-) phase is of negligible importance for infection. No studies have shown that bacterial factors specific to the Bvg(-) phase (bvg-repressed factors) are expressed in the course of Bordetella infection. In the present study, the gene brtA (Bordetella RTX-family Adhesin), which is a typical bvg-repressed gene but is expressed in B. bronchiseptica infecting hosts, was characterized. BrtA is composed of repeated pairs of the VCBS unit and dystroglycan-type cadherin-like unit, the von Willebrand Factor A domain, RTX motif and type I secretion target signal. It is herein demonstrated that BrtA is secreted by the type I secretion system and is essential for Ca(2+) -dependent bacteria-to-substrate adherence, followed by biofilm formation. Although the contribution of BrtA to bacterial colonization of the rat trachea currently remains unclear, this is the first study to present concrete evidence for the expression of a bvg-repressed gene during infection, which may provide a novel aspect for analyses of Bordetella pathogenesis.

  15. Burkholderia cenocepacia K56-2 trimeric autotransporter adhesin BcaA binds TNFR1 and contributes to induce airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mil-Homens, Dalila; Pinto, Sandra N; Matos, Rute G; Arraiano, Cecília; Fialho, Arsenio M

    2017-04-01

    Chronic lung disease caused by persistent bacterial infections is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). CF pathogens acquire antibiotic resistance, overcome host defenses, and impose uncontrolled inflammation that ultimately may cause permanent damage of lungs' airways. Among the multiple CF-associated pathogens, Burkholderia cenocepacia and other Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria have become prominent contributors of disease progression. Here, we demonstrate that BcaA, a trimeric autotransporter adhesin (TAA) from the epidemic strain B. cenocepacia K56-2, is a tumor necrosis factor receptor 1-interacting protein able to regulate components of the tumor necrosis factor signaling pathway and ultimately leading to a significant production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-8. Notably, this study is the first to demonstrate that a protein belonging to the TAA family is involved in the induction of the inflammatory response during B. cenocepacia infections, contributing to the success of the pathogen. Moreover, our results reinforce the relevance of the TAA BcaA as a multifunctional protein with a major role in B. cenocepacia virulence.

  16. Effects of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) in an ex vivo model of whole blood killing and in prosthetic joint infection (PJI): A role for C5a.

    PubMed

    Al-Ishaq, Rand; Armstrong, Jayne; Gregory, Martin; O'Hara, Miriam; Phiri, Kudzai; Harris, Llinos G; Rohde, Holger; Siemssen, Nicolaus; Frommelt, Lars; Mack, Dietrich; Wilkinson, Thomas S

    2015-12-01

    A major complication of using medical devices is the development of biofilm-associated infection caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis where polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) is a major mechanism of biofilm accumulation. PIA affects innate and humoral immunity in isolated cells and animal models. Few studies have examined these effects in prosthetic joint infection (PJI). This study used ex vivo whole blood modelling in controls together with matched-serum and staphylococcal isolates from patients with PJI. Whole blood killing of PIA positive S. epidermidis and its isogenic negative mutant was identical. Differences were unmasked in immunosuppressed whole blood pre-treated with dexamethasone where PIA positive bacteria showed a more resistant phenotype. PIA expression was identified in three unique patterns associated with bacteria and leukocytes, implicating a soluble form of PIA. Purified PIA reduced whole blood killing while increasing C5a levels. In clinically relevant staphylococcal isolates and serum samples from PJI patients; firstly complement C5a was increased 3-fold compared to controls; secondly, the C5a levels were significantly higher in serum from PJI patients whose isolates preferentially formed PIA-associated biofilms. These data demonstrate for the first time that the biological effects of PIA are mediated through C5a in patients with PJI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the carbohydrate-binding region of the Streptococcus gordonii adhesin GspB

    SciTech Connect

    Pyburn, Tasia M.; Yankovskaya, Victoria; Bensing, Barbara A.; Cecchini, Gary; Sullam, Paul M.; Iverson, T.M.

    2012-07-11

    The carbohydrate-binding region of the bacterial adhesin GspB from Streptococcus gordonii strain M99 (GspB{sub BR}) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. Separate sparse-matrix screening of GspB{sub BR} buffered in either 20 mM Tris pH 7.4 or 20 mM HEPES pH 7.5 resulted in different crystallographic behavior such that different precipitants, salts and additives supported crystallization of GspB{sub BR} in each buffer. While both sets of conditions supported crystal growth in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, the crystals had distinct unit-cell parameters of a = 33.3, b = 86.7, c = 117.9 {angstrom} for crystal form 1 and a = 34.6, b = 98.3, c = 99.0 {angstrom} for crystal form 2. Additive screening improved the crystals grown in both conditions such that diffraction extended to beyond 2 {angstrom} resolution. A complete data set has been collected to 1.3 {angstrom} resolution with an overall R{sub merge} value of 0.04 and an R{sub merge} value of 0.33 in the highest resolution shell.

  18. Structure and Function of a Fungal Adhesin that Binds Heparin and Mimics Thrombospondin-1 by Blocking T Cell Activation and Effector Function

    PubMed Central

    Brandhorst, T. Tristan; Roy, René; Wüthrich, Marcel; Nanjappa, Som; Filutowicz, Hanna; Galles, Kevin; Tonelli, Marco; McCaslin, Darrell R.; Satyshur, Kenneth; Klein, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Blastomyces adhesin-1 (BAD-1) is a 120-kD surface protein on B. dermatitidis yeast. We show here that BAD-1 contains 41 tandem repeats and that deleting even half of them impairs fungal pathogenicity. According to NMR, the repeats form tightly folded 17-amino acid loops constrained by a disulfide bond linking conserved cysteines. Each loop contains a highly conserved WxxWxxW motif found in thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) type 1 heparin-binding repeats. BAD-1 binds heparin specifically and saturably, and is competitively inhibited by soluble heparin, but not related glycosaminoglycans. According to SPR analysis, the affinity of BAD-1 for heparin is 33 nM±14 nM. Putative heparin-binding motifs are found both at the N-terminus and within each tandem repeat loop. Like TSP-1, BAD-1 blocks activation of T cells in a manner requiring the heparan sulfate-modified surface molecule CD47, and impairs effector functions. The tandem repeats of BAD-1 thus confer pathogenicity, harbor motifs that bind heparin, and suppress T-cell activation via a CD47-dependent mechanism, mimicking mammalian TSP-1. PMID:23853587

  19. Specific binding of a naturally occurring amyloidogenic fragment of Streptococcus mutans adhesin P1 to intact P1 on the cell surface characterized by solid state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenxing; Bhatt, Avni; Smith, Adam N; Crowley, Paula J; Brady, L Jeannine; Long, Joanna R

    2016-02-01

    The P1 adhesin (aka Antigen I/II or PAc) of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans is a cell surface-localized protein involved in sucrose-independent adhesion and colonization of the tooth surface. The immunoreactive and adhesive properties of S. mutans suggest an unusual functional quaternary ultrastructure comprised of intact P1 covalently attached to the cell wall and interacting with non-covalently associated proteolytic fragments thereof, particularly the ~57-kDa C-terminal fragment C123 previously identified as Antigen II. S. mutans is capable of amyloid formation when grown in a biofilm and P1 is among its amyloidogenic proteins. The C123 fragment of P1 readily forms amyloid fibers in vitro suggesting it may play a role in the formation of functional amyloid during biofilm development. Using wild-type and P1-deficient strains of S. mutans, we demonstrate that solid state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy can be used to (1) globally characterize cell walls isolated from a Gram-positive bacterium and (2) characterize the specific binding of heterologously expressed, isotopically-enriched C123 to cell wall-anchored P1. Our results lay the groundwork for future high-resolution characterization of the C123/P1 ultrastructure and subsequent steps in biofilm formation via ssNMR spectroscopy, and they support an emerging model of S. mutans colonization whereby quaternary P1-C123 interactions confer adhesive properties important to binding to immobilized human salivary agglutinin.

  20. Trimeric autotransporter adhesins contribute to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae pathogenicity in mice and regulate bacterial gene expression during interactions between bacteria and porcine primary alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wanhai; Wang, Lei; Zhai, Ruidong; Ma, Qiuyue; Liu, Jianfang; Bao, Chuntong; Zhang, Hu; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Gu, Jingmin; Du, Chongtao; Han, Wenyu; Langford, P R; Lei, Liancheng

    2016-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is an important pathogen that causes respiratory disease in pigs. Trimeric autotransporter adhesin (TAA) is a recently discovered bacterial virulence factor that mediates bacterial adhesion and colonization. Two TAA coding genes have been found in the genome of A. pleuropneumoniae strain 5b L20, but whether they contribute to bacterial pathogenicity is unclear. In this study, we used homologous recombination to construct a double-gene deletion mutant, ΔTAA, in which both TAA coding genes were deleted and used it in in vivo and in vitro studies to confirm that TAAs participate in bacterial auto-aggregation, biofilm formation, cell adhesion and virulence in mice. A microarray analysis was used to determine whether TAAs can regulate other A. pleuropneumoniae genes during interactions with porcine primary alveolar macrophages. The results showed that deletion of both TAA coding genes up-regulated 36 genes, including ene1514, hofB and tbpB2, and simultaneously down-regulated 36 genes, including lgt, murF and ftsY. These data illustrate that TAAs help to maintain full bacterial virulence both directly, through their bioactivity, and indirectly by regulating the bacterial type II and IV secretion systems and regulating the synthesis or secretion of virulence factors. This study not only enhances our understanding of the role of TAAs but also has significance for those studying A. pleuropneumoniae pathogenesis.

  1. Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Endocarditis Isolates Are Associated With Clonal Complex 30 Genotype and a Distinct Repertoire of Enterotoxins and Adhesins

    PubMed Central

    Nienaber, Juhsien J.C.; Sharma Kuinkel, Batu K.; Clarke-Pearson, Michael; Lamlertthon, Supaporn; Park, Lawrence; Rude, Thomas H.; Barriere, Steve; Woods, Christopher W.; Chu, Vivian H.; Marín, Mercedes; Bukovski, Suzana; Garcia, Patricia; Corey, G.Ralph; Korman, Tony; Doco-Lecompte, Thanh; Murdoch, David R.; Reller, L. Barth

    2011-01-01

    Background. Using multinational collections of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) isolates from infective endocarditis (IE) and soft tissue infections (STIs), we sought to (1) validate the finding that S. aureus in clonal complex (CC) 30 is associated with hematogenous complications and (2) test the hypothesis that specific genetic characteristics in S. aureus are associated with infection severity. Methods. IE and STI isolates from 2 cohorts were frequency matched by geographic origin. Isolates underwent spa typing to infer CC and multiplex polymerase chain reaction for presence of virulence genes. Results. 114 isolate pairs were genotyped. IE isolates were more likely to be CC30 (19.5% vs 6.2%; P = .005) and to contain 3 adhesins (clfB, cna, map/eap; P < .0001 for all) and 5 enterotoxins (tst, sea, sed, see, and sei; P ≤ .005 for all). CC30 isolates were more likely to contain cna, tst, sea, see, seg, and chp (P < .05 for all). Conclusions. MSSA IE isolates were significantly more likely to be CC30 and to possess a distinct repertoire of virulence genes than MSSA STI isolates from the same region. The genetic basis of this association requires further study. PMID:21844296

  2. The structure of E. coli IgG-binding protein D suggests a general model for bending and binding in trimeric autotransporter adhesins.

    PubMed

    Leo, Jack C; Lyskowski, Andrzej; Hattula, Katarina; Hartmann, Marcus D; Schwarz, Heinz; Butcher, Sarah J; Linke, Dirk; Lupas, Andrei N; Goldman, Adrian

    2011-07-13

    The Escherichia coli Ig-binding (Eib) proteins are trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) and receptors for IgG Fc. We present the structure of a large fragment of the passenger domain of EibD, the first TAA structure to have both a YadA-like head domain and the entire coiled-coil stalk. The stalk begins as a right-handed superhelix, but switches handedness halfway down. An unexpected β-minidomain joins the two and inserts a ∼120° rotation such that there is no net twist between the beginning and end of the stalk. This may be important in folding and autotransport. The surprisingly large cavities we found in EibD and other TAAs may explain how TAAs bend to bind their ligands. We identified how IgA and IgG bind and modeled the EibD-IgG Fc complex. We further show that EibD promotes autoagglutination and biofilm formation and forms a fibrillar layer covering the cell surface making zipper-like contacts between cells.

  3. Differentiation of salivary agglutinin-mediated adherence and aggregation of mutans streptococci by use of monoclonal antibodies against the major surface adhesin P1.

    PubMed Central

    Brady, L J; Piacentini, D A; Crowley, P J; Oyston, P C; Bleiweis, A S

    1992-01-01

    The ability to adhere to salivary agglutinin-coated hydroxyapatite beads and to aggregate in the presence of fluid-phase salivary agglutinin was tested by using 25 isolates of mutants streptococci representing eight serotypes. Both adherence and aggregation activity correlated with expression of the Mr-185,000 cell surface antigen P1 on Streptococcus mutans serotype c, e, and f strains. In addition, it was shown that the P1 molecule itself served as the adhesin of S. mutans serotype c, since adherence was significantly inhibited by the presence of recombinant-specified Mr-150,000 P1. The ability of S. sobrinus strains to adhere or aggregate did not correlate with expression of the P1 cross-reactive antigen SpaA. There was also evidence for interaction with salivary agglutinin, as manifested by aggregation but not adherence of S. rattus serotype b, which does not express a P1 cross-reactive antigen. To understand the interaction of P1 with salivary agglutinin at the molecular level, a panel of 11 anti-P1 monoclonal antibodies was tested for inhibitory activity in adherence and aggregation inhibition assays. Overlapping, but not identical, subsets of monoclonal antibodies were found to inhibit adherence and aggregation, indicating that the interactions of P1 with salivary agglutinin which mediate these two phenomena are different. The localization of functional domains of P1 which may mediate the aggregation and adherence reactions is discussed. PMID:1541515

  4. Specific binding of a naturally occurring amyloidogenic fragment of Streptococcus mutans adhesin P1 to intact P1 on the cell surface characterized by solid state NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wenxing; Bhatt, Avni; Smith, Adam N.; Crowley, Paula J.; Brady, L. Jeannine; Long, Joanna R.

    2016-01-01

    The P1 adhesin (aka Antigen I/II or PAc) of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans is a cell surface-localized protein involved in sucrose-independent adhesion and colonization of the tooth surface. The immunoreactive and adhesive properties of S. mutans suggest an unusual functional quaternary ultrastructure comprised of intact P1 covalently attached to the cell wall and interacting with non-covalently associated proteolytic fragments thereof, particularly the ~57-kDa C-terminal fragment C123 previously identified as Antigen II. S. mutans is capable of amyloid formation when grown in a biofilm and P1 is among its amyloidogenic proteins. The C123 fragment of P1 readily forms amyloid fibers in vitro suggesting it may play a role in the formation of functional amyloid during biofilm development. Using wild-type and P1-deficient strains of S. mutans, we demonstrate that solid state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy can be used to 1) globally characterize cell walls isolated from a Gram-positive bacterium and 2) characterize the specific binding of heterologously expressed, isotopically-enriched C123 to cell wall-anchored P1. Our results lay the groundwork for future high-resolution characterization of the C123/P1 ultrastructure and subsequent steps in biofilm formation via ssNMR spectroscopy, and they support an emerging model of S. mutans colonization whereby quaternary P1-C123 interactions confer adhesive properties important to binding to immobilized human salivary agglutinin. PMID:26837620

  5. Impact of OmpR on the membrane proteome of Yersinia enterocolitica in different environments: repression of major adhesin YadA and heme receptor HemR.

    PubMed

    Nieckarz, Marta; Raczkowska, Adrianna; Dębski, Janusz; Kistowski, Michał; Dadlez, Michał; Heesemann, Jürgen; Rossier, Ombeline; Brzostek, Katarzyna

    2016-03-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica is able to grow within or outside the mammalian host. Previous transcriptomic studies have indicated that the regulator OmpR plays a role in the expression of hundreds of genes in enterobacteria. Here, we have examined the impact of OmpR on the production of Y. enterocolitica membrane proteins upon changes in temperature, osmolarity and pH. Proteomic analysis indicated that the loss of OmpR affects the production of 120 proteins, a third of which are involved in uptake/transport, including several that participate in iron or heme acquisition. A set of proteins associated with virulence was also affected. The influence of OmpR on the abundance of adhesin YadA and heme receptor HemR was examined in more detail. OmpR was found to repress YadA production and bind to the yadA promoter, suggesting a direct regulatory effect. In contrast, the repression of hemR expression by OmpR appears to be indirect. These findings provide new insights into the role of OmpR in remodelling the cell surface and the adaptation of Y. enterocolitica to different environmental niches, including the host. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Antimicrobial Protegrin-1 Forms Amyloid-Like Fibrils with Rapid Kinetics Suggesting a Functional Link

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hyunbum; Arce, Fernando Teran; Mustata, Mirela; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Capone, Ricardo; Nussinov, Ruth; Lal, Ratnesh

    2011-01-01

    Protegrin-1 (PG-1) is an 18 residues long, cysteine-rich β-sheet antimicrobial peptide (AMP). PG-1 induces strong cytotoxic activities on cell membrane and acts as a potent antibiotic agent. Earlier we reported that its cytotoxicity is mediated by its channel-forming ability. In this study, we have examined the amyloidogenic fibril formation properties of PG-1 in comparison with a well-defined amyloid, the amyloid-β (Aβ1–42) peptide. We have used atomic force microscopy (AFM) and thioflavin-T staining to investigate the kinetics of PG-1 fibrils growth and molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate the underlying mechanism. AFM images of PG-1 on a highly hydrophilic surface (mica) show fibrils with morphological similarities to Aβ1–42 fibrils. Real-time AFM imaging of fibril growth suggests that PG-1 fibril growth follows a relatively fast kinetics compared to the Aβ1–42 fibrils. The AFM results are in close agreement with results from thioflavin-T staining data. Furthermore, the results indicate that PG-1 forms fibrils in solution. Significantly, in contrast, we do not detect fibrillar structures of PG-1 on an anionic lipid bilayer 2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine; only small PG-1 oligomers can be observed. Molecular dynamics simulations are able to identify the presence of these small oligomers on the membrane bilayer. Thus, our current results show that cytotoxic AMP PG-1 is amyloidogenic and capable of forming fibrils. Overall, comparing β-rich AMPs and amyloids such as Aβ, in addition to cytotoxicity and amyloidogenicity, they share a common structural motif, and are channel forming. These combined properties support a functional relationship between amyloidogenic peptides and β-sheet-rich cytolytic AMPs, suggesting that amyloids channels may have an antimicrobial function. PMID:21463591

  7. Direct Correlation Between Ligand-Induced α-Synuclein Oligomers and Amyloid-like Fibril Growth

    PubMed Central

    Nors Perdersen, Martin; Foderà, Vito; Horvath, Istvan; van Maarschalkerweerd, Andreas; Nørgaard Toft, Katrine; Weise, Christoph; Almqvist, Fredrik; Wolf-Watz, Magnus; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla; Vestergaard, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Aggregation of proteins into amyloid deposits is the hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. The suggestion that intermediate oligomeric species may be cytotoxic has led to intensified investigations of pre-fibrillar oligomers, which are complicated by their transient nature and low population. Here we investigate alpha-synuclein oligomers, enriched by a 2-pyridone molecule (FN075), and the conversion of oligomers into fibrils. As probed by leakage assays, the FN075 induced oligomers potently disrupt vesicles in vitro, suggesting a potential link to disease related degenerative activity. Fibrils formed in the presence and absence of FN075 are indistinguishable on microscopic and macroscopic levels. Using small angle X-ray scattering, we reveal that FN075 induced oligomers are similar, but not identical, to oligomers previously observed during alpha-synuclein fibrillation. Since the levels of FN075 induced oligomers correlate with the amounts of fibrils among different FN075:protein ratios, the oligomers appear to be on-pathway and modeling supports an ‘oligomer stacking model’ for alpha-synuclein fibril elongation. PMID:26020724

  8. An amyloid-like cascade hypothesis for C9orf72 ALS/FTD.

    PubMed

    Edbauer, Dieter; Haass, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Expansion of a GGGGCC repeat in C9orf72 causes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, or a combination of both. Bidirectional repeat transcripts sequester RNA-binding proteins into nuclear RNA foci. The repeat is translated into dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins that are crucial for repeat-induced toxicity. DPRs inhibit the proteasome and sequester other proteins. These changes are accompanied by widespread brain atrophy and subclinical cognitive impairment before disease onset. Both repeat RNA and DPRs impair nucleocytoplasmic transport and promote TDP-43 mislocalization and aggregation. Thus, repeat RNA and DPRs may gradually trigger TDP-43 pathology and subsequent region-specific neurodegeneration in a cascade similar to amyloid-β peptide in Alzheimer's disease. The key components of the C9orf72 cascade are promising therapeutic targets in different disease stages.

  9. Strain-specific variation of the decorin-binding adhesin DbpA influences the tissue tropism of the lyme disease spirochete.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Pin; Benoit, Vivian; Yang, Xiuli; Martínez-Herranz, Raúl; Pal, Utpal; Leong, John M

    2014-07-01

    Lyme disease spirochetes demonstrate strain- and species-specific differences in tissue tropism. For example, the three major Lyme disease spirochete species, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, and B. afzelii, are each most commonly associated with overlapping but distinct spectra of clinical manifestations. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the most common Lyme spirochete in the U.S., is closely associated with arthritis. The attachment of microbial pathogens to cells or to the extracellular matrix of target tissues may promote colonization and disease, and the Lyme disease spirochete encodes several surface proteins, including the decorin- and dermatan sulfate-binding adhesin DbpA, which vary among strains and have been postulated to contribute to strain-specific differences in tissue tropism. DbpA variants differ in their ability to bind to its host ligands and to cultured mammalian cells. To directly test whether variation in dbpA influences tissue tropism, we analyzed murine infection by isogenic B. burgdorferi strains that encode different dbpA alleles. Compared to dbpA alleles of B. afzelii strain VS461 or B. burgdorferi strain N40-D10/E9, dbpA of B. garinii strain PBr conferred the greatest decorin- and dermatan sulfate-binding activity, promoted the greatest colonization at the inoculation site and heart, and caused the most severe carditis. The dbpA of strain N40-D10/E9 conferred the weakest decorin- and GAG-binding activity, but the most robust joint colonization and was the only dbpA allele capable of conferring significant joint disease. Thus, dbpA mediates colonization and disease by the Lyme disease spirochete in an allele-dependent manner and may contribute to the etiology of distinct clinical manifestations associated with different Lyme disease strains. This study provides important support for the long-postulated model that strain-specific variations of Borrelia surface proteins influence tissue tropism.

  10. A functional collagen adhesin gene, acm, in clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium correlates with the recent success of this emerging nosocomial pathogen.

    PubMed

    Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R; Singh, Kavindra V; Okhuysen, Pablo C; Murray, Barbara E

    2008-09-01

    Enterococcus faecium recently evolved from a generally avirulent commensal into a multidrug-resistant health care-associated pathogen causing difficult-to-treat infections, but little is known about the factors responsible for this change. We previously showed that some E. faecium strains express a cell wall-anchored collagen adhesin, Acm. Here we analyzed 90 E. faecium isolates (99% acm(+)) and found that the Acm protein was detected predominantly in clinically derived isolates, while the acm gene was present as a transposon-interrupted pseudogene in 12 of 47 isolates of nonclinical origin. A highly significant association between clinical (versus fecal or food) origin and collagen adherence (P

  11. Streptococcus pneumoniae Cell-Wall-Localized Phosphoenolpyruvate Protein Phosphotransferase Can Function as an Adhesin: Identification of Its Host Target Molecules and Evaluation of Its Potential as a Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Mizrachi Nebenzahl, Yaffa; Blau, Karin; Kushnir, Tatyana; Shagan, Marilou; Portnoi, Maxim; Cohen, Aviad; Azriel, Shalhevet; Malka, Itai; Adawi, Asad; Kafka, Daniel; Dotan, Shahar; Guterman, Gali; Troib, Shany; Fishilevich, Tali; Gershoni, Jonathan M; Braiman, Alex; Mitchell, Andrea M; Mitchell, Timothy J; Porat, Nurith; Goliand, Inna; Chalifa Caspi, Vered; Swiatlo, Edwin; Tal, Michael; Ellis, Ronald; Elia, Natalie; Dagan, Ron

    2016-01-01

    In Streptococcus pneumonia, phosphoenolpyruvate protein phosphotransferase (PtsA) is an intracellular protein of the monosaccharide phosphotransferase systems. Biochemical and immunostaining methods were applied to show that PtsA also localizes to the bacterial cell-wall. Thus, it was suspected that PtsA has functions other than its main cytoplasmic enzymatic role. Indeed, recombinant PtsA and anti-rPtsA antiserum were shown to inhibit adhesion of S. pneumoniae to cultured human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Screening of a combinatorial peptide library expressed in a filamentous phage with rPtsA identified epitopes that were capable of inhibiting S. pneumoniae adhesion to A549 cells. The insert peptides in the phages were sequenced, and homologous sequences were found in human BMPER, multimerin1, protocadherin19, integrinβ4, epsin1 and collagen type VIIα1 proteins, all of which can be found in A549 cells except the latter. Six peptides, synthesized according to the homologous sequences in the human proteins, specifically bound rPtsA in the micromolar range and significantly inhibited pneumococcal adhesion in vitro to lung- and tracheal-derived cell lines. In addition, the tested peptides inhibited lung colonization after intranasal inoculation of mice with S. pneumoniae. Immunization with rPtsA protected the mice against a sublethal intranasal and a lethal intravenous pneumococcal challenge. In addition, mouse anti rPtsA antiserum reduced bacterial virulence in the intravenous inoculation mouse model. These findings showed that the surface-localized PtsA functions as an adhesin, PtsA binding peptides derived from its putative target molecules can be considered for future development of therapeutics, and rPtsA should be regarded as a candidate for vaccine development. PMID:26990554

  12. Evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay for antibodies to a recombinant Blastomyces adhesin-1 repeat antigen as an aid in the diagnosis of blastomycosis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Mourning, Alyssa C; Patterson, Edward E; Kirsch, Emily J; Renschler, Janelle S; Wolf, Linda A; Paris, Jasmin K; Durkin, Michelle M; Wheat, Lawrence J

    2015-11-15

    To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for antibodies to a recombinant Blastomyces adhesin-1 repeat antigen (rBAD-1) to aid in the diagnosis of blastomycosis in dogs and compare the findings with results from other tests used for this purpose. Prospective analytic study. Serum and urine from 70 dogs with and without blastomycosis. Serum and urine samples were collected from dogs with blastomycosis (n = 21), histoplasmosis (8), or nonfungal pulmonary disease (21) and from healthy control dogs living in a blastomycosis-endemic area (20). Serum was tested for antibodies against Blastomyces dermatitidis with the rBAD-1 antibody EIA and an A-antigen antibody agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) assay. Serum and urine were tested for B dermatitidis antigen with a quantitative EIA. Sensitivity of the quantitative antigen EIA was 100% in serum and urine samples from dogs with blastomycosis, with specificity of 95% in urine samples from dogs with nonfungal pulmonary disease and 100% in urine samples from healthy dogs. Sensitivity of the rBAD-1 antibody EIA (95%) was significantly greater than that of the A-antigen antibody AGID assay (65%). Specificity of the antibody EIA was 88% in dogs with histoplasmosis, 95% in healthy dogs, and 100% in dogs with nonfungal pulmonary disease. The rBAD-1 antibody EIA had greater sensitivity than the A-antigen antibody AGID assay in dogs with blastomycosis. This antibody EIA may assist in distinguishing histoplasmosis from blastomycosis. Further evaluation in a larger prospective study is needed to verify these results.

  13. Structural and functional dissection reveals distinct roles of Ca2+-binding sites in the giant adhesin SiiE of Salmonella enterica

    PubMed Central

    Klingl, Stefan; Sandmann, Achim; Taccardi, Nicola; Sticht, Heinrich; Muller, Yves A.; Hensel, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The giant non-fimbrial adhesin SiiE of Salmonella enterica mediates the first contact to the apical site of epithelial cells and enables subsequent invasion. SiiE is a 595 kDa protein composed of 53 repetitive bacterial immunoglobulin (BIg) domains and the only known substrate of the SPI4-encoded type 1 secretion system (T1SS). The crystal structure of BIg50-52 of SiiE revealed two distinct Ca2+-binding sites per BIg domain formed by conserved aspartate or glutamate residues. In a mutational analysis Ca2+-binding sites were disrupted by aspartate to serine exchange at various positions in the BIg domains of SiiE. Amounts of secreted SiiE diminish with a decreasing number of intact Ca2+-binding sites. BIg domains of SiiE contain distinct Ca2+-binding sites, with type I sites being similar to other T1SS-secreted proteins and type II sites newly identified in SiiE. We functionally and structurally dissected the roles of type I and type II Ca2+-binding sites in SiiE, as well as the importance of Ca2+-binding sites in various positions of SiiE. Type I Ca2+-binding sites were critical for efficient secretion of SiiE and a decreasing number of type I sites correlated with reduced secretion. Type II sites were less important for secretion, stability and surface expression of SiiE, however integrity of type II sites in the C-terminal portion was required for the function of SiiE in mediating adhesion and invasion. PMID:28558023

  14. Streptococcus gordonii DL1 adhesin SspB V-region mediates coaggregation via receptor polysaccharide of Actinomyces oris T14V.

    PubMed

    Back, C R; Douglas, S K; Emerson, J E; Nobbs, A H; Jenkinson, H F

    2015-10-01

    Streptococcus gordonii SspA and SspB proteins, members of the antigen I/II (AgI/II) family of Streptococcus adhesins, mediate adherence to cysteine-rich scavenger glycoprotein gp340 and cells of other oral microbial species. In this article we investigated further the mechanism of coaggregation between S. gordonii DL1 and Actinomyces oris T14V. Previous mutational analysis of S. gordonii suggested that SspB was necessary for coaggregation with A. oris T14V. We have confirmed this by showing that Lactococcus lactis surrogate host cells expressing SspB coaggregated with A. oris T14V and PK606 cells, while L. lactis cells expressing SspA did not. Coaggregation occurred independently of expression of A. oris type 1 (FimP) or type 2 (FimA) fimbriae. Polysaccharide was prepared from cells of A. oris T14V and found to contain 1,4-, 4,6- and 3,4-linked glucose, 1,4-linked mannose, and 2,4-linked galactose residues. When immobilized onto plastic wells this polysaccharide supported binding of L. lactis expressing SspB, but not binding of L. lactis expressing other AgI/II family proteins. Purified recombinant NAVP region of SspB, comprising amino acid (aa) residues 41-847, bound A. oris polysaccharide but the C-domain (932-1470 aa residues) did not. A site-directed deletion of 29 aa residues (Δ691-718) close to the predicted binding cleft within the SspB V-region ablated binding of the NAVP region to polysaccharide. These results infer that the V-region head of SspB recognizes an actinomyces polysaccharide ligand, so further characterizing a lectin-like coaggregation mechanism occurring between two important primary colonizers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Structural basis for the differential binding affinities of the HsfBD1 and HsfBD2 domains in the Haemophilus influenzae Hsf adhesin.

    PubMed

    Radin, Jana N; Grass, Susan A; Meng, Guoyu; Cotter, Shane E; Waksman, Gabriel; St Geme, Joseph W

    2009-08-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a human-specific gram-negative coccobacillus that causes a variety of human infections ranging from localized respiratory infections to invasive diseases. Hsf is the major nonpilus adhesin in encapsulated strains of H. influenzae and belongs to the trimeric autotransporter family of proteins. The Hsf protein contains two highly homologous binding domains, designated HsfBD1 and HsfBD2. In this study we characterized the differential binding properties of HsfBD1 and HsfBD2. In assays using HeLa cells, we found that bacteria expressing either full-length Hsf or HsfBD1 by itself adhered at high levels, while bacteria expressing HsfBD2 by itself adhered at low levels. Immunofluorescence microscopy and a cellular enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using purified proteins revealed that the binding affinity was significantly higher for HsfBD1 than for HsfBD2. Purified HsfBD1 was able to completely block adherence by bacteria expressing either HsfBD1 or HsfBD2, while purified HsfBD2 was able to block adherence by bacteria expressing HsfBD2 but had minimal activity against bacteria expressing HsfBD1. Conversion of the residue at position 1935 in the HsfBD1 binding pocket from Asp to Glu resulted in HsfBD2-like binding properties, and conversion of the residue at position 569 in the HsfBD2 binding pocket from Glu to Asp resulted in HsfBD1-like binding properties, as assessed by adherence assays with recombinant bacteria and by immunofluorescence microscopy with purified proteins. This work demonstrates the critical role of a single amino acid in the core of the binding pocket in determining the relative affinities of the HsfBD1 and HsfBD2 binding domains.

  16. Characterization of Inhibitors and Monoclonal Antibodies That Modulate the Interaction between Plasmodium falciparum Adhesin PfRh4 with Its Erythrocyte Receptor Complement Receptor 1*

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Nicholas T. Y.; Harder, Markus J.; Kennedy, Alexander T.; Lin, Clara S.; Weir, Christopher; Cowman, Alan F.; Call, Melissa J.; Schmidt, Christoph Q.; Tham, Wai-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum parasites must invade red blood cells to survive within humans. Entry into red blood cells is governed by interactions between parasite adhesins and red blood cell receptors. Previously we identified that P. falciparum reticulocyte binding protein-like homologue 4 (PfRh4) binds to complement receptor 1 (CR1) to mediate entry of malaria parasites into human red blood cells. In this report we characterize a collection of anti-PfRh4 monoclonal antibodies and CR1 protein fragments that modulate the interaction between PfRh4 and CR1. We identify an anti-PfRh4 monoclonal that blocks PfRh4-CR1 interaction in vitro, inhibits PfRh4 binding to red blood cells, and as a result abolishes the PfRh4-CR1 invasion pathway in P. falciparum. Epitope mapping of anti-PfRh4 monoclonal antibodies identified distinct functional regions within PfRh4 involved in modulating its interaction with CR1. Furthermore, we designed a set of protein fragments based on extensive mutagenesis analyses of the PfRh4 binding site on CR1 and determined their interaction affinities using surface plasmon resonance. These CR1 protein fragments bind tightly to PfRh4 and also function as soluble inhibitors to block PfRh4 binding to red blood cells and to inhibit the PfRh4-CR1 invasion pathway. Our findings can aid future efforts in designing specific single epitope antibodies to block P. falciparum invasion via complement receptor 1. PMID:26324715

  17. CsrA post-transcriptionally represses pgaABCD, responsible for synthesis of a biofilm polysaccharide adhesin of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Dubey, Ashok K; Suzuki, Kazushi; Baker, Carol S; Babitzke, Paul; Romeo, Tony

    2005-06-01

    The RNA-binding protein CsrA represses biofilm formation, while the non-coding RNAs CsrB and CsrC activate this process by sequestering CsrA. We now provide evidence that the pgaABCD transcript, required for the synthesis of the polysaccharide adhesin PGA (poly-beta-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine) of Escherichia coli, is the key target of biofilm regulation by CsrA. csrA disruption causes an approximately threefold increase in PGA production and an approximately sevenfold increase in expression of a pgaA'-'lacZ translational fusion. A DeltacsrBDeltacsrC mutant exhibits a modest decrease in pgaA'-'lacZ expression, while the response regulator UvrY, a transcriptional activator of csrB and csrC, stimulates this expression. Biofilm formation is not regulated by csrA, csrB or uvrY in a DeltapgaC mutant, which cannot synthesize PGA. Gel mobility shift and toeprint analyses demonstrate that CsrA binds cooperatively to pgaA mRNA and competes with 30S ribosome subunit for binding. CsrA destabilizes the pgaA transcript in vivo. RNA footprinting and boundary analyses identify six apparent CsrA binding sites in the pgaA mRNA leader, the most extensive arrangement of such sites in any mRNA examined to date. Substitution mutations in CsrA binding sites overlapping the Shine-Dalgarno sequence and initiation codon partially relieve repression by CsrA. These studies define the crucial mechanisms, though not the only means, by which the Csr system influences biofilm formation.

  18. Moraxella catarrhalis adhesin UspA1-derived recombinant fragment rD-7 induces monocyte differentiation to CD14+CD206+ phenotype.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qi; Brackenbury, Louise S; Hill, Darryl J; Williams, Neil A; Qu, Xun; Virji, Mumtaz

    2014-01-01

    Circulating monocytes in the bloodstream typically migrate to other tissues and differentiate into tissue resident macrophages, the process being determined by the constituents of the microenvironments encountered. These may include microbes and their products. In this study, we investigated whether Moraxella catarrhalis Ubiquitous Surface Protein A1 (UspA1), known to bind to a widely expressed human cell surface receptor CEACAM1, influences monocyte differentiation as receptor engagement has been shown to have profound effects on monocytes. We used the recombinant molecules corresponding to the regions of UspA1 which either bind (rD-7; UspA1527-665) or do not bind (r6-8; UspA1659-863) to CEACAM1 and investigated their effects on CD206, CD80 and CD86 expression on freshly isolated human CD14+ monocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Exposure to rD-7, but not r6-8, biased monocyte differentiation towards a CD14+CD206+ phenotype, with reduced CD80 expression. Monocytes treated with rD-7 also secreted high levels of IL-1ra and chemokine IL-8 but not IL-10 or IL-12p70. The effects of rD-7 were independent of any residual endotoxin. Unexpectedly, these effects of rD-7 were also independent of its ability to bind to CEACAM1, as monocyte pre-treatment with the anti-CEACAM antibody A0115 known to inhibit rD-7 binding to the receptor, did not affect rD-7-driven differentiation. Further, another control protein rD-7/D (a mutant form of rD-7, known not to bind to CEACAMs), also behaved as the parent molecule. Our data suggest that specific regions of M. catarrhalis adhesin UspA1 may modulate inflammation during infection through a yet unknown receptor on monocytes.

  19. Protection against neonatal Escherichia coli diarrhea by vaccination of sows with a novel multivalent vaccine candidate expressing E. coli adhesins associated with neonatal pig colibacillosis.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Lee, John Hwa

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the optimal condition of a novel multivalent Escherichia coli vaccine candidate for protection efficacy against E. coli colibacillosis in piglets via booster strategy using oral and intramuscular administration routes. The candidate was constructed using an expression and secretion plasmid and an attenuated Salmonella delivery system as described earlier. Pregnant sows were divided into four groups of three sows each and immunized with a mixture of the individual vaccine strains. Sows were primed and boosted at 8 and 11 weeks of pregnancy. Group A sows were primed intramuscularly and boosted orally. Group B sows were primed and boosted orally. Group C sows were orally primed and intramuscularly boosted. Group D sows were primed and boosted with PBS as a control. The serum IgG and IgA levels to individual adhesin antigens were elevated in immunized sows compared to controls, as were colostral IgA and IgG levels of all immunized sows. In addition, serum IgG and IgA levels in piglets from all immunized sows were significantly increased. These data suggest that systemic and colostral immune responses were highly induced by vaccination with the candidate. After challenge with a virulent strain of E. coli, clinical signs such as diarrhea and mortality were not observed in suckling piglets from the immunized sows, while diarrhea and mortality affected 100% and 25% of the control group piglets, respectively. These findings indicate that immunization of sows with the candidate vaccine irrespective of administration routes can effectively protect their piglets against neonatal E. coli diarrhea.

  20. Dynamics of Lewis b Binding and Sequence Variation of the babA Adhesin Gene during Chronic Helicobacter pylori Infection in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Nell, Sandra; Kennemann, Lynn; Schwarz, Sandra; Josenhans, Christine

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Helicobacter pylori undergoes rapid microevolution during chronic infection, but very little is known about how this affects host interaction factors. The best-studied adhesin of H. pylori is BabA, which mediates binding to the blood group antigen Lewis b [Le(b)]. To study the dynamics of Le(b) adherence during human infection, we analyzed paired H. pylori isolates obtained sequentially from chronically infected individuals. A complete loss or significant reduction of Le(b) binding was observed in strains from 5 out of 23 individuals, indicating that the Le(b) binding phenotype is quite stable during chronic human infection. Sequence comparisons of babA identified differences due to mutation and/or recombination in 12 out of 16 strain pairs analyzed. Most amino acid changes were found in the putative N-terminal extracellular adhesion domain. One strain pair that had changed from a Le(b) binding to a nonbinding phenotype was used to study the role of distinct sequence changes in Le(b) binding. By transformations of the nonbinding strain with a babA gene amplified from the binding strain, H. pylori strains with mosaic babA genes were generated. Recombinants were enriched for a gain of Le(b) binding by biopanning or for BabA expression on the bacterial surface by pulldown assay. With this approach, we identified several amino acid residues affecting the strength of Le(b) binding. Additionally, the data showed that the C terminus of BabA, which is predicted to encode an outer membrane β-barrel domain, plays an essential role in the biogenesis of this protein. PMID:25516619

  1. Repetitive Sequence Variations in the Promoter Region of the Adhesin-Encoding Gene sabA of Helicobacter pylori Affect Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Vivian C.; Acio, Catherine R.; Bredehoft, Amy K.; Zhu, Laurence; Hallinger, Daniel R.; Quinlivan-Repasi, Vanessa; Harvey, Samuel E.

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of diseases elicited by the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is partially determined by the effectiveness of adaptation to the variably acidic environment of the host stomach. Adaptation includes appropriate adherence to the gastric epithelium via outer membrane protein adhesins such as SabA. The expression of sabA is subject to regulation via phase variation in the promoter and coding regions as well as repression by the two-component system ArsRS. In this study, we investigated the role of a homopolymeric thymine [poly(T)] tract −50 to −33 relative to the sabA transcriptional start site in H. pylori strain J99. We quantified sabA expression in H. pylori J99 by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), demonstrating significant changes in sabA expression associated with experimental manipulations of poly(T) tract length. Mimicking the length increase of this tract by adding adenines instead of thymines had similar effects, while the addition of other nucleotides failed to affect sabA expression in the same manner. We hypothesize that modification of the poly(T) tract changes DNA topology, affecting regulatory protein interaction(s) or RNA polymerase binding efficiency. Additionally, we characterized the interaction between the sabA promoter region and ArsR, a response regulator affecting sabA expression. Using recombinant ArsR in electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA), we localized binding to a sequence with partial dyad symmetry −20 and +38 relative to the sabA +1 site. The control of sabA expression by both ArsRS and phase variation at two distinct repeat regions suggests the control of sabA expression is both complex and vital to H. pylori infection. PMID:25022855

  2. Point Mutations in FimH Adhesin of Crohn's Disease-Associated Adherent-Invasive Escherichia coli Enhance Intestinal Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Dreux, Nicolas; Denizot, Jérémy; Martinez-Medina, Margarita; Mellmann, Alexander; Billig, Maria; Kisiela, Dagmara; Chattopadhyay, Sujay; Sokurenko, Evgeni; Neut, Christel; Gower-Rousseau, Corinne; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Bonnet, Richard; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Barnich, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) are abnormally predominant on Crohn's disease (CD) ileal mucosa. AIEC reference strain LF82 adheres to ileal enterocytes via the common type 1 pili adhesin FimH and recognizes CEACAM6 receptors abnormally expressed on CD ileal epithelial cells. The fimH genes of 45 AIEC and 47 non-AIEC strains were sequenced. The phylogenetic tree based on fimH DNA sequences indicated that AIEC strains predominantly express FimH with amino acid mutations of a recent evolutionary origin - a typical signature of pathoadaptive changes of bacterial pathogens. Point mutations in FimH, some of a unique AIEC-associated nature, confer AIEC bacteria a significantly higher ability to adhere to CEACAM-expressing T84 intestinal epithelial cells. Moreover, in the LF82 strain, the replacement of fimHLF82 (expressing FimH with an AIEC-associated mutation) with fimHK12 (expressing FimH of commensal E. coli K12) decreased the ability of bacteria to persist and to induce severe colitis and gut inflammation in infected CEABAC10 transgenic mice expressing human CEACAM receptors. Our results highlight a mechanism of AIEC virulence evolution that involves selection of amino acid mutations in the common bacterial traits, such as FimH protein, and leads to the development of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in a genetically susceptible host. The analysis of fimH SNPs may be a useful method to predict the potential virulence of E. coli isolated from IBD patients for diagnostic or epidemiological studies and to identify new strategies for therapeutic intervention to block the interaction between AIEC and gut mucosa in the early stages of IBD. PMID:23358328

  3. Adherence of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli to Bovine Recto-anal Junction Squamous Epithelial Cells Appears to Be Mediated by Mechanisms Distinct from Those Used by O157

    PubMed Central

    Hovde, Carolyn J.; John, Manohar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study presents evidence that the pattern (diffuse or aggregative) of adherence of clinically relevant non-O157 Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) to bovine recto-anal junction squamous epithelial cells is similar to that of E. coli O157, although the mechanisms of adherence appear to be distinct. Our results further suggest that novel adhesins, and not Intimin, are likely involved in non-O157 STEC adherence to bovine recto-anal junction squamous epithelial cells. These findings have important implications for the development of efficacious modalities for blocking adherence of non-O157 STEC to bovine gastrointestinal epithelial cells. PMID:23510495

  4. Peptides from Pisum sativum L. enzymatic protein digest with anti-adhesive activity against Helicobacter pylori: structure-activity and inhibitory activity against BabA, SabA, HpaA and a fibronectin-binding adhesin.

    PubMed

    Niehues, Michael; Euler, Marco; Georgi, Gilda; Mank, Marko; Stahl, Bernd; Hensel, Andreas

    2010-12-01

    Identification of anti-adhesive peptides against Helicobacter pylori obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of seed proteins from Pisum sativum L. (Fabaceae). Bioassay-guided fractionation of protein tryptic digest by ultrafiltration, size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and reversed phase chromatography (RPC) were used. Identification of bioactive peptides was achieved by MALDI-TOF-MS. Adhesion of H. pylori was monitored by two different assays, using a quantitative in vitro assay on human AGS cells with evaluation of bacterial binding by flow cytometry, beside a semi-quantitative in situ adhesion assay using FITC-labelled H. pylori on human stomach tissue sections. From two highly active fractions (F3, F3.3) two anti-adhesive peptides (S3, S5) were identified. Neither F3 nor S3 or S5 had any cytotoxic effect against H. pylori. By hemagglutination assay and semiquantitative dot blot overlay assay with immobilized ligands it was shown that F3 interacts specifically with H. pylori adhesins BabA, SabA, HpaA and a fibronectin-binding adhesin, while S3 and S5 inhibit only BabA. It was demonstrated that BabA, usually interacting with carbohydrate motifs such as fucosylated blood group antigens, interacts with the peptide moieties. Bioactive peptides from pea protein could be applied as functional ingredients for protecting infants and children against infections such as H. pylori. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Bartonella henselae trimeric autotransporter adhesin BadA expression interferes with effector translocation by the VirB/D4 type IV secretion system.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yun-Yueh; Franz, Bettina; Truttmann, Matthias C; Riess, Tanja; Gay-Fraret, Jérémie; Faustmann, Marco; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Dehio, Christoph

    2013-05-01

    The Gram-negative, zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae is the aetiological agent of cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis hepatis in humans. Two pathogenicity factors of B. henselae - each displaying multiple functions in host cell interaction - have been characterized in greater detail: the trimeric autotransporter Bartonella adhesin A (BadA) and the type IV secretion system VirB/D4 (VirB/D4 T4SS). BadA mediates, e.g. binding to fibronectin (Fn), adherence to endothelial cells (ECs) and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VirB/D4 translocates several Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) into the cytoplasm of infected ECs, resulting, e.g. in uptake of bacterial aggregates via the invasome structure, inhibition of apoptosis and activation of a proangiogenic phenotype. Despite this knowledge of the individual activities of BadA or VirB/D4 it is unknown whether these major virulence factors affect each other in their specific activities. In this study, expression and function of BadA and VirB/D4 were analysed in a variety of clinical B. henselae isolates. Data revealed that most isolates have lost expression of either BadA or VirB/D4 during in vitro passages. However, the phenotypic effects of coexpression of both virulence factors was studied in one clinical isolate that was found to stably coexpress BadA and VirB/D4, as well as by ectopic expression of BadA in a strain expressing VirB/D4 but not BadA. BadA, which forms a dense layer on the bacterial surface, negatively affected VirB/D4-dependent Bep translocation and invasome formation by likely preventing close contact between the bacterial cell envelope and the host cell membrane. In contrast, BadA-dependent Fn binding, adhesion to ECs and VEGF secretion were not affected by a functional VirB/D4 T4SS. The obtained data imply that the essential virulence factors BadA and VirB/D4 are likely differentially expressed during different stages of the infection cycle of

  6. Virulence profiling of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli recovered from domestic farm animals in Northwestern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Amézquita-López, Bianca A.; Quiñones, Beatriz; Lee, Bertram G.; Chaidez, Cristóbal

    2013-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a zoonotic enteric pathogen that causes human gastrointestinal illnesses. The present study characterized the virulence profiles of O157 and non-O157 STEC strains, recovered from domestic animals in small rural farms within the agricultural Culiacan Valley in Mexico. Virulence genes coding for adhesins, cytotoxins, proteases, subtypes of Shiga toxin (Stx), and other effectors were identified in the STEC strains by PCR. The genotyping analysis revealed the presence of the effectors nleA, nleB, nleE, and nleH1-2, espK, and espN in the O157:H7 and O111:H8 STEC strains. Furthermore, the genes encoding the autoagglutinating adhesin (Saa) and subtilase (SubA) were exclusively identified in the O8:H19 eae-negative strains. The adhesin (iha) and the silent hemolysin (sheA) genes were detected in 79% of the O157 and non-O157 strains. To examine the relative toxicities of the STEC strains, a fluorescent Vero cell line, Vero-d2EGFPs, was employed to measure the inhibition of protein synthesis by Stx. Analysis of culture supernatants from serotype O8:H19 strains with the stx gene profile stx1a, stx2a, and stx2c and serotypes O75:H8 and O146:H8 strains with the stx gene profile stx1a, stx1c, and stx2b, resulted in a significant reduction in the Vero-d2EGFP fluorescent signal. These observations suggest that these non-O157 strains may have an enhanced ability to inhibit protein synthesis in Vero cells. Interestingly, analysis of the stx2c-positive O157:H7 strains resulted in a high fluorescent signal, indicating a reduced toxicity in the Vero-d2EGFP cells. These findings indicate that the O157 and non-O157 STEC strains, recovered in the Culiacan Valley, display distinct virulence profiles and relative toxicities in mammalian cells and have provided information for evaluating risks associated with zoonotic STEC in this agricultural region in Mexico. PMID:24551599

  7. Virulence profiling of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli recovered from domestic farm animals in Northwestern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Amézquita-López, Bianca A; Quiñones, Beatriz; Lee, Bertram G; Chaidez, Cristóbal

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a zoonotic enteric pathogen that causes human gastrointestinal illnesses. The present study characterized the virulence profiles of O157 and non-O157 STEC strains, recovered from domestic animals in small rural farms within the agricultural Culiacan Valley in Mexico. Virulence genes coding for adhesins, cytotoxins, proteases, subtypes of Shiga toxin (Stx), and other effectors were identified in the STEC strains by PCR. The genotyping analysis revealed the presence of the effectors nleA, nleB, nleE, and nleH1-2, espK, and espN in the O157:H7 and O111:H8 STEC strains. Furthermore, the genes encoding the autoagglutinating adhesin (Saa) and subtilase (SubA) were exclusively identified in the O8:H19 eae-negative strains. The adhesin (iha) and the silent hemolysin (sheA) genes were detected in 79% of the O157 and non-O157 strains. To examine the relative toxicities of the STEC strains, a fluorescent Vero cell line, Vero-d2EGFPs, was employed to measure the inhibition of protein synthesis by Stx. Analysis of culture supernatants from serotype O8:H19 strains with the stx gene profile stx 1a, stx 2a, and stx 2c and serotypes O75:H8 and O146:H8 strains with the stx gene profile stx 1a, stx 1c, and stx 2b, resulted in a significant reduction in the Vero-d2EGFP fluorescent signal. These observations suggest that these non-O157 strains may have an enhanced ability to inhibit protein synthesis in Vero cells. Interestingly, analysis of the stx 2c-positive O157:H7 strains resulted in a high fluorescent signal, indicating a reduced toxicity in the Vero-d2EGFP cells. These findings indicate that the O157 and non-O157 STEC strains, recovered in the Culiacan Valley, display distinct virulence profiles and relative toxicities in mammalian cells and have provided information for evaluating risks associated with zoonotic STEC in this agricultural region in Mexico.

  8. Enhanced immunogenicity of pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA) in mice via fusion to recombinant human B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily of ligands that mediates its action through three known receptors. BLyS has been shown to enhance the production of antibodies against heterologous antigens when present at elevated concentrations, supporting an immunostimulatory role for BLyS in vivo. Methods We constructed a fusion protein consisting of human BLyS and Pneumococcal Surface Adhesin A (PsaA) and used this molecule to immunize mice. The immunostimulatory attributes mediated by BLyS in vivo were evaluated by characterizing immune responses directed against PsaA. Results The PsaA-BLyS fusion protein was able to act as a co-stimulant for murine spleen cell proliferation induced with F(ab')2 fragments of anti-IgM in vitro in a fashion similar to recombinant BLyS, and immunization of mice with the PsaA-BLyS fusion protein resulted in dramatically elevated serum antibodies specific for PsaA. Mice immunized with PsaA admixed with recombinant BLyS exhibited only modest elevations in PsaA-specific responses following two immunizations, while mice immunized twice with PsaA alone exhibited undetectable PsaA-specific serum antibody responses. Sera obtained from PsaA-BLyS immunized mice exhibited high titers of IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3, but no IgA, while mice immunized with PsaA admixed with BLyS exhibited only elevated titers of IgG1 following two immunizations. Splenocytes from PsaA-BLyS immunized mice exhibited elevated levels of secretion of IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5, and a very modest but consistent elevation of IFN-γ following in vitro stimulation with PsaA. In contrast, mice immunized with either PsaA admixed with BLyS or PsaA alone exhibited modestly elevated to absent PsaA-specific recall responses for the same cytokines. Mice deficient for one of the three receptors for BLyS designated Transmembrane activator, calcium modulator, and cyclophilin ligand [CAML] interactor (TACI) exhibited attenuated Psa

  9. Enhanced immunogenicity of pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA) in mice via fusion to recombinant human B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS).

    PubMed

    Gor, Dennis O; Ding, Xuedong; Li, Qing; Sultana, Dilara; Mambula, Salamatu S; Bram, Richard J; Greenspan, Neil S

    2011-02-09

    B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily of ligands that mediates its action through three known receptors. BLyS has been shown to enhance the production of antibodies against heterologous antigens when present at elevated concentrations, supporting an immunostimulatory role for BLyS in vivo. We constructed a fusion protein consisting of human BLyS and Pneumococcal Surface Adhesin A (PsaA) and used this molecule to immunize mice. The immunostimulatory attributes mediated by BLyS in vivo were evaluated by characterizing immune responses directed against PsaA. The PsaA-BLyS fusion protein was able to act as a co-stimulant for murine spleen cell proliferation induced with F(ab')₂ fragments of anti-IgM in vitro in a fashion similar to recombinant BLyS, and immunization of mice with the PsaA-BLyS fusion protein resulted in dramatically elevated serum antibodies specific for PsaA. Mice immunized with PsaA admixed with recombinant BLyS exhibited only modest elevations in PsaA-specific responses following two immunizations, while mice immunized twice with PsaA alone exhibited undetectable PsaA-specific serum antibody responses. Sera obtained from PsaA-BLyS immunized mice exhibited high titers of IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3, but no IgA, while mice immunized with PsaA admixed with BLyS exhibited only elevated titers of IgG1 following two immunizations. Splenocytes from PsaA-BLyS immunized mice exhibited elevated levels of secretion of IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5, and a very modest but consistent elevation of IFN-γ following in vitro stimulation with PsaA. In contrast, mice immunized with either PsaA admixed with BLyS or PsaA alone exhibited modestly elevated to absent PsaA-specific recall responses for the same cytokines. Mice deficient for one of the three receptors for BLyS designated Transmembrane activator, calcium modulator, and cyclophilin ligand [CAML] interactor (TACI) exhibited attenuated PsaA-specific serum antibody responses

  10. The membrane expression of Neisseria meningitidis adhesin A (NadA) increases the proimmune effects of MenB OMVs on human macrophages, compared with NadA- OMVs, without further stimulating their proinflammatory activity on circulating monocytes.

    PubMed

    Tavano, Regina; Franzoso, Susanna; Cecchini, Paola; Cartocci, Elena; Oriente, Francesca; Aricò, Beatrice; Papini, Emanuele

    2009-07-01

    Hypervirulent MenB causing fatal human infections frequently display the oligomeric-coiled coil adhesin NadA, a 45-kDa intrinsic outer membrane protein implicated in binding to and invasion of respiratory epithelial cells. A recombinant soluble mutant lacking the 10-kDa COOH terminal membrane domain (NadA(Delta351-405)) also activates human monocytes/macrophages/DCs. As NadA is physiologically released during sepsis as part of OMVs, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that NadA(+) OMVs have an enhanced or modified proinflammatory/proimmune action compared with NadA(-) OMVs. To do this we investigated the activity of purified free NadA(Delta351-405) and of OMVs from MenB and Escherichia coli strains, expressing or not full-length NadA. NadA(Delta351-405) stimulated monocytes and macrophages to secrete cytokines (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-10) and chemokines (IL-8, MIP-1alpha, MCP-1, RANTES), and full-length NadA improved MenB OMV activity, preferentially on macrophages, and only increased cytokine release. NadA(Delta351-405) induced the lymphocyte costimulant CD80 in monocytes and macrophages, and NadA(+) OMVs induced a wider set of molecules supporting antigen presentation (CD80, CD86, HLA-DR, and ICAM-1) more efficiently than NadA(-) OMVs only in macrophages. Moreover, membrane NadA effects, unlike NadA(Delta351-405) ones, were much less IFN-gamma-sensitive. The activity of NadA-positive E. coli OMVs was similar to that of control OMVs. NadA in MenB OMVs acted at adhesin concentrations approximately 10(6) times lower than those required to stimulate cells with free NadA(Delta351-405).

  11. A conserved PapB family member, TosR, regulates expression of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli RTX nonfimbrial adhesin TosA while conserved LuxR family members TosE and TosF suppress motility.

    PubMed

    Engstrom, Michael D; Alteri, Christopher J; Mobley, Harry L T

    2014-09-01

    A heterogeneous subset of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains, referred to as uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), causes most uncomplicated urinary tract infections. However, no core set of virulence factors exists among UPEC strains. Instead, the focus of the analysis of urovirulence has shifted to studying broad classes of virulence factors and the interactions between them. For example, the RTX nonfimbrial adhesin TosA mediates adherence to host cells derived from the upper urinary tract. The associated tos operon is well expressed in vivo but poorly expressed in vitro and encodes TosCBD, a predicted type 1 secretion system. TosR and TosEF are PapB and LuxR family transcription factors, respectively; however, no role has been assigned to these potential regulators. Thus, the focus of this study was to determine how TosR and TosEF regulate tosA and affect the reciprocal expression of adhesins and flagella. Among a collection of sequenced UPEC strains, 32% (101/317) were found to encode TosA, and nearly all strains (91% [92/101]) simultaneously carried the putative regulatory genes. Deletion of tosR alleviates tosA repression. The tos promoter was localized upstream of tosR using transcriptional fusions of putative promoter regions with lacZ. TosR binds to this region, affecting a gel shift. A 100-bp fragment 220 to 319 bp upstream of tosR inhibits binding, suggesting localization of the TosR binding site. TosEF, on the other hand, downmodulate motility when overexpressed by preventing the expression of fliC, encoding flagellin. Deletion of tosEF increased motility. Thus, we present an additional example of the reciprocal control of adherence and motility. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. A Conserved PapB Family Member, TosR, Regulates Expression of the Uropathogenic Escherichia coli RTX Nonfimbrial Adhesin TosA while Conserved LuxR Family Members TosE and TosF Suppress Motility

    PubMed Central

    Engstrom, Michael D.; Alteri, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    A heterogeneous subset of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains, referred to as uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), causes most uncomplicated urinary tract infections. However, no core set of virulence factors exists among UPEC strains. Instead, the focus of the analysis of urovirulence has shifted to studying broad classes of virulence factors and the interactions between them. For example, the RTX nonfimbrial adhesin TosA mediates adherence to host cells derived from the upper urinary tract. The associated tos operon is well expressed in vivo but poorly expressed in vitro and encodes TosCBD, a predicted type 1 secretion system. TosR and TosEF are PapB and LuxR family transcription factors, respectively; however, no role has been assigned to these potential regulators. Thus, the focus of this study was to determine how TosR and TosEF regulate tosA and affect the reciprocal expression of adhesins and flagella. Among a collection of sequenced UPEC strains, 32% (101/317) were found to encode TosA, and nearly all strains (91% [92/101]) simultaneously carried the putative regulatory genes. Deletion of tosR alleviates tosA repression. The tos promoter was localized upstream of tosR using transcriptional fusions of putative promoter regions with lacZ. TosR binds to this region, affecting a gel shift. A 100-bp fragment 220 to 319 bp upstream of tosR inhibits binding, suggesting localization of the TosR binding site. TosEF, on the other hand, downmodulate motility when overexpressed by preventing the expression of fliC, encoding flagellin. Deletion of tosEF increased motility. Thus, we present an additional example of the reciprocal control of adherence and motility. PMID:24935980

  13. Apa2H1, the first head domain of Apa2 trimeric autotransporter adhesin, activates mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and immunization with Apa2H1 protects against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wanhai; Wang, Lei; Zhai, Ruidong; Ma, Qiuyue; Liu, Jianfang; Bao, Chuntong; Sun, Diangang; Zhang, Hu; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Gu, Jingmin; Du, Chongtao; Han, Wenyu; Langford, P R; Lei, Liancheng

    2017-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative pathogen of porcine pleuropneumonia, which results in large economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. There are, however, no effective subunit vaccines are available in the market owing to the various serotypes and the absence of cross-protection against this pathogen. Therefore, the selection of protective components is of great significance for vaccine development. We previously showed that trimeric autotransporter adhesins are important virulence factors of A. pleuropneumoniae. To determine the potential role in vaccine development of the functional head domain (Apa2H1) of Apa2, a trimeric autotransporter adhesin found in A. pleuropneumoniae, we obtained nature-like trimeric Apa2H1 using a prokaryotic expression system and co-culture of Apa2H1 with bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) in vitro resulted in maturation of BMDCs, characterised by the up-regulation of CD83, MHC-II, CCR7, ICAM-I and the increased expression of factors related to B lymphoid cells stimulation, such as proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) and B cell activating factor (BAFF). The in vivo results showed that vaccination with Apa2H1 resulted in the robust production of antigen-specific antibodies, modestly induced mixed Th1 and Th2 immunity, impaired bacterial colonization and dissemination, and improved mouse survival rates. This study is the first to show that Apa2H1 is antigenic and can be used as a component of a subunit vaccine against A. pleuropneumoniae infection, providing valuable reference material for the development of an effective vaccine against A. pleuropneumoniae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of ARF6, Rab11 and External Hsp90 in the Trafficking and Recycling of Recombinant-Soluble Neisseria meningitidis Adhesin A (rNadA) in Human Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Montanari, Paolo; Benucci, Barbara; Biancucci, Marco; Nardi-Dei, Vincenzo; Caproni, Elena; Barrile, Riccardo; Picciani, Benedetta; Savino, Silvana; Aricò, Beatrice; Rappuoli, Rino; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Luini, Alberto; Sallese, Michele; Merola, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis adhesin A (NadA) is a meningococcus surface protein thought to assist in the adhesion of the bacterium to host cells. We have previously shown that NadA also promotes bacterial internalization in a heterologous expression system. Here we have used the soluble recombinant NadA (rNadA) lacking the membrane anchor region to characterize its internalization route in Chang epithelial cells. Added to the culture medium, rNadA internalizes through a PI3K-dependent endocytosis process not mediated by the canonical clathrin or caveolin scaffolds, but instead follows an ARF6-regulated recycling pathway previously described for MHC-I. The intracellular pool of rNadA reaches a steady state level within one hour of incubation and colocalizes in endocytic vesicles with MHC-I and with the extracellularly labeled chaperone Hsp90. Treatment with membrane permeated and impermeable Hsp90 inhibitors 17-AAG and FITC-GA respectively, lead to intracellular accumulation of rNadA, strongly suggesting that the extracellular secreted pool of the chaperone is involved in rNadA intracellular trafficking. A significant number of intracellular vesicles containing rNadA recruit Rab11, a small GTPase associated to recycling endosomes, but do not contain transferrin receptor (TfR). Interestingly, cell treatment with Hsp90 inhibitors, including the membrane-impermeable FITC-GA, abolished Rab11-rNadA colocalization but do not interfere with Rab11-TfR colocalization. Collectively, these results are consistent with a model whereby rNadA internalizes into human epithelial cells hijacking the recycling endosome pathway and recycle back to the surface of the cell via an ARF6-dependent, Rab11 associated and Hsp90-regulated mechanism. The present study addresses for the first time a meningoccoccal adhesin mechanism of endocytosis and suggests a possible entry pathway engaged by N. meningitidis in primary infection of human epithelial cells. PMID:25347845

  15. Design for Producibility. A Design Producibility Algorithm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    year. NOFORN, REL, ITAR ). Block 3. Tve of Report and Dates Covered. State whether report is interim, fihal, etc. If DOD See DoDD 5230.24, "Distribution...3.0 PRODUCIBILITY TOOLS 2 4.0 SCHEDULES/PHASES 3 4.1 PRIOR TO SRR 3 4.2 AT THE SRR 3 4.3 THE FLOW FROM SRR TO SDR 4 4.4 AT THE SDR 16 4.5 THE FLOW FROM... SDR TO CDR 16 4.6 AT THE PDR 23 4.7 BETWEEN PDR AND CDR 23 4.8 AT THE CDR 24 4.9 THE FLOW BEYOND CDR 24 5.0 PRODUCIBILITY SUCCESS MEASUREMENT 25 6.0

  16. Method of producing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Zollinger, William T.

    2006-12-26

    A method of producing hydrogen is disclosed and which includes providing a first composition; providing a second composition; reacting the first and second compositions together to produce a chemical hydride; providing a liquid and reacting the chemical hydride with the liquid in a manner to produce a high pressure hydrogen gas and a byproduct which includes the first composition; and reusing the first composition formed as a byproduct in a subsequent chemical reaction to form additional chemical hydride.

  17. Virulence characteristics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from raw meats and clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Hoang Minh, Son; Kimura, Etsuko; Hoang Minh, Duc; Honjoh, Ken-ichi; Miyamoto, Takahisa

    2015-03-01

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are dangerous foodborne pathogens. Foods are considered as important sources for STEC infection in human. In this study, STEC contamination of raw meats was investigated and the virulence factors of 120 clinical STEC strains characterized. STEC was detected in 4.4% of tested samples. Among 25 STEC strains from meats, five strains (20%) were positive for the eae gene, which encodes intimin, an important binding protein of pathogenic STEC. The remaining strains (80%) were eae-negative. However, 28% of them possessed the saa gene, which encodes STEC agglutinating adhesin. The ehxA gene encoding for enterohemolysin was found in 75% of the meat strains and the subAB gene, the product is of which subtilase cytotoxin, was found in 32% of these strains. The stx2a gene, a subtype of Shiga toxin gene (stx), was the most prevalent subtype among the identified meat STEC bacteria. None of the meat STEC was O157:H7 serotype. Nevertheless, 92% of them produced Shiga toxin (Stx). Among 120 clinical STEC strains, 30% and 70% strains harbored single and multiple stx subtypes, respectively. Most clinical STEC bacteria possessed eae (90.8%) and ehxA (96.7%) genes and 92.5% of them showed Stx productivity. Our study shows that some raw meat samples contain non-O157 STEC bacteria and some strains have virulence factors similar to those of clinical strains. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors

  19. METHOD OF PRODUCING NEUTRONS

    DOEpatents

    Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

    1964-01-14

    This patent relates to a method of producing neutrons in which there is produced a heated plasma containing heavy hydrogen isotope ions wherein heated ions are injected and confined in an elongated axially symmetric magnetic field having at least one magnetic field gradient region. In accordance with the method herein, the amplitude of the field and gradients are varied at an oscillatory periodic frequency to effect confinement by providing proper ratios of rotational to axial velocity components in the motion of said particles. The energetic neutrons may then be used as in a blanket zone containing a moderator and a source fissionable material to produce heat and thermal neutron fissionable materials. (AEC)

  20. Vehicle gas producers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donath, E. E.

    1980-05-01

    The present petroleum supply situation with the possibility of unscheduled interruptions and the definite expectation of continued price increases calls for an investigation of the use of solid fuels for the propulsion of vehicles. The paper reviews the use of solid fuel gas producers with high thermal efficiency on motor vehicles, especially trucks and buses. Some economic comparisons are presented for pre-World War II conditions. Suggestions are made for possible future development of vehicle gas producers. The types of producers are described, along with their performance, special problems, and the importance of fuel properties.

  1. Use of Translational Fusion of the MrpH Fimbrial Adhesin-Binding Domain with the Cholera Toxin A2 Domain, Coexpressed with the Cholera Toxin B Subunit, as an Intranasal Vaccine To Prevent Experimental Urinary Tract Infection by Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Erbe, Jarrod L.; Lockatell, C. Virginia; Johnson, David E.; Jobling, Michael G.; Holmes, Randall K.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2004-01-01

    This is a follow-up to our previous study using an intranasal vaccine composed of MrpH, the tip adhesin of the MR/P fimbria, and cholera toxin to prevent urinary tract infection by Proteus mirabilis (X. Li, C. V. Lockatell, D. E. Johnson, M. C. Lane, J. W. Warren, and H. L. Mobley, Infect. Immun. 72:66-75, 2004). Here, we have expressed a cholera toxin-like chimera in which the MrpH adhesin-binding domain (residues 23 to 157) replaces the cholera toxin A1 ADP-ribosyltransferase domain. This chimera, when administered intranasally without additional adjuvant, is sufficient to induce protective immunity in mice. PMID:15557656

  2. Use of translational fusion of the MrpH fimbrial adhesin-binding domain with the cholera toxin A2 domain, coexpressed with the cholera toxin B subunit, as an intranasal vaccine to prevent experimental urinary tract infection by Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Erbe, Jarrod L; Lockatell, C Virginia; Johnson, David E; Jobling, Michael G; Holmes, Randall K; Mobley, Harry L T

    2004-12-01

    This is a follow-up to our previous study using an intranasal vaccine composed of MrpH, the tip adhesin of the MR/P fimbria, and cholera toxin to prevent urinary tract infection by Proteus mirabilis (X. Li, C. V. Lockatell, D. E. Johnson, M. C. Lane, J. W. Warren, and H. L. Mobley, Infect. Immun. 72:66-75, 2004). Here, we have expressed a cholera toxin-like chimera in which the MrpH adhesin-binding domain (residues 23 to 157) replaces the cholera toxin A1 ADP-ribosyltransferase domain. This chimera, when administered intranasally without additional adjuvant, is sufficient to induce protective immunity in mice.

  3. Coal markets squeeze producers

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, M.

    2005-12-01

    Supply/demand fundamentals seem poised to keep prices of competing fossil fuels high, which could cushion coal prices, but increased mining and transportation costs may squeeze producer profits. Are markets ready for more volatility?

  4. Design Producibility Assessment System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-30

    68 7.11 Part Detail ............... 69 7.11 Continued.. .Part Detail ... .......... 70 iv TABLES Page TABLE 1. Producibility Rating Factors...design type. Instead, an empirical approach has been selected to calculate the MI. An examination of a large number of metal components suggest that...normally cause the 80% of the producibility problems. Table 1 shows a sample list of those factors. It is important to recognize however, that the list of

  5. Detection and Characterization of Verocytotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli by Automated 5′ Nuclease PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Eva Møller; Andersen, Marianne Thorup

    2003-01-01

    In recent years increased attention has been focused on infections caused by isolates of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) serotypes other than O157. These non-O157 VTEC isolates are commonly present in food and food production animals. Easy detection, isolation, and characterization of non-O157 VTEC isolates are essential for improving our knowledge of these organisms. In the present study, we detected VTEC isolates in bovine fecal samples by a duplex 5′ nuclease PCR assay (real-time PCR) that targets vtx1 and vtx2. VTEC isolates were obtained by colony replication by use of hydrophobic-grid membrane filters and DNA probe hybridization. Furthermore, we have developed 5′ nuclease PCR assays for the detection of virulence factors typically present in VTEC isolates, including subtypes of three genes of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island. The 22 assays included assays for the detection of verocytotoxin genes (vtx1, vtx2), pO157-associated genes (ehxA, katP, espP, and etpD), a recently identified adhesin (saa), intimin (eae, all variants), seven subtypes of eae, four subtypes of tir, and three subtypes of espD. A number of reference strains (VTEC and enteropathogenic E. coli strains) and VTEC strains isolated from calves were tested to validate the PCR assays. The expected virulence profiles were detected for all reference strains. In addition, new information on the subtypes of LEE genes was obtained. For reference strains as well as bovine isolates, a consistent relationship between subtypes of the LEE genes was found, so that a total of seven different combinations of these were recognized (corresponding to the seven subtypes of eae). Isolates with 15 different serogroup-virulence profiles were isolated from 16 calves. Among these, 53% harbored LEE and 73% harbored factors carried by the large virulence plasmid. One LEE-negative isolate had the gene for the adhesin Saa. The most common virulence profile among the bovine

  6. Produce Sanitation System Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    SAFETY NAVAL VESSELS WASHERS(CLEANERS) FRUITS CLEANING WORKLOAD MONITORING LABOR SAVINGS NATURAL RESOURCES WATER ... fruits and vegetables (FF&V) aboard Navy vessels, The sink saves labor associated with the washing of produce in food service operations by...Systems  Equipment and Engineering Team (SEET). This system, produced by SteelKor, was designed to  clean and sanitize fresh  fruits  and vegetables

  7. Manufacturing and producibility technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, J. D.; Dreshfield, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Activities of the manufacturing/producibility working group within the Advanced High-Pressure O2/H2 Technology Program are summarized. The objectives of the M/P working group are: to develop and evaluate process and manufacturing techniques for advanced propulsion hardware design and selected materials; and to optimize the producibility of (SSME) components and assemblies by improved performance, increased life, greater reliability, and/or reduced cost. The technologies being developed include: plasma arc, laser, and inertia welding; combustion chamber and turbine blade coatings; coating processes; high performance alloy electroforming; and process control technology.

  8. Producing CD-ROMs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyams, Peter, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue presents 11 articles that address issues relating to the production of CD-ROMs. Highlights include current uses of CD-ROM; standards; steps involved in producing CD-ROMs, including data capture, conversion, and tagging, product design, and indexing; authoring; selecting indexing and retrieval software; costs; multimedia CD-ROMs; and…

  9. Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Yohei; Paterson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) were almost nonexistent up to the 1990s, but are today encountered routinely in hospitals and other healthcare facilities in many countries including the United States. KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae was the first to emerge and spread globally and is endemic in the United States, Israel, Greece, and Italy. Recently, NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae and OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae appear to be disseminating from South Asia and Northern Africa, respectively. They are almost always resistant to all β-lactams including carbapenems and many other classes. Mortality from invasive CPE infections reaches up to 40%. To obtain the maximal benefit from the limited options available, dosing of antimicrobial agents should be optimized based on pharmacokinetic data, especially for colistin and carbapenems. In addition, multiple observational studies have associated combination antimicrobial therapy with lower mortality compared with monotherapy for these infections. The outcomes appear to be especially favorable when patients are treated with a carbapenem and a second agent such as colistin, tigecycline, and gentamicin, but the best approach is yet to be defined. PMID:25643272

  10. PRODUCING HIGH CORN YIELDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Coll. of Agriculture.

    RESOURCE MATERIAL ON CORN PRODUCTION FOR HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE AND ADULT FARMER CLASSES WAS DESIGNED BY A STATE LEVEL GROUP OF SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS TO HELP SOLVE PROBLEMS THAT CONFRONT CORN PRODUCERS AT PLANTING TIME. THE SUBJECT MATTER CONCERNS PLANTING TIME, DEPTH, ROW WIDTH,…

  11. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles.

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, Luis A M; Facio, Dario S; Mosquera, Maria J

    2016-03-04

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic-inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie-Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol-gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a 'green' product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie-Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating.

  12. Producer/Consumer Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englander, Meryl E.; Marsh, John

    1977-01-01

    The work ethic and the success of a system based increasingly upon consumerism has created an image of man in which the quality of life is measured in terms of quantity and ownership of goods; in ethics and attitude, our system of education is creating an ideally receptive population for the producer-consumer society. (JD)

  13. Interventions for fresh produce

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Environmental matrices such as soil, water, and dust harbor microorganisms. Many of the microorganisms found in the environment are essential for biogeochemical cycles and are essential for plant growth. The microbiome of the produce production environment might also contain foodborne pathogens and ...

  14. Computer Produced Media Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffcott, Janet B.

    To increase access to the media collection at the Madison Area Technical College (Wisconsin) a computer-produced key work index was created using an International Business Machine (IBM) 360 model 40 computer and a duplicating facility with offset capability. A standard 80 column IBM card was used reserving columns 1-9 for the media item number,…

  15. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrascosa, Luis A. M.; Facio, Dario S.; Mosquera, Maria J.

    2016-03-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic-inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie-Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol-gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a ‘green’ product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie-Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating.

  16. Directionally Solidified Ceramics Produced

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Serene C.; Sayir, Ali

    2000-01-01

    Produced Multiphase, interpenetrating structures are an alternative route to obtaining structural ceramic materials with adequate strength, toughness, and stability for high-temperature aerospace applications. The eutectic architecture, a continuous-reinforcing phase within a higher volume phase or matrix, can be described as a naturally occurring, in situ composite. The phases of a eutectic are thermodynamically compatible at high homologous temperatures. Strong and stable materials have been produced. Toughness, however, remains a technical obstacle. The potential for producing materials with enhanced toughness along with adequate strength and stability was demonstrated using the laser-heated float zone (LHFZ) growth method at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. LHFZ growth at Glenn provides a means to efficiently produce and record the underlying growth phenomena associated with two-phase structures. To initiate directional solidification, a seed of single-crystal sapphire (<0001> direction) was lowered onto the molten liquid until wetting occurred and then withdrawn at a constant rate. Neither the crystal nor the source rod was rotated. The materials produced were tested mechanically in tension, and the resulting microstructure was examined with a scanning electron microscope. Both the inherent properties of the constituent phases and the properties of the interface between them affect the mechanical behavior and the fracture surfaces. The following scanning electron micrographs show the microstructures of two different materials that were tested to failure in tension. In the left micrograph, the flat fracture surface is typical of a material that is strong but has low toughness. In the right micrograph, the crack is effectively deflected at the interface between the two phases, achieving higher toughness at moderately lower strength levels. Conducting mechanical tests to determine the high temperature properties of these materials is the next step

  17. Human diffusely adhering Escherichia coli expressing Afa/Dr adhesins that use human CD55 (decay-accelerating factor) as a receptor does not bind the rodent and pig analogues of CD55.

    PubMed

    Hudault, Sylvie; Spiller, O Brad; Morgan, B Paul; Servin, Alain L

    2004-08-01

    Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) bacteria that are responsible for recurrent urinary tract and gastrointestinal infections recognized as a receptor the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55) at the brush border of cultured human intestinal cells. Results show that Afa/Dr DAEC C1845 bacteria were poorly associated with the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract of infected mice. We conducted experiments with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably transfected with mouse (GPI or transmembrane forms), pig, or human CD55 or mouse Crry cDNAs or transfected with empty vector pDR2EF1 alpha. Recombinant E. coli AAEC185 bacteria expressing Dr or F1845 adhesins bound strongly to CHO cells expressing human CD55 but not to the CHO cells expressing mouse (transmembrane and GPI anchored), rat, or pig CD55 or mouse Crry. Positive clustering of CD55 around Dr-positive bacteria was observed in human CD55-expressing CHO cells but not around the rarely adhering Dr-positive bacteria randomly distributed at the cell surface of CHO cells expressing mouse, rat, or pig CD55.

  18. The Cation-Responsive Protein NhaR of Escherichia coli Activates pgaABCD Transcription, Required for Production of the Biofilm Adhesin Poly-β-1,6-N-Acetyl-d-Glucosamine▿

    PubMed Central

    Goller, Carlos; Wang, Xin; Itoh, Yoshikane; Romeo, Tony

    2006-01-01

    The pgaABCD operon of Escherichia coli is required for production of the biofilm adhesin poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PGA). We establish here that NhaR, a DNA-binding protein of the LysR family of transcriptional regulators, activates transcription of this operon. Disruption of the nhaR gene decreased biofilm formation without affecting planktonic growth. PGA production was undetectable in an nhaR mutant strain. Expression of a pgaA′-′lacZ translational fusion was induced by NaCl and alkaline pH, but not by CaCl2 or sucrose, in an nhaR-dependent fashion. Primer extension and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses further revealed that NhaR affects the steady-state level of pga mRNA. A purified recombinant NhaR protein bound specifically and with high affinity within the pgaABCD promoter region; one apparent binding site overlaps the −35 element, and a second site lies immediately upstream of the first. This protein was necessary and sufficient for activation of in vitro transcription from the pgaA promoter. These results define a novel mechanism for regulation of biofilm formation in response to environmental conditions and suggest an expanded role for NhaR in promoting bacterial survival. PMID:16997959

  19. METHOD OF PRODUCING NEUTRONS

    DOEpatents

    Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

    1964-02-01

    A method for producing neutrons is described in which there is employed a confinement zone defined between longitudinally spaced localized gradient regions of an elongated magnetic field. Changed particles and neutralizing electrons, more specifically deuterons and tritons and neutralizng electrons, are injected into the confinement field from ion sources located outside the field. The rotational energy of the parrticles is increased at the gradients by imposing an oscillating transverse electrical field thereacross. The imposition of such oscillating transverse electrical fields improves the reflection capability of such gradient fielda so that the reactive particles are retained more effectively within the zone. With the attainment of appropriate densities of plasma particles and provided that such particles are at a sufficiently high temperature, neutron-producing reactions ensue and large quantities of neutrons emerge from the containment zone. (AEC)

  20. Process for producing silicon

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Jerry M.; Carleton, Karen L.

    1984-01-01

    A process for producing silicon includes forming an alloy of copper and silicon and positioning the alloy in a dried, molten salt electrolyte to form a solid anode structure therein. An electrically conductive cathode is placed in the electrolyte for plating silicon thereon. The electrolyte is then purified to remove dissolved oxides. Finally, an electrical potential is applied between the anode and cathode in an amount sufficient to form substantially pure silicon on the cathode in the form of substantially dense, coherent deposits.

  1. Method of producing imines

    DOEpatents

    Sithambaram, Shanthakumar [Storrs, CT; Son, Young-Chan [Storrs, CT; Suib, Steven L [Storrs, CT

    2008-04-08

    A method for forming an imine comprises reacting a first reactant comprising a hydroxyl functionality, a carbonyl functionality, or both a hydroxyl functionality and a carbonyl functionality with a second reactant having an amine functionality in the presence of ordered porous manganese-based octahedral molecular sieves and an oxygen containing gas at a temperature and for a time sufficient for the imine to be produced.

  2. Method of producing imines

    DOEpatents

    Sithambaram, Shanthakumar; Son, Young-Chan; Suib, Steven L.

    2008-04-08

    A method for forming an imine comprises reacting a first reactant comprising a hydroxyl functionality, a carbonyl functionality, or both a hydroxyl functionality and a carbonyl functionality with a second reactant having an amine functionality in the presence of ordered porous manganese-based octahedral molecular sieves and an oxygen containing gas at a temperature and for a time sufficient for the imine to be produced.

  3. Nosocomial, Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Strains Isolated from Mexico City Produce Robust Biofilms on Abiotic Surfaces but Not on Human Lung Cells.

    PubMed

    Ostria-Hernandez, Martha Lorena; Juárez-de la Rosa, Karla Cecilia; Arzate-Barbosa, Patricia; Lara-Hernández, Antonino; Sakai, Fuminori; Ibarra, J Antonio; Castro-Escarpulli, Graciela; Vidal, Jorge E

    2017-09-15

    Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kpn) strains are a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections, including ventilator-associated pneumonia. Resistance to antibiotics, biofilm formation, and the production of certain fimbriae play an important role in the pathogenesis. We investigated the genetic relatedness, antibiotic resistance, virulence potential, and ability to form biofilms of Kpn strains isolated from hospital-acquired infections (n = 76). Strains were isolated at three major hospitals serving the largest metropolitan urban area in Mexico City, Mexico. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR demonstrated that clonal groups predominate in each hospital. Selected strains chosen from clonal groups (n = 47) were multidrug resistant (MDR, 83%), although the majority (∼70%) were susceptible to carbapenems. All strains produced robust biofilms on abiotic surfaces, and ∼90% harbored adhesin genes fimH, mrkA, and ecpA. The ultrastructure of biofilms was further studied by high-resolution confocal microscopy. The average height of Kpn biofilms on abiotic surfaces was ∼40 μm. We then assessed formation of biofilms on human lung cells, as a surrogate of lung infection. While Kpn strains formed robust biofilms on abiotic surfaces, studies on lung cells revealed attachment to human cells but scarce formation of biofilms. Gene expression studies revealed a differential temporal expression of an adhesin (ecpA) and a capsule (galF) gene when biofilms were formed on different substrates. Kpn strains isolated from nosocomial infections in Mexico City are MDR, although the majority are still susceptible to carbapenems and form more robust biofilms on polystyrene in comparison to those formed on human cells.

  4. Zinc binding to RNA recognition motif of TDP-43 induces the formation of amyloid-like aggregates.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Cyrille; Devred, François; Byrne, Deborah; Puppo, Rémy; Roman, Andrei Yu; Malesinski, Soazig; Golovin, Andrey V; Lebrun, Régine; Ninkina, Natalia N; Tsvetkov, Philipp O

    2017-07-28

    Aggregation of TDP-43 (transactive response DNA binding protein 43 kDa) is a hallmark of certain forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Moreover, intracellular TDP-43-positive inclusions are often found in other neurodegenerative diseases. Recently it was shown that zinc ions can provoke the aggregation of endogenous TDP-43 in cells, allowing to assume a direct interaction of TDP-43 with zinc ions. In this work, we investigated zinc binding to the 102-269 TDP-43 fragment, which comprise the two RNA recognition motifs. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, mass spectrometry, and differential scanning fluorimetry, we showed that zinc binds to this TDP-43 domain with a dissociation constant in the micromolar range and modifies its tertiary structure leading to a decrease of its thermostability. Moreover, the study by dynamic light scattering and negative stain electron microscopy demonstrated that zinc ions induce auto-association process of this TDP-43 fragment into rope-like structures. These structures are thioflavin-T-positive allowing to hypothesize the direct implication of zinc ions in pathological aggregation of TDP-43.

  5. Antimicrobial peptide (Cn-AMP2) from liquid endosperm of Cocos nucifera forms amyloid-like fibrillar structure.

    PubMed

    Gour, Shalini; Kaushik, Vibha; Kumar, Vijay; Bhat, Priyanka; Yadav, Subhash C; Yadav, Jay K

    2016-04-01

    Cn-AMP2 is an antimicrobial peptide derived from liquid endosperm of coconut (Cocos nucifera). It consists of 11 amino acid residues and predicted to have high propensity for β-sheet formation that disposes this peptide to be amyloidogenic. In the present study, we have examined the amyloidogenic propensities of Cn-AMP2 in silico and then tested the predictions under in vitro conditions. The in silico study revealed that the peptide possesses high amyloidogenic propensity comparable with Aβ. Upon solubilisation and agitation in aqueous buffer, Cn-AMP2 forms visible aggregates that display bathochromic shift in the Congo red absorbance spectra, strong increase in thioflavin T fluorescence and fibrillar morphology under transmission electron microscopy. All these properties are typical of an amyloid fibril derived from various proteins/peptides including Aβ.

  6. Dock 'n roll: folding of a silk-inspired polypeptide into an amyloid-like beta solenoid.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Binwu; Cohen Stuart, Martien A; Hall, Carol K

    2016-04-20

    Polypeptides containing the motif ((GA)mGX)n occur in silk and have a strong tendency to self-assemble. For example, polypeptides containing (GAGAGAGX)n, where X = G or H have been observed to form filaments; similar sequences but with X = Q have been used in the design of coat proteins (capsids) for artificial viruses. The structure of the (GAGAGAGX)m filaments has been proposed to be a stack of peptides in a β roll structure with the hydrophobic side chains pointing outwards (hydrophobic shell). Another possible configuration, a β roll or β solenoid structure which has its hydrophobic side chains buried inside (hydrophobic core) was, however, overlooked. We perform ground state analysis as well as atomic-level molecular dynamics simulations, both on single molecules and on two-molecule stacks of the silk-inspired sequence (GAGAGAGQ)10, to decide whether the hydrophobic core or the hydrophobic shell configuration is the most stable one. We find that a stack of two hydrophobic core molecules is energetically more favorable than a stack of two hydrophobic shell molecules. A shell molecule initially placed in a perfect β roll structure tends to rotate its strands, breaking in-plane hydrogen bonds and forming out-of-plane hydrogen bonds, while a core molecule stays in the β roll structure. The hydrophobic shell structure has type II' β turns whereas the core configuration has type II β turns; only the latter secondary structure agrees well with solid-state NMR experiments on a similar sequence (GA)15. We also observe that the core stack has a higher number of intra-molecular hydrogen bonds and a higher number of hydrogen bonds between stack and water than the shell stack. Hence, we conclude that the hydrophobic core configuration is the most likely structure. In the stacked state, each peptide has more intra-molecular hydrogen bonds than a single folded molecule, which suggests that stacking provides the extra stability needed for molecules to reach the folded state.

  7. X-Ray Structural Study of Amyloid-Like Fibrils of Tau Peptides Bound to Small-Molecule Ligands.

    PubMed

    Tayeb-Fligelman, Einav; Landau, Meytal

    2017-01-01

    Atomic structures of Tau involved in Alzheimer's disease complexed with small molecule binders are the first step to define the Tau pharmacophore, leading the way to a structure-based design of improved diagnostics and therapeutics. Yet the partially disordered and polymorphic nature of Tau hinders structural analyses. Fortunately, short segments from amyloid proteins, which exhibit similar biophysical properties to the full-length proteins, also form fibrils and oligomers, and their atomic structures can be determined using X-ray microcrystallography. Such structures were successfully used to design amyloid inhibitors. This chapter describes experimental procedures used to determine crystal structures of Tau peptide segments in complex with small-molecule binders.

  8. Amyloid-like self-assembly of peptide sequences from the adenovirus fiber shaft: insights from molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Tamamis, Phanourios; Kasotakis, Emmanouil; Mitraki, Anna; Archontis, Georgios

    2009-11-26

    The self-assembly of peptides and proteins into nanostructures is related to the fundamental problems of protein folding and misfolding and has potential applications in medicine, materials science and nanotechnology. Natural peptides, corresponding to sequence repeats from self-assembling proteins, may constitute elementary building blocks of such nanostructures. In this work, we study by implicit-solvent replica-exchange simulations the self-assembly of two amyloidogenic sequences derived from the naturally occurring fiber shaft of the adenovirus, the octapeptide NSGAITIG (asparagine-serine-glycine-alanine-isoleucine-threonine-isoleucine-glycine) and its hexapeptide counterpart, GAITIG. In accordance with their amyloidogenic capacity, both peptides form readily intermolecular beta-sheets, stabilized by extensive main- and side-chain contacts involving the C-terminal moieties (segments 3-8 and 2-6, respectively). The structural and energetic properties of these sheets are analyzed extensively. The N-terminal residues Asn1 and Ser2 of the octapeptide remain disordered in the sheets, suggesting that these residues are exposed at the exterior of the fibrils and accessible. On the basis of insight provided by the simulations, cysteine residues were recently substituted at positions 1 and 2 of NSGAITIG; the newly designed peptides maintain their amyloidogenic properties and can bind to silver, gold and platinum nanoparticles [Kasotakis et al. Biopolymers 2009, 92, 164-172]. Computational investigation can identify suitable positions for rational modification of peptide building blocks, aiming at the fabrication of novel biomaterials.

  9. Deciphering the Structure, Growth and Assembly of Amyloid-Like Fibrils Using High-Speed Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Berthoumieu, Olivia; Dosset, Patrice; Le Grimellec, Christian; Verdier, Jean-Michel; Marchal, Stéphane; Ando, Toshio

    2010-01-01

    Formation of fibrillar structures of proteins that deposit into aggregates has been suggested to play a key role in various neurodegenerative diseases. However mechanisms and dynamics of fibrillization remains to be elucidated. We have previously established that lithostathine, a protein overexpressed in the pre-clinical stages of Alzheimer's disease and present in the pathognomonic lesions associated with this disease, form fibrillar aggregates after its N-terminal truncation. In this paper we visualized, using high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM), growth and assembly of lithostathine protofibrils under physiological conditions with a time resolution of one image/s. Real-time imaging highlighted a very high velocity of elongation. Formation of fibrils via protofibril lateral association and stacking was also monitored revealing a zipper-like mechanism of association. We also demonstrate that, like other amyloid ß peptides, two lithostathine protofibrils can associate to form helical fibrils. Another striking finding is the propensity of the end of a growing protofibril or fibril to associate with the edge of a second fibril, forming false branching point. Taken together this study provides new clues about fibrillization mechanism of amyloid proteins. PMID:20949034

  10. The architecture of amyloid-like peptide fibrils revealed by X-ray scattering, diffraction and electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Langkilde, Annette E.; Morris, Kyle L.; Serpell, Louise C.; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Vestergaard, Bente

    2015-04-01

    The aggregation process and the fibril state of an amyloidogenic peptide suggest monomer addition to be the prevailing mechanism of elongation and a model of the peptide packing in the fibrils has been obtained. Structural analysis of protein fibrillation is inherently challenging. Given the crucial role of fibrils in amyloid diseases, method advancement is urgently needed. A hybrid modelling approach is presented enabling detailed analysis of a highly ordered and hierarchically organized fibril of the GNNQQNY peptide fragment of a yeast prion protein. Data from small-angle X-ray solution scattering, fibre diffraction and electron microscopy are combined with existing high-resolution X-ray crystallographic structures to investigate the fibrillation process and the hierarchical fibril structure of the peptide fragment. The elongation of these fibrils proceeds without the accumulation of any detectable amount of intermediate oligomeric species, as is otherwise reported for, for example, glucagon, insulin and α-synuclein. Ribbons constituted of linearly arranged protofilaments are formed. An additional hierarchical layer is generated via the pairing of ribbons during fibril maturation. Based on the complementary data, a quasi-atomic resolution model of the protofilament peptide arrangement is suggested. The peptide structure appears in a β-sheet arrangement reminiscent of the β-zipper structures evident from high-resolution crystal structures, with specific differences in the relative peptide orientation. The complexity of protein fibrillation and structure emphasizes the need to use multiple complementary methods.

  11. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  12. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  13. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  14. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  15. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  16. ION PRODUCING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Backus, J.G.

    1958-09-01

    This patent relates to improvements in calutron devices and particularly describes a novel ion source. The unique feature of this source lies in the shaping of the ionizing electron stream to conform to the arc plasma boundary at the exit slit of the ionization chamber, thereby increasing the ion density produced at the plasma boundary. The particular structure consists of an electron source disposed at onc end of an elongated ionization chambcr and a coilimating electrode positioned to trim the electron stream to a crescent shape before entering the ionization chamber.

  17. ION PRODUCING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, E.O.

    1958-09-16

    Improvements are presented in calutron devices and, more specifically, dealswith an improved mounting arrangement fer the ion source of the calutron. An important feature of the invention resides in a pluraiity of insulators so mounted as to be accessible from the exterior of the calutron tank and supporting at their inner ends the ion source. These insutators are arranged in mutually parallel relation and also parallel to the flux of the nmgnetic field, whereby the strain of the supporting elements is reduced to a minimum. In addition the support assembly is secured to a removable wall portion of the task to facilitate withdrawal and examination of the ion producing mechanism.

  18. Producing Hydrogen With Sunlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biddle, J. R.; Peterson, D. B.; Fujita, T.

    1987-01-01

    Costs high but reduced by further research. Producing hydrogen fuel on large scale from water by solar energy practical if plant costs reduced, according to study. Sunlight attractive energy source because it is free and because photon energy converts directly to chemical energy when it breaks water molecules into diatomic hydrogen and oxygen. Conversion process low in efficiency and photochemical reactor must be spread over large area, requiring large investment in plant. Economic analysis pertains to generic photochemical processes. Does not delve into details of photochemical reactor design because detailed reactor designs do not exist at this early stage of development.

  19. Producing Hydrogen With Sunlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biddle, J. R.; Peterson, D. B.; Fujita, T.

    1987-01-01

    Costs high but reduced by further research. Producing hydrogen fuel on large scale from water by solar energy practical if plant costs reduced, according to study. Sunlight attractive energy source because it is free and because photon energy converts directly to chemical energy when it breaks water molecules into diatomic hydrogen and oxygen. Conversion process low in efficiency and photochemical reactor must be spread over large area, requiring large investment in plant. Economic analysis pertains to generic photochemical processes. Does not delve into details of photochemical reactor design because detailed reactor designs do not exist at this early stage of development.

  20. Drugs producing vitamin deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Montenero, A S

    1980-01-01

    Many drugs produce vitamin deficiencies. They belong to the most important and common therapeutical classes: analgesics, antianemics, antibacterial and antiblastic agents, antibiotics, antidiabetics, antimalarials, antiphlogistics, antipyretics, diuretics, laxatives and purgatives, tranquilizers and anticonvulsives, radiomimetics, hormones and vitamins themselves. The vitamin deprivation processes may be produced by a variety of mechanisms and may involve all vitamins. Recent experiments indicate that there is a competition for binding sites on proteins between vitamin C and salicylate and between dicoumarol and vitamin K. Usually a drug exerts a "devitaminizing" action with respect to only one vitamin. However there are examples of multiple vitamin deficiencies induced by a single drug, like salicylate which deprives the organism of vitamins C, K and pantothenate. These deficiencies may develop either all at the same time or successively. A direct and concomitant vitamin depriving action occurs when an antibiotic blocks the production of vitamins by the enteric flora. A different mode of action occurs in the drug induced folic acid deficiency, which in turn induces a deficiency of vitamin B12. It has been reported that a vitamin deficiency may result from intake of high pharmacological doses of other vitamins. These data need confirmation in patients treated with high doses of nicotinic acid. The drug induced vitamin deficiencies are studied with the same methodology employed for avitaminoses in general; hence they can be diagnosed using the same criteria.

  1. Genome Sequencing of the Pyruvate-producing Strain Candida glabrata CCTCC M202019 and Genomic Comparison with Strain CBS138

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Nan; Ye, Chao; Chen, Xiulai; Liu, Jia; Liu, Liming; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Candida glabrata CCTCC M202019 as an industrial yeast strain that is widely used to produce α-oxocarboxylic acid. Strain M202019 has been proven to have a higher pyruvate-producing capacity than the reference strain CBS138. To characterize the genotype of the M202019 strain, we generated a draft sequence of its genome, which has a size of 12.1 Mbp and a GC content of 38.47%. Evidence accumulated during genome annotation suggests that strain M202019 has strong capacities for glucose transport and pyruvate biosynthesis, defects in pyruvate catabolism, as well as variations in genes involved in nutrient and dicarboxylic acid transport, oxidative phosphorylation, and other relevant aspects of carbon metabolism, which might promote pyruvate accumulation. In addition to differences in its central carbon metabolism, a genomic analysis revealed genetic differences in adhesion metabolism. Forty-nine adhesin-like proteins of strain M202019 were identified classified into seven subfamilies. Decreased amounts of adhesive proteins, and deletions or changes of low-complexity repeats and functional domains might lead to lower adhesion and reduced pathogenicity. Further virulence experiments validated the biological safety of strain M202019. Analysis of the C. glabrata CCTCC M202019 genome sequence provides useful insights into its genetic context, physical characteristics, and potential metabolic capacity. PMID:27713500

  2. Process for producing ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Lantero, O.J.; Fish, J.J.

    1993-07-27

    A process is described for producing ethanol from raw materials containing a high dry solid mash level having fermentable sugars or constituents which can be converted into sugars, comprising the steps of: (a) liquefaction of the raw materials in the presence of an alpha amylase to obtain liquefied mash; (b) saccharification of the liquefied mash in the presence of a glucoamylase to obtain hydrolysed starch and sugars; (c) fermentation of the hydrolysed starch and sugars by yeast to obtain ethanol; and (d) recovering the obtained ethanol, wherein an acid fungal protease is introduced to the liquefied mash during the saccharification and/or to the hydrolysed starch and sugars during the fermentation, thereby increasing the rate of production of ethanol as compared to a substantially similar process conducted without the introduction of the protease.

  3. APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING SHADOWGRAPHS

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, R.R.

    1959-08-11

    An apparatus is presented for obtaining shadowgraphs or radiographs of an object exposed to x rays or the like. The device includes the combination of a cloud chamber having the interior illuminated and a portion thereof transparent to light rays and x'rays, a controlled source of x rays spaced therefrom, photographic recording disposed laterally of the linear path intermediate the source and the chamber portion in oblique angularity in aspect to the path. The object to be studied is disposed intermediate the x-ray source and chamber in the linear path to provide an x-ray transmission barrier therebetween. The shadowgraph is produced in the cloud chamber in response to initiation of the x- ray source and recorded photographically.

  4. ION PRODUCING MECHANISMS

    DOEpatents

    Brobeck, W.M.

    1959-02-10

    Ion generating means and means for producing ions of material for isotopic separation are discussed. One feature of the invention resides in providing a heater means located in the source block approximately equidistant from a charge reservoir and an arc chamber, whereby the heat distribution in the block is such as to avoid overheating and to maintain the temperature of the various critical localities of the unit at their optimum values. Another feature consists of a pair of plates disposed on either side of the arc chamber exit opening to define a narrow slit for the egression of the ion beam. When the adjacent edges of the plates have become worn, the plates may be detached and reversed to use the opposite edges thereof to define the exit opening.

  5. Fermentation method producing ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, D.I.C.; Dalal, R.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes a process for preparing and isolating a mutant strain of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. The mutant strain is able to ferment hexose and pentose carbohydrates to produce ethanol and acetic acid in gram ratios of at least about 8:1. The process includes the steps of: 1.) exposing Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum cells to a mutagenic agent sufficient to effect mutation of the cells; 2.) culturing the mutated cells in a growth medium containing minimal carbon sources and pyruvate for a predetermined time period; 3.) enriching the growth medium with at least one antibiotic, the antibiotic killing the actively growing cells in the medium without substantially affecting the non-actively growing cells; and 4.) isolating a mutant Clostridium thermosaccharolyticium strain from the non-actively growing cells via the inability to utilize pyruvate as a carbon source.

  6. Process for thermochemically producing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E.; Richardson, Donald M.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen is produced by the reaction of water with chromium sesquioxide and strontium oxide. The hydrogen producing reaction is combined with other reactions to produce a closed chemical cycle for the thermal decomposition of water.

  7. A multi-repeat adhesin of the phytopathogen, Pectobacterium atrosepticum, is secreted by a Type I pathway and is subject to complex regulation involving a non-canonical diguanylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Mendoza, Daniel; Coulthurst, Sarah J; Humphris, Sonia; Campbell, Emma; Welch, Martin; Toth, Ian K; Salmond, George P C

    2011-11-01

    Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is a second messenger controlling many important bacterial processes. The phytopathogen Pectobacterium atrosepticum SCRI1043 (Pba1043) possesses a Type I secretion system (T1SS) essential for the secretion of a proteinaceous multi-repeat adhesin (MRP) required for binding to the host plant. The genes encoding the MRP and the T1SS are tightly linked to genes encoding several putative c-di-GMP regulatory components. We show that c-di-GMP regulates secreted MRP levels in Pba1043 through the action of two genes encoding predicted diguanylate cyclase (DGC) and phosphodiesterase proteins (ECA3270 and ECA3271). Phenotypic analyses and quantification of c-di-GMP levels demonstrated that ECA3270 and ECA3271 regulate secreted MRP levels by increasing and decreasing, respectively, the intrac