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Sample records for anaerobic fungus neocallimastix

  1. Solubilization of lignin by the ruminal anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum.

    PubMed Central

    McSweeney, C S; Dulieu, A; Katayama, Y; Lowry, J B

    1994-01-01

    The ability of the ruminal anaerobic phycomycete Neocallimastix patriciarum to digest model lignin compounds and lignified structures in plant material was studied in batch culture. The fungus did not degrade or transform model lignin compounds that were representative of the predominant intermonomer linkages in lignin, nor did it solubilize acid detergent lignin that had been isolated from spear grass. In a stem fraction of sorghum, 33.6% of lignin was apparently solubilized by the fungus. Solubilization of ester- and either-linked phenolics accounted for 9.2% of the lignin released. The amounts of free phenolic acids detected in culture fluid were equivalent to the apparent loss of ester-linked phenolics from the sorghum substrate. However, the fungus was unable to cleave the ether bond in hydroxycinnamic acid bridges that cross-link lignin and polysaccharide. It is suggested that the majority of the solubilized lignin fraction was a lignin carbohydrate complex containing ether-linked hydroxycinnamic acids. The lignin carbohydrate complex was probably solubilized through dissolution of xylan in the lignin-xylan matrix rather than by lignin depolymerization. PMID:8085834

  2. Glycosidases of the rumen anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix frontalis grown on cellulosic substrates.

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, P D; Bauchop, T

    1985-01-01

    The rumen anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix frontalis was grown on cellulosic substrates, and the cellular distribution and types of glycosidases produced by the organism were studied. Fungal cultures were fractionated into extracellular, insoluble (membrane), and intracellular fractions and assayed for glycosidase activity by using Avicel, carboxymethylcellulose, xylan, starch, polygalacturonic acid, and the p-nitrophenyl derivatives of galactose, glucose, and xylose as substrates. Enzymic activity was highest in the extracellular fraction; however, the membrane fraction also displayed appreciable activity. The intracellular fraction was inactive towards all substrates. Polygalacturonic acid was the only substrate not hydrolyzed by the active fractions, indicating that pectinase was absent. The results show that N. frontalis, a common rumen anaerobic fungus, produces enzymes for degrading cellulose and hemicellulose, key components of plant fiber. PMID:4004240

  3. Supernatant protein and cellulase activities of the anaerobic ruminal fungus Neocallimastix frontalis EB188.

    PubMed Central

    Barichievich, E M; Calza, R E

    1990-01-01

    Protein and cellulose activities were measured in culture supernatants of the anaerobic ruminal fungus Neocallimastix frontalis EB188 established in glucose medium and switched to either glucose, cellobiose, or cellulose media. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to show differences caused by changing medium carbon source. Culture supernatants contained proteins with molecular weights ranging from greater than 116,000 to about 19,000. Low levels of cellulose activity were evident in glucose-grown cultures. Increased amounts of slowly migrating cellulase activities appeared in the supernatants of glucose-grown cultures switched to cellulose. Cellulase activities which reacted differentially during colorimetric and in situ assays were produced. Isoelectric points of cellulase activities varied from 3.7 to 8.3, and activities possessed optimal pHs of between 5.9 and 6.5. Images PMID:2310186

  4. Intronless celB from the anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum encodes a modular family A endoglucanase.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, L; Xue, G P; Orpin, C G; Black, G W; Gilbert, H J; Hazlewood, G P

    1994-01-01

    The cDNA designated celB from the anaerobic rumen fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum contained a single open reading frame of 1422 bp coding for a protein (CelB) of M(r) 53,070. CelB expressed by Escherichia coli harbouring the full-length gene hydrolysed carboxymethylcellulose in the manner of an endoglucanase, but was most active against barley beta-glucan. It also released reducing sugar from xylan and lichenan, but was inactive against crystalline cellulose, laminarin, mannan, galactan and arabinan. The rate of hydrolysis of cellulo-oligosaccharides by CelB increased with increasing chain length from cellotriose to cellopentaose. The predicted structure of CelB contained features indicative of modular structure. The first 360 residues of CelB constituted a fully functional catalytic domain that was homologous with bacterial endoglucanases belonging to cellulase family A, including five which originate from three different species of anaerobic rumen bacteria. Downstream from this domain, and linked to it by a serine/threonine-rich hinge, was a non-catalytic domain containing short tandem repeats, homologous to the C-terminal repeats contained in xylanase A from the same anaerobic fungus. Unlike previous fungal cellulases, genomic celB was devoid of introns. This lack of introns and the homology of its encoded product with rumen bacterial endoglucanases suggest that acquisition of celB by the fungus may at some stage have involved horizontal gene transfer from a prokaryote to N. particiarum. Images Figure 4 PMID:8297343

  5. Isolation and characterization of p-coumaroyl esterase from the anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix strain MC-2.

    PubMed Central

    Borneman, W S; Ljungdahl, L G; Hartley, R D; Akin, D E

    1991-01-01

    An extracellular p-coumaroyl esterase produced by the anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix strain MC-2 released p-coumaroyl groups from 0-[5-0-((E)-p-coumaroyl)-alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl]-(1----3)-0-beta -D-xylopyranosyl-(1----4)-D-xylopyranose (PAXX). The esterase was purified 121-fold from culture medium in successive steps involving ultrafiltration column chromatography on S-sepharose and hydroxylapatite, isoelectric focusing, and gel filtration. The native enzyme had an apparent mass of 11 kDa under nondenaturing conditions and a mass of 5.8 kDa under denaturing conditions, suggesting that the enzyme may exist as a dimer. The isoelectric point was 4.7, and the pH optimum was 7.2. The purified esterase had 100 times more activity towards PAXX than towards the analogous feruloyl ester (FAXX). The apparent Km and Vmax of the purified p-coumaroyl esterase for PAXX at pH 7.2 and 40 degrees C were 19.4 microM and 5.1 microM min(-1), respectively. p-Coumaroyl tetrasaccharides isolated from plant cell walls were hydrolyzed at rates similar to that for PAXX, whereas a dimer of PAXX was hydrolyzed at a rate 20-fold lower, yielding 4,4'-dihydroxy-alpha-truxillic acid as an end product. Ethyl and methyl p-coumarates were hydrolyzed at very slow rates, if at all. The purified esterase released p-coumaroyl groups from finely, but not coarsely, ground plant cell walls, and this activity was enhanced by the addition of xylanase and other cell wall-degrading enzymes. Images PMID:1768103

  6. Production of α-Amylase by the Ruminal Anaerobic Fungus Neocallimastix frontalis

    PubMed Central

    Mountfort, Douglas O.; Asher, Rodney A.

    1988-01-01

    α-Amylase production was examined in the ruminal anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix frontalis. The enzyme was released mainly into the culture fluid and had temperature and pH optima of 55°C and 5.5, respectively, and the apparent Km for starch was 0.8 mg ml−1. The products of α-amylase action were mainly maltotriose, maltotetraose, and longer-chain oligosaccharides. No activity of the enzyme was observed towards these compounds or pullulan, but activity on amylose was similar to starch. Evidence for the endo action of α-amylase was also obtained from experiments which showed that the reduction in iodine-staining capacity and release in reducing power by action on amylose was similar to that for commercial α-amylase. Activities of α-amylase up to 4.4 U ml−1 (1 U represents 1 μmol of glucose equivalents released per min) were obtained for cultures grown on 2.5 mg of starch ml−1 in shaken cultures. No growth occurred in unshaken cultures. With elevated concentrations of starch (>2.5 mg ml−1), α-amylase production declined and glucose accumulated in the cultures. Addition of glucose to cultures grown on low levels of starch, in which little glucose accumulated, suppressed α-amylase production, and in bisubstrate growth studies, active production of the enzyme only occurred during growth on starch after glucose had been preferentially utilized. When cellulose, cellobiose, glucose, xylan, and xylose were tested as growth substrates for the production of α-amylase (initial concentration, 2.5 mg ml−1), they were found to be less effective than starch, but maltose was almost as effective. The fungal α-amylase was found to be stable at 60°C in the presence of low concentrations of starch (≤5%), suggesting that it may be suitable for industrial application. PMID:16347742

  7. Effect of feeding isolates of anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix sp. CF 17 on growth rate and fibre digestion in buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Paul, Shyam S; Deb, Sitangshu M; Punia, Balbir S; Das, Kalyan S; Singh, Ghansham; Ashar, Manisha N; Kumar, Rajiv

    2011-06-01

    In this investigation, the effects of feeding encapsulated cells (rhizomycelia and zoospores) of a fibrolytic isolate from an anaerobic fungus (Neocallimastix sp. CF 17) on nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, microbial populations, enzyme profile and growth performance were evaluated in buffaloes. In three in vitro studies, the true digestibility of wheat straw was increased after addition of CF 17 to buffalo rumen fluid (p < 0.05). In Exp. 1, three groups of six buffaloes each (initial BW [body weight] 148 +/- 12.0 kg) were allotted to three dosing regimes: Group 1 received 200 ml of liquid culture of Neocallimastix sp. CF 17 (about 10(6) TFU [thallus-forming units]/ml); Group 2 received an encapsulated culture of the same fungi prepared from 200 ml liquid culture; Group 3: received 200 ml of autoclaved culture (Control). The supplementations were given weekly for four weeks (on days 1,7, 14 and 21). During the dosing period, the average daily gain of Group 2 was higher than in the Control group (444 g/d compared with 264 g/d; p < 0.05). Furthermore, the digestibility of organic matter increased in Group 1 and 2 compared with the Control (64.8, 64.0 and 60.4% respectively; p < 0.05), resulting in an increase in the total digestible nutrient (TDN) percent of ration (p < 0.05). But these effects disappeared post-dosing. There were also an increase in concentration of volatile fatty acids, trichloroacetic acid precipitable N and number of fibrolytic microbes in the rumen during the dosing period (p < 0.05), but these effects declined post-dosing. Results of Exp 2., where the encapsulated culture was applied at intervals of 4 d or 8 d for 120 d, showed that a shorter dosing frequency did not improve growth performance or feed intake. However, independent of the dosing frequency the growth rate of both groups fed the encapsulated culture were about 20% higher than in the Control group (p < 0.05). The present study showed that encapsulated fungi have a high

  8. Functional characterization of cellulases identified from the cow rumen fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum W5 by transcriptomic and secretomic analyses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Neocallimastix patriciarum is one of the common anaerobic fungi in the digestive tracts of ruminants that can actively digest cellulosic materials, and its cellulases have great potential for hydrolyzing cellulosic feedstocks. Due to the difficulty in culture and lack of a genome database, it is not easy to gain a global understanding of the glycosyl hydrolases (GHs) produced by this anaerobic fungus. Results We have developed an efficient platform that uses a combination of transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to N. patriciarum to accelerate gene identification, enzyme classification and application in rice straw degradation. By conducting complementary studies of transcriptome (Roche 454 GS and Illumina GA IIx) and secretome (ESI-Trap LC-MS/MS), we identified 219 putative GH contigs and classified them into 25 GH families. The secretome analysis identified four major enzymes involved in rice straw degradation: β-glucosidase, endo-1,4-β-xylanase, xylanase B and Cel48A exoglucanase. From the sequences of assembled contigs, we cloned 19 putative cellulase genes, including the GH1, GH3, GH5, GH6, GH9, GH18, GH43 and GH48 gene families, which were highly expressed in N. patriciarum cultures grown on different feedstocks. Conclusions These GH genes were expressed in Pichia pastoris and/or Saccharomyces cerevisiae for functional characterization. At least five novel cellulases displayed cellulytic activity for glucose production. One β-glucosidase (W5-16143) and one exocellulase (W5-CAT26) showed strong activities and could potentially be developed into commercial enzymes. PMID:21849025

  9. Characterization of an acetyl xylan esterase from the anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain PC-2

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, D.L.; Li, X.L.; Chen, H.; Ljungdahl, L.G.

    1999-09-01

    A 1,067-bp cDNA, designated axeA, coding for an acetyl xylan esterase (AxeA) was cloned from the anaerobic rumen fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain PC-2. The gene had an open reading frame of 939 bp encoding a polypeptide of 313 amino acid residues with a calculated mass of 34,845 Da. An active esterase using the original start codon of the cDNA was synthesized in Escherichia coli. Two active forms of the esterase were purified from recombinant E. coli cultures. The size difference of 8 amino acids was a result of cleavages at two different sites within the signal peptide. The enzyme released acetate from several acetylated substrates, including acetylated xylan. The activity toward acetylated xylan was tripled in the presence of recombinant xylanase A from the same fungus. Using p-nitrophenyl acetate as a substrate, the enzyme had a K{sub m} of 0.9 mM and a V{sub max} of 785 {micro}mol min{sup {minus}} mg{sup {minus}1}. It had temperature and pH optima of 30 C and 9.0, respectively. AxeA had 56% amino acid identity with BnaA, an acetyl xylan esterase of Neocallimastix patriciarum, but the Orpinomyces AxeA was devoid of a noncatalytic repeated peptide domain (NCRPD) found at the carboxy terminus of the Neocallimastix BnaA. The NCRPD found in many glycosyl hydrolases and esterases of anaerobic fungi has been postulated to function as a docking domain for cellulase-hemicellulase complexes, similar to the dockerin of the cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum.

  10. Purification and characterization of two 1,4-beta-xylan endohydrolases from the rumen fungus Neocallimastix frontalis.

    PubMed Central

    Gomez de Segura, B; Fevre, M

    1993-01-01

    Two beta-endoxylanases produced by Neocallimastix frontalis have been purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration, and ion-exchange chromatography. Xylanase I is a nonglycosylated protein with an apparent molecular mass of 45 kDa. Xylanase II is a glycoprotein with an apparent molecular mass of 70 kDa. The pH optima of these enzymes were 5.5 and 6, respectively, and the temperature optimum was 55 degrees C for each enzyme. The endo mode of action of the enzymes was revealed by thin-layer chromatography of xylan hydrolysates. Antibodies raised against each purified protein exhibited no cross-reaction, confirming the biochemical specificities of the enzymes. Both enzymes exhibited carboxymethyl cellulase activity, and xylanase I was absorbed on crystalline cellulose, indicating that these enzymes might belong to the F family of beta-1,4-glycanases. Images PMID:8285672

  11. Molecular analysis of the anaerobic rumen fungus Orpinomyces - insights into an AT-rich genome.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Matthew J; Theodorou, Michael K; Brookman, Jayne L

    2005-01-01

    The anaerobic gut fungi occupy a unique niche in the intestinal tract of large herbivorous animals and are thought to act as primary colonizers of plant material during digestion. They are the only known obligately anaerobic fungi but molecular analysis of this group has been hampered by difficulties in their culture and manipulation, and by their extremely high A+T nucleotide content. This study begins to answer some of the fundamental questions about the structure and organization of the anaerobic gut fungal genome. Directed plasmid libraries using genomic DNA digested with highly or moderately rich AT-specific restriction enzymes (VspI and EcoRI) were prepared from a polycentric Orpinomyces isolate. Clones were sequenced from these libraries and the breadth of genomic inserts, both genic and intergenic, was characterized. Genes encoding numerous functions not previously characterized for these fungi were identified, including cytoskeletal, secretory pathway and transporter genes. A peptidase gene with no introns and having sequence similarity to a gene encoding a bacterial peptidase was also identified, extending the range of metabolic enzymes resulting from apparent trans-kingdom transfer from bacteria to fungi, as previously characterized largely for genes encoding plant-degrading enzymes. This paper presents the first thorough analysis of the genic, intergenic and rDNA regions of a variety of genomic segments from an anaerobic gut fungus and provides observations on rules governing intron boundaries, the codon biases observed with different types of genes, and the sequence of only the second anaerobic gut fungal promoter reported. Large numbers of retrotransposon sequences of different types were found and the authors speculate on the possible consequences of any such transposon activity in the genome. The coding sequences identified included several orphan gene sequences, including one with regions strongly suggestive of structural proteins such as collagens

  12. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Facultative Anaerobic Filamentous Fungus from Japanese Rice Field Soil

    PubMed Central

    Tonouchi, Akio

    2009-01-01

    A novel filamentous fungus strain designated RB-1 was isolated into pure culture from Japanese rice field soil through an anaerobic role tube technique. The strain is a mitosporic fungus that grows in both aerobic and strict anaerobic conditions using various mono-, di-, tri-, and polysaccharides with acetate and ethanol productions. The amount of acetate produced was higher than that of ethanol in both aerobic and anaerobic cultures. The characteristic verrucose or punctuate conidia of RB-1 closely resembled those of some strains of the genus Thermomyces, a thermophilic or mesophilic anamorphic ascomycete. However, based on phylogenetic analysis with the small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) rDNA sequences, RB-1 was characterized as a member of the class Lecanoromycetes of the phylum Ascomycota. Currently, RB-1 is designated as an anamorphic ascomycete and is phylogenetically considered an incertae sedis within the class Lecanoromycetes. PMID:20148171

  13. Fiber degradation potential of natural co-cultures of Neocallimastix frontalis and Methanobrevibacter ruminantium isolated from yaks (Bos grunniens) grazing on the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ya-Qin; Long, Rui-Jun; Yang, Hui; Yang, Hong-Jian; Shen, Xi-Hui; Shi, Rui-Fang; Wang, Zhi-Ye; Du, Jun-Guo; Qi, Xiao-Jin; Ye, Qian-Hong

    2016-06-01

    Several natural anaerobic fungus-methanogen co-cultures have been isolated from rumen and feces source of herbivores with strong fiber degrading ability. In this study, we isolated 7 Neocallimastix with methanogen co-cultures from the rumen of yaks grazing on the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau. Based on morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer 1 sequences (ITS1), all the fungi were identified as Neocallimastix frontalis. The co-cultures were confirmed as the one fungus - one methanogen pattern by the PCR-denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) assay. All the methanogens were identified as Methanobrevibacter ruminantium by 16s rRNA gene sequencing. We investigated the biodegrading capacity of the co-culture (N. frontalis + M. ruminantium) Yaktz1 on wheat straw, corn stalk and rice straw in a 7 days-incubation. The in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), acid detergent fiber digestibility (ADFD) and neural detergent fiber digestibility (NDFD) values of the substrates in the co-culture were significantly higher than those in the mono-culture N. frontalis Yaktz1. The co-culture exhibited high polysaccharide hydrolase (xylanase and FPase) and esterase activities. The xylanase in the co-culture reached the highest activity of 12500 mU/ml on wheat straw at the day 3 of the incubation. At the end of the incubation, 3.00 mmol-3.29 mmol/g dry matter of methane were produced by the co-culture. The co-culture also produced high level of acetate (40.00 mM-45.98 mM) as the end-product during the biodegradation. Interestingly, the N. frontalis Yaktz1 mono-culture produced large amount of lactate (8.27 mM-11.60 mM) and ethanol (163.11 mM-242.14 mM), many times more than those recorded in the previously reported anaerobic fungi. Our data suggests that the (N. frontalis + M. ruminantium) Yaktz1 co-culture and the N. frontalis Yaktz1 mono-culture both have great potentials for different industrial use. PMID:26979345

  14. Comparison of growth characteristics of anaerobic fungi isolated from ruminant and non-ruminant herbivores during cultivation in a defined medium.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, M J; Op den Camp, H J; Orpin, C G; Huis in 't Veld, J H; Vogels, G D

    1991-06-01

    Anaerobic fungi were isolated from rumen fluid of a domestic sheep (Ovis aries; a ruminant) and from faeces of five non-ruminants: African elephant (Loxodonta africana), black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), Indian elephant (Elephas maximus) and mara (Dolichotis patagonum). The anaerobic fungus isolated from the sheep was a Neocallimastix species and the isolates from non-ruminants were all species similar to Piromyces spp. A defined medium is described which supported growth of all the isolates, and was used to examine growth characteristics of the different strains. For each fungus the lipid phosphate content was determined after growth on cellobiose and the resulting values were used to estimate fungal biomass after growth on solid substrates. The ability of isolates from ruminants and non-ruminants to digest both wheat straw and cellulose was comparable. More than 90% and 60%, respectively, of filter paper cellulose and wheat straw were digested by most strains within 60-78 h. Growth of two fungi, isolated from rumen fluid of a sheep (Neocallimastix strain N1) and from faeces of an Indian rhinoceros (Piromyces strain R1), on cellobiose was studied in detail. Fungal growth yields on cellobiose were 64.1 g (mol substrate)-1 for N1 and 34.2 g mol-1 for R1. The major fermentation products of both strains were formate, lactate, acetate, ethanol and hydrogen. PMID:1919514

  15. A new anaerobic fungus (Oontomyces anksri gen. nov., sp. nov.) from the digestive tract of the Indian camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Dagar, Sumit S; Kumar, Sanjay; Griffith, Gareth W; Edwards, Joan E; Callaghan, Tony M; Singh, Rameshwar; Nagpal, Ashok K; Puniya, Anil K

    2015-08-01

    Two cultures of anaerobic fungi were isolated from the forestomach of an Indian camel (Camelus dromedarius). Phylogenetic analysis using both the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large-subunit (LSU) regions of the rRNA locus demonstrated that these isolates were identical and formed a distinct clade within the anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota). Morphological examination showed that these fungi formed monocentric thalli with filamentous rhizoids and uniflagellate zoospores, broadly similar to members of the genus Piromyces. However, distinctive morphological features were observed, notably the pinching of the cytoplasm in the sporangiophore and the formation of intercalary rhizoidal swellings. Since genetic analyses demonstrated this fungus was only distantly related to Piromyces spp. and closer to the polycentric Anaeromyces clade, we have assigned it to a new genus and species Oontomyces anksri gen. nov., sp. nov. Interrogation of the GenBank database identified several closely related ITS sequences, which were all environmental sequences obtained from camels, raising the possibility that this fungus may be specific to camelids. PMID:26228561

  16. EXPRESSION OF AN AT-RICH XYLANASE GENE FROM THE ANAEROBIC FUNGUS ORPINOMYCES SP. STRAIN PC-2 IN AND SECRETION OF THE HETEROLOGOUS ENZYME BY HYPOCREA JECORINA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The AT-rich xylanase A gene (xynA) of the anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain PC-2 codes for a polypeptide comprising a glycoside hydrolase family 11 catalytic domain linked by a hinge to two docking domains. The catalytic domain-coding region was used for the heterologous production of a xylan...

  17. A mannanase, ManA, of the polycentric anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain PC-2 has carbohydrate binding and docking modules.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, Eduardo A; Chen, Huizhong; Kataeva, Irina A; Cotta, Michael A; Felix, Carlos R; Ljungdahl, Lars G; Li, Xin-Liang

    2005-07-01

    The anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain PC-2 produces a broad spectrum of glycoside hydrolases, most of which are components of a high molecular mass cellulosomal complex. Here we report about a cDNA (manA) having 1924 bp isolated from the fungus and found to encode a polypeptide of 579 amino acid residues. Analysis of the deduced sequence revealed that it had a mannanase catalytic module, a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module, and a noncatalytic docking module. The catalytic module was homologous to aerobic fungal mannanases belonging to family 5 glycoside hydrolases, but unrelated to the previously isolated mannanases (family 26) of the anaerobic fungus Piromyces. No mannanase activity could be detected in Escherichia coli harboring a manA-containing plasmid. The manA was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ManA was secreted into the culture medium in multiple forms. The purified extracellular heterologous mannanase hydrolyzed several types of mannan but lacked activity against cellulose, chitin, or beta-glucan. The enzyme had high specific activity toward locust bean mannan and an extremely broad pH profile. It was stable for several hours at 50 degrees C, but was rapidly inactivated at 60 degrees C. The carbohydrate-binding module of the Man A produced separately in E. coli bound preferably to insoluble lignocellulosic substrates, suggesting that it might play an important role in the complex enzyme system of the fungus for lignocellulose degradation. PMID:16175204

  18. Survival of the anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain C1A after prolonged air exposure

    PubMed Central

    Struchtemeyer, Christopher G.; Ranganathan, Abhaya; Couger, M. B.; Liggenstoffer, Audra S.; Youssef, Noha H.; Elshahed, Mostafa S.

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic fungi are efficient plant biomass degraders and represent promising agents for a variety of biotechnological applications. We evaluated the tolerance of an anaerobic fungal isolate, Orpinomyces sp. strain C1A, to air exposure in liquid media using soluble (cellobiose) and insoluble (dried switchgrass) substrates. Strain C1A grown on cellobiose survived for 11, and 13.5 hours following air exposure when grown under planktonic, and immobilized conditions, respectively. When grown on switchgrass media, strain C1A exhibited significantly enhanced air tolerance and survived for 168 hours. The genome of strain C1A lacked a catalase gene, but contained superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase genes. Real time PCR analysis indicated that superoxide dismutase, but not glutathione peroxidase, exhibits a transient increase in expression level post aeration. Interestingly, the C1A superoxide dismutase gene of strain C1A appears to be most closely related to bacterial SODs, which implies its acquisition from a bacterial donor via cross kingdom horizontal gene transfer during Neocallimastigomycota evolution. We conclude that strain C1A utilizes multiple mechanisms to minimize the deleterious effects of air exposure such as physical protection and the production of oxidative stress enzymes. PMID:25367149

  19. Survival of the anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain C1A after prolonged air exposure.

    PubMed

    Struchtemeyer, Christopher G; Ranganathan, Abhaya; Couger, M B; Liggenstoffer, Audra S; Youssef, Noha H; Elshahed, Mostafa S

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic fungi are efficient plant biomass degraders and represent promising agents for a variety of biotechnological applications. We evaluated the tolerance of an anaerobic fungal isolate, Orpinomyces sp. strain C1A, to air exposure in liquid media using soluble (cellobiose) and insoluble (dried switchgrass) substrates. Strain C1A grown on cellobiose survived for 11, and 13.5 hours following air exposure when grown under planktonic, and immobilized conditions, respectively. When grown on switchgrass media, strain C1A exhibited significantly enhanced air tolerance and survived for 168 hours. The genome of strain C1A lacked a catalase gene, but contained superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase genes. Real time PCR analysis indicated that superoxide dismutase, but not glutathione peroxidase, exhibits a transient increase in expression level post aeration. Interestingly, the C1A superoxide dismutase gene of strain C1A appears to be most closely related to bacterial SODs, which implies its acquisition from a bacterial donor via cross kingdom horizontal gene transfer during Neocallimastigomycota evolution. We conclude that strain C1A utilizes multiple mechanisms to minimize the deleterious effects of air exposure such as physical protection and the production of oxidative stress enzymes. PMID:25367149

  20. A multifunctional GH39 glycoside hydrolase from the anaerobic gut fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain C1A

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Jessica M.; Elshahed, Mostafa S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The anaerobic gut fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota) represent a promising source of novel lignocellulolytic enzymes. Here, we report on the cloning, expression, and characterization of a glycoside hydrolase family 39 (GH39) enzyme (Bgxg1) that is highly transcribed by the anaerobic fungus Orpinomycessp. strain C1A under different growth conditions. This represents the first study of a GH39-family enzyme from the anaerobic fungi. Methods. Using enzyme activity assays, we performed a biochemical characterization of Bgxg1 on a variety of substrates over a wide range of pH and temperature values to identify the optimal enzyme conditions and the specificity of the enzyme. In addition, substrate competition studies and comparative modeling efforts were completed. Results. Contrary to the narrow range of activities (β-xylosidase or α-L-iduronidase) observed in previously characterized GH39 enzymes, Bgxg1 is unique in that it is multifunctional, exhibiting strong β-xylosidase, β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase activities (11.5 ± 1.2, 73.4 ± 7.15, and 54.6 ± 2.26 U/mg, respectively) and a weak xylanase activity (10.8 ± 1.25 U/mg), as compared to previously characterized enzymes. Further, Bgxg1 possesses extremely high affinity (as evident by the lowest Km values), compared to all previously characterized β-glucosidases, β-galactosidases, and xylanases. Physiological characterization revealed that Bgxg1 is active over a wide range of pH (3–8, optimum 6) and temperatures (25–60 °C, optimum 39 °C), and possesses excellent temperature and thermal stability. Substrate competition assays suggest that all observed activities occur at a single active site. Using comparative modeling and bioinformatics approaches, we putatively identified ten amino acid differences between Bgxg1 and previously biochemically characterized GH39 β-xylosidases that we speculate could impact active site architecture, size, charge, and/or polarity. Discussion. Collectively

  1. A multifunctional GH39 glycoside hydrolase from the anaerobic gut fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain C1A.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Jessica M; Elshahed, Mostafa S; Youssef, Noha

    2016-01-01

    Background. The anaerobic gut fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota) represent a promising source of novel lignocellulolytic enzymes. Here, we report on the cloning, expression, and characterization of a glycoside hydrolase family 39 (GH39) enzyme (Bgxg1) that is highly transcribed by the anaerobic fungus Orpinomycessp. strain C1A under different growth conditions. This represents the first study of a GH39-family enzyme from the anaerobic fungi. Methods. Using enzyme activity assays, we performed a biochemical characterization of Bgxg1 on a variety of substrates over a wide range of pH and temperature values to identify the optimal enzyme conditions and the specificity of the enzyme. In addition, substrate competition studies and comparative modeling efforts were completed. Results. Contrary to the narrow range of activities (β-xylosidase or α-L-iduronidase) observed in previously characterized GH39 enzymes, Bgxg1 is unique in that it is multifunctional, exhibiting strong β-xylosidase, β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase activities (11.5 ± 1.2, 73.4 ± 7.15, and 54.6 ± 2.26 U/mg, respectively) and a weak xylanase activity (10.8 ± 1.25 U/mg), as compared to previously characterized enzymes. Further, Bgxg1 possesses extremely high affinity (as evident by the lowest K m values), compared to all previously characterized β-glucosidases, β-galactosidases, and xylanases. Physiological characterization revealed that Bgxg1 is active over a wide range of pH (3-8, optimum 6) and temperatures (25-60 °C, optimum 39 °C), and possesses excellent temperature and thermal stability. Substrate competition assays suggest that all observed activities occur at a single active site. Using comparative modeling and bioinformatics approaches, we putatively identified ten amino acid differences between Bgxg1 and previously biochemically characterized GH39 β-xylosidases that we speculate could impact active site architecture, size, charge, and/or polarity. Discussion. Collectively, the

  2. Properties of a recombinant beta-glucosidase from polycentric anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces PC-2 and its application for cellulose hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Chen, Huizhong; Felix, Carlos R; Cotta, Michael A; Dien, Bruce S

    2004-01-01

    A beta-glucosidase (BglA, EC 3.2.1.21) gene from the polycentric anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces PC-2 was cloned and sequenced. The enzyme containing 657 amino acid residues was homologous to certain animal, plant, and bacterial beta-glucosidases but lacked significant similarity to those from aerobic fungi. Neither cellulose- nor protein-binding domains were found in BglA. When expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the enzyme was secreted in two forms with masses of about 110 kDa and also found in two forms associated with the yeast cells. Km and Vmax values of the secreted BglA were 0.762 mM and 8.20 micromol/(min x mg), respectively, with p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG) as the substrate and 0.310 mM and 6.45 micromol/(min.mg), respectively, for the hydrolysis of cellobiose. Glucose competitively inhibited the hydrolysis of pNPG with a Ki of 3.6 mM. Beta-glucosidase significantly enhanced the conversion of cellulosic materials into glucose by Trichoderma reesei cellulase preparations, demonstrating its potential for use in biofuel and feedstock chemical production. PMID:15054209

  3. Xylanase B from Neocallimastix patriciarum contains a non-catalytic 455-residue linker sequence comprised of 57 repeats of an octapeptide.

    PubMed Central

    Black, G W; Hazlewood, G P; Xue, G P; Orpin, C G; Gilbert, H J

    1994-01-01

    A Neocallimastix patriciarum cDNA library was screened for xylanase-expressing clones, which were distinct from the previously characterized N. patriciarum xynA cDNA encoding xylanase A. A single cDNA, designated xynB, which did not exhibit homology with xynA, was isolated. Northern-blot analysis of mRNA from Avicel-grown N. patriciarum showed that xynB hybridized to a 3.4 kb mRNA species. The nucleotide sequence of xynB revealed a single open reading frame of 2580 bp coding for a protein designated xylanase B (XYLB), of M(r) 88,066. The primary structure of XYLB was comprised of a 21-residue N-terminal signal peptide, followed by a 304-amino acid sequence that exhibited substantial homology with the catalytic domains of family F xylanases. The N-terminal domain was linked to a C-terminal 70-residue sequence by a putative linker region, comprising 12 tandem repeats of a sequence containing TLPG as the core sequence, followed by an octapeptide XSKTLPGG where X can be S, K or N, which was repeated in tandem 45 times. Truncated derivatives of xynB encoding the N-terminal 338 residues directed the synthesis of a functional xylanase, confirming that the region of XYLB, which exhibited homology with family F xylanases, constitutes the catalytic domain. To investigate the catalytic properties of XYLB, the catalytic domain was fused to the Escherichia coli maltose-binding protein, and the fusion protein purified by amylose affinity chromatography. The purified enzyme hydrolysed oat, rye and wheat arabinoxylan releasing primarily xylobiose, xylotriose and some xylose. The XYLB fusion did not cleave any cellulosic substrates. The data presented in this report suggest that the multiple xylanases of N. patriciarum arose, not through the duplication of a single gene, but by the transfer of distinct xylanase-encoding DNA sequences into the anaerobic fungus. The possible origin of the xynB gene is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8172598

  4. Defined enzyme cocktail from the anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain C1A effectively releases sugars from pretreated corn stover and switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Jessica M; Elshahed, Mostafa S; Youssef, Noha H

    2016-01-01

    The anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces strain C1A is capable of growth on various types of lignocellulosic substrates, and harbors an impressive reservoir of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes). Using a minimum enzyme cocktail strategy, we constituted a four-component lignocellulolytic cocktail derived from highly transcribed C1A, and evaluated its efficacy against pretreated corn stover and switchgrass. Hydrolysis yields ranged between 65-77.4%, depending on the lignocellulosic substrate and pretreatment applied. Addition of a highly expressed anaerobic fungal swollenin improved hydrolysis yields by up to 7%. Compared to the commercial cocktail CTec2, these anaerobic fungal cocktails provided comparable or slightly lower hydrolysis yields. Further, the differences in efficacy between commercial and anaerobic cocktails were often only realized after extended (168 hr) incubations. Under certain conditions, the hydrolysis yields of the anaerobic fungal cocktail was slightly superior to that realized by CTec2. We attribute the observed high hydrolysis yields to the high specific activity and affinity of the individual enzymes of the cocktail, as well as the high level of synergy and multi-functionality observed in multiple components. Collectively, this effort provides a novel platform for constructing highly effective enzymes for biofuel production and represents the first lignocellulolytic enzyme cocktail created from anaerobic fungal enzymes. PMID:27381262

  5. Defined enzyme cocktail from the anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain C1A effectively releases sugars from pretreated corn stover and switchgrass

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Jessica M.; Elshahed, Mostafa S.; Youssef, Noha H.

    2016-01-01

    The anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces strain C1A is capable of growth on various types of lignocellulosic substrates, and harbors an impressive reservoir of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes). Using a minimum enzyme cocktail strategy, we constituted a four-component lignocellulolytic cocktail derived from highly transcribed C1A, and evaluated its efficacy against pretreated corn stover and switchgrass. Hydrolysis yields ranged between 65–77.4%, depending on the lignocellulosic substrate and pretreatment applied. Addition of a highly expressed anaerobic fungal swollenin improved hydrolysis yields by up to 7%. Compared to the commercial cocktail CTec2, these anaerobic fungal cocktails provided comparable or slightly lower hydrolysis yields. Further, the differences in efficacy between commercial and anaerobic cocktails were often only realized after extended (168 hr) incubations. Under certain conditions, the hydrolysis yields of the anaerobic fungal cocktail was slightly superior to that realized by CTec2. We attribute the observed high hydrolysis yields to the high specific activity and affinity of the individual enzymes of the cocktail, as well as the high level of synergy and multi-functionality observed in multiple components. Collectively, this effort provides a novel platform for constructing highly effective enzymes for biofuel production and represents the first lignocellulolytic enzyme cocktail created from anaerobic fungal enzymes. PMID:27381262

  6. Clostridium beijerinckii Cells Expressing Neocallimastix patriciarum Glycoside Hydrolases Show Enhanced Lichenan Utilization and Solvent Production

    PubMed Central

    López-Contreras, Ana M.; Smidt, Hauke; van der Oost, John; Claassen, Pieternel A. M.; Mooibroek, Hans; de Vos, Willem M.

    2001-01-01

    Growth and the production of acetone, butanol, and ethanol by Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 on several polysaccharides and sugars were analyzed. On crystalline cellulose, growth and solvent production were observed only when a mixture of fungal cellulases was added to the medium. On lichenan growth and solvent production occurred, but this polymer was only partially utilized. To increase utilization of these polymers and subsequent solvent production, the genes for two new glycoside hydrolases, celA and celD from the fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum, were cloned separately into C. beijerinckii. To do this, a secretion vector based on the pMTL500E shuttle vector and containing the promoter and signal sequence coding region of the Clostridium saccharobutylicum NCP262 eglA gene was constructed and fused either to the celA gene or the celD gene. Stable C. beijerinckii transformants were obtained with the resulting plasmids, pWUR3 (celA) and pWUR4 (celD). The recombinant strains showed clear halos on agar plates containing carboxymethyl cellulose upon staining with Congo red. In addition, their culture supernatants had significant endoglucanase activities (123 U/mg of protein for transformants harboring celA and 78 U/mg of protein for transformants harboring celD). Although C. beijerinckii harboring either celA or celD was not able to grow, separately or in mixed culture, on carboxymethyl cellulose or microcrystalline cellulose, both transformants showed a significant increase in solvent production during growth on lichenan and more extensive degradation of this polymer than that exhibited by the wild-type strain. PMID:11679336

  7. Clostridium beijerinckii cells expressing Neocallimastix patriciarum glycoside hydrolases show enhanced lichenan utilization and solvent production.

    PubMed

    López-Contreras, A M; Smidt, H; van der Oost, J; Claassen, P A; Mooibroek, H; de Vos, W M

    2001-11-01

    Growth and the production of acetone, butanol, and ethanol by Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 on several polysaccharides and sugars were analyzed. On crystalline cellulose, growth and solvent production were observed only when a mixture of fungal cellulases was added to the medium. On lichenan growth and solvent production occurred, but this polymer was only partially utilized. To increase utilization of these polymers and subsequent solvent production, the genes for two new glycoside hydrolases, celA and celD from the fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum, were cloned separately into C. beijerinckii. To do this, a secretion vector based on the pMTL500E shuttle vector and containing the promoter and signal sequence coding region of the Clostridium saccharobutylicum NCP262 eglA gene was constructed and fused either to the celA gene or the celD gene. Stable C. beijerinckii transformants were obtained with the resulting plasmids, pWUR3 (celA) and pWUR4 (celD). The recombinant strains showed clear halos on agar plates containing carboxymethyl cellulose upon staining with Congo red. In addition, their culture supernatants had significant endoglucanase activities (123 U/mg of protein for transformants harboring celA and 78 U/mg of protein for transformants harboring celD). Although C. beijerinckii harboring either celA or celD was not able to grow, separately or in mixed culture, on carboxymethyl cellulose or microcrystalline cellulose, both transformants showed a significant increase in solvent production during growth on lichenan and more extensive degradation of this polymer than that exhibited by the wild-type strain. PMID:11679336

  8. Bioaugmentation with an anaerobic fungus in a two-stage process for biohydrogen and biogas production using corn silage and cattail.

    PubMed

    Nkemka, Valentine Nkongndem; Gilroyed, Brandon; Yanke, Jay; Gruninger, Robert; Vedres, Darrell; McAllister, Tim; Hao, Xiying

    2015-06-01

    Bioaugmentation with an anaerobic fungus, Piromyces rhizinflata YM600, was evaluated in an anaerobic two-stage system digesting corn silage and cattail. Comparable methane yields of 328.8±16.8mLg(-1)VS and 295.4±14.5mLg(-1)VS and hydrogen yields of 59.4±4.1mLg(-1)VS and 55.6±6.7mLg(-1)VS were obtained for unaugmented and bioaugmented corn silage, respectively. Similar CH4 yields of 101.0±4.8mLg(-1)VS and 104±19.1mLg(-1)VS and a low H2 yield (<1mLg(-1)VS) were obtained for unaugmented and bioaugmented cattail, respectively. However, bioaugmentation resulted in an initial increase in CH4 and H2 production rates and also increased volatile fatty acid degradation rate for both substrates. Our study demonstrates the potential of bioaugmentation with anaerobic fungus for improving the digestibility of lignocellulose substrates for biogas and biohydrogen production. PMID:25755016

  9. A cyclophilin from the polycentric anaerobic rumen fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain PC-2 is highly homologous to vertebrate cyclophilin B

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.; Li, X.L.; Ljungdahl, L.G.

    1995-03-28

    A cyclophilin (CyP) purified to homogeneity from the polycentric anaerobic rumen fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain PC-2 had a molecular mass of 20.5 kDa and a pI of 8.1. The protein catalyzed the isomerization of the prolyl peptide bond of N-succinyl-Ala-Ala-(cis,trans)-Pro-Phe p-nitroanilide with a k{sub cat}/K{sub m} value of 9.3 x 10{sup 6} M{sup {minus}1}{center_dot}s{sup {minus}1} at 10{degrees}C and pH 7.8. Cyclosporin A strongly inhibited this peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase activity with an IC{sub 50} of 19.6 nM. The sequence of the first 30 N-terminal amino acids of this CyP had high homology with the N-terminal sequences of other eukaryotic CyPs. By use of a DNA hybridization probe amplified by PCR with degenerate oligonucleotide primers designed based on the amino acid sequences of the N terminus of this CyP and highly conserved internal regions of other CyPs, a full-length cDNA clone was isolated. It possessed an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 203 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 21,969, containing a putative hydrophobic signal peptide sequence of 22 amino acids preceding the N terminus of the mature enzyme and a C-terminal sequence, Lys-Ala-Glu-Leu, characteristic of an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal. The Orpinomyces PC-2 CyP is a typical type B CyP. The amino acid sequence of the Orpinomyces CyP exhibits striking degrees of identity with the corresponding human (70%), bovine (69%), mouse (68%), chicken (66%), maize (61%), and yeast (54%) proteins. Phylogenetic analysis based on the CyP sequences indicated that the evolutionary origin of the Orpinomyces CyP was closely related with CyPs of animals. 51 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Characterization of a Neocallimastix patriciarum cellulase cDNA (celA) homologous to Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase II.

    PubMed Central

    Denman, S; Xue, G P; Patel, B

    1996-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a cellulase cDNA (celA) from the rumen fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum and the primary structure of the protein which it encodes were characterized. The celA cDNA was 1.95 kb long and had an open reading frame of 1,284 bp, which encoded a polypeptide having 428 amino acid residues. A sequence alignment showed that cellulase A (CELA) exhibited substantial homology with family B cellulases (family 6 glycosyl hydrolases), particularly cellobiohydrolase II from the aerobic fungus Trichoderma reesei. In contrast to previously characterized N. patriciarum glycosyl hydrolases, CELA did not exhibit homology with any other rumen microbial cellulases described previously. Primary structure and function studies in which deletion analysis and a sequence comparison with other well-characterized cellulases were used revealed that CELA consisted of a cellulose-binding domain at the N terminus and a catalytic domain at the C terminus. These two domains were separated by an extremely Asn-rich linker. Deletion of the cellulose-binding domain resulted in a marked decrease in the cellulose-binding ability and activity toward crystalline cellulose. When CELA was expressed in Escherichia coli, it was located predominantly in the periplasmic space, indicating that the signal sequence of CELA was functional in E.coli. Enzymatic studies showed that CELA had an optimal pH of 5.0 and an optimal temperature of 40 degrees C. The specific activity of immunoaffinity-purified CELA against Avicel was 9.7 U/mg of protein, and CELA appeared to be a relatively active cellobiohydrolase compared with the specific activities reported for other cellobiohydrolases, such as T. reesei cellobiohydrolases I and II. PMID:8787388

  11. Catalytic properties of endoxylanase fusion proteins from Neocallimastix frontalis and effect of immobilization onto metal-chelate matrix.

    PubMed

    Mesta, Laurent; Heyraud, Alain; Joseleau, Jean Paul; Coulet, Pierre R

    2003-03-20

    The production of hybrid enzymes with novel properties and the research for new methods for enzyme immobilization in bioreactors are of major interest in biotechnology. We report here the second part of a study concerning the improvement of the properties of the endoxylanase XYN3A4 from the anaerobic fungi Neocallimastix frontalis. The effects of gene fusion and immobilization on metal-chelate matrix are also compared for the reference enzymes XYN3, XYN3A, XYN4 used for the construction of the fusion protein XYN3A4. The influence of the metal ion in the immobilization process was first investigated and best immobilization yields were obtained with the Cu(II) ion whereas best coupling efficiencies were reached with the Ni(II) ion. It was also observed that XYN3, XYN3A and XYN34 had a lower rate of hydrolysis when immobilized on Ni(II)-IDA and more difficulties to accomodate small substrates than the soluble enzymes. Nevertheless, a major difference was noted during the hydrolysis of birchwood xylan and it appears that the reaction using the immobilized XYN3A4 chimeric enzyme leads to the accumulation of a specific product. PMID:12615394

  12. Effect of the Associated Methanogen Methanobrevibacter thaueri on the Dynamic Profile of End and Intermediate Metabolites of Anaerobic Fungus Piromyces sp. F1.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanfei; Jin, Wei; Cheng, Yanfen; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-09-01

    Although the scheme of metabolic pathways involved in the production of the major end products has been described, the dynamic profile of metabolites of anaerobic fungi co-cultured with methanogens is limited, especially for the intermediate metabolites. In the present study, the fermentation of the co-culture of Piromyces sp. F1 and Methanobrevibacter thaueri on glucose was investigated. The presence of methanogens shortened the growth lag time of anaerobic fungi and enhanced the total gas production. The occurrence of the maximum cell dry weight and the disappearance of most of the substrate were observed at 24 h for the co-culture and 48 h for the fungal mono-culture. In the co-culture, hydrogen was detected at a very low level during fermentation, and formate transitorily accumulated at 24 h and disappeared at 48 h, resulting in an increase of pH. Acetate was higher during the fermentation in the co-culture (P < 0.05), while lactate and ethanol were higher only in the initial stage of fermentation (P < 0.05). After 48 h, lactate in the mono-culture became much higher than that in the co-culture (P < 0.05), and ethanol tended to remain the same in both cultures. Moreover, malate tended to be exhausted in the co-culture, while it accumulated in the mono-culture. Citrate was also detected in both co-culture and mono-culture. Collectively, these results suggest that methanogen enhanced the malate pathway and weakened the lactate pathway of anaerobic fungus. PMID:27287262

  13. Fermentative characteristics and fibrolytic activities of anaerobic gut fungi isolated from wild and domestic ruminants.

    PubMed

    Paul, Shyam S; Kamra, Devki N; Sastry, Vadali R B

    2010-08-01

    Fermentative characteristics and fibrolytic enzyme activities of anaerobic gut fungi from wild (17 isolates) and domestic ruminants (15 isolates) were examined. In a medium containing 0.5% wheat straw and 0.02% cellobiose as energy source, activities of carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), avicelase, xylanase, acetyl esterase and protease produced by the fungal isolates were investigated. Average activity of CMCase (17.4 vs. 8.25 mIU ml(-1)), acetyl esterase (134 vs. 57 mIU ml(-1)) and protease (4400 vs. 1683 mIU ml(-1)) were significantly higher in isolates from wild ruminants than those from domestic ruminants. Xylanase and avicelase activities were comparable. When compared irrespective of source, fungal isolates having monocentric growth pattern produced more fibrolytic enzymes than isolates having polycentric growth pattern. CMCase, xylanase, avicelase activities were highest in Neocallimastix isolates. Acetyl esterase activity was highest in Piromyces and Neocallimastix isolates. Protease activity was highest in Piromyces isolates followed closely by Neocallimastix isolates. Between isolates from wild and domestic ruminants few differences were observed in pattern of carbohydrate utilisation and end products of fermentation. Inter-strain differences in the end product formation were apparent. All of the isolates produced acetate, lactate and formate; only a few isolates produced succinate. For isolation of superior fibrolytic isolates of anaerobic fungi, greater emphasis should be given to the screening of enzyme activities of isolates of genera Neocallimastix and Piromyces. PMID:20722299

  14. beta-Glucosidase in cellulosome of the anaerobic fungus Piromyces sp. strain E2 is a family 3 glycoside hydrolase.

    PubMed Central

    Steenbakkers, Peter J M; Harhangi, Harry R; Bosscher, Mirjam W; van der Hooft, Marlous M C; Keltjens, Jan T; van der Drift, Chris; Vogels, Godfried D; op den Camp, Huub J M

    2003-01-01

    The cellulosomes of anaerobic fungi convert crystalline cellulose solely into glucose, in contrast with bacterial cellulosomes which produce cellobiose. Previously, a beta-glucosidase was identified in the cellulosome of Piromyces sp. strain E2 by zymogram analysis, which represented approx. 25% of the extracellular beta-glucosidase activity. To identify the component in the fungal cellulosome responsible for the beta-glucosidase activity, immunoscreening with anti-cellulosome antibodies was used to isolate the corresponding gene. A 2737 bp immunoclone was isolated from a cDNA library. The clone encoded an extracellular protein containing a eukaryotic family 3 glycoside hydrolase domain homologue and was therefore named cel3A. The C-terminal end of the encoded Cel3A protein consisted of an auxiliary domain and three fungal dockerins, typical for cellulosome components. The Cel3A catalytic domain was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and purified. Biochemical analyses of the recombinant protein showed that the Cel3A catalytic domain was specific for beta-glucosidic bonds and functioned as an exoglucohydrolase on soluble substrates as well as cellulose. Comparison of the apparent K (m) and K (i) values of heterologous Cel3A and the fungal cellulosome for p -nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside and D-glucono-1,5-delta-lactone respectively indicated that cel3A encodes the beta-glucosidase activity of the Piromyces sp. strain E2 cellulosome. PMID:12485115

  15. The genome of the anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain C1A reveals the unique evolutionary history of a remarkable plant biomass degrader.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Noha H; Couger, M B; Struchtemeyer, Christopher G; Liggenstoffer, Audra S; Prade, Rolf A; Najar, Fares Z; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Wilkins, Mark R; Elshahed, Mostafa S

    2013-08-01

    Anaerobic gut fungi represent a distinct early-branching fungal phylum (Neocallimastigomycota) and reside in the rumen, hindgut, and feces of ruminant and nonruminant herbivores. The genome of an anaerobic fungal isolate, Orpinomyces sp. strain C1A, was sequenced using a combination of Illumina and PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technologies. The large genome (100.95 Mb, 16,347 genes) displayed extremely low G+C content (17.0%), large noncoding intergenic regions (73.1%), proliferation of microsatellite repeats (4.9%), and multiple gene duplications. Comparative genomic analysis identified multiple genes and pathways that are absent in Dikarya genomes but present in early-branching fungal lineages and/or nonfungal Opisthokonta. These included genes for posttranslational fucosylation, the production of specific intramembrane proteases and extracellular protease inhibitors, the formation of a complete axoneme and intraflagellar trafficking machinery, and a near-complete focal adhesion machinery. Analysis of the lignocellulolytic machinery in the C1A genome revealed an extremely rich repertoire, with evidence of horizontal gene acquisition from multiple bacterial lineages. Experimental analysis indicated that strain C1A is a remarkable biomass degrader, capable of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions in multiple untreated grasses and crop residues examined, with the process significantly enhanced by mild pretreatments. This capability, acquired during its separate evolutionary trajectory in the rumen, along with its resilience and invasiveness compared to prokaryotic anaerobes, renders anaerobic fungi promising agents for consolidated bioprocessing schemes in biofuels production. PMID:23709508

  16. The Genome of the Anaerobic Fungus Orpinomyces sp. Strain C1A Reveals the Unique Evolutionary History of a Remarkable Plant Biomass Degrader

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Noha H.; Couger, M. B.; Struchtemeyer, Christopher G.; Liggenstoffer, Audra S.; Prade, Rolf A.; Najar, Fares Z.; Atiyeh, Hasan K.; Wilkins, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic gut fungi represent a distinct early-branching fungal phylum (Neocallimastigomycota) and reside in the rumen, hindgut, and feces of ruminant and nonruminant herbivores. The genome of an anaerobic fungal isolate, Orpinomyces sp. strain C1A, was sequenced using a combination of Illumina and PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technologies. The large genome (100.95 Mb, 16,347 genes) displayed extremely low G+C content (17.0%), large noncoding intergenic regions (73.1%), proliferation of microsatellite repeats (4.9%), and multiple gene duplications. Comparative genomic analysis identified multiple genes and pathways that are absent in Dikarya genomes but present in early-branching fungal lineages and/or nonfungal Opisthokonta. These included genes for posttranslational fucosylation, the production of specific intramembrane proteases and extracellular protease inhibitors, the formation of a complete axoneme and intraflagellar trafficking machinery, and a near-complete focal adhesion machinery. Analysis of the lignocellulolytic machinery in the C1A genome revealed an extremely rich repertoire, with evidence of horizontal gene acquisition from multiple bacterial lineages. Experimental analysis indicated that strain C1A is a remarkable biomass degrader, capable of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions in multiple untreated grasses and crop residues examined, with the process significantly enhanced by mild pretreatments. This capability, acquired during its separate evolutionary trajectory in the rumen, along with its resilience and invasiveness compared to prokaryotic anaerobes, renders anaerobic fungi promising agents for consolidated bioprocessing schemes in biofuels production. PMID:23709508

  17. Two cellulases, CelA and CelC, from the polycentric anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces strain PC-2 contain N-terminal docking domains for a cellulase-hemicellulase complex.

    PubMed Central

    Li, X L; Chen, H; Ljungdahl, L G

    1997-01-01

    Two cDNAs encoding two cellulases, CelA and CelC, were isolated from a cDNA library of the polycentric anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain PC-2 constructed in Escherichia coli. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that the celA cDNA (1,558 bp) and celC cDNA (1,628 bp) had open reading frames encoding polypeptides of 459 (CelA) and 449 (CelC) amino acids, respectively. The two cDNAs were 76.9 and 67.7% identical at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences showed that starting from the N termini, both CelA and CelC had signal peptides, which were followed by noncatalytic repeated peptide domains (NCRPD) containing two repeated sequences of 33 to 40 amino acid residues functioning as docking domains. The NCRPDs and the catalytic domains were separated by linker sequences. The NCRPDs were homologous to those found in several hydrolases of anaerobic fungi, whereas the catalytic domains were homologous to the catalytic domains of fungal cellobiohydrolases and bacterial endoglucanases. The linker sequence of CelA contained predominantly glutamine and proline residues, while that of CelC contained mainly threonine residues. CelA and CelC did not have a typical cellulose binding domain (CBD). CelA and CelC expressed in E. coli rapidly decreased the viscosity of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), indicating that there was endoglucanase activity. In addition, they produced cellobiose from CMC, acid-swollen cellulose, and cellotetraose, suggesting that they had cellobiohydrolase activity. The optimal activity conditions with CMC as the substrate were pH 4.3 to 6.8 and 50 degrees C for CelA and pH 4.6 to 7.0 and 40 degrees C for CelC. Despite the lack of a CBD, CelC displayed a high affinity for microcrystalline cellulose, whereas CelA did not. PMID:9406391

  18. Fungus Amongus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakeley, Deidra

    2005-01-01

    This role-playing simulation is designed to help teach middle level students about the typical lifecycle of a fungus. In this interactive simulation, students assume the roles of fungi, spores, living and dead organisms, bacteria, and rain. As they move around a playing field collecting food and water chips, they discover how the organisms…

  19. A hydrogenosome with pyruvate formate-lyase: anaerobic chytrid fungi use an alternative route for pyruvate catabolism.

    PubMed

    Akhmanova, A; Voncken, F G; Hosea, K M; Harhangi, H; Keltjens, J T; op den Camp, H J; Vogels, G D; Hackstein, J H

    1999-06-01

    The chytrid fungi Piromyces sp. E2 and Neocallimastix sp. L2 are obligatory amitochondriate anaerobes that possess hydrogenosomes. Hydrogenosomes are highly specialized organelles engaged in anaerobic carbon metabolism; they generate molecular hydrogen and ATP. Here, we show for the first time that chytrid hydrogenosomes use pyruvate formate-lyase (PFL) and not pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFO) for pyruvate catabolism, unlike all other hydrogenosomes studied to date. Chytrid PFLs are encoded by a multigene family and are abundantly expressed in Piromyces sp. E2 and Neocallimastix sp. L2. Western blotting after cellular fractionation, proteinase K protection assays and determinations of enzyme activities reveal that PFL is present in the hydrogenosomes of Piromyces sp. E2. The main route of the hydrogenosomal carbon metabolism involves PFL; the formation of equimolar amounts of formate and acetate by isolated hydrogenosomes excludes a significant contribution by PFO. Our data support the assumption that chytrid hydrogenosomes are unique and argue for a polyphyletic origin of these organelles. PMID:10361311

  20. Anaerobic bacteria

    MedlinePlus

    Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow when oxygen is present. In humans, these ... Goldstein EJ. Diseases caused by non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  1. A Proposed Taxonomy of Anaerobic Fungi (Class Neocallimastigomycetes) Suitable for Large-Scale Sequence-Based Community Structure Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kittelmann, Sandra; Naylor, Graham E.; Koolaard, John P.; Janssen, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic fungi are key players in the breakdown of fibrous plant material in the rumen, but not much is known about the composition and stability of fungal communities in ruminants. We analyzed anaerobic fungi in 53 rumen samples from farmed sheep (4 different flocks), cattle, and deer feeding on a variety of diets. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of the rrn operon revealed a high diversity of anaerobic fungal phylotypes across all samples. Clone libraries of the ITS1 region were constructed from DNA from 11 rumen samples that had distinctly different fungal communities. A total of 417 new sequences were generated to expand the number and diversity of ITS1 sequences available. Major phylogenetic groups of anaerobic fungi in New Zealand ruminants belonged to the genera Piromyces, Neocallimastix, Caecomyces and Orpinomyces. In addition, sequences forming four novel clades were obtained, which may represent so far undetected genera or species of anaerobic fungi. We propose a revised phylogeny and pragmatic taxonomy for anaerobic fungi, which was tested and proved suitable for analysis of datasets stemming from high-throughput next-generation sequencing methods. Comparing our revised taxonomy to the taxonomic assignment of sequences deposited in the GenBank database, we believe that >29% of ITS1 sequences derived from anaerobic fungal isolates or clones are misnamed at the genus level. PMID:22615827

  2. Properties of anaerobic fungi isolated from several habitats: complexity of phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Zelená, Viera; Birošová, Lucia; Olejníková, Petra; Polák, Martin; Lakatoš, Boris; Varečka, Ľudovít

    2016-01-01

    Isolates of anaerobic fungi from rumen, animal faeces and compost displayed morphological similarity with known anaerobic fungi. According to their ITS sequences, species were related to Neocallimastix and Piromyces. Rumen fungi tolerated exposure to an aerobic atmosphere for at least four days. Under anaerobic conditions, they could grow on both, defined or complex substrates. Growth in liquid media was monitored by the continuous measurement of metabolic gases (O2, CO2, H2, CO, H2S, CH4). Monitored metabolism was complex, showed that both CO2 and H2 were produced and subsequently consumed by yet unknown metabolic pathway(s). CO and H2S were evolved similarly, but not identically with the generation of CO2 and H2 suggesting their connection with energetic metabolism. Anaerobic fungi from snail faeces and compost produced concentrations of H2S, H2, CO near the lower limit of detection. The rumen isolates produced cellulases and xylanases with similar pH and temperature optima. Proteolytic enzymes were secreted as well. Activities of some enzymes of the main catabolic pathways were found in cell-free homogenates of mycelia. The results indicate the presence of the pentose cycle, the glyoxylate cycle and an incomplete citrate cycle in these fungi. Differences between isolates indicate phenotypic variability between anaerobic fungi. PMID:26612922

  3. Anaerobic bacteria

    MedlinePlus

    Brook I, Goldstein EJ. Diseases caused by non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 297. Stedman's Online ...

  4. THIAMINE AND NICOTINIC ACID: ANAEROBIC GROWTH FACTORS FOR MUCOR ROUXII

    PubMed Central

    Bartnicki-Garcia, S.; Nickerson, Walter J.

    1961-01-01

    Bartnicki-Garcia, S. (Rutgers, the State University, New Brunswick, N. J.), and Walter J. Nickerson. Thiamine and nicotinic acid: Anaerobic growth factors for Mucor rouxii. J. Bacteriol. 82:142–148. 1961.—Mucor rouxii requires preformed thiamine and nicotinic acid for anaerobic growth. Such requirements are not manifested during aerobic incubation. Aerobically, the fungus was shown to be able to synthesize both vitamins. The yeastlike form and the filamentous form of anaerobically grown M. rouxii exhibit the same vitamin requirements. Thiamine can be substituted by its thiazole moiety. Under certain conditions, nicotinic acid was partly substituted by tryptophan, kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine, and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid. Anaerobically. the fungus (thiamine requiring) was about ten times more susceptible to pyrithiamine antagonism than the same organism grown aerobically (thiamine independent). PMID:16561911

  5. Anaerobic Process.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Zun; Qian, Yang; Chang, Chein-Chi; Ju, Meiting

    2015-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2014 on the focus of Anaerobic Process. It is divided into the following sections. •Pretreatment •Organic waste •multiple-stage co-digestion •Process Methodology and Technology. PMID:26420080

  6. Anaerobic sealing

    SciTech Connect

    Hayre, J.

    1986-05-01

    Anaerobic sealants offer an alternative to conventional methods of joint repair on mains operating at low and medium pressures. The method does not require highly skilled personnel who are diligent in ensuring that the necessary standards of preparation and seal application are achieved. British Gas' experience has shown that lead joints that do not contain yarn or where the yarn has deteriorated are difficult to seal. The evidence so far indicates that yarn is important in ensuring that the low viscosity sealant rapidly wicks around the joint during the injection operation. It is obvious that more research and development is needed in this field, but anaerobic sealing of leaking joints in an effective, innovative method of joint repair.

  7. Growth characteristics on cellobiose of three different anaerobic fungi isolated from the ovine rumen.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, M W; Gordon, G L

    1989-01-01

    Three morphologically different anaerobic fungi, a Neocallimastix sp. strain (LM-1), a Piromonas sp. strain (SM-1), and a Sphaeromonas sp. strain (NM-1), were isolated from the rumens of sheep. Growth studies were conducted with each isolate in batch cultures by using an anaerobic semidefined medium that lacked ruminal fluid and contained 0.5% cellobiose. Cultures were incubated for periods of up to 10 days, and fungal growth was assessed at regular intervals by dry weight measurements. Samples of fungal biomass were also analyzed for cell-associated protein and, after acid hydrolysis, for chitin as hexosamine. The isolates produced similar yields of dry weight and contained similar amounts of protein. However, strain LM-1 grew at a higher rate and contained less than half the level of chitin compared with the other two isolates. There were high positive correlations between chitin and protein for all three fungi, but comparisons of these parameters with dry weights were affected by the presence of variable amounts of storage carbohydrate. The amount of storage carbohydrate reached maximum levels in strain LM-1 during mid-growth phase and then quickly declined thereafter. When dry weight yields for strain LM-1 were adjusted for changes in storage carbohydrate, high positive correlations were obtained between dry weight and protein or chitin. The storage carbohydrate was probably an alpha-1,4-glucan with alpha-1,6 branches. Images PMID:2669633

  8. Anaerobic Thermophiles

    PubMed Central

    Canganella, Francesco; Wiegel, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    The term “extremophile” was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of “extreme” environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally “hot environments” on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong to the Archaea has

  9. Anaerobic thermophiles.

    PubMed

    Canganella, Francesco; Wiegel, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    The term "extremophile" was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of "extreme" environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally "hot environments" on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong to the Archaea has definitely

  10. Finding a robust strain for biomethanation: anaerobic fungi (Neocallimastigomycota) from the Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) and their associated methanogens.

    PubMed

    Leis, Stefanie; Dresch, Philipp; Peintner, Ursula; Fliegerová, Katerina; Sandbichler, Adolf Michael; Insam, Heribert; Podmirseg, Sabine Marie

    2014-10-01

    Anaerobic fungi occupy the rumen and digestive tract of herbivores, where they play an important role in enzymatic digestion of lignocellulosic and cellulosic substrates, i.e. organic material that their hosts are unable to decompose on their own. In this study we isolated anaerobic fungi from a typical alpine herbivore, the Alpine ibex (C. ibex). Three fungal strains, either as pure culture (ST2) or syntrophic co-culture with methanogens (ST3, ST4) were successfully obtained and morphologically characterised by different microscopy- and staining-techniques and by rDNA ITS gene sequencing. The isolated fungi were identified as Neocallimastix frontalis (ST2) and Caecomyces communis (ST3 and ST4). We introduce a novel field of application for lactofuchsin-staining, combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy. This approach proved as an effective method to visualize fungal structures, especially in the presence of plant biomass, generally exhibiting high autofluorescence. Moreover, we could demonstrate that fungal morphology is subject to changes depending on the carbon source used for cultivation. Oxygen tolerance was confirmed for both, C. communis-cultures for up to three, and for the N. frontalis-isolate for up to 12 h, respectively. With PCR, FISH and an oligonucleotide microarray we found associated methanogens (mainly Methanobacteriales) for C. communis, but not for N. frontalis. PMID:24384307

  11. Efficient xylose fermentation by the brown rot fungus Neolentinus lepideus.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kenji; Kanawaku, Ryuichi; Masumoto, Masaru; Yanase, Hideshi

    2012-02-10

    The efficient production of bioethanol on an industrial scale requires the use of renewable lignocellulosic biomass as a starting material. A limiting factor in developing efficient processes is identifying microorganisms that are able to effectively ferment xylose, the major pentose sugar found in hemicellulose, and break down carbohydrate polymers without pre-treatment steps. Here, a basidiomycete brown rot fungus was isolated as a new biocatalyst with unprecedented fermentability, as it was capable of converting not only the 6-carbon sugars constituting cellulose, but also the major 5-carbon sugar xylose in hemicelluloses, to ethanol. The fungus was identified as Neolentinus lepideus and was capable of assimilating and fermenting xylose to ethanol in yields of 0.30, 0.33, and 0.34 g of ethanol per g of xylose consumed under aerobic, oxygen-limited, and anaerobic conditions, respectively. A small amount of xylitol was detected as the major by-product of xylose metabolism. N. lepideus produced ethanol from glucose, mannose, galactose, cellobiose, maltose, and lactose with yields ranging from 0.34 to 0.38 g ethanol per g sugar consumed, and also exhibited relatively favorable conversion of non-pretreated starch, xylan, and wheat bran. These results suggest that N. lepideus is a promising candidate for cost-effective and environmentally friendly ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. To our knowledge, this is the first report on efficient ethanol fermentation from various carbohydrates, including xylose, by a naturally occurring brown rot fungus. PMID:22226194

  12. Identification and characterization of anaerobic gut fungi using molecular methodologies based on ribosomal ITS1 and 185 rRNA.

    PubMed

    Brookman, J L; Mennim, G; Trinci, A P; Theodorou, M K; Tuckwell, D S

    2000-02-01

    The gut fungi are an unusual group of zoosporic fungi occupying a unique ecological niche, the anaerobic environment of the rumen. They exhibit two basic forms, with nuclear migration throughout the hyphal mass for polycentric species and with concentration of nuclear material in a zoosporangium for monocentric species. Differentiation between isolates of these fungi is difficult using conventional techniques. In this study, DNA-based methodologies were used to examine the relationships within and between two genera of monocentric gut fungi gathered from various geographical locations and host animals. The ribosomal ITS1 sequence from 16 mono- and 4 polycentric isolates was PCR-amplified and sequenced; the sequences obtained were aligned with published sequences and phylogenetic analyses were performed. These analyses clearly differentiate between the two genera and reflect the previously published physiological conclusions that Neocallimastix spp. constitute a more closely related genus than the relatively divergent genus Piromyces. The analyses place two type species N. frontalis and N. hurleyensis together but, contrary to a recent suggestion in the literature, place them apart from the other agreed species N. patriciarum. In situ hybridization and slot-blotting were investigated as potential methods for detection of and differentiation between monocentric gut fungi. DNA slot-blot analysis using ribosomal sequences is able to differentiate between gut fungal genera and thus has considerable potential for use in ecological studies of these organisms. PMID:10708378

  13. Anaerobic bag culture method.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R

    1975-06-01

    In a new method of anaerobic culture, a transparent, gas-impermeable bag is used and the anaerobic environment is established with copper sulfate-saturated steel wool. An Alka-Seltzer tablet generates carbon dioxide. The agar plate surface can be inspected through the bag at any time without interrupting the anaerobic atmosphere or disturbing other specimens. Methylene blue indicator strips are completely reduced by 4 h after the bag is set up and have remained reduced for as long as 3 weeks. Growth of 16 different stock culture anaerobes was generally equivalent by the bag and GasPak jar methods. Yield and growth of anaerobic isolates also were equivalent with 7 of 10 clinical specimens; from the other 3 specimens, 13 isolates were recovered, 5 by both the bag and jar methods and the rest by one method or the other. No consistent differences were found between the anaerobic bag and GasPak jar methods in the yield of anaerobes from clinical specimens. Early growth (24 h of incubation) of anaerobes from one specimen was detected with the bag method. PMID:1100671

  14. Anaerobic bag culture method.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R

    1975-01-01

    In a new method of anaerobic culture, a transparent, gas-impermeable bag is used and the anaerobic environment is established with copper sulfate-saturated steel wool. An Alka-Seltzer tablet generates carbon dioxide. The agar plate surface can be inspected through the bag at any time without interrupting the anaerobic atmosphere or disturbing other specimens. Methylene blue indicator strips are completely reduced by 4 h after the bag is set up and have remained reduced for as long as 3 weeks. Growth of 16 different stock culture anaerobes was generally equivalent by the bag and GasPak jar methods. Yield and growth of anaerobic isolates also were equivalent with 7 of 10 clinical specimens; from the other 3 specimens, 13 isolates were recovered, 5 by both the bag and jar methods and the rest by one method or the other. No consistent differences were found between the anaerobic bag and GasPak jar methods in the yield of anaerobes from clinical specimens. Early growth (24 h of incubation) of anaerobes from one specimen was detected with the bag method. Images PMID:1100671

  15. Anaerobic thermophilic culture

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Wiegel, Jurgen K. W.

    1981-01-01

    A newly discovered thermophilic anaerobe is described that was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC 3/550. T. Ethanolicus is cultured in aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions and is used in a novel process for producing ethanol by subjecting carbohydrates, particularly the saccharides, to fermentation action of the new microorganism in a biologically pure culture.

  16. Anaerobic specimen transport device.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, T D; Jimenez-Ulate, F

    1975-01-01

    A device is described and evaluated for the anaerobic transport of clinical specimens. The device limits the amount of oxygen entering with the sample to a maximum of 2%, which is rapidly removed by reacting with hydrogen in the presence of a palladium catalyst. The viability on swabs of 12 species of anaerobes, four strains of facultative anaerobes and a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was maintained during the length of the tests (24 or 48 h). The results demonstrated that this device protected even the more oxygen-sensitive clinical anaerobes from death due to oxygen exposure. This device can be used for swabs as well as for anaerobic collection and liquid and solid specimens. Images PMID:1104656

  17. Noncatalytic docking domains of cellulosomes of anaerobic fungi.

    PubMed

    Steenbakkers, P J; Li, X L; Ximenes, E A; Arts, J G; Chen, H; Ljungdahl, L G; Op Den Camp, H J

    2001-09-01

    A method is presented for the specific isolation of genes encoding cellulosome components from anaerobic fungi. The catalytic components of the cellulosome of anaerobic fungi typically contain, besides the catalytic domain, mostly two copies of a 40-amino-acid cysteine-rich, noncatalytic docking domain (NCDD) interspaced by short linkers. Degenerate primers were designed to anneal to the highly conserved region within the NCDDs of the monocentric fungus Piromyces sp. strain E2 and the polycentric fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain PC-2. Through PCR using cDNA from Orpinomyces sp. and genomic DNA from Piromyces sp. as templates, respectively, 9 and 19 PCR products were isolated encoding novel NCDD linker sequences. Screening of an Orpinomyces sp. cDNA library with four of these PCR products resulted in the isolation of new genes encoding cellulosome components. An alignment of the partial NCDD sequence information obtained and an alignment of database-accessible NCDD sequences, focusing on the number and position of cysteine residues, indicated the presence of three structural subfamilies within fungal NCDDs. Furthermore, evidence is presented that the NCDDs in CelC from the polycentric fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain PC-2 specifically recognize four proteins in a cellulosome preparation, indicating the presence of multiple scaffoldins. PMID:11514516

  18. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  19. Membrane controlled anaerobic digestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omstead, D. R.

    In response to general shortages of energy, examination of the anaerboic digestion process as a potential source of a combustible, methane-rich fuel has intensified in recent years. It has been suggested that orgaic intermediates (such as fatty acids), produced during digestion, might also be recovered for use as chemical feedstocks. This investigation has been concerned with combining ultrafiltration separation techniques with anaerobic digestion for the development of a process in which the total production of acetic acid (the most valuable intermediate in anaerobic digestion) and methane are optimized. Enrichment cultures, able to utilize glucose as a sole carbon source, were adapted from sewage digesting cultures using conventional techniques. An ultrafiltration system was constructed and coupled to an anaerobic digester culture vessel which contained the glucose enrichment. The membrane controlled anaerobic digester appears to show promise as a means of producing high rates of both methane gas and acetic acid.

  20. Anaerobic brain abscess

    PubMed Central

    Sudhaharan, Sukanya; Chavali, Padmasri

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Brain abscess remains a potentially fatal central nervous system (CNS) disease, especially in developing countries. Anaerobic abscess is difficult to diagnose because of cumbersome procedures associated with the isolation of anaerobes. Materials and Methods: This is a hospital-based retrospective microbiological analysis of 430 brain abscess materials (purulent aspirates and/or tissue), for anaerobic organisms, that were received between 1987–2014, by the Microbiology Laboratory in our Institute. Results: Culture showed growth of bacteria 116/430 (27%) of the cases of which anaerobes were isolated in 48/116 (41.1%) of the cases. Peptostreptococcus (51.4 %), was the predominant organism isolated in four cases followed by Bacteroides and Peptococcus species. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and detection of these organisms would help in the appropriate management of these patients. PMID:27307977

  1. Gender comparisons in anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity tests.

    PubMed Central

    Maud, P J; Shultz, B B

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity test scores between young active men and women. Three performance measures of anaerobic power and two of anaerobic capacity were administered to a sample comprising 52 male and 50 female college students (means age = 21.4 yrs). Results indicated significant differences between men and women in body height, weight and per cent fat, in fat free mass (FFM), anaerobic power, and anaerobic capacity when recorded as gross work completed and relative to body weight. However, these differences are reduced when data is adjusted for body weight and further reduced when corrected for FFM. The study found no significant differences between men and women in either anaerobic power or anaerobic capacity when values were given relative to FFM. PMID:3730753

  2. Microbial degradation of lignin-derived compounds under anaerobic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Colberg, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    Lignin is the second most abundant form of organic carbon in the biosphere. Recent laboratory studies indicate that a large fraction of polymeric lignin is incompletely degraded by aerobic lignolytic microorganisms and is subsequently released as lignin fragments of reduced molecular size. If such lignin-derived compounds become available in the anaerobic environment, they may serve as potential sources of organic carbon for organisms which release methane precursors. The methanogenic bacteria, in turn, serve as terminal members of the anaerobic food chain, and thus, limit the accumulation of organic carbon in anaerobic sinks. This thesis presents evidence to suggest that lignin-derived compounds which have molecular sizes greater than those of single-ring aromatic compounds (MW > 200) are anaerobically biodegradable to methane. This research involved development of selective enrichment cultures capable of utilizing oligolignols as sole carbon sources. Radiolabeled water-soluble catabolites, released during aerobic lignin degradation by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, were subjected to anaerobic degradation. The second phase of work involved capillary gas chromatographic analyses of enrichment cultures fed a /sup 14/C-labeled, lignin-derived substrate of average molecular weight 600. 2-Bromoethanesulfonic acid was used to inhibit methane formation and enhance buildup of metabolic intermediates, resulting in the accumulation of volatile fatty acids, phenylacetate, benzoate, catechol, 3-phenyl-propionate, vanillin, syringic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid. A conceptual model for the anaerobic degradation of two- and three-ring lignin fragments is proposed which overlaps both the ferulate and benzoate degradation pathways at the level of single-ring aromatic compounds.

  3. THERMOPHILIC ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF PHENOLICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a series of anaerobic microbial acclimation and treatment performance tests with synthetic phenolic substrates. The research is a feasibility level assessment of substituting anaerobic biodegradation of phenolics for solvent extraction. The tests showe...

  4. The anaerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C.J.; Boone, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  5. Anaerobic thermophilic culture system

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Wiegel, Jurgen K. W.

    1981-01-01

    A mixed culture system of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC31550 and the microorganism Clostridium thermocellum ATCC31549 is described. In a mixed nutrient culture medium that contains cellulose, these microorganisms have been coupled and cultivated to efficiently ferment cellulose to produce recoverable quantities of ethanol under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions.

  6. [Cutaneous mold fungus granuloma from Ulocladium chartarum].

    PubMed

    Altmeyer, P; Schon, K

    1981-01-01

    Cutaneous granulomas due to the mold fungus Ulocladium chartarum (Preuss) are described in a 58 year old woman. This fungus is usually harmless for mammalian. It is thought that a consisting immunosuppression (Brill-Symmer's disease, therapy with corticosteroids) was a priming condition for the infection. The route of infection in this patient described is unknown. PMID:7194869

  7. Antimicrobials therapy of anaerobic infections.

    PubMed

    Brook, Itzhak

    2016-06-01

    Anaerobes predominant in the normal human skin and mucous membranes bacterial flora are often a cause of endogenous infections. Anaerobic bacteria are difficult to isolate from infectious sites, and are often overlooked. Anaerobic infections caused by anaerobes can occur in all body sites, including the central nervous system (CNS), oral cavity, head and neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, skin and soft tissues. The treatment of these infections is complicated by the slow growth of these organisms, their polymicrobial nature and the growing resistance of anaerobes to antimicrobials agents. Antimicrobials are frequently the only form of therapy needed, but in others, they are an important adjunct to surgical drainage and correction of pathology. Because anaerobes are often recovered with aerobic and facultative bacteria, the chosen antimicrobials should cover all pathogens. The antimicrobials effective against anaerobic organisms are metronidazole, carbapenems, combinations of a beta-lactam and a beta-lactamase inhibitor, chloramphenicol, tigecycline and clindamycin. PMID:26365224

  8. Anaerobic transformation of TNT

    SciTech Connect

    Kulpa, C.F.; Roopathy, R.

    1995-12-31

    Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds have used aerobic tempts to degrade nitroaromatics under aerobic microorganisms. In many cases attempts to degrade nitroaromatics under aerobic conditions results in no mineralization and only superficial modifications of the structure. However, under anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions, the nitroaromatic compounds undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. Trinitrotoluene under sulfate-reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene presumably by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of nitrate from trinitrotoluene is achieved by a series of reductive reactions with the production of ammonia and toluene by Desulfovibrio sp. (B strain). Similar metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. This presentation will review the data supporting the anaerobic transformation of TNT and other nitroaromatics.

  9. Anaerobic lung infections.

    PubMed

    Vincent, M T; Goldman, B S

    1994-06-01

    Aspiration is the leading cause of anaerobic lung infections. Risk factors for these infections include a depressed level of consciousness, a history of seizure, general anesthesia, central nervous system or neuromuscular disease, cerebrovascular accident, impaired swallowing and use of a tracheal or nasogastric tube. Clinical presentation includes fever, weight loss, malaise and cough productive of foul-smelling sputum. Diagnosis is based on radiographic findings, clinical features and a characteristic morphology of mixed flora on Gram stain of uncontaminated pulmonary specimens. The diagnosis is confirmed by isolation of organisms, usually polymicrobial, on culture. Treatment includes proper drainage, debridement of necrotic tissue and an antibiotic regimen (often initially empiric) with an agent active against anaerobic and aerobic organisms. PMID:8203319

  10. Anaerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, M.; Haga, R.; Odawara, Y.

    1982-10-19

    An algae culture grown on the water from the digested slurry of a biogasification plant serves as a means of removing CO/sub 2/ from the methane stream while purifying the wastewater and providing more biomass for the anaerobic digestion plant. Tested on a sewage-sludge digestion system, the proposed process improved the methane yield by 32% and methane concentration by 53-98 vol % while lowering the concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus in the final water.

  11. Anaerobic wastewater treatment using anaerobic baffled bioreactor: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Siti Roshayu; Dahlan, Irvan

    2013-09-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is receiving renewed interest because it offers a means to treat wastewater with lower energy investment. Because the microorganisms involved grow more slowly, such systems require clever design so that the microbes have sufficient time with the substrate to complete treatment without requiring enormous reactor volumes. The anaerobic baffled reactor has inherent advantages over single compartment reactors due to its circulation pattern that approaches a plug flow reactor. The physical configuration of the anaerobic baffled reactor enables significant modifications to be made; resulting in a reactor which is proficient of treating complex wastewaters which presently require only one unit, ultimately significant reducing capital costs. This paper also concerns about mechanism, kinetic and hydrodynamic studies of anaerobic digestion for future application of the anaerobic baffled reactor for wastewater treatment.

  12. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Wellinger, A.

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  13. Diversity of anaerobic halophilic microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oren, Aharon; Oremland, Roland S.

    2000-12-01

    Life in the presence of high salt concentrations is compatible with life in the absence of oxygen. Halophilic and halotolerant anaerobic prokaryotes are found both in the archaeal and in the bacterial domain, and they display a great metabolic diversity. Many of the representatives of the Halobacteriales (Archaea), which are generally considered aerobes, have the potential of anaerobic growth. Some can use alternative electron acceptors such as nitrate, fumarate, dimethylsulfoxide or trimethylamine-N-oxide Halobacterium salinarum can also grow fermentatively on L-arginine, and bacteriorhodopsin-containing cells may even grow anaerobically, energized by light. Obligatory anaerobic halophilic methanogenic Archaea also exist. The bacterial domain contains many anaerobic halophiles, including sulfate reducers. There is also a group of specialized obligatory anaerobic Bacteria, phylogenetically clustering in the low G + C branch of the Firmicutes. Most representatives of this group (order Haloanaerobiales, families Haloanaerobiaceae and Halobacteroidaceae) are fermentative, using a variety of carbohydrates and amino acids. One species combines the potential for anaerobic growth at high salt concentrations with a preference for high temperatures. Others are homoacetogens; Acetohalobium arabaticum can grow anaerobically as a chemolithotroph, producing acetate from hydrogen and CO2. The Haloanaerobiales accumulate high concentrations of K+ and Cl- in their cytoplasm, thereby showing a strategy of salt adaptation similar to that used by the Halobacteriales. Recently a new representative of the Haloanaerobiales was isolated from bottom sediments of the Dead Sea (strain DSSe1), which grows anaerobically by oxidation of glycerol to acetate and CO2 while reducing selenate to selenite and elementary selenium. Other electron acceptors supporting anaerobic growth of this strain are nitrate and trimethylamine-N-oxide. The versatility of life at high salt concentrations with respect

  14. Transcriptional response to hypoxia in the aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii.

    PubMed

    Camilo, César M; Gomes, Suely L

    2010-06-01

    Global gene expression analysis was carried out with Blastocladiella emersonii cells subjected to oxygen deprivation (hypoxia) using cDNA microarrays. In experiments of gradual hypoxia (gradual decrease in dissolved oxygen) and direct hypoxia (direct decrease in dissolved oxygen), about 650 differentially expressed genes were observed. A total of 534 genes were affected directly or indirectly by oxygen availability, as they showed recovery to normal expression levels or a tendency to recover when cells were reoxygenated. In addition to modulating many genes with no putative assigned function, B. emersonii cells respond to hypoxia by readjusting the expression levels of genes responsible for energy production and consumption. At least transcriptionally, this fungus seems to favor anaerobic metabolism through the upregulation of genes encoding glycolytic enzymes and lactate dehydrogenase and the downregulation of most genes coding for tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes. Furthermore, genes involved in energy-costly processes, like protein synthesis, amino acid biosynthesis, protein folding, and transport, had their expression profiles predominantly downregulated during oxygen deprivation, indicating an energy-saving effort. Data also revealed similarities between the transcriptional profiles of cells under hypoxia and under iron(II) deprivation, suggesting that Fe(2+) ion could have a role in oxygen sensing and/or response to hypoxia in B. emersonii. Additionally, treatment of fungal cells prior to hypoxia with the antibiotic geldanamycin, which negatively affects the stability of mammalian hypoxia transcription factor HIF-1alpha, caused a significant decrease in the levels of certain upregulated hypoxic genes. PMID:20418381

  15. Anaerobic Metabolism of Indoleacetate

    PubMed Central

    Ebenau-Jehle, Christa; Thomas, Markus; Scharf, Gernot; Kockelkorn, Daniel; Knapp, Bettina; Schühle, Karola; Heider, Johann

    2012-01-01

    The anaerobic metabolism of indoleacetate (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]) in the denitrifying betaproteobacterium Azoarcus evansii was studied. The strain oxidized IAA completely and grew with a generation time of 10 h. Enzyme activities that transformed IAA were present in the soluble cell fraction of IAA-grown cells but were 10-fold downregulated in cells grown on 2-aminobenzoate or benzoate. The transformation of IAA did not require molecular oxygen but required electron acceptors like NAD+ or artificial dyes. The first products identified were the enol and keto forms of 2-oxo-IAA. Later, polar products were observed, which could not yet be identified. The first steps likely consist of the anaerobic hydroxylation of the N-heterocyclic pyrrole ring to the enol form of 2-oxo-IAA, which is catalyzed by a molybdenum cofactor-containing dehydrogenase. This step is probably followed by the hydrolytic ring opening of the keto form, which is catalyzed by a hydantoinase-like enzyme. A comparison of the proteome of IAA- and benzoate-grown cells identified IAA-induced proteins. Owing to the high similarity of A. evansii with strain EbN1, whose genome is known, we identified a cluster of 14 genes that code for IAA-induced proteins involved in the early steps of IAA metabolism. These genes include a molybdenum cofactor-dependent dehydrogenase of the xanthine oxidase/aldehyde dehydrogenase family, a hydantoinase, a coenzyme A (CoA) ligase, a CoA transferase, a coenzyme B12-dependent mutase, an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, a fusion protein of an enoyl-CoA hydratase and a 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, a beta-ketothiolase, and a periplasmic substrate binding protein for ABC transport as well as a transcriptional regulator of the GntR family. Five predicted enzymes form or act on CoA thioesters, indicating that soon after the initial oxidation of IAA and possibly ring opening, CoA thioesters are formed, and the carbon skeleton is rearranged, followed by a CoA-dependent thiolytic

  16. Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Autotrophy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oremland, R. S.

    2008-12-01

    That microbes have resistance to the toxic arsenic oxyanions arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] has been recognized for some time. More recently it was shown that certain prokaryotes can demonstrate As- dependent growth by conserving the energy gained from the aerobic oxidation of As(III) to As(V), or from the reduction of As(V) to As(III) under anaerobic conditions. During the course of our field studies of two alkaline, hypersaline soda lakes (Mono Lake and Searles Lake, CA) we have discovered several new anaerobic chemo- and photo-autotrophic bacteria that can center their energy gain around the redox reactions between As(III) and As(V). Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii, isolated from the water column of Mono Lake is a nitrate-respiring, As(III)-oxidizing chemoautotroph of the gamma-proteobacteria that has a highly flexible metabolism. It can function either as a facultative anaerobe or as a chemo-autotroph, or as a heterotroph (Hoeft et al., 2007). In contrast, strain MLMS-1 of the delta-proteobacteria was also isolated from Mono Lake, but to date is the first example of an obligate As(V)-respirer that is also an obligate chemo-autotroph, gaining its energy via the oxidation of sulfide to sulfate (Hoeft et al., 2004). Strain SLAS-1, isolated from salt-saturated Searles Lake is a member of the Halananerobiales, and can either grow as a heterotroph (lactate e-donor) or chemo- autotroph (sulfide e-donor) while respiring As(V). The fact that it can achieve this feat at salt-saturation (~ 340 g/L) makes it a true extremophile (Oremland et. al., 2005). Finally, strain PHS-1 isolated from a hot spring on Paoha island in Mono Lake is the first example of a photosynthetic bacterium of the gamma- proteobacteria able to link its growth to As(III)-dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis (Kulp et al., 2008). These novel microbes give us new insights into the evolution of arsenic-based metabolism and their role in the biogeochemical cycling of this toxic element. Hoeft, S.E., et

  17. Fungus-insect gall of Phlebopus portentosus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Xia; He, Ming-Xia; Cao, Yang; Liu, Jing; Gao, Feng; Wang, Wen-Bing; Ji, Kai-Ping; Shao, Shi-Cheng; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Phlebopus portentosus is a popular edible wild mushroom found in the tropical Yunnan, China, and northern Thailand. In its natural habitats, a gall often has been found on some plant roots, around which fungal fruiting bodies are produced. The galls are different from common insect galls in that their cavity walls are not made from plant tissue but rather from the hyphae of P. portentosus. Therefore we have termed this phenomenon "fungus-insect gall". Thus far six root mealy bug species in the family Pseudococcidae that form fungus-insect galls with P. portentosus have been identified: Formicococcus polysperes, Geococcus satellitum, Planococcus minor, Pseudococcus cryptus, Paraputo banzigeri and Rastrococcus invadens. Fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of more than 21 plant species, including Delonix regia, Citrus maxima, Coffea arabica and Artocarpus heterophyllus. Greenhouse inoculation trials showed that fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of A. heterophyllus 1 mo after inoculation. The galls were subglobose to globose, fulvous when young and became dark brown at maturation. Each gall harbored one or more mealy bugs and had a chimney-like vent for ventilation and access to the gall. The cavity wall had three layers. Various shaped mealy bug wax deposits were found inside the wall. Fungal hyphae invaded the epidermis of plant roots and sometimes even the cortical cells during the late stage of gall development. The identity of the fungus inside the cavity was confirmed by molecular methods. PMID:25344264

  18. Integrated delignification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of hard wood by a white-rot fungus, Phlebia sp. MG-60.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Ichiro; Hirota, Yoshiyuki; Meguro, Sadatoshi

    2012-12-01

    We propose a new process of unified aerobic delignification and anaerobic saccharification and fermentation of wood by a single microorganism, the white-rot fungus Phlebia sp. MG-60. This fungus is able to selectively degrade lignin under aerobic solid state fermentation conditions, and to produce ethanol directly from delignified oak wood under semi-aerobic liquid culture conditions. After 56 d aerobic incubation, 40.7% of initial lignin and negligible glucan were degraded. Then under semi-aerobic conditions without the addition of cellulase, 43.9% of theoretical maximum ethanol was produced after 20 d. Changing from aerobic conditions (biological delignification pretreatment) to semi-aerobic conditions (saccharification and fermentation) enabled the fermentation of wood by solely biological processes. This is the first report of ethanol production from woody biomass using a single microorganism without addition of chemicals or enzymes. PMID:23073100

  19. Cefamandole Therapy in Anaerobic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Richard N.; Scalcini, Marcella C.; Sanders, Charles V.; Lewis, A. Carter

    1979-01-01

    Thirty-one adult patients with infections due to anaerobic bacteria were treated with cefamandole. Bacteroides fragilis group (17) and Bacteroides melaninogenicus (13) were the most frequent anaerobes isolated. Duration of therapy varied from 2 to 49 days. Results were judged satisfactory in 26 cases, and unsatisfactory in 1 case. Four cases could not be evaluated. Adverse reactions occurred in 16 patients and included positive direct Coombs' test without hemolysis, transient liver function abnormalities, phlebitis, reversible neutropenia, fever, eosinophilia, and toxic epidermal necrolysis. The more significant reactions were associated with prolonged therapy. None was lethal. These data suggest that cefamandole is effective in treatment of most anaerobic infections. PMID:380458

  20. PCB breakdown by anaerobic microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    Recently, altered PCB cogener distribution patterns observed in anaerobic sediment samples from the upper Hudson River are being attributed to biologically mediated reductive dechlorination. The authors report their successful demonstration of biologically mediated reductive dechlorination of an Aroclor mixture. In their investigation, they assessed the ability of microorganisms from PCB-contaminated Hudson River sediments (60-562 ppm PCBs) to dechlorinate Aroclor 1242 under anaerobic conditions by eluting microorganisms from the PCB- contaminated sediments and transferring them to a slurry of reduced anaerobic mineral medium and PCB-free sediments in tightly stoppered bottles. They observed dechlorination to be the most rapid at the highest PCB concentration tried by them.

  1. An unusual niche for an opportunistic fungus.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-del Valle, N; Quigdley, L; Silva-Ruíz, S A

    1991-02-01

    An acrylic on canvas painting from the collection of the Institute of Puerto Rico Culture was found to be stained with light brown spots. Under ultraviolet light it was evident that these spots covered the entire painting. Scotch tape samples from different areas of the painting were taken. In almost all of these samples, septated hyphae were observed to surround the canvas fibers and in most of them, spiny or rough-surfaced conidia were also observed. A sample from the canvas which was incubated over a Sabourand agar plate yielded a fungus very similar to the one observed in the tape samples after subculturing in potato dextrose agar. Slide cultures and culture characteristics provided evidence that this fungus was a species of Scopulariopsis. This fungus has been implicated in human disease and in this case, it was the cause of the deterioration of the painting. PMID:2043232

  2. Dentigerumycin: a bacterial mediator of an ant-fungus symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dong-Chan; Poulsen, Michael; Currie, Cameron R.; Clardy, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants engage in mutualistic associations with both the fungus they cultivate for food and actinobacteria (Pseudonocardia spp.) that produce selective antibiotics to defend that fungus from specialized fungal parasites. In the first system to be analyzed at the molecular level, the bacterium associated with the ant Apterostigma dentigerum produces dentigerumycin, a cyclic depsipeptide with highly modified amino acids, to selectively inhibit the parasitic fungus (Escovopsis sp.). PMID:19330011

  3. Parotitis due to anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Matlow, A; Korentager, R; Keystone, E; Bohnen, J

    1988-01-01

    Although Staphylococcus aureus remains the pathogen most commonly implicated in acute suppurative parotitis, the pathogenic role of gram-negative facultative anaerobic bacteria and strict anaerobic organisms in this disease is becoming increasingly recognized. This report describes a case of parotitis due to Bacteroides disiens in an elderly woman with Sjögren's syndrome. Literature reports on seven additional cases of suppurative parotitis due to anaerobic bacteria are reviewed. Initial therapy of acute suppurative parotitis should include coverage for S. aureus and, in a very ill patient, coverage of gram-negative facultative organisms with antibiotics such as cloxacillin and an aminoglycoside. A failure to respond clinically to such a regimen or isolation of anaerobic bacteria should lead to the consideration of the addition of clindamycin or penicillin. PMID:3287567

  4. Dance--Aerobic and Anaerobic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlette

    1984-01-01

    This article defines and explains aerobic exercise and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Various studies on dancers are cited indicating that dance is an anaerobic activity with some small degree of aerobic benefit. (DF)

  5. Bioenergy from anaerobically treated wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    Breweries and other processing plants including dairy cooperatives, sugar plants, grain mills, gasohol plants, etc., produce wastewater containing complex organic matter, either in solution or as volatile suspended solids, which can be treated anaerobically to effectively reduce the pollutants by 85-95% and generate a CH4 containing gas. An example anaerobic plant to serve a 10 to the power of 6-bbl brewery is discussed.

  6. Open-Ended Experimentation with the Fungus Pilobolus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coble, Charles R.; Bland, Charles E.

    This paper describes open-ended experimentation with the fungus Pilobolus for laboratory work by high school students. The fungus structure and reproduction is described and sources of the fungus are suggested. Four areas for investigation are suggested: the effect of a diffuse light source, the effect of a point light source, the effect of light…

  7. Solanapyrone analogues from a Hawaiian fungicolous fungus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four new solanayrone analogues (solanapyrones J-M; 1-4) have been isolated from an unidentified fungicolous fungus collected in Hawaii. The structures and relative configurations of these compounds were determined by analysis of ID NMR, 2D NMR, and MS data. Solanapyrone J(1) showed antifungal acti...

  8. PILOT ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PULP MILL EVAPORATOR FOUL CONDENSATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of three new anaerobic biological treatment technologies were compared and evaluated. Data were obtained from the operation of pilot plants representative of the anaerobic filter, anaerobic upflow sludge bed, and anaerobic fluidized bed. A review of recent literat...

  9. The Transition from Aerobic to Anaerobic Metabolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, James S.; McLellan, Thomas H.

    1980-01-01

    The transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism is discussed. More research is needed on different kinds of athletes and athletic activities and how they may affect aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms. (CJ)

  10. Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolz, J. F.; Oremland, R. S.; Switzer Blum, J.; Hoeft, S. E.; Baesman, S. M.; Bennett, S.; Miller, L. G.; Kulp, T. R.; Saltikov, C.

    2013-12-01

    Arsenic is an element best known for its highly poisonous nature, so it is not something one would associate with being a well-spring for life. Yet discoveries made over the past two decades have delineated that not only are some microbes resistant to arsenic, but that this element's primary redox states can be exploited to conserve energy and support prokaryotic growth ('arsenotrophy') in the absence of oxygen. Hence, arsenite [As(III)] can serve as an electron donor for chemo- or photo-autotrophy while arsenate [As(V)] will serve as an electron acceptor for chemo-heterotrophs and chemo-autotrophs. The phylogenetic diversity of these microbes is broad, encompassing many individual species from diverse taxonomic groups in the Domain Bacteria, with fewer representatives in the Domain Archaea. Speculation with regard to the evolutionary origins of the key functional genes in anaerobic arsenic transformations (arrA and arxA) and aerobic oxidation (aioB) has led to a disputation as to which gene and function is the most ancient and whether arsenic metabolism extended back into the Archaean. Regardless of its origin, robust arsenic metabolism has been documented in extreme environments that are rich in their arsenic content, such as hot springs and especially hypersaline soda lakes associated with volcanic regions. Searles Lake, CA is an extreme, salt-saturated end member where vigorous arsenic metabolism occurs, but there is no detectable sulfate-reduction or methanogenesis. The latter processes are too weak bio-energetically to survive as compared with arsenotrophy, and are also highly sensitive to the abundance of borate ions present in these locales. These observations have implications with respect to the search for microbial life elsewhere in the Solar System where volcanic-like processes have been operative. Hence, because of the likelihood of encountering dense brines in the regolith of Mars (formed by evapo-concentration) or beneath the ice layers of Europa

  11. Anaerobic bioprocessing of organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, W; de Beer, D; Pena, M; Lettinga, G; Lens, P

    1996-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of dissolved, suspended and solid organics has rapidly evolved in the last decades but nevertheless still faces several scientific unknowns. In this review, some fundamentals of bacterial conversions and adhesion are addressed initially. It is argued in the light of ΔG-values of reactions, and in view of the minimum energy quantum per mol, that anaerobic syntrophs must have special survival strategies in order to support their existence: redistributing the available energy between the partners, reduced end-product fermentation reactions and special cell-to-cell physiological interactions. In terms of kinetics, it appears that both reaction rates and residual substrate thresholds are strongly related to minimum ΔG-values. These new fundamental insights open perspectives for efficient design and operation of anaerobic bioprocesses. Subsequently, an overview is given of the current anaerobic biotechnology. For treating wastewaters, a novel and high performance new system has been introduced during the last decade; the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket system (UASB). This reactor concept requires anaerobic consortia to grow in a dense and eco-physiologically well-organized way. The microbial principles of such granular sludge growth are presented. Using a thermodynamic approach, the formation of different types of aggregates is explained. The application of this bioprocess in worldwide wastewater treatment is indicated. Due to the long retention times of the active biomass, the UASB is also suitable for the development of bacterial consortia capable of degrading xenobiotics. Operating granular sludge reactors at high upflow velocities (5-6 m/h) in expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) systems enlarges the application field to very low strength wastewaters (chemical oxygen demand < 1 g/l) and psychrophilic temperatures (10°C). For the treatment of organic suspensions, there is currently a tendency to evolve from the conventional mesophilic

  12. The Enterobacterium Trabulsiella odontotermitis Presents Novel Adaptations Related to Its Association with Fungus-Growing Termites.

    PubMed

    Sapountzis, Panagiotis; Gruntjes, Thijs; Otani, Saria; Estevez, James; da Costa, Rafael R; Plunkett, Guy; Perna, Nicole T; Poulsen, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Fungus-growing termites rely on symbiotic microorganisms to help break down plant material and to obtain nutrients. Their fungal cultivar, Termitomyces, is the main plant degrader and food source for the termites, while gut bacteria complement Termitomyces in the degradation of foodstuffs, fixation of nitrogen, and metabolism of amino acids and sugars. Due to the community complexity and because these typically anaerobic bacteria can rarely be cultured, little is known about the physiological capabilities of individual bacterial members of the gut communities and their associations with the termite host. The bacterium Trabulsiella odontotermitis is associated with fungus-growing termites, but this genus is generally understudied, with only two described species. Taking diverse approaches, we obtained a solid phylogenetic placement of T. odontotermitis among the Enterobacteriaceae, investigated the physiology and enzymatic profiles of T. odontotermitis isolates, determined the localization of the bacterium in the termite gut, compared draft genomes of two T. odontotermitis isolates to those of their close relatives, and examined the expression of genes relevant to host colonization and putative symbiont functions. Our findings support the hypothesis that T. odontotermitis is a facultative symbiont mainly located in the paunch compartment of the gut, with possible roles in carbohydrate metabolism and aflatoxin degradation, while displaying adaptations to association with the termite host, such as expressing genes for a type VI secretion system which has been demonstrated to assist bacterial competition, colonization, and survival within hosts. PMID:26162887

  13. The Enterobacterium Trabulsiella odontotermitis Presents Novel Adaptations Related to Its Association with Fungus-Growing Termites

    PubMed Central

    Gruntjes, Thijs; Otani, Saria; Estevez, James; da Costa, Rafael R.; Plunkett, Guy; Perna, Nicole T.; Poulsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Fungus-growing termites rely on symbiotic microorganisms to help break down plant material and to obtain nutrients. Their fungal cultivar, Termitomyces, is the main plant degrader and food source for the termites, while gut bacteria complement Termitomyces in the degradation of foodstuffs, fixation of nitrogen, and metabolism of amino acids and sugars. Due to the community complexity and because these typically anaerobic bacteria can rarely be cultured, little is known about the physiological capabilities of individual bacterial members of the gut communities and their associations with the termite host. The bacterium Trabulsiella odontotermitis is associated with fungus-growing termites, but this genus is generally understudied, with only two described species. Taking diverse approaches, we obtained a solid phylogenetic placement of T. odontotermitis among the Enterobacteriaceae, investigated the physiology and enzymatic profiles of T. odontotermitis isolates, determined the localization of the bacterium in the termite gut, compared draft genomes of two T. odontotermitis isolates to those of their close relatives, and examined the expression of genes relevant to host colonization and putative symbiont functions. Our findings support the hypothesis that T. odontotermitis is a facultative symbiont mainly located in the paunch compartment of the gut, with possible roles in carbohydrate metabolism and aflatoxin degradation, while displaying adaptations to association with the termite host, such as expressing genes for a type VI secretion system which has been demonstrated to assist bacterial competition, colonization, and survival within hosts. PMID:26162887

  14. [Report on a fungus parasitizing Entamoeba histolytica].

    PubMed

    Cao, C Q; Feng, Y S

    1989-01-01

    Infection of Entamoeba histolytica with chytridiaceous fungus Sphaerita was observed in some specimens obtained from a farmer and stained with iron-haematoxylin. The fungi were found in 78% of the cysts, mostly immature ones. Within the amoebae this parasite occurred singly, in groups, or in the form of a sporangium. It was located in the cytoplasm, the glycogen mass or the chromatoidal bars. In the same specimen, the parasitic fungus was also found in 18% of E. coli cysts; in 11% of E. nana cysts; while only one of 16 E. hartmanni cysts was parasitized. It is an interesting case of superimposed parasitism so far reported in China as well as a rare case of several species of amoebae being heavily involved with the same in the scientific literature. PMID:2548767

  15. [Melanin complex of the fungus Inonotus obliquus].

    PubMed

    Babitskaia, V G; Shcherba, V V; Ikonnikova, N V

    2000-01-01

    The fungus Inonotus obliquus (Pers.) Pil. synthesised high-molecular-weight phenolic pigments that were assigned to melanins according to their physicochemical properties. It was showed that copper ions (0.008%), pyrocatechol (1.0 mM), and tyrosine (20.0 mM) stimulated the melanogenesis. The production of melanin correlated with the synthesis of o- and p-diphenoloxidases. The fungal melanin had strong antioxidant and genoprotective effects. PMID:10994193

  16. Anaerobic Growth and Fermentation Characteristics of Paecilomyces lilacinus Isolated from Mullet Gut

    PubMed Central

    Mountfort, Douglas O.; Rhodes, Lesley L.

    1991-01-01

    The anaerobic growth and fermentation of a marine isolate of Paecilomyces lilacinus is described. The fungus was isolated from mullet gut and grew optimally at 30°C and at a salinity of ≥10%. The best growth was obtained with glucose or laminarin as substrate, and the growth yield was 5.0 g (dry weight of fungus) per mol of hexose fermented. Moles of products as a percentage of moles of hexose fermented were acetate, 29.0%; ethanol, 156.6%; CO2, 108.0%; and lactate, 4.3%. Together these products accounted for >80% of hexose carbon. Hydrogen and formate were not detectable as fermentation end products (<0.5%). Other substrates utilized for growth, although less effectively than laminarin or glucose, included the monosaccharides galactose, fructose, arabinose, and xylose and the disaccharides maltose and cellobiose. No growth of the fungus occurred on cellulose, and of a variety of other polysaccharides tested only xylan supported growth. Images PMID:16348521

  17. Symbiotic Fungi Produce Laccases Potentially Involved in Phenol Degradation in Fungus Combs of Fungus-Growing Termites in Thailand†

    PubMed Central

    Taprab, Yaovapa; Johjima, Toru; Maeda, Yoshimasa; Moriya, Shigeharu; Trakulnaleamsai, Savitr; Noparatnaraporn, Napavarn; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kudo, Toshiaki

    2005-01-01

    Fungus-growing termites efficiently decompose plant litter through their symbiotic relationship with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we investigated phenol-oxidizing enzymes in symbiotic fungi and fungus combs (a substrate used to cultivate symbiotic fungi) from termites belonging to the genera Macrotermes, Odontotermes, and Microtermes in Thailand, because these enzymes are potentially involved in the degradation of phenolic compounds during fungus comb aging. Laccase activity was detected in all the fungus combs examined as well as in the culture supernatants of isolated symbiotic fungi. Conversely, no peroxidase activity was detected in any of the fungus combs or the symbiotic fungal cultures. The laccase cDNA fragments were amplified directly from RNA extracted from fungus combs of five termite species and a fungal isolate using degenerate primers targeting conserved copper binding domains of basidiomycete laccases, resulting in a total of 13 putative laccase cDNA sequences being identified. The full-length sequences of the laccase cDNA and the corresponding gene, lcc1-2, were identified from the fungus comb of Macrotermes gilvus and a Termitomyces strain isolated from the same fungus comb, respectively. Partial purification of laccase from the fungus comb showed that the lcc1-2 gene product was a dominant laccase in the fungus comb. These findings indicate that the symbiotic fungus secretes laccase to the fungus comb. In addition to laccase, we report novel genes that showed a significant similarity with fungal laccases, but the gene product lacked laccase activity. Interestingly, these genes were highly expressed in symbiotic fungi of all the termite hosts examined. PMID:16332742

  18. Processing anaerobic sludge for extended storage as anaerobic digester inoculum.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiajia; Zicari, Steven M; Cui, Zongjun; Zhang, Ruihong

    2014-08-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic sludge was processed to reduce the volume and moisture content in order to reduce costs for storing and transporting the sludge as microbial inoculum for anaerobic digester startup. The moisture content of the sludge was reduced from 98.7% to 82.0% via centrifugation and further to 71.5% via vacuum evaporation. The processed sludge was stored for 2 and 4 months and compared with the fresh sludge for the biogas and methane production using food waste and non-fat dry milk as substrates. It was found that fresh unprocessed sludge had the highest methane yield and the yields of both unprocessed and processed sludges decreased during storage by 1-34%, however processed sludges seemed to regain some activity after 4 months of storage as compared to samples stored for only 2 months. Maximum methane production rates obtained from modified Gompertz model application also increased between the 2-month and 4-month processed samples. PMID:24907580

  19. Anaerobic degradation of monoazo dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Kremer, F.V.

    1989-01-01

    The anaerobic degradation of two monoazo dyes, acid red 88 (AR88) and acid orange 7, was studied utilizing serum bottle assays. When either dye was present between .05 and 50 mg/L as the sole substrate, inhibition was demonstrated, with no mineralization occurring. However, when a supplemental carbon and energy source was available no inhibition was evidence with mineralization occurring at intermediate concentrations. The degradation of AR88 and metabolite formation was examined utilizing laboratory-scale semi-continuous anaerobic reactors. Addition of 50 mg/L of dye resulted in >98% removal, although mineralization was not achieved. Metabolites identified were naphthionic acid, 2-naphthol, 1,2-naphthoquinone, isoquinoline, and quinacridone. The presence of the metabolites, some of which were products of complexation and polymerization, exerted a slight inhibitory effect on the non-methanogens. The availability of a supplemental carbon source demonstrated an effect on the metabolites that are evolved and the rate at which they are formed.

  20. Anaerobic digestion of brewery byproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Keenan, J.D.; Kormi, I.

    1981-01-01

    Energy recovery in the brewery industry by mesophilic anaerobic digesion of process by-products is technically feasible. The maximum achievable loading rate is 6g dry substrate/L-day. CH4 gas production declines as the loading rate increases in the range 2-6 g/L day. CH4 production increases in the range 8-15 days; optimal design criteria are a 10-day detention time with a loading rate of 6 g dry substrate/L day.

  1. Anaerobic digestion of aliphatic polyesters.

    PubMed

    Šmejkalová, Pavla; Kužníková, Veronika; Merna, Jan; Hermanová, Soňa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic processes for the treatment of plastic materials waste represent versatile and effective approach in environmental protection and solid waste management. In this work, anaerobic biodegradability of model aliphatic polyesters, poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA), and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), in the form of powder and melt-pressed films with varying molar mass, was studied. Biogas production was explored in batch laboratory trials at 55 ± 1°C under a nitrogen atmosphere. The inoculum used was thermophilic digested sludge (total solids concentration of 2.9%) from operating digesters at the Central Waste Water Treatment Plant in Prague, Czech Republic. Methanogenic biodegradation of PCLs typically yielded from 54 to 60% of the theoretical biogas yield. The biodegradability of PLAs achieved from 56 to 84% of the theoretical value. High biogas yield (up to 677 mL/g TS) with high methane content (more than 60%), comparable with conventionally processed materials, confirmed the potential of polyester samples for anaerobic treatment in the case of their exploitation in agriculture or as a packaging material in the food industry. PMID:27191559

  2. Association of fungus gnats with oomycetal plant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dark-winged fungus gnats in the genus Bradysia (Diptera: Sciaridae) are especially abundant in greenhouse plant production. It is thought that adult fungus gnats do not feed in the greenhouse setting; however sciarid larvae are known to feed on microorganisms in the soil, including various Oomycete...

  3. Expanding Distribution of Lethal Amphibian Fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Europe.

    PubMed

    Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Martel, An; Asselberghs, Johan; Bales, Emma K; Beukema, Wouter; Bletz, Molly C; Dalbeck, Lutz; Goverse, Edo; Kerres, Alexander; Kinet, Thierry; Kirst, Kai; Laudelout, Arnaud; Marin da Fonte, Luis F; Nöllert, Andreas; Ohlhoff, Dagmar; Sabino-Pinto, Joana; Schmidt, Benedikt R; Speybroeck, Jeroen; Spikmans, Frank; Steinfartz, Sebastian; Veith, Michael; Vences, Miguel; Wagner, Norman; Pasmans, Frank; Lötters, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Emerging fungal diseases can drive amphibian species to local extinction. During 2010-2016, we examined 1,921 urodeles in 3 European countries. Presence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans at new locations and in urodeles of different species expands the known geographic and host range of the fungus and underpins its imminent threat to biodiversity. PMID:27070102

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of the Cellulolytic Fungus Chaetomium globosum

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li-Jun; Grabherr, Manfred; Birren, Bruce W.

    2015-01-01

    Chaetomium globosum is a filamentous fungus typically isolated from cellulosic substrates. This species also causes superficial infections of humans and, more rarely, can cause cerebral infections. Here, we report the genome sequence of C. globosum isolate CBS 148.51, which will facilitate the study and comparative analysis of this fungus. PMID:25720678

  5. Metacridamides A and B from the biocontrol fungus metarhizium acridum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metarhizium acridum, an entomopathogenic fungus, has been commercialized and used successfully for biocontrol of grasshopper pests in Africa and Australia. As part of an effort to catalog the secondary metabolites of this fungus we discovered that its conidia produce two novel 17-membered macrocycl...

  6. Expanding Distribution of Lethal Amphibian Fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Martel, An; Asselberghs, Johan; Bales, Emma K.; Beukema, Wouter; Bletz, Molly C.; Dalbeck, Lutz; Goverse, Edo; Kerres, Alexander; Kinet, Thierry; Kirst, Kai; Laudelout, Arnaud; Marin da Fonte, Luis F.; Nöllert, Andreas; Ohlhoff, Dagmar; Sabino-Pinto, Joana; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Speybroeck, Jeroen; Spikmans, Frank; Steinfartz, Sebastian; Veith, Michael; Vences, Miguel; Wagner, Norman; Pasmans, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Emerging fungal diseases can drive amphibian species to local extinction. During 2010–2016, we examined 1,921 urodeles in 3 European countries. Presence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans at new locations and in urodeles of different species expands the known geographic and host range of the fungus and underpins its imminent threat to biodiversity. PMID:27070102

  7. Assembly of complex plant–fungus networks

    PubMed Central

    Toju, Hirokazu; Guimarães, Paulo R.; Olesen, Jens M.; Thompson, John N.

    2014-01-01

    Species in ecological communities build complex webs of interaction. Although revealing the architecture of these networks is fundamental to understanding ecological and evolutionary dynamics in nature, it has been difficult to characterize the structure of most species-rich ecological systems. By overcoming this limitation through next-generation sequencing technology, we herein uncover the network architecture of below-ground plant–fungus symbioses, which are ubiquitous to terrestrial ecosystems. The examined symbiotic network of a temperate forest in Japan includes 33 plant species and 387 functionally and phylogenetically diverse fungal taxa, and the overall network architecture differs fundamentally from that of other ecological networks. In contrast to results for other ecological networks and theoretical predictions for symbiotic networks, the plant–fungus network shows moderate or relatively low levels of interaction specialization and modularity and an unusual pattern of ‘nested’ network architecture. These results suggest that species-rich ecological networks are more architecturally diverse than previously recognized. PMID:25327887

  8. Bacterial farming by the fungus Morchella crassipes.

    PubMed

    Pion, Martin; Spangenberg, Jorge E; Simon, Anaele; Bindschedler, Saskia; Flury, Coralie; Chatelain, Auriel; Bshary, Redouan; Job, Daniel; Junier, Pilar

    2013-12-22

    The interactions between bacteria and fungi, the main actors of the soil microbiome, remain poorly studied. Here, we show that the saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal soil fungus Morchella crassipes acts as a bacterial farmer of Pseudomonas putida, which serves as a model soil bacterium. Farming by M. crassipes consists of bacterial dispersal, bacterial rearing with fungal exudates, as well as harvesting and translocation of bacterial carbon. The different phases were confirmed experimentally using cell counting and (13)C probing. Common criteria met by other non-human farming systems are also valid for M. crassipes farming, including habitual planting, cultivation and harvesting. Specific traits include delocalization of food production and consumption and separation of roles in the colony (source versus sink areas), which are also found in human agriculture. Our study evidences a hitherto unknown mutualistic association in which bacteria gain through dispersal and rearing, while the fungus gains through the harvesting of an additional carbon source and increased stress resistance of the mycelium. This type of interaction between fungi and bacteria may play a key role in soils. PMID:24174111

  9. Hazardous waste treatment using fungus enters marketplace

    SciTech Connect

    Illman, D.L.

    1993-07-01

    When the announcement was made eight years ago that a common fungus had been found that could degrade a variety of environmental pollutants, the news stirred interest in the scientific community, the private sector, and the general public. Here was the promise of a new technology that might be effective and economical in treating hazardous waste, especially the most recalcitrant of toxic pollutants. Today, commercialization is beginning amid a mixture of optimism and skepticism. The organism in question is white rot fungus, or Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and it belongs to a family of woodrotting fungi common all over North America. The fungi secrete enzymes that break down lignin in wood to carbon dioxide and water--a process called mineralization. These lignin-degrading enzymes are not very discriminating, however. The white rot fungi have been shown to degrade such materials as DDT, the herbicide (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4,5-T), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentachlorophenol (PCP), creosote, coal tars, and heavy fuels, in many cases mineralizing these pollutants to a significant extent.

  10. Bacterial farming by the fungus Morchella crassipes

    PubMed Central

    Pion, Martin; Spangenberg, Jorge E.; Simon, Anaele; Bindschedler, Saskia; Flury, Coralie; Chatelain, Auriel; Bshary, Redouan; Job, Daniel; Junier, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    The interactions between bacteria and fungi, the main actors of the soil microbiome, remain poorly studied. Here, we show that the saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal soil fungus Morchella crassipes acts as a bacterial farmer of Pseudomonas putida, which serves as a model soil bacterium. Farming by M. crassipes consists of bacterial dispersal, bacterial rearing with fungal exudates, as well as harvesting and translocation of bacterial carbon. The different phases were confirmed experimentally using cell counting and 13C probing. Common criteria met by other non-human farming systems are also valid for M. crassipes farming, including habitual planting, cultivation and harvesting. Specific traits include delocalization of food production and consumption and separation of roles in the colony (source versus sink areas), which are also found in human agriculture. Our study evidences a hitherto unknown mutualistic association in which bacteria gain through dispersal and rearing, while the fungus gains through the harvesting of an additional carbon source and increased stress resistance of the mycelium. This type of interaction between fungi and bacteria may play a key role in soils. PMID:24174111

  11. Anaerobic infections in children: a prospective survey.

    PubMed Central

    Thirumoorthi, M C; Keen, B M; Dajani, A S

    1976-01-01

    Over an 18-month period, cultures from 95 infants and children yielded 146 anaerobic organisms in 110 clinical specimens. Bacteroides was the most frequently isolated anaerobe, followed by Propionibacterium and Clostridium species. Intra-abdominal sources, soft tissues, and blood were the three major sources (82%) of isolation of anaerobes. Whereas most patients (58%) were over 5 years of age and only 11% were newborns, anaerobic infections constituted a rather uniform proportion of all infections, regardless of sources, in all age groups. Anaerobes accounted for only 2.9% of all positive cultures encountered from the various sources. Rates of recovery of anaerobes from intra-abdominal sources were significantly the highest, and from soft-tissue infections they were significantly the lowest. The anaerobic bacteremias observed were of no clinical significance when Propionibacterium species were isolated; however, recovery of other anaerobes from the blood, and primarily Bacteroides species, was usually associated with clinical disease. Except in blood cultures, anaerobes almost invariably coexisted with facultative bacteria. PMID:1270594

  12. Basic Laboratory Culture Methods for Anaerobic Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobel, Herbert J.

    Oxygen is either limiting or absent in many ecosystems. Anaerobic bacteria are often key players in such environments and these organisms have important roles in geo-elemental cycling, agriculture, and medicine. The metabolic versatility of anaerobes is exploited in a variety of industrial processes including fermented food production, biochemical synthesis, and bioremediation. There has been recent considerable interest in developing and enhancing technologies that employ anaerobes as biocatalysts. The study of anaerobic bacteria requires specialized techniques, and specific methods are described for the culture and manipulation of these microbes.

  13. Anaerobic bacteria from hypersaline environments.

    PubMed Central

    Ollivier, B; Caumette, P; Garcia, J L; Mah, R A

    1994-01-01

    Strictly anaerobic halophiles, namely fermentative, sulfate-reducing, homoacetogenic, phototrophic, and methanogenic bacteria are involved in the oxidation of organic carbon in hypersaline environments. To date, six anaerobic fermentative genera, containing nine species, have been described. Two of them are homoacetogens. Six species belong to the family Haloanaerobiaceae, as indicated by their unique 16S rRNA oligonucleotide sequences. Desulfohalobium retbaense and Desulfovibrio halophilus represent the only two moderately halophilic sulfate reducers so far reported. Among anoxygenic phototrophic anaerobes, a few purple bacteria with optimal growth at salinities between 6 and 11% NaCl have been isolated from hypersaline habitats. They belong to the genera Rhodospirillum, Chromatium, Thiocapsa, and Ectothiorhodospira. The commonest organisms isolated so far are Chromatium salexigens, Thiocapsa halophila, and Rhodospirillum salinarum. Extremely halophilic purple bacteria have most commonly been isolated from alkaline brines and require about 20 to 25% NaCl for optimal growth. They belong to the family Ectothiorodhospiraceae. Their osmoregulation involves synthesis or uptake of compatible solutes such as glycine-betaine that accumulate in their cytoplasm. The existence of methanogens in hypersaline environments is related to the presence of noncompetitive substrates such as methylamines, which originate mainly from the breakdown of osmoregulatory amines. Methanogenesis probably does not contribute to the mineralization of carbohydrates at NaCl concentrations higher than 15%. Above this concentration, sulfate reduction is probably the main way to oxidize H2 (although at rates too low to use up all the H2 formed) and occupies a terminal function kn the degradation of carbohydrates. Three genera and five species of halophilic methylotrophic methanogens have been reported. A bloom of phototrophic bacteria in the marine salterns of Salins-de-Giraud, located on the

  14. Is the Fungus Magnaporthe Losing DNA Methylation?

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Ken-ichi; Van Vu, Ba; Kadotani, Naoki; Tanaka, Masaki; Murata, Toshiki; Shiina, Kohta; Chuma, Izumi; Tosa, Yukio; Nakayashiki, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    The long terminal repeat retrotransposon, Magnaporthe gypsy-like element (MAGGY), has been shown to be targeted for cytosine methylation in a subset of Magnaporthe oryzae field isolates. Analysis of the F1 progeny from a genetic cross between methylation-proficient (Br48) and methylation-deficient (GFSI1-7-2) isolates revealed that methylation of the MAGGY element was governed by a single dominant gene. Positional cloning followed by gene disruption and complementation experiments revealed that the responsible gene was the DNA methyltransferase, MoDMT1, an ortholog of Neurospora crassa Dim-2. A survey of MAGGY methylation in 60 Magnaporthe field isolates revealed that 42 isolates from rice, common millet, wheat, finger millet, and buffelgrass were methylation proficient while 18 isolates from foxtail millet, green bristlegrass, Japanese panicgrass, torpedo grass, Guinea grass, and crabgrass were methylation deficient. Phenotypic analyses showed that MoDMT1 plays no major role in development and pathogenicity of the fungus. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the average copy number of genomic MAGGY elements was not significantly different between methylation-deficient and -proficient field isolates even though the levels of MAGGY transcript were generally higher in the former group. MoDMT1 gene sequences in the methylation-deficient isolates suggested that at least three independent mutations were responsible for the loss of MoDMT1 function. Overall, our data suggest that MoDMT1 is not essential for the natural life cycle of the fungus and raise the possibility that the genus Magnaporthe may be losing the mechanism of DNA methylation on the evolutionary time scale. PMID:23979580

  15. Factor Analysis of Various Anaerobic Power Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, James M.; And Others

    A study investigated the relationship between selected anthropometric variables and of numerous anaerobic power tests with measures obtained on an isokinetic dynamometer. Thirty-one male college students performed several anaerobic power tests, including: the vertical jump using the Lewis formula; the Margaria-Kalamen stair climb test; the Wingate…

  16. Inhibition of anaerobic digestion process: a review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ye; Cheng, Jay J; Creamer, Kurt S

    2008-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an attractive waste treatment practice in which both pollution control and energy recovery can be achieved. Many agricultural and industrial wastes are ideal candidates for anaerobic digestion because they contain high levels of easily biodegradable materials. Problems such as low methane yield and process instability are often encountered in anaerobic digestion, preventing this technique from being widely applied. A wide variety of inhibitory substances are the primary cause of anaerobic digester upset or failure since they are present in substantial concentrations in wastes. Considerable research efforts have been made to identify the mechanism and the controlling factors of inhibition. This review provides a detailed summary of the research conducted on the inhibition of anaerobic processes. The inhibitors commonly present in anaerobic digesters include ammonia, sulfide, light metal ions, heavy metals, and organics. Due to the difference in anaerobic inocula, waste composition, and experimental methods and conditions, literature results on inhibition caused by specific toxicants vary widely. Co-digestion with other waste, adaptation of microorganisms to inhibitory substances, and incorporation of methods to remove or counteract toxicants before anaerobic digestion can significantly improve the waste treatment efficiency. PMID:17399981

  17. Anaerobic Infections in Children with Neurological Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Itzhak

    1995-01-01

    Children with neurological impairments are prone to develop serious infection with anaerobic bacteria. The most common anaerobic infections are decubitus ulcers; gastrostomy site wound infections; pulmonary infections (aspiration pneumonia, lung abscesses, and tracheitis); and chronic suppurative otitis media. The unique microbiology of each of…

  18. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Anaerobic chamber. 866.2120 Section 866.2120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber....

  19. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Anaerobic chamber. 866.2120 Section 866.2120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber....

  20. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anaerobic chamber. 866.2120 Section 866.2120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber....

  1. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Anaerobic chamber. 866.2120 Section 866.2120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber....

  2. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Anaerobic chamber. 866.2120 Section 866.2120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber....

  3. Anaerobic acidogenesis of dairy manure

    SciTech Connect

    Krones, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine if high rate acidogenic fermentation of dairy manure was possible, Whole dairy manure was ground and diluted to 4% total solids and fed to a 10 L anaerobic chemostat operating at 35C and with hydraulic retention times varying between 6 and 50 hours. Several physical and organic parameters of the influent and effluent were measured and compared. The results indicated that the manure was too refractory for high rate liquefaction and hydrolysis. A second experiment was conducted using the same techniques and substrate but varying the substrate pH between 5 and 7. The objectives were to further investigate the pH sensitivity of the acidogenic process and to determine if, by introducing a substrate with a low pH, acidogenesis might proceed more efficiently. The primary result of decreasing the pH was a smaller proportion of methane and an increased proportion of hydrogen in the gas. Liquefaction and hydrolysis continued to be rate limiting and appeared to be a major impediment to two phase anaerobic treatment of dairy manure.

  4. Anaerobic digestion for household organics

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, R.; Kelleher, M.

    1995-04-01

    Considerable success in using anaerobic technology for processing household organics is being reported by several recently constructed facilities in Europe. Organic residuals collected separately in a Belgian town are processed to produce biogas and a compost-like material in less than one month. The dry anaerobic conversion process (DRANCO) was developed by Organic Waste Systems (OWS) in the 1980s, with the collaboration of Professor Willy Verstraete at the University of Ghent`s Laboratory of Applied Microbial Ecology. The patented process converts solid and semisolid organic residuals into biogas (for energy recovery) and a stable humus like product. The plant has competing odor sources such as the active landfill and the surrounding farmland - in fact, the smell of livestock manure is quite prevalent in this heavily agricultural area. Addition of the nonrecyclable paper fraction to the feedstock improves the carbon/nitrogen ratio, soaks up moisture, and absorbs odor. The entire Brecht facility does not occupy much space and total material retention time at the site is one month, compared to a number of months for aerobic systems. It also has a low staffing requirement, provides energy self-sufficiency, and the final soil enhancement product meets established quality standards.

  5. Toxicants inhibiting anaerobic digestion: a review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian Lin; Ortiz, Raphael; Steele, Terry W J; Stuckey, David C

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion is increasingly being used to treat wastes from many sources because of its manifold advantages over aerobic treatment, e.g. low sludge production and low energy requirements. However, anaerobic digestion is sensitive to toxicants, and a wide range of compounds can inhibit the process and cause upset or failure. Substantial research has been carried out over the years to identify specific inhibitors/toxicants, and their mechanism of toxicity in anaerobic digestion. In this review we present a detailed and critical summary of research on the inhibition of anaerobic processes by specific organic toxicants (e.g., chlorophenols, halogenated aliphatics and long chain fatty acids), inorganic toxicants (e.g., ammonia, sulfide and heavy metals) and in particular, nanomaterials, focusing on the mechanism of their inhibition/toxicity. A better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms behind inhibition/toxicity will enhance the wider application of anaerobic digestion. PMID:25457225

  6. Spectrum and treatment of anaerobic infections.

    PubMed

    Brook, Itzhak

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobes are the most predominant components of the normal human skin and mucous membranes bacterial flora, and are a frequent cause of endogenous bacterial infections. Anaerobic infections can occur in all body locations: the central nervous system, oral cavity, head and neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, skin, and soft tissues. Treatment of anaerobic infection is complicated by their slow growth in culture, by their polymicrobial nature and by their growing resistance to antimicrobials. Antimicrobial therapy is frequently the only form of therapy needed, whereas in others it is an important adjunct to drainage and surgery. Because anaerobes generally are isolated mixed with aerobes, the antimicrobial chosen should provide for adequate coverage of both. The most effective antimicrobials against anaerobes are: metronidazole, the carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, doripenem, ertapenem), chloramphenicol, the combinations of a penicillin and a beta-lactamase inhibitors (ampicillin or ticarcillin plus clavulanate, amoxicillin plus sulbactam, piperacillin plus tazobactam), tigecycline, cefoxitin and clindamycin. PMID:26620376

  7. Anaerobic biorefinery: Current status, challenges, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Sawatdeenarunat, Chayanon; Nguyen, Duc; Surendra, K C; Shrestha, Shilva; Rajendran, Karthik; Oechsner, Hans; Xie, Li; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) has been in use for many decades. To date, it has been primarily aimed at treating organic wastes, mainly manures and wastewater sludge, and industrial wastewaters. However, with the current advancements, a more open mind is required to look beyond these somewhat restricted original applications of AD. Biorefineries are such concepts, where multiple products including chemicals, fuels, polymers etc. are produced from organic feedstocks. The anaerobic biorefinery concept is now gaining increased attention, utilizing AD as the final disposal step. This review aims at evaluating the potential significance of anaerobic biorefineries, including types of feedstocks, uses for the produced energy, as well as sustainable applications of the generated residual digestate. A comprehensive analysis of various types of anaerobic biorefineries has been developed, including both large-scale and household level applications. Finally, future directives are highlighted showing how anaerobic biorefinery concept could impact the bioeconomy in the near future. PMID:27005786

  8. Mucormycosis (Mucor fungus ball) of the maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hang Sun; Yang, Hoon Shik; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2014-01-01

    A fungus ball is an extramucosal fungal proliferation that completely fills one or more paranasal sinuses and usually occurs as a unilateral infection. It is mainly caused by Aspergillus spp in an immunocompetent host, but some cases of paranasal fungal balls reportedly have been caused by Mucor spp. A Mucor fungus ball is usually found in the maxillary sinus and/or the sphenoid sinus and may be black in color. Patients with mucormycosis, or a Mucor fungal ball infection, usually present with facial pain or headache. On computed tomography, there are no pathognomonic findings that are conclusive for a diagnosis of mucormycosis. In this article we report a case of mucormycosis in a 56-year-old woman and provide a comprehensive review of the literature on the "Mucor fungus ball." To the best of our knowledge, 5 case reports (8 patients) have been published in which the fungus ball was thought to be caused by Mucor spp. PMID:25397383

  9. An insect parasitoid carrying an ochratoxin producing fungus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, Fernando E.; Posada, Francisco; Gianfagna, Thomas J.; Chaves, Fabio C.; Peterson, Stephen W.

    2006-06-01

    The insect parasitoid Prorops nasuta has been introduced from Africa to many coffee-producing countries in an attempt to control the coffee berry borer. In this paper, we report on the sequencing of the ITS LSU-rDNA and beta-tubulin loci used to identify a fungus isolated from the cuticle of a P. nasuta that emerged from coffee berries infected with the coffee berry borer. The sequences were compared with deposits in GenBank and the fungus was identified as Aspergillus westerdijkiae. The fungus tested positive for ochratoxin A production, with varying levels depending on the media in which it was grown. These results raise the possibility that an insect parasitoid might be disseminating an ochratoxin-producing fungus in coffee plantations.

  10. Fungus Ball in Concha Bullosa: A Rare Case with Anosmia

    PubMed Central

    Özkırıs, Mahmut; Kapusuz, Zeliha; Seçkın, Selda; Saydam, Levent

    2013-01-01

    Concha bullosa is the pneumatization of the concha and is one of the most common variations of the sinonasal anatomy. The histopathological changes caused by the infections which arise from the impaired aeration of conchal cavity are frequently found. Fungus ball of the nasal cavity is an extremely rare, fungal infection with only three cases reported previously. In this paper, we present the fourth fungus ball case which developed within a concha bullosa and presented with anosmia. PMID:23936708

  11. Biological control of Ascaris suum eggs by Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Frassy, Luiza Neme; Ferreira, Aloízio Soares

    2011-12-01

    Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal nematode parasite of swines. The aim of this study was to observe Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus on biological control of A. suum eggs after fungus passage through swines gastrointestinal tract. Eighteen pigs, previously dewormed, were randomly divided into three groups: group 1, treated with the fungus isolate VC4; group 2, treated with the fungus isolate VC1 and group 3 did not receive fungus (control). In the treated groups, each animal received a 9 g single dose of mycelium mass containing P. chlamydosporia (VC1 or VC4). Thereafter, animal fecal samples were collected at the following intervals: 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h after treatment beginning and these were poured in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar culture medium. Then, 1,000 A. suum eggs were poured into each dish and kept in an incubator at 26 °C and in the dark for 30 days. After this period, approximately 100 eggs were removed from each Petri dish and morphologically analyzed under light microscopy following the ovicidal activity parameters. The higher percentage observed for isolated VC4 eggs destruction was 57.5% (36 h) after fungus administration and for isolate VC1 this percentage was 45.8% (24 h and 72 h) (p > 0.01). P. chlamydosporia remained viable after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of swines, maintaining its ability of destroying A. suum eggs. PMID:21796329

  12. Effect of music on anaerobic exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Atan, T

    2013-03-01

    For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST) under 3 conditions on separate days: while listening to "slow rhythm music", "fast rhythm music" or "no music". 48 hours after the subjects completed RAST under 3 conditions, Wingate Anaerobic Power (WAN) tests were performed under 3 music conditions. The order of the 3 conditions (slow music, fast music and no music) was selected randomly to prevent an order effect. Results showed no significant differences between 3 conditions in anaerobic power assessments, heart rate or blood lactate (p > 0.05). On the basis of these results it can be said that music cannot improve anaerobic performance. The type of music had no impact on power outputs during RAST and WAN exercise. As a conclusion, listening to music and its rhythm cannot enhance anaerobic performance and cannot change the physiological response to supramaximal exercise. PMID:24744463

  13. EFFECT OF MUSIC ON ANAEROBIC EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST) under 3 conditions on separate days: while listening to “slow rhythm music”, “fast rhythm music” or “no music”. 48 hours after the subjects completed RAST under 3 conditions, Wingate Anaerobic Power (WAN) tests were performed under 3 music conditions. The order of the 3 conditions (slow music, fast music and no music) was selected randomly to prevent an order effect. Results showed no significant differences between 3 conditions in anaerobic power assessments, heart rate or blood lactate (p > 0.05). On the basis of these results it can be said that music cannot improve anaerobic performance. The type of music had no impact on power outputs during RAST and WAN exercise. As a conclusion, listening to music and its rhythm cannot enhance anaerobic performance and cannot change the physiological response to supramaximal exercise. PMID:24744463

  14. Anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Jothimani, P; Kalaichelvan, G; Bhaskaran, A; Selvaseelan, D Augustine; Ramasamy, K

    2003-09-01

    Many aromatic compounds and their monomers are existing in nature. Besides they are introduced into the environment by human activity. The conversion of these aromatic compounds is mainly an aerobic process because of the involvement of molecular oxygen in ring fission and as an electron acceptor. Recent literatures indicated that ring fission of monomers and obligomers mainly occurs in anaerobic environments through anaerobic respiration with nitrate, sulphate, carbon dioxide or carbonate as electron acceptors. These anaerobic processes will help to work out the better situation for bioremediation of contaminated environments. While there are plenty of efforts to reduce the release of these chemicals to the environment, already contaminated sites need to be remediated not only to restore the sites but to prevent the leachates spreading to nearby environment. Basically microorganisms are better candidates for breakdown of these compounds because of their wider catalytic mechanisms and the ability to act even in the absence of oxygen. These microbes can be grouped based on their energy mechanisms. Normally, the aerobic counterparts employ the enzymes like mono-and-dioxygenases. The end product is basically catechol, which further may be metabolised to CO2 by means of quinones reductases cycles. In the absense of reductases compounds, the reduced catechols tend to become oxidised to form many quinone compounds. The quinone products are more recalcitrant and lead to other aesthetic problems like colour in water, unpleasant odour, etc. On the contrary, in the reducing environment this process is prevented and in a cascade of pathways, the cleaved products are converted to acetyl co-A to be integrated into other central metabolite paths. The central metabolite of anaerobic degradation is invariably co-A thio-esters of benzoic acid or hydroxy benzoic acid. The benzene ring undergoes various substitution and addition reactions to form chloro-, nitro-, methyl- compounds

  15. Gram-Positive Anaerobic Cocci

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) are a heterogeneous group of organisms defined by their morphological appearance and their inability to grow in the presence of oxygen; most clinical isolates are identified to species in the genus Peptostreptococcus. GPAC are part of the normal flora of all mucocutaneous surfaces and are often isolated from infections such as deep organ abscesses, obstetric and gynecological sepsis, and intraoral infections. They have been little studied for several reasons, which include an inadequate classification, difficulties with laboratory identification, and the mixed nature of the infections from which they are usually isolated. Nucleic acid studies indicate that the classification is in need of radical revision at the genus level. Several species of Peptostreptococcus have recently been described, but others still await formal recognition. Identification has been based on carbohydrate fermentation tests, but most GPAC are asaccharolytic and use the products of protein degradation for their metabolism; the introduction of commercially available preformed enzyme kits affords a physiologically more appropriate method of identification, which is simple and relatively rapid and can be used in routine diagnostic laboratories. Recent reports have documented the isolation in pure culture of several species, notably Peptostreptococcus magnus, from serious infections. Studies of P. magnus have elucidated several virulence factors which correlate with the site of infection, and reveal some similarities to Staphylococcus aureus. P. micros is a strongly proteolytic species; it is increasingly recognized as an important pathogen in intraoral infections, particularly periodontitis, and mixed anaerobic deep-organ abscesses. Comparison of antibiotic susceptibility patterns reveals major differences between species. Penicillins are the antibiotics of choice, although some strains of P. anaerobius show broad-spectrum β-lactam resistance. PMID:9457430

  16. Orpinomyces cellulase celf protein and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Chen, Huizhong; Ljungdahl, Lars G.

    2000-09-05

    A cDNA (1,520 bp), designated celF, consisting of an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide (CelF) of 432 amino acids was isolated from a cDNA library of the anaerobic rumen fungus Orpinomyces PC-2 constructed in Escherichia coli. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence showed that starting from the N-terminus, CelF consists of a signal peptide, a cellulose binding domain (CBD) followed by an extremely Asn-rich linker region which separate the CBD and the catalytic domains. The latter is located at the C-terminus. The catalytic domain of CelF is highly homologous to CelA and CelC of Orpinomyces PC-2, to CelA of Neocallimastix patriciarum and also to cellobiohydrolase IIs (CBHIIs) from aerobic fungi. However, Like CelA of Neocallimastix patriciarum, CelF does not have the noncatalytic repeated peptide domain (NCRPD) found in CelA and CelC from the same organism. The recombinant protein CelF hydrolyzes cellooligosaccharides in the pattern of CBHII, yielding only cellobiose as product with cellotetraose as the substrate. The genomic celF is interrupted by a 111 bp intron, located within the region coding for the CBD. The intron of the celF has features in common with genes from aerobic filamentous fungi.

  17. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Proteome during Anaerobic Growth‡

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Manhong; Guina, Tina; Brittnacher, Mitchell; Nguyen, Hai; Eng, Jimmy; Miller, Samuel I.

    2005-01-01

    Isotope-coded affinity tag analysis and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by tandem mass spectrometry were used to identify Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteins expressed during anaerobic growth. Out of the 617 proteins identified, 158 were changed in abundance during anaerobic growth compared to during aerobic growth, including proteins whose increased expression was expected based on their role in anaerobic metabolism. These results form the basis for future analyses of alterations in bacterial protein content during growth in various environments, including the cystic fibrosis airway. PMID:16291692

  18. Energy from anaerobic methane production. [Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    Since 1970 Swedish researchers have been testing the ANAMET (anaerobic-aerobic-methane) process, which involves converting industrial wastewaters via an initial anaerobic microbiological step followed by an aerobic one. Recycling the biomass material in each step allows shorter hydraulic retention times without decreasing stability or solids reduction. Since the first ANAMET plants began operating at a Swedish sugar factory in 1972, 17 more plants have started up or are under construction. Moreover, the ANAMET process has engendered to offshoot BIOMET (biomass-methane) process, a thermophilic anaerobic scheme that can handle sugar-beet pulp as well as grass and other soft, fast-growing biomasses.

  19. Anaerobic microbial transformations in subsurface environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bollag, J.M.; Berry, D.F.; Chanmugathas, P.

    1985-04-01

    The first draft of a literature review article entitled, ''Metabolism of Homocyclic (Benzenoid) and Heterocyclic Aromatic Compounds by Microorganisms Under Anaerobic Conditions'' is completed. The article covers biodegradation of both heterocyclic and homocyclic aromatic compounds under a variety of conditions including nitrate reducing, fermentation, sulfate reducing, and methanogensis. Laboratory experiments have been designed to study the anaerobic biotransformation processes involving organic substance derived from energy residual wastes. The test compounds selected for the initial anaerobic biodegradation experiments include aniline, indole, and pyridine. A Hungate apparatus is presently in operation.

  20. Malaria Mosquitoes Attracted by Fatal Fungus

    PubMed Central

    George, Justin; Jenkins, Nina E.; Blanford, Simon; Thomas, Matthew B.; Baker, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Insect-killing fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are being evaluated as possible active ingredients for use in novel biopesticides against mosquito vectors that transmit malaria. Fungal pathogens infect through contact and so applications of spores to surfaces such as walls, nets, or other resting sites provide possible routes to infect mosquitoes in and around domestic dwellings. However, some insects can detect and actively avoid fungal spores to reduce infection risk. If true for mosquitoes, such behavior could render the biopesticide approach ineffective. Here we find that the spores of B. bassiana are highly attractive to females of Anopheles stephensi, a major anopheline mosquito vector of human malaria in Asia. We further find that An. stephensi females are preferentially attracted to dead and dying caterpillars infected with B. bassiana, landing on them and subsequently becoming infected with the fungus. Females are also preferentially attracted to cloth sprayed with oil-formulated B. bassiana spores, with 95% of the attracted females becoming infected after a one-minute visit on the cloth. This is the first report of an insect being attracted to a lethal fungal pathogen. The exact mechanisms involved in this behavior remain unclear. Nonetheless, our results indicate that biopesticidal formulations comprising B. bassiana spores will be conducive to attraction and on-source visitation by malaria vectors. PMID:23658757

  1. Malaria mosquitoes attracted by fatal fungus.

    PubMed

    George, Justin; Jenkins, Nina E; Blanford, Simon; Thomas, Matthew B; Baker, Thomas C

    2013-01-01

    Insect-killing fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are being evaluated as possible active ingredients for use in novel biopesticides against mosquito vectors that transmit malaria. Fungal pathogens infect through contact and so applications of spores to surfaces such as walls, nets, or other resting sites provide possible routes to infect mosquitoes in and around domestic dwellings. However, some insects can detect and actively avoid fungal spores to reduce infection risk. If true for mosquitoes, such behavior could render the biopesticide approach ineffective. Here we find that the spores of B. bassiana are highly attractive to females of Anopheles stephensi, a major anopheline mosquito vector of human malaria in Asia. We further find that An. stephensi females are preferentially attracted to dead and dying caterpillars infected with B. bassiana, landing on them and subsequently becoming infected with the fungus. Females are also preferentially attracted to cloth sprayed with oil-formulated B. bassiana spores, with 95% of the attracted females becoming infected after a one-minute visit on the cloth. This is the first report of an insect being attracted to a lethal fungal pathogen. The exact mechanisms involved in this behavior remain unclear. Nonetheless, our results indicate that biopesticidal formulations comprising B. bassiana spores will be conducive to attraction and on-source visitation by malaria vectors. PMID:23658757

  2. The agricultural pathology of ant fungus gardens

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Cameron R.; Mueller, Ulrich G.; Malloch, David

    1999-01-01

    Gardens of fungus-growing ants (Formicidae: Attini) traditionally have been thought to be free of microbial parasites, with the fungal mutualist maintained in nearly pure “monocultures.” We conducted extensive isolations of “alien” (nonmutualistic) fungi from ant gardens of a phylogenetically representative collection of attine ants. Contrary to the long-standing assumption that gardens are maintained free of microbial pathogens and parasites, they are in fact host to specialized parasites that are only known from attine gardens and that are found in most attine nests. These specialized garden parasites, belonging to the microfungus genus Escovopsis (Ascomycota: anamorphic Hypocreales), are horizontally transmitted between colonies. Consistent with theory of virulence evolution under this mode of pathogen transmission, Escovopsis is highly virulent and has the potential for rapid devastation of ant gardens, leading to colony mortality. The specialized parasite Escovopsis is more prevalent in gardens of the more derived ant lineages than in gardens of the more “primitive” (basal) ant lineages. Because fungal cultivars of derived attine lineages are asexual clones of apparently ancient origin whereas cultivars of primitive ant lineages were domesticated relatively recently from free-living sexual stocks, the increased virulence of pathogens associated with ancient asexual cultivars suggests an evolutionary cost to cultivar clonality, perhaps resulting from slower evolutionary rates of cultivars in the coevolutionary race with their pathogens. PMID:10393936

  3. Secondary Metabolites from the Fungus Emericella nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Tarawneh, Amer H.; León, Francisco; Radwan, Mohamed M.; Rosa, Luiz H.

    2014-01-01

    A new polyketide derivative koninginin H (1), has been isolated from the fungus Emericella nidulans, together with koninginin E (2), koninginin A (3), trichodermatide B (4), citrantifidiol (5), (4S,5R)-4-hydroxy-5-methylfuran-2-one (6), the glycerol derivatives gingerglycolipid B (7), (2S)-bis[9Z,12Z]-1-O, 2-O-dilinoleoyl-3-O-[α-d-galactopyranosyl-(1″→6′)β-d-galactopyranosyl]glycerol (8), (2S)-bis[9Z,12Z]-1-O, 2-O-dilinoleoyl-3-O-β-d-galactopyranosylglycerol (9), the cerebroside flavuside B (10), and the known sterols β-sitosterol glucoside and ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3-ol. Their structures were established by extensive NMR studies (1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT, 1H–1H COSY, HSQC, HMBC) and mass spectrometry. The antibacterial, antimalarial, antifungal and antileishmanial activities of compounds 1-10 were examined and the results indicated that compound 4 showed good antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 4.9 μg /mL. PMID:24273867

  4. The first fossil fungus gardens of Isoptera: oldest evidence of symbiotic termite fungiculture (Miocene, Chad basin).

    PubMed

    Duringer, Philippe; Schuster, Mathieu; Genise, Jorge F; Likius, Andossa; Mackaye, Hassan Taisso; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2006-12-01

    Higher termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae (fungus-growing termites) are known to build fungus gardens where a symbiotic fungus (Termitomyces sp.) is cultivated. The fungus grows on a substrate called fungus comb, a structure built with the termites' own faeces. Here we present the first fossil fungus combs ever found in the world. They were extracted from 7-million-year-old continental sandstone (Chad basin). Fossilized fungus combs have an ovoid morphology with a more or less flattened concave base and a characteristic general alveolar aspect. Under lens, they display a typical millimetre-scale pelletal structure. The latter, as well as the general shape and alveolar aspect, are similar to the morphology of fungus combs from extant fungus-growing termites. PMID:16924476

  5. The first fossil fungus gardens of Isoptera: oldest evidence of symbiotic termite fungiculture (Miocene, Chad basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duringer, Philippe; Schuster, Mathieu; Genise, Jorge F.; Likius, Andossa; Mackaye, Hassan Taisso; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2006-12-01

    Higher termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae (fungus-growing termites) are known to build fungus gardens where a symbiotic fungus ( Termitomyces sp.) is cultivated. The fungus grows on a substrate called fungus comb, a structure built with the termites’ own faeces. Here we present the first fossil fungus combs ever found in the world. They were extracted from 7-million-year-old continental sandstone (Chad basin). Fossilized fungus combs have an ovoid morphology with a more or less flattened concave base and a characteristic general alveolar aspect. Under lens, they display a typical millimetre-scale pelletal structure. The latter, as well as the general shape and alveolar aspect, are similar to the morphology of fungus combs from extant fungus-growing termites.

  6. Characterization of anaerobic sulfite reduction by Salmonella typhimurium and purification of the anaerobically induced sulfite reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Hallenbeck, P.C. ); Clark, M.A.; Barrett, E.L. )

    1989-06-01

    Mutants of Salmonella typhimurium that lack the biosynthetic sulfite reductase (cysI and cysJ mutants) retain the ability to reduce sulfite for growth under anaerobic conditions. Here we report studies of sulfite reduction by a cysI mutant of S. typhimurium and purification of the associated anaerobic sulfite reductase. Sulfite reduction for anaerobic growth did not require a reducing atmosphere but was prevented by an argon atmosphere contaminated with air (<0.33%). It was also prevented by the presence of 0.1 mM nitrate. Anaerobic growth in liquid minimal medium, but not on agar, was found to require additions of trace amounts (10{sup {minus}7} M) of cysteine. Spontaneous mutants that grew under the argon contaminated with air also lost the requirement for 10{sup {minus}7}M cysteine for anaerobic growth in liquid. A role for sulfite reduction in anaerobic energy generation was contraindicated by the findings that sulfite reduction did not improve cell yields, and anaerobic sulfite reductase activity was greatest during the stationary phase of growth. Sulfite reductase was purified from the cytoplasmic fraction of the anaerobically grown cysI mutant and was purified 190-fold. The most effective donor in crude extracts was NADH. NADHP and methyl viologen were, respectively, 40 and 30% as effective as NADH. Oxygen reversibly inhibited the enzyme. The anaerobic sulfite reductase showed some resemblance to the biosynthetic sulfite reductase, but apparently it has a unique, as yet unidentified function.

  7. Transcriptional Response to Hypoxia in the Aquatic Fungus Blastocladiella emersonii▿†

    PubMed Central

    Camilo, César M.; Gomes, Suely L.

    2010-01-01

    Global gene expression analysis was carried out with Blastocladiella emersonii cells subjected to oxygen deprivation (hypoxia) using cDNA microarrays. In experiments of gradual hypoxia (gradual decrease in dissolved oxygen) and direct hypoxia (direct decrease in dissolved oxygen), about 650 differentially expressed genes were observed. A total of 534 genes were affected directly or indirectly by oxygen availability, as they showed recovery to normal expression levels or a tendency to recover when cells were reoxygenated. In addition to modulating many genes with no putative assigned function, B. emersonii cells respond to hypoxia by readjusting the expression levels of genes responsible for energy production and consumption. At least transcriptionally, this fungus seems to favor anaerobic metabolism through the upregulation of genes encoding glycolytic enzymes and lactate dehydrogenase and the downregulation of most genes coding for tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes. Furthermore, genes involved in energy-costly processes, like protein synthesis, amino acid biosynthesis, protein folding, and transport, had their expression profiles predominantly downregulated during oxygen deprivation, indicating an energy-saving effort. Data also revealed similarities between the transcriptional profiles of cells under hypoxia and under iron(II) deprivation, suggesting that Fe2+ ion could have a role in oxygen sensing and/or response to hypoxia in B. emersonii. Additionally, treatment of fungal cells prior to hypoxia with the antibiotic geldanamycin, which negatively affects the stability of mammalian hypoxia transcription factor HIF-1α, caused a significant decrease in the levels of certain upregulated hypoxic genes. PMID:20418381

  8. The Energetics of Aerobic versus Anaerobic Respiration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Timothy D.; Schwenz, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures, and a discussion of the results of an experiment designed to investigate the difference in energy gained from the aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of glucose are presented. Sample experimental and calculated data are included. (CW)

  9. Isolated Polynucleotides and Methods of Promoting a Morphology in a Fungus

    DOEpatents

    Lasure, Linda L [Fall City, WA; Dai, Ziyu [Richland, WA

    2008-10-21

    The invention includes isolated polynucleotide molecules that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention includes a method of enhancing a bioprocess utilizing a fungus. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to a promoter. The polynucleotide sequence is expressed to promote a first morphology. The first morphology of the transformed fungus enhances a bioprocess relative to the bioprocess utilizing a second morphology.

  10. Anaerobic bioprocessing of low rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

    1991-01-01

    significant achievements were: (1) Coal decarboxylation was achieved by batch bioreactor systems using adapted anaerobic microbial consortium. (2) Two new isolates with coal decarboxylation potential were obtained from adapted microbial consortia. (3) CHN and TG anaysis of anaerobically biotreated coals have shown an increase in the H/C ratio and evolution rate of volatile carbon which could be a better feedstock for the liquefaction process.

  11. Anaerobic electron acceptor chemotaxis in Shewanella putrefaciens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealson, K. H.; Moser, D. P.; Saffarini, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Shewanella putrefaciens MR-1 can grow either aerobically or anaerobically at the expense of many different electron acceptors and is often found in abundance at redox interfaces in nature. Such redox interfaces are often characterized by very strong gradients of electron acceptors resulting from rapid microbial metabolism. The coincidence of S. putrefaciens abundance with environmental gradients prompted an examination of the ability of MR-1 to sense and respond to electron acceptor gradients in the laboratory. In these experiments, taxis to the majority of the electron acceptors that S. putrefaciens utilizes for anaerobic growth was seen. All anaerobic electron acceptor taxis was eliminated by the presence of oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, elemental sulfur, or dimethyl sulfoxide, even though taxis to the latter was very weak and nitrate and nitrite respiration was normal in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide. Studies with respiratory mutants of MR-1 revealed that several electron acceptors that could not be used for anaerobic growth nevertheless elicited normal anaerobic taxis. Mutant M56, which was unable to respire nitrite, showed normal taxis to nitrite, as well as the inhibition of taxis to other electron acceptors by nitrite. These results indicate that electron acceptor taxis in S. putrefaciens does not conform to the paradigm established for Escherichia coli and several other bacteria. Carbon chemo-taxis was also unusual in this organism: of all carbon compounds tested, the only positive response observed was to formate under anaerobic conditions.

  12. Allergens of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana

    PubMed Central

    Westwood, Greg S; Huang, Shih-Wen; Keyhani, Nemat O

    2005-01-01

    Background Beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus currently under development as a bio-control agent for a variety of insect pests. Although reported to be non-toxic to vertebrates, the potential allergenicity of Beauveria species has not been widely studied. Methods IgE-reactivity studies were performed using sera from patients displaying mould hypersensitivity by immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition. Skin reactivity to B. bassiana extracts was measured using intradermal skin testing. Results Immunoblots of fungal extracts with pooled as well as individual sera showed a distribution of IgE reactive proteins present in B. bassiana crude extracts. Proteinase K digestion of extracts resulted in loss of IgE reactive epitopes, whereas EndoH and PNGaseF (glycosidase) treatments resulted in minor changes in IgE reactive banding patterns as determined by Western blots. Immunoblot inhibitions experiments showed complete loss of IgE-binding using self protein, and partial inhibition using extracts from common allergenic fungi including; Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium herbarum, Candida albicans, Epicoccum purpurascens, and Penicillium notatum. Several proteins including a strongly reactive band with an approximate molecular mass of 35 kDa was uninhibited by any of the tested extracts, and may represent B. bassiana specific allergens. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the in vitro results, demonstrating allergenic reactions in a number of individuals, including those who have had occupational exposure to B. bassiana. Conclusions Beauveria bassiana possesses numerous IgE reactive proteins, some of which are cross-reactive among allergens from other fungi. A strongly reactive potential B. bassiana specific allergen (35 kDa) was identified. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the allergenic potential of B. bassiana. PMID:15644142

  13. Anaerobic Nitrogen Fixers on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, B. G.

    2000-07-01

    The conversion of atmospheric nitrogen gas to the protein of living systems is an amazing process of nature. The first step in the process is biological nitrogen fixation, the transformation of N2 to NH3. The phenomenon is crucial for feeding the billions of our species on Earth. On Mars, the same process may allow us to discover how life can adapt to a hostile environment, and render it habitable. Hostile environments also exist on Earth. For example, nothing grows in coal refuse piles due to the oxidation of pyrite and marcasite to sulfuric acid. Yet, when the acidity is neutralized, alfalfa and soybean plants develop root nodules typical of symbiotic nitrogen fixation with Rhizobium species possibly living in the pyritic material. When split open, these nodules exhibited the pinkish color of leghemoglobin, a protein in the nodule protecting the active nitrogen-fixing enzyme nitrogenase against the toxic effects of oxygen. Although we have not yet obtained direct evidence of nitrogenase activity in these nodules (reduction of acetylene to ethylene, for example), these findings suggested the possibility that nitrogen fixation was taking place in this hostile, non-soil material. This immediately raises the possibility that freeliving anaerobic bacteria which fix atmospheric nitrogen on Earth, could do the same on Mars.

  14. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, T.L.; Lee, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work is underway using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale, to develop start-up and operating procedures, and to generate effluent for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and batch-fed conditions have been made lasting 36, 90, and over 200 days. Solids solubilization and gas production rates and total solids destruction have met or exceeded the target values of 0.6 g cellulose per L of reactor per day, 0.5 L off-gas per L of reactor per day, and 80% destruction of solids, respectively. Successful start-up procedures have been developed, and preliminary effluent characterization and disposal studies have been done. A simple dynamic process model has been constructed to aid in further process development and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester. 7 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  15. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.D.; Donaldson, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of low-level radioactive cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work has been completed using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale. Start-up and operating procedures have been developed, and effluent was generated for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and fed-batch conditions were made lasting 36, 90, and 423 d. Solids solubilization rates and gas production rates averaged approximately 1.8 g cellulose per L of reactor per d and 1.2 L of off-gas per L reactor per d. Greater than 80% destruction of the volatile suspended solids was obtained. A simple dynamic process model was constructed to aid in process design and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester.

  16. An endosymbiotic conidial fungus, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, protects the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, from desiccation imposed by an entomopathogenic fungus.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Jay A; Benoit, Joshua B; Denlinger, David L; Tank, Justin L; Zettler, Lawrence W

    2008-02-01

    The functional role of an endosymbiotic conidial fungus (Scopulariopsis brevicaulis) prevalent within the integumental glands and hemocoel of the American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis) was investigated to explore the nature of this tick/fungus association. D. variabilis is normally highly resistant to Metarhizium anisopliae, a widely-distributed entomopathogenic fungus, but when mature female ticks harboring S. brevicaulis were fed a solution containing a mycotoxin (Amphotericin B) to purge this mycobiont internally, the ticks inoculated with M. anisopliae displayed classic signs of pathogenicity, as evidenced by recovery of M. anisopliae from ticks by internal fungus culture, greatly accelerated net transpiration water loss rates (nearly 3x faster than ticks containing S. brevicaulis naturally) and elevation of critical equilibrium humidity (CEH) closer to saturation, implying a reduced capacity to absorb water vapor and disruption of water balance (water gain not equal water loss) that resulted in tick death. The presence of S. brevicaulis within the tick was previously puzzling: the fungus is transmitted maternally and there is no apparent harm inflicted to either generation. This study suggests that S. brevicaulis provides protection to D. variabilis ticks against M. anisopliae. Thus, the S. brevicaulis/tick association appears to be mutualistic symbiosis. Given that both organisms are of medical-veterinary importance, disruption of this symbiosis has potential for generating novel tools for disease control. PMID:17880996

  17. Attraction of pinewood nematode to endoparasitic nematophagous fungus Esteya vermicola.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun Yan; Wang, Zhen; Fang, Zhe Ming; Zhang, Dong Liang; Gu, Li Juan; Liu, Lei; Sung, Chang Keun

    2010-05-01

    The investigations on attraction of nematodes to nematophagous fungi have mostly dealt with the nematode-trapping species. Esteya vermicola is the endoparasitic fungus of pinewood nematode (PWN) with high infection activity. In the present study, the attraction of PWNs to E. vermicola was investigated. It was confirmed that the living mycelia and exudative substances of E. vermicola were attractive to PWN. Compared with the nematode-trapping fungus A. brochopaga as well as nematode-feeding fungus B. cinerea, E. vermicola showed the significantly strongest attraction ability to nematode. It therefore appeared that the attraction ability reflects the dependence of the fungi on nematodes for nutrients. Furthermore, a new method was developed and used in the study to confirm the effect of volatile substances for the attraction of nematode to fungi. The results suggested that the attractive substances were consisted of avolatile exudative and volatile diffusing compounds. PMID:20012046

  18. Source of fungus contamination of hydrophilic soft contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Gasset, A R; Mattingly, T P; Hood, I

    1979-09-01

    Fungus infiltration within hydrophilic lenses has been a rare finding. This case report confirms previous findings that fungal contamination of hydrophilic contact lens is possible. The present report, to our knowledge, is the first demonstration of the association of fungus from contaminated cosmetics with hydrophilic contact lenses. It is important to be aware of the possibility of fungal invasion of hydrophilic lenses, as well as to be able to differentiate this from the more common harmless spot formation. On the basis of this study, good lid hygiene, strict adherence to the sterilization procedure, and discontinuance of any soft hydrophilic contact lenses with spot formation seems appropriate. PMID:556154

  19. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae), wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow) and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i) 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii) four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4)-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily accessible hemicellulose

  20. Roles of Peroxisomes in the Rice Blast Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Caiyun

    2016-01-01

    The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is a model plant pathogenic fungus and is a severe threat to global rice production. Over the past two decades, it has been found that the peroxisomes play indispensable roles during M. oryzae infection. Given the importance of the peroxisomes for virulence, we review recent advances of the peroxisomes roles during M. oryzae infection processes. We firstly introduce the molecular mechanisms and life cycles of the peroxisomes. And then, metabolic functions related to the peroxisomes are also discussed. Finally, we provide an overview of the relationship between peroxisomes and pathogenicity. PMID:27610388

  1. A new cytosporone derivative from the endophytic fungus Cytospora sp.

    PubMed

    Takano, Tomoya; Koseki, Takuya; Koyama, Hiromasa; Shiono, Yoshihito

    2014-07-01

    Japanese oak wilt (JOW) is a tree disease caused by the fungus Raffaelea quercivora, which is vectored by the ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus. In a screening study of the inhibitory active compounds from fungi, a new cytosporone analogue, compound 1, was isolated from the endophytic fungus Cytospora sp. TT-10 isolated from Japanese oak, together with the known compounds, integracin A (2), cytosporones N (3) and A (4). Their structures were determined by extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic and mass spectral analyses. Compound 1 was identified as 4,5-dihydroxy-3-heptylphthalide and named cytosporone E. Compounds 2 and 3 showed antimicrobial activity against Raffaelea quercivora. PMID:25230507

  2. The soil fungus Chaetomium in the human paranasal sinuses.

    PubMed

    Aru, A; Munk-Nielsen, L; Federspiel, B H

    1997-01-01

    Chaetomium is a soil fungus of which more than 180 species are now known. Most species cause degradation of cellulose-rich substrates, such as components in soil, straw or wood. Growth of Chaetomium globosum is often stimulated in the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus, which excretes such compounds as sugar phosphates and phospho-glyceric acid. A 73-year-old woman, with long-standing pain and secretion from her left maxillary sinus, was admitted to hospital where an infundibulectomy was performed. Histological examination showed necrotic material with hyphae of A. fumigatus and perithecia of Chaetomium sp. The latter fungus is rarely pathogenic to man. PMID:9298672

  3. Roles of Peroxisomes in the Rice Blast Fungus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Lin; Wang, Zhao; Liu, Caiyun

    2016-01-01

    The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is a model plant pathogenic fungus and is a severe threat to global rice production. Over the past two decades, it has been found that the peroxisomes play indispensable roles during M. oryzae infection. Given the importance of the peroxisomes for virulence, we review recent advances of the peroxisomes roles during M. oryzae infection processes. We firstly introduce the molecular mechanisms and life cycles of the peroxisomes. And then, metabolic functions related to the peroxisomes are also discussed. Finally, we provide an overview of the relationship between peroxisomes and pathogenicity. PMID:27610388

  4. Two chlorinated benzofuran derivatives from the marine fungus Pseudallescheria boydii.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dan-Feng; Lan, Wen-Jian; Wang, Kun-Teng; Huang, Lei; Jiang, Cai-Wu; Li, Hou-Jin

    2015-04-01

    The marine fungus Pseudallescheria boydii was isolated from the inner tissue of the starfish Acanthaster planci. This fungus was cultured in a high salinity glucose-peptone-yeast extract (GPY) medium. Two new chlorinated benzofuran derivatives, 6-chloro-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2,3-dihydro-5 hydroxybenzofuran (1) and 7-chloro-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2,3-dihydro-5-hydroxybenzofuran (2), were obtained from the extract of the culture broth. Their structures were determined by analysis of the NMR and MS data. PMID:25973491

  5. Improvement of anaerobic soil disinfestation.

    PubMed

    Runia, W T; Molendirk, L P G; Ludeking, D J W; Schomaker, C H

    2012-01-01

    With increasing worldwide restrictions for soil fumigants, growers loose an important tool to control soilborne pests and pathogens. Environmentally friendly alternatives are urgently needed and anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) may be one of them. Traditional ASD with fresh grass is already applied in open field vegetables but the mode of action is unknown. Therefore, trials were performed under controlled conditions using soil-filled buckets, in which several processed defined organic materials were incorporated and compared with fresh grass. The effect of inundation was also studied. Target organisms were Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, Globodera pallida and Verticillium dahliae. Results showed that grass (traditional ASD) was less effective than the organic materials. All materials proved to be effective at 16 degrees C against all target organisms. However, exposure time, dosages, soil type and the temperature at which the experiments were performed influenced the effectiveness. P. penetrans was eliminated most easily whereas V. dahliae was most difficult to control. Efficacy was higher in sandy soil than in light marine clay. Inundation at 16 degrees C proved to be effective against P. penetrans and G. pallida in both soil types at sufficient exposure times. A soil temperature of 8 degrees C was sometimes too low for efficacy. Gas production of CO2, NH3, H2S, CH4 and N2O and gas consumption of O2 and production of fatty acids during ASD proved to depend on type of organic materials, soil type, temperature, dosage and exposure time. This first step in unravelling the mode of action has already shown several critical parameters for efficacy. Additional knowledge about the complete mechanisms of action may lead to a more reliable, effective and quicker soil disinfestation. PMID:23885444

  6. Anaerobic biotransformation of chlorinated alkenes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, P.

    1994-01-01

    Chlorinated alkenes are widely found in contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater. The highly chlorinated alkene (i.e., PCE) is not subject to aerobic biotransformation. The aim of this research was to explore the potential of using anaerobic processes (i.e., denitrification, sulfate-reduction and methanogenesis) for chlorinated alkenes biotransformation. Contaminated soil samples were used throughout this study. Soil microcosms simulating field anoxic conditions with various nutrients amendment, liquid microcosms as well as enrichment liquid cultures were developed to delineate the dechlorination process. The effect of biomass, chlorinated alkenes concentration and site specific conditions (e.g., temperature and pH) on the dechlorination and the primary metabolic process was investigated. The role of sorption and nutritional needs (i.e., electron donor) were also studied. A preliminary study revealed that denitrification was the least affected by low temperatures as compared to sulfate-reduction and methanogenesis. Although dechlorination took place under sequential denitrifying and methanogenic conditions and under sulfate-reducing conditions, further studies concluded that fermentative and methanogenic bacteria were responsible for the observed dechlorination. In most cases, dechlorination of PCE or TCE resulted in the accumulation of cDCE. However, a VC-producing culture was developed from the PCE-contaminated soil. In general, the dechlorination process could be enhanced by increasing electron donor and biomass concentration. At relatively low concentrations, the dechlorination rate was also increased with increasing chlorinated alkene concentration. Dechlorination even proceeded at high chlorinated alkene concentrations when methane production was inhibited. However, as the concentration of the chlorinated alkenes increased, severe toxicity eventually halted the dechlorination process.

  7. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  8. Animal model for anaerobic lung abscess.

    PubMed Central

    Kannangara, D W; Thadepalli, H; Bach, V T; Webb, D

    1981-01-01

    There are no satisfactory animal models for the study of anaerobic lung abscess. Aspiration of food, gastric mucin, or hydrochloric acid, or any combination of these, along with oropharyngeal bacteria, is commonly believed to cause aspiration pneumonia and lung abscess. In the animal model described, none of the adjuvants was effective in producing anaerobic lung abscesses. Anaerobic bacteria derived from dental scrapings of a healthy adult (Peptococcus morbillorum, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Eubacterium lentum, and Bacteroides fragilis), when inoculated transtracheally without any adjuvants into New Zealand male white rabbits, consistently produced lung abscesses. Neither B fragilis by itself nor a mixture of P. morbillorum, F. nucleatum, and E. lentum without the addition of B. fragilis produced lung abscesses. The bacterial isolates used in this study were stored in prereduced chopped-meat-glucose medium and subcultured several times and were found effective in reproducing anaerobic lung abscesses repeatedly. This animal model is suitable for the study of pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of B. fragilis-associated anaerobic lung abscess. Images PMID:7216463

  9. Bionectriol A, a polyketide glycoside from the fungus Bionectria sp. associated with the fungus-growing ant, Apterostigma dentigerum

    PubMed Central

    Freinkman, Elizaveta; Oh, Dong-Chan; Scott, Jarrod J.; Currie, Cameron R.; Clardy, Jon

    2009-01-01

    A new polyketide glycoside, bionectriol A (1), was produced by a fungal culture of Bionectria sp., which was isolated from a fungus garden of the fungus-growing ant Apterostigma dentigerum, in Costa Rica. The structure of bionectriol A was determined mainly through NMR and mass spectroscopic data, as well as UV and IR spectra. The relative configurations of the main chain, the pyranohexose, and the pentitol moiety were elucidated by 1H-1H coupling constants and ROESY NMR spectral analysis. PMID:20160864

  10. [Anaerobic-aerobic infection in acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Mamchich, V I; Ulitovskiĭ, I V; Savich, E I; Znamenskiĭ, V A; Beliaeva, O A

    1998-01-01

    362 patients with acute appendicitis (AA) were examined. For microbiological diagnosis of aerobic and anaerobic nonclostridial microflora we used complex accelerated methods (including evaluation of gram-negative microorganisms in comparison with tinctorial-fermentative method of differential staining according to oxygen sensitivity of catalasopositive together with aerobic and cathalasonegative anaerobic microorganisms) as well as complete bacteriologic examination with determination of sensitivity of the above microorganism to antimicrobial remedies. High rate of aerobic-anaerobic microbial associations and substantial identity of microflora from appendicis and exudate from abdominal cavity was revealed, which evidenced the leading role of endogenous microorganisms in etiology and pathogenesis of AA and peritonitis i. e. autoinfection. In patients with destructive forms of AA, complicated by peritonitis it is recommended to use the accelerated method of examination of pathologic material as well as the complete scheme of examination with the identification of the isolated microorganisms and the correction of antibiotic treatment. PMID:9511291

  11. Anaerobes: a new aetiology in cavitary pneumoconiosis.

    PubMed Central

    del Campo, J M; Hitado, J; Gea, G; Colmeiro, A; Lanza, A M; Muñoz, J A; Mosquera, J A

    1982-01-01

    The role of mycobacteria in the cavitation of large pneumoconiotic masses is well established. In other cases softness is attributed to an ischaemic or aseptic necrosis. Five cases are described in which cavitation of the pulmonary masses was caused by anaerobic bacteria, confirmed by the growth of such bacterial in cultures after transtracheal or transpleural puncture. Repeated cultures for mycobacteria gave negative results. Two cases were acute, having serious complications such as bronchopleural fistula, empyema, and serious respiratory insufficiency. The role of anaerobes in cavitary pneumoconiosis has not been recognised previously, probably because of the special conditions required to culture these bacteria and the infrequent use of transtracheal puncture in the diagnosis of this entity. The prevalence of anaerobes as agents capable of cavitating pneumoconiotic masses remains to be established. Images PMID:6128024

  12. Biochar from anaerobically digested sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Inyang, Mandu; Gao, Bin; Pullammanappallil, Pratap; Ding, Wenchuan; Zimmerman, Andrew R

    2010-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of anaerobic digestion on biochar produced from sugarcane bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse was anaerobically digested to produce methane. The digested residue and fresh bagasse was pyrolyzed separately into biochar at 600 degrees C in nitrogen environment. The digested bagasse biochar (DBC) and undigested bagasse biochar (BC) were characterized to determine their physicochemical properties. Although biochar was produced from the digested residue (18% by weight) and the raw bagasse (23%) at a similar rate, there were many physiochemical differences between them. Compared to BC, DBC had higher pH, surface area, cation exchange capacity (CEC), anion exchange capacity (AEC), hydrophobicity and more negative surface charge, all properties that are generally desirable for soil amelioration, contaminant remediation or wastewater treatment. Thus, these results suggest that the pyrolysis of anaerobic digestion residues to produce biochar may be an economically and environmentally beneficial use of agricultural wastes. PMID:20634061

  13. Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    2000-05-18

    We welcome you to The Power of Anaerobes. This conference serves two purposes. One is to celebrate the life of Harry D. Peck, Jr.,who was born May 18, 1927 and would have celebrated his 73rd birthday at this conference. He died November 20, 1998. The second is to gather investigators to exchange views within the realm of anaerobic microbiology, an area in which tremendous progress has been seen during recent years. It is sufficient to mention discoveries of a new form of life (the archaea), hyper or extreme thermophiles, thermophilic alkaliphiles and anaerobic fungi. With these discoveries has come a new realization about physiological and metabolic properties of microorganisms, and this in turn has demonstrated their importance for the development, maintenance and sustenance of life on Earth.

  14. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  15. Fun Microbiology: How To Measure Growth of a Fungus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James K.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment to demonstrate a simple method for measuring fungus growth by monitoring the effect of temperature on the growth of Trichoderma viride. Among the advantages that this experimental model provides is introducing students to the importance of using the computer as a scientific tool for analyzing and presenting data. (AIM)

  16. PESTALOTIOPSIS MACULANS IS A PARASYMBIONTIC FUNGUS IN NORTH AMERICAN LICHENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By culturing small thallus portions in nutrient medium, it could be shown that Pestalotiopisis maculans (Corda) Nag Raj is a dominant parasymbiontic fungus in North American lichens. P. maculans was present in all twelve lichen specimens (10 Cladina, 1 Usnea, and 1 Parmetroma) collected in the east...

  17. OXIDATIVE DEGRADATION OF PHENANTHRENE BY THE LIGNINOLYTIC FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ligninolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium oxidized phenanthrene and phenanthrene-9,10-quinone (PQ) at their C-9 and C-10 positions to give a ring-fission product, 2,2'-diphenic acid (DPA), which was identified in chromatographic and isotope dilution experiments. PA form...

  18. Controlling fungus on channel catfish eggs with peracetic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is much interest in the use of peracetic acid (PAA) to treat pathogens in aquaculture. It is a relatively new compound and is approved for use in Europe, but not in the United States. This study determined the effectiveness of PAA for fungus control on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus egg...

  19. Directed Evolution of a Filamentous Fungus for Thermotolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Filamentous fungi represent the most widely used eukaryotic biocatalysts in industrial and chemical applications. Metarhizium anisopliae is a broad-host-range entomopathogenic fungus currently under intensive investigation as a biologically based alternative to chemical pesticides. One of the most p...

  20. Using copper sulfate to control fungus on fish eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is widely used by the catfish industry as an economical treatment to control fungus (Saprolegnia spp.) on catfish eggs. This is an overview of our effectiveness and safety studies. Channel catfish spawns were 24 - 48 hrs old. Comparable portions of a single spawn were place...

  1. Analysis of a Functional Lactate Permease in the Fungus Rhizopus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used for fermentative production of lactic acid, but little is known about the mechanisms or proteins for transporting this carboxylic acid. Since transport of the lactate anion across the plasma membrane is critical to prevent acidification of the cytoplasm, we ev...

  2. Inferring dispersal patterns of the generalist root fungus Armillaria mellea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Investigating the dispersal of the root-pathogenic fungus Armillaria mellea is necessary to understand its population biology. Such an investigation is complicated by both its subterranean habit and the persistence of genotypes over successive host generations. As such, host colonization by resident...

  3. OXIDATION OF PERSISTANT ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY A WHITE ROT FUNGUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium degraded DDT [1,1,-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane], 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,4,5,2',-4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocylohexane), and benzo[a]pyrene t...

  4. Genetic variability in the pistachio late blight fungus, Alternaria alternata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic variation in the pistachio late blight fungus, Alternaria alternata, was investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in the rDNA region. Southern hybridization of EcoRI, HindIII, and Xbal digested fungal DNA with a RNA probe derived from Alt1, an rDNA clone isolated from ...

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of the Fungus Trametes hirsuta 072

    PubMed Central

    Tyazhelova, Tatiana V.; Moiseenko, Konstantin V.; Vasina, Daria V.; Mosunova, Olga V.; Fedorova, Tatiana V.; Maloshenok, Lilya G.; Landesman, Elena O.; Bruskin, Sergei A.; Psurtseva, Nadezhda V.; Slesarev, Alexei I.; Kozyavkin, Sergei A.; Koroleva, Olga V.

    2015-01-01

    A standard draft genome sequence of the white rot saprotrophic fungus Trametes hirsuta 072 (Basidiomycota, Polyporales) is presented. The genome sequence contains about 33.6 Mb assembled in 141 scaffolds with a G+C content of ~57.6%. The draft genome annotation predicts 14,598 putative protein-coding open reading frames (ORFs). PMID:26586872

  6. The development and endophytic nature of the fungus Heteroconium chaetospira.

    PubMed

    Hashiba, Teruyoshi; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

    2005-11-15

    The root endophytic fungus Heteroconium chaetospira was isolated from roots of Chinese cabbage grown in field soil in Japan. This fungus penetrates through the outer epidermal cells of its host, passes into the inner cortex, and grows throughout the cortical cells, including those of the root tip region, without causing apparent pathogenic symptoms. There are no ultrastructural signs of host resistance responses. H. chaetospira has been recovered from 19 plant species in which there was no disruption of host growth. H. chaetospira has a symbiotic association with Chinese cabbage. The fungus provides nitrogen in exchange for carbon. These associations are beneficial for the inoculated plants, as demonstrated by increased growth rate. When used as a preinoculum, H. chaetospira suppresses the incidence of clubroot and Verticillium yellows when the test plant is post-inoculated with the causal agents of these diseases. H. chaetospira is an effective biocontrol agent against clubroot in Chinese cabbage at a low to moderate soil moisture range and a pathogen resting spore density of 10(5) resting spores per gram of soil in situ. Disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. macricola and Alternaria brassicae on leaves can be suppressed by treatment with H. chaetospira. The fungus persists in the roots and induces systemic resistance to the foliar disease. PMID:16168582

  7. Characterization of a basidiomycete fungus from sugarbeet in Idaho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fungus of unknown etiology was observed on stored sugarbeet roots exhibiting signs of white cottony growth in 2006 and 2007 in Idaho. Eighteen isolates obtained from sugarbeet roots were examined for growth characteristics on nutrient medium, production of phenol oxidases and ITS rDNA sequence. On...

  8. On-farm Production and Utilization of AM Fungus Inoculum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On-farm production of arbuscular mycorrhizal [AM] fungus inoculum can make the benefits to crop growth and yield of inoculation with AM fungi available to more farmers by reducing costs. This article details the step by step procedure and management decisions that are needed for the on-farm product...

  9. A new polyoxygenated farnesylcyclohexenone from Fungus Penicillium sp.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yabin; Yang, Fangfang; Zhao, Lixing; Duang, Rongting; Chen, Guangyi; Li, Xiaozhan; Li, Qiling; Qin, Shaohuan; Ding, Zhongtao

    2016-01-01

    A new polyoxygenated farnesylcyclohexenone, peniginsengin A (1), was isolated from the fermentation of Penicillium sp. YIM PH30003, an endophytic fungus associated with Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen. The structure was assigned based on a combination of 1 D and 2 D NMR and mass spectral data. The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activities of compound 1 were investigated. PMID:25906789

  10. Microsatellites from the charcoal rot fungus (Macrophomina phaseolina)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellite loci were identified from the charcoal rot fungus Macrophomina phaseolina. Primer pairs for 46 loci were developed and of these 13 were optimized and screened using genomic DNA from 44 fungal isolates collected predominantly from two soybean fields in MS. All optimized loci were poly...

  11. A Brazilian social bee must cultivate fungus to survive.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Cristiano; Vollet-Neto, Ayrton; Marsaioli, Anita Jocelyne; Zampieri, Davila; Fontoura, Isabela Cardoso; Luchessi, Augusto Ducati; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia

    2015-11-01

    The nests of social insects provide suitable microenvironments for many microorganisms as they offer stable environmental conditions and a rich source of food [1-4]. Microorganisms in turn may provide several benefits to their hosts, such as nutrients and protection against pathogens [1, 4-6]. Several examples of symbiosis between social insects and microorganisms have been found in ants and termites. These symbioses have driven the evolution of complex behaviors and nest structures associated with the culturing of the symbiotic microorganisms [5, 7, 8]. However, while much is known about these relationships in many species of ants and termites, symbiotic relationships between microorganisms and social bees have been poorly explored [3, 4, 9, 10]. Here, we report the first case of an obligatory relationship between the Brazilian stingless bee Scaptotrigona depilis and a fungus of the genus Monascus (Ascomycotina). Fungal mycelia growing on the provisioned food inside the brood cell are eaten by the larva. Larvae reared in vitro on sterilized larval food supplemented with fungal mycelia had a much higher survival rate (76%) compared to larvae reared under identical conditions but without fungal mycelia (8% survival). The fungus was found to originate from the material from which the brood cells are made. Since the bees recycle and transport this material between nests, fungus would be transferred to newly built cells and also to newly founded nests. This is the first report of a fungus cultivation mutualism in a social bee. PMID:26592344

  12. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing eight genera. We mapped these activity profiles on an independently obtained molecular phylogeny of the symbionts and show that total proteinase activity in lower attine symbionts peaks at ca. pH 6. The higher attine symbionts that have no known free-living relatives had much higher proteinase activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles of lower attine gardens and may thus represent the ancestral type of proteinase production, whereas serine proteinase activity dominated the activity profiles of the higher attine gardens reared by Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex, suggesting that there may be trade-offs in the production of these enzyme classes. Remarkably, the single symbiont that is shared by species of the crown group of Atta and Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants mostly showed metalloproteinase activity, suggesting that recurrent

  13. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of high strength wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegant, W.M.; Claassen, J.A.; Lettinga, G.

    1985-09-01

    Investigations on the thermophilic anaerobic treatment of high-strength wastewaters (14-65 kg COD/mT) are presented. Vinasse, the wastewater of alcohol distilleries, was used as an example of such wastewaters. Semicontinuously fed digestion experiments at high retention times revealed that the effluent quality of digestion at 55C is comparable with that at 30C at similar loading rates. The amount of methane formed per kilogram of vinasse drops almost linearly with increasing vinasse concentrations. The treatment of vinasse was also investigated using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors.

  14. Computer-assisted identification of anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, R W; Kellogg, S T

    1978-01-01

    A computer program was developed to identify anaerobic bacteria by using simultaneous pattern recognition via a Bayesian probabilistic model. The system is intended for use as a rapid, precise, and reproducible aid in the identification of unknown isolates. The program operates on a data base of 28 genera comprising 238 species of anaerobic bacteria that can be separated by the program. Input to the program consists of biochemical and gas chromatographic test results in binary format. The system is flexible and yields outputs of: (i) most probable species, (ii) significant test results conflicting with established data, and (iii) differential tests of significance for missing test results. PMID:345970

  15. The effect of enzymatic pre-hydrolysis of dairy wastewater on the granular and immobilized microbial community in anaerobic bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Cammarota, Magali C; Rosa, Daniela R; Duarte, Iolanda C S; Saavedra, Nora K; Varesche, Maria B A; Zaiat, Marcelo; Freire, Denise M G

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a lipase-rich enzyme preparation produced by the fungus Penicillium sp. on solid-state fermentation was evaluated in two anaerobic bioreactors (up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized biomass (HAIB)) treating dairy wastewater with 1200 mg oil and grease/L. The oil and grease hydrolysis step was carried out with 0.1% (w/v) of the solid enzymatic preparation at 30 degrees C for 24 h. This resulted in a final concentration of free acids eight times higher than the initial value. The bioreactors operated at 30 degrees C with hydraulic retention times of 12 h (HAIB) and 20 h (UASB) for a period of 430 days, and had high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies (around 90%) when fed with pre-hydrolyzed wastewater. There was, however, an increase in the effluent oil and grease concentration (from values as low as 17 mg/L to values above 150 mg/L in the UASB bioreactor, and from 38-242 mg/L in the HAIB bioreactor), and oil and grease accumulation in the biomass throughout the operational period (the oil and grease content reached 1.7 times that found in the inoculum of the UASB bioreactor). The HAIB bioreactor gave better results because the support for biomass immobilization acted as a filter, retaining oil and grease at the entry of the bioreactor. The molecular analysis of the Bacteria and Archaea domains revealed significant differences in the microbial profiles in experiments conducted with and without the pre-hydrolysis step. The differences observed in the overall parameters could be related to the microbial diversity of the anaerobic sludge. PMID:23530355

  16. Optimizing anaerobic soil disinfestation: an alternative to soil fumigation?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil disinfestation methods using anaerobic decomposition of organic matter were developed in the Netherlands and Japan as an ecological alternative to MeBr. Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) works by creating a combination of anaerobic soil conditions and readily available carbon pools to stimula...

  17. Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

  18. The Influence of Hydration on Anaerobic Performance: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Justin A.; Green, James M.; Bishop, Phillip A.; Richardson, Mark T.; Neggers, Yasmin H.; Leeper, James D.

    2012-01-01

    This review examines the influence of dehydration on muscular strength and endurance and on single and repeated anaerobic sprint bouts. Describing hydration effects on anaerobic performance is difficult because various exercise modes are dominated by anaerobic energy pathways, but still contain inherent physiological differences. The critical…

  19. Environmental impacts of anaerobic digestion and the use of anaerobic residues as soil amendment

    SciTech Connect

    Mosey, F.E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper defines the environmental role of anaerobic digestion within the overall objective of recovering energy from renewable biomass resources. Examples and opportunities for incorporating anaerobic digestion into biomass-to-energy schemes are discussed, together with environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion plants. These include visual, public amenity, pathogens and public health, odor control, and gaseous emissions. Digestate disposal and the benefits of restrictions on recycling organic wastes and biomass residues back to the land are discussed, particularly as they relate to American and European codes of practice and environmental legislation. The paper concludes that anaerobic digestion, if performed in purpose-designed reactors that efficiently recover and use biogas, is an environmentally benign process that can enhance energy recovery and aid the beneficial land use of plant residues in many biomass-to-energy schemes.

  20. Environmental impacts of anaerobic digestion and the use of anaerobic residues as soil amendment

    SciTech Connect

    Mosey, F.E.

    1995-11-01

    This paper defines the environmental role of anaerobic digestion with the overall objective of recovering energy from renewable biomass resources. Examples and opportunities for incorporating anaerobic digestion into biomass-to-energy schemes are discussed, together with environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion plants. These include visual, public amenity, pathogens and public health, odor control, and gaseous emissions. Digestate disposal and the benefits of restrictions on recycling organic wastes and biomass residues back to the land are discussed, particularly as they relate to American and European codes of practice and environmental legislation. The paper concludes that anaerobic digestion, if performed in purpose-designed reactors that efficiently recover and use biogas, if performed in purpose-designed reactors that efficiently recover and use biogas, is an environmentally benign process that can enhance energy recovery and aid the beneficial land use of plant residues in many biomass-to-energy schemes.

  1. Studies on upflow anaerobic filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varandani, Nanik Sobhraj

    The thesis presents a critical review of the available literature on the various studies carried out on various aspects of Upflow Anaerobic Filter (UAF) throughout the world. Young and McCarty (1969) did the pioneering work in developing UAF in 1969, since then several studies have been carried out by different researchers using different substrates under different operating conditions and variety of supporting media. However, the most significant modification of the original reactor developed by Young and McCarty (1968), has been the development and use of high porosity media. The use of high porosity media, in fact, has changed the character of the reactor, from basically a fixed film reactor to a fixed film reactor in which the contribution by the suspended bio-solids, entrapped in the numerous media pores, in the substrate removal is quite significant that is to say that the reactor no longer remains a biological reactor which can be modeled and designed on the basis of biofilm kinetics only. The thesis presents an attempt to validate the developed mathematical model(s) by using the laboratory scale reactor performance data and the calculated values of reaction kinetic and bio-kinetic constants. To simplify the verification process, computer programmes have been prepared using the "EXCELL" software and C language. The results of the "EXCELL" computer program runs are tabulated at table no. 7.1 to 7.5. The verification of various mathematical models indicate that the model III B, i.e. Non ideal plug flow model assumed to consist of Complete Mix Reactors in series based on reaction kinetics, gives results with least deviation from the real situation. An interesting observation being that the model offers least deviation or nearly satisfies the real situation for a particular COD removal efficiency, for a particular OLR, eg. the least deviations are obtained at COD removal efficiency of 89% for OLR 2, 81.5% for OLR 4, 78.5% for OLR 6 . However, the use of the

  2. Candicidin-producing Streptomyces support leaf-cutting ants to protect their fungus garden against the pathogenic fungus Escovopsis

    PubMed Central

    Haeder, Susanne; Wirth, Rainer; Herz, Hubert; Spiteller, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    Leaf-cutting ants such as Acromyrmex octospinosus live in obligate symbiosis with fungi of the genus Leucoagaricus, which they grow with harvested leaf material. The symbiotic fungi, in turn, serve as a major food source for the ants. This mutualistic relation is disturbed by the specialized pathogenic fungus Escovopsis sp., which can overcome Leucoagaricus sp. and thus destroy the ant colony. Microbial symbionts of leaf-cutting ants have been suggested to protect the fungus garden against Escovopsis by producing antifungal compounds [Currie CR, Scott JA, Summerbell RC, Malloch D (1999) Fungus-growing ants use antibiotic-producing bacteria to control garden parasites. Nature 398:701–704.]. To date, however, the chemical nature of these compounds has remained elusive. We characterized 19 leaf-cutting ant–associated microorganisms (5 Pseudonocardia, 1 Dermacoccus, and 13 Streptomyces) from 3 Acromyrmex species, A. octospinosus, A. echinatior, and A. volcanus, using 16S-rDNA analysis. Because the strain Streptomyces sp. Ao10 proved highly active against the pathogen Escovopsis, we identified the molecular basis of its antifungal activity. Using bioassay-guided fractionation, high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS), and UV spectroscopy, and comparing the results with an authentic standard, we were able identify candicidin macrolides. Candicidin macrolides are highly active against Escovopsis but do not significantly affect the growth of the symbiotic fungus. At least one of the microbial isolates from each of the 3 leaf-cutting ant species analyzed produced candicidin macrolides. This suggests that candicidins play an important role in protecting the fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants against pathogenic fungi. PMID:19270078

  3. Analysis of denitrification in swine anaerobic lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic lagoons are a common management practice for the treatment of swine wastewater. Although these lagoons were once thought to be relatively simple; their physical, chemical, and biological processes are actually very sophisticated. To get a better understanding of the processes which occur i...

  4. Enrichment of denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidizing microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shihu; Zeng, Raymond J; Burow, Luke C; Lant, Paul; Keller, Jurg; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2009-10-01

    The microorganisms responsible for anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to denitrification have not been clearly elucidated. Three recent publications suggested it can be achieved by a denitrifying bacterium with or without the involvement of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea. A key factor limiting the progress in this research field is the shortage of enrichment cultures performing denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO). In this study, DAMO cultures were enriched from mixed inoculum including sediment from a freshwater lake, anaerobic digester sludge and return activated sludge from a sewage treatment plant. Two reactors, operated at 35°C and at 22°C, respectively, showed simultaneous methane oxidation and nitrate reduction after several months of operation. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from the 35°C enrichment showed the presence of an archaeon closely related to other DAMO archaea and a dominated bacterium belonging to the yet uncultivated NC10 phylum. This culture preferred nitrite to nitrate as the electron acceptor. The present study suggests that the archaea are rather methanotrophs than methanogens. The highest denitrification rate achieved was 2.35 mmol NO3 (-) -N gVSS(-1)  day(-1) . The culture enriched at 22°C contained the same NC10 bacterium observed in the culture enriched at 35°C but no archaea. PMID:23765890

  5. Anaerobic Toxicity of Cationic Silver Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized with different capping agents was compared to that of Ag+ under anaerobic conditions. Three AgNPs were investigated: (1) negatively charged citrate-coated AgNPs (citrate-AgNPs), (2) minimally charged p...

  6. Anaerobic digestion of space mission wastes.

    PubMed

    Chynoweth, D P; Owens, J M; Teixeira, A A; Pullammanappallil, P; Luniya, S S

    2006-01-01

    The technical feasibility of applying leachbed high-solids anaerobic digestion for reduction and stabilization of the organic fraction of solid wastes generated during space missions was investigated. This process has the advantages of not requiring oxygen or high temperature and pressure while producing methane, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and compost as valuable products. Anaerobic biochemical methane potential assays run on several waste feedstocks expected during space missions resulted in ultimate methane yields ranging from 0.23 to 0.30 L g-1 VS added. Modifications for operation of a leachbed anaerobic digestion process in space environments were incorporated into a new design, which included; (1) flooded operation to force leachate through densified feedstock beds; and (2) separation of biogas from leachate in a gas collection reservoir. This mode of operation resulted in stable performance with 85% conversion of a typical space solid waste blend, and a methane yield of 0.3 Lg per g VS added after a retention time of 15 days. These results were reproduced in a full-scale prototype system. A detailed analysis of this process was conducted to design the system sized for a space mission with a six-person crew. Anaerobic digestion compared favorably with other technologies for solid waste stabilization. PMID:16784202

  7. Biodegradability of leathers through anaerobic pathway.

    PubMed

    Dhayalan, K; Fathima, N Nishad; Gnanamani, A; Rao, J Raghava; Nair, B Unni; Ramasami, T

    2007-01-01

    Leather processing generates huge amounts of both solid and liquid wastes. The management of solid wastes, especially tanned leather waste, is a challenging problem faced by tanners. Hence, studies on biodegradability of leather become imperative. In this present work, biodegradability of untanned, chrome tanned and vegetable tanned leather under anaerobic conditions has been addressed. Two different sources of anaerobes have been used for this purpose. The effect of detanning as a pretreatment method before subjecting the leather to biodegradation has also been studied. It has been found that vegetable tanned leather leads to more gas production than chrome tanned leather. Mixed anaerobic isolates when employed as an inoculum are able to degrade the soluble organics of vegetable tanned material and thus exhibit an increased level of gas production during the initial days, compared to the results of the treatments that received the anaerobic sludge. With chrome tanned materials, there was not much change in the volume of the gas produced from the two different sources. It has been found that detanning tends to improve the biodegradability of both types of leathers. PMID:16740383

  8. Process configuration role in anaerobic biotransformations

    SciTech Connect

    Speece, R.E.

    1998-07-01

    Defining the environmental conditions which would enable anaerobic processes to consistently produce effluents containing only non-detectable concentrations of degradable organics would remove one of the main drawbacks to wider application of this important treatment technology. Recently specific metabolic intermediates formed in the anaerobic biotransformation of complex organics have been found to enhance or curtail process performance. Using acrylate and acrolein as representative hazardous chemicals, modifications in staging and reactor operation procedures have been observed in the author's laboratory to profoundly impact the rate and completeness of the biotransformation process. Specific metabolic intermediates formed in the biotransformation of complex substrates to a large extent will control a given process performance and process configuration greatly impacts the metabolic pathway, thus impacting the intermediates formed as well. There is a growing body of literature to indicate that process performance in anaerobic biotransformation is greatly impacted by reactor configuration. There is also some evidence that metabolic precursors impact the subsequent efficiency of conversion of volatile fatty acids (VFA) ultimately to CH{sub 4}. But although profound differences in the performance of anaerobic biotransformation are reported for various process configurations, there are no published criteria to guide the rational design of stages/phased processes. Clarification of the relative merits of single stage, two stage, two phase, granules and biofilms as well as CSTR and plug flow modes in the biotransformation of hazardous pollutants would be foundational for future research and development.

  9. ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADABILITY OF NON-PETROLEUM OILS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has demonstrated that vegetable oils are amenable to anaerobic biodegradation. This is in contrast to petroleum oils. Vegetable oils are already oxygenated because they are composed of fatty acids and glycerols, which contribute to the biodegradability. A strategy has be...

  10. Anaerobic xylose fermentation by Spathaspora passalidarum.

    PubMed

    Hou, X

    2012-04-01

    A cost-effective conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into bioethanol requires that the xylose released from the hemicellulose fraction (20-40% of biomass) can be fermented. Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, efficiently ferments glucose but it lacks the ability to ferment xylose. Xylose-fermenting yeast such as Pichia stipitis requires accurately controlled microaerophilic conditions during the xylose fermentation, rendering the process technically difficult and expensive. In this study, it is demonstrated that under anaerobic conditions Spathaspora passalidarum showed high ethanol production yield, fast cell growth, and rapid sugar consumption with xylose being consumed after glucose depletion, while P. stipitis was almost unable to utilize xylose under these conditions. It is further demonstrated that for S. passalidarum, the xylose conversion takes place by means of NADH-preferred xylose reductase (XR) and NAD(+)-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH). Thus, the capacity of S. passalidarum to utilize xylose under anaerobic conditions is possibly due to the balance between the cofactor's supply and demand through this XR-XDH pathway. Only few XRs with NADH preference have been reported so far. 2-Deoxy glucose completely inhibited the conversion of xylose by S. passalidarum under anaerobic conditions, but only partially did that under aerobic conditions. Thus, xylose uptake by S. passalidarum may be carried out by different xylose transport systems under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The presence of glucose also repressed the enzymatic activity of XR and XDH from S. passalidarum as well as the activities of those enzymes from P. stipitis. PMID:22124720

  11. Hemicellulases from anaerobic thermophiles. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegel, J.

    1994-05-01

    The longterm goal of this research effort is to obtain an anaerobic thermophilic bacterium that efficiently converts various hemicellulose-containing biomass to ethanol over a broad pH range. The strategy is to modify the outfit and regulation of the rate-limiting xylanases, glycosidases and xylan esterases in the ethanologenic, anaerobic thermophile Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus, which grows between pH 4.5 and 9.5. Although it utilizes xylans, the xylanase, acetyl(xylan) esterase and O-methylglucuronidase activities in T. ethanolicus are barely measurable and regarded as the rate limiting steps in its xylan utilization. Thus, and also due to the presently limited knowledge of hemicellulases in anaerobic thermophiles, we characterize the hemicellulolytic enzymes from this and other anaerobic thermophiles as enzyme donors. Beside the active xylosidase/arabinosidase from T. ethanolicus, exhibiting the two different activities, we characterized 2 xylosidases, two acetyl(xylan) esterases, and an O-methylglucuronidase from Thermoanaerobacterium spec. We will continue with the characterization of xylanases from novel isolated slightly acidophilic, neutrophilic and slightly alkalophilic thermophiles. We have cloned, subcloned and partially sequenced the 165,000 Da (2 x 85,000) xylosidase/arabinosidase from T. ethanolicus and started with the cloning of the esterases from Thermoanaerobacterium spec. Consequently, we will develop a shuttle vector and continue to apply electroporation of autoplasts as a method for cloning into T. ethanolicus.

  12. Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Mogensen, Anders S; Haagensen, Frank; Ahring, Birgitte K

    2003-04-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) found in wastewater is removed in the wastewater treatment facilities by sorption and aerobic biodegradation. The anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge has not been shown to contribute to the removal. The concentration of LAS based on dry matter typically increases during anaerobic stabilization due to transformation of easily degradable organic matter. Hence, LAS is regarded as resistant to biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. We present data from a lab-scale semi-continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) spiked with linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate (C12 LAS), which show that C12 LAS was biodegradable under methanogenic conditions. Sorption of C12 LAS on sewage sludge was described with a Freundlich isotherm. The C12 LAS sorption was determined with different concentrations of total solids (TS). In the semi-continuously stirred tank reactor, 18% of the added C12 LAS was bioavailable and 20% was biotransformed when spiking with 100 mg/L of C12 LAS and a TS concentration of 14.2 mg/L. Enhanced bioavailability of C12 LAS was obtained in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor inoculated with granular sludge and sewage sludge. Biodegradation under thermophilic conditions was 37% with LAS as sole carbon source. Benzaldehyde was produced in the UASB reactor during LAS transformation. PMID:12685701

  13. Anaerobic Digestion in a Flooded Densified Leachbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chynoweth, David P.; Teixeira, Arthur A.; Owens, John M.; Haley, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    A document discusses the adaptation of a patented biomass-digesting process, denoted sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC), to recycling of wastes aboard a spacecraft. In SEBAC, high-solids-content biomass wastes are converted into methane, carbon dioxide, and compost.

  14. Early Microbial Evolution: The Age of Anaerobes.

    PubMed

    Martin, William F; Sousa, Filipa L

    2016-02-01

    In this article, the term "early microbial evolution" refers to the phase of biological history from the emergence of life to the diversification of the first microbial lineages. In the modern era (since we knew about archaea), three debates have emerged on the subject that deserve discussion: (1) thermophilic origins versus mesophilic origins, (2) autotrophic origins versus heterotrophic origins, and (3) how do eukaryotes figure into early evolution. Here, we revisit those debates from the standpoint of newer data. We also consider the perhaps more pressing issue that molecular phylogenies need to recover anaerobic lineages at the base of prokaryotic trees, because O2 is a product of biological evolution; hence, the first microbes had to be anaerobes. If molecular phylogenies do not recover anaerobes basal, something is wrong. Among the anaerobes, hydrogen-dependent autotrophs--acetogens and methanogens--look like good candidates for the ancestral state of physiology in the bacteria and archaea, respectively. New trees tend to indicate that eukaryote cytosolic ribosomes branch within their archaeal homologs, not as sisters to them and, furthermore tend to root archaea within the methanogens. These are major changes in the tree of life, and open up new avenues of thought. Geochemical methane synthesis occurs as a spontaneous, abiotic exergonic reaction at hydrothermal vents. The overall similarity between that reaction and biological methanogenesis fits well with the concept of a methanogenic root for archaea and an autotrophic origin of microbial physiology. PMID:26684184

  15. Recovery of anaerobic, facultative, and aerobic bacteria from clinical specimens in three anaerobic transport systems.

    PubMed Central

    Helstad, A G; Kimball, J L; Maki, D G

    1977-01-01

    With aspirated specimens from clinical infections, we evaluated the recovery of anaerobic, aerobic, and facultative bacteria in three widely used transport systems: (i) aspirated fluid in a gassed-out tube (FGT), (ii) swab in modified Cary and Blair transport medium (SCB), and (iii) swab in a gassed-out tube (SGT). Transport tubes were held at 25 degrees C and semiquantitatively sampled at 0, 2, 24, and 48 h. Twenty-five clinical specimens yielded 75 anaerobic strains and 43 isolates of facultative and 3 of aerobic bacteria. Only one anaerobic isolate was not recovered in the first 24 h, and then, only in the SGT. At 48 h, 73 anaerobic strains (97%) were recovered in the FGT, 69 (92%) in the SCB, and 64 (85%) in the SGT. Two problems hindered the recovery of anaerobes in the SCB and SGT systems: first die-off of organisms, as evidenced by a decrease in colony-forming units of 20 strains (27%) in the SCB and 25 strains (33%) in the SGT, as compared with 7 strains (9%) in the FGT, over 48 h; and second, overgrowth of facultative bacteria, more frequent with SCB and SGT. The FGT method was clearly superior at 48 h to the SCB and SGT systems in this study and is recommended as the preferred method for transporting specimens for anaerobic culture. PMID:328525

  16. Increased enzyme production under liquid culture conditions in the industrial fungus Aspergillus oryzae by disruption of the genes encoding cell wall α-1,3-glucan synthase.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Ken; Yoshimi, Akira; Zhang, Silai; Sano, Motoaki; Nakayama, Mayumi; Gomi, Katsuya; Abe, Keietsu

    2016-09-01

    Under liquid culture conditions, the hyphae of filamentous fungi aggregate to form pellets, which reduces cell density and fermentation productivity. Previously, we found that loss of α-1,3-glucan in the cell wall of the fungus Aspergillus nidulans increased hyphal dispersion. Therefore, here we constructed a mutant of the industrial fungus A. oryzae in which the three genes encoding α-1,3-glucan synthase were disrupted (tripleΔ). Although the hyphae of the tripleΔ mutant were not fully dispersed, the mutant strain did form smaller pellets than the wild-type strain. We next examined enzyme productivity under liquid culture conditions by transforming the cutinase-encoding gene cutL1 into A. oryzae wild-type and the tripleΔ mutant (i.e. wild-type-cutL1, tripleΔ-cutL1). A. oryzae tripleΔ-cutL1 formed smaller hyphal pellets and showed both greater biomass and increased CutL1 productivity compared with wild-type-cutL1, which might be attributable to a decrease in the number of tripleΔ-cutL1 cells under anaerobic conditions. PMID:27442340

  17. White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wibbelt, G.; Kurth, A.; Hellmann, D.; Weishaar, M.; Barlow, A.; Veith, M.; Pruger, J.; Gorfol, T.; Grosche, T.; Bontadina, F.; Zophel, U.; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, P.M.; Blehert, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.

  18. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bats, Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Andreas; Hellmann, David; Weishaar, Manfred; Barlow, Alex; Veith, Michael; Prüger, Julia; Görföl, Tamás; Grosche, Lena; Bontadina, Fabio; Zöphel, Ulrich; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, Paul M.; Blehert, David S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus. PMID:20678317

  19. Engineering a filamentous fungus for L-rhamnose extraction.

    PubMed

    Kuivanen, Joosu; Richard, Peter

    2016-03-01

    L-Rhamnose is a high value rare sugar that is used as such or after chemical conversions. It is enriched in several biomass fractions such as the pectic polysaccharides rhamnogalacturonan I and II and in naringin, hesperidin, rutin, quercitrin and ulvan. We engineered the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger to not consume L-rhamnose, while it is still able to produce the enzymes for the hydrolysis of L-rhamnose rich biomass. As a result we present a strain that can be used for the extraction of L-rhamnose in a consolidated process. In the process the biomass is hydrolysed to the monomeric sugars which are consumed by the fungus leaving the L-rhamnose. PMID:27033543

  20. Mutualistic fungi control crop diversity in fungus-growing ants.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Michael; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2005-02-01

    Leaf-cutting ants rear clonal fungi for food and transmit the fungi from mother to daughter colonies so that symbiont mixing and conflict, which result from competition between genetically different clones, are avoided. Here we show that despite millions of years of predominantly vertical transmission, the domesticated fungi actively reject mycelial fragments from neighboring colonies, and that the strength of these reactions are in proportion to the overall genetic difference between these symbionts. Fungal incompatibility compounds remain intact during ant digestion, so that fecal droplets, which are used for manuring newly grown fungus, elicit similar hostile reactions when applied to symbionts from other colonies. Symbiont control over new mycelial growth by manurial imprinting prevents the rearing of multiple crops in fungus gardens belonging to the same colony. PMID:15692054

  1. Transformation of the mycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, Minna J; Pardo, Alejandro G

    2011-01-01

    Most boreal and temperate forest trees form a mutualistic symbiosis with soil borne fungi called ectomycorrhiza (ECM). In this association both partners benefit due to nutrient exchange at the symbiotic interface. Laccaria bicolor is the first mycorrhizal fungus with its genome sequenced thus making possible for the first time to analyze genome scale gene expression profiles of a mutualistic fungus. However, in order to be able to take full advantage of the genome sequence, reverse genetic tools are needed. Among them a high throughput transformation system is crucial. Herein we present a detailed protocol for genetic transformation of L. bicolor by means of Agrobacterium tumefaciens with emphasis on critical steps affecting the success and efficiency of the approach. PMID:21636986

  2. Lactose enhances cellulase production by the filamentous fungus Acremonium cellulolyticus.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xu; Yano, Shinichi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2008-08-01

    Acremonium cellulolyticus is a fungus that produces cellulase and has been exploited by enzyme industry. To promote cellulase production by A. cellulolyticus strain C-1, we evaluated the effects of the saccharides: Solka Floc (cellulose), soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS), pullulan, lactose, trehalose, sophorose, cellobiose, galactose, sorbose, lactobionic acid, and mixtures as carbon sources for cellulase production. Solka Floc with SSPS enhanced cellulase production. Lactose as the sole carbon source induced cellulase synthesis in this fungus, and the synergistic effects between lactose and Solka Floc was observed. Various enzyme activities and the protein composition of crude enzyme produced by cultures with or without addition of lactose were analyzed. The results showed that lactose addition greatly improves the production of various proteins with cellulase activity by A. cellulolyticus. To our knowledge, this is the first report on production of cellulases by lactose in the A. cellulolyticus. PMID:18804052

  3. Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium semitectum

    SciTech Connect

    Basavaraja, S.; Balaji, S.D.; Lagashetty, Arunkumar; Rajasab, A.H.; Venkataraman, A.

    2008-05-06

    Development of environmental friendly procedures for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles through biological processes is evolving into an important branch of nanobiotechnology. In this paper, we report on the use of fungus 'Fusarium semitectum' for the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate solution (i.e. through the reduction of Ag{sup +} to Ag{sup 0}). Highly stable and crystalline silver nanoparticles are produced in solution by treating the filtrate of the fungus F. semitectum with the aqueous silver nitrate solution. The formations of nanoparticles are understood from the UV-vis and X-ray diffraction studies. Transmission electron microscopy of the silver particles indicated that they ranged in size from 10 to 60 nm and are mostly spherical in shape. Interestingly the colloidal suspensions of silver nanoparticles are stable for many weeks. Possible medicinal applications of these silver nanoparticles are envisaged.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of the Endophytic Fungus Diaporthe (Phomopsis) ampelina

    PubMed Central

    Bhargavi, S. D.; Praveen, V. K.

    2016-01-01

    Diaporthe ampelina was isolated as an endophytic fungus from the root of Commiphora wightii, a medicinal plant collected from Dhanvantri Vana, Bangalore University, Bangalore, India. The whole genome is 59 Mb, contains a total of 905 scaffolds, and has a G+C content of 51.74%. The genome sequence of D. ampelina shows a complete absence of lovastatin (an anticholesterol drug) gene cluster. PMID:27257198

  5. Biotransformation of Malachite Green by the Fungus Cunninghamella elegans

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Chang-Jun; Doerge, Daniel R.; Cerniglia, Carl E.

    2001-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 36112 metabolized the triphenylmethane dye malachite green with a first-order rate constant of 0.029 μmol h−1 (mg of cells)−1. Malachite green was enzymatically reduced to leucomalachite green and also converted to N-demethylated and N-oxidized metabolites, including primary and secondary arylamines. Inhibition studies suggested that the cytochrome P450 system mediated both the reduction and the N-demethylation reactions. PMID:11526047

  6. Metabolism of p-cresol by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.H.; Trudgill, P.W.; Hopper, D.J. )

    1993-04-01

    Cresols are phenolic compounds that are industrial pollutants. Degradation of p-cresol by several species of fungus has been reported. Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 28282 metabolizes both phenylacetic and homogentisic acids. This study shows that A. fumigatus ATCC 28282 also is capable of growth on p-cresol as its sole carbon source. Two metabolic routes for p-cresol degradation are described in the paper, but the relative contributions of each pathway is not evaluated. 21 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of the Endophytic Fungus Diaporthe (Phomopsis) ampelina.

    PubMed

    Savitha, J; Bhargavi, S D; Praveen, V K

    2016-01-01

    Diaporthe ampelina was isolated as an endophytic fungus from the root of Commiphora wightii, a medicinal plant collected from Dhanvantri Vana, Bangalore University, Bangalore, India. The whole genome is 59 Mb, contains a total of 905 scaffolds, and has a G+C content of 51.74%. The genome sequence of D. ampelina shows a complete absence of lovastatin (an anticholesterol drug) gene cluster. PMID:27257198

  8. Biotransformation of fluorene by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans

    SciTech Connect

    Pothuluri, J.V.; Freeman, J.P.; Evans, F.E.; Cerniglia, C.E. )

    1993-06-01

    Fluorene, a tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is formed during the combustion of fossil fuels and is an important pollutant of aquatic ecosystems where it is highly toxic to fish and algae. Few studies on microbial biodegradation of fluorene have been reported. This investigation describes the metabolism of fluorene by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 36112 and the identification of major metabolites. 26 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Fungus mediated synthesis of biomedically important cerium oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Shadab Ali; Ahmad, Absar

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • First time biological synthesis of cerium oxide oxide nanoparticles using fungus Humicola sp. • Complete characterization of cerium oxide nanoparticles. • Biosynthesis of naturally protein capped, luminescent and water dispersible CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles. • Biosynthesized CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles can be used for many biomedical applications. - Abstract: Nanomaterials can be synthesized by chemical, physical and the more recently discovered biological routes. The biological routes are advantageous over the chemical and physical ones as unlike these, the biological synthesis protocols occur at ambient conditions, are cheap, non-toxic and eco-friendly. Although purely biological and bioinspired methods for the synthesis of nanomaterials are environmentally benign and energy conserving processes, their true potential has not been explored yet and attempts are being made to extend the formation of technologically important nanoparticles using microorganisms like fungi. Though there have been reports on the biosynthesis of oxide nanoparticles by our group in the past, no attempts have been made to employ fungi for the synthesis of nanoparticles of rare earth metals or lanthanides. Here we report for the first time, the bio-inspired synthesis of biomedically important cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles using the thermophilic fungus Humicola sp. The fungus Humicola sp. when exposed to aqueous solutions of oxide precursor cerium (III) nitrate hexahydrate (CeN{sub 3}O{sub 9}·6H{sub 2}O) results in the extracellular formation of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles containing Ce (III) and Ce (IV) mixed oxidation states, confirmed by X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS). The formed nanoparticles are naturally capped by proteins secreted by the fungus and thus do not agglomerate, are highly stable, water dispersible and are highly fluorescent as well. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy

  10. Lasiodiplodins from mangrove endophytic fungus Lasiodiplodia sp. 318.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Xue, Yanyu; Yuan, Jie; Lu, Yongjun; Zhu, Xun; Lin, Yongcheng; Liu, Lan

    2016-04-01

    Four new lasiodiplodins (1-4), together with three known analogues, have been isolated from a mangrove endophytic fungus, Lasiodiplodia sp. 318#. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques. Cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-7 were evaluated in vitro against human cancer lines THP1, MDA-MB-435, A549, HepG2 and HCT-116. Compound 4 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities. PMID:26222141

  11. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enteric Gram Negative Facultative Anaerobe Bacilli in Aerobic versus Anaerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Amachawadi, Raghavendra G.; Renter, David G.; Volkova, Victoriya V.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial treatments result in the host’s enteric bacteria being exposed to the antimicrobials. Pharmacodynamic models can describe how this exposure affects the enteric bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance. The models utilize measurements of bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility traditionally obtained in vitro in aerobic conditions. However, in vivo enteric bacteria are exposed to antimicrobials in anaerobic conditions of the lower intestine. Some of enteric bacteria of food animals are potential foodborne pathogens, e.g., Gram-negative bacilli Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. These are facultative anaerobes; their physiology and growth rates change in anaerobic conditions. We hypothesized that their antimicrobial susceptibility also changes, and evaluated differences in the susceptibility in aerobic vs. anaerobic conditions of generic E. coli and Salmonella enterica of diverse serovars isolated from cattle feces. Susceptibility of an isolate was evaluated as its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measured by E-Test® following 24 hours of adaptation to the conditions on Mueller-Hinton agar, and on a more complex tryptic soy agar with 5% sheep blood (BAP) media. We considered all major antimicrobial drug classes used in the U.S. to treat cattle: β-lactams (specifically, ampicillin and ceftriaxone E-Test®), aminoglycosides (gentamicin and kanamycin), fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin), classical macrolides (erythromycin), azalides (azithromycin), sulfanomides (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim), and tetracyclines (tetracycline). Statistical analyses were conducted for the isolates (n≥30) interpreted as susceptible to the antimicrobials based on the clinical breakpoint interpretation for human infection. Bacterial susceptibility to every antimicrobial tested was statistically significantly different in anaerobic vs. aerobic conditions on both media, except for no difference in susceptibility to ceftriaxone on BAP agar. A satellite experiment

  12. The infrabuccal pellet piles of fungus-growing ants.

    PubMed

    Little, Ainslie E F; Murakami, Takahiro; Mueller, Ulrich G; Currie, Cameron R

    2003-12-01

    Fungus-growing ants (Attini) live in an obligate mutualism with the fungi they cultivate for food. Because of the obligate nature of this relationship, the success of the ants is directly dependent on their ability to grow healthy fungus gardens. Attine ants have evolved complex disease management strategies to reduce their garden's exposure to potential parasitic microbes, to prevent the establishment of infection in their gardens, and to remove infected garden sections. The infrabuccal pocket, a filtering device located in the oral cavity of all ants, is an integral part of the mechanisms that leaf-cutter ants use to prevent the invasion and spread of general microbial parasites and the specific fungal-garden parasite Escovopsis. Fungus-growing ants carefully groom their garden, collecting general debris and pathogenic spores of Escovopsis in their infrabuccal pocket, the contents of which are later expelled in dump chambers inside the nest or externally. In this study we examined how a phylogenetically diverse collection of attine ants treat their infrabuccal pellets. Unlike leaf-cutters that deposit their infrabuccal pellets directly in refuse piles, ants of the more basal attine lineages stack their infrabuccal pellets in piles located close to their gardens, and a separate caste of workers is devoted to the construction, management, and eventual disposal of these piles. PMID:14676952

  13. Relationships between Swiss needle cast and ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity.

    PubMed

    Luoma, Daniel L; Eberhart, Joyce L

    2014-01-01

    Swiss needle cast (SNC) is a disease specific to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) caused by the ascomycete Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii. Here we examine characteristics of the EM fungus community that are potentially useful in predictive models that would monitor forest health. We found that mean EM density (number of colonized root tips/soil core) varied nearly 10-fold among sites of varying levels of SNC, while mean EM fungus species richness (number of species/soil core) varied by about 2.5 times. Strong relationships were found between EM and SNC parameters: EM species richness was positively correlated with both Douglas-fir needle retention (R(2) = 0.93) and EM density (R(2) = 0.65); EM density also was significantly correlated with Douglas-fir needle retention (R(2) = 0.70). These simple characteristics of the EM fungus community could be used to monitor forest health and generate predictive models of site suitability for Douglas-fir. Based on previous findings that normally common EM types were reduced in frequency on sites with severe SNC, we also hypothesized that some EM fungi would be stress tolerant-dominant species. Instead, we found that various fungi were able to form EM with the stressed trees, but none were consistently dominant across samples in the severely diseased areas. PMID:24895426

  14. In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Akhil; Gieg, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contributing to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more beneficial technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes) metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments. PMID:23761789

  15. FCPP application to utilize anaerobic digester gas

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Yoshio; Kusama, Nobuyuki; Wada, Katsuya

    1996-12-31

    Toshiba and a municipal organization of Yokohama city are jointly conducting a program to utilize ADG (Anaerobic Digester Gas) more effectively. ADG which contains about 60% methane is produced by anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment sludge and has been used as an energy source for heating digestion tanks in sewage treatment plants and/or for combustion engine fuel. This program is focused on operating a commercial Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) power plant on ADG because of its inherently high fuel efficiency and low emissions characteristics. According to the following joint program, we have successfully demonstrated an ADG fueled FCPP The success of this study promises that the ADG fueled FCPP, an environment-friendly power generation system, will be added to the line-up of PC25{trademark}C applications.

  16. Note: Small anaerobic chamber for optical spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chauvet, Adrien A P; Agarwal, Rachna; Cramer, William A; Chergui, Majed

    2015-10-01

    The study of oxygen-sensitive biological samples requires an effective control of the atmosphere in which they are housed. In this aim however, no commercial anaerobic chamber is adequate to solely enclose the sample and small enough to fit in a compact spectroscopic system with which analysis can be performed. Furthermore, spectroscopic analysis requires the probe beam to pass through the whole chamber, introducing a requirement for adequate windows. In response to these challenges, we present a 1 l anaerobic chamber that is suitable for broad-band spectroscopic analysis. This chamber has the advantage of (1) providing access, via a septum, to the sample and (2) allows the sample position to be adjusted while keeping the chamber fixed and hermetic during the experiment. PMID:26520998

  17. Note: Small anaerobic chamber for optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvet, Adrien A. P.; Agarwal, Rachna; Cramer, William A.; Chergui, Majed

    2015-10-01

    The study of oxygen-sensitive biological samples requires an effective control of the atmosphere in which they are housed. In this aim however, no commercial anaerobic chamber is adequate to solely enclose the sample and small enough to fit in a compact spectroscopic system with which analysis can be performed. Furthermore, spectroscopic analysis requires the probe beam to pass through the whole chamber, introducing a requirement for adequate windows. In response to these challenges, we present a 1 l anaerobic chamber that is suitable for broad-band spectroscopic analysis. This chamber has the advantage of (1) providing access, via a septum, to the sample and (2) allows the sample position to be adjusted while keeping the chamber fixed and hermetic during the experiment.

  18. New anaerobic process of nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Kalyuzhnyi, S; Gladchenko, M; Mulder, A; Versprille, B

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on successful laboratory testing of a new nitrogen removal process called DEAMOX (DEnitrifying AMmonium OXidation) for the treatment of strong nitrogenous wastewater such as baker's yeast effluent. The concept of this process combines the recently discovered ANAMMOX (ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation) reaction with autotrophic denitrifying conditions using sulfide as an electron donor for the production of nitrite within an anaerobic biofilm. The achieved results with a nitrogen loading rate of higher than 1,000 mg/L/d and nitrogen removal of around 90% look very promising because they exceed (by 9-18 times) the corresponding nitrogen removal rates of conventional activated sludge systems. The paper describes also some characteristics of DEAMOX sludge, as well as the preliminary results of its microbiological characterization. PMID:17163025

  19. Potential for anaerobic treatment of whey

    SciTech Connect

    Schlottfeldt, G.A.B.

    1980-01-01

    Results of experiments on 3 laboratory-scale reactors loaded with whey at different daily rates showed that a daily loading of 85 lb COD/1000 cubic feet achieved a COD reduction efficiency of 86% with a gas yield (50% methane) of 5 cubic feet/gal of treated whey. High microorganism population and pH control were essential for stable operation. Overall 1st order COD removal rate constants were 1.13, 0.70 and 1.73/day at 35, 50 and 60 degrees Celcius respectively. The economic impact of anaerobic whey treatment was evaluated for small, medium and large cheese plants, and annual operating costs were projected for a 20-year period. Among several systems that were compared, the anaerobic treatment of whey was shown to be the only one that had a potential of paying for itself. Treatment costs represented from 0.85 to 2.6% of the mean US milk price to producers.

  20. Note: Small anaerobic chamber for optical spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chauvet, Adrien A. P. Chergui, Majed; Agarwal, Rachna; Cramer, William A.

    2015-10-15

    The study of oxygen-sensitive biological samples requires an effective control of the atmosphere in which they are housed. In this aim however, no commercial anaerobic chamber is adequate to solely enclose the sample and small enough to fit in a compact spectroscopic system with which analysis can be performed. Furthermore, spectroscopic analysis requires the probe beam to pass through the whole chamber, introducing a requirement for adequate windows. In response to these challenges, we present a 1 l anaerobic chamber that is suitable for broad-band spectroscopic analysis. This chamber has the advantage of (1) providing access, via a septum, to the sample and (2) allows the sample position to be adjusted while keeping the chamber fixed and hermetic during the experiment.

  1. Recent developments in anaerobic membrane reactors.

    PubMed

    Stuckey, David C

    2012-10-01

    Anaerobic membrane reactors (AnMBRs) have recently evolved from aerobic MBRs, with the membrane either external or submerged within the reactor, and can achieve high COD removals (~98%) at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) as low as 3 h. Since membranes stop biomass being washed out, they can enhance performance with inhibitory substrates, at psychrophilic/thermophilic temperatures, and enable nitrogen removal via Anammox. Fouling is important, but addition of activated carbon or resins/precipitants can remove soluble microbial products (SMPs)/colloids and enhance flux. Due to their low energy use and solids production, and solids free effluent, they can enhance nutrient and water recycling. Nevertheless, more work is needed to: compare fouling between aerobic and anaerobic systems; determine how reactor operation influences fouling; evaluate the effect of different additives on membrane fouling; determine whether nitrogen removal can be incorporated into AnMBRs; recover methane solubility from low temperatures effluents; and, establish sound mass and energy balances. PMID:22749372

  2. Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test as a Procedure to Evaluate Anaerobic Power.

    PubMed

    Andrade, V L; Zagatto, A M; Kalva-Filho, C A; Mendes, O C; Gobatto, C A; Campos, E Z; Papoti, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the running anaerobic sprint test (RAST) as a predictor of anaerobic capacity, compare it to the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) and to compare the RAST's parameters with the parameters of 30-s all-out tethered running on a treadmill. 39 (17.0±1.4 years) soccer players participated in this study. The participants underwent an incremental test, 10 submaximal efforts [50-95% of velocity correspondent to VO(2MAX) (vVO(2MAX))] and one supramaximal effort at 110% of vVO(2MAX) for the determination of MAOD. Furthermore, the athletes performed the RAST. In the second stage the 30-s all-out tethered running was performed on a treadmill (30-s all-out), and compared with RAST. No significant correlation was observed between MAOD and RAST parameters. However, significant correlations were found between the power of the fifth effort (P5) of RAST with peak and mean power of 30-s all-out (r=0.73 and 0.50; p<0.05, respectively). In conclusion, the parameters from RAST do not have an association with MAOD, suggesting that this method should not be used to evaluate anaerobic capacity. Although the correlations between RAST parameters with 30-s all-out do reinforce the RAST as an evaluation method of anaerobic metabolism, such as anaerobic power. PMID:26422055

  3. Hog farm in California uses anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, D.

    1995-12-31

    This article describes a system of covered lagoons which help address the waste management problems of hog farmers as well as producing methane used to power generators. Four advantages of anaerobic digestion are described along with the system: energy production from methane; fertilizer for fields; economic development in rural areas; and improved water quality through reduction of nonpoint source pollution. Address for full report is given.

  4. Anaerobic biodegradation of surrogate naphthenic acids.

    PubMed

    Clothier, Lindsay N; Gieg, Lisa M

    2016-03-01

    Surface bitumen extraction from the Alberta's oil sands region generates large settling basins known as tailings ponds. The oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) stored in these ponds contain solid and residual bitumen-associated compounds including naphthenic acids (NAs) that can potentially be biodedgraded by indigenous tailings microorganisms. While the biodegradation of some NAs is known to occur under aerobic conditions, little is understood about anaerobic NA biodegradation even though tailings ponds are mainly anoxic. Here, we investigated the potential for anaerobic NA biodegradation by indigenous tailings microorganisms. Enrichment cultures were established from anoxic tailings that were amended with 5 single-ringed surrogate NAs or acid-extractable organics (AEO) from OSPW and incubated under nitrate-, sulfate-, iron-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Surrogate NA depletion was observed under all anaerobic conditions tested to varying extents, correlating to losses in the respective electron acceptor (sulfate or nitrate) or the production of predicted products (Fe(II) or methane). Tailings-containing cultures incubated under the different electron-accepting conditions resulted in the enrichment and putative identification of microbial community members that may function in metabolizing surrogate NAs under the various anoxic conditions. In addition, more complex NAs (in the form of AEO) was observed to drive sulfate and iron reduction relative to controls. Overall, this study has shown that simple surrogate NAs can be biodegraded under a variety of anoxic conditions, a key first step in understanding the potential anaerobic metabolism of NAs in oil sands tailings ponds and other industrial wastewaters. PMID:26724449

  5. Anaerobic Life at Extremely High Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetter, Karl O.

    1984-12-01

    Continental and submarine solfataric fields turned out to contain various extremely thermophilic anaerobic organisms which all belong to the archaebacteria. They are living autotrophically on sulphur, hydrogen and CO2 or by methanogenesis or heterotrophically on different organic substrates by sulphur respiration or, less frequently, by fermentation. The most extremely thermophilic isolates are growing between 80 and 110°C with an optimum around 105°C.

  6. Anaerobic expanded bed treatment of whey

    SciTech Connect

    Switzenbaum, M.S.; Danskin, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    The use of anaerobic attached film expanded bed (AAFEB) for whey treatment is described and the potential for implementation of substitute natural gas from whey is discussed. A significant portion (less than or equal to 46%) of the energy needs at cheese-production plants could be recovered by CH/sub 4/ manufactured from whey. Efficient treatment of whey is possible by AAFEB at low retention times and at high organic loading rates.

  7. Anaerobic methane oxidation on the Amazon shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, N.E.; Aller, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    Anaerobic methane oxidation on the Amazon shelf is strongly controlled by dynamic physical sedimentation processes. Rapidly accumulating, physically reworked deltaic sediments characteristic of much of the shelf typically support what appear to be low rates of steady state anaerobic methane oxidation at depths of 5-8 m below the sediment-water interface. Methane oxidation in these cases is responsible for < {approximately}10% of the {Sigma}CO{sub 2} inventory in the oxidation zone and is limited largely by the steady-state diffusive flux of methane into the overlying sulfate reduction zone. In contrast, a large area of the shelf has been extensively eroded, reexposing once deeply buried (>10 m) methane-charged sediment directly to seawater. In this nonsteady-state situation, methane is a major source of recently produced {Sigma}CO{sub 2} and an important reductant for sulfate. These observations suggest that authigenic sedimentary carbonates derived from anaerobic methane oxidation may sometimes reflect physically enhanced nonsteady-state exposure of methane to sulfate in otherwise biogeochemically unreactive deposits. The concentration profiles of CH{sub 4}, SO{sub 4}{sup =}, and {Sigma}CO{sub 2} in the eroded deposit were reproduced by a coupled reaction-transport model. This area of the shelf was reexposed to seawater approximately 5-10 years ago based on the model results and the assumption that the erosion of the deposit occurred as a single event that has now ceased. The necessary second order rate constant for anaerobic methane oxidation was {le}0.1 mM{sup -1} d{sup -1}.

  8. The origin of the attine ant-fungus mutualism.

    PubMed

    Mueller, U G; Schultz, T R; Currie, C R; Adams, R M; Malloch, D

    2001-06-01

    Cultivation of fungus for food originated about 45-65 million years ago in the ancestor of fungus-growing ants (Formicidae, tribe Attini), representing an evolutionary transition from the life of a hunter-gatherer of arthropod prey, nectar, and other plant juices, to the life of a farmer subsisting on cultivated fungi. Seven hypotheses have been suggested for the origin of attine fungiculture, each differing with respect to the substrate used by the ancestral attine ants for fungal cultivation. Phylogenetic information on the cultivated fungi, in conjunction with information on the nesting biology of extant attine ants and their presumed closest relatives, reveal that the attine ancestors probably did not encounter their cultivars-to-be in seed stores (von Ihering 1894), in rotting wood (Forel 1902), as mycorrhizae (Garling 1979), on arthropod corpses (von Ihering 1894) or ant faeces in nest middens (Wheeler 1907). Rather, the attine ant-fungus mutualism probably arose from adventitious interactions with fungi that grew on walls of nests built in leaf litter (Emery 1899), or from a system of fungal myrmecochory in which specialized fungi relied on ants for dispersal (Bailey 1920) and in which the ants fortuitously vectored these fungi from parent to offspring nests prior to a true fungicultural stage. Reliance on fungi as a dominant food source has evolved only twice in ants: first in the attine ants, and second in some ant species in the solenopsidine genus Megalomyrmex that either coexist as trophic parasites in gardens of attine hosts or aggressively usurp gardens from them. All other known ant-fungus associations are either adventitious or have nonnutritional functions (e.g., strengthening of carton-walls in ant nests). There exist no unambiguous reports of facultative mycophagy in ants, but such trophic ant-fungus interactions would most likely occur underground or in leaf litter and thus escape easy observation. Indirect evidence of fungivory can be deduced

  9. Mathematical modelling of the anaerobic hybrid reactor.

    PubMed

    Soroa, S; Gomez, J; Ayesa, E; Garcia-Heras, J L

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new mathematical model for the anaerobic hybrid reactor (AHR) (a UASB reactor and an anaerobic filter in series) and its experimental calibration and verification. The model includes a biochemical part and a mass transport one, which considers the AHR as two contact reactors in series. The anaerobic process transformations are described by the model developed by Siegrist et al. The fraction (F) of solids in the clarification zone of the UASB reactor that leaves this first reactor is the key physical parameter to be estimated. The main parameters of the model were calibrated using experimental results from a bench-scale AHR fed with real slaughterhouse wastewater. The fraction of inert particulate COD in the influent and the factor F were estimated by a trial and error procedure comparing experimental and simulated results of the mass of solids in the lower tank and the VSS concentration in the AHR effluent. A good fit was obtained. The final verification was carried out by comparing a set of experiments with simulated data. The model's capability to predict the process performance was thus proved. PMID:16939085

  10. Alternating Current Influences Anaerobic Electroactive Biofilm Activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Zhou, Lean; Lu, Lu; Lobo, Fernanda Leite; Li, Nan; Wang, Heming; Park, Jaedo; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2016-09-01

    Alternating current (AC) is known to inactivate microbial growth in suspension, but how AC influences anaerobic biofilm activities has not been systematically investigated. Using a Geobacter dominated anaerobic biofilm growing on the electrodes of microbial electrochemical reactors, we found that high frequency AC ranging from 1 MHz to 1 kHz (amplitude of 5 V, 30 min) showed only temporary inhibition to the biofilm activity. However, lower frequency (100 Hz, 1.2 or 5 V) treatment led to 47 ± 19% permanent decrease in limiting current on the same biofilm, which is attributed to the action of electrohydrodynamic force that caused biofilm damage and loss of intercellular electron transfer network. Confocal microscopy images show such inactivation mainly occurred at the interface between the biofilm and the electrode. Reducing the frequency further to 1 Hz led to water electrolysis, which generated gas bubbles that flushed all attached cells out of the electrode. These findings provide new references on understanding and regulating biofilm growth, which has broader implications in biofouling control, anaerobic waste treatment, energy and product recovery, and general understanding of microbial ecology and physiology. PMID:27485403

  11. Anaerobic O-demethylation of phenylmethylethers

    SciTech Connect

    Frazer, A.C.; Young, L.Y.

    1990-01-01

    Anaerobic O-demethylation (AOD) of phenylmethylethers is a process of both basic and applied significance. The aryl-O-methyl ethers are abundant in natural products, particularly as components of lignin. They are present as methoxylated lignin monomers in anaerobic environments and can be completely degraded there by mixed microbial populations. AOD is an essential early step in this process, and it is also a key reaction in the utilization of the O-methyl substituent as a C-one substrate by acetogens. An understanding of the AOD reaction mechanism might suggest new ways in which chemicals could be derived from lignocellulosic materials. The biochemical mechanism for the anaerobic cleavage of the aryl-O-methyl ether bond is an intriguing, but relatively unexplored process. In contrast to aerobic O-demethylating enzymes, AOD appears to involve methyl group transfer. Thus, novel biochemical information on an important biotransformation reaction will be gained from the research proposed. Recently, we have shown that AOD activity is inducible and have developed an assay for detecting AOD activity in cell-free extracts of Acetobacterium woodii. AOD activity is stimulated in vitro by the addition of ATP (1mM) and pyruvate (30 mM), the K{sub M} for vanillate being 0.4 mM. In collaboration with protein purification experts, we proposed to purify the AOD enzyme and characterize the protein(s) and the enzymatic reaction involved. 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Anaerobic Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in Pilot-Scale Anaerobic EGSB Reactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Large volumes of untreated palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose threat to aquatic environment due to the presence of very high organic content. The present investigation involved two pilot-scale anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors, continuously operated for 1 year to treat POME. Setting HRT at 9.8 d, the anaerobic EGSB reactors reduced COD from 71179 mg/L to 12341 mg/L and recycled half of sludge by a dissolved air flotation (DAF). The average effluent COD was 3587 mg/L with the consistent COD removal efficiency of 94.89%. Adding cationic polymer (PAM) dose of 30 mg/L to DAF unit and recycling its half of sludge caused granulation of anaerobic sludge. Bacilli and small coccid bacteria were the dominant microbial species of the reactor. The reactor produced 27.65 m(3) of biogas per m(3) of POME which was utilized for electricity generation. PMID:26167485

  13. Evaluation of a microtiter system for identification of anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Savuto, P S; Ellner, P D

    1984-01-01

    The Anaerobe Combo Panel (American MicroScan, Mahwah, N.J.) was evaluated for its ability to identify anaerobic bacteria. The frozen, 96-well panel utilizes 24 biochemical reactions and four antimicrobial agents for species identification. The Anaerobe Combo Panel was used to test 114 clinical isolates of strict anaerobes. Reactions were read after 48 h, and the results were compared with those obtained with the PRAS II system (Scott Laboratories, Inc., Fiskeville, R.I.). Discrepancies between the two systems were resolved by gas-liquid chromatography. With the Anaerobe Combo Panel, 84% of the organisms were able to grow, and 89% of these were correctly identified to genus level and 78% to species level. The Anaerobe Combo Panel was easy to inoculate and read, but some of the reactions were difficult to interpret, and not all of the derived codes were found in the code book. PMID:6378969

  14. The aerobic and anaerobic bacteriology of perirectal abscesses.

    PubMed Central

    Brook, I; Frazier, E H

    1997-01-01

    The microbiology of perirectal abscesses in 144 patients was studied. Aerobic or facultative bacteria only were isolated in 13 (9%) instances, anaerobic bacteria only were isolated in 27 (19%) instances, and mixed aerobic and anaerobic flora were isolated in 104 (72%) instances. A total of 325 anaerobic and 131 aerobic or facultative isolates were recovered (2.2 anaerobic isolates and 0.9 aerobic isolates per specimen). The predominant anaerobes were as follows: Bacteroides fragilis group (85 isolates), Peptostreptococcus spp. (72 isolates), Prevotella spp. (71 isolates), Fusobacterium spp. (21 isolates), Porphyromonas spp. (20 isolates), and Clostridium spp. (15 isolates). The predominant aerobic and facultative bacteria were as follows: Staphylococcus aureus (34 isolates), Streptococcus spp. (28 isolates), and Escherichia coli (19 isolates). These data illustrate the polymicrobial aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of perirectal abscesses. PMID:9350771

  15. Aerobic and anaerobic cellulase production by Cellulomonas uda.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Willink, Fillip Wolfgang; Ingvorsen, Kjeld

    2016-10-01

    Cellulomonas uda (DSM 20108/ATCC 21399) is one of the few described cellulolytic facultative anaerobes. Based on these characteristics, we initiated a physiological study of C. uda with the aim to exploit it for cellulase production in simple bioreactors with no or sporadic aeration. Growth, cellulase activity and fermentation product formation were evaluated in different media under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and in experiments where C. uda was exposed to alternating aerobic/anaerobic growth conditions. Here we show that C. uda behaves as a true facultative anaerobe when cultivated on soluble substrates such as glucose and cellobiose, but for reasons unknown cellulase activity is only induced under aerobic conditions on insoluble cellulosic substrates and not under anaerobic conditions. These findings enhance knowledge on the limited number of described facultative cellulolytic anaerobes, and in addition it greatly limits the utility of C. uda as an 'easy to handle' cellulase producer with low aeration demands. PMID:27154570

  16. Clinical review: Bacteremia caused by anaerobic bacteria in children

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Itzhak

    2002-01-01

    This review describes the microbiology, diagnosis and management of bacteremia caused by anaerobic bacteria in children. Bacteroides fragilis, Peptostreptococcus sp., Clostridium sp., and Fusobacterium sp. were the most common clinically significant anaerobic isolates. The strains of anaerobic organisms found depended, to a large extent, on the portal of entry and the underlying disease. Predisposing conditions include: malignant neoplasms, immunodeficiencies, chronic renal insufficiency, decubitus ulcers, perforation of viscus and appendicitis, and neonatal age. Organisms identical to those causing anaerobic bacteremia can often be recovered from other infected sites that may have served as a source of persistent bacteremia. When anaerobes resistant to penicillin are suspected or isolated, antimicrobial drugs such as clindamycin, chloramphenicol, metronidazole, cefoxitin, a carbapenem, or the combination of a beta-lactamase inhibitor and a penicillin should be administered. The early recognition of anaerobic bacteremia and administration of appropriate antimicrobial and surgical therapy play a significant role in preventing mortality and morbidity in pediatric patients. PMID:12133179

  17. Isolated Fungal Promoters and Gene Transcription Terminators and Methods of Protein and Chemical Production in a Fungus

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnuson, Jon K.

    2008-11-11

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  18. Isolated fungal promoters and gene transcription terminators and methods of protein and chemical production in a fungus

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L; Magnuson, Jon K

    2014-05-27

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  19. Isolated fungal promoters and gene transcription terminators and methods of protein and chemical production in a fungus

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnuson, Jon K.

    2008-11-11

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  20. Ultrastructural analysis of the behavior of the dimorphic fungus Microbotryum violaceum in fungus-induced anthers of female Silene latifolia flowers.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Wakana; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2005-12-01

    The development of male organs is induced in female flowers of the dioecious plant Silene latifolia by infection with the fungus Microbotryum violaceum. Stamens in a healthy female flower grow only to stage 6, whereas those in an infected female flower develop to the mature stage (stage 12), at which the stamens are filled with fungal teliospores instead of pollen grains. To investigate these host-parasite interactions, young floral buds and fungus-induced anthers of infected female flowers were examined by electron microscopy following fixation by a high-pressure freezing method. Using this approach, we found that parasitic hyphae of this fungus contain several extracellular vesicles and have a consistent appearance up to stage 8. At that stage, parasitic hyphae are observed adjacent to dying sporogenous cells in the infected female anther. At stage 9, an increased number of dead and dying sporogenous cells is observed, among which the sporogenous hyphae of the fungus develop and form initial teliospores. Several types of electron-dense material are present in proximity to some fungi at this stage. The initial teliospores contain two types of vacuoles, and the fungus cell wall contains abundant carbohydrate, as revealed by silver protein staining. The sporogenous cell is probably sensitive to infection by the fungus, resulting in disruption. In addition, the fungus accelerates cell death in the anther and utilizes constituents of the dead host cell to form the mature teliospore. PMID:16333578

  1. Anaerobic Metabolism and Bioremediation of Explosives-Contaminated Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boopathy, Raj

    Nitroaromatic compounds pollute soil, water, and food via use of pesticides, plastics, pharmaceuticals, landfill dumping of industrial wastes, and the military use of explosives. Biotransformation of trinitrotoluene and other nitroaromatics by aerobic bacteria in the laboratory has been frequently reported, but the anaerobic bacterial metabolism of nitroaromatics has not been studied as extensively perhaps due to the difficulty in working with anaerobic cultures and the slow growth of anaerobes. Sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria can metabolize nitroaromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions if appropriate electron donors and electron acceptors are present in the environment.

  2. Carbohydrate Storage in the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana

    PubMed Central

    Bidochka, Michael J.; Low, Nicholas H.; Khachatourians, George G.

    1990-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana was grown in 1% (wt/vol) gelatin-liquid media singly supplemented with a monosaccharide (glucose or fructose), a disaccharide (maltose or trehalose), a polyol (glycerol, mannitol, or sorbitol), or the amino sugar N-acetyl-d-glucosamine. The relative contributions of the carbohydrate, protein, and water contents in the fungal biomass were determined. Carbohydrates composed 18 to 42% of the mycelial dry weight, and this value was lowest in unsupplemented medium and highest in medium supplemented with glucose, glycerol, or trehalose. Biomass production was highest in liquid cultures supplemented with trehalose. When liquid cultures were grown in medium supplemented with 0 to 1% (wt/vol) glucose, trehalose, or N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, there was an increase in the biomass production and the contribution of carbohydrate to mycelial dry weight. Regardless of the glucose concentration in the culture, water content of the mycelia remained about 77.5% (wt/wt). Mycelial storage carbohydrates were determined by capillary gas chromatography. In gelatin-liquid medium supplemented with 1% (wt/vol) glucose, B. bassiana stored glycogen (12.0%, wt/dry wt) and the polyols mannitol (2.2%), erythritol (1.6%), glycerol (0.4%), and arabitol (0.1%). Without glucose, B. bassiana stored glycogen (5.4%), mannitol (0.8%), glycerol (0.6%), and erythritol (0.6%) but not arabitol. To our knowledge, this is the first report of carbohydrate storage in an entomopathogenic fungus, and the results are discussed in relation to other fungi and the potential implications to commercial formulation and insect-fungus interactions. PMID:16348325

  3. Cytotoxic cytochalasins from marine-derived fungus Arthrinium arundinis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junfeng; Wang, Zhen; Ju, Zhiran; Wan, Junting; Liao, Shengrong; Lin, Xiuping; Zhang, Tianyu; Zhou, Xuefeng; Chen, Hao; Tu, Zhengchao; Liu, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    Four new cytochalasins, arthriniumnins A-D (1-4), a new natural product, ketocytochalasin (5), as well as five known cytochalasin analogues (6-10) were isolated and identified from the fungus Arthrinium arundinis ZSDS1-F3 from the sponge Phakellia fusca. Their structures were elucidated by NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses, as well as single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 6 and 9 showed cytotoxicity against K562, A549, Huh-7, H1975, MCF-7, U937, BGC823, HL60, Hela, and MOLT-4 cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 1.13 to 47.4 µM. PMID:25626143

  4. Two new antimicrobial metabolites from the endophytic fungus, Seimatosporium sp.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Hidayat; Krohn, Karsten; Schulz, Barbara; Draeger, Siegfried; Nazir, Mamona; Saleem, Muhammad

    2012-03-01

    Two new acaranoic acids, named seimatoporic acid A and B (1, and 2), together with six known compounds, R-(-)-mellein (3), cis-4-hydroxymellein (4), trans-4-hydroxymellein (5), 4R-hydroxy-5-methylmellein (6), (-)-5-hydroxymethylmellein (7), and ergosterol (8) were isolated from an endophytic fungus, Seimatosporium sp, by a bioassay-guided procedure. The structures of the new compounds have been assigned from analysis of the 1H and 13C NMR spectra, DEPT, and by 2D COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY experiments. A mixture of compounds 1 and 2 showed strong antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, Septoria tritici, and Pyricularia oryzae. PMID:22545398

  5. Polyoxygenated methyl cyclohexanoids from a terrestrial ampelomyces fungus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiye; Xue, Jinghua; Wu, Ping; Xu, Liangxiong; Xie, Haihui; Wei, Xiaoyi

    2009-02-27

    Seven structurally related new polyoxygenated methyl cyclohexanoids, ampelomins A-G (1-7), were isolated from the mycelial solid culture of a soil-derived Ampelomyces fungus. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical means. Ampelomins A (1), C (3), E (5), and G (7) exhibited weak activity against alpha-glucosidase with IC(50) values of 1.74-5.93 mM, and ampelomin A (1) showed moderate antibacterial activity with MIC(90) values ranging from 202.4 to 1015.9 microM. A plausible polyketide biogenetic pathway is postulated for these compounds. PMID:19193024

  6. Bioactive isocoumarins isolated from the endophytic fungus Microdochium bolleyi.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Krohn, Karsten; Draeger, Siegfried; Schulz, Barbara

    2008-06-01

    Three new isocoumarin derivatives ( 2- 4) were isolated together with monocerin ( 1) from Microdochium bolleyi, an endophytic fungus from Fagonia cretica, a herbaceous plant of the semiarid coastal regions of Gomera. Compounds 2 and 3 are both 12-oxo epimers of 1, and 4 is a ring-opened derivative of 1. The structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis and comparison with reported data. The absolute configurations were determined by a modified Mosher's method. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 showed good antifungal, antibacterial, and antialgal activities against Microbotryum violaceum, Escherichia coli, Bacillus megaterium, and Chlorella fusca. Compound 2 was moderately antifungal and antialgal. PMID:18510362

  7. Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of fungus Phomopsis stipata

    PubMed Central

    de Prince, Karina Andrade; Sordi, Renata; Pavan, Fernando Rogério; Barreto Santos, Adolfo Carlos; Araujo, Angela R.; Leite, Sergio R.A.; Leite, Clarice Q. F.

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to determine the anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of the metabolites produced by the endophitic fungus Phomopsis stipata (Lib.) B. Sutton, (Diaporthaceae), cultivated in different media. The antimycobacterial activity was assessed through the Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA) and the cytotoxicity test performed on macrophage cell line. The extracts derived from fungi grown on Corn Medium and Potato Dextrose Broth presented the smallest values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and low cytotoxicity, which implies a high selectivity index. This is the first report on the chemical composition and antitubercular activity of metabolites of P. stipata, as well as the influence of culture medium on these properties. PMID:24031821

  8. Bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Fusarium proliferatum.

    PubMed

    Dame, Zerihun T; Silima, Beauty; Gryzenhout, Marieka; van Ree, Teunis

    2016-06-01

    The crude extract of an endophytic fungus isolated from Syzygium cordatum and identified as Fusarium proliferatum showed 100% cytotoxicity against the brine shrimp Artemia salina at 100 μg/mL. Seven coloured, biologically active metabolites - including ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol, nectriafurone-8-methyl ether, 9-O-methyl fusarubin, bostrycoidin, bostrycoidin-9-methyl ether and 8-hydroxy-5,6-dimethoxy-2-methyl-3-(2-oxo-propyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone- were isolated from the extract. PMID:26158312

  9. [Fungus patents: from Pasteur to the present day].

    PubMed

    Bernardo-Álvarez, María Ángela

    2012-01-01

    At the end of the 19(th) century, the American Patent Office granted the patent known as "Pasteur's application", claiming the protection of a yeast strain. Since that date, the debate around biotechnology patents, especially for those that affect living organisms or part of them, has grown exponentially. In the present article, the Patent Law is reviewed, pointing out the particular problems about fungi or parts of them. Also, some of the fungus patents are discussed from the perspective of the ethical, economical, social and environmental aspects of these kind of patents. PMID:22677466

  10. Caryophyllene sesquiterpenoids from the endophytic fungus, Pestalotiopsis sp.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Yang, Ming-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Bing; Li, Tian-Xiao; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2016-03-01

    Eight new caryophyllene sesquiterpenoids named pestaloporinates A-G (1-7) and 14-acetylhumulane (8) have been isolated from the solid cultures of an endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis sp., which was obtained from the fresh stem bark of Melia azedarach Linn. Their structures as well as absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopic data, ECD experimentation, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Among all the isolates, compound 2 displayed potent inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 19.0 μM during the evaluation of nitric oxide (NO) inhibition in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. PMID:26687557

  11. Elemental variations in the germinating fungus Phytophthora palmivora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzolini, A. P.; Grant, B. R.; Sealock, R. M.; Legge, G. J. F.

    1991-03-01

    We have measured the elemental variations between zoospores and germinating cystospores of the fungus Phytophthora palmivora, using a scanning proton microprobe. Averaged over a number of individual cells, our results indicate that the level of Ca is much lower in germinating cystospores than in zoospores. The levels of S, Cl, and Zn also appear to be lower, and the level of K appears to be higher. The spatial distribution of elements within the germinating cystospore is very similar for P, S, Cl, K, Mn, Fe, and Cu, but significantly different for Ca and Zn.

  12. Cepstrum based feature extraction method for fungus detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorulmaz, Onur; Pearson, Tom C.; Çetin, A. Enis

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, a method for detection of popcorn kernels infected by a fungus is developed using image processing. The method is based on two dimensional (2D) mel and Mellin-cepstrum computation from popcorn kernel images. Cepstral features that were extracted from popcorn images are classified using Support Vector Machines (SVM). Experimental results show that high recognition rates of up to 93.93% can be achieved for both damaged and healthy popcorn kernels using 2D mel-cepstrum. The success rate for healthy popcorn kernels was found to be 97.41% and the recognition rate for damaged kernels was found to be 89.43%.

  13. Nucleoside derivatives from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Fu, Xiu-Mei; Kong, Chui-Jian; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Four nucleoside derivatives (1-4) were isolated from the fungus Aspergillus versicolor derived from the gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea collected in the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic method of NMR and MS analysis. All isolated metabolites were evaluated for their cytotoxicity, antibacterial activity and lethality towards brine shrimp Artemia salina. Compounds 1/2 exhibited selective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis with an MIC value of 12.5 μM. It should be noted that 1 and 2, whose structures were listed in SciFinder Scholar, had no associated reference. This is the first report about their isolation, structure elucidation and biological activities. PMID:24670197

  14. Application of Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 for simulating anaerobic mesophilic sludge digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Mendes, Carlos Esquerre, Karla Matos Queiroz, Luciano

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The behavior of a anaerobic reactor was evaluated through modeling. • Parametric sensitivity analysis was used to select most sensitive of the ADM1. • The results indicate that the ADM1 was able to predict the experimental results. • Organic load rate above of 35 kg/m{sup 3} day affects the performance of the process. - Abstract: Improving anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge by monitoring common indicators such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), gas composition and pH is a suitable solution for better sludge management. Modeling is an important tool to assess and to predict process performance. The present study focuses on the application of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) to simulate the dynamic behavior of a reactor fed with sewage sludge under mesophilic conditions. Parametric sensitivity analysis is used to select the most sensitive ADM1 parameters for estimation using a numerical procedure while other parameters are applied without any modification to the original values presented in the ADM1 report. The results indicate that the ADM1 model after parameter estimation was able to predict the experimental results of effluent acetate, propionate, composites and biogas flows and pH with reasonable accuracy. The simulation of the effect of organic shock loading clearly showed that an organic shock loading rate above of 35 kg/m{sup 3} day affects the performance of the reactor. The results demonstrate that simulations can be helpful to support decisions on predicting the anaerobic digestion process of sewage sludge.

  15. [Distribution and removal of anaerobic antibiotic resistant bacteria during mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge].

    PubMed

    Tong, Juan; Wang, Yuan-Yue; Wei Yuan, Song

    2014-10-01

    Sewage sludge is one of the major sources that releasing antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistant genes (ARG) into the environment since it contains large amount of ARB, but there is little information about the fate of the anaerobic ARB in the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. Therefore, the distribution, removal and seasonal changes of tetracycline and β-lactam antibiotics resistant bacteria in the mesophilic egg-shaped digesters of a municipal wastewater treatment plant were investigated for one year in this study. Results showed that there were higher amounts of ARB and higher resistance rate of β-lactam antibiotics than that of tetracycline antibiotics in the sewage sludge. All ARB could be significantly reduced during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion process by 1.48-1.64 log unit (P < 0.05). Notably, the ampicillin and cephalothin resistance rates were significantly increased after anaerobic digestion by 12.0% and 14.3%, respectively (P < 0.05). The distribution of ARB in the sewage sludge had seasonal change characteristics. Except for chlorotetracycline resistant bacteria, there were more ARB in the sewage sludge in cold season than in warm season (P < 0.05). PMID:25693388

  16. Oxygen tolerance capacity of upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) with anaerobic filter (AF) system.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yao; Jost, Carsten; Mumme, Jan; Wang, Kaijun; Linke, Bernd

    2016-07-01

    In order to investigate the oxygen tolerance capacity of upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) with anaerobic filter (AF) system, the effect of microaeration on thermophilic anaerobic digestion of maize straw was investigated under batch conditions and in the UASS with AF system. Aeration intensities of 0-431mL O2/gvs were conducted as pretreatment under batch conditions. Aeration pretreatment obviously enhanced anaerobic digestion and an aeration intensity of 431mL O2/gvs increased the methane yield by 82.2%. Aeration intensities of 0-355mL O2/gvs were conducted in the process liquor circulation of the UASS with AF system. Dissolved oxygen (DO) of UASS and AF reactors kept around 1.39±0.27 and 0.99±0.38mg/L, respectively. pH was relatively stable around 7.11±0.04. Volatile fatty acids and soluble chemical oxygen demand concentration in UASS reactor were higher than those in AF reactor. Methane yield of the whole system was almost stable at 85±7mL/gvs as aeration intensity increased step by step. The UASS with AF system showed good oxygen tolerance capacity. PMID:27372134

  17. Anaerobic capacity: a maximal anaerobic running test versus the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, N S; Nimmo, M A

    1996-02-01

    The present investigation evaluates a maximal anaerobic running test (MART) against the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) for the determination of anaerobic capacity. Essentially, this involved comparing 18 male students performing two randomly assigned supramaximal runs to exhaustion on separate days. Post warm-up and 1, 3, and 6 min postexercise capillary blood samples were taken during both tests for plasma blood lactate (BLa) determination. In the MART only, blood ammonia (BNH3) concentration was measured, while capillary blood samples were additionally taken after every second sprint for BLa determination. Anaerobic capacity, measured as oxygen equivalents in the MART protocol, averaged 112.2 +/- 5.2 ml.kg-1.min-1. Oxygen deficit, representing the anaerobic capacity in the MAOD test, was an average of 74.6 +/- 7.3 ml.kg-1. There was a significant correlation between the MART and MAOD (r = .83, p < .001). BLa values obtained over time in the two tests showed no significant difference, nor was there any difference in the peak BLa recorded. Peak BNH3 concentration recorded was significantly increased from resting levels at exhaustion during the MART. PMID:8664845

  18. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible. PMID:27396682

  19. BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHATETE CHRYSOSPORIUM: INVOLVEMENT OF THE LIGNIN DEGRADING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade's wide variety of structurally diverse organic compounds, including a number of environmentall3 persistent organopollutants. he unique biodegradative abilities of this fungus appears to be dependent upon ...

  20. Biological activities of ophiobolin K and 6-epi-ophiobolin K produced by the endophytic fungus Aspergillus calidoustus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The endophytic fungus, Aspergillus calidoustus, was isolated from the plant species Acanthospermum australe (Asteraceae). A dichloromethane extract of the fungus displayed antifungal, antiprotozoal, and cytotoxic activities. Aspergillus calidoustus was identified using molecular, physiological and m...

  1. Anaerobic wastewater treatment of concentrated sewage using a two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket- anaerobic filter system.

    PubMed

    Halalsheh, Maha M; Abu Rumman, Zainab M; Field, Jim A

    2010-01-01

    A two-stage pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket - anaerobic filter (UASB-AF) reactors system treating concentrated domestic sewage was operated at 23 degrees C and at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 15 and 4 h, respectively. Excess sludge from the downstream AF stage was returned to the upstream UASB reactor. The aim was to obtain higher sludge retention time (SRT) in the UASB reactor for better methanization of suspended COD. The UASB-AF system removed 55% and 65% of the total COD (COD(tot)) and suspended COD (COD(ss)), respectively. The calculated SRT in the UASB reactor ranged from 20-35 days. The AF reactor removed the washed out sludge from the first stage reactor with average COD(ss) removal efficiency of 55%. The volatile fatty acids concentration in the effluent of the AF was 39 mg COD/L compared with 78 mg COD/L measured for the influent. The slightly higher COD(tot) removal efficiency obtained in this study compared with a single stage UASB reactor was achieved at 17% reduction in the total volume. PMID:20390881

  2. Anaerobic bioprocessing of low rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

    1991-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low rank coals under ambient conditions and to assess the properties of these modified coals towards coal liquefaction. The main objectives for this quarter were: (1) enrichment of anaerobic microbial consortia in a coal fed chemostat, (2) characterization of biocoal products and examination of liquefaction potential, (3) isolation of decarboxylating organisms and evaluation of the isolated organisms for decarboxylation. The project began on September 12, 1990. 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Microsatellite variability in the entomopathogenic fungus Paeciolomyces fumosoroseus: genetic diversity and population structure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hyphomycete Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Pfr) is a geographically widespread fungus capable of infecting various insect hosts. The fungus has been used for the biological control of several important insect pests of agriculture. However knowledge of the fungus’ genetic diversity and population str...

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of the Ant-Associated Fungus Phialophora attae (CBS 131958)

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Leandro F.; Stielow, J. Benjamin; de Vries, Michel; Weiss, Vinicius A.; Vicente, Vania A.

    2015-01-01

    The black yeast Phialophora attae was isolated from the cuticle of tropical ant gynes. The ant-fungus association is sustained due to symbiotic evolutionary adaptations that allow fungal assimilation and tolerance of toxic compounds produced by the ant. The genome sequence of the first ant-associated fungus, P. attae, is presented here. PMID:26586868

  5. First unusual case of keratitis in Europe due to the rare fungus Metarhizium anisopliae.

    PubMed

    Dorin, Josephine; Debourgogne, Anne; Zaïdi, Mohamed; Bazard, Marie-Christine; Machouart, Marie

    2015-05-01

    Metarhizium anisopliae is a fungus utilized worldwide for insect-pest biocontrol. Few M. anisopliae infections have been reported previously. Here, M. anisopliae was isolated from a corneal ulcer in a healthy man. It is the first ocular case in France and Europe of this extremely rare fungus in humans. PMID:25813244

  6. Detection of fungus-infected corn kernels using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy and color imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of grain products by fungus can lead to economic losses and is deleterious to human and livestock health. Detection and quantification of fungus-infected corn kernels would be adventitious for producers and breeders in evaluating quality and in selecting hybrids with resistance to inf...

  7. Melaleuca quinquenervia plants differ in susceptibility towards fungus Puccinia psidii infection and disease development.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puccinia psidii (rust fungus) attacks immature healthy foliage of Melaleuca quinquenervia (melaleuca), an invasive plant in southern Florida, U.S.A. Melaleuca plants grown under same growing conditions manifest either susceptible or resistant reactions towards this fungus. We hypothesize that the va...

  8. Potential control of choke in orchardgrass with the fungus Dicyma pulvinata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Dicyma pulvinata colonizes the reproductive structure (stroma) of the plant pathogenic fungus Epichloë typhina, which causes choke disease in orchardgrass seed production fields in the Willamette Valley, OR. In greenhouse trials, D. pulvinata significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the reproduct...

  9. Using copper sulfate to control egg fungus at Keo Fish Farm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Keo Fish Farm is the biggest producer of hybrid striped bass fry in the world. The hatchery manager asked about treatments to control fungus on eggs which occurred fairly often. Our lab has been working on gaining FDA-approval to use copper sulfate to control fungus on catfish eggs, so we were con...

  10. Fun Microbiology: Using a Plant Pathogenic Fungus To Demonstrate Koch's Postulates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James K.; Orsted, Kathy M.; Warnes, Carl E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment using a plant pathogenic fungus in which students learn to follow aseptic techniques, grow and produce spores of a fungus, use a hemacytometer for enumerating spores, prepare serial dilutions, grow and inoculate plants, isolate a pure culture using agar streak plates, and demonstrate the four steps of Koch's postulates.…

  11. Genome Sequence of the Mucoromycotina Fungus Umbelopsis isabellina, an Effective Producer of Lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Itaru; Tamano, Koichi; Yamane, Noriko; Ishii, Tomoko; Miura, Ai; Umemura, Myco; Terai, Goro; Baker, Scott E.; Koike, Hideaki; Machida, Masayuki

    2014-02-27

    Umbelopsis isabellina is a fungus in the subdivision Mucoromycotina, many members of which have been shown to be oleaginous and have become important organisms for producing oil because of their high level of intracellular lipid accumulation from various feedstocks. The genome sequence of U. isabellina NBRC 7884 was determined and annotated, and this information might provide insights into the oleaginous properties of this fungus.

  12. Specificity in the symbiotic association between fungus-growing ants and protective Pseudonocardia bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cafaro, Matías J.; Poulsen, Michael; Little, Ainslie E. F.; Price, Shauna L.; Gerardo, Nicole M.; Wong, Bess; Stuart, Alison E.; Larget, Bret; Abbot, Patrick; Currie, Cameron R.

    2011-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants (tribe Attini) engage in a mutualism with a fungus that serves as the ants' primary food source, but successful fungus cultivation is threatened by microfungal parasites (genus Escovopsis). Actinobacteria (genus Pseudonocardia) associate with most of the phylogenetic diversity of fungus-growing ants; are typically maintained on the cuticle of workers; and infection experiments, bioassay challenges and chemical analyses support a role of Pseudonocardia in defence against Escovopsis through antibiotic production. Here we generate a two-gene phylogeny for Pseudonocardia associated with 124 fungus-growing ant colonies, evaluate patterns of ant–Pseudonocardia specificity and test Pseudonocardia antibiotic activity towards Escovopsis. We show that Pseudonocardia associated with fungus-growing ants are not monophyletic: the ants have acquired free-living strains over the evolutionary history of the association. Nevertheless, our analysis reveals a significant pattern of specificity between clades of Pseudonocardia and groups of related fungus-growing ants. Furthermore, antibiotic assays suggest that despite Escovopsis being generally susceptible to inhibition by diverse Actinobacteria, the ant-derived Pseudonocardia inhibit Escovopsis more strongly than they inhibit other fungi, and are better at inhibiting this pathogen than most environmental Pseudonocardia strains tested. Our findings support a model that many fungus-growing ants maintain specialized Pseudonocardia symbionts that help with garden defence. PMID:21106596

  13. Bioproducts and morphological features of diverse isolates of the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aureobasidium pullulans is a fungus included among the “black yeasts.” Although many strains are predominantly yeast-like, the species is actually polymorphic, exhibiting a variety of complex forms. The fungus is ubiquitous, routinely found on the surface of leaves, wood, painted walls, etc. We rece...

  14. Nigrosphaerin A., a new isachromene derivative from the endophytic fungus Nigrospora sphaerica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nigrosphaerin A, a new isochromene derivative (1) was isolated from the endophytic fungus Nigrospora sphaerica and chemically identified as 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-4,6,8-trihydroxy-1H-isochromen-1-one-6-O-ß-D- glucopyranoside. In addition nineteen known compounds (2-20) isolated from the same fungus...

  15. Differential response by Melaleuca quinquenervia trees to attack by the rust fungus Puccinia psidii in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Melaleuca quinquenervia (melaleuca, paperbark tree) is an exotic invasive tree in Florida, Hawaii, and some Caribbean islands. Puccinia psidii (guava rust-fungus) is a Neotropical rust fungus, reported to attack many species in the Myrtaceae and one genus in the Heteropyxidaceae, both members of the...

  16. The carbon starvation response of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus

    PubMed Central

    Ellström, Magnus; Shah, Firoz; Johansson, Tomas; Ahrén, Dag; Persson, Per; Tunlid, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The amounts of carbon allocated to the fungal partner in ectomycorrhizal associations can vary substantially depending on the plant growth and the soil nutrient conditions, and the fungus may frequently be confronted with limitations in carbon. We used chemical analysis and transcriptome profiling to examine the physiological response of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus to carbon starvation during axenic cultivation. Carbon starvation induced a decrease in the biomass. Concomitantly, ammonium, cell wall material (chitin) and proteolytic enzymes were released into the medium, which suggest autolysis. Compared with the transcriptome of actively growing hyphae, about 45% of the transcripts analyzed were differentially regulated during C-starvation. Induced during starvation were transcripts encoding extracellular enzymes such as peptidases, chitinases and laccases. In parallel, transcripts of N-transporters were upregulated, which suggest that some of the released nitrogen compounds were re-assimilated by the mycelium. The observed changes suggest that the carbon starvation response in P. involutus is associated with complex cellular changes that involves autolysis, recycling of intracellular compounds by autophagy and reabsorption of the extracellular released material. The study provides molecular markers that can be used to examine the role of autolysis for the turnover and survival of the ectomycorrhizal mycelium in soils. PMID:25778509

  17. Modulation of antimicrobial metabolites production by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus

    PubMed Central

    Bracarense, Adriana A.P.; Takahashi, Jacqueline A.

    2014-01-01

    Biosynthesis of active secondary metabolites by fungi occurs as a specific response to the different growing environments. Changes in this environment alter the chemical and biological profiles leading to metabolites diversification and consequently to novel pharmacological applications. In this work, it was studied the influence of three parameters (fermentation length, medium composition and aeration) in the biosyntheses of antimicrobial metabolites by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus in 10 distinct fermentation periods. Metabolism modulation in two culturing media, CYA and YES was evaluated by a 22 full factorial planning (ANOVA) and on a 23 factorial planning, role of aeration, medium composition and carbohydrate concentration were also evaluated. In overall, 120 different extracts were prepared, their HPLC profiles were obtained and the antimicrobial activity against A. flavus, C. albicans, E. coli and S. aureus of all extracts was evaluated by microdilution bioassay. Yield of kojic acid, a fine chemical produced by the fungus A. parasiticus was determined in all extracts. Statistical analyses pointed thirteen conditions able to modulate the production of bioactive metabolites by A. parasiticus. Effect of carbon source in metabolites diversification was significant as shown by the changes in the HPLC profiles of the extracts. Most of the extracts presented inhibition rates higher than that of kojic acid as for the extract obtained after 6 days of fermentation in YES medium under stirring. Kojic acid was not the only metabolite responsible for the activity since some highly active extracts showed to possess low amounts of this compound, as determined by HPLC. PMID:24948950

  18. No sex in fungus-farming ants or their crops.

    PubMed

    Himler, Anna G; Caldera, Eric J; Baer, Boris C; Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2009-07-22

    Asexual reproduction imposes evolutionary handicaps on asexual species, rendering them prone to extinction, because asexual reproduction generates novel genotypes and purges deleterious mutations at lower rates than sexual reproduction. Here, we report the first case of complete asexuality in ants, the fungus-growing ant Mycocepurus smithii, where queens reproduce asexually but workers are sterile, which is doubly enigmatic because the clonal colonies of M. smithii also depend on clonal fungi for food. Degenerate female mating anatomy, extensive field and laboratory surveys, and DNA fingerprinting implicate complete asexuality in this widespread ant species. Maternally inherited bacteria (e.g. Wolbachia, Cardinium) and the fungal cultivars can be ruled out as agents inducing asexuality. M. smithii societies of clonal females provide a unique system to test theories of parent-offspring conflict and reproductive policing in social insects. Asexuality of both ant farmer and fungal crop challenges traditional views proposing that sexual farmer ants outpace coevolving sexual crop pathogens, and thus compensate for vulnerabilities of their asexual crops. Either the double asexuality of both farmer and crop may permit the host to fully exploit advantages of asexuality for unknown reasons or frequent switching between crops (symbiont reassociation) generates novel ant-fungus combinations, which may compensate for any evolutionary handicaps of asexuality in M. smithii. PMID:19369264

  19. Reciprocal genomic evolution in the ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Sanne; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai; Schiøtt, Morten; Chen, Zhensheng; Yang, Zhikai; Xie, Qiaolin; Ma, Chunyu; Deng, Yuan; Dikow, Rebecca B; Rabeling, Christian; Nash, David R; Wcislo, William T; Brady, Seán G; Schultz, Ted R; Zhang, Guojie; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2016-01-01

    The attine ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis evolved over tens of millions of years, producing complex societies with industrial-scale farming analogous to that of humans. Here we document reciprocal shifts in the genomes and transcriptomes of seven fungus-farming ant species and their fungal cultivars. We show that ant subsistence farming probably originated in the early Tertiary (55-60 MYA), followed by further transitions to the farming of fully domesticated cultivars and leaf-cutting, both arising earlier than previously estimated. Evolutionary modifications in the ants include unprecedented rates of genome-wide structural rearrangement, early loss of arginine biosynthesis and positive selection on chitinase pathways. Modifications of fungal cultivars include loss of a key ligninase domain, changes in chitin synthesis and a reduction in carbohydrate-degrading enzymes as the ants gradually transitioned to functional herbivory. In contrast to human farming, increasing dependence on a single cultivar lineage appears to have been essential to the origin of industrial-scale ant agriculture. PMID:27436133

  20. Metabolism and the rise of fungus cultivation by ants.

    PubMed

    Shik, Jonathan Z; Santos, Juan C; Seal, Jon N; Kay, Adam; Mueller, Ulrich G; Kaspari, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Most ant colonies are comprised of workers that cooperate to harvest resources and feed developing larvae. Around 50 million years ago (MYA), ants of the attine lineage adopted an alternative strategy, harvesting resources used as compost to produce fungal gardens. While fungus cultivation is considered a major breakthrough in ant evolution, the associated ecological consequences remain poorly understood. Here, we compare the energetics of attine colony-farms and ancestral hunter-gatherer colonies using metabolic scaling principles within a phylogenetic context. We find two major energetic transitions. First, the earliest lower-attine farmers transitioned to lower mass-specific metabolic rates while shifting significant fractions of biomass from ant tissue to fungus gardens. Second, a transition 20 MYA to specialized cultivars in the higher-attine clade was associated with increased colony metabolism (without changes in garden fungal content) and with metabolic scaling nearly identical to hypometry observed in hunter-gatherer ants, although only the hunter-gatherer slope was distinguishable from isometry. Based on these evolutionary transitions, we propose that shifting living-tissue storage from ants to fungal mutualists provided energetic storage advantages contributing to attine diversification and outline critical assumptions that, when tested, will help link metabolism, farming efficiency, and colony fitness. PMID:25141145

  1. Reciprocal genomic evolution in the ant–fungus agricultural symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Sanne; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai; Schiøtt, Morten; Chen, Zhensheng; Yang, Zhikai; Xie, Qiaolin; Ma, Chunyu; Deng, Yuan; Dikow, Rebecca B.; Rabeling, Christian; Nash, David R.; Wcislo, William T.; Brady, Seán G.; Schultz, Ted R.; Zhang, Guojie; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2016-01-01

    The attine ant–fungus agricultural symbiosis evolved over tens of millions of years, producing complex societies with industrial-scale farming analogous to that of humans. Here we document reciprocal shifts in the genomes and transcriptomes of seven fungus-farming ant species and their fungal cultivars. We show that ant subsistence farming probably originated in the early Tertiary (55–60 MYA), followed by further transitions to the farming of fully domesticated cultivars and leaf-cutting, both arising earlier than previously estimated. Evolutionary modifications in the ants include unprecedented rates of genome-wide structural rearrangement, early loss of arginine biosynthesis and positive selection on chitinase pathways. Modifications of fungal cultivars include loss of a key ligninase domain, changes in chitin synthesis and a reduction in carbohydrate-degrading enzymes as the ants gradually transitioned to functional herbivory. In contrast to human farming, increasing dependence on a single cultivar lineage appears to have been essential to the origin of industrial-scale ant agriculture. PMID:27436133

  2. Homoharringtonine production by endophytic fungus isolated from Cephalotaxus hainanensis Li.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoping; Li, Wu; Yuan, Mu; Li, Congfa; Liu, Sixin; Jiang, Chunjie; Wu, Yanchun; Cai, Kun; Liu, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Homoharringtonine (HHT), a natural plant alkaloid derived from Cephalotaxus, has demonstrated to have a broad antitumor activity and efficacy in treating human chronic myeloid leukemia. An alternative source is required to substitute for the slow-growing and scarce Cephalotaxus to meet the increasing demand of the drug market. The objective of this study was to screen HHT-producing endophytic fungi from Cephalotaxus hainanensis Li. By screening 213 fungal isolates obtained from the bark parts of Cephalotaxus hainanensis Li, one isolate was found to be capable of biosynthesizing HHT. The fungus was identified as Alternaria tenuissima by morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis and was named as CH1307. HHT obtained from CH1307 was analyzed through the HPLC and LC-MS/MS and NMR spectroscopy. The extract of the fermentation broth of CH1307 showed antiproliferative activities against K562 (chronic myelocytic leukemia), NB4 (acute promyelocytic leukemia), and HL-60 (promyelocytic leukemia) human cancer cell lines with IC50 values of 67.25 ± 4.26, 65.02 ± 4.75, and 99.23 ± 4.26 μg/mL, respectively. The findings suggest that HHT-producing endophytic fungus, Alternaria tenuissima CH1307 might provide a promising source for the research and application of HHT. PMID:27263005

  3. Transformation of Metalaxyl by the Fungus Syncephalastrum racemosum†

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhong; Liu, Shu-Yen; Freyer, Alan J.; Bollag, Jean-Marc

    1989-01-01

    The fungus Syncephalastrum racemosum (Cohn) Schroeter was found to transform the fungicide metalaxyl [N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-alanine methyl ester] in pure culture. After 21 days of incubation in a basal medium amended with 5 μg of metalaxyl per ml, more than 80% of the compound was transformed by the fungus. The transformation rates decreased as the concentrations of metalaxyl increased from 5 to 100 μg/ml. No transformation was observed when the concentration of metalaxyl was higher than 200 μg/ml. Two isomeric metabolites and a mixture of two other isomeric metabolites were isolated from the organic extract of the growth medium and identified as N-(2-methyl-6-hydroxymethylphenyl)-N- and N-(2-hydroxymethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-alanine methyl ester and N-(3-hydroxy- and N-(5-hydroxy-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-alanine methyl ester according to their mass-spectral and nuclear magnetic resonance-spectral characteristics. Benzylic hydroxylation of the methyl side chains and/or aromatic hydroxylation appeared to be the major reactions involved in the metabolism of metalaxyl. PMID:16347836

  4. Identification, distribution, and toxigenicity of obligate anaerobes in polluted waters.

    PubMed Central

    Daily, O P; Joseph, S W; Gillmore, J D; Colwell, R R; Seidler, R J

    1981-01-01

    A seasonal occurrence of obligately anaerobic bacteria, predominantly of the genera Bacteroides and Clostridium, in a polluted water site has been observed. The number of anaerobes varied from 1.8 X 10(3) cells/ml in the warmer months to 10 cells/ml in winter. Several isolates were toxigenic, indicating a potential human health hazard. PMID:7235706

  5. TEST RESULTS FOR FUEL CELL OPERATION ON ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA, in conjunction with ONSI Corp., embarked on a project to define, design, test, and assess a fuel cell energy recovery system for application at anaerobic digester waste water (sewage) treatment plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at these plants during the proce...

  6. Anaerobic Catabolism of Aromatic Compounds: a Genetic and Genomic View

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Manuel; Zamarro, María Teresa; Blázquez, Blas; Durante-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Juárez, Javier F.; Valderrama, J. Andrés; Barragán, María J. L.; García, José Luis; Díaz, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Aromatic compounds belong to one of the most widely distributed classes of organic compounds in nature, and a significant number of xenobiotics belong to this family of compounds. Since many habitats containing large amounts of aromatic compounds are often anoxic, the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds by microorganisms becomes crucial in biogeochemical cycles and in the sustainable development of the biosphere. The mineralization of aromatic compounds by facultative or obligate anaerobic bacteria can be coupled to anaerobic respiration with a variety of electron acceptors as well as to fermentation and anoxygenic photosynthesis. Since the redox potential of the electron-accepting system dictates the degradative strategy, there is wide biochemical diversity among anaerobic aromatic degraders. However, the genetic determinants of all these processes and the mechanisms involved in their regulation are much less studied. This review focuses on the recent findings that standard molecular biology approaches together with new high-throughput technologies (e.g., genome sequencing, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metagenomics) have provided regarding the genetics, regulation, ecophysiology, and evolution of anaerobic aromatic degradation pathways. These studies revealed that the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds is more diverse and widespread than previously thought, and the complex metabolic and stress programs associated with the use of aromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions are starting to be unraveled. Anaerobic biotransformation processes based on unprecedented enzymes and pathways with novel metabolic capabilities, as well as the design of novel regulatory circuits and catabolic networks of great biotechnological potential in synthetic biology, are now feasible to approach. PMID:19258534

  7. LOVES CREEK ANAEROBIC, UPFLOW (ANFLOW) PILOT PLANT: PERFORMANCE SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic filter technology for municipal wastewater treatment has been studied in Knoxville, Tennessee with a 190-m exp 3 /d facility from August 1981 to October 1983. The ORNL project (described by the acronym ANFLOW for the anaerobic, upflow characteristics of the technology) ...

  8. Evidence of hydrolytic route for anaerobic cyanide degradation.

    PubMed Central

    Fallon, R D

    1992-01-01

    Products observed during anaerobic cyanide transformation are consistent with a hydrolytic pathway (HCN + H2O <--> HCONH2 + H2O <--> HCOOH + NH3). Formate, the most frequently observed product, was generally converted to bicarbonate. Formamide was rapidly hydrolyzed to formate upon exposure to the anaerobic consortium but was not detected as an intermediate of cyanide transformation. PMID:1444430

  9. Denitrification in anaerobic lagoons used to treat swine wastewater.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic lagoons are commonly used for treatment of swine wastewater. Although these lagoons were once thought to be relatively simple; their physical, chemical, and biological processes are actually very complex. This study of anaerobic lagoons had twofold objectives: 1] quantify denitrification e...

  10. Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation and Soil Borne Pest Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD; also referred to as Biological Soil Disinfestation (BSD)) is a pre-plant soil treatment method developed to control plant disease and manage yield decline in many crop production systems. The practice involves induction of anaerobic soil conditions by increasing m...

  11. Anaerobic Threshold and Salivary α-amylase during Incremental Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Akizuki, Kazunori; Yazaki, Syouichirou; Echizenya, Yuki; Ohashi, Yukari

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the validity of salivary α-amylase as a method of quickly estimating anaerobic threshold and to establish the relationship between salivary α-amylase and double-product breakpoint in order to create a way to adjust exercise intensity to a safe and effective range. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven healthy young adults performed an incremental exercise test using a cycle ergometer. During the incremental exercise test, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and ventilatory equivalent were measured using a breath-by-breath gas analyzer. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured to calculate the double product, from which double-product breakpoint was determined. Salivary α-amylase was measured to calculate the salivary threshold. [Results] One-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences among workloads at the anaerobic threshold, double-product breakpoint, and salivary threshold. Significant correlations were found between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold and between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. [Conclusion] As a method for estimating anaerobic threshold, salivary threshold was as good as or better than determination of double-product breakpoint because the correlation between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold was higher than the correlation between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. Therefore, salivary threshold is a useful index of anaerobic threshold during an incremental workload. PMID:25140097

  12. Accumulation and chemical states of radiocesium by fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Yu, Qianqian

    2014-05-01

    After accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the fall-out radiocesium was deposited on the ground. Filamentous fungus is known to accumulate radiocesium in environment, even though many minerals are involved in soil. These facts suggest that fungus affect the migration behavior of radiocesium in the environment. However, accumulation mechanism of radiocesium by fungus is not understood. In the present study, accumulation and chemical states change of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radiocesium in the environment. Two different experimental conditions were employed; one is the accumulation experiments of radiocesium by S. cerevisiae from the agar medium containing 137Cs and a mineral of zeolite, vermiculite, smectite, mica, or illite. The other is the experiments using stable cesium to examine the chemical states change of Cs. In the former experiment, the cells were grown on membrane filter of 0.45 μm installed on the agar medium. After the grown cells were weighed, radioactivity in the cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. The mineral weight contents were changed from 0.1% to 1% of the medium. In the latter experiment, the cells were grown in the medium containing stable Cs between 1 mM and 10mM. The Cs accumulated cells were analyzed by SEM-EDS and EXAFS. The adsorption experiments of cesium by the cells under resting condition were also conducted to test the effect of cells metabolic activity. Without mineral in the medium, cells of S. cerevisiae accumulated 1.5x103 Bq/g from the medium containing 137Cs of 2.6x102 Bq/g. When mineral was added in the medium, concentration of 137Cs in the cells decreased. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells from the medium containing different minerals were in the following order; smectite, illite, mica > vermiculite > zeolite. This order was nearly the same as the inverse of distribution coefficient of

  13. Host deception: Predaceous fungus, esteya vermicola, entices pine wood nematode by mimicking the scent of its host pine for nutrient

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A nematophagous fungus, Esteya vermicola, is recorded as the first endoparasitic fungus of pine wood nematode (PWN), Burasphelenchus xylophilus, in the last century. E. vermicola exhibited high infectivity toward PWN in the laboratory conditions and conidia spraying of this fungus on Japanese red pi...

  14. Utilization of inoculum produced on-farm for production of AM fungus colonized pepper and tomato seedlings under conventional management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal [AM] fungus inoculum may be used to produce colonized vegetable seedlings for outplanting. Success depends, in part, upon a nutrient regime in the greenhouse that is conducive to AM fungus hyphal growth and signaling/recognition events between host and fungus. Experiments we...

  15. Treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters using anaerobic filters.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Sandra Luz; Torretta, Vincenzo; Minguelac, Jésus Vázquez; Siñeriz, Faustino; Raboni, Massimo; Copelli, Sabrina; Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a laboratory-scale experimentation allowed comparing the performances of two upflow anaerobic packed-bed filters filled with different packing materials and operating at mesophilic conditions (30 degreeC) for treating slaughterhouse wastewaters. Methane production was experimentally evaluated considering different volumetric organic loading rates as well as feeding overloading conditions. Although filter performances declined with loading rates higher than 6 kg CODin m-3 d-1 , the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency remained always above 60%. The experimental results allowed for determining kinetic parameters for bacterial growth rate and methane production, following Monod and Chen-Hashimoto models, respectively. Results demonstrated that the reactors reached a cellular retention time significantly greater than the hydraulic retention time. The kinetic parameter values (Ks, l/max) revealed the low microorganisms' affinity for the substrate and confirmed the moderate biodegradability of slaughterhouse wastewater. The kinetic analysis also allowed the comparison of the filters performances with another anaerobic system and the assessment of the parameters useful for real-scale plant design. The system design, applied to a medium-sized Argentinean slaughterhouse, demonstrated to (i) be energetically self-sufficient and (ii) contribute to the plant's water heating requirements. PMID:24600871

  16. The anaerobic digestion of solid organic waste.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Azeem; Arshad, Muhammad; Anjum, Muzammil; Mahmood, Tariq; Dawson, Lorna

    2011-08-01

    The accumulation of solid organic waste is thought to be reaching critical levels in almost all regions of the world. These organic wastes require to be managed in a sustainable way to avoid depletion of natural resources, minimize risk to human health, reduce environmental burdens and maintain an overall balance in the ecosystem. A number of methods are currently applied to the treatment and management of solid organic waste. This review focuses on the process of anaerobic digestion which is considered to be one of the most viable options for recycling the organic fraction of solid waste. This manuscript provides a broad overview of the digestibility and energy production (biogas) yield of a range of substrates and the digester configurations that achieve these yields. The involvement of a diverse array of microorganisms and effects of co-substrates and environmental factors on the efficiency of the process has been comprehensively addressed. The recent literature indicates that anaerobic digestion could be an appealing option for converting raw solid organic wastes into useful products such as biogas and other energy-rich compounds, which may play a critical role in meeting the world's ever-increasing energy requirements in the future. PMID:21530224

  17. Kinetics of anaerobic purification of industrial wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Bolle, W.L.; van Breugel, J.; van Eybergen, G.C.; Kossen, N.W.F.; van Gils, W.

    1986-04-01

    As part of the development of an integral mathematical model describing the up-flow anaerobic sludges blanket (UASB) reactor, the kinetics of the conversion of organic wastes has to be known. The Mondod model is compared with the model proposed by Andrews, et al. Together with the assumption that the substrate for the anaerobic bacteria is formed by nonionized, volatile fatty acids, the Andrews model is able to describe substrate inhibition and reactor failure due to pH changes. From four batch experiments, with different concentrations of microorganisms, it could be concluded with a reliability of over 95% that the Monod model was inadequate and Andrews' model was adequate to describe the measurements. Standard statistical techniques like the X2 and the F-test were used for this purpose. From a parameter sensitivity analysis for the Andrews model it followed that the maximum specific growth rate Mu(A) max of the bacteria and the inhibition constant K, are the parameters which influance the systems most. Thus, these parameters were determined experimentally and most accurately. The other parameters were taken from literature. From a calculation of the Thiele modulus for the particles it follows that transport limitation of the substrate in the flocs is not significant. The efficiency Eta is 0.85 in the worst case. 11 references.

  18. Anaerobic expanded bed treatment of whey

    SciTech Connect

    Switzenbaum, M.S.; Danskin, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment of whey offers the dual advantage of energy production and pollution control. The energy produced is in the form of methane which is a valuable form of energy in that it is easily separated from the liquid digesting whey, has a high caloric value and can be used for heating and cooking at the cheese plants where it is produced. Based on the data of a survey conducted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, it was shown that a significant portion (up to 46%) of the energy needs (in natural gas and oil) at cheese production plants in New York State could be recovered by methane generated from whey produced as a by-product of cheese manufacturing at the plants. Finally, the results of a preliminary feasibility study of a new type of innovative, compact, high rate, anaerobic fixed film process show that efficient treatment of whey is possible at low retention times, and at high organic loading rates.

  19. Anaerobic biodegradation of hexazinone in four sediments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huili; Xu, Shuxia; Tan, Chengxia; Wang, Xuedong

    2009-05-30

    Anaerobic biodegradation of hexazinone was investigated in four sediments (L1, L2, Y1 and Y2). Results showed that the L2 sediment had the highest biodegradation potential among four sediments. However, the Y1 and Y2 sediments had no capacity to biodegrade hexazinone. Sediments with rich total organic carbon, long-term contamination history by hexazinone and neutral pH may have a high biodegradation potential because the former two factors can induce the growth of microorganisms responsible for biodegradation and the third factor can offer suitable conditions for biodegradation. The addition of sulfate or nitrate as electron acceptors enhanced hexazinone degradation. As expected, the addition of electron donors (lactate, acetate or pyruvate) substantially inhibited the degradation. In natural environmental conditions, the effect of intermediate A [3-(4-hydroxycyclohexyl)-6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4(1H, 3H)dione] on anaerobic hexazinone degradation was negligible because of its low level. PMID:18824297

  20. Anaerobic degradation kinetics of a cholesteryl ester.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, S; Viñas, M

    2003-01-01

    The most important components of wool scouring effluent grease are esters of sterols. Cholesteryl palmitate (CP) is the main ester in this grease. In this paper, the influence of the ester concentration in the anaerobic digestion and the relative rate of the different degradation steps, are studied. The experiment was carried out to measure methane production in the anaerobic degradation of acetate, palmitic acid (PA) and CP. A first-order kinetic model was assumed for hydrolysis and Monod models were assumed for both the methanogenic and acetogenic steps. Maximum hydrolysis rate was found to be around 20 times faster than the maximum methanogenic reaction rate during the experience. The lanolin emulsion drop size effect was also evaluated employing fine and coarse stock lanolin emulsions and no adapted sludge. Concentrations of 13.7 to 4.6 gCOD x l(-1) were employed. In a previous study, the effect of palmitic acid emulsion size was found important when similar sludge was tested. When esters are degraded, a significant effect of drop size on the degradation rate was not found. The difference between CP and PA emulsions behavior could be due to the fact that cholesterol produced during the ester degradation has a protective effect on the sludge. PMID:14640211

  1. Anaerobic and aerobic transformation of TNT

    SciTech Connect

    Kulpa, C.F.; Boopathy, R.; Manning, J.

    1996-12-31

    Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds have used pure cultures of aerobic microorganisms. In many cases, attempts to degrade nitroaromatics under aerobic conditions by pure cultures result in no mineralization and only superficial modifications of the structure. However, mixed culture systems properly operated result in the transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and in some cases mineralization of TNT occurs. In this paper, the mixed culture system is described with emphasis on intermediates and the characteristics of the aerobic microbial process including the necessity for a co-substrate. The possibility of removing TNT under aerobic/anoxic conditions is described in detail. Another option for the biodegradation of TNT and nitroaromatics is under anaerobic, sulfate reducing conditions. In this instance, the nitroaromatic compounds undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. TNT under sulfate reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene presumably by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of nitro groups from TNT is achieved by a series of reductive reactions with the formation of ammonia and toluene by Desulfovibrio sp. (B strain). These metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. The data supporting the anaerobic transformation of TNT under different growth condition are reviewed in this report.

  2. Relevance of Routine Use of the Anaerobic Blood Culture Bottle▿

    PubMed Central

    Grohs, Patrick; Mainardi, Jean-Luc; Podglajen, Isabelle; Hanras, Xavier; Eckert, C.; Buu-Hoï, A.; Varon, E.; Gutmann, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Using the BacT/Alert automated system, we conducted a 1-year retrospective study on blood cultures, focusing on the relevance of routine use of the anaerobic bottle. The rate of patients with positive blood cultures was 19.7%. Among these, 13.5% had a positive anaerobic bottle in the absence of any aerobic bottle, and 2/3 of these grew with nonobligate anaerobes. These patients were hospitalized in 20 out of 26 wards of the hospital group. For 65.4% of the monomicrobial-positive blood cultures growing Enterobacteriaceae, the anaerobic bottle detected growth earlier than the corresponding aerobic bottle. These data suggest that, in our institution, the use of an anaerobic bottle is still relevant. PMID:17581942

  3. Anaerobic digestion of hog wastes: Principles and practice

    SciTech Connect

    Oleszkiewicz, J.A.; Bujoczek, G.

    1996-12-31

    The principles and overview of research, development and implementation of anaerobic digestion for hog wastes are discussed. Based on economic evaluations, an anaerobic technology is cost-effective, especially for a larger herd and becomes more competitive with aerobic treatment. Nevertheless, the rate of treatment is more sensitive and dependent on the particular fraction of manure being processed. Considering the different factors affecting anaerobic digestion, a complete mixed reactor with solids recycle (having high solids retention time and low hydraulic retention time) was found to be the more reliable system with regards to methane generation and manure stabilization. By solids recycle one can obtain significant saving in the reactor volume required, while still achieving the expected degree of treatment. It was also found that even though treatment using advanced anaerobic systems when compared with simple anaerobic systems is more expensive, the rate of return on investment and efficiency of the process are higher.

  4. Determination of mercury and organomercurial resistance in obligate anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rudrik, J T; Bawdon, R E; Guss, S P

    1985-03-01

    A methodology for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration of inorganic and organomercurial compounds for obligate anaerobic bacteria is described. A wide variation in the susceptibility of anaerobic clinical and sewage isolates was observed. Isolates of Bacteroides ruminicola and Clostridium perfringens resistant to mercury were examined for their plasmid content and ability to demonstrate inducible resistance. None of the resistant anaerobes contained any plasmids, while resistant facultative isolates from the same source contained several plasmids. In 24 h, resistant strains of clostridia and Bacteroides volatilized 20 and 43% of the 203Hg2+ added to cultures, while Escherichia coli R100 and a sewage isolate of Enterobacter cloacae volatilized 63 and 27%, respectively, of the added 203Hg2+. Attempts to induce mercury resistance in the aerobic isolates were successful, but no induction was seen in the anaerobes. Thus, mercury resistance in these anaerobic isolates was neither inducible nor plasmid mediated. PMID:4005712

  5. Adsorption and decolorization kinetics of methyl orange by anaerobic sludge.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Michael Hon-Wah; Yu, Han-Qing

    2011-05-01

    Adsorption and decolorization kinetics of methyl orange (MO) by anaerobic sludge in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors were investigated. The anaerobic sludge was found to have a saturated adsorption capacity of 36 ± 1 mg g MLSS(-1) to MO. UV/visible spectrophotometer and high-performance liquid chromatography analytical results indicated that the MO adsorption and decolorization occurred simultaneously in this system. This process at various substrate concentrations could be well simulated using a modified two-stage model with apparent pseudo first-order kinetics. Furthermore, a noncompetitive inhibition kinetic model was also developed to describe the MO decolorization process at high NaCl concentrations, and an inhibition constant of 3.67 g NaCl l(-1) was estimated. This study offers an insight into the adsorption and decolorization processes of azo dyes by anaerobic sludge and provides a better understanding of the anaerobic dye decolorization mechanisms. PMID:21279343

  6. A modeling approach to describe ZVI-based anaerobic system.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiao; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-10-15

    Zero-valent iron (ZVI) is increasingly being added into anaerobic reactors to enhance the biological conversion of various less biodegradable pollutants (LBPs). Our study aimed to establish a new structure model based on the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) to simulate such a ZVI-based anaerobic reactor. Three new processes, i.e., electron release from ZVI corrosion, H2 formation from ZVI corrosion, and transformation of LBPs, were integrated into ADM1. The established model was calibrated and tested using the experimental data from one published study, and validated using the data from another work. A good relationship between the predicted and measured results indicates that the proposed model was appropriate to describe the performance of the ZVI-based anaerobic system. Our model could provide more precise strategies for the design, development, and application of anaerobic systems especially for treating various LBPs-containing wastewaters. PMID:23932771

  7. Biochemistry and Evolution of Anaerobic Energy Metabolism in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Miklós; Mentel, Marek; van Hellemond, Jaap J.; Henze, Katrin; Woehle, Christian; Gould, Sven B.; Yu, Re-Young; van der Giezen, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Major insights into the phylogenetic distribution, biochemistry, and evolutionary significance of organelles involved in ATP synthesis (energy metabolism) in eukaryotes that thrive in anaerobic environments for all or part of their life cycles have accrued in recent years. All known eukaryotic groups possess an organelle of mitochondrial origin, mapping the origin of mitochondria to the eukaryotic common ancestor, and genome sequence data are rapidly accumulating for eukaryotes that possess anaerobic mitochondria, hydrogenosomes, or mitosomes. Here we review the available biochemical data on the enzymes and pathways that eukaryotes use in anaerobic energy metabolism and summarize the metabolic end products that they generate in their anaerobic habitats, focusing on the biochemical roles that their mitochondria play in anaerobic ATP synthesis. We present metabolic maps of compartmentalized energy metabolism for 16 well-studied species. There are currently no enzymes of core anaerobic energy metabolism that are specific to any of the six eukaryotic supergroup lineages; genes present in one supergroup are also found in at least one other supergroup. The gene distribution across lineages thus reflects the presence of anaerobic energy metabolism in the eukaryote common ancestor and differential loss during the specialization of some lineages to oxic niches, just as oxphos capabilities have been differentially lost in specialization to anoxic niches and the parasitic life-style. Some facultative anaerobes have retained both aerobic and anaerobic pathways. Diversified eukaryotic lineages have retained the same enzymes of anaerobic ATP synthesis, in line with geochemical data indicating low environmental oxygen levels while eukaryotes arose and diversified. PMID:22688819

  8. Anaerobic Antimicrobial Therapy After Necrotizing Enterocolitis in VLBW Infants

    PubMed Central

    Autmizguine, Julie; Hornik, Christoph P.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Laughon, Matthew M.; Clark, Reese H.; Cotten, C. Michael; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Benjamin, Daniel K.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of anaerobic antimicrobial therapy for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) on clinical outcomes in very low birth weight (≤1500 g) infants. METHODS: We identified very low birth weight infants with NEC from 348 US NICUs from 1997 to 2012. Anaerobic antimicrobial therapy was defined by antibiotic exposure on the first day of NEC. We matched (1:1) infants exposed to anaerobic antimicrobial therapy with infants who were not exposed by using a propensity score stratified by NEC severity (medical and surgical). The primary composite outcome was in-hospital death or intestinal stricture. We assessed the relationship between anaerobic antimicrobial therapy and outcome by using a conditional logistic regression on the matched cohort. RESULTS: A total of 1390 infants exposed to anaerobic antimicrobial therapy were matched with 1390 infants not exposed. Mean gestational age and birth weight were 27 weeks and 946 g, respectively, and were similar in both groups. We found no significant difference in the combined outcome of death or strictures, but strictures as a single outcome were more common in the anaerobic antimicrobial therapy group (odds ratio 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.11–2.72). Among infants with surgical NEC, mortality was less common with anaerobic antimicrobial therapy (odds ratio 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.52–0.95). CONCLUSIONS: Anaerobic antimicrobial therapy was not associated with the composite outcome of death or strictures but was associated with an increase in intestinal strictures. This higher incidence of intestinal strictures may be explained by the fact that death is a competing outcome for intestinal strictures, and mortality was slightly lower in the anaerobic cohort. Infants with surgical NEC who received anaerobic antimicrobial therapy had lower mortality. PMID:25511117

  9. Are incidence and epidemiology of anaerobic bacteremia really changing?

    PubMed

    Vena, A; Muñoz, P; Alcalá, L; Fernandez-Cruz, A; Sanchez, C; Valerio, M; Bouza, E

    2015-08-01

    Incidence, prognosis and need of performing blood cultures for anaerobic bacteria are under debate, mainly due to the belief that the presence of anaerobes in blood can be easily suspected on clinical basis. We aimed to assess these three points in a retrospective analysis of a 10-year experience in our tertiary hospital. All episodes of significant anaerobic bacteremia diagnosed from 2003 to 2012 were included. Risk factors for mortality and clinical predictability of anaerobic bacteremia were evaluated in 113 randomly selected episodes. Overall incidence of anaerobic bacteremia was 1.2 episodes/1000 admissions, with no significant changes during the 10-year study period. B. fragilis group (38.1 %) and Clostridium spp. (13.7 %) were the most frequent isolated microorganisms. As for the clinical study, 43.4 % of the patients had a comorbidity classified as ultimately fatal or rapidly fatal according to the McCabe and Jackson scale. Clinical manifestations suggestive of anaerobic involvement were present in only 55 % of the patients. Twenty-eight patients (24.8 %) died during the hospitalization. Independent predictive factors of mortality were a high Charlson's comorbidity index and presentation with septic shock, whereas, an adequate source control of the infection was associated with a better outcome. In our centre, incidence of anaerobic bacteremia remained stable during the last decade. The routine use of anaerobic BCs seems to be adequate, since in about half of the cases anaerobes could not be suspected on clinical bases. Moreover, prompt source control of infection is essential in order to reduce mortality of patients with anaerobic bacteremia. PMID:26017663

  10. Towards an integrated understanding of the consequences of fungus domestication on the fungus-growing termite gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Approximately 30 million years ago (MYA), the subfamily of higher termites Macrotermitinae domesticated a fungus, Termitomyces, as the main plant decomposer and food source for the termite host. The origin of fungiculture shifted the composition of the termite gut microbiota, and some of the functional implications of this shift have recently been established. I review reports on the composition of the Macrotermitinae gut microbiota, evidence for a subfamily core gut microbiota, and the first insight into functional complementarity between fungal and gut symbionts. In addition, I argue that we need to explore the capacities of all members of the symbiotic communities, including better solidifying Termitomyces role(s) in order to understand putative complementary gut bacterial contributions. Approaches that integrate natural history and sequencing data to elucidate symbiont functions will be powerful, particularly if executed in comparative analyses across the well-established congruent termite-fungus phylogenies. This will allow for testing if gut communities have evolved in parallel with their hosts, with implications for our general understanding of the evolution of gut symbiont communities with hosts. PMID:25581852

  11. A role for antioxidants in acclimation of marine derived pathogenic fungus (NIOCC 1) to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Chinnarajan; Varatharajan, Govindaswamy R; Rajasabapathy, Raju; Vijayakanth, S; Kumar, Alagu Harish; Meena, Ram M

    2012-09-01

    Salinity tolerance a key factor helps in understanding the ionic homeostasis in general, which is a fundamental cellular phenomenon in all living cells. Here, a marine derived pathogenic fungus was examined for its adaptation under salt stress using antioxidant properties. The aqueous extracts of halophilic fungus exhibited different levels of antioxidant activity in all the in vitro tests such as α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(·)), Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging Assay (HRSA), Metal chelating assay and β-carotene-linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant capacity of marine fungus exposed to high salt condition showed an increase in activity. In addition, the production of intra and extracellular antioxidant enzymes of the fungus at various salt stresses were analyzed and discussed for their possible role in the stress mechanism. The marine derived fungus was identified as Phialosimplex genus, which is associated with infections in dogs. Thus the present study elucidates that the scavenging activity is one of the protective mechanisms developed in the fungus to avoid the deleterious effect of salt stress. In addition, the study also helps in understanding how the pathogenic fungus tackles the oxidative burst i.e. hypersensitivity reaction performed by host to kill the pathogens. PMID:22809619

  12. Comparison of Aerobic and Anaerobic Biodegradation of Sugarcane Vinasse.

    PubMed

    Mota, V T; Araújo, T A; Amaral, M C S

    2015-07-01

    Vinasse is the main liquid waste from ethanol production, and it has a considerable pollution potential. Biological treatment is a promising alternative to reduce its organic load. The aim of this study was to analyze the biodegradation of sugarcane juice vinasse in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The content of carbohydrates, proteins and volatile fatty acids was evaluated. Vinasse samples showed a high biodegradability (>96.5 %) and low percentage of inert chemical oxygen demand (COD) (<3.2 %) in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The rates of substrate utilization were slightly higher in aerobic reactors, but COD stabilization occurred simultaneously in the anaerobic reactors, confirming its suitability for anaerobic digestion. Inert COD in anaerobic conditions was lower than in aerobic conditions. On the other hand, COD from metabolic products in the anaerobic reactors was higher than in the aerobic ones, indicating an increased release of soluble microbial products (SMPs) by anaerobic microorganisms. The results indicated that carbohydrates were satisfactorily degraded and protein-like substances were the major components remaining after biological degradation of vinasse. PMID:25957273

  13. Bioaugmentation of overloaded anaerobic digesters restores function and archaeal community.

    PubMed

    Tale, V P; Maki, J S; Zitomer, D H

    2015-03-01

    Adding beneficial microorganisms to anaerobic digesters for improved performance (i.e. bioaugmentation) has been shown to decrease recovery time after organic overload or toxicity upset. Compared to strictly anaerobic cultures, adding aerotolerant methanogenic cultures may be more practical since they exhibit higher methanogenic activity and can be easily dried and stored in ambient air for future shipping and use. In this study, anaerobic digesters were bioaugmented with both anaerobic and aerated, methanogenic propionate enrichment cultures after a transient organic overload. Digesters bioaugmented with anaerobic and moderately aerated cultures recovered 25 and 100 days before non-bioaugmented digesters, respectively. Increased methane production due to bioaugmentation continued a long time, with 50-120% increases 6 to 12 SRTs (60-120 days) after overload. In contrast to the anaerobic enrichment, the aerated enrichments were more effective as bioaugmentation cultures, resulting in faster recovery of upset digester methane and COD removal rates. Sixty days after overload, the bioaugmented digester archaeal community was not shifted, but was restored to one similar to the pre-overload community. In contrast, non-bioaugmented digester archaeal communities before and after overload were significantly different. Organisms most similar to Methanospirillum hungatei had higher relative abundance in well-operating, undisturbed and bioaugmented digesters, whereas organisms similar to Methanolinea tarda were more abundant in upset, non-bioaugmented digesters. Bioaugmentation is a beneficial approach to increase digester recovery rate after transient organic overload events. Moderately aerated, methanogenic propionate enrichment cultures were more beneficial augments than a strictly anaerobic enrichment. PMID:25528544

  14. Degradation of natural and synthetic polyesters under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Abou-Zeid, D M; Müller, R J; Deckwer, W D

    2001-03-30

    Often, degradability under anaerobic conditions is desirable for plastics claimed to be biodegradable, e.g. in anaerobic biowaste treatment plants, landfills and in natural anaerobic sediments. The biodegradation of the natural polyesters poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate-co-11.6%-beta-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and the synthetic polyester poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) was studied in two anaerobic sludges and individual polyester degrading anaerobic strains were isolated, characterized and used for degradation experiments under controlled laboratory conditions. Incubation of PHB and PHBV films in two anaerobic sludges exhibited significant degradation in a time scale of 6-10 weeks monitored by weight loss and biogas formation. In contrast to aerobic conditions, PHB was degraded anaerobically more rapidly than the copolyester PHBV, when tested with either mixed cultures or a single strained isolate. PCL tends to degrade slower than the natural polyesters PHB and PHBV. Four PHB and PCL degrading isolates were taxonomically identified and are obviously new species belonging to the genus Clostridium group I. The depolymerizing enzyme systems of PHB and PCL degrading isolates are supposed to be different. Using one isolated strain in an optimized laboratory degradation test with PHB powder, the degradation time was drastically reduced compared to the degradation in sludges (2 days vs. 6-10 weeks). PMID:11245900

  15. Trace metal speciation and bioavailability in anaerobic digestion: A review.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Pham Minh; Ketheesan, Balachandran; Yan, Zhou; Stuckey, David

    2016-01-01

    Trace metals are essential for the growth of anaerobic microorganisms, however, in practice they are often added to anaerobic digesters in excessive amounts, which can lead to inhibition. The concept of bioavailability of metals in anaerobic digestion has been poorly understood in the past, and a lack of deep understanding of the relationship between trace metal speciation and bioavailability can result in ineffective metal dosing strategies for anaerobic digesters. Sequential extraction schemes are useful for fractionating trace metals into their different forms, and metal sulfides can serve as a store and source for trace metals during anaerobic digestion, while natural/synthetic chelating agents (soluble microbial products-SMPs, extracellular polysaccharides-EPS, and EDTA/NTA) are capable of controlling trace metal bioavailability. Nevertheless, more work is needed to: investigate the speciation and bioavailability of Ca, Mg, Mn, W, and Se; compare the bioavailability of different forms of trace metals e.g. carbonates, sulfides, phosphates to different anaerobic trophic groups; determine what factors influence metal sulfide dissolution; investigate whether chelating agents can increase trace metal bioavailability; develop and adapt specialized analytical techniques, and; determine how trace metal dynamics change in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR). PMID:26707985

  16. Dispersal of non-sporeforming anaerobic bacteria from the skin.

    PubMed Central

    Benediktsdóttir, E.; Hambraeus, A.

    1982-01-01

    Dispersal of non-sporeforming anaerobic bacteria was studied. Skin samples were taken from the subjects, and dispersed from different parts of the body was examined. The number of anaerobic bacteria dispersed was not correlated to their density on the surface of skin area exposed. The highest density of anaerobic bacteria on the skin was found in the face and upper trunk, but the highest yield of anaerobic bacteria dispersed came from the lower trunk. The dominant anaerobic bacteria dispersed were Propionibacterium acnes, but Propionibacterium avidum, Propionibacterium granulosum and Gram-positive cocci were also isolated from the dispersal samples. Peptococcus magnus was the most common coccus isolated. For the less frequently isolated bacteria, the best correlation was found between the perineal flora and airborne bacteria. A comparison was also made of bacterial dispersal by naked and dressed subjects. The dispersal of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria was higher when the subjects were dressed in conventional operating theatre cotton clothing than when they were naked. The increased dispersal of anaerobic bacteria when the subjects were dressed was mainly due to increased dispersal of Propionibacterium sp. PMID:6806353

  17. Calorimetric studies of the growth of anaerobic microbes.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Hideo; Maeda, Yukiko; Ishikawa, Takashi; Tanaka, Akiyoshi

    2016-09-01

    This article aims to validate the use of calorimetry to measure the growth of anaerobic microbes. It has been difficult to monitor the growth of strict anaerobes while maintaining optimal growth conditions. Traditionally, optical density and ATP concentration are usually used as measures of the growth of anaerobic microbes. However, to take these measurements it is necessary to extract an aliquot of the culture, which can be difficult while maintaining anaerobic conditions. In this study, calorimetry was used to continuously and nondestructively measure the heat generated by the growth of anaerobic microbes as a function of time. Clostridium acetobutylicum, Clostridium beijerinckii, and Clostridium cellulovorans were used as representative anaerobic microbes. Using a multiplex isothermal calorimeter, we observed that peak time (tp) of C. acetobutylicum heat evolution increased as the inoculation rate decreased. This strong correlation between the inoculation rate and tp showed that it was possible to measure the growth rate of anaerobic microbes by calorimetry. Overall, our results showed that there is a very good correlation between heat evolution and optical density/ATP concentration, validating the use of the method. PMID:27012376

  18. Asteltoxins from the Entomopathogenic Fungus Pochonia bulbillosa 8-H-28.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Hayamitsu; Doi, Hiroyasu; Kasahara, Yuichi; Sawa, Ryuichi; Nakajima, Kaori; Kubota, Yumiko; Hosokawa, Nobuo; Tateishi, Ken; Nomoto, Akio

    2015-07-24

    New asteltoxins C (3) and D (4) were found in the extract of the entomopathogenic fungus Pochonia bulbillosa 8-H-28. Compound 2, which was spectroscopically identical with the known asteltoxin B, was isolated, and structural analysis led to a revision of the structure of asteltoxin B. Compounds 2 and 4 have a novel tricyclic ring system connected to a dienyl α-pyrone structure. Compound 3 has a 2,8-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane ring similar to that of asteltoxin (1). Compound 3 showed potent antiproliferative activity against NIAS-SL64 cells derived from the fat body of Spodoptera litura larvae, while 2 and 4 were inactive. PMID:26120875

  19. Cadmium-responsive thiols in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus.

    PubMed

    Courbot, Mikael; Diez, Laurent; Ruotolo, Roberta; Chalot, Michel; Leroy, Pierre

    2004-12-01

    Molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the sustained metal tolerance of ectomycorrhizal fungi are largely unknown. Some of the main mechanisms involved in metal detoxification appear to involve the chelation of metal ions in the cytosol with thiol-containing compounds, such as glutathione, phytochelatins, or metallothioneins. We used an improved high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous measurement of thiol-containing compounds from cysteine and its derivatives (gamma-glutamylcysteine, glutathione) to higher-molecular-mass compounds (phytochelatins). We found that glutathione and gamma-glutamylcysteine contents increased when the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus was exposed to cadmium. An additional compound with a 3-kDa molecular mass, most probably related to a metallothionein, increased drastically in mycelia exposed to cadmium. The relative lack of phytochelatins and the presence of a putative metallothionein suggest that ectomycorrhizal fungi may use a different means to tolerate heavy metals, such as Cd, than do their plant hosts. PMID:15574943

  20. Garden sharing and garden stealing in fungus-growing ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Rachelle M. M.; Mueller, U. G.; Holloway, Alisha K.; Green, Abigail M.; Narozniak, Joanie

    Fungi cultivated by fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae) are passed on between generations by transfer from maternal to offspring nest (vertical transmission within ant species). However, recent phylogenetic analyses revealed that cultivars are occasionally also transferred between attine species. The reasons for such lateral cultivar transfers are unknown. To investigate whether garden loss may induce ants to obtain a replacement cultivar from a neighboring colony (lateral cultivar transfer), pairs of queenright colonies of two Cyphomyrmex species were set up in two conjoined chambers; the garden of one colony was then removed to simulate the total crop loss that occurs naturally when pathogens devastate gardens. Garden-deprived colonies regained cultivars through one of three mechanisms: joining of a neighboring colony and cooperation in a common garden; stealing of a neighbor's garden; or aggressive usurpation of a neighbor's garden. Because pathogens frequently devastate attine gardens under natural conditions, garden joining, stealing and usurpation emerge as critical behavioral adaptations to survive garden catastrophes.

  1. Antiviral butyrolactones from the endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Du, Gang; Yang, Hai-Ying; Xia, Cong-Fang; Yang, Juan-Xia; Ye, Yan-qing; Gao, Xue-Mei; Li, Xiao-Nian; Hu, Qiu-Fen

    2015-02-01

    Versicolactones A-D (1-4), four new butyrolactones, along with four known butyrolactones (5-8) were isolated from the fermentation products of the endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor. The structures of compounds 1-4, including absolute configuration, were elucidated by interpretation of the NMR and CD data. Compound 2 was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In particular, compound 1 is the first naturally occurring butyrolactone possessing an unusual 2-oxopropyl group. More importantly, compounds 1 and 8 displayed significant antitobacco mosaic virus activities with inhibition rates of 46.4 % and 35.4 %, even more potent than the positive control ningnanmycin (30.8 %). Compound 1 also showed moderate cytotoxicity against A549 and MCF7 cells with IC50 values of 3.2 and 2.5 µM, respectively. PMID:25590371

  2. Cytotoxic sesquiterpenes from the endophytic fungus Pseudolagarobasidium acaciicola.

    PubMed

    Wibowo, Mario; Prachyawarakorn, Vilailak; Aree, Thammarat; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kittakoop, Prasat

    2016-02-01

    Twenty previously unknown compounds and two known metabolites, merulin A and merulin D, were isolated from the endophytic fungus Pseudolagarobasidium acaciicola, which was isolated from a mangrove tree, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Structures of the 20 compounds were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of seven of these compounds was addressed by a single crystal X-ray analysis using CuKα radiation and an estimate of the Flack parameter. Three compounds also possessed a tricyclic ring system. Terpene endoperoxides isolated exhibited cytotoxic activity, while those without an endoperoxide moiety did not show activity. The endoperoxide moiety of sesquiterpenes has significant impact on cytotoxic activity, and thus is an important functionality for cytotoxicity. One terpene endoperoxide displayed potent cytotoxic activity (IC50 0.28μM), and selectively exhibited activity against the HL-60 cell line. PMID:26701647

  3. Vincamine-producing endophytic fungus isolated from Vinca minor.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hong; Sun, Yu-Hong

    2011-06-15

    Vinca minor is a plant containing the alkaloid vincamine, which is used in the pharmaceutical industry as a cerebral stimulant and vasodilator. The objective of this study was to determine whether endophytic fungi isolated from V. minor produce vincamine. Primary screening was carried out using Dragendorff's and Mayer's reactions, and strain re-selection was made by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to identify the fermentation products of the selected strain. We isolated 10 endophytic fungal strains from V. minor. An extract from one (Vm-J2), showed positive reactions with both Dragendorff's and Mayer's reagents. The strain had a component with the same TLC R(f) value and HPLC retention time as authentic vincamine. Therefore, the fungus appeared to produce the same bioactive ingredient, vincamine, as the host plant. The prospect of using endophytic fungi to produce the phytoactive compound by fungal fermentation is discussed. PMID:21315568

  4. Molecular Karyotype of the White Rot Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Larraya, Luis M.; Pérez, Gumer; Peñas, María M.; Baars, Johan J. P.; Mikosch, Thomas S. P.; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Ramírez, Lucía

    1999-01-01

    The white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus is an edible basidiomycete with increasing agricultural and biotechnological importance. Genetic manipulation and breeding of this organism are restricted because of the lack of knowledge about its genomic structure. In this study, we analyzed the genomic constitution of P. ostreatus by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis optimized for the separation of its chromosomes. We have determined that it contains 11 pairs of chromosomes with sizes ranging from 1.4 to 4.7 Mbp. In addition to chromosome separation, the use of single-copy DNA probes allowed us to resolve the ambiguities caused by chromosome comigration. When the two nuclei present in the dikaryon were separated by protoplasting, analysis of their karyotypes revealed length polymorphisms affecting various chromosomes. This is, to our knowledge, the clearest chromosome separation available for this species. PMID:10427028

  5. Identification of Oxaphenalenone Ketals from the Ascomycete Fungus Neonectria sp.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jinwei; Niu, Shubing; Li, Li; Geng, Zhufeng; Liu, Xingzhong; Che, Yongsheng

    2015-06-26

    Neonectrolides B-E (4-7), four new oxaphenalenone ketals incorporating the new furo[2,3-b]isochromeno[3,4,5-def]chromen-11(6aH)-one skeleton, were isolated from the fermentation extract of the ascomycete fungus Neonectria sp. in an in-depth investigation guided by HPLC fingerprint and a cytotoxicity assay. The previously identified oxaphenalenone spiroketal neonectrolide A (1) and its putative biosynthetic precursors (2 and 3) were also reisolated in the current work. The structures of 4-7 were primarily elucidated by interpretation of NMR spectroscopic data, and the absolute configurations were deduced by electronic circular dichroism calculations. Compound 6 showed cytotoxic effects against four of the six human tumor cell lines tested. Biosynthetically, compounds 4-7 could be derived via the Diels-Alder reaction cascades starting from derivatives of the co-isolated metabolites 2 and 3. PMID:25978132

  6. Extracellular microbial synthesis of gold nanoparticles using fungus Hormoconis resinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Anuj Narayan; Bhadauria, Seema; Gaur, Mulayam Singh; Pasricha, Renu

    2010-11-01

    In this study, the fungus Hormoconis resinae was screened from soil near a refinery and was found to produce stable gold nanoparticles extracellularly. The kinetics of the reaction was studied using UV-Vis spectroscopy and was further characterized by x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. These analyses revealed that the gold nanoparticles are spherical and in nano-regime. The most important feature of Hormoconis resinae fungi is the following fact: they have a widespread presence in soil and can produce huge biomass. Such a cheap source of material gives the opportunity for cost-effective preparation of various gold-based nanostructures.

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of the nematophagous fungus Acremonium implicatum.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yurong; Lin, Runmao; Tian, Xueliang; Shen, Baoming; Mao, Zhenchuan; Xie, Bingyan

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the nematophagous fungus Acremonium implicatum is reported for the first time. The genome is concatenated with 22,367 bp in length, encoding 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and a set of 17 transfer RNA genes. The synteny analysis reveals that 50.35% of A. implicatum mitochondrial sequences matched to 48.21% of Acremonium chrysogenum mitochondrial sequences with 85.68% identity. Two proteins of cox3 and nad6, as well as seven tRNAs are lost in A. implicatum mitogenome compared to A. chrysogenum mitogenome. The gene orders in A. implicatum and A. chrysogenum mitogenome is different, which is mainly due to the location of nad4 and cox2. In addition, one transposition event related to tRNAs is identified in these two mitogenomes. This study may provide valuable mitochondrial information for research on A. implicatum and facilitate the study of mitochondrial evolution. PMID:25630733

  8. New Bergamotane Sesquiterpenoids from the Plant Endophytic Fungus Paraconiothyrium brasiliense.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhe; Ren, Fengxia; Che, Yongsheng; Liu, Gang; Liu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Brasilamides K-N (1-4), four new bergamotane sesquiterpenoids; with 4-oxatricyclo (3.3.1.0 (2,7))nonane (1)and 9-oxatricyclo(4.3.0.0 (4,7))nonane (2-4) skeletons; were isolated from the scale-up fermentation cultures of the plant endophytic fungus Paraconiothynium brasiliense Verkley. The previously identified sesquiterpenoids brasilamides A and C (5 and 6) were also reisolated in the current work. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated primarily by interpretation of NMR spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of 1-3 were deduced by analogy to the co-isolated metabolites 5 and 6; whereas that of C-12 in 4 was assigned using the modified Mosher method. The cytotoxicity of all compounds against a panel of eight human tumor cell lines were assayed. PMID:26274948

  9. Enzymes and bioproducts produced by the ascomycete fungus Paecilomyces variotii.

    PubMed

    Herrera Bravo de Laguna, I; Toledo Marante, F J; Mioso, R

    2015-12-01

    Due its innate ability to produce extracellular enzymes which can provide eco-friendly solutions for a variety of biotechnological applications, Paecilomyces variotii is a potential source of industrial bioproducts. In this review, we report biotechnological records on the biochemistry of different enzymes produced by the fermentation of the P. variotii fungus, including tannases, phytases, cellulases, xylanases, chitinases, amylases and pectinases. Additionally, the main physicochemical properties which can affect the enzymatic reactions of the enzymes involved in the conversion of a huge number of substrates to high-value bioproducts are described. Despite all the background information compiled in this review, more research is required to consolidate the catalytic efficiency of P. variotii, which must be optimized so that it is more accurate and reproducible on a large scale. PMID:26274842

  10. Anaerobic Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in Pilot-Scale Anaerobic EGSB Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Large volumes of untreated palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose threat to aquatic environment due to the presence of very high organic content. The present investigation involved two pilot-scale anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors, continuously operated for 1 year to treat POME. Setting HRT at 9.8 d, the anaerobic EGSB reactors reduced COD from 71179 mg/L to 12341 mg/L and recycled half of sludge by a dissolved air flotation (DAF). The average effluent COD was 3587 mg/L with the consistent COD removal efficiency of 94.89%. Adding cationic polymer (PAM) dose of 30 mg/L to DAF unit and recycling its half of sludge caused granulation of anaerobic sludge. Bacilli and small coccid bacteria were the dominant microbial species of the reactor. The reactor produced 27.65 m3 of biogas per m3 of POME which was utilized for electricity generation. PMID:26167485

  11. PCB dechlorination in anaerobic soil slurry reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K.T.; Evans, B.S.

    1993-11-29

    Many industrial locations, including the US Department of Energy`s, have identified needs for treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes and remediation of PCB-contaminated sites. Biodegradation of PCBs is a potentially effective technology for the treatment of PCB-contaminated soils and sludges, including mixed wastes; however, a practical remediation technology has not yet been demonstrated. In laboratory experiments, soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with microorganisms extracted from PCB-contaminated sediments from the Hudson River have been used to obtain anaerobic dechlorination of PCBS. The onset of dechlorination activity can be accelerated by addition of nutritional amendments and inducers. After 15 weeks of incubation with PCB-contaminated soil and nutrient solution, dechlorination has been observed under several working conditions. The best results show that the average chlorine content steadily dropped from 4.3 to 3.5 chlorines per biphenyl over a 15-week period.

  12. [Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria].

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, José E; García-Sánchez, Enrique; García-García, María Inmaculada

    2014-02-01

    The anaerobic bacteria resistance to antibiotics is increasing, and even has appeared against the most active of those, like metronidazol and carbapenems. This fact forces to make and periodical sensibility tests -at least in the most aggressive and virulent species, in cases that they are isolated from life locations and in the absence of therapeutic response- to check the local sensibility and to establish suitable empiric therapies, all based on multicentric studies carried out in order to this or well to check the activity of new antibiotics. For the laboratory routine, the easiest sensibility method is the E-test/MIC evaluator. Another alternative is microdilution, that's only normalized for Bacteroides. There are preliminary facts that allow the use of disc diffusion method in some species of Bacteroides and Clostridium. For the temporal and multicentric studies, the procedure is dilution in agar plate, the reference method. PMID:24630580

  13. Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Weaver, Paul F.

    1990-01-01

    A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion or organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input.

  14. Anaerobic dechlorination and the bioremediation of PCBs

    SciTech Connect

    Quensen, J.F. III; Boyd, S.A.; Tiedje, J.M. )

    1990-01-01

    The recently discovered process of biologically mediated reductive dechlorination of PCBs promises to overcome some of the limitations of aerobic PCB biodegradation. This process, first suspected from the altered chromatographic pattern observed for Hudson River sediment samples, has been duplicated in the laboratory. The process removes meta and para chlorines, resulting in a PCB mixture that is both less toxic and more aerobically degradable. It is active at higher PCB concentrations (at least 5,000 ppm), and does not require induction by biphenyl or a monochlorinated biphenyl. The literature on the aerobic biodegradation of PCBs is briefly reviewed for the purpose of pointing out the limitations of aerobic PCB degradation that an anaerobic pretreatment can be expected to overcome, and the results of our own research on the reductive dechlorination of PCBs is summarized.

  15. Kinetics of biogas production in Anaerobic Filters.

    PubMed

    Krümpel, Johannes; Schäufele, Friedrich; Schneider, Johannes; Jungbluth, Thomas; Zielonka, Simon; Lemmer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates methane production kinetics from individual volatile fatty acids (VFA) in an Upflow Anaerobic Filter (AF). 1gCOD in the form of acetic (HAc), propionic (HPr) or butyric acid (HBu) was injected into the AF while operating at an organic loading rate (OLRCOD) of 3.5gL(-1)d(-1). A new method is introduced to separate gas production of the baseload from the product formation of VFA degradation after the injection. The lag phase, fractional rate of gas production and half-life has been determined for the methane production of the three VFAs. The half-lives were in the order HAc

  16. CFD simulation of mixing in anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Terashima, Mitsuharu; Goel, Rajeev; Komatsu, Kazuya; Yasui, Hidenari; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Li, Y Y; Noike, Tatsuya

    2009-04-01

    A three-dimensional CFD model incorporating the rheological properties of sludge was developed and applied to quantify mixing in a full-scale anaerobic digester. The results of the model were found to be in good agreement with experimental tracer response curve. In order to predict the dynamics of mixing, a new parameter, UI (uniformity index) was defined. The visual patterns of tracer mixing in simulation were well reflected in the dynamic variation in the value of UI. The developed model and methods were applied to determine the required time for complete mixing in a full-scale digester at different solid concentrations. This information on mixing time is considered to be useful in optimizing the feeding cycles for better digester performance. PMID:19081247

  17. Anaerobic biodegradation of cyanide under methanogenic conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Fallon, R D; Cooper, D A; Speece, R; Henson, M

    1991-01-01

    Upflow, anaerobic, fixed-bed, activated charcoal biotreatment columns capable of operating at free cyanide concentrations of greater than 100 mg liter-1 with a hydraulic retention time of less than 48 h were developed. Methanogenesis was maintained under a variety of feed medium conditions which included ethanol, phenol, or methanol as the primary reduced carbon source. Under optimal conditions, greater than 70% of the inflow free cyanide was removed in the first 30% of the column height. Strongly complexed cyanides were resistant to removal. Ammonia was the nitrogen end product of cyanide transformation. In cell material removed from the charcoal columns, [14C]bicarbonate was the major carbon end product of [14C]cyanide transformation. PMID:1872600

  18. Degradation of methyl bromide in anaerobic sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.; Miller, L.G.; Strohmaler, F.E.

    1994-01-01

    Methyl bromide (MeBr) was anaerobically degraded in saltmarsh sediments after reaction with sulfide. The product of this nucleophilic substitution reaction was methanethiol, which underwent further chemical and bacterial reactions to form dimethyl sulfide. These two gases appeared transiently during sediment incubations because they were metabolized by methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria. A second, less significant reaction of MeBr was the exchange with chloride, forming methyl chloride, which was also susceptible to attack by sulfide. Incubation of 14C-labeled methyl iodide as an analogue of MeBr resulted in the formation of 14CH4 and 14CO2 and also indicated that sulfate-reducing bacteria as well as methanogens metabolized the methylated sulfur intermediates. These results suggest that exposed sediments with abundant free sulfide, such as coastal salt-marshes, may constitute a sink for atmospheric MeBr.

  19. Anaerobic polymers as high vacuum leak sealants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, B. R. F.

    1982-01-01

    Anaerobic polymers are useful as solventless leak sealants with good vacuum properties at moderate temperatures. Loctite 290 can seal leaks in a range generally encountered in carefully constructed ultrahigh vacuum and high vacuum systems. It was found that small leaks are sealed best under vacuum, whereas large leaks should be sealed at atmospheric pressure. The high-temperature behavior of Loctite 290 is limited by its fast cure, which prevents deep penetration into small leaks; cracking eventually occurs at the entrance to the leak. Repeated thermal cycling to about 300 C is possible, however, provided viscosity, curing time, and leak size are properly matched to ensure penetration into the body of the leak. This may require special formulations for high temperature vacuum applications.

  20. Determining anaerobic degradation kinetics from batch tests.

    PubMed

    Moreda, Iván López

    2016-01-01

    Data obtained from a biomethane potential (BMP) test were used in order to obtain the parameters of a kinetic model of solid wastes anaerobic degradation. The proposed model considers a hydrolysis step with a first order kinetic, a Monod kinetic for the soluble organic substrate degradation and a first order decay of microorganisms. The instantaneous release of methane was assumed. The parameters of the model are determined following a direct search optimization procedure. A 'multiple-shooting' technique was used as a first step of the optimization process. The confidence interval of the parameters was determined by using Monte Carlo simulations. Also, the distribution functions of the parameters were determined. Only the hydrolysis first order constant shows a normal distribution. PMID:27191569

  1. Disposable diapers biodegradation by the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Valdemar, Rosa María; Turpin-Marion, Sylvie; Delfín-Alcalá, Irma; Vázquez-Morillas, Alethia

    2011-08-01

    This research assesses the feasibility of degrading used disposable diapers, an important component (5-15% in weight) of urban solid waste in Mexico, by the activity of the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus, also known as oyster mushroom. Disposable diapers contain polyethylene, polypropylene and a super absorbent polymer. Nevertheless, its main component is cellulose, which degrades slowly. P. ostreatus has been utilized extensively to degrade cellulosic materials of agroindustrial sources, using in situ techniques. The practice has been extended to the commercial farming of the mushroom. This degradation capacity was assayed to reduce mass and volume of used disposable diapers. Pilot laboratory assays were performed to estimate the usefulness of the following variables on conditioning of used diapers before they act as substrate for P. ostreatus: (1) permanence vs removal of plastic cover; (2) shredding vs grinding; (3) addition of grape wastes to improve structure, nitrogen and trace elements content. Wheat straw was used as a positive control. After 68 days, decrease of the mass of diapers and productivity of fungus was measured. Weight and volume of degradable materials was reduced up to 90%. Cellulose content was diminished in 50% and lignine content in 47%. The highest efficiency for degradation of cellulosic materials corresponded to the substrates that showed highest biological efficiency, which varied from 0% to 34%. Harvested mushrooms had good appearance and protein content and were free of human disease pathogens. This research indicates that growing P. ostreatus on disposable diapers could be a good alternative for two current problems: reduction of urban solid waste and availability of high protein food sources. PMID:21474296

  2. Characterization of manganese peroxidases from the hyperlignolytic fungus IZU-154.

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, M; Suzuki, J; Deguchi, T; Miura, M; Kitaoka, Y

    1996-01-01

    Four isozymes of manganese peroxidase (MnP) were identified in the culture fluid of the hyperlignolytic fungus IZU-154 under nitrogen starvation conditions. One of them was purified and characterized kinetically. The specific activity and Kcat/K(m) value of the MnP from IZU-154 were 1.6 times higher than those of the MnP from a typical lignin-degrading fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Two cDNAs encoding MnP isozymes from IZU-154 were isolated. The coding sequence of the two cDNAs, IZ-MnP1 cDNA and IZ-MnP2 cDNA, were 1,152 (384 amino acids) and 1,155 (385 amino acids) bp in length, respectively. They exhibit 96.2% identity at the nucleotide level and 95.1% identity at the amino acid level. Southern blot analysis indicated that two MnP isozyme genes exist in IZU-154 genomic DNA. The primary structures of two MnPs from IZU-154 were similar to those of MnPs from P. chrysosporium. The amino acid sequences including the important residues identified in MnPs from P. chrysosporium, such as the manganese-binding residues, the calcium-binding residues, the disulfide bonds, and the N-glycosylation site, were conserved in the two deduced IZ-MnPs. However, several discrepancies were found in the context around the distal histidine residue between MnP from IZU-154 and MnP from P. chrysosporium, which likely led to the difference in the kinetic parameters for MnP function. PMID:8899997

  3. Anaerobic bacteraemia: a 10-year retrospective epidemiological survey.

    PubMed

    De Keukeleire, Steven; Wybo, Ingrid; Naessens, Anne; Echahidi, Fedoua; Van der Beken, Mieke; Vandoorslaer, Kristof; Vermeulen, Stefan; Piérard, Denis

    2016-06-01

    In order to identify current trends in anaerobic bacteraemia, a 10-year retrospective study was performed in the University Hospital Brussel, Belgium. All clinically relevant bacteraemia detected from 2004 until 2013 were included. Medical records were reviewed in an attempt to define clinical parameters that might be associated with the occurrence of anaerobic bacteraemia. 437 of the isolated organisms causing anaerobic bacteraemia were thawed, subcultured and reanalyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). There were an average of 33 cases of anaerobic bacteraemia per year during 2004-2008 compared to an average of 27 cases per year during 2009-2013 (P = 0.017), corresponding to a decrease by 19% between the first and the latter period. Also, the total number of cases of anaerobic bacteraemia per 100,000 patient days decreased from 17.3 in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 13.7 in the period 2009 to 2013 (P = 0.023). Additionally, the mean incidence of anaerobic bacteraemia decreased during the study period (1.27/1000 patients in 2004 vs. 0.94/1000 patients in 2013; P = 0.008). In contrast, the proportion of isolated anaerobic bacteraemia compared to the number of all bacteraemia remained stable at 5%. Bacteroides spp. and Parabacteroides spp. accounted for 47.1% of the anaerobes, followed by 14.4% Clostridium spp., 12.6% non-spore-forming Gram-positive rods, 10.5% anaerobic cocci, 8.2% Prevotella spp. and other Gram-negative rods and 7.1% Fusobacterium spp. The lower gastrointestinal tract (47%) and wound infections (10%) were the two most frequent sources for bacteraemia, with the origin remaining unknown in 62 cases (21%). The overall mortality rate was 14%. Further studies focusing on the antimicrobial susceptibility and demographic background of patients are needed to further objectify the currently observed trends. PMID:26923749

  4. Ureolytic phosphate precipitation from anaerobic effluents.

    PubMed

    Desmidt, E; Verstraete, W; Dick, J; Meesschaert, B D; Carballa, M

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the elimination of phosphate from industrial anaerobic effluents was evaluated at lab-scale. For that purpose, the ureolytic method previously developed for the precipitation of Ca(2 + ) from wastewater as calcite was adapted for the precipitation of phosphate as struvite. In the first part of the study, computer simulations using MAPLE and PHREEQC were performed to model phosphate precipitation from wastewater as struvite. The results obtained showed that relative high concentrations of ammonium and magnesium are needed to precipitate phosphate as struvite. The total molar concentrations ratio of Mg(2 + ):PO(4) (3-)-P:NH(4) (+) required to decrease PO(4) (3-)-P concentrations from 20 to 6 mg PO(4) (3-)-P/l at pH 8.4-8.5 was estimated on 4.6:1:8. In the second part of the study, lab-scale experiments with either synthetic wastewater or the anaerobic effluent from a vegetable processing industry were carried out in batch and continuous mode. Overall, the continuous operation at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2.4 h and an added molar concentration [Mg(2 + )]:[PO(4) (3-)-P]:[NH(4) (+)] ratio of 1.6:1:2.3 resulted in a constant pH value in the reactor (around 8.5) and an efficient phosphate removal (>90%) to residual levels of 1-2 mg PO(4) (3-)-P/l. Different operational conditions, such as the initial phosphate concentration, HRT and the use of CaCl(2) or MgO instead of MgCl(2), were analysed and the performance of the reactor was satisfactory under a broad range of them. Yet, overall, optimal results (higher phosphate removal) were obtained with MgCl(2). PMID:19474493

  5. Anaerobic toxicity of cationic silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gitipour, Alireza; Thiel, Stephen W; Scheckel, Kirk G; Tolaymat, Thabet

    2016-07-01

    The microbial toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized with different capping agents was compared to that of Ag(+) under anaerobic conditions. Three AgNPs were investigated: (1) negatively charged citrate-coated AgNPs (citrate-AgNPs), (2) minimally charged polyvinylpyrrolidone coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) and (3) positively charged branched polyethyleneimine coated AgNPs (BPEI-AgNPs). The AgNPs investigated in this experiment were similar in size (10-15nm), spherical in shape, but varied in surface charge which ranged from highly negative to highly positive. While, at AgNPs concentrations lower than 5mgL(-1), the anaerobic decomposition process was not influenced by the presence of the nanoparticles, there was an observed impact on the diversity of the microbial community. At elevated concentrations (100mgL(-1) as silver), only the cationic BPEI-AgNPs demonstrated toxicity similar in magnitude to that of Ag(+). Both citrate and PVP-AgNPs did not exhibit toxicity at the 100mgL(-1) as measured by biogas evolution. These findings further indicate the varying modes of action for nanoparticle toxicity and represent one of the few studies that evaluate end-of-life management concerns with regards to the increasing use of nanomaterials in our everyday life. These findings also highlight some of the concerns with a one size fits all approach to the evaluation of environmental health and safety concerns associated with the use of nanoparticles. PMID:27016684

  6. Bioremediation with white rot fungus. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of white rot fungus to degrade a variety of hazardous materials. The citations examine the application of the fungus to the remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentachlorophenol, herbicides, insecticides, and other environmentally persistent organic compounds. The results of laboratory and field studies are presented. The use of white rot fungus in biological pulping and delignification is also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 50 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Degradation of chlorbromuron and related compounds by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, M; Bollag, J M

    1972-11-01

    The ability of the soil fungus Rhizoctonia solani to degrade phenyl-substituted urea herbicides was investigated. The fungus was able to transform chlorbromuron [3-(3-chloro-4-bromophenyl)-1-methyl-1-methoxyurea] to the demethylated product [3-(3-chloro-4-bromophenyl)-1-methoxyurea], which was isolated and identified. Evidence was obtained that further degradation of chlorbromuron occurred. Several other phenylurea compounds (chloroxuron, diuron, fenuron, fluometuron, linuron, metobromuron, neburon, and siduron) were also metabolized by the fungus, indicating that R. solani may possess a generalized ability to attack this group of herbicides. PMID:4640737

  8. [Scytalidium dimidiatum an opportunistic fungus for both man and Mangifera indica trees in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Padin, Carmiña; Fernández-Zeppenfeldt, Guillermo; Yegres, Francisco; Richard-Yegres, Nicole

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to confirm the presence of Scytalidium dimidiatum on Mangifera indica (mango) trees, in a plantation managed by a diabetic patient with a white grain mycetoma of the foot caused by the same fungus. Samples from necrotic apices, roots, burned leaves and rotten stems from eight trees were processed by the Smith and Furcolow's mineral oil technique (modified). Several isolates from the apex material and clinical samples from the diabetic patient isolated in pure culture a fungus with the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of that in S. dimidiatum. This fungus should be considered as an opportunistic microorganism for both humans and M. indica. PMID:16309356

  9. Clostridium difficile: the anaerobe that made the grade.

    PubMed

    Brazier, Jon S

    2012-04-01

    Unlike other anaerobic bacteria of clinical importance, Clostridium difficile has managed to enter into the realm of public awareness. Following the trail blazed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), C. difficile has made the transition from being an obscure anaerobic bacterium, mainly of interest to specialist anaerobic microbiologists, to that of an infamous "superbug" responsible for outbreaks of hospital-acquired infection that commonly result in serious disease and death. This report picks out key moments, particularly in the UK, which tracked the rise in both the public and political awareness of this organism. PMID:22293217

  10. Neural fuzzy modeling of anaerobic biological wastewater treatment systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tay, J.H.; Zhang, X.

    1999-12-01

    Anaerobic biological wastewater treatment systems are difficult to model because their performance is complex and varies significantly with different reactor configurations, influent characteristics, and operational conditions. Instead of conventional kinetic modeling, advanced neural fuzzy technology was employed to develop a conceptual adaptive model for anaerobic treatment systems. The conceptual neural fuzzy model contains the robustness of fuzzy systems, the learning ability of neural networks, and can adapt to various situations. The conceptual model was used to simulate the daily performance of two high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment systems with satisfactory results obtained.

  11. Diversity Profile of Microbes Associated with Anaerobic Sulfur Oxidation in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor Treating Municipal Sewage

    PubMed Central

    Aida, Azrina A.; Kuroda, Kyohei; Yamamoto, Masamitsu; Nakamura, Akinobu; Hatamoto, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    We herein analyzed the diversity of microbes involved in anaerobic sulfur oxidation in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor used for treating municipal sewage under low-temperature conditions. Anaerobic sulfur oxidation occurred in the absence of oxygen, with nitrite and nitrate as electron acceptors; however, reactor performance parameters demonstrated that anaerobic conditions were maintained. In order to gain insights into the underlying basis of anaerobic sulfur oxidation, the microbial diversity that exists in the UASB sludge was analyzed comprehensively to determine their identities and contribution to sulfur oxidation. Sludge samples were collected from the UASB reactor over a period of 2 years and used for bacterial 16S rRNA gene-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and next-generation sequencing analyses. T-RFLP and sequencing results both showed that microbial community patterns changed markedly from day 537 onwards. Bacteria belonging to the genus Desulforhabdus within the phylum Proteobacteria and uncultured bacteria within the phylum Fusobacteria were the main groups observed during the period of anaerobic sulfur oxidation. Their abundance correlated with temperature, suggesting that these bacterial groups played roles in anaerobic sulfur oxidation in UASB reactors. PMID:25817585

  12. [Achievement of Sulfate-Reducing Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation Reactor Started with Nitrate-Reducting Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng-chuan; Yuan, Lin-jiang; Zhou, Guo-biao; Li, Jing

    2015-09-01

    The transformation of nitrite-reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation to sulfate-reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation in an UASB was performed and the changes in microbial community were studied. The result showed that the sulfate reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation process was successfully accomplished after 177 days' operation. The removal rate of ammonium nitrogen and sulfate were up to 58. 9% and 15. 7%, the removing load of ammonium nitrogen and sulfate were 74. 3 mg.(L.d)-1 and 77. 5 mg.(L.d)-1 while concentration of ammonium nitrogen and sulfate of influent were 130 mg.(L.d)-1 and 500 mg.(L.d)-1, respectively. The lost nitrogen and sulphur was around 2 in molar ratio. The pH value of the effluent was lower than that of the influent. Instead of Candidatus brocadia in nitrite reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation granular sludge, Bacillus benzoevorans became the dominant species in sulfate reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation sludge. The dominant bacterium in the two kinds of anaerobic ammonium oxidation process is different. Our results imply that the two anaerobic ammonium oxidation processes are carried out by different kind of bacterium. PMID:26717697

  13. Microbial and Physicochemical Characteristics of Compact Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Granules in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor ▿

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Hu, Bao-Lan; Fang, Fang; Xie, Wen-Ming; Kartal, Boran; Liu, Xian-Wei; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Jetten, Mike; Zheng, Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a promising new process to treat high-strength nitrogenous wastewater. Due to the low growth rate of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, efficient biomass retention is essential for reactor operation. Therefore, we studied the settling ability and community composition of the anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing granules, which were cultivated in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor seeded with aerobic granules. With this seed, the start-up period was less than 160 days at a NH4+-N removal efficiency of 94% and a loading rate of 0.064 kg N per kg volatile suspended solids per day. The formed granules were bright red and had a high settling velocity (41 to 79 m h−1). Cells and extracellular polymeric substances were evenly distributed over the anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing granules. The high percentage of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the granules could be visualized by fluorescent in situ hybridization and electron microscopy. The copy numbers of 16S rRNA genes of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the granules were determined to be 4.6 × 108 copies ml−1. The results of this study could be used for a better design, shorter start-up time, and more stable operation of anammox systems for the treatment of nitrogen-rich wastewaters. PMID:20190088

  14. Bacterial ecology of abattoir wastewater treated by an anaerobic digestor

    PubMed Central

    Jabari, Linda; Gannoun, Hana; Khelifi, Eltaief; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Hamdi, Moktar; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater from an anaerobic treatment plant at a slaughterhouse was analysed to determine the bacterial biodiversity present. Molecular analysis of the anaerobic sludge obtained from the treatment plant showed significant diversity, as 27 different phyla were identified. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Thermotogae, Euryarchaeota (methanogens), and msbl6 (candidate division) were the dominant phyla of the anaerobic treatment plant and represented 21.7%, 18.5%, 11.5%, 9.4%, 8.9%, and 8.8% of the total bacteria identified, respectively. The dominant bacteria isolated were Clostridium, Bacteroides, Desulfobulbus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfovibrio and Desulfotomaculum. Our results revealed the presence of new species, genera and families of microorganisms. The most interesting strains were characterised. Three new bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion of abattoir wastewater were published. PMID:26887229

  15. Nitrification and denitrification gene abundances in swine wastewater anaerobic lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although anaerobic lagoons are used globally for livestock waste treatment, their detailed microbial cycling of nitrogen is only beginning to become understood. Within this cycling, nitrification can be performed by organisms which produce the enzyme ammonia monooxygenase (AMO). For denitrification,...

  16. Culturing and Maintaining Clostridium difficile in an Anaerobic Environment

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Adrianne N.; Suárez, Jose M.; McBride, Shonna M.

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, sporogenic bacterium that is primarily responsible for antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD) and is a significant nosocomial pathogen. C. difficile is notoriously difficult to isolate and cultivate and is extremely sensitive to even low levels of oxygen in the environment. Here, methods for isolating C. difficile from fecal samples and subsequently culturing C. difficile for preparation of glycerol stocks for long-term storage are presented. Techniques for preparing and enumerating spore stocks in the laboratory for a variety of downstream applications including microscopy and animal studies are also described. These techniques necessitate an anaerobic chamber, which maintains a consistent anaerobic environment to ensure proper conditions for optimal C. difficile growth. We provide protocols for transferring materials in and out of the chamber without causing significant oxygen contamination along with suggestions for regular maintenance required to sustain the appropriate anaerobic environment for efficient and consistent C. difficile cultivation. PMID:24084491

  17. Characteristics, Process Parameters, and Inner Components of Anaerobic Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Abdelgadir, Awad; Chen, Xiaoguang; Liu, Jianshe; Xie, Xuehui; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Heng; Liu, Na

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic bioreactor applies the principles of biotechnology and microbiology, and nowadays it has been used widely in the wastewater treatment plants due to their high efficiency, low energy use, and green energy generation. Advantages and disadvantages of anaerobic process were shown, and three main characteristics of anaerobic bioreactor (AB), namely, inhomogeneous system, time instability, and space instability were also discussed in this work. For high efficiency of wastewater treatment, the process parameters of anaerobic digestion, such as temperature, pH, Hydraulic retention time (HRT), Organic Loading Rate (OLR), and sludge retention time (SRT) were introduced to take into account the optimum conditions for living, growth, and multiplication of bacteria. The inner components, which can improve SRT, and even enhance mass transfer, were also explained and have been divided into transverse inner components, longitudinal inner components, and biofilm-packing material. At last, the newly developed special inner components were discussed and found more efficient and productive. PMID:24672798

  18. Energy transduction by anaerobic ferric iron respiration in Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    SciTech Connect

    Pronk, J.T.; Liem, K.; Bos, P.; Kuenen, J.G. )

    1991-07-01

    Formate-grown cells of the obligately chemolithoautotrophic acidophile Thiobacillus ferrooxidans were capable of formate- and elemental sulfur-dependent reduction of ferric iron under anaerovic conditions. Under aerobic conditions, both oxygen and ferric iron could be simultaneously used as electron acceptors. To investigate whether anaerobic ferric iron respiration by T. ferrooxidans is an energy-transducing process, uptake of amino acids was studied. Glycine uptake by starved cells did not occur in the absence of an electron donor, neither under aerobic conditions nor under anaerobic conditions. Uptake of glycine could be driven by formate- and ferrous iron-dependent oxygen uptake. Under anaerobic conditions, ferric iron respiration with the electron donors formate and elemental sulfur could energize glycine uptake. Glycine uptake was inhibited by the uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol. The results indicate that anaerobic ferric iron respiration can contribute to the energy budget of T. ferrooxidans.

  19. Bacterial ecology of abattoir wastewater treated by an anaerobic digestor.

    PubMed

    Jabari, Linda; Gannoun, Hana; Khelifi, Eltaief; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Hamdi, Moktar; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater from an anaerobic treatment plant at a slaughterhouse was analysed to determine the bacterial biodiversity present. Molecular analysis of the anaerobic sludge obtained from the treatment plant showed significant diversity, as 27 different phyla were identified. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Thermotogae, Euryarchaeota (methanogens), and msbl6 (candidate division) were the dominant phyla of the anaerobic treatment plant and represented 21.7%, 18.5%, 11.5%, 9.4%, 8.9%, and 8.8% of the total bacteria identified, respectively. The dominant bacteria isolated were Clostridium, Bacteroides, Desulfobulbus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfovibrio and Desulfotomaculum. Our results revealed the presence of new species, genera and families of microorganisms. The most interesting strains were characterised. Three new bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion of abattoir wastewater were published. PMID:26887229

  20. Biodegradability of activated sludge organics under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Ekama, G A; Sötemann, S W; Wentzel, M C

    2007-01-01

    From an experimental and theoretical investigation of the continuity of activated sludge organic (COD) compounds along the link between the fully aerobic or N removal activated sludge and anaerobic digestion unit operations, it was found that the unbiodegradable particulate organics (i) originating from the influent wastewater and (ii) generated by the activated sludge endogenous process, as determined from response of the activated sludge system, are also unbiodegradable under anaerobic digestion conditions. This means that the activated sludge biodegradable organics that can be anaerobically digested can be calculated from the active fraction of the waste activated sludge based on the widely accepted ordinary heterotrophic organism (OHO) endogenous respiration/death regeneration rates and unbiodegradable fraction. This research shows that the mass balances based steady state and dynamic simulation activated sludge, aerobic digestion and anaerobic digestion models provide internally consistent and externally compatible elements that can be coupled to produce plant wide steady state and dynamic simulation WWTP models. PMID:17045327

  1. Investigation of Anaerobic Herbicide Degradation in Agricultural Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic microbial pesticide degradation has received little attention, particularly in agricultural soils that receive routine inputs of halogenated herbicides. Seasonal rainfall in many regions can produce zones of periodic anaerobiosis in soil. Redox gradients within soil aggregates can also for...

  2. POLISHING THE EFFLUENT FROM AN ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL PERCHLORATE TREATMENT PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic biological processes effectively reduce perchlorate to chloride. However, the effluent can be biologically unstable, high in particulates and high in disinfection by-product precursor compounds. Such an effluent would be unsuitable for transmission into a drinking water...

  3. Characteristics, process parameters, and inner components of anaerobic bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Abdelgadir, Awad; Chen, Xiaoguang; Liu, Jianshe; Xie, Xuehui; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Heng; Liu, Na

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic bioreactor applies the principles of biotechnology and microbiology, and nowadays it has been used widely in the wastewater treatment plants due to their high efficiency, low energy use, and green energy generation. Advantages and disadvantages of anaerobic process were shown, and three main characteristics of anaerobic bioreactor (AB), namely, inhomogeneous system, time instability, and space instability were also discussed in this work. For high efficiency of wastewater treatment, the process parameters of anaerobic digestion, such as temperature, pH, Hydraulic retention time (HRT), Organic Loading Rate (OLR), and sludge retention time (SRT) were introduced to take into account the optimum conditions for living, growth, and multiplication of bacteria. The inner components, which can improve SRT, and even enhance mass transfer, were also explained and have been divided into transverse inner components, longitudinal inner components, and biofilm-packing material. At last, the newly developed special inner components were discussed and found more efficient and productive. PMID:24672798

  4. Comparison of microbial activity in anaerobic and microaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Jenicek, P; Celis, C A; Koubova, J; Pokorna, D

    2011-01-01

    Microaerobic alternative of anaerobic digestion offers many advantages especially when sulfide concentration in the digester is high. For better understanding of the microaerobic technology more detailed characterization of biomass activity is needed. Two equal digesters were operated under the same condition except of microaeration in one of them. During long term operation of anaerobic and microaerobic digesters the sludge quality and the biomass activity was monitored. The activity of sulfide oxidizing bacteria of microaerobic biomass was significantly higher in comparison with anaerobic biomass. The activity of sulfate reducing bacteria was comparable. The activity of methanogenic bacteria activity depended on sulfide concentration more than on microaeration. The extent of foaming problems was lower in the microaerobic than in the anaerobic digester. PMID:21977645

  5. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms behind cellulase production in Trichoderma reesei, the hyper-cellulolytic filamentous fungus.

    PubMed

    Shida, Yosuke; Furukawa, Takanori; Ogasawara, Wataru

    2016-09-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is a potent cellulase producer and the best-studied cellulolytic fungus. A lot of investigations not only on glycoside hydrolases produced by T. reesei, but also on the machinery controlling gene expression of these enzyme have made this fungus a model organism for cellulolytic fungi. We have investigated the T. reesei strain including mutants developed in Japan in detail to understand the molecular mechanisms that control the cellulase gene expression, the biochemical and morphological aspects that could favor this phenotype, and have attempted to generate novel strains that may be appropriate for industrial use. Subsequently, we developed recombinant strains by combination of these insights and the heterologous-efficient saccharifing enzymes. Resulting enzyme preparations were highly effective for saccharification of various biomass. In this review, we present some of the salient findings from the recent biochemical, morphological, and molecular analyses of this remarkable cellulase hyper-producing fungus. PMID:27075508

  6. Development of 11 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the blackberry rust fungus Phragmidium violaceum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the Uredinales fungus Phragmidium violaceum, which causes leaf rust on European blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L. aggregate). Allele frequency ranged between two and seventeen alleles per locus with no evidence of linkage disequilibrium amon...

  7. Biodegradation of hazardous waste using white rot fungus: Project planning and concept development document

    SciTech Connect

    Luey, J.; Brouns, T.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1990-11-01

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been shown to effectively degrade pollutants such as trichlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and other halogenated aromatic compounds. These refractory organic compounds and many others have been identified in the tank waste, groundwater and soil of various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The treatment of these refractory organic compounds has been identified as a high priority for DOE's Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT E) waste treatment programs. Unlike many bacteria, the white rot fungus P. chrysosporium is capable of degrading these types of refractory organics and may be valuable for the treatment of wastes containing multiple pollutants. The objectives of this project are to identify DOE waste problems amenable to white rot fungus treatment and to develop and demonstrate white rot fungus treatment process for these hazardous organic compounds. 32 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Investigating the biology of plant infection by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Martin-Urdiroz, Magdalena; Oses-Ruiz, Miriam; Ryder, Lauren S; Talbot, Nicholas J

    2016-05-01

    The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is responsible for the most serious disease of rice and is a continuing threat to ensuring global food security. The fungus has also, however, emerged as a model experimental organism for understanding plant infection processes by pathogenic fungi. This is largely due to its amenability to both classical and molecular genetics, coupled with the efforts of a very large international research community. This review, which is based on a plenary presentation at the 28th Fungal Genetics Conference in Asilomar, California in March 2015, describes recent progress in understanding how M. oryzae uses specialised cell called appressoria to bring about plant infection and the underlying biology of this developmental process. We also review how the fungus is then able to proliferate within rice tissue, deploying effector proteins to facilitate its spread by suppressing plant immunity and promoting growth and development of the fungus. PMID:26703899

  9. Limited transmission of the ectoparasitic fungus Hesperomyces virescens between lady beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ectoparasitic fungus Hesperomyces virescens Thaxter (Ascomycota: Laboulbeniales) commonly infects the invasive lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and several other aphidophagous lady beetles in North America and Europe. We tested the hypothesis that bodily contact between adults of differen...

  10. Inferring outcrossing in the homothallic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum using linkage disequilibrium decay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The occurrence and frequency of outcrossing in homothallic fungal species in nature is an unresolved question. Here we report detection of frequent outcrossing in the homothallic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In using multilocus linkage disequilibrium (LD) to infer recombination among microsatell...

  11. Anaerobic digestion as a waste disposal option for American Samoa

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C

    1993-01-01

    Tuna sludge and municipal solid waste (MSW) generated on Tutuila Island, American Samoa, represent an ongoing disposal problem as well as an emerging opportunity for use in renewable fuel production. This research project focuses on the biological conversion of the organic fraction of these wastes to useful products including methane and fertilizer-grade residue through anaerobic high solids digestion. In this preliminary study, the anaerobic bioconversion of tuna sludge with MSW appears promising.

  12. ANAEROBIC SOIL DISINFESTATION IN MICROCOSMS OF TWO SANDY SOILS.

    PubMed

    Stremińska, M A; Runia, W T; Termorshuizen, A J; Feil, H; Van Der Wurff, A W G

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) has been proposed as an alternative control method of soil-borne plant pathogens. It involves adding a labile carbon source, irrigating the soil to stimulate decomposition of organic material and then covering the soil with air-tight plastic to limit gas exchange. During the ASD process, soil microorganisms switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. As a result, by-products of anaerobic metabolism are released into the soil environment such as various organic acids and gases. These by-products are reported to have a negative effect on survival of soil-borne plant pathogens. However, the efficacy of ASD to reduce soil-borne pathogens in practice may vary significantly. Therefore, we studied the efficacy of the ASD process in two different soils. In addition, it was investigated whether a pre-treatment with an anaerobic bacterial inoculum prior to ASD affected the efficacy of the process. Two sandy soils (dune sand and glacial sand) were inoculated in 2 L soil microcosms. We tested the efficacy of ASD treatment against the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida. For each soil, three treatments were used: control treatment (no Herbie addition, aerobic incubation), ASD 1 (organic substrate addition, anaerobic incubation) and ASD 2 (organic substrate and anaerobic bacterial inoculum addition, anaerobic incubation). Soil microcosms were incubated in the dark at 20°C for two weeks. We observed that anaerobic soil disinfestation treatments were highly effective against Potato Cyst Nematode (PCN), with pathogen being eradicated totally in all but one ASD treatment (glacial sand ASD2) within two weeks. The relative abundance of Firmicutes (spore-forming bacteria, often fermentative) in total bacteria increased significantly in ASD treated soils. Numbers of these bacteria correlated positively with increased concentrations of acetic and butyric acids in soil water phase in ASD treatments. PMID:26084078

  13. Validity and reliability of the Hawaii anaerobic run test.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Iris F; Stickley, Christopher D; Lentz, Melissa A; Wages, Jennifer J; Yanagi, Kazuhiko; Hetzler, Ronald K

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of the Hawaii anaerobic run test (HART) by comparing anaerobic capacity measures obtained to those during the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT). Ninety-six healthy physically active volunteers (age, 22.0 ± 2.8 years; height, 163.9 ± 9.5 cm; body mass, 70.6 ± 14.7 kg; body fat %, 19.29 ± 5.39%) participated in this study. Each participant performed 2 anaerobic capacity tests: the WAnT and the HART by random assignment on separate days. The reliability of the HART was calculated from 2 separate trials of the test and then determined through intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Blood samples were collected, and lactate was analyzed both pretest and posttest for each of the 2 exercise modes. Heart rate and rate of perceived exertion were also measured pre- and post-exercise. Hawaii anaerobic run test peak and mean momentum were calculated as body mass times highest or average split velocity, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficients between trials of the HART for peak and mean momentum were 0.98 and 0.99, respectively (SEM = 18.8 and 25.7, respectively). Validity of the HART was established through comparison of momentum on the HART with power on the WAnT. High correlations were found between peak power and peak momentum (r = 0.88), as well as mean power and mean momentum (r = 0.94). The HART was considered to be a reliable test of anaerobic power. The HART was also determined to be a valid test of anaerobic power when compared with the WAnT. When testing healthy college-aged individuals, the HART offers an easy and inexpensive alternative maximal effort anaerobic power test to other established tests. PMID:24126898

  14. Modeling for Anaerobic Fixed-Bed Biofilm Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, B. Y. M.; Pfeffer, J. T.

    1989-06-01

    The specific objectives of this research were: 1. to develop an equilibrium model for chemical aspects of anaerobic reactors; 2. to modify the equilibrium model for non-equilibrium conditions; 3. to incorporate the existing biofilm models into the models above to study the biological and chemical behavior of the fixed-film anaerobic reactors; 4. to experimentally verify the validity of these models; 5. to investigate the biomass-holding ability of difference packing materials for establishing reactor design criteria.

  15. Genome Sequence of Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae, a Quarantine Plant-Pathogenic Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ruifang; Cheng, Yinghui; Wang, Ying; Wang, Ying; Guo, Liyun

    2015-01-01

    Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae is a serious plant-pathogenic fungus causing red core disease in strawberries, resulting in a larger number of fruit produced, and the fungus has been regulated as a quarantine pest of many countries and regions. Here, we announce the genome sequence of P. fragariae var. fragariae, and this information might provide insight into the mechanism of pathogenicity and host specificity of this pathogen, as well as help us further identify targets for fungicides. PMID:25814589

  16. Exploring the potential for actinobacteria as defensive symbionts in fungus-growing termites.

    PubMed

    Visser, Anna A; Nobre, Tânia; Currie, Cameron R; Aanen, Duur K; Poulsen, Michael

    2012-05-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a role as defensive symbionts against Pseudoxylaria in fungus-growing termites. We sampled for Actinobacteria from 30 fungus-growing termite colonies, spanning the three main termite genera and two geographically distant sites. Our isolations yielded 360 Actinobacteria, from which we selected subsets for morphological (288 isolates, grouped in 44 morphotypes) and for 16S rRNA (35 isolates, spanning the majority of morphotypes) characterisation. Actinobacteria were found throughout all sampled nests and colony parts and, phylogenetically, they are interspersed with Actinobacteria from origins other than fungus-growing termites, indicating lack of specificity. Antibiotic-activity screening of 288 isolates against the fungal cultivar and competitor revealed that most of the Actinobacteria-produced molecules with antifungal activity. A more detailed bioassay on 53 isolates, to test the specificity of antibiotics, showed that many Actinobacteria inhibit both Pseudoxylaria and Termitomyces, and that the cultivar fungus generally is more susceptible to inhibition than the competitor. This suggests that either defensive symbionts are not present in the system or that they, if present, represent a subset of the community isolated. If so, the antibiotics must be used in a targeted fashion, being applied to specific areas by the termites. We describe the first discovery of an assembly of antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria occurring in fungus-growing termite nests. However, due to the diversity found, and the lack of both phylogenetic and bioactivity specificity, further work is necessary for a better understanding of the putative role of antibiotic-producing bacteria in the fungus

  17. Evaluation of the BBL Crystal Anaerobe identification system.

    PubMed Central

    Cavallaro, J J; Wiggs, L S; Miller, J M

    1997-01-01

    The BBL Crystal Anaerobe (ANR) identification system was evaluated, and the results were compared with those from conventional anaerobic methods. We tested 322 clinically significant anaerobic bacteria according to the manufacturer's instructions. The system identified correctly 286 of 322 (88.8%) of the anaerobic bacteria tested. Of these, 263 of 322 (81.7%) were identified correctly on initial testing and 49 were identified correctly only to the genus level; on repeat testing, 23 of 49 (46.9%) were identified correctly to both the genus and the species levels. A total of 26 (8.5%) were misidentified at the species level, and 10 (3.1%) were not identified. Performance characteristics for individual strains varied. The system correctly identified all tested strains of Campylobacter, Desulfomonas, Desulfovibrio, Leptotrichia, Mobiluncus, Peptostreptococcus, Porphyromonas, Provetella, Propionibacterium, Tisierella, and Veillonella and 36 of 37 (97.3%) Actinomyces strains, 42 of 46 (91.3%) B. fragilis group strains, 79 of 103 (76.7%) Clostridium strains, (however, the system failed to identify any of the 7 C. innocuum and 9 C. tetani strains tested), and 8 of 15 (53.3%) Bacteroides strains. This system was easy to use, did not involve the addition of reagents, and was faster than conventional anaerobic procedures. It would be a useful addition to the anaerobe laboratory of most hospitals. PMID:9399517

  18. Carbon and Hydrogen Isotopic Fractionation during Anaerobic Biodegradation of Benzene

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Silvia A.; Ulrich, Ania C.; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges; Sleep, Brent; Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis has the potential to distinguish physical from biological attenuation processes in the subsurface. In this study, carbon and hydrogen isotopic fractionation effects during biodegradation of benzene under anaerobic conditions with different terminal-electron-accepting processes are reported for the first time. Different enrichment factors (ɛ) for carbon (range of −1.9 to −3.6‰) and hydrogen (range of −29 to −79‰) fractionation were observed during biodegradation of benzene under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. These differences are not related to differences in initial biomass or in rates of biodegradation. Carbon isotopic enrichment factors for anaerobic benzene biodegradation in this study are comparable to those previously published for aerobic benzene biodegradation. In contrast, hydrogen enrichment factors determined for anaerobic benzene biodegradation are significantly larger than those previously published for benzene biodegradation under aerobic conditions. A fundamental difference in the previously proposed initial step of aerobic versus proposed anaerobic biodegradation pathways may account for these differences in hydrogen isotopic fractionation. Potentially, C-H bond breakage in the initial step of the anaerobic benzene biodegradation pathway may account for the large fractionation observed compared to that in aerobic benzene biodegradation. Despite some differences in reported enrichment factors between cultures with different terminal-electron-accepting processes, carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis has the potential to provide direct evidence of anaerobic biodegradation of benzene in the field. PMID:12513995

  19. Anaerobic threshold: its concept and role in endurance sport.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Asok Kumar

    2004-01-01

    aerobic to anaerobic transition intensity is one of the most significant physiological variable in endurance sports. Scientists have explained the term in various ways, like, Lactate Threshold, Ventilatory Anaerobic Threshold, Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation, Onset of Plasma Lactate Accumulation, Heart Rate Deflection Point and Maximum Lactate Steady State. But all of these have great role both in monitoring training schedule and in determining sports performance. Individuals endowed with the possibility to obtain a high oxygen uptake need to complement with rigorous training program in order to achieve maximal performance. If they engage in endurance events, they must also develop the ability to sustain a high fractional utilization of their maximal oxygen uptake (%VO(2) max) and become physiologically efficient in performing their activity. Anaerobic threshold is highly correlated to the distance running performance as compared to maximum aerobic capacity or VO(2) max, because sustaining a high fractional utilization of the VO(2) max for a long time delays the metabolic acidosis. Training at or little above the anaerobic threshold intensity improves both the aerobic capacity and anaerobic threshold level. Anaerobic Threshold can also be determined from the speed-heart rate relationship in the field situation, without undergoing sophisticated laboratory techniques. However, controversies also exist among scientists regarding its role in high performance sports. PMID:22977357

  20. Sequential anaerobic/aerobic biotreatment of bark leachate.

    PubMed

    Frigon, J C; Cimpoia, R; Guiot, S R

    2003-01-01

    Bark leachate is generated from sawmill operations such as log storage sites and contains polymeric tannins, carbohydrates, organic acids, phenolic and resin compounds. The present study was aimed at assessing the performance of a sequential anaerobic and aerobic treatment, for both chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenol removal, under various combinations of operational conditions, in the continuous mode. After anaerobic treatment in a five litres upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor, the leachate was directed into two parallel aerobic reactors, either an activated sludge unit or a fixed film submerged filter (packed with polyethylene Flexirings), both of a volume of one litre and oxygenated by air diffusion. For a leachate of 22 gCOD/l, an overall COD removal of 96-98% was achieved at an hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 4 days for the anaerobic reactor and one day for either aerobic systems. The phenol concentration generally increased after anaerobic treatment but was below the detection limit (50 ppb) after aerobic polishing. Radiorespirometric microcosms with 14C-labelled phenol confirmed that phenol was mineralized in the aerobic reactors. The performances of both aerobic systems were similar for COD and phenol removal. Thus, a sequential anaerobic/aerobic treatment was able to effectively address the contamination of a bark leachate discharge, including phenols. PMID:14640219

  1. Effect of alkaline pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of solid wastes.

    PubMed

    López Torres, M; Espinosa Lloréns, Ma del C

    2008-11-01

    The introduction of the anaerobic digestion for the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is currently of special interest. The main difficulty in the treatment of this waste fraction is its biotransformation, due to the complexity of organic material. Therefore, the first step must be its physical, chemical and biological pretreatment for breaking complex molecules into simple monomers, to increase solubilization of organic material and improve the efficiency of the anaerobic treatment in the second step. This paper describes chemical pretreatment based on lime addition (Ca(OH)2), in order to enhance chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization, followed by anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW. Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in completely mixed reactors, 1 L capacity. Optimal conditions for COD solubilization in the first step of pretreatment were 62.0 mEq Ca(OH)2/L for 6.0 h. Under these conditions, 11.5% of the COD was solubilized. The anaerobic digestion efficiency of the OFMSW, with and without pretreatment, was evaluated. The highest methane yield under anaerobic digestion of the pretreated waste was 0.15 m3CH4/kg volatile solids (VS), 172.0% of the control. Under that condition the soluble COD and VS removal were 93.0% and 94.0%, respectively. The results have shown that chemical pretreatment with lime, followed by anaerobic digestion, provides the best results for stabilizing the OFMSW. PMID:18068345

  2. [Anaerobic digestion of animal manure contaminated by tetracyclines].

    PubMed

    Tong, Zi-Lin; Liu, Yuan-Lu; Hu, Zhen-Hu; Yuan, Shou-Jun

    2012-03-01

    Anaerobic digestion of pig manure spiked with tetracycline (TC) and chlortetracycline (CTC) and the degradation of the two antibiotics during the anaerobic digestion at 35 degrees C were investigated. The results indicate that propionate was the main volatile fatty acid produced during the anaerobic digestion followed by acetate. Compared with the CTC addition, TC + CTC addition showed obvious inhibitory effect on the hydrolysis and acidification of easily digestible organic components of pig manure. The cumulative methane production of TC, CTC, TC + CTC and CK2 during anaerobic digestion was 386.4 mL, 406.0 mL, 412.1 mL and 464.6 mL, respectively. Degradation of TC and CTC followed the first-order kinetic equation. The half-life of TC and CTC was 14-18 days and 10 days, respectively. After the treatment of 45-day anaerobic digestion, the degradation efficiency of TC was 88.6%-91.6% with 97.7%-98.2% of CTC. Therefore, anaerobic digestion shows the benefit on the management of animal manures contaminated by tetracyclines. PMID:22624404

  3. Decomposition of organic waste products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine the kinetics of C and N mineralization under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These parameters were then used to verify the simulation model, DECOMPOSITION, for the anaerobic system. Incubation experiments were conducted to compare the aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), a substrate with a low C:N ratio. Under anaerobic conditions the net mineralization of N occurred more rapidly than that under aerobic conditions. However, the rate of C mineralization as measured by CO{sub 2} evolution was much lower. For the anaerobic decomposition of alfalfa, C mineralization was best described as the sum of the CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} evolved plus the water soluble organic C formed. The kinetics of C mineralization, as determined by this approach, were used to successfully predict the rate and amount of N mineralization from alfalfa undergoing anaerobic decomposition. The decomposition of paper mill sludge, a high C:N ratio substrate, was also evaluated.

  4. Reconstructing the mosaic glycolytic pathway of the anaerobic eukaryote Monocercomonoides.

    PubMed

    Liapounova, Natalia A; Hampl, Vladimir; Gordon, Paul M K; Sensen, Christoph W; Gedamu, Lashitew; Dacks, Joel B

    2006-12-01

    All eukaryotes carry out glycolysis, interestingly, not all using the same enzymes. Anaerobic eukaryotes face the challenge of fewer molecules of ATP extracted per molecule of glucose due to their lack of a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle. This may have pressured anaerobic eukaryotes to acquire the more ATP-efficient alternative glycolytic enzymes, such as pyrophosphate-fructose 6-phosphate phosphotransferase and pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase, through lateral gene transfers from bacteria and other eukaryotes. Most studies of these enzymes in eukaryotes involve pathogenic anaerobes; Monocercomonoides, an oxymonad belonging to the eukaryotic supergroup Excavata, is a nonpathogenic anaerobe representing an evolutionarily and ecologically distinct sampling of an anaerobic glycolytic pathway. We sequenced cDNA encoding glycolytic enzymes from a previously established cDNA library of Monocercomonoides and analyzed the relationships of these enzymes to those from other organisms spanning the major groups of Eukaryota, Bacteria, and Archaea. We established that, firstly, Monocercomonoides possesses alternative versions of glycolytic enzymes: fructose-6-phosphate phosphotransferase, both pyruvate kinase and pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase, cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (class II, type B). Secondly, we found evidence for the monophyly of oxymonads, kinetoplastids, diplomonads, and parabasalids, the major representatives of the Excavata. We also found several prokaryote-to-eukaryote as well as eukaryote-to-eukaryote lateral gene transfers involving glycolytic enzymes from anaerobic eukaryotes, further suggesting that lateral gene transfer was an important factor in the evolution of this pathway for denizens of this environment. PMID:17071828

  5. Effect of alkaline pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of solid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez Torres, M. Espinosa Llorens, Ma. del C.

    2008-11-15

    The introduction of the anaerobic digestion for the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is currently of special interest. The main difficulty in the treatment of this waste fraction is its biotransformation, due to the complexity of organic material. Therefore, the first step must be its physical, chemical and biological pretreatment for breaking complex molecules into simple monomers, to increase solubilization of organic material and improve the efficiency of the anaerobic treatment in the second step. This paper describes chemical pretreatment based on lime addition (Ca(OH){sub 2}), in order to enhance chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization, followed by anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW. Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in completely mixed reactors, 1 L capacity. Optimal conditions for COD solubilization in the first step of pretreatment were 62.0 mEq Ca(OH){sub 2}/L for 6.0 h. Under these conditions, 11.5% of the COD was solubilized. The anaerobic digestion efficiency of the OFMSW, with and without pretreatment, was evaluated. The highest methane yield under anaerobic digestion of the pretreated waste was 0.15 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg volatile solids (VS), 172.0% of the control. Under that condition the soluble COD and VS removal were 93.0% and 94.0%, respectively. The results have shown that chemical pretreatment with lime, followed by anaerobic digestion, provides the best results for stabilizing the OFMSW.

  6. Carbon balance of anaerobic granulation process: carbon credit.

    PubMed

    Wong, Biing-Teo; Show, K Y; Lee, D J; Lai, J Y

    2009-03-01

    The concept of carbon credit arose out of increasing awareness of the need to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases to combat global warming which was formalized in the Kyoto protocol. In addition to contribution to sustainable development with energy recovery in the form of methane, carbon credits can be claimed by application of advanced anaerobic processes in wastewater treatment for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. As anaerobic granular systems are capable of handling high organic loadings concomitant with high strength wastewater and short hydraulic retention time, they could render much more carbon credits than other conventional anaerobic systems. This study investigated the potential carbon credit derived from laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors based on a carbon balance analysis. Methane emission reduction could be calculated by calculating the difference of UASB reactors and open lagoon treatment systems. Based on the 2.5l bench-scale reactor, the total CH(4) emissions reduction was calculated as 29 kg CO(2)/year. On scaling up to a typical full-scale anaerobic digester, the total CH(4) emissions reduction could achieve 46,420 tons CO(2) reduction/year. The estimated carbon credits would amount to 278,500 US$ per year by assuming a carbon price of 6 US$ per metric ton CO(2) reduction. The analysis postulated that it is financially viable to invest in advanced anaerobic granular treatment system from the revenue generated from carbon credits. PMID:18990565

  7. Diversity of anaerobic microbes in spacecraft assembly clean rooms.

    PubMed

    Probst, Alexander; Vaishampayan, Parag; Osman, Shariff; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Andersen, Gary L; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2010-05-01

    Although the cultivable and noncultivable microbial diversity of spacecraft assembly clean rooms has been previously documented using conventional and state-of-the-art molecular techniques, the occurrence of obligate anaerobes within these clean rooms is still uncertain. Therefore, anaerobic bacterial communities of three clean-room facilities were analyzed during assembly of the Mars Science Laboratory rover. Anaerobic bacteria were cultured on several media, and DNA was extracted from suitable anaerobic enrichments and examined with conventional 16S rRNA gene clone library, as well as high-density phylogenetic 16S rRNA gene microarray (PhyloChip) technologies. The culture-dependent analyses predominantly showed the presence of clostridial and propionibacterial strains. The 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from clone libraries revealed distinct microbial populations associated with each clean-room facility, clustered exclusively within gram-positive organisms. PhyloChip analysis detected a greater microbial diversity, spanning many phyla of bacteria, and provided a deeper insight into the microbial community structure of the clean-room facilities. This study presents an integrated approach for assessing the anaerobic microbial population within clean-room facilities, using both molecular and cultivation-based analyses. The results reveal that highly diverse anaerobic bacterial populations persist in the clean rooms even after the imposition of rigorous maintenance programs and will pose a challenge to planetary protection implementation activities. PMID:20228115

  8. Characterizing the anaerobic response of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Terashima, Mia; Specht, Michael; Naumann, Bianca; Hippler, Michael

    2010-07-01

    The versatile metabolism of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is reflected in its complex response to anaerobic conditions. The anaerobic response is also remarkable in the context of renewable energy because C. reinhardtii is able to produce hydrogen under anaerobic conditions. To identify proteins involved during anaerobic acclimation as well as to localize proteins and pathways to the powerhouses of the cell, chloroplasts and mitochondria from C. reinhardtii in aerobic and anaerobic (induced by 8 h of argon bubbling) conditions were isolated and analyzed using comparative proteomics. A total of 2315 proteins were identified. Further analysis based on spectral counting clearly localized 606 of these proteins to the chloroplast, including many proteins of the fermentative metabolism. Comparative quantitative analyses were performed with the chloroplast-localized proteins using stable isotopic labeling of amino acids ([(13)C(6)]arginine/[(12)C(6)]arginine in an arginine auxotrophic strain). The quantitative data confirmed proteins previously characterized as induced at the transcript level as well as identified several new proteins of unknown function induced under anaerobic conditions. These proteins of unknown function provide new candidates for further investigation, which could bring insights for the engineering of hydrogen-producing alga strains. PMID:20190198

  9. Comparison of selected aerobic and anaerobic procedures for MSW treatment.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Klaus; Santen, Heike; Wallmann, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers selected efficiency rates and process data of aerobic and anaerobic procedures for the treatment of municipal solid waste and residual waste. Data are exclusively related to mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) procedures for generating waste appropriate for landfilling. The following aspects are regarded: general framework conditions for the application of MBT, efficiency of decomposition and of stabilisation, air and water emissions and energy balances. The presented data can be used for more efficient planning. In comparison to aerobic processes, anaerobic digestion can be ecologically advantageous, particularly with regard to exhaust emissions and energy balances. On the other hand, the wastewater emissions and the wastewater treatment required must be regarded as disadvantageous. Due to the relatively short period of operational history of most anaerobic processes for mechanical-biological waste treatment and thus limited experiences, operational reliability of anaerobic processes is slightly lower. Extensive biological stability of the treated waste for low-emission disposal cannot be reached by anaerobic digestion alone, but only in combination with additional aerobic post-treatment. In connection with the utilisation of renewable energies and the rising relevancy of climate protection, it can be affirmed that anaerobic digestion for the treatment of municipal solid waste has a high potential for further development. PMID:16125060

  10. Anaerobic treatment of effluents from an industrial polymers synthesis plant

    SciTech Connect

    Araya, P.; Aroca, G.; Chamy, R.

    1999-06-01

    The feasibility of the anaerobic treatment of an industrial polymer synthesis plant effluent was evaluated. The composition of the wastewater includes acrylates, styrene, detergents, a minor amount of silicates and a significant amount of ferric chloride. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) corresponding is about 2,000 mg/l. The anaerobic biodegradability of the effluent is shown and the toxicity effect on the populations of anaerobic bacteria is evaluated. The results of the anaerobic biodegradation assays show that 62% of the wastewater compounds, measured as COD, could be consumed. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was used in the evaluation, it has a diameter-height ratio of 1:7, and 4-liter volume. The inoculum was obtained from a UASB pilot plant that treats brewery wastewaters. At the beginning of the operation, the biomass showed an anaerobic activity of 0.58 gCOD/(gVSS {times} d), it decreased only 2.5% in the subsequent 4 months. After 35 days of continuous operation, the reactor was operated at different steady states for 140 days. The COD was maintained at 2,200 mg/l in the feed. The results were: organic loading rate (OLR): 4.3 kg COD/(m{sup 3} {times} d), hydraulic retention time: 12 h, superficial velocity: 1 m/h, average biogas productivity: 290 L CH{sub 4}/kg COD fed, biogas composition: 70--75% methane and a COD removal percentage > 75%.

  11. Clinical characteristics associated with mortality of patients with anaerobic bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Umemura, Takumi; Hamada, Yukihiro; Yamagishi, Yuka; Suematsu, Hiroyuki; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2016-06-01

    The presence of anaerobes in the blood stream is known to be associated with a higher rate of mortality. However, few prognostic risk factor analyses examining whether a patient's background characteristics are associated with the prognosis have been reported. We performed a retrospective case-controlled study to assess the prognostic factors associated with death from anaerobic bacteremia. Seventy-four patients with anaerobic bacteremia were treated between January 2005 and December 2014 at Aichi Medical University Hospital. The clinical information included drug susceptibility was used for analysis of prognostic factors for 30-day mortality. Multivariate logistic analyses revealed an association between the 30-day mortality rate and malignancy (OR: 3.64, 95% CI: 1.08-12.31) and clindamycin resistance (OR: 7.93, 95% CI: 2.33-27.94). The result of Kaplan-Meier analysis of mortality showed that the 30-day survival rate was 83% in clindamycin susceptible and 38.1% in clindamycin resistant anaerobes causing bacteremia. The result of log-rank test also showed that susceptibility to clindamycin affected mortality (P < 0.001). Our results indicated that malignancy and clindamycin susceptibility could be used to identify subgroups of patients with anaerobic bacteremia with a higher risk of 30-day mortality. The results of this study are important for the early and appropriate management of patients with anaerobic bacteremia. PMID:26903282

  12. Hydrogen Biogeochemistry in Anaerobic and Photosynthetic Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The simple biochemistry of molecular hydrogen is central to a large number of microbial processes, affecting the interaction of organisms with each other and with the environment. In anoxic sediments, a great majority of microbial redox processes involve hydrogen as a reactant, product or potential by-product. Accordingly, the energetics (thermodynamics) of each of these processes is affected by variations in local H2 concentrations. It has long been established that this effect is important in governing microbe-microbe interactions and there are multiple demonstrations that "interspecies hydrogen transfer" can alter the products of, inhibit/stimulate, or even reverse microbial metabolic reactions. In anoxic sediments, H2 concentrations themselves are thought to be controlled by the thermodynamics of the predominant H2-consuming microbial process. In sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, this relationship quantitatively describes the co-variation of H2 concentrations with temperature (for methanogens and sulfate reducers) and with sulfate concentration (for sulfate reducers). The quantitative aspect is import= for two reasons: 1) it permits the modeling of H2-sensitive biogeochemistry, such as anaerobic methane oxidation or pathways of organic matter remineralization, as a function of environmental controls; 2) for such a relationship to be observed requires that intracellular biochemistry and bioenergetics are being directly expressed in a component of the extracellular medium. H2 could therefore be utilized a non-invasive probe of cellular energetic function in intact microbial ecosystems. Based on the latter principle we have measured down-core profiles of H2 and other relevant physico-chemical parameters in order to calculate the metabolic energy yields (DG) that support microbial metabolism in Cape Lookout Bight sediments. Methanogens in this system apparently function with energy yields significantly smaller than the minimum requirements suggested by pure

  13. Deciphering the salinity adaptation mechanism in Penicilliopsis clavariiformis AP, a rare salt tolerant fungus from mangrove.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Prem Lal; Rai, Anuradha; Singh, Ruchi; Chakdar, Hillol; Kumar, Sudheer; Srivastava, Alok Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Penicilliopsis clavariiformis AP, a rare salt tolerant fungus reported for the first time from India was identified through polyphasic taxonomy. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the fungus has unique features such as biverticillate penicilli bearing masses of oval to ellipsoidal conidia. The fungus has been characterized for salt tolerance and to understand the relevance of central carbon metabolism in salt stress adaptation. It showed optimal growth at 24 °C and able to tolerate up to 10% (w/v) NaCl. To understand the mechanism of adaptation to high salinity, activities of the key enzymes regulating glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and tricarboxylic acid cycle were investigated under normal (0% NaCl) and saline stress environment (10% NaCl). The results revealed a re-routing of carbon metabolism away from glycolysis to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), served as a cellular stress-resistance mechanism in fungi under saline environment. The detection and significant expression of fungus genes (Hsp98, Hsp60, HTB, and RHO) under saline stress suggest that these halotolerance conferring genes from the fungus could have a role in fungus protection and adaptation under saline environment. Overall, the present findings indicate that the rearrangement of the metabolic fluxes distribution and stress related genes play an important role in cell survival and adaptation under saline environment. PMID:26663001

  14. Identification and evaluation of SERI-NF1 fungus for ethanol production from xylose fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Antonopoulos, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    This work aimed at identifying the SERI-NF1 fungus isolated by Solar Energy Research Institute investigators, as well as evaluating the fungus as an ethanol producer from xylose fermentations. Microscopic and physiological observations led to the conclusion that the fungus is Paecilomyces varioti Bainier 1907. The fungus grows relatively fast in PDA plates, and its cultures release a light sweet aromatic odor. In liquid cultures the fungus forms round mycelial balls (1--12 mm in diameter). It showed to be thermophilic (grown well at 26--36/degree/C) and thermotolerant (exposed for two hours to 60/degree/C resumed its growth), and to prefer pH levels close to neutrality. Cultures of the fungus were tested (in 125 ml flasks) for fermenting xylose to ethanol. Its growth in the liquid cultures was slow and formed mycelial balls. The yield of ethanol production was low. The amount of fungal mass has to be more than a few mycelial balls per flask to get a reasonable yield of ethanol. 17 refs., 1 fig.

  15. The fungus gardens of leaf-cutter ants undergo a distinct physiological transition during biomass degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Eric L.; Aylward, Frank O.; Kim, Young-Mo; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hu, Zeping; Metz, Thomas O.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.; Currie, Cameron R.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.

    2014-08-01

    Leaf-cutter ants are dominant herbivores in ecosystems throughout the Neotropics. Rather than directly consuming the fresh foliar biomass they harvest, these ants use it to cultivate specialized fungus gardens. Although recent investigations have shed light on how plant biomass is degraded in fungus gardens, the cycling of nutrients that takes place in these specialized microbial ecosystems is still not well understood. Here, using metametabolomics and metaproteomics techniques, we examine the dynamics of nutrient turnover and biosynthesis in these gardens. Our results reveal that numerous free amino acids and sugars are depleted throughout the process of biomass degradation, indicating that easily accessible nutrients from plant material are readily consumed by microbes in these ecosystems. Accumulation of cellobiose and lignin derivatives near the end of the degradation process is consistent with previous findings of cellulases and laccases produced by Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the fungus cultivated by leaf-cutter ants. Our results also suggest that ureides may be an important source of nitrogen in fungus gardens, especially during nitrogen-limiting conditions. No free arginine was detected in our metametabolomics experiments despite evidence that the host ants cannot produce this amino acid, suggesting that biosynthesis of this metabolite may be tightly regulated in the fungus garden. These results provide new insights into the dynamics of nutrient cycling that underlie this important ant-fungus symbiosis.

  16. The Dynamics of Plant Cell-Wall Polysaccharide Decomposition in Leaf-Cutting Ant Fungus Gardens

    PubMed Central

    Harholt, Jesper; Willats, William G. T.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2011-01-01

    The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus degrades cellulose have hampered our understanding of the selection forces that induced large scale herbivory and of the ensuing ecological footprint of these ants. Here we use a recently established technique, based on polysaccharide microarrays probed with antibodies and carbohydrate binding modules, to map the occurrence of cell wall polymers in consecutive sections of the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We show that pectin, xyloglucan and some xylan epitopes are degraded, whereas more highly substituted xylan and cellulose epitopes remain as residuals in the waste material that the ants remove from their fungus garden. These results demonstrate that biomass entering leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens is only partially utilized and explain why disproportionally large amounts of plant material are needed to sustain colony growth. They also explain why substantial communities of microbial and invertebrate symbionts have evolved associations with the dump material from leaf-cutting ant nests, to exploit decomposition niches that the ant garden-fungus does not utilize. Our approach thus provides detailed insight into the nutritional benefits and shortcomings associated with fungus-farming in ants. PMID:21423735

  17. Fungal garden making inside bamboos by a non-social fungus-growing beetle.

    PubMed

    Toki, Wataru; Takahashi, Yukiko; Togashi, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    In fungus-growing mutualism, it is indispensable for host animals to establish gardens of the symbiotic fungus as rapidly as possible. How to establish fungal gardens has been well-documented in social fungus-farming insects, whereas poorly documented in non-social fungus-farming insects. Here we report that the non-social, fungus-growing lizard beetle Doubledaya bucculenta (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae) transmits the symbiotic yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus from the ovipositor-associated mycangium into bamboo internode cavities and disperses the yeast in the cavities to make gardens. Microbial isolation and cryo-scanning electron microscopy observation revealed that W. anomalus was constantly located on the posterior ends of eggs, where larvae came out, and on the inner openings of oviposition holes. Direct observation of oviposition behavior inside internodes revealed that the distal parts of ovipositors showed a peristaltic movement when they were in contact with the posterior ends of eggs. Rearing experiments showed that W. anomalus was spread much more rapidly and widely on culture media and internodes in the presence of the larvae than in the absence. These results suggest that the ovipositors play a critical role in vertical transmission of W. anomalus and that the larvae contribute actively to the garden establishment, providing a novel case of fungal garden founding in non-social insect-fungus mutualism. PMID:24223958

  18. Dense fouling in acid transfer pipelines by an acidophilic rubber degrading fungus.

    PubMed

    Joshi, M Hiren; Balamurugan, P; Venugopalan, V P; Rao, T S

    2011-07-01

    An unique case of dense fouling by an acidophilic, hard rubber (polymerized rubber) degrading fungus in the acid transfer pipelines of a boron enrichment plant located at Kalpakkam, India is reported. In spite of a highly adverse environment for survival (pH 1.5, no dissolved nutrients), the fungus thrived and clogged the pipeline used for transferring 0.1N hydrochloric acid (HCl). Detailed investigations were carried out to isolate and identify the fungus and examine the nutrient source for such profuse growth inside the system. Microscopic observation showed the presence of a thick filamentous fungal biomass. Molecular characterization by 18S rRNA gene sequencing showed 98% similarity of the isolate with the acidophilic fungus Bispora sp. In laboratory studies the fungus showed luxuriant growth (specific growth rate of 13 mg day⁻¹) when scrapings of the hard rubber were used as the sole source of carbon. Scanning electron microscopy revealed extensive incursion of the fungus into the hard rubber matrix. In the laboratory, fungal growth was completely inhibited by the antifungal agent sodium omadine. The study illustrates an interesting example of biofouling under extreme conditions and demonstrates that organisms can physiologically adapt to grow under unfavourable conditions, provided that a nutrient source is available and competition is low. The use of this fungal strain in biodegradation and in development of environmentally compatible processes for disposal of rubber wastes is envisaged. PMID:21722066

  19. ANAMMOX process start up and stabilization with an anaerobic seed in Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR).

    PubMed

    Suneethi, S; Joseph, Kurian

    2011-10-01

    ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation (ANAMMOX) process, an advanced biological nitrogen removal alternative to traditional nitrification--denitrification removes ammonia using nitrite as the electron acceptor without oxygen. The feasibility of enriching anammox bacteria from anaerobic seed culture to start up an Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR) for N-removal is reported in this paper. The Anammox activity was established in the AnMBR with anaerobic digester seed culture from a Sewage Treatment Plant in batch mode with recirculation followed by semi continuous process and continuous modes of operation. The AnMBR performance under varying Nitrogen Loading Rates (NLR) and HRTs is reported for a year, in terms of nitrogen transformations to ammoniacal nitrogen, nitrite and nitrate along with hydrazine and hydroxylamine. Interestingly ANAMMOX process was evident from simultaneous Amm-N and nitrite reduction, consistent nitrate production, hydrazine and hydroxylamine presence, notable organic load reduction and bicarbonate consumption. PMID:21775136

  20. Microalgae harvesting via co-culture with filamentous fungus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gultom, Sarman Oktovianus

    Microalgae harvesting is a labor- and energy-intensive process. For instance, classical harvesting technologies such as chemical addition and mechanical separation are economically prohibiting for biofuel production. Newer approaches to harvest microalgae have been developed in order to decrease costs. Among these new methods, fungal co-pelletization seems to be a promising technology. By co-culturing filamentous fungi with microalgae, it is possible to form pellets, which can easily be separated. In this study, different parameters for the cultivation of filamentous fungus (Aspergillus niger) and microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) to efficiently form cell pellets were evaluated under heterotrophic and phototrophic conditions, including organic carbon source (glucose, glycerol and sodium acetate) concentration, pH, initial concentration of fungal spores, initial concentration of microalgal cells, concentration of ionic strength (Calcium and Magnesium) and concentration of salinity (NaCl). In addition, zeta-potential measurements were carried out in order to get a better understanding of the mechanism of attraction. It was found that 2 g/L of glucose, a fungus to microalgae ratio of 1:300, and uncontrolled pH (around 7) are the best culturing conditions for co-pelletization. Under these conditions, it was possible to achieve a high harvesting performance (>90%). In addition, it was observed that most pellets formed in the co-culture were spherical with an average diameter of 3.5 mm and in concentrations of about 5 pellets per mL of culture media. Under phototrophic conditions, co-pelletization required the addition of glucose as organic carbon source to sustain the growth of fungi and to allow the harvesting of microalgae. Zeta-potential measurements indicated that (i) both microalgae and fungi have low zeta-potential values regardless of the pH on the bulk (i.e. <-10 mV) (ii) fungi can have a positive electric charge at low pH (ie. pH=3). These values suggest that it

  1. Fungal ammonia fermentation, a novel metabolic mechanism that couples the dissimilatory and assimilatory pathways of both nitrate and ethanol. Role of acetyl CoA synthetase in anaerobic ATP synthesis.

    PubMed

    Takasaki, Kazuto; Shoun, Hirofumi; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Takeo, Kanji; Nakamura, Akira; Hoshino, Takayuki; Takaya, Naoki

    2004-03-26

    Fungal ammonia fermentation is a novel dissimilatory metabolic mechanism that supplies energy under anoxic conditions. The fungus Fusarium oxysporum reduces nitrate to ammonium and simultaneously oxidizes ethanol to acetate to generate ATP (Zhou, Z., Takaya, N., Nakamura, A., Yamaguchi, M., Takeo, K., and Shoun, H. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 1892-1896). We identified the Aspergillus nidulans genes involved in ammonia fermentation by analyzing fungal mutants. The results showed that assimilatory nitrate and nitrite reductases (the gene products of niaD and niiA) were essential for reducing nitrate and for anaerobic cell growth during ammonia fermentation. We also found that ethanol oxidation is coupled with nitrate reduction and catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase, coenzyme A (CoA)-acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase, and acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs). This is similar to the mechanism suggested in F. oxysporum except A. nidulans uses Acs to produce ATP instead of the ADP-dependent acetate kinase of F. oxysporum. The production of Acs requires a functional facA gene that encodes Acs and that is involved in ethanol assimilation and other metabolic processes. We purified the gene product of facA (FacA) from the fungus to show that the fungus acetylates FacA on its lysine residue(s) specifically under conditions of ammonia fermentation to regulate its substrate affinity. Acetylated FacA had higher affinity for acetyl-CoA than for acetate, whereas non-acetylated FacA had more affinity for acetate. Thus, the acetylated variant of the FacA protein is responsible for ATP synthesis during fungal ammonia fermentation. These results showed that the fungus ferments ammonium via coupled dissimilatory and assimilatory mechanisms. PMID:14722082

  2. Anaerobic biotransformation of trichlorofluoroethene in groundwater microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Vancheeswaran, S.; Semprini, L. . Dept. of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering); Hyman, M.R. . Dept. of Microbiology)

    1999-06-15

    The biological reduction of trichlorofluoroethene (TCFE) was investigated in anaerobic groundwater microcosms. TCFE was reductively dehalogenated by microorganisms to produce three dichlorofluoroethene isomers, with cis-1,2-dichlorofluoroethene (c-DCFE) being the main isomer formed. Further sequential biological transformation of these compounds to mono-chlorofluoroethene isomers was incomplete and occurred at much slower rates. The rates of TCFE reduction were compared to the rates of reduction of two common chlorinated solvents, perchloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE), when present at similar concentrations. Aqueous concentrations ranged from 7.0 to 14.0 mg/L for TCFE and from 7.5 to 15.0 mg/L for PCE and TCE. Similar rates of PCE and TCE transformation relative to TCFE were observed in single-compound tests (PCE, TCE, and TCFE in separate microcosms) and when the contaminants were present together as mixtures in the microcosms. The close similarities between the time course and kinetics of TCFE degradation and the degradation of both PCE and TCE, when present at comparable initial concentrations, suggest that TCFE could potentially be used as a benign reactive tracer to measure in-situ rates of PCE and TCE transformation in contaminated environments.

  3. Mechanisms of foam formation in anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Bhargavi; Pagilla, Krishna R

    2015-02-01

    An anaerobic digester (AD) is the most essential step to generate energy in the form of biogas from waste. AD foaming is widespread and leads to deterioration of the AD process and operation. In extreme conditions, AD foaming poses a significant safety risk and considerable economic impacts. It is, therefore, necessary to understand the fundamentals of AD foaming to develop effective strategies that can help minimize the foaming impacts. Several aspects of AD foaming have attracted considerable research attention, however, the focused has been mainly on site specific causes and prevention. Here, the available three-phase foam literature is reviewed with an emphasis on the fundamental aspects of bubble formation in AD: similarities between AD foams and other "desirable" foams, surface rheology, physico-chemical aspects of carbon dioxide (CO2) in digesters, dynamics of the gas-phase, pH, alkalinity and certain relationships between these factors are discussed. All of the abovementioned fundamental aspects seem to be involved in AD foam formation. However, the detailed relationship between these uncontrolled and controlled factors, foam formation and its implications for process and operation of AD is still inconclusive. PMID:25487880

  4. Anaerobic degradation of linoleic oleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Lalman, J.A.; Bagley, D.M.

    1999-07-01

    The anaerobic degradation of linoleic (C18:2) and oleic (C18:1) acids was examined in batch experiments. By-product distribution depended on both the type of long chain fatty acid added and initial substrate concentration. Major by-products were palmitic (C16), myristic (C14) and acetic acids. Trace quantities of palmitoleic (C16:1) and lauric (C12) acids were observed together with larger amounts of palmitic (C16), myristic (C14) and hexanoic (C6) acids in cultures incubated with 100 mg/L linoleic (C18:2) acid. Bio-hydrogenation of C18 fatty acids was not necessary for the {beta}-oxidation mechanism to proceed. Aceticlastic methanogenic inhibition was observed in cultures inoculated with greater than 50 mg/L linoleic (C18:2) acid. In cultures incubated with greater than 50 mg/L oleic (C18:1) acid, aceticlastic methanogenic inhibition was observed for a short time period.

  5. Molecular mechanism of anaerobic ammonium oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kartal, Boran; Maalcke, Wouter J; de Almeida, Naomi M; Cirpus, Irina; Gloerich, Jolein; Geerts, Wim; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Harhangi, Harry R; Janssen-Megens, Eva M; Francoijs, Kees-Jan; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Keltjens, Jan T; Jetten, Mike S M; Strous, Marc

    2011-11-01

    Two distinct microbial processes, denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), are responsible for the release of fixed nitrogen as dinitrogen gas (N(2)) to the atmosphere. Denitrification has been studied for over 100 years and its intermediates and enzymes are well known. Even though anammox is a key biogeochemical process of equal importance, its molecular mechanism is unknown, but it was proposed to proceed through hydrazine (N(2)H(4)). Here we show that N(2)H(4) is produced from the anammox substrates ammonium and nitrite and that nitric oxide (NO) is the direct precursor of N(2)H(4). We resolved the genes and proteins central to anammox metabolism and purified the key enzymes that catalyse N(2)H(4) synthesis and its oxidation to N(2). These results present a new biochemical reaction forging an N-N bond and fill a lacuna in our understanding of the biochemical synthesis of the N(2) in the atmosphere. Furthermore, they reinforce the role of nitric oxide in the evolution of the nitrogen cycle. PMID:21964329

  6. Comparison of four commercial brucella agar media for growth of anaerobic organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Mangels, J I; Douglas, B P

    1989-01-01

    Four different commercial brucella blood agar plating media (Anaerobe Systems, BBL Microbiology Systems, Remel, and Scott Laboratories) were compared for the abilities to recover anaerobic organisms from clinical specimens and to support the growth of American Type Culture Collection anaerobic stock cultures. Following 24 h of incubation in an anaerobe chamber, Anaerobe Systems prereduced, anaerobically sterilized brucella plates yielded 63% of the total clinical anaerobe isolates, the Scott medium yielded 51%, the Remel medium yielded 42%, and the BBL medium yielded 37%. Poor growth of Peptostreptococcus magnus, P. anaerobius, Fusobacterium necrophorum, F. nucleatum, and pigmented Bacteroides spp. was observed on brucella media obtained from BBL, Remel, and Scott. Data obtained with stock anaerobic cultures showed that Anaerobe Systems plates yielded good growth and produced a larger colony size with all of the strains tested in 1 day, whereas poor growth of Peptostreptococcus spp., B. melaninogenicus, and Fusobacterium spp. was noted on brucella media from BBL, Remel, and Scott. PMID:2584378

  7. Metabolism of phenanthrene by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed Central

    Bezalel, L; Hadar, Y; Fu, P P; Freeman, J P; Cerniglia, C E

    1996-01-01

    The white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus, grown for 11 days in basidiomycetes rich medium containing [14C] phenanthrene, metabolized 94% of the phenanthrene added. Of the total radioactivity, 3% was oxidized to CO2. Approximately 52% of phenanthrene was metabolized to trans-9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol) (28%), 2,2'-diphenic acid (17%), and unidentified metabolites (7%). Nonextractable metabolites accounted for 35% of the total radioactivity. The metabolites were extracted with ethyl acetate, separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, and UV spectroscopy analyses. 18O2-labeling experiments indicated that one atom of oxygen was incorporated into the phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol. Circular dichroism spectra of the phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol indicated that the absolute configuration of the predominant enantiomer was 9R,10R, which is different from that of the principal enantiomer produced by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Significantly less phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol was observed in incubations with the cytochrome P-450 inhibitor SKF 525-A (77% decrease), 1-aminobenzotriazole (83% decrease), or fluoxetine (63% decrease). These experiments with cytochrome P-450 inhibitors and 18O2 labeling and the formation of phenanthrene trans-9R,10R-dihydrodiol as the predominant metabolite suggest that P. ostreatus initially oxidizes phenanthrene stereoselectively by a cytochrome P-450 monoxygenase and that this is followed by epoxide hydrolase-catalyzed hydration reactions. PMID:8779594

  8. ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS ENTOMOPHAGA MAIMAIGA AND INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IN SERBIA.

    PubMed

    Tabaković-Tosić, Mara

    2015-01-01

    During the latest outbreak of the gypsy moth in Serbia (2009-2014), some areas of Central Serbia were particularly endangered, and one of them was Krusevac region, where the forests give way to orchards in the pattern resembling the tiger's skin. Since the number of the laid egg masses in the autumn 2013 guaranteed the defoliation of both forest tree species and agricultural crops, and the presence of E. maimaigo, in Central Serbia had already been determined, at 30 selected plots the assisted spread of it was performed, through the introduction of the infectious inoculum in the beech and oak forests which border the orchards. Since there was dealt with the living organism--fungus, which is particularly susceptible to the weather conditions (temperature and air humidity, as well as the precipitation), and under the conditions of the global warming and great drought, the special recipe for the preparation of inoculum was made. In the following year the mass epizootic of the gypsy moth caterpillars, of the younger instars (L2 and L3), occurred, which implies that E. maimaiga caused the crash of the outbreak of this most harmful species of the defoliating insects of the forests and orchards. PMID:27145580

  9. Structural analysis of fungus-derived FAD glucose dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Hiromi; Sakai, Genki; Mori, Kazushige; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Kamitori, Shigehiro; Sode, Koji

    2015-01-01

    We report the first three-dimensional structure of fungus-derived glucose dehydrogenase using flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as the cofactor. This is currently the most advanced and popular enzyme used in glucose sensor strips manufactured for glycemic control by diabetic patients. We prepared recombinant nonglycosylated FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FADGDH) derived from Aspergillus flavus (AfGDH) and obtained the X-ray structures of the binary complex of enzyme and reduced FAD at a resolution of 1.78 Å and the ternary complex with reduced FAD and D-glucono-1,5-lactone (LGC) at a resolution of 1.57 Å. The overall structure is similar to that of fungal glucose oxidases (GOxs) reported till date. The ternary complex with reduced FAD and LGC revealed the residues recognizing the substrate. His505 and His548 were subjected for site-directed mutagenesis studies, and these two residues were revealed to form the catalytic pair, as those conserved in GOxs. The absence of residues that recognize the sixth hydroxyl group of the glucose of AfGDH, and the presence of significant cavity around the active site may account for this enzyme activity toward xylose. The structural information will contribute to the further engineering of FADGDH for use in more reliable and economical biosensing technology for diabetes management. PMID:26311535

  10. Characterization of Transposable Elements in the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Labbe, Jessy L; Murat, Claude; Morin, Emmanuelle; Tuskan, Gerald A; Le Tacon, F; Martin, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Background: The publicly available Laccaria bicolor genome sequence has provided a considerable genomic resource allowing systematic identification of transposable elements (TEs) in this symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungus. Using a TEspecific annotation pipeline we have characterized and analyzed TEs in the L. bicolor S238N-H82 genome. Methodology/Principal Findings: TEs occupy 24% of the 60 Mb L. bicolor genome and represent 25,787 full-length and partial copy elements distributed within 171 families. The most abundant elements were the Copia-like. TEs are not randomly distributed across the genome, but are tightly nested or clustered. The majority of TEs exhibits signs of ancient transposition except some intact copies of terminal inverted repeats (TIRS), long terminal repeats (LTRs) and a large retrotransposon derivative (LARD) element. There were three main periods of TE expansion in L. bicolor: the first from 57 to 10 Mya, the second from 5 to 1 Mya and the most recent from 0.5 Mya ago until now. LTR retrotransposons are closely related to retrotransposons found in another basidiomycete, Coprinopsis cinerea. Conclusions: This analysis 1) represents an initial characterization of TEs in the L. bicolor genome, 2) contributes to improve genome annotation and a greater understanding of the role TEs played in genome organization and evolution and 3) provides a valuable resource for future research on the genome evolution within the Laccaria genus.

  11. A phosphate transporter from the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus versiforme.

    PubMed

    Harrison, M J; van Buuren, M L

    1995-12-01

    Vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic associations with the roots of most terrestrial plants, including many agriculturally important crop species. The fungi colonize the cortex of the root to obtain carbon from their plant host, while assisting the plant with the uptake of phosphate and other mineral nutrients from the soil. This association is beneficial to the plant, because phosphate is essential for plant growth and development, especially during growth under nutrient-limiting conditions. Molecular genetic studies of these fungi and their interaction with plants have been limited owing to the obligate symbiotic nature of the VA fungi, so the molecular mechanisms underlying fungal-mediated uptake and translocation of phosphate from the soil to the plant remain unknown. Here we begin to investigate this process by identifying a complementary DNA that encodes a transmembrane phosphate transporter (GvPT) from Glomus versiforme, a VA mycorrhizal fungus. The function of the protein encoded by GvPT was confirmed by complementation of a yeast phosphate transport mutant. Expression of GvPT was localized to the external hyphae of G. versiforme during mycorrhizal associations, these being the initial site of phosphate uptake from the soil. PMID:8524398

  12. Acrophialophora, a Poorly Known Fungus with Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Sutton, Deanna A.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Guarro, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Acrophialophora fusispora is an emerging opportunistic fungus capable of causing human infections. The taxonomy of the genus is not yet resolved and, in order to facilitate identification of clinical specimens, we have studied a set of clinical and environmental Acrophialophora isolates by morphological and molecular analyses. This set included the available type strains of Acrophialophora species and similar fungi, some of which were considered by various authors to be synonyms of A. fusispora. Sequence analysis of the large subunit (LSU) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA and a fragment of the β-tubulin (Tub) gene revealed that Acrophialophora belongs in the family Chaetomiaceae and comprises three different species, i.e., A. fusispora, Acrophialophora levis, and Acrophialophora seudatica; the latter was previously included in the genus Ampullifera. The most prevalent species among clinical isolates was A. levis (72.7%), followed by A. fusispora (27.3%), both of which were isolated mostly from respiratory specimens (72.7%), as well as subcutaneous and corneal tissue samples. In general, of the eight antifungal drugs tested, voriconazole had the greatest in vitro activity, while all other agents showed poor in vitro activity against these fungi. PMID:25716450

  13. Denitrification of nitrate by the fungus Cylindrocarpon tonkinense.

    PubMed

    Watsuji, Tomo-o; Takaya, Naoki; Nakamura, Akira; Shoun, Hirofumi

    2003-05-01

    The denitrifying fungus Cylindrocarpon tonkinense was thought to be able to denitrify only nitrite (NO2-) but not nitrate (NO3-) to form nitrous oxide (N2O). Here we found, however, that C. tonkinense can denitrify NO3- under certain conditions. Presence of ammonium (NH3+) in addition to NO3- and the use of a fermentable sugar as an electron donor were key conditions for inducing the denitrifying activity. Such induction accompanied a remarkable increase in the intracellular level of the enzyme activities related to NO3- metabolism. These activities contained assimilatory type NADPH (or NADH)-dependent NO3- reductase (aNar), dissimilatory nitrite reductase (dNir), and nitric oxide reductase (P450nor), but did not contain ubiquinol-dependent, dissimilatory NO3- reductase (dNar). The denitrification was inhibited by tungstate, an inhibitor of Nar. These results demonstrated occurrence of a novel type of denitrification in C. tonkinense, in which assimilatory type Nar is possibly involved. PMID:12834290

  14. Fitness-associated sexual reproduction in a filamentous fungus.

    PubMed

    Schoustra, Sijmen; Rundle, Howard D; Dali, Rola; Kassen, Rees

    2010-08-10

    Sex is a long-standing evolutionary enigma. Although the majority of eukaryotes reproduce sexually at least sometimes [1-3], the evolution of sex from an asexual ancestor has been difficult to explain because it requires sexually reproducing lineages to overcome the manifold costs of sex, including the destruction of favorable gene combinations created by selection [4, 5]. Conditions for the evolution of sex are much broader if individuals can reproduce either sexually or asexually (i.e., facultative sex) and allocate disproportionately more resources to sex when their fitness is low (fitness-associated-sex or FAS [6-10]). Although facultatively sexual organisms have been shown to engage in more sex when stressed [11], direct evidence for FAS is lacking. We provide evidence using 53 genotypes of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans in a reciprocal transplant experiment across three environments. Different genotypes achieved highest fitness in different environments and genotypes invested relatively more in sex in environments in which their fitness was lower, showing that allocation to sexual reproduction is a function of how well-adapted a genotype is to its environment. FAS in A. nidulans is unlikely to have evolved as a strategy to resist or avoid stress because asexual spores are more dispersive and equally resistant [12, 13]. PMID:20598542

  15. Antibacterial Azaphilones from an Endophytic Fungus, Colletotrichum sp. BS4.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Xuan; Kusari, Souvik; Laatsch, Hartmut; Golz, Christopher; Kusari, Parijat; Strohmann, Carsten; Kayser, Oliver; Spiteller, Michael

    2016-04-22

    Three new compounds, colletotrichones A-C (1-3), and one known compound, chermesinone B (4a), were isolated from an endophytic fungus, Colletotrichum sp. BS4, harbored in the leaves of Buxus sinica, a well-known boxwood plant used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS, ECD spectra, UV, and IR, as well as single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and shown to be azaphilones sharing a 3,6a-dimethyl-9-(2-methylbutanoyl)-9H-furo[2,3-h]isochromene-6,8-dione scaffold. Owing to the remarkable antibacterial potency of known azaphilones coupled to the usage of the host plant in TCM, we evaluated the antibacterial efficacy of the isolated compounds against two commonly dispersed environmental strains of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, as well as against two human pathogenic clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Compound 1 exhibited marked antibacterial potencies against the environmental strains that were comparable to the standard antibiotics. Compound 3 was also active against E. coli. Finally, compound 2a exhibited the same efficacy as streptomycin against the clinically relevant bacterium S. aureus. The in vitro cytotoxicity of these compounds on a human acute monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1) was also assessed. Our results provide a scientific rationale for further investigations into endophyte-mediated host chemical defense against specialist and generalist pathogens. PMID:26905687

  16. Bioturbation by the Fungus-Gardening Ant, Trachymyrmex septentrionalis.

    PubMed

    Tschinkel, Walter R; Seal, Jon N

    2016-01-01

    Soil invertebrates such as ants are thought to be important manipulators of soils in temperate and tropical ecosystems. The fungus gardening ant, Trachymyrmex septentrionalis, is an important agent of biomantling, that is, of depositing soil excavated from below onto the surface, and has been suggested as an agent of bioturbation (moving soil below ground) as well. The amount of bioturbation by this ant was quantified by planting queenright colonies in sand columns consisting of 5 layers of different colored sand. The amount of each color of sand deposited on the surface was determined from April to November 2015. In November, colonies were excavated and the color and amount of sand deposited below ground (mostly as backfill in chambers) was determined. Extrapolated to one ha, T. septentrionalis deposited 800 kg of sand per annum on the surface, and an additional 200 kg (17% of the total excavated) below ground. On average, this mixes 1.3% of the sand from other layers within the top meter of soil per millennium, but this mixing is unlikely to be homogeneous, and probably occurs as "hotspots" in both horizontal and vertical space. Such mixing is discussed as a challenge to sediment dating by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). PMID:27391485

  17. Clinical Evaluation and Management of Patients with Suspected Fungus Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Larenas-Linnemann, Desiree; Baxi, Sachin; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Portnoy, Jay M

    2016-01-01

    Fungus-sensitized patients usually present with symptoms that are similar to symptoms presented by those who are sensitized to other aeroallergens. Therefore, diagnosis and management should follow the same pathways used for patients with allergic conditions in general. The physician should consider that a relationship between fungal exposure and symptoms is not necessarily caused by an IgE-mediated mechanism, even when specific fungal IgE is detected. Until recently, IgE-mediated allergy has been documented only for a limited number of fungi. We propose a series of questions to be used to identify symptoms that occur in situations with high fungal exposure and a limited skin-prick-test panel (Alternaria, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Candida) that can be amplified only in cases of high suspicion of other fungal exposure (eg, postfloods). We also review in vitro testing for fungi-specific IgE. Treatment includes environmental control, medical management, and, when appropriate, specific immunotherapy. Low-quality evidence exists supporting the use of subcutaneous immunotherapy for Alternaria to treat allergic rhinitis and asthma, and very low quality evidence supports the use of subcutaneous immunotherapy for Cladosporium and sublingual immunotherapy for Alternaria. As is the case for many allergens, evidence for immunotherapy with other fungal extracts is lacking. The so-called toxic mold syndrome is also briefly discussed. PMID:26755100

  18. Acrophialophora, a poorly known fungus with clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Gené, Josepa; Sutton, Deanna A; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Guarro, Josep

    2015-05-01

    Acrophialophora fusispora is an emerging opportunistic fungus capable of causing human infections. The taxonomy of the genus is not yet resolved and, in order to facilitate identification of clinical specimens, we have studied a set of clinical and environmental Acrophialophora isolates by morphological and molecular analyses. This set included the available type strains of Acrophialophora species and similar fungi, some of which were considered by various authors to be synonyms of A. fusispora. Sequence analysis of the large subunit (LSU) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA and a fragment of the β-tubulin (Tub) gene revealed that Acrophialophora belongs in the family Chaetomiaceae and comprises three different species, i.e., A. fusispora, Acrophialophora levis, and Acrophialophora seudatica; the latter was previously included in the genus Ampullifera. The most prevalent species among clinical isolates was A. levis (72.7%), followed by A. fusispora (27.3%), both of which were isolated mostly from respiratory specimens (72.7%), as well as subcutaneous and corneal tissue samples. In general, of the eight antifungal drugs tested, voriconazole had the greatest in vitro activity, while all other agents showed poor in vitro activity against these fungi. PMID:25716450

  19. Fungus mediated biosynthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, K. S.; Palani, N. S.; Krishnamoorthi, S. R.; Thirumal, V.; Ilangovan, R.

    2013-06-01

    Recently nanomaterials have been synthesized through biological approach due to its biocompatibility, inexpensive, eco friendly and it offers easiest experimental protocol and so on. ZnO can be potentially used in various applications. This present study reports the fungus mediated extra-cellular bio synthesis of ZnO nanorods using Fusarium Solani. The dried powder was calcined at 350°C for 1 hour in air. The thermal property of the as synthesized ZnO nanopowder was analyzed through Thermo gravimetric /Differential Thermo gravimetric (TGA / DTG) analysis. The structural and morphological properties of the calcined ZnO nanopowder were studied by XRD and SEM analysis respectively. X ray diffraction result revealed that a peak located at 2θ = 36.2° with (101) plane confirms the presence of Zinc oxide with Hexagonal crystal system. The morphology of the calcined ZnO powder was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and it clearly indicates the presence of ZnO nanorods. The diameter of the nanorods is in the range of 60 to 95 nm.

  20. Garden sharing and garden stealing in fungus-growing ants.

    PubMed

    Adams, R M; Mueller, U G; Holloway, A K; Green, A M; Narozniak, J

    2000-11-01

    Fungi cultivated by fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae) are passed on between generations by transfer from maternal to offspring nest (vertical transmission within ant species). However, recent phylogenetic analyses revealed that cultivars are occasionally also transferred between attine species. The reasons for such lateral cultivar transfers are unknown. To investigate whether garden loss may induce ants to obtain a replacement cultivar from a neighboring colony (lateral cultivar transfer), pairs of queenright colonies of two Cyphomyrmex species were set up in two conjoined chambers; the garden of one colony was then removed to simulate the total crop loss that occurs naturally when pathogens devastate gardens. Garden-deprived colonies regained cultivars through one of three mechanisms: joining of a neighboring colony and cooperation in a common garden; stealing of a neighbor's garden; or aggressive usurpation of a neighbor's garden. Because pathogens frequently devastate attine gardens under natural conditions, garden joining, stealing and usurpation emerge as critical behavioral adaptations to survive garden catastrophes. PMID:11151668

  1. Identification of naphthalene metabolism by white rot fungus Pleurotus eryngii.

    PubMed

    Hadibarata, Tony; Teh, Zee Chuang; Rubiyatno; Zubir, Meor Mohd Fikri Ahmad; Khudhair, Ameer Badr; Yusoff, Abdull Rahim Mohd; Salim, Mohd Razman; Hidayat, Topik

    2013-10-01

    The use of biomaterials or microorganisms in PAHs degradation had presented an eye-catching performance. Pleurotus eryngii is a white rot fungus, which is easily isolated from the decayed woods in the tropical rain forest, used to determine the capability to utilize naphthalene, a two-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as source of carbon and energy. In the meantime, biotransformation of naphthalene to intermediates and other by-products during degradation was investigated in this study. Pleurotus eryngii had been incubated in liquid medium formulated with naphthalene for 14 days. The presence of metabolites of naphthalene suggests that Pleurotus eryngii begin the ring cleavage by dioxygenation on C1 and C4 position to give 1,4-naphthaquinone. 1,4-Naphthaquinone was further degraded to benzoic acid, where the proposed terepthalic acid is absent in the cultured extract. Further degradation of benzoic acid by Pleurotus eryngii shows the existence of catechol as a result of the combination of decarboxylation and hydroxylation process. Unfortunately, phthalic acid was not detected in this study. Several enzymes, including manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, 1,2-dioxygenase and 2,3-dioxygenase are enzymes responsible for naphthalene degradation. Reduction of naphthalene and the presence of metabolites in liquid medium showed the ability of Pleurotus eryngii to utilize naphthalene as carbon source instead of a limited glucose amount. PMID:23334282

  2. Direct electrochemistry of nitrate reductase from the fungus Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Kalimuthu, Palraj; Ringel, Phillip; Kruse, Tobias; Bernhardt, Paul V

    2016-09-01

    We report the first direct (unmediated) catalytic electrochemistry of a eukaryotic nitrate reductase (NR). NR from the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, is a member of the mononuclear molybdenum enzyme family and contains a Mo, heme and FAD cofactor which are involved in electron transfer from NAD(P)H to the (Mo) active site where reduction of nitrate to nitrite takes place. NR was adsorbed on an edge plane pyrolytic graphite (EPG) working electrode. Non-turnover redox responses were observed in the absence of nitrate from holo NR and three variants lacking the FAD, heme or Mo cofactor. The FAD response is due to dissociated cofactor in all cases. In the presence of nitrate, NR shows a pronounced cathodic catalytic wave with an apparent Michaelis constant (KM) of 39μM (pH7). The catalytic cathodic current increases with temperature from 5 to 35°C and an activation enthalpy of 26kJmol(-1) was determined. In spite of dissociation of the FAD cofactor, catalytically activity is maintained. PMID:27060250

  3. Conidial germination in the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Seong, Kye-Yong; Zhao, Xinhua; Xu, Jin-Rong; Güldener, Ulrich; Kistler, H Corby

    2008-04-01

    The ascomycetous fungus Fusarium graminearum is an important plant pathogen causing Fusarium head blight disease of wheat and barley. To understand early developmental stages of this organism, we followed the germination of macroconidia microscopically to understand the timing of key events. These events, recorded after suspension of spores in liquid germination medium, included spore swelling at 2h, germination tube emergence and elongation from conidia at 8h and hyphal branching at 24h. To understand changes in gene expression during these developmental changes, RNA was isolated from spores and used to interrogate the F. graminearum Affymetrix GeneChip. RNAs corresponding to 5813 genes were detected in fresh spores and 5146, 5249 and 5993, respectively, in spores incubated in germination medium after 2, 8 or 24h (P<0.001). Gene expression data were used to predict the cellular and physiological state of each developmental stage for known processes. Predictions were confirmed microscopically for several previously unreported developmental events such as manifestation of peroxisomes in fresh spores and nuclear division resulting in binuclear cells within macroconidia prior to spore germination. Knowledge of stage-specific gene expression and changes in gene expression levels between developmental stages are an important first step to understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for spore germination and development. PMID:17950638

  4. Bioturbation by the Fungus-Gardening Ant, Trachymyrmex septentrionalis

    PubMed Central

    Tschinkel, Walter R.; Seal, Jon N.

    2016-01-01

    Soil invertebrates such as ants are thought to be important manipulators of soils in temperate and tropical ecosystems. The fungus gardening ant, Trachymyrmex septentrionalis, is an important agent of biomantling, that is, of depositing soil excavated from below onto the surface, and has been suggested as an agent of bioturbation (moving soil below ground) as well. The amount of bioturbation by this ant was quantified by planting queenright colonies in sand columns consisting of 5 layers of different colored sand. The amount of each color of sand deposited on the surface was determined from April to November 2015. In November, colonies were excavated and the color and amount of sand deposited below ground (mostly as backfill in chambers) was determined. Extrapolated to one ha, T. septentrionalis deposited 800 kg of sand per annum on the surface, and an additional 200 kg (17% of the total excavated) below ground. On average, this mixes 1.3% of the sand from other layers within the top meter of soil per millennium, but this mixing is unlikely to be homogeneous, and probably occurs as "hotspots" in both horizontal and vertical space. Such mixing is discussed as a challenge to sediment dating by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). PMID:27391485

  5. Devonian landscape heterogeneity recorded by a giant fungus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, C. Kevin; Hotton, Carol L.; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Cody, George D.; Hazen, Robert M.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Hueber, Francis M.

    2007-05-01

    The enigmatic Paleozoic fossil Prototaxites Dawson 1859 consists of tree-like trunks as long as 8 m constructed of interwoven tubes <50 mm in diameter. Prototaxites specimens from five localities differ from contemporaneous vascular plants by exhibiting a carbon isotopic range, within and between localities, of as much as 13‰ δ13C. Pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry highlights compositional differences between Prototaxites and co-occurring plant fossils and supports interpretation of isotopic distinctions as biological rather than diagenetic in origin. Such a large isotopic range is difficult to reconcile with an autotrophic metabolism, suggesting instead that, consistent with anatomy-based interpretation as a fungus, Prototaxites was a heterotroph that lived on isotopically heterogeneous substrates. Light isotopic values of Prototaxites approximate those of vascular plants from the same localities; in contrast, heavy extremes seen in the Lower Devonian appear to reflect consumption of primary producers with carbon-concentrating mechanisms, such as cryptobiotic soil crusts, or possibly bryophytes. Prototaxites biogeochemistry thus suggests that a biologically heterogeneous mosaic of primary producers characterized land surfaces well into the vascular plant era.

  6. Retention and transport of an anaerobic trichloroethene dechlorinating microbial culture in anaerobic porous media.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huixin; Ulrich, Ania C; Liu, Yang

    2015-06-01

    The influence of solution chemistry on microbial transport was examined using the strictly anaerobic trichloroethene (TCE) bioaugmentation culture KB-1(®). A column was employed to determine transport behaviors and deposition kinetics of three distinct functional species in KB-1(®), Dehalococcoides, Geobacter, and Methanomethylovorans, over a range of ionic strengths under a well-controlled anaerobic condition. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was utilized to enumerate cell concentration and complementary techniques were implemented to evaluate cell surface electrokinetic potentials. Solution chemistry was found to positively affect the deposition rates, which was consistent with calculated Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) interaction energies. Retained microbial profiles showed spatially constant colloid deposition rate coefficients, in agreement with classical colloid filtration theory (CFT). It was interesting to note that the three KB-1(®) species displayed similar transport and retention behaviors under the defined experimental conditions despite their different cell electrokinetic properties. A deeper analysis of cell characteristics showed that factors, such as cell size and shape, concentration, and motility were involved in determining adhesion behavior. PMID:25935560

  7. Evaluation of PCB dechlorination pathways in anaerobic sediment microcosms using an anaerobic dechlorination model.

    PubMed

    Demirtepe, Hale; Kjellerup, Birthe; Sowers, Kevin R; Imamoglu, Ipek

    2015-10-15

    A detailed quantitative analysis of anaerobic dechlorination (AD) pathways of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment microcosms was performed by applying an anaerobic dechlorination model (ADM). The purpose of ADM is to systematically analyze changes in a contaminant profile that result from microbial reductive dechlorination according to empirically determined dechlorination pathways. In contrast to prior studies that utilized modeling tools to predict dechlorination pathways, ADM also provides quantification of individual pathways. As only microbial reductive dechlorination of PCBs occurred in the modeled laboratory microcosms, extensive analysis of AD pathways was possible without the complicating effect of concurrent physico-chemical or other weathering mechanisms. The results from this study showed: (1) ninety three AD pathways are active; (2) tetra- to hepta-chlorobiphenyl (CB) congeners were common intermediates in several AD pathways, penta-CBs being the most frequently observed; (3) the highest rates of dechlorination were for penta-CB homologs during the initial 185 days; (4) the dominant terminal products of AD were PCB 32(26-4), 49(24-25), 51(24-26), 52(25-25), 72(25-35), 73(26-35) and 100(246-24), (5) potential toxicity of the sediment was reduced. ADM serves as a powerful tool not only for a thorough analysis of AD pathways, but also for providing necessary input for numerical fate models (as a degradation term) that investigate dechlorination products or outcome of natural attenuation, or bioremediation/bioaugmentation of PCB-impacted sediments. PMID:25913678

  8. Rheological behaviors of anaerobic granular sludge in a spiral symmetry stream anaerobic bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoguang; Dai, Ruobin; Xiang, Xinyi; Ma, Chengyu; Li, Gang; Hu, Tao; Xu, Zhengqi; Abdelgadir, Awad

    2015-01-01

    The rheological behaviors of the anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) in a spiral symmetry stream anaerobic bioreactor (SSSAB) were investigated. Shear-thinning behavior, thixotropic behavior, concentration-viscosity behavior and temperature-viscosity behavior were evaluated based on the constitutive equation of the AGS. The results indicated that the Herschel-Bulkley model was able to adequately describe the constitutive relation of AGS in the SSSAB. The AGS also showed shear-thinning behavior as well as thixotropic behavior. The critical shear rate and network strength of the AGS were 61.8 s(-1) and 497.0 W m(-3), respectively. The relationship between the apparent viscosity and the sludge concentration was illustrated and explained by the Woodcock formula. The relationship between apparent viscosity of the AGS and temperature could be modeled using the Arrhenius equation. The AGS was significantly thermo-sensitive and its mean energy of activation was 14.640 kJ mol(-1). Notably, it was necessary to consider such behaviors in the hydrodynamic modeling of SSSAB in which shear condition, sludge concentration and temperature were in non-uniform distribution. PMID:26247766

  9. Aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of infections after trauma in children.

    PubMed Central

    Brook, I

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the recovery of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from infections after trauma in children over a 20 year period. METHODS: Only specimens that were studied for both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were included in the analysis. They were collected from seven separate centres in which the microbiology laboratories only accepted specimens that were properly collected without contamination and were submitted in appropriate transport media. Anaerobes and aerobic bacteria were cultured and identified using standard techniques. Clinical records were reviewed to identify post-trauma patients. RESULTS: From 1974 to 1994, 175 specimens obtained from 166 children with trauma showed bacterial growth. The trauma included blunt trauma (71), lacerations (48), bites (42), and open fractures (5). Anaerobic bacteria only were isolated in 38 specimens (22%), aerobic bacteria only in 51 (29%), and mixed aerobic-anaerobic flora in 86 (49%); 363 anaerobic (2.1/specimen) and 158 aerobic or facultative isolates (0.9/specimen) were recovered. The predominant anaerobic bacteria included Peptostreptococcus spp (115 isolates), Prevotella spp (68), Fusobacterium spp (52), B fragilis group (42), and Clostridium spp (21). The predominant aerobic bacteria included Staph aureus (51), E coli (13), Ps aeruginosa (12), Str pyogenes (11) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (9). Principal infections were: abscesses (52), bacteraemia (3), pulmonary infections (30, including aspiration pneumonia, tracheostomy associated pneumonia, empyema, and ventilator associated pneumonia), wounds (36, including cellulitis, post-traumatic wounds, decubitus ulcers, myositis, gastrostomy and tracheostomy site wounds, and fasciitis), bites (42, including 23 animal and 19 human), peritonitis (4), osteomyelitis (5), and sinusitis (3). Staph aureus and Str pyogenes were isolated at all sites. However, organisms of the oropharyngeal flora predominated in infections that originated from head and neck wounds and

  10. Anaerobic respiration of Escherichia coli in the mouse intestine.

    PubMed

    Jones, Shari A; Gibson, Terri; Maltby, Rosalie C; Chowdhury, Fatema Z; Stewart, Valley; Cohen, Paul S; Conway, Tyrrell

    2011-10-01

    The intestine is inhabited by a large microbial community consisting primarily of anaerobes and, to a lesser extent, facultative anaerobes, such as Escherichia coli, which we have shown requires aerobic respiration to compete successfully in the mouse intestine (S. A. Jones et al., Infect. Immun. 75:4891-4899, 2007). If facultative anaerobes efficiently lower oxygen availability in the intestine, then their sustained growth must also depend on anaerobic metabolism. In support of this idea, mutants lacking nitrate reductase or fumarate reductase have extreme colonization defects. Here, we further explore the role of anaerobic respiration in colonization using the streptomycin-treated mouse model. We found that respiratory electron flow is primarily via the naphthoquinones, which pass electrons to cytochrome bd oxidase and the anaerobic terminal reductases. We found that E. coli uses nitrate and fumarate in the intestine, but not nitrite, dimethyl sulfoxide, or trimethylamine N-oxide. Competitive colonizations revealed that cytochrome bd oxidase is more advantageous than nitrate reductase or fumarate reductase. Strains lacking nitrate reductase outcompeted fumarate reductase mutants once the nitrate concentration in cecal mucus reached submillimolar levels, indicating that fumarate is the more important anaerobic electron acceptor in the intestine because nitrate is limiting. Since nitrate is highest in the absence of E. coli, we conclude that E. coli is the only bacterium in the streptomycin-treated mouse large intestine that respires nitrate. Lastly, we demonstrated that a mutant lacking the NarXL regulator (activator of the NarG system), but not a mutant lacking the NarP-NarQ regulator, has a colonization defect, consistent with the advantage provided by NarG. The emerging picture is one in which gene regulation is tuned to balance expression of the terminal reductases that E. coli uses to maximize its competitiveness and achieve the highest possible population in

  11. Antiviral activity of Inonotus obliquus fungus extract towards infection caused by hepatitis C virus in cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Shibnev, V A; Mishin, D V; Garaev, T M; Finogenova, N P; Botikov, A G; Deryabin, P G

    2011-09-01

    Fractions of Inonotus obliquus fungus water extract exhibited a virucidal effect towards hepatitis C virus: it 100-fold reduced its infective properties within 10 min. The antiviral effects of fungus extracts manifested after preventive (24 h before infection) and therapeutic use (during infection of porcine embryo kidney cells). Moreover, the data indicate that the birch fungus extracts inhibit production of infective virus by porcine embryo kidney cells. PMID:22462058

  12. Fungi of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.)-Their Deteriorative Ability, Quality Stability and the Role of the Fungus-Eating Insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuku, E. C.; Ogbalu, O. K.; Osakwe, J. A.

    Studies on the deteriorative ability and quality stability of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) and the effect of the fungus-eating insects (Necrobia rufipes, Alphitobius diaperinus, Crematogaster sp. and Tenebrio molitor) were carried out in the Post Graduate Entomology and Plant Pathology Laboratories of the Department of Applied and Environmental Biology and also in Food Science Laboratory of the Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt. Results showed Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Rhizopus stolonifer Lind and Penicillium italiucum Wehmer as the seed-borne fungi of coconut. Frequency of occurrence was 80% for Aspergillus niger and 100% for both Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicillium italicum. On storage stability, heat drying offered significantly higher protection to coconut copra. Percentage consumption of fungal hyphae by the fungus-eating insects varied with Tenebrio molitor consuming 100% of the three aforementioned fungi. A. diaperinius contributed up to 84.1% reduction of A. niger as against 80.3% reduction by Necrobia rufipes of A. niger, Crematogaster sp. offered the least reduction (64.2%).

  13. Monitoring of white-rot fungus during bioremediation of polychlorinated dioxin-contaminated fly ash.

    PubMed

    Suhara, H; Daikoku, C; Takata, H; Suzuki, S; Matsufuji, Y; Sakai, K; Kondo, R

    2003-10-01

    Bioremediation is a low-cost treatment alternative for the cleanup of polychlorinated-dioxin-contaminated soils and fly ash when pollution spread is wide-ranging. An interesting fungus, Ceriporia sp. MZ-340, with a high ability to degrade dioxin, was isolated from white rotten wood of a broadleaf tree from Kyushu Island in Japan. We have attempted to use the fungus for bioremediation of polychlorinated-dioxin-contaminated soil on site. However, we have to consider that this trial has the potential problem of introducing a biohazard to a natural ecosystem if this organism is naturalized. We have therefore developed a monitoring system for the introduced fungus as a part of the examination and evaluation of bioremediation in our laboratory. We have also developed a PCR-based assay to reliably detect the fungus at the bioremediation site. DNA isolated from the site was amplified by PCR using a specific primer derived from internal transcribed spacer region (ITS: ITS1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS2) sequences of Ceriporia sp. MZ-340. We successfully monitored Ceriporia sp. MZ-340 down to 100 fg/ micro l DNA and down to 2 mg/g mycelium. We also successfully monitored the fungus specifically at the bioremediation site. The polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran content was observed to decrease in response to treatment with the fungus. The species-specific PCR technique developed in the present work is useful in evaluating the possibility of on-site bioremediation using the fungus Ceriporia sp. MZ-340. PMID:12827316

  14. Profiles of fatty acids and triacylglycerols and their influence on the anaerobic biodegradability of effluents from poultry slaughterhouse.

    PubMed

    Valladão, A B G; Torres, A G; Freire, D M G; Cammarota, M C

    2011-07-01

    The hydrolysis of effluent from a poultry slaughterhouse containing 800 mg oil and grease (O&G)/L was conducted with 1% (w/v) of an enzymatic pool obtained by solid-state fermentation with the fungus Penicillium restrictum. The chromatographic evaluation of the lipid profile during hydrolysis indicated a higher concentration of acids after 4h of reaction (2954 mg/L), with a predominance of oleic, palmitic, and linoleic acids. Effluent aliquots were collected after 4, 8, and 24h of hydrolysis and tested for anaerobic biodegradation in sequential batches. An adaptation of the biomass was observed, both in the control experiment (with non-hydrolyzed raw effluent) and in the experiments with enzymatically pre-treated effluent. The specific methane production in the control experiment was 0.248 L CH(4)/g COD(consumed), and in the experiment with effluent pre-treated for 4h, this production was 0.393 L CH(4)/g COD(consumed), indicating a higher methane production after enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:21576016

  15. Characterization of fungus-specific microsatellite markers in the lichen-forming fungus Parmelina carporrhizans (Parmeliaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Alors, David; Dal Grande, Francesco; Schmitt, Imke; Kraichak, Ekaphan; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten; Crespo, Ana; Divakar, Pradeep K.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed to study the lichen-forming fungus Parmelina (Parmeliaceae) in different habitats of western Europe and the Mediterranean for baseline studies to understand the effects of climate change on its distribution. • Methods and Results: We cultured P. carporrhizans from ascospores for genomic sequencing with Illumina HiSeq. We successfully developed 11 polymorphic microsatellite markers and associated primer sets and assessed them with 30 individuals from two of the Canary Islands. The average number of alleles per locus was 8.8. Nei’s unbiased gene diversity of these loci ranged from 0.53 to 0.91 in the tested populations. Amplification in two closely related species (P. tiliacea, P. cryptotiliacea) yielded only limited success. • Conclusions: The new microsatellite markers will allow the study of genetic diversity and population structure in P. carporrhizans. We propose eight markers to combine in two multiplex reactions for further studies on a larger set of populations. PMID:25506522

  16. Anaerobic digestion for energy production and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Lettinga, G.; Haandel, A.C. Vaan

    1993-12-31

    Anaerobic digestion is the decomposition of complex molecules into simpler substances by micro-organisms in the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic digestion processes can be employed for resource conservation, for the production of biogas and other useful end products from biomass, and for environmental protection through waste and wastewater treatment. Modern high-rate anaerobic wastewater-treatment processes can effectively remove organic pollutants from wastewater at a cost far below that of conventional aerobic processes. These anaerobic wastewater treatment processes can also be profitably applied for the generation of biogas from energy crops such as sugarcane. In fact, these methods might even be an attractive alternative for the alcohol fermentation extensively employed in Brazil for the production of fuel alcohol from sugarcane. The potential of modern anaerobic processes for this purpose has not yet been widely recognized. This paper describes the principles and use of these processes and demonstrates their prospects for producing energy from sugarcane (1) by treating vinasse, the wastewater generated during the production of ethanol from sugarcane, and (2) as a direct method for producing biogas from sugarcane juice.

  17. A review of anaerobic treatment of saline wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yeyuan; Roberts, Deborah J

    2010-01-01

    Large volumes of saline (> 2% w/v NaCl) wastewaters are discharged from many industries; e.g. seafood processing, textile dyeing, oil and gas production, tanneries and drinking water treatment processes. Although anaerobic treatment would be the most cost-effective and sustainable technology for the treatment of many of these saline wastewaters, the salinity is considered to be inhibitory to anaerobic biological treatment processes. The recent applications of salt-tolerant cultures for the treatment of wastewaters from seafood processing and ion-exchange processes suggest that biological systems can be used to treat salty wastewaters. Additionally, organisms capable of anaerobic degradation of contaminants in saline solutions have been observed in marine sediments and have been characterized during the last two decades. This manuscript provides a review of the recent research on anaerobic treatment of saline wastewater and bacterial consortia capable of the anaerobic degradation of pollutants in saline solutions, documenting that the biological treatment of saline wastewaters is promising. PMID:20662390

  18. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Meulepas, Roel J W; Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Teshager, Fitfety Melese; Witharana, Ayoma; Saikaly, Pascal E; Lens, Piet N L

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether metals can be leached from waste activated sludge during the first, acidifying stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion without the supply of leaching agents. These leaching experiments were done with waste activated sludge from the Hoek van Holland municipal wastewater treatment plant (The Netherlands), which contained 342 μg g(-1) of copper, 487 μg g(-1) of lead, 793 μg g(-1) of zinc, 27 μg g(-1) of nickel and 2.3 μg g(-1) of cadmium. During the anaerobic acidification of 3 gdry weight L(-1) waste activated sludge, 80-85% of the copper, 66-69% of the lead, 87% of the zinc, 94-99% of the nickel and 73-83% of the cadmium were leached. The first stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion can thus be optimized as an anaerobic bioleaching process and produce a treated sludge (i.e., digestate) that meets the land-use standards in The Netherlands for copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium, but not for lead. PMID:25659306

  19. Anaerobic Fungi and Their Potential for Biogas Production.

    PubMed

    Dollhofer, Veronika; Podmirseg, Sabine Marie; Callaghan, Tony Martin; Griffith, Gareth Wyn; Fliegerová, Kateřina

    2015-01-01

    Plant biomass is the largest reservoir of environmentally friendly renewable energy on earth. However, the complex and recalcitrant structure of these lignocellulose-rich substrates is a severe limitation for biogas production. Microbial pro-ventricular anaerobic digestion of ruminants can serve as a model for improvement of converting lignocellulosic biomass into energy. Anaerobic fungi are key players in the digestive system of various animals, they produce a plethora of plant carbohydrate hydrolysing enzymes. Combined with the invasive growth of their rhizoid system their contribution to cell wall polysaccharide decomposition may greatly exceed that of bacteria. The cellulolytic arsenal of anaerobic fungi consists of both secreted enzymes, as well as extracellular multi-enzyme complexes called cellulosomes. These complexes are extremely active, can degrade both amorphous and crystalline cellulose and are probably the main reason of cellulolytic efficiency of anaerobic fungi. The synergistic use of mechanical and enzymatic degradation makes anaerobic fungi promising candidates to improve biogas production from recalcitrant biomass. This chapter presents an overview about their biology and their potential for implementation in the biogas process. PMID:26337843

  20. In vitro evaluation of faropenem activity against anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Behra-Miellet, J; Dubreuil, L; Bryskier, A

    2005-02-01

    Faropenem, a new oral penem with broad spectrum activity, could be used as empirical treatment in infections due to unidentified anaerobes, but only a few investigations have been carried out on these bacteria. The aim of this study was to compare faropenem in vitro activity with that of positive antimicrobial controls (metronidazole, imipenem, meropenem, amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ticarcillin-clavulanic acid, cefotetan, cefoxitin and clindamycin) against 462 anaerobic bacterial strains. The reference agar dilution method was used according to the NCCLS standard. Faropenem demonstrated high antimicrobial activity, similar to that of both imipenem and meropenem (faropenem Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations 50% and 90% were 0.12 and 1 mg/L for all Gram-negative anaerobes, 0.25 and 1 mg/L for all Gram-positive anaerobes). Only 5 strains of the Bacteroides fragilis group (1.1% of all anaerobes) were resistant to faropenem, which compared favorably with that of other reference antianaerobic drugs. The results obtained confirm those previously reported. PMID:15828442

  1. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The photosynthetic spectrum of solar energy could be exploited for the production of chemical energy of methane through the combined algal-bacterial process. In this process, the algae are mass produced from light and from carbon in the first step. The algal biomass is then used as a nutrient for feeding the anaerobic digester, in the second step, for the production of methane by anaerobic bacteria. The carbon source for the production of algal biomass could be either organic carbon from wastewaters (for eucaryotic algae), or carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or from the combustion exhaust gases (for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae). The technical feasibility data on the anaerobic digestion of algal biomass have been reported for many species of algae including macroscopic algae and microscopic algae. Research being conducted in the authors' laboratory consists of using the semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima as the sole substrate for this combined algal-bacterial process. This species of alga is very attractive for the process because of its capability of using the atmospheric carbon dioxide as carbon source and its simple harvesting methods. Furthermore, it appeared that the fermentability of S. maxima is significantly higher than other microscopic algae. This communication presents the results on the anaerobic inoculum development by the adaptation technique. This inoculum was then used for the semicontinuous anaerobic digestion of S. maxima algal biomass. The evolutions of biogas production and composition, biogas yield, total volatile fatty acids, alkalinity, ammonia nitrogen, pH, and electrode potential were followed.

  2. Aerobic and anaerobic PCB biodegradation in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Abramowicz, D.A.

    1995-06-01

    Studies have identified two distinct biological processes capable of biotransforming polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): aerobic oxidative processes and anaerobic reductive processes. It is now known that these two complementary activities are occurring naturally in the environment. Anaerobic PCB dechlorination, responsible for the conversion of highly chlorinated PCBs to lightly chlorinated ortho-enriched congeners, has been documented extensively in the Hudson River and has been observed at many other sites throughout the world. The products from this anaerobic process are readily degradable by a wide range of aerobic bacteria, and it has now been shown that this process is occurring in surficial sediments in the Hudson River. The widespread anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs that has been observed in many river and marine sediments results in reduction of both the potential risk from and potential exposure to PCBs. The reductions in potential risk include reduced dioxin like toxicity and reduced carcinogenicity. The reduced PCB exposure realized upon dechlorination is manifested by reduced bioaccumulation in the food chain and by the increased anaerobic degradability of these products. 27 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Anaerobic biosynthesis of the lower ligand of vitamin B12

    PubMed Central

    Hazra, Amrita B.; Han, Andrew W.; Mehta, Angad P.; Mok, Kenny C.; Osadchiy, Vadim; Begley, Tadhg P.; Taga, Michiko E.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is required by humans and other organisms for diverse metabolic processes, although only a subset of prokaryotes is capable of synthesizing B12 and other cobamide cofactors. The complete aerobic and anaerobic pathways for the de novo biosynthesis of B12 are known, with the exception of the steps leading to the anaerobic biosynthesis of the lower ligand, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). Here, we report the identification and characterization of the complete pathway for anaerobic DMB biosynthesis. This pathway, identified in the obligate anaerobic bacterium Eubacterium limosum, is composed of five previously uncharacterized genes, bzaABCDE, that together direct DMB production when expressed in anaerobically cultured Escherichia coli. Expression of different combinations of the bza genes revealed that 5-hydroxybenzimidazole, 5-methoxybenzimidazole, and 5-methoxy-6-methylbenzimidazole, all of which are lower ligands of cobamides produced by other organisms, are intermediates in the pathway. The bza gene content of several bacterial and archaeal genomes is consistent with experimentally determined structures of the benzimidazoles produced by these organisms, indicating that these genes can be used to predict cobamide structure. The identification of the bza genes thus represents the last remaining unknown component of the biosynthetic pathway for not only B12 itself, but also for three other cobamide lower ligands whose biosynthesis was previously unknown. Given the importance of cobamides in environmental, industrial, and human-associated microbial metabolism, the ability to predict cobamide structure may lead to an improved ability to understand and manipulate microbial metabolism. PMID:26246619

  4. Prevailing Torque Locking Feature in Threaded Fasteners Using Anaerobic Adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Alan; Hess, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from tests to assess the use of anaerobic adhesive for providing a prevailing torque locking feature in threaded fasteners. Test procedures are developed and tests are performed on three fastener materials, four anaerobic adhesives, and both unseated assembly conditions. Five to ten samples are tested for each combination. Tests for initial use, reuse without additional adhesive, and reuse with additional adhesive are performed for all samples. A 48-hour cure time was used for all initial use and reuse tests. Test data are presented as removal torque versus removal angle with the specification required prevailing torque range added for performance assessment. Percent specification pass rates for the all combinations of fastener material, adhesive, and assembly condition are tabulated and reveal use of anaerobic adhesive as a prevailing torque locking feature is viable. Although not every possible fastener material and anaerobic adhesive combination provides prevailing torque values within specification, any combination can be assessed using the test procedures presented. Reuse without additional anaerobic adhesive generally provides some prevailing torque, and in some cases within specification. Reuse with additional adhesive often provides comparable removal torque data as in initial use.

  5. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor treatment of coal conversion wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Ketchum, L.H. Jr.; Earley, J.P.; Shen, Yutao.

    1989-09-01

    The work proposed is a laboratory investigation of the AnSBR (Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactors) for treatment of a synthetic coal conversion wastewater. Two different strategies will be pursued. First, an AnSBR will be operated to simulate the Anaerobic Up-flow Sludge Blanket Reactor in an attempt to develop a readily settleable granular sludge. Second, operating strategies will be sought to optimize treatment, without attempting to develop settleable granular sludge. These systems will require development of more elaborate decanting mechanisms, probably including use of tube settler technology. We will use: (1) screening tests to identify compounds which are amenable to anaerobic degradation; (2) to determine those which are toxic or have an inhibitory effect; and (3) to identify the dilution required to achieve anaerobic degradation of the synthetic waste water; acclimation tests of organisms collected from different sources to the synthetic coal conversion wastewater; and Automatic Laboratory AnSBR studies. A 4-liter reactor will be operated to maintain a settleable granular anaerobic sludge when treating the synthetic coal conversion wastewater. 72 refs., 238 figs., 22 tabs.

  6. Foaming phenomenon in bench-scale anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Siebels, Amanda M; Long, Sharon C

    2013-04-01

    The Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District (The District) in Madison, Wisconsin has been experiencing seasonal foaming in their anaerobic biosolids digesters, which has occurred from mid-November to late June for the past few years. The exact cause(s) of foaming is unknown. Previous research findings are unclear as to whether applications of advanced anaerobic digestion processes reduce the foaming potential of digesters. The object of this study was to investigate how configurations of thermophilic and acid phase-thermophilic anaerobic digestion would affect foaming at the bench-scale level compared to single stage mesophilic digestion for The District. Bench-scale anaerobic digesters were fed with a 4 to 4.5% by dry weight of solids content blend of waste activated sludge (WAS) and primary sludge from The District. Foaming potential was monitored using Alka-Seltzer and aeration foaming tests. The bench-scale acid phase-thermophilic digester had a higher foaming potential than the bench-scale mesophilic digester. These results indicate that higher temperatures increase the foaming potential of the bench-scale anaerobic digesters. The bench-scale acid phase-thermophilic digesters had a greater percent (approximately 5 to 10%) volatile solids destruction and a greater percent (approximately 5 to 10%) total solids destruction when compared to the bench-scale mesophilic digester. Overall, for the full-scale foaming experienced by The District, it appears that adding an acid phase or switching to thermophilic digestion would not alleviate The District's foaming issues. PMID:23697241

  7. Anaerobic treatability of waste water from pulp and paper industries.

    PubMed

    Norrman, J; Narbuvold, R; Nyström, L

    1984-01-01

    A black liquor evaporator condensate from a Kraft mill and a waste water from production of corrugating medium were anaerobically treated on a laboratory scale. The composition of the waste waters was determined before and after treatment in fixed bed reactors. Toxicity studies by the Microtox-method showed that both waste waters were highly toxic and a slight decrease in toxicity was achieved by anaerobic treatment. Despite the toxicity efficient anaerobic treatment was obtained. Major components of the condensate were methanol, ethanol, acetone, guaiacol, hydrogen sulfide and dimethyl disulfide. Anaerobic treatment reduced the concentration of the major components considerably with one exception. The concentration of hydrogen sulfide was unchanged. Organic overloading of the fixed bed reactor or a temperature drop resulted in an accumulation of acetone, although methanol and ethanol were degraded. Major components of the waste water from the production of corrugating medium were: Klason-lignin, acid-soluble lignin, carbohydrates, extractives and ash. When the fixed bed reactor was operated at a volumetric load of 1.6 kg COD/m(3).d the following reductions were obtained: Klason - lignin (solids fraction 84%; soluble and colloidal fraction 76%), acid-soluble lignin (solids fraction 56%; soluble and colloidal fraction 7%), carbohydrates (100%), extractives (71%), total-S (80%), COD (73%) and BOD(7) (78%). Kinetic studies showed that condensate was more easily degraded anaerobically than corrugating medium waste water. PMID:14545703

  8. Susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria: myth, magic, or method?

    PubMed Central

    Wexler, H M

    1991-01-01

    The demand for susceptibility testing of anaerobes has increased, yet consensus as to procedure and interpretation in this area has not been achieved. While routine testing of anaerobic isolates is not needed, certain isolates in specific clinical settings should be tested. Also, laboratories may monitor their local antibiograms by doing periodic surveillance batch testing. The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards has published a protocol of methods approved for susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria. Both agar and broth microdilution are included; however, the broth disk elution method is no longer approved by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards because of method-related interpretive errors. A number of newer methods are undergoing evaluation and seem promising. Clinicians and microbiologists reviewing susceptibility reports should be aware of sources of variability in the test results. Variables in susceptibility testing of anaerobes include the media and methods used, organisms chosen for testing, breakpoints chosen for interpretation, antibiotic, and determination of endpoint. Clustering of MICs around the breakpoint may lead to significant variability in test results. Adherence of testing laboratories to approved methods and careful descriptions of the method and the breakpoints used for interpretation would facilitate interlaboratory comparisons and allow problems of emerging resistance to be noted. A variety of resistance mechanisms occurs in anaerobic bacteria, including the production of beta-lactamase and other drug-inactivating enzymes, alteration of target proteins, and inability of the drug to penetrate the bacterial wall. Antimicrobial resistance patterns in the United States and abroad are described. PMID:1747863

  9. Pathogenic fungus Microsporum canis activates the NLRP3 inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Mao, Liming; Zhang, Liping; Li, Hua; Chen, Wei; Wang, Hongbin; Wu, Shuxian; Guo, Caiqin; Lu, Ailing; Yang, Guiwen; An, Liguo; Abliz, Paride; Meng, Guangxun

    2014-02-01

    Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus with worldwide distribution that causes tinea capitis in animals and humans. M. canis also causes invasive infection in immunocompromised patients. To defy pathogenic fungal infection, the host innate immune system is the first line of defense. As an important arm of innate immunity, the inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that control the activation of caspase-1, which cleaves proinflammatory cytokine pro-interleukin-1β (IL-1β) into its mature form. To determine whether the inflammasome is involved in the host defense against M. canis infection, we challenged human monocytic THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells with a clinical strain of M. canis isolated from patients with tinea capitis. We found that M. canis infection triggered rapid secretion of IL-1β from both THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells. Moreover, by using gene-specific shRNA and competitive inhibitors, we determined that M. canis-induced IL-1β secretion was dependent on NLRP3. The pathways proposed for NLRP3 inflammasome activation, namely, cathepsin B activity, K(+) efflux, and reactive oxygen species production, were all required for the inflammasome activation triggered by M. canis. Meanwhile, Syk, Dectin-1, and Card9 were found to be involved in M. canis-induced IL-1β secretion via regulation of pro-IL-1β transcription. More importantly, our data revealed that M. canis-induced production of IL-1β was dependent on the NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. Together, this study unveils that the NLRP3 inflammasome exerts a critical role in host innate immune responses against M. canis infection, and our data suggest that diseases that result from M. canis infection might be controlled by regulating the activation of inflammasomes. PMID:24478101

  10. Peroxisome dynamics during development of the fungus Podospora anserina.

    PubMed

    Takano-Rojas, Harumi; Zickler, Denise; Peraza-Reyes, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomes are versatile and dynamic organelles that are required for the development of diverse eukaryotic organisms. We demonstrated previously that in the fungus Podospora anserina different peroxisomal functions are required at distinct stages of sexual development, including the initiation and progression of meiocyte (ascus) development and the differentiation and germination of sexual spores (ascospores). Peroxisome assembly during these processes relies on the differential activity of the protein machinery that drives the import of proteins into the organelle, indicating a complex developmental regulation of peroxisome formation and activity. Here we demonstrate that peroxisome dynamics is also highly regulated during development. We show that peroxisomes in P. anserina are highly dynamic and respond to metabolic and environmental cues by undergoing changes in size, morphology and number. In addition, peroxisomes of vegetative and sexual cell types are structurally different. During sexual development peroxisome number increases at two stages: at early ascus differentiation and during ascospore formation. These processes are accompanied by changes in peroxisome structure and distribution, which include a cell-polarized concentration of peroxisomes at the beginning of ascus development, as well as a morphological transition from predominantly spherical to elongated shapes at the end of the first meiotic division. Further, the mostly tubular peroxisomes present from second meiotic division to early ascospore formation again become rounded during ascospore differentiation. Ultimately the number of peroxisomes dramatically decreases upon ascospore maturation. Our results reveal a precise regulation of peroxisome dynamics during sexual development and suggest that peroxisome constitution and function during development is defined by the coordinated regulation of the proteins that control peroxisome assembly and dynamics. PMID:26908647

  11. [Kinetics model for batch culture of white rot fungus].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiao-ping; Wen, Xiang-hua; Xu, Kang-ning; Bian, Bing-hui

    2008-02-01

    In order to understand ligninolytic enzymes production process during culture of white rot fungus, accordingly to direct the design of fermentation process, a kinetics model was built for the batch culture of Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The parameters in the model were calibrated based on the experimental data from free and immobilized culture separately. The difference between each variable's values calculated based on kinetics model and experimental data is within 15%. Comparing parameters for the free and the immobilized culture, it is found that maximum biomass concentrations are both 1.78 g/L; growth rate ratio of immobilized culture (0.6683 d(-1)) is larger than that of free culture (0.5144 d(-1)); very little glucose is consumed for biomass growth in free culture while in immobilized culture much glucose is used and ammonium nitrogen is consumed at a greater rate. Ligninolytic enzymes production process is non-growth related; fungal pellets can produce MnP (231 U/L) in free culture with a production rate of 115.8 U x (g x d)(-1) before peak and 26.1 U x (g x d)(-1) after peak, thus fed-batch is a possible mode to improve MnP production and fermentation efficiency. MnP (410 U/L) and LiP (721 U/L) can be produced in immobilized culture, but MnP and LiP production rate decrease from 80.1 U x (g x d)(-1) and 248.9 U x (g x d)(-1) to 6.04 U x (g x d)(-1) and 0 U x (g x d)(-1), respectively, indicating a proper feed moment is before the enzymes peak during fed-batch culture. PMID:18613526

  12. Genome Characterization of the Oleaginous Fungus Mortierella alpina

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yun; Ren, Yan; Gu, Zhennan; Chen, Haiqin; Wang, Hongchao; Thomas, Michael J.; Zhang, Baixi; Berquin, Isabelle M.; Li, Yang; Wu, Jiansheng; Zhang, Huanxin; Song, Yuanda; Liu, Xiang; Norris, James S.; Wang, Suriguga; Du, Peng; Shen, Junguo; Wang, Na; Yang, Yanlin; Wang, Wei; Feng, Lu; Ratledge, Colin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q.

    2011-01-01

    Mortierella alpina is an oleaginous fungus which can produce lipids accounting for up to 50% of its dry weight in the form of triacylglycerols. It is used commercially for the production of arachidonic acid. Using a combination of high throughput sequencing and lipid profiling, we have assembled the M. alpina genome, mapped its lipogenesis pathway and determined its major lipid species. The 38.38 Mb M. alpina genome shows a high degree of gene duplications. Approximately 50% of its 12,796 gene models, and 60% of genes in the predicted lipogenesis pathway, belong to multigene families. Notably, M. alpina has 18 lipase genes, of which 11 contain the class 2 lipase domain and may share a similar function. M. alpina's fatty acid synthase is a single polypeptide containing all of the catalytic domains required for fatty acid synthesis from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA, whereas in many fungi this enzyme is comprised of two polypeptides. Major lipids were profiled to confirm the products predicted in the lipogenesis pathway. M. alpina produces a complex mixture of glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. In contrast, only two major sterol lipids, desmosterol and 24(28)-methylene-cholesterol, were detected. Phylogenetic analysis based on genes involved in lipid metabolism suggests that oleaginous fungi may have acquired their lipogenic capacity during evolution after the divergence of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Mucoromycota. Our study provides the first draft genome and comprehensive lipid profile for M. alpina, and lays the foundation for possible genetic engineering of M. alpina to produce higher levels and diverse contents of dietary lipids. PMID:22174787

  13. Five New Cytotoxic Metabolites from the Marine Fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri.

    PubMed

    Lan, Wen-Jian; Fu, Sheng-Jiao; Xu, Meng-Yang; Liang, Wan-Ling; Lam, Chi-Keung; Zhong, Guo-Hua; Xu, Jun; Yang, De-Po; Li, Hou-Jin

    2016-01-01

    The marine fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri was isolated from Acanthaster planci from the South China Sea. In a preliminary bioactivity screening, the crude methanol extract of the fungal mycelia showed significant inhibitory activity against the Sf9 cell line from the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda. Five novel compounds, including 5-olefin phenylpyropene A (1), 13-dehydroxylpyripyropene A (4), deacetylsesquiterpene (7), 5-formyl-6-hydroxy-8-isopropyl-2- naphthoic acid (9) and 6,8-dihydroxy-3-((1E,3E)-penta-1,3-dien-1-yl)isochroman-1-one (10), together with eleven known compounds, phenylpyropene A (2) and C (3), pyripyropene A (5), 7-deacetylpyripyropene A (6), (1S,2R,4aR,5R,8R,8aR)-1,8a-dihydroxy-2-acetoxy-3,8-dimethyl-5- (prop-1-en-2-yl)-1,2,4a, 5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalene (8), isochaetominine C (11), trichodermamide A (12), indolyl-3-acetic acid methyl ester (13), 1-acetyl-β-carboline (14), 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-hydroxyl-2-methyl-l,3,4-trioxopyrazino[l,2-a]-indole (15) and fumiquinazoline F (16), were obtained. The structures of these compounds were determined mainly by MS and NMR data. The absolute configuration of 9 was assigned by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Compounds 1-11 and 15 showed significant cytotoxicity against the Sf9 cells from S. frugiperda. PMID:26771621

  14. Five New Cytotoxic Metabolites from the Marine Fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Wen-Jian; Fu, Sheng-Jiao; Xu, Meng-Yang; Liang, Wan-Ling; Lam, Chi-Keung; Zhong, Guo-Hua; Xu, Jun; Yang, De-Po; Li, Hou-Jin

    2016-01-01

    The marine fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri was isolated from Acanthaster planci from the South China Sea. In a preliminary bioactivity screening, the crude methanol extract of the fungal mycelia showed significant inhibitory activity against the Sf9 cell line from the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda. Five novel compounds, including 5-olefin phenylpyropene A (1), 13-dehydroxylpyripyropene A (4), deacetylsesquiterpene (7), 5-formyl-6-hydroxy-8-isopropyl-2- naphthoic acid (9) and 6,8-dihydroxy-3-((1E,3E)-penta-1,3-dien-1-yl)isochroman-1-one (10), together with eleven known compounds, phenylpyropene A (2) and C (3), pyripyropene A (5), 7-deacetylpyripyropene A (6), (1S,2R,4aR,5R,8R,8aR)-1,8a-dihydroxy-2-acetoxy-3,8-dimethyl-5- (prop-1-en-2-yl)-1,2,4a, 5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalene (8), isochaetominine C (11), trichodermamide A (12), indolyl-3-acetic acid methyl ester (13), 1-acetyl-β-carboline (14), 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-hydroxyl-2-methyl-l,3,4-trioxopyrazino[l,2-a]-indole (15) and fumiquinazoline F (16), were obtained. The structures of these compounds were determined mainly by MS and NMR data. The absolute configuration of 9 was assigned by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Compounds 1–11 and 15 showed significant cytotoxicity against the Sf9 cells from S. frugiperda. PMID:26771621

  15. Genes involved in virulence of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Valero-Jiménez, Claudio A; Wiegers, Harm; Zwaan, Bas J; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; van Kan, Jan A L

    2016-01-01

    Pest insects cause severe damage to global crop production and pose a threat to human health by transmitting diseases. Traditionally, chemical pesticides (insecticides) have been used to control such pests and have proven to be effective only for a limited amount of time because of the rapid spread of genetic insecticide resistance. The basis of this resistance is mostly caused by (co)dominant mutations in single genes, which explains why insecticide use alone is an unsustainable solution. Therefore, robust solutions for insect pest control need to be sought in alternative methods such as biological control agents for which single-gene resistance is less likely to evolve. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has shown potential as a biological control agent of insects, and insight into the mechanisms of virulence is essential to show the robustness of its use. With the recent availability of the whole genome sequence of B. bassiana, progress in understanding the genetics that constitute virulence toward insects can be made more quickly. In this review we divide the infection process into distinct steps and provide an overview of what is currently known about genes and mechanisms influencing virulence in B. bassiana. We also discuss the need for novel strategies and experimental methods to better understand the infection mechanisms deployed by entomopathogenic fungi. Such knowledge can help improve biocontrol agents, not only by selecting the most virulent genotypes, but also by selecting the genotypes that use combinations of virulence mechanisms for which resistance in the insect host is least likely to develop. PMID:26628209

  16. The hidden habit of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: first demonstration of vertical plant transmission.

    PubMed

    Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; López-Díaz, Cristina; Landa, Blanca Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120-140 days after sowing). The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum. PMID:24551242

  17. Biodegradation of crystal violet by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed Central

    Bumpus, J A; Brock, B J

    1988-01-01

    Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N'',N''-hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification of three metabolites (N,N,N',N',N''-pentamethylpararosaniline, N,N,N',N''-tetramethylpararosaniline, and N,N',N''-trimethylpararosaniline) formed by sequential N-demethylation of the parent compound. Metabolite formation also occurred when crystal violet was incubated with the extracellular fluid obtained from ligninolytic cultures of this fungus, provided that an H2O2-generating system was supplied. This, as well as the fact that a purified ligninase catalyzed N-demethylation of crystal violet, demonstrated that biodegradation of crystal violet by this fungus is dependent, at least in part, upon its lignin-degrading system. In addition to crystal violet, six other triphenylmethane dyes (pararosaniline, cresol red, bromphenol blue, ethyl violet, malachite green, and brilliant green) were shown to be degraded by the lignin-degrading system of this fungus. An unexpected result was the finding that substantial degradation of crystal violet also occurred in nonligninolytic (nitrogen-sufficient) cultures of P. chrysosporium, suggesting that in addition to the lignin-degrading system, another mechanism exists in this fungus which is also able to degrade crystal violet. PMID:3389809

  18. Appressorium formation in the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis requires a G2 cell cycle arrest

    PubMed Central

    Castanheira, Sónia; Pérez-Martín, José

    2015-01-01

    Many of the most important plant diseases are caused by fungal pathogens that form specialized cell structures to breach the leaf surface as well as to proliferate inside the plant. To initiate pathogenic development, the fungus responds to a set of inductive cues. Some of them are of extracellular nature (environmental signals) while others respond to intracellular conditions (developmental signals). These signals have to be integrated into a single response that has as a major outcome changes in the morphogenesis of the fungus. The cell cycle regulation is pivotal during these cellular differentiations, and we hypothesized that cell cycle regulation would be likely to provide control points for infection development by fungal pathogens. Although efforts have been done in various fungal systems, there is still limited information available regarding the relationship of these processes with the induction of the virulence programs. Hence, the role of fungal cell cycle regulators –which are wide conserved elements– as true virulence factors, has yet to be defined. Here we discuss the recent finding that the formation of the appressorium, a structure required for plant penetration, in the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis seems to be incompatible with an active cell cycle and, therefore genetic circuits evolved in this fungus to arrest the cell cycle during the growth of this fungus on plant surface, before the appressorium-mediated penetration into the plant tissue. PMID:25876077

  19. Appressorium formation in the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis requires a G2 cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Castanheira, Sónia; Pérez-Martín, José

    2015-01-01

    Many of the most important plant diseases are caused by fungal pathogens that form specialized cell structures to breach the leaf surface as well as to proliferate inside the plant. To initiate pathogenic development, the fungus responds to a set of inductive cues. Some of them are of extracellular nature (environmental signals) while others respond to intracellular conditions (developmental signals). These signals have to be integrated into a single response that has as a major outcome changes in the morphogenesis of the fungus. The cell cycle regulation is pivotal during these cellular differentiations, and we hypothesized that cell cycle regulation would be likely to provide control points for infection development by fungal pathogens. Although efforts have been done in various fungal systems, there is still limited information available regarding the relationship of these processes with the induction of the virulence programs. Hence, the role of fungal cell cycle regulators -which are wide conserved elements- as true virulence factors, has yet to be defined. Here we discuss the recent finding that the formation of the appressorium, a structure required for plant penetration, in the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis seems to be incompatible with an active cell cycle and, therefore genetic circuits evolved in this fungus to arrest the cell cycle during the growth of this fungus on plant surface, before the appressorium-mediated penetration into the plant tissue. PMID:25876077

  20. Palaeoanellus dimorphus gen. et sp. nov. (Deuteromycotina): a Cretaceous predatory fungus.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Alexander R; Dörfelt, Heinrich; Perrichot, Vincent

    2008-10-01

    In habitats where nitrogen is the limiting factor, carnivorous fungi gain an advantage by preying on nematodes and other microorganisms. These fungi are abundant in modern terrestrial ecosystems, but they are not predestined for preservation as fossils. Conclusions on their evolutionary history are therefore mainly based on molecular studies that are generally limited to those taxa that have survived until today. Here we present a fossil dimorphic fungus that was found in Late Albian amber from southwestern France. This fungus possessed unicellular hyphal rings as trapping devices and formed blastospores from which a yeast stage developed. The fossil probably represents an anamorph of an ascomycete and is described as Palaeoanellus dimorphus gen. et sp. nov. Because predatory fungi with regular yeast stages are not known from modern ecosystems, the fungus is assumed to not be related to any Recent carnivorous fungus and to belong to an extinct lineage of carnivorous fungi. The inclusions represent the only record of fossil fungi that developed trapping devices, so far. The fungus lived c. 100 million years ago in a limnetic-terrestrial microhabitat, and it was a part of a highly diverse biocenosis at the forest floor of a Cretaceous coastal amber forest. PMID:21632336

  1. Combining microtomy and confocal laser scanning microscopy for structural analyses of plant-fungus associations.

    PubMed

    Rath, Magnus; Grolig, Franz; Haueisen, Janine; Imhof, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    The serious problem of extended tissue thickness in the analysis of plant-fungus associations was overcome using a new method that combines physical and optical sectioning of the resin-embedded sample by microtomy and confocal microscopy. Improved tissue infiltration of the fungal-specific, high molecular weight fluorescent probe wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 633 resulted in high fungus-specific fluorescence even in deeper tissue sections. If autofluorescence was insufficient, additional counterstaining with Calcofluor White M2R or propidium iodide was applied in order to visualise the host plant tissues. Alternatively, the non-specific fluorochrome acid fuchsine was used for rapid staining of both, the plant and the fungal cells. The intricate spatial arrangements of the plant and fungal cells were preserved by immobilization in the hydrophilic resin Unicryl™. Microtomy was used to section the resin-embedded roots or leaves until the desired plane was reached. The data sets generated by confocal laser scanning microscopy of the remaining resin stubs allowed the precise spatial reconstruction of complex structures in the plant-fungus associations of interest. This approach was successfully tested on tissues from ectomycorrhiza (Betula pendula), arbuscular mycorrhiza (Galium aparine; Polygala paniculata, Polygala rupestris), ericoid mycorrhiza (Calluna vulgaris), orchid mycorrhiza (Limodorum abortivum, Serapias parviflora) and on one leaf-fungus association (Zymoseptoria tritici on Triticum aestivum). The method provides an efficient visualisation protocol applicable with a wide range of plant-fungus symbioses. PMID:24249491

  2. The Hidden Habit of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana: First Demonstration of Vertical Plant Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; López-Díaz, Cristina; Landa, Blanca Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120–140 days after sowing). The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum. PMID:24551242

  3. Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens

    SciTech Connect

    Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Suen, Garret; Tringe, Susannah G.; Adams, Sandra M.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Starrett, Gabriel J.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2012-09-01

    Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant Neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on massive quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers in mature Atta colonies. Here we use metagenomic, and metaproteomic techniques to characterize the bacterial diversity and overall physiological potential of fungus gardens from two species of Atta. Our analysis of over 1.2 Gbp of community metagenomic sequence and three 16S pyrotag libraries reveals that, in addition to harboring the dominant fungal crop, these ecosystems contain abundant populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, and Escherichia. We show that these bacterial communities possess genes commonly associated with lignocellulose degradation, and likely participate in the processing of plant biomass. Additionally, we demonstrate that bacteria in these environments encode a diverse suite of biosynthetic pathways, and that they may enrich the nitrogen-poor forage of the ants with B-vitamins, amino acids, and proteins. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fungus gardens are highly-specialized fungus-bacteria communities that efficiently convert plant material into usable energy for their ant hosts. Together with recent investigations into the microbial symbionts of vertebrates, our work underscores the importance of microbial communities to the ecology and evolution of herbivorous metazoans.

  4. Effect of respiratory warm-up on anaerobic power

    PubMed Central

    Özdal, Mustafa; Bostanci, Özgür; Dağlioğlu, Önder; Ağaoğlu, Seydi Ahmet; Kabadayi, Menderes

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of respiratory muscle warm-up on anaerobic power. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty male field hockey players (age, 20.5 ± 2.0 years) each participated in a control (CAN) trial and an experimental (EAN) trial. The EAN trial involved respiratory muscle warm-up, while the CAN trial did not. Anaerobic power was measured using the Wingate protocol. Paired sample t-tests were used to compare the EAN and CAN trials. [Results] There were significant increases in peak power and relative peak power, and decreases in the time to peak after the EAN trial by 8.9%, 9.6%, and 28.8% respectively. [Conclusion] Respiratory muscle warm-up may positively affect anaerobic power due to faster attainment of peak power. PMID:27512273

  5. The IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No 1 (ADM1).

    PubMed

    Batstone, D J; Keller, J; Angelidaki, I; Kalyuzhnyi, S V; Pavlostathis, S G; Rozzi, A; Sanders, W T M; Siegrist, H; Vavilin, V A

    2002-01-01

    The IWA Anaerobic Digestion Modelling Task Group was established in 1997 at the 8th World Congress on Anaerobic Digestion (Sendai, Japan) with the goal of developing a generalised anaerobic digestion model. The structured model includes multiple steps describing biochemical as well as physicochemical processes. The biochemical steps include disintegration from homogeneous particulates to carbohydrates, proteins and lipids; extracellular hydrolysis of these particulate substrates to sugars, amino acids, and long chain fatty acids (LCFA), respectively; acidogenesis from sugars and amino acids to volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and hydrogen; acetogenesis of LCFA and VFAs to acetate; and separate methanogenesis steps from acetate and hydrogen/CO2. The physico-chemical equations describe ion association and dissociation, and gas-liquid transfer. Implemented as a differential and algebraic equation (DAE) set, there are 26 dynamic state concentration variables, and 8 implicit algebraic variables per reactor vessel or element. Implemented as differential equations (DE) only, there are 32 dynamic concentration state variables. PMID:12188579

  6. Acetate Metabolism in Anaerobes from the Domain Archaea.

    PubMed

    Ferry, James G

    2015-01-01

    Acetate and acetyl-CoA play fundamental roles in all of biology, including anaerobic prokaryotes from the domains Bacteria and Archaea, which compose an estimated quarter of all living protoplasm in Earth's biosphere. Anaerobes from the domain Archaea contribute to the global carbon cycle by metabolizing acetate as a growth substrate or product. They are components of anaerobic microbial food chains converting complex organic matter to methane, and many fix CO2 into cell material via synthesis of acetyl-CoA. They are found in a diversity of ecological habitats ranging from the digestive tracts of insects to deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and synthesize a plethora of novel enzymes with biotechnological potential. Ecological investigations suggest that still more acetate-metabolizing species with novel properties await discovery. PMID:26068860

  7. Anaerobic Metabolism in Haloferax Genus: Denitrification as Case of Study.

    PubMed

    Torregrosa-Crespo, J; Martínez-Espinosa, R M; Esclapez, J; Bautista, V; Pire, C; Camacho, M; Richardson, D J; Bonete, M J

    2016-01-01

    A number of species of Haloferax genus (halophilic archaea) are able to grow microaerobically or even anaerobically using different alternative electron acceptors such as fumarate, nitrate, chlorate, dimethyl sulphoxide, sulphide and/or trimethylamine. This metabolic capability is also shown by other species of the Halobacteriaceae and Haloferacaceae families (Archaea domain) and it has been mainly tested by physiological studies where cell growth is observed under anaerobic conditions in the presence of the mentioned compounds. This work summarises the main reported features on anaerobic metabolism in the Haloferax, one of the better described haloarchaeal genus with significant potential uses in biotechnology and bioremediation. Special attention has been paid to denitrification, also called nitrate respiration. This pathway has been studied so far from Haloferax mediterranei and Haloferax denitrificans mainly from biochemical point of view (purification and characterisation of the enzymes catalysing the two first reactions). However, gene expression and gene regulation is far from known at the time of writing this chapter. PMID:27134021

  8. Defining Anaerobic Digestion Stability-Full Scale Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demitry, M. E., Sr.

    2014-12-01

    A full-scale anaerobic digester receiving a mixture of primary and secondary sludge was monitored for one hundred days. A chemical oxygen demand, COD, and a volatile solids, VS, mass balance was conducted to evaluate the stability of the digester and its capability of producing methane gas. The COD mass balance could account for nearly 90% of the methane gas produced while the VS mass balance showed that 91% of the organic matter removed resulted in biogas formation. Other parameters monitored included: pH, alkalinity, VFA, and propionic acid. The values of these parameters showed that steady state had occurred. Finally, at mesophilic temperature and at steady state performance, the anaerobic digester stability was defined as a constant ratio of methane produced per substrate of ΔVS (average ratio=0.404 l/g). This ratio can be used as universal metric to determine the anaerobic digester stability in an easy and inexpensive way.

  9. Anaerobic biotransformation of organoarsenical pesticides monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sierra-Alvarez, R.; Yenal, U.; Feld, J.A.; Kopplin, M.; Gandolfi, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) are extensively utilized as pesticides, introducing large quantities of arsenic into the environment. Once released into the environment, these organoarsenicals are subject to microbial reactions. Aerobic biodegradation of MMAV and DMAV has been evaluated, but little is known about their fate in anaerobic environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biotransformation of MMAV and DMAV in anaerobic sludge. Biologically mediated conversion occurred under methanogenic or sulfate-reducing conditions but not in the presence of nitrate. Monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII) was consistently observed as an important metabolite of MMAV degradation, and it was recovered in molar yields ranging from 5 to 47%. The main biotransformation product identified from DMAV metabolism was MMAV, which was recovered in molar yields ranging from 8 to 65%. The metabolites indicate that reduction and demethylation are important steps in the anaerobic bioconversion of MMAV and DMAV, respectively. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  10. Anaerobic digestion of microalgal biomass: Challenges, opportunities and research needs.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Fernandez, Cristina; Sialve, Bruno; Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz

    2015-12-01

    Integration of anaerobic digestion (AD) with microalgae processes has become a key topic to support economic and environmental development of this resource. Compared with other substrates, microalgae can be produced close to the plant without the need for arable lands and be fully integrated within a biorefinery. As a limiting step, anaerobic hydrolysis appears to be one of the most challenging steps to reach a positive economic balance and to completely exploit the potential of microalgae for biogas and fertilizers production. This review covers recent investigations dealing with microalgae AD and highlights research opportunities and needs to support the development of this resource. Novel approaches to increase hydrolysis rate, the importance of the reactor design and the noteworthiness of the microbial anaerobic community are addressed. Finally, the integration of AD with microalgae processes and the potential of the carboxylate platform for chemicals and biofuels production are reviewed. PMID:26454349

  11. Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and PuEDTA

    SciTech Connect

    Xun, Luying

    2005-06-01

    Although our goal is to isolate anaerobic EDTA degraders, we initiated the experiments to include nitrilotriacetate (NTA), which is a structure homologue of EDTA. All the aerobic EDTA degraders can degrade NTA, but the isolated NTA degraders cannot degrade EDTA. Since NTA is a simpler structure homologue, it is likely that EDTA-degrading ability is evolved from NTA degradation. This hypothesis is further supported from our characterization of EDTA and NTA-degrading enzymes and genes (J. Bact. 179:1112-1116; and Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:688-695). The EDTA monooxygenase and NTA monooxygenase are highly homologous. EDTA monooxygenase can use both EDTA and NTA as substrates, but NTA monooxygenase can only use NTA as a substrate. Thus, we put our effort to isolate both NTA and EDTA degraders. In case, an anaerobic EDTA degrader is not immediately enriched, we will try to evolve the NTA degraders to use EDTA. Both aerobic and anaerobic enrichment cultures were set.

  12. Comparative Susceptibility of Anaerobic Bacteria to Minocycline, Doxycycline, and Tetracycline

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Anthony W.; Patten, Valerie; Guze, Lucien B.

    1975-01-01

    The comparative susceptibility of 622 recent clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria to minocycline, doxycycline, and tetracycline was determined by an agar-dilution technique. In addition to Bacteroides fragilis, a variety of other anaerobic bacteria was resistant to achievable blood concentrations of tetracycline (55% inhibited by 6.25 μg/ml) and doxycycline (58% inhibited by 2.5 μg/ml). In contrast, minocycline was significantly more active (P < 0.05) than both doxycycline and tetracycline, and 70% of strains were inhibited by achievable blood concentrations of this antibiotic (2.5 μg/ml). The enhanced activity of minocycline was particularly striking for Peptococcus asaccharolyticus, P. magnus, P. prevotii, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, and Bacteroides melaninogenicus. Further evaluation of the clinical efficacy of minocycline against anaerobic infections is indicated. PMID:1137358

  13. Acetate Metabolism in Anaerobes from the Domain Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Ferry, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Acetate and acetyl-CoA play fundamental roles in all of biology, including anaerobic prokaryotes from the domains Bacteria and Archaea, which compose an estimated quarter of all living protoplasm in Earth’s biosphere. Anaerobes from the domain Archaea contribute to the global carbon cycle by metabolizing acetate as a growth substrate or product. They are components of anaerobic microbial food chains converting complex organic matter to methane, and many fix CO2 into cell material via synthesis of acetyl-CoA. They are found in a diversity of ecological habitats ranging from the digestive tracts of insects to deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and synthesize a plethora of novel enzymes with biotechnological potential. Ecological investigations suggest that still more acetate-metabolizing species with novel properties await discovery. PMID:26068860

  14. Anaerobic orbital cellulitis: a clinical and experimental study.

    PubMed Central

    Jedrzynski, M S; Bullock, J D; McGuire, T W; Elder, B L; Bullock, J D

    1991-01-01

    In this article we have reviewed the clinical and bacteriologic aspects of anaerobic orbital cellulitis and have presented six patients to illustrate these points. Physicians who treat patients with orbital cellulitis should have a high index of suspicion for possible instances involving anaerobes, so that appropriate management can be started early. To investigate this problem further, we created an animal model of anaerobic orbital cellulitis. This model may be useful in future studies of the pathogenesis and treatment of this serious and often devastating disease. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 PMID:1808813

  15. Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megonigal, J. P.; Hines, M. E.; Visscher, P. T.

    2003-12-01

    Life evolved and flourished in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). As the O2 content of the atmosphere rose to the present level of 21% beginning about two billion years ago, anaerobic metabolism was gradually supplanted by aerobic metabolism. Anaerobic environments have persisted on Earth despite the transformation to an oxidized state because of the combined influence of water and organic matter. Molecular oxygen diffuses about 104 times more slowly through water than air, and organic matter supports a large biotic O2 demand that consumes the supply faster than it is replaced by diffusion. Such conditions exist in wetlands, rivers, estuaries, coastal marine sediments, aquifers, anoxic water columns, sewage digesters, landfills, the intestinal tracts of animals, and the rumen of herbivores. Anaerobic microsites are also embedded in oxic environments such as upland soils and marine water columns. Appreciable rates of aerobic respiration are restricted to areas that are in direct contact with air or those inhabited by organisms that produce O2.Rising atmospheric O2 reduced the global area of anaerobic habitat, but enhanced the overall rate of anaerobic metabolism (at least on an area basis) by increasing the supply of electron donors and acceptors. Organic carbon production increased dramatically, as did oxidized forms of nitrogen, manganese, iron, sulfur, and many other elements. In contemporary anaerobic ecosystems, nearly all of the reducing power is derived from photosynthesis, and most of it eventually returns to O2, the most electronegative electron acceptor that is abundant. This photosynthetically driven redox gradient has been thoroughly exploited by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms for metabolism. The same is true of hydrothermal vents (Tunnicliffe, 1992) and some deep subsurface environments ( Chapelle et al., 2002), where thermal energy is the ultimate source of the reducing power.Although anaerobic habitats are currently a small fraction of Earth

  16. DEHALOGENATION: A NOVEL PATHWAY FOR THE ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF HALOAROMATIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microorganisms of lake sediment and sewage sludge anaerobically metabolize halobenzoates by a novel pathway. The primary degradative event was loss of the aryl halide without the alteration of the aromatic ring. Dehalogenation required strict anaerobic conditions and depended on ...

  17. C4-Dicarboxylate Utilization in Aerobic and Anaerobic Growth.

    PubMed

    Unden, Gottfried; Strecker, Alexander; Kleefeld, Alexandra; Kim, Ok Bin

    2016-06-01

    C4-dicarboxylates and the C4-dicarboxylic amino acid l-aspartate support aerobic and anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli and related bacteria. In aerobic growth, succinate, fumarate, D- and L-malate, L-aspartate, and L-tartrate are metabolized by the citric acid cycle and associated reactions. Because of the interruption of the citric acid cycle under anaerobic conditions, anaerobic metabolism of C4-dicarboxylates depends on fumarate reduction to succinate (fumarate respiration). In some related bacteria (e.g., Klebsiella), utilization of C4-dicarboxylates, such as tartrate, is independent of fumarate respiration and uses a Na+-dependent membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase. Uptake of the C4-dicarboxylates into the bacteria (and anaerobic export of succinate) is achieved under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by different sets of secondary transporters. Expression of the genes for C4-dicarboxylate metabolism is induced in the presence of external C4-dicarboxylates by the membrane-bound DcuS-DcuR two-component system. Noncommon C4-dicarboxylates like l-tartrate or D-malate are perceived by cytoplasmic one-component sensors/transcriptional regulators. This article describes the pathways of aerobic and anaerobic C4-dicarboxylate metabolism and their regulation. The citric acid cycle, fumarate respiration, and fumarate reductase are covered in other articles and discussed here only in the context of C4-dicarboxylate metabolism. Recent aspects of C4-dicarboxylate metabolism like transport, sensing, and regulation will be treated in more detail. This article is an updated version of an article published in 2004 in EcoSal Plus. The update includes new literature, but, in particular, the sections on the metabolism of noncommon C4-dicarboxylates and their regulation, on the DcuS-DcuR regulatory system, and on succinate production by engineered E. coli are largely revised or new. PMID:27415771

  18. Potential Application of Anaerobic Extremophiles for Hydrogen Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    During substrate fermentation many anaerobes produce the hydrogen as a waste product, which often regulates the growth of the cultures as an inhibitor. In nature the hydrogen is usually removed from the ecosystem due to its physical properties or by consumption of hydrogen by secondary anaerobes, which sometimes behave as competitors for electron donors as is seen in the classical example in anaerobic microbial communities via the interaction between methanogens and sulfate- or sulfur- reducers. It was demonstrated previously on mixed cultures of anaerobes at neutral pH that bacterial hydrogen production could provide an alternative energy source. But at neutral pH the original cultures can easily be contaminated by methanogens, a most unpleasant side effect of these conditions is the development of pathogenic bacteria. In both cases the rate of hydrogen production was dramatically decreased since some part of the hydrogen was transformed to methane, and the cultivation of human pathogens on a global scale is very dangerous. In our laboratory, experiments with obligately alkaliphilic bacteria that excrete hydrogen as the end metabolic product were performed at different temperature regimes. Mesophilic and moderately thermophilic bacterial cultures have been studied and compared for the most effective hydrogen production. For high-mineralized media with pH 9.5-10.0 not many methanogens are known to exist. Furthermore, the development of pathogenic contaminant microorganisms is virtually impossible: carbonate-saturated solutions are used as antiseptics in medicine. Therefore the cultivation of alkaliphilic hydrogen producing bacteria could be considered as most safe process for global Scale industry in future. Here we present experimental data on the rates of hydrogen productivity for mesophilic, alkaliphilic, obligately anaerobic bacterium Spirocheta americana ASpG1 and moderately thermophilic, alkaliphilic, facultative anaerobe Anoxybacillus pushchinoensis K1 and

  19. One step beyond a ribosome: The ancient anaerobic core.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Filipa L; Nelson-Sathi, Shijulal; Martin, William F

    2016-08-01

    Life arose in a world without oxygen and the first organisms were anaerobes. Here we investigate the gene repertoire of the prokaryote common ancestor, estimating which genes it contained and to which lineages of modern prokaryotes it was most similar in terms of gene content. Using a phylogenetic approach we found that among trees for all 8779 protein families shared between 134 archaea and 1847 bacterial genomes, only 1045 have sequences from at least two bacterial and two archaeal groups and retain the ancestral archaeal-bacterial split. Among those, the genes shared by anaerobes were identified as candidate genes for the prokaryote common ancestor, which lived in anaerobic environments. We find that these anaerobic prokaryote common ancestor genes are today most frequently distributed among methanogens and clostridia, strict anaerobes that live from low free energy changes near the thermodynamic limit of life. The anaerobic families encompass genes for bifunctional acetyl-CoA-synthase/CO-dehydrogenase, heterodisulfide reductase subunits C and A, ferredoxins, and several subunits of the Mrp-antiporter/hydrogenase family, in addition to numerous S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) dependent methyltransferases. The data indicate a major role for methyl groups in the metabolism of the prokaryote common ancestor. The data furthermore indicate that the prokaryote ancestor possessed a rotor stator ATP synthase, but lacked cytochromes and quinones as well as identifiable redox-dependent ion pumping complexes. The prokaryote ancestor did possess, however, an Mrp-type H(+)/Na(+) antiporter complex, capable of transducing geochemical pH gradients into biologically more stable Na(+)-gradients. The findings implicate a hydrothermal, autotrophic, and methyl-dependent origin of life. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi. PMID:27150504

  20. Microbial aggregates in anaerobic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kosaric, N; Blaszczyk, R

    1990-01-01

    The phenomenon aggregation of anaerobic bacteria gives an opportunity to speed up the digestion rate during methanogenesis. The aggregates are mainly composed of methanogenic bacteria which convert acetate and H2/CO2 into methane. Other bacteria are also included in the aggregates but their concentration is rather small. The aggregates may also be formed during acetogenesis or even hydrolysis but such aggregates are not stable and disrupt quickly when not fed. A two stage process seems to be suitable when high concentrated solid waste must be treated. Special conditions are necessary to promote aggregate formation from methanogenic bacteria but aggregates once formed are stable without feeding even for a few years. The structure, texture and activity of bacterial aggregates depend on several parameters: (1)--temperature and pH, (2)--wastewater composition and (3)--hydrodynamic conditions within the reactor. The common influence of all these parameters is still rather unknown but some recommendations may be given. Temperature and pH should be maintained in the range which is optimal for methanogenic bacteria e.g. a temperature between 32 and 50 degrees C and a value pH between 6.5 and 7.5. Wastewaters should contain soluble wastes and the specific loading rate should be around one kgCOD(kgVSS)-1 d-1. The concentration of the elements influences aggregate composition and probably structure and texture. At high calcium concentration a change in the colour of the granules has been observed. Research is necessary to investigate the influence of other elements and organic toxicants on maintenance of the aggregates. Hydrodynamic conditions seem to influence the stability of the granules over long time periods. At low liquid stream rates, aggregates may starve and lysis within the aggregates is possible which results in hollowing of aggregates and their floating. At high liquid stream rates the aggregates may be disrupted and washed out of the reactor as a flocculent