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Sample records for anaerobic odontogenic infections

  1. Odontogenic Orofacial Infections.

    PubMed

    Bertossi, Dario; Barone, Antonio; Iurlaro, Antonio; Marconcini, Simone; De Santis, Daniele; Finotti, Marco; Procacci, Pasquale

    2017-01-01

    Acute dental abscess is a frequent and sometimes underestimated disease of the oral cavity. The acute dental abscess usually occurs secondary to caries, trauma, or failed endodontic treatment. After the intact pulp chamber is opened, colonization of the root canals takes place with a variable set of anaerobic bacteria, which colonize the walls of the necrotic root canals forming a specialized mixed anaerobic biofilm. Asymptomatic necrosis is common. However, abscess formation occurs when these bacteria and their toxic products breach into the periapical tissues through the apical foramen and induce acute inflammation and pus formation. The main signs and symptoms of the acute dental abscess (often referred to as a periapical abscess or infection) are pain, swelling, erythema, and suppuration usually localized to the affected tooth, even if the abscess can eventually spread causing a severe odontogenic infection which is characterized by local and systemic involvement culminating in sepsis syndrome. The vast majority of dental abscesses respond to antibiotic treatment, however, in some patients surgical management of the infection may be indicated. In the present work, a retrospective analysis of the patients with dental orofacial infections referred to the Unit of Dentistry and Maxillofacial Surgery of the University of Verona from 1991 to 2011 has been performed.

  2. Odontogenic infections: Microbiology and management

    PubMed Central

    Bahl, Rashi; Sandhu, Sumeet; Singh, Kanwardeep; Sahai, Nilanchal; Gupta, Mohita

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the involvement of fascial spaces, their bacteriology, sensitivity to antibiotics and management of odontogenic infection in 100 patients of age less than 60 years. Resuls: The mandibular 3rd molar was found to be the most commonly offending tooth, followed by the mandibular 2nd molar. The submandibular space was the most frequently involved fascial space both in single fascial space infections and multiple fascial space infections. Mixed growth (aerobic and anaerobic) was seen in culture smears of 60 patients, only aerobic bacterial growth was seen in 25 patients and anaerobic bacterial growth was seen in culture smears of 15 patients. Streptococcus viridans was the most frequently isolated bacteria among the aerobes, whereas Bacteroides and Prevotella were the most common bacterial species among anaerobes. Empirical antibiotic therapy in the form of Co amoxiclav and Metronidazole was given. Incision and drainage followed by extraction of the offending tooth/teeth was carried out. Conclusion: It was concluded that odontogenic infections were mixed aerobic–anaerobic infections. Anaerobic as well as aerobic cultures were necessary to isolate all pathogens. Successful management of these infections depends on changing the environment through decompression, removal of the etiologic factor and by choosing the proper antibiotic. PMID:25191064

  3. Odontogenic infections. Complications. Systemic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Yolanda; Bagán, José Vicente; Murillo, Judith; Poveda, Rafael

    2004-01-01

    The term, odontogenic infection refers to an infection that originates in the tooth proper or in the tissues that closely surround it; said infection then progresses along the periodontia down to the apex, involving periapical bone and from this area, it then spreads through the bone and periosteum towards near-by or more distant structures. The relevance of this type of infection lies in that it can cause infections that compromise more distant structures (via direct spread and distant spread), for example, intracraneal, retropharyngeal and pulmonary pleural infections. Dissemination by means of the bloodstream can lead to rheumatic problems and deposits on the valves of the heart (endocarditis), etc. The conditions or factors that influence the spread of infection are dependent on the balance between patient-related conditions and microorganism-related conditions. The virulence of the affecting germs is dependent upon their quality and quantity and is one of the microbiological conditions that influences the infection. It is this virulence that promotes infectious invasion and the deleterious effects the microbe will have on the host. Patient-related conditions include certain systemic factors that determine host resistance, which may be impaired in situations such as immunodeficiency syndrome or in brittle diabetes, as well as local factors that will also exert their impact on the spread of the infection.

  4. Evaluation of microbial flora in orofacial space infections of odontogenic origin

    PubMed Central

    Patankar, Amod; Dugal, Arun; Kshirsagar, Rajesh; Hariram; Singh, Vikram; Mishra, Akshay

    2014-01-01

    Background: The microbiology of acute dental infections has been in the midst of many researches. Various bacteriological studies show variations in their conclusion. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the microbial flora in orofacial space infections of odontogenic origin, which is essential for appropriate antibiotic selection. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients with odontogenic infection causing fascial space involvement were included. Aspirated specimen was transported in nutrient broth and thyoglycollate media within an hour for further culture and sensitivity testing. Result and Conclusion: This study indicates that orofacial odontogenic infections are usually polymicrobial, consisting of a complex mixture of both anaerobes and aerobes. PMID:25937727

  5. A review of complications of odontogenic infections

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Rishi Kumar; Sharma, Parveen; Gaba, Shivani; Kaur, Avneet; Ghanghas, Priya

    2015-01-01

    Life-threatening infections of odontogenic or upper airway origin may extend to potential spaces formed by fascial planes of the lower head and upper cervical area. Complications include airway obstruction, mediastinitis, necrotizing fascitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis, sepsis, thoracic empyema, Lemierre's syndrome, cerebral abscess, orbital abscess, and osteomyelitis. The incidence of these “space infections” has been greatly reduced by modern antibiotic therapy. However, serious morbidity and even fatalities continue to occur. This study reviews complications of odontogenic infections. The search done was based on PubMed and Google Scholar, and an extensive published work search was undertaken. Advanced MEDLINE search was performed using the terms “odontogenic infections,” “complications,” and “risk factors.” PMID:27390486

  6. [Relationship between odontogenic infections and infective endocarditis].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Muñoz-Corcuera, Marta; Bascones-Ilundain, Jaime

    2012-03-24

    Revised guidelines for the prevention of infective endocarditis published by national and international associations in the last years do not support the indiscriminate use of antibiotic prophylaxis for dental procedures. However, some of them still recommend its use in high-risk patients before dental treatments likely to cause bleeding. Given the high prevalence of bacteremia of dental origin due to tooth-brushing, mastication or other daily activities, it appears unlikely that infective endocarditis from oral microorganisms can be completely prevented. A good oral health status and satisfactory level of oral hygiene are sufficient to control the consequences of the systemic spread of oral microorganisms in healthy individuals. However, caution is still needed and prophylactic antibiotics must be administered to susceptible or medically compromised patients. This review briefly outlines the current concepts of odontogenic bacteremia and antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing dental treatment.

  7. Severe odontogenic infection: An emergency. Case report

    PubMed Central

    Crisosto-Jara, Claudia; Diaz-Ricouz, Camilo; Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David

    2017-01-01

    Odontogenic infections (OI) are a major reason for consultation in dental practice. They affect people of all ages, and most of them respond well to current medical and surgical treatments. However, some OI can spread to vital and deep structures, overcome the host immune system - especially in diabetic, immunocompromised or weakened patients - and even prove fatal. Ludwig’s angina is a severe form of diffuse cellulitis that can have an acute onset and spread very rapidly, bilaterally affecting areas of the head and neck, and may prove life threatening. A case of severe dental infection is presented in which emphasis is placed on the importance of airway maintenance, followed by surgical decompression under adequate antibiotic coverage. Key words:Ludwig’s angina, severe odontogenic infection, surgical decompression, dental infection. PMID:28210456

  8. Orbital abscess from an odontogenic infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Kyu; Kim, Ju-Rok; Jang, Keum-Soo; Moon, Yeon-Sung; Park, Sun-Won

    2007-01-01

    An orbital abscess is a rare but serious complication of an odontogenic infection, which can lead to loss of vision or worse. This paper presents a case of orbital abscess secondary to an infection from the upper molar teeth, which extended to the retobulbar and posterosuperior region of the orbit, close to the superior orbital fissure. The infection spreaded to the pterygopalatine and infratemporal fossa and then to the orbit via the inferior orbital fissure. This paper reviews the clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, route of spread, value of serial CT scanning, treatment and possible complications.

  9. Clinical appearance of orofacial infections of odontogenic origin in relation to microbiological findings.

    PubMed Central

    Heimdahl, A; von Konow, L; Satoh, T; Nord, C E

    1985-01-01

    Fifty-eight patients with acute orofacial infections of odontogenic origin were classified into two groups with respect to the severity of infection. A total of 174 anaerobic and 22 aerobic bacterial strains were isolated. Anaerobic gram-negative rods were isolated more frequently from the patients with severe infections than from the patients with infections judged as mild (P less than 0.05). The occurrence of Fusobacterium nucleatum especially appeared to be associated with the severity of the infections (P less than 0.05). Penicillin resistance among the anaerobes was rarely found, while resistance to erythromycin was a common finding. All aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were susceptible to clindamycin, and all obligate anaerobic bacteria were susceptible to nitroimidazoles. PMID:4031041

  10. Suspect Odontogenic Infection Etiology for Canine Lymphoplasmacytic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Stepaniuk, Kevin S; Gingerich, Wade

    2015-01-01

    The role of odontogenic infection as an etiology for lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis in dogs was evaluated. An association between odontogenic infection and inflammatory rhinitis was identified in 55% of cases evaluated. Odontogenic infection was unlikely or undetermined in 10% and 35% of the cases, respectively. Cases of lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis had roentgen signs associated with endodontic disease, periodontal disease, or retained tooth roots in 60%, 45%, and 25% of the cases, respectively. A collaborative team based approach assessing inflammatory nasal disease is recommended. Based on the history and signalment of the individual patient, diagnostic modalities should be chosen wisely. In some cases, oral examination and intraoral radiographs may be a more direct and cost effective approach for diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory rhinitis.

  11. Severe odontogenic infection in pregnancy - A timely reminder.

    PubMed

    Tocaciu, Shreya; Robinson, Bruce W; Sambrook, Paul J

    2016-09-07

    Dental practitioners often treat patients who are pregnant. Understanding the altered physiology in the pregnant patient, especially changes in immune function, is vital in effective management of orofacial infections. We present a case of rapidly spreading odontogenic infection in a pregnant patient requiring surgical management. We also discuss the physiological changes of pregnancy relevant to dentistry, and the principles of managing such infections in the gravid patient. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. A case of tetanus secondary to an odontogenic infection.

    PubMed

    Darraj, Majid; Stone, James; Keynan, Yoav; Thompson, Kristjan; Snider, Carolyn

    2016-12-08

    Tetanus is a life-threatening clinical syndrome that commonly presents with muscular spasms, rigidity, and autonomic instability. It is considered rare in industrialized countries, and tetanus occurring secondary to dental abscesses, procedures, or infections has been infrequently reported. We describe the case of a patient inadequately immunized for tetanus, who presented to the emergency department with muscular spasms, rigidity, and autonomic instability in the setting of an odontogenic infection. A clinical diagnosis of tetanus was made and subsequently managed successfully.

  13. Brain abscess due to odontogenic infection: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Yong; Suh, Dong Won; Park, Chul Min; Oh, Min Seok

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we describe a case of brain abscess due to odontogenic infection. A 53-year-old female who had been suffering from headache and trismus for two weeks visited the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the Sun Dental Hospital (Daejeon, Korea). Even after several routine tests, we still could not make a diagnosis. However, after the combined multidisciplinary efforts of oral surgeons and neurosurgeons, the patient was treated for odontogenic infection and made an uneventful recovery. Therefore, patients with infections in the head and neck region showing symptoms such as headache, changes in mental state, nausea, vomiting, seizures, hemiplegia, speech disturbance, and visual disturbance, a brain abscess should be included in the list of differential diagnoses. PMID:25045643

  14. Nasolabial Cyst Associated with Odontogenic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Eveline Claudia; Coppla, Fabiana Madalozzo; Campagnoli, Eduardo Bauml; Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The nasolabial cyst or Klestadt cyst is a relatively uncommon nonodontogenic cyst that develops in the nasal alar region; it has uncertain pathogenesis. This lesion has slow growth and variable dimensions and is characterized clinically by a floating tumefaction in the nasolabial fold area around the bridge of the nose, causing an elevation of the upper lip and relative facial asymmetry. Diagnosis is primarily made clinically; if necessary, this is complemented by imaging. This paper reports the case of a 39-year-old male patient who complained of pain in the right upper premolar region and poor aesthetics due to a firm tumor in the right wing of the nose. Initially, this was thought to be due to an odontogenic abscess; however, the differential diagnosis was that a nasolabial cyst was communicating with the apex of teeth 14 and 15. Surgical treatment was carried out, followed by histopathological examination and concomitant endodontic treatment of the teeth involved. PMID:26904312

  15. Cervical necrotizing fasciitis: an unusual sequel of odontogenic infection.

    PubMed

    Subhashraj, Krishnaraj; Jayakumar, Naveen; Ravindran, Chinnasamy

    2008-12-01

    Cervical necrotizing fasciitis is a rare infection of the fascial planes, which is less common in head and neck, because of the rarity and higher vascularity in the region. We reviewed five patients with cervical necrotizing fasciitis of odontogenic infection managed at a teaching hospital at Chennai, India. There were four men and one woman, of whom four patients were diabetic and hypertensive, with a mean age of 53 years. Mandibular molars (periapical or pericoronal abscess) were found to be the source of infection in all of the cases. The treatment involved incision and drainage and debridement. Anti-microbial drugs were given for all the patients, which included cephalosporins, metronidazole and gentamycin. In four patients the wound healed by contracture and one patient required split skin grafting. Due to the smaller extent of the necrosis, better control of the systemic disease and small size of the sample, there was neither a major complication nor death. This paper reminds us that cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis (CNF) remains one of the potential complications of long standing odontogenic infections in patients with immune-compromised status, particularly in lower dentition.

  16. Carcinoma of Maxillary Sinus Masquerading as Odontogenic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ramachamparambathu, Ashir Kolikkal; Vengal, Manoj; Siyo, Nizaro; Ahmed, Anis

    2016-01-01

    Malignant tumours of maxillary sinus are rare. They are usually diagnosed in the late stages when they perforate the sinus walls. The presence of large air space in the maxillary sinus facilitates asymptomatic growth of the sinus malignancy. The clinical presentation of these tumours depends on the sinus wall involved by the disease. The medial wall is usually the first to become eroded, leading to nasal obstruction, epistaxis or discharge. Rarely, symptoms of maxillary sinus carcinoma can resemble dental infection and the affected patients may visit dental clinic seeking treatment. This report presents a case of carcinoma of maxillary sinus mimicking odontogenic infection. Computed tomographic findings explained the reason for the present lesion to masquerade as an inflammatory condition. The importance of advanced imaging modalities for prompt identification of such lesions is discussed. PMID:27790593

  17. Use of metronidazole as part of an empirical antibiotic regimen after incision and drainage of infections of the odontogenic spaces.

    PubMed

    Bali, Rishi; Sharma, Parveen; Gaba, Shivani

    2015-01-01

    The combination of amoxicillin/clavulanate and metronidazole is a widely-accepted empirical regimen for infections of the odontogenic spaces. Once adequate drainage has been established micro-organisms are less likely to grow and multiply, particularly anaerobes. This may obviate the need for anaerobic coverage after drainage in healthy hosts. We studied 60 patients in this randomised prospective study, the objective of which was to evaluate metronidazole as part of an empirical antibiotic regimen after drainage of infections of the odontogenic spaces. Samples of pus were sent for culture and testing for sensitivity. Amoxicillin/clavulanate and metronidazole were given to all patients. After incision and drainage the patients were randomly allocated to two groups. In the first group both antibiotics were continued, and in the second metronidazole was withdrawn. The groups were compared both clinically and microbiologically. There were no significant differences between the groups in the resolution of infection. Thirteen patients (n=6 in the 2-antimicrobial group, and n=7 in the amoxicillin/clavulanate group) showed no improvement during the 48 h postoperatively. Overall there was need to substitute another antibiotic for amoxicillin/clavulanate in only 6 cases. Six patients in the amoxicillin/clavulanate group required the addition of metronidazole after drainage. We conclude that in healthy subjects metronidazole is not necessary in the period after drainage, but its prescription should be based on assessment of clinical and laboratory markers of infection.

  18. Zygomycosis originating from an odontogenic infection in a pediatric oncology patient

    PubMed Central

    Adderson, Elisabeth E.; Rowland, Christopher; McGregor, Lisa M.; Santana, Victor M.

    2011-01-01

    The Zygomyces are an increasingly frequent cause of invasive mould infection in immunocompromised patients. Here we describe the first well-documented case of Rhizopus infection of odontogenic origin, which presented as a rapidly progressive soft tissue infection in a neutropenic child. The infection resolved with limited surgical debridement and antifungal therapy. PMID:20227220

  19. Anaerobic Infections in Children with Neurological Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Itzhak

    1995-01-01

    Children with neurological impairments are prone to develop serious infection with anaerobic bacteria. The most common anaerobic infections are decubitus ulcers; gastrostomy site wound infections; pulmonary infections (aspiration pneumonia, lung abscesses, and tracheitis); and chronic suppurative otitis media. The unique microbiology of each of…

  20. Lemierre's syndrome from odontogenic infection: Review of the literature and case description

    PubMed Central

    Noy, Dani; Rachmiel, Adi; Levy-Faber, Dan; Emodi, Omri

    2015-01-01

    Lemierre's syndrome (LS) is a rare potentially fatal sequel of head and neck infection, classically described as thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein (IJV) with cervical space infection extending into the thorax. Our objective was to answer the clinical question: “Does Lemierre syndrome (LS) from odontogenic infection differ from nonodontogenic LS in regard to clinical sequence, treatment, and survival.” We reviewed the literature on the management of LS over the last two decades, with a focus on LS from odontogenic infection. Such a case is presented in order to portray the clinical sequence. Only 10 cases met the inclusion criteria (including the case presented). The recorded data were analyzed in comparison to large case series reviewing LS. Our data reflect the moderate differences in regard to IJV thrombosis and bacteriogram. There is an overall rise in published LS cases in the last 20 years. Odontogenic infection leading to LS is scarce, yet with survival rates similar to nonodontogenic LS. Repeated surgical interventions and aggressive wide spectrum antibiotic therapy remain the treatment of choice. PMID:26981474

  1. Antibiotic prescription in the treatment of odontogenic infection by health professionals: A factor to consensus

    PubMed Central

    González-Martínez, Raquel; Cortell-Ballester, Isidoro; Herráez-Vilas, José M.; Arnau-de Bolós, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe the attitude of dentists and family doctors in prescribing antibiotics for the treatment of dental infections. Study Design: A poll was performed to determine the differences in the prescription of antibiotics for the treatment of odontogenic infection by dentists and family doctors of the primary care department of the Catalan Health Care Service. Results: A hundred polls were distributed among family doctors, and another 100 ones among primary care dentists assigned to the Catalan Health Care Service of the Generalitat de Catalunya. Of the total of questionnaires distributed, 63 were retuned and answered from dentists and 71 from family doctors. Eighty-one percent of dentists included in the opinion poll considered amoxicillin as the first antibiotic choice for the treatment of odontogenic infections, while 73.2% of family doctors preferred the combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. With regard to antibiotics of choice in patients allergic to penicillin, 67.7% of family doctors preferred macrolides (25.4% opted for clarithromycin, 25.4% for erythromycin and 16.9% for spiramycin). However, clindamycin was the antibiotic most frequently prescribed by dentists (66.7%), followed by erythromycin (28.6%). Conclusions: The results of this study show a large discrepancy in the criteria for the treatment of odontogenic infections on the part of leading professionals involved in the management of this condition. Although the most common prescription involved beta-lactam antibiotics in both groups, several significant differences have been detected with regard to the second antibiotic choice. Key words:Odontogenic infections, antibiotics, antimicrobials. PMID:22143715

  2. Infected Pneumatocele Following Anaerobic Pneumonia in Adult

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yeon Tae; Lee, Kyung Duk; Seon, Kyoung Youn; Lee, Jong Hyun; Lee, Sung Ho; Choi, Se Ho

    2005-01-01

    We report a case of an infected pneumatocele in the course of anaerobic pneumonia in an adult. To the best of our knowledge, anaerobic pneumonia complicated by a pneumatocele in an adult has not previously been described. The pneumatocele occurred on the fifth day of hospitalization, and rapidly increased in size, with the development of a subsequent mixed anaerobe infection. A pig-tail catheter was inserted and the pus drained. The bacterial culture from the pus was positive for three anaerobes: Bacteroid species, Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus and Fusobacterium species. Intravenous antibiotics and percutaneous catheter drainage resulted in a successful treatment. PMID:16491835

  3. Aerobic microbiology and culture sensitivity of head and neck space infection of odontogenic origin

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Amit; Ramola, Vikas; Nautiyal, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Context: Head and neck space infections source, age, gender, tooth involved, fascial spaces involved, microbiological study of aerobic flora, and antibiotic susceptibilities. Aims: The aim of the present study is to identify causative aerobic microorganisms responsible for deep fascial spaces of head and neck infections and evaluate the resistance of antibiotics used in the treatment of such. Settings and Design: Prospective study in 100 patients. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 100 patients who reported in the outpatient department and fulfilled the inclusion criteria to study aerobic microbiology and antibiotic sensitivity in head and neck space infection of odontogenic origin. Pus sample was obtained either by aspiration or by swab stick from the involved spaces, and culture and sensitivity tests were performed. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test and level of significance. Results: Result showed aerobic Gram-positive isolates were 73% and aerobic Gram-negative isolates were 18%. Nine percent cases showed no growth. Streptococcus viridans was the highest isolate in 47% cases among Gram-positive bacteria, and in Gram-negative, Klebsiella pneumoniae was the highest isolate of total cases 11%. Amoxicillin showed resistance (48.4%) as compared to other antibiotics such as ceftriaxone, carbenicillin, amikacin, and imipenem had significantly higher sensitivity. Conclusions: Amoxicillin with clavulanic acid showed (64.8%) efficacy for all organisms isolated, whereas ceftriaxone showed (82.4%) efficacy and could be used in odontogenic infections for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. Substitution of third generation cephalosporin for amoxicillin in the empirical management of deep fascial space infections can also be used. Carbenicillin, amikacin, and imipenem showed (93.4%) sensitivity against all microorganisms and should be reserved for more severe infection. Newer and broad-spectrum antibiotics are more

  4. Changes in admission rates for spreading odontogenic infection resulting from changes in government policy about the dental schedule and remunerations.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Richard; Bhandari, Rishi; Bridle, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The government changed the system of payment to general dental practitioners on 1 April 2005 from a fee/item to a banding system. The figures collected have shown that there has been a 62% increase in the number of patients who require admission for surgical treatment of spreading odontogenic infections compared with the 3-year period before this date.

  5. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible arising from an infected odontogenic cyst: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Grisar, Koenraad; Schol, Matthias; Hauben, Esther; Schoenaers, Joseph; Politis, Constantinus

    2016-01-01

    Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma (PIOSCC) derived from a odontogenic cyst is a rare form of odontogenic carcinoma. The incidence of carcinomas arising from odontogenic cysts is particularly uncommon and is reported to occur in 1–2 individuals for every 1,000 cases. The present case describes a 25-year-old man who was initially diagnosed with a chronically infected odontogenic cyst of the mandible. Biopsy and subsequent histology revealed the presence of squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, neck dissection and hemimandibulectomy were performed. Ultimately, the situation in the mouth healed, though with a severe amount of scarring. Although the development of PIOSCC from an odontogenic cyst is rare, it should be included in the differential diagnosis for jaw bone radiolucency. PMID:28105241

  6. Bilateral septic cavernous sinus thrombosis following the masticator and parapharyngeal space infection from the odontogenic origin: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kiddee, Weerawat; Preechawai, Passorn; Hirunpat, Siriporn

    2010-09-01

    Neglect of odontogenic infections can have serious consequences. If they spread through fascial planes and intracranially they can cause an abscess, orbital cellulitis, and eventually cavernous sinus thrombosis. The authors report a case of rapid progressive bilateral orbital cellulitis and cavernous sinus thrombosis that originated from dental caries. Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis is a medical emergency. Early recognition and prompt treatments direct to the underlying sources of infection are crucial. Broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment to reduce morbidity and mortality from this lethal condition. Management should be based on early diagnosis and prompt management with intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics and surgical intervention.

  7. Temporomandibular Joint Septic Arthritis and Mandibular Osteomyelitis Arising From an Odontogenic Infection: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Gams, Kevin; Freeman, Phillip

    2016-04-01

    Septic arthritis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) has been infrequently reported in the literature. Some investigators believe that this condition is under-reported because it is underdiagnosed. Misdiagnosis or late diagnosis of this condition can lead to serious morbidity, including fistula formation, intracranial abscess, fibrous or bony ankylosis, temporal bone or condylar osteomyelitis, growth alteration, and several others. This report describes a case of septic TMJ arthritis arising from direct spread of an odontogenic infection with subsequent development of mandibular osteomyelitis. The purpose of this case report is to 1) increase awareness of an underdiagnosed condition, 2) establish the seriousness of this infection, 3) for the first time report on a case of TMJ septic arthritis caused by Bacteroides infection, and 4) provide a review of the relevant literature.

  8. Microbial flora of odontogenic abscesses in pet guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Minarikova, A; Hauptman, K; Knotek, Z; Jekl, V

    2016-10-01

    Abscesses of odontogenic origin in guinea pigs pose a serious health problem and need to be treated with a combination of surgical and medical therapy. The aim of this prospective study was to describe the microbial flora of odontogenic abscesses associated with osteomyelitis in 24 pet guinea pigs, to perform antibiotic sensitivity testing, and to make recommendations for practitioners on the antibiotics of first choice. Inclusion criteria for the study included the animal being diagnosed with an odontogenic abscess which underwent surgery and was not pre-treated with an antibiotic. Inclusion criteria matched for 24 guinea pigs. Samples (pus, capsule and affected tooth/bone) for bacteriological examination were collected under sterile conditions during the surgical procedure. The most commonly isolated bacteria from abscesses of odontogenic origin were Bacteroides fragilis in 12.8 per cent (6/47) of cases, Pasteurella multocida in 10.6 per cent (5/47) and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius in 8.5 per cent (4/47). Aerobic bacterial species only were isolated in 29.2 per cent (7/24) of cases, anaerobic bacteria only were isolated in 33.3 per cent (8/24), and mixed infection with anaerobic and aerobic bacterial species was seen in 37.5 per cent (9/24). Aerobes (n=20) were sensitive to enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin in 100 per cent of samples, benzylpenicillin potassium (penicillin G, PNCG) in 90 per cent, cephalotin in 85 per cent, amoxicillin-clavulanate in 75 per cent, doxycycline in 70 per cent, gentamicin in 65 per cent and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in 55 per cent. Anaerobes (n=27) were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanate in 100 per cent of cases, clindamycin in 96.3 per cent, metronidazole in 92.6 per cent, PNCG in 92.6 per cent and cephalotin in 74.1 per cent. As guinea pigs are strictly herbivorous animals, based on the results of this study the recommended antibiotic treatment for odontogenic abscesses is a combination of fluoroquinolones and metronidazole.

  9. A case of odontogenic brain abscess arising from covert dental sepsis.

    PubMed

    Clifton, T C; Kalamchi, S

    2012-01-01

    Odontogenic infections can spread to any organ of the body and in some cases cause life threatening infections. We report a case of multiple odontogenic brain abscesses resulting from undetected tooth decay. Whereas most odontogenic brain abscesses occur following dental treatment, this report documents brain abscesses prior to dental treatment, signifying the dangers of covert dental infections. This case report updates the literature on the topic of odontogenic brain abscesses.

  10. A Large Extragnathic Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Radhika M.; Muniswamappa, Sudhakara; Narasimhamurthy, Srinath

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) are developmental cysts which occur typically in the jawbones. They present more commonly in the posterior mandible of young adults than the maxilla. OKCs have been reclassified under odontogenic tumours in 2005 by the WHO and have since been termed as keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs). Here we report a case of a recurrent buccal lesion in a 62-year-old man which was provisionally diagnosed as a space infection (buccal abscess) but surprisingly turned out to be a soft tissue KCOT in an unusual location on histopathologic examination. PMID:26770859

  11. Anaerobic

    MedlinePlus

    ... shock. Anaerobic is the opposite of aerobic . In exercise, our bodies need to perform both anaerobic and aerobic reactions ... during shorter, more intense activities like sprinting. Anaerobic ... removing the lactic acid by providing oxygen to their bodies.

  12. Brain abscess of odontogenic origin.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Antonio Azoubel; de Santana Santos, Thiago; de Carvalho, Ricardo Wathson Feitosa; Avelar, Rafael Linard; Pereira, Carlos Umberto; Pereira, José Carlos

    2011-11-01

    Brain abscess is a rare and threatening infection, which is in a suppuration area, caused either by trauma, neurosurgical complication, or by a secondary infection of dental origin complication. The infectious process spread from the start focus can occur in 2 ways: hematogenous or by contiguity. The treatment should ideally be based on the etiological factor excision, combined with drainage and antibiotics as adjuvant; this philosophy is not observed in the reports described in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. This study's goal was to report a case of brain abscess consequent of an odontogenic outbreak, where an adequate treatment was set up, but it was already in advanced stages and had as a result the lethal outcome. Complications from the odontogenic infections have a low incidence, but should never be disregarded, because they can lead to death, as described in this manuscript.

  13. Primary Paranasal Tuberculosis in a Diabetic Mimicking Odontogenic Infection: A Rare Case; A Unique Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Mehendirratta, Monica; Sareen, Chanchal; Aggarwal, Anju

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Tuberculosis (TB) is high especially in developing countries but primary para-nasal TB is still a rarity. The latter often remains quiescent until it reaches an advanced stage and offers a diagnostic challenge. In the present case report maxillary sinus TB mimicked a destructive periodontitis induced space infection, thus causing a delay in treatment. The present case report describes clinical presentation, diagnosis, management and outcome of a 50-year-old diabetic/HIV seronegative patient with histopathologically confirmed case of maxillary sinus TB. PMID:27135017

  14. Moxifloxacin versus Clindamycin/Ceftriaxone in the management of odontogenic maxillofacial infectious processes: A preliminary, intrahospital, controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Arámbula, Hansel; Hidalgo-Hurtado, Antonio; Rodríguez-Flores, Rosaura; González-Amaro, Ana-María; Garrocho-Rangel, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare the days of hospitalization length between patients treated with Moxifloxacin with that of patients treated with a Clindamycin/Ceftriaxone combination and additionally, to isolate and identify the oral pathogens involved in orofacial odontogenic infections. Material and Methods A pilot-controlled-clinical-trial was carried out on hospitalized patients with cervicofacial odontogenic abscesses or cellulitis, who were randomly asigned to two study groups: 1) patients who received Moxifloxacin, and 2) patients receiving Clindamycin/Ceftriaxone combination. Infiltrate samples were collected through transdermic or transmucosal punction and later cultured on a media specific for aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Mean hospitalization duration in days until hospital discharge and susceptibility assessment in rates were established. Results Mean hospitalization time in days of patients treated with Moxifloxacin was 7.0 ± 1.6 days, while in the Clindamycin/Ceftriaxone group, this was 8.4 ± 1.8 days, although significant difference could not be demonstrated (p=0.074). A total of 43 strains were isolated, all of these Gram-positive. These strains appeared to be highly sensitive to Moxifloxacin (97.5%) and Ceftriaxone (92.5%). Conclusions Moxifloxacin and Ceftriaxone appear to be potential convenient and rational alternatives to traditional antibiotics, for treating severe odontogenic infections, in conjunction with surgical extraoral incision, debridement, and drainage. Key words:Orofacial odontogenic infections, antimicrobial susceptibility, antimicrobial resistance. PMID:26644841

  15. Microbiological Analysis of a Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Trial Comparing Moxifloxacin and Clindamycin in the Treatment of Odontogenic Infiltrates and Abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Sobottka, Ingo; Wegscheider, Karl; Balzer, Ludwig; Böger, Rainer H.; Hallier, Olaf; Giersdorf, Ina; Streichert, Thomas; Haddad, Munif; Platzer, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the oral pathogens found in odontogenic infections, to determine their susceptibilities to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC), clindamycin (CLI), doxycycline (DOX), levofloxacin (LVX), moxifloxacin (MXF), and penicillin (PEN), and to search for associations between specific pathogens and types of infection. Swabs from patients enrolled in a randomized, double-blind phase II trial comparing MXF with CLI for the treatment of odontogenic abscesses or inflammatory infiltrates were cultured on media for aerobes and anaerobes. All bacterial isolates were identified at the species level. Overall, 205 isolates were cultured from 71 patients: 77 viridans group streptococci, 56 Prevotella spp., 19 Neisseria spp., 17 Streptococcus anginosus group isolates and hemolytic streptococci, 15 other anaerobes, and 21 other bacteria. Ninety-eight percent of pathogens were susceptible to MXF, 96% to AMC, 85% to LVX, 67% to PEN, 60% to CLI, and 50% to DOX. S. anginosus group and hemolytic streptococci were found significantly more frequently (P = 0.04) in patients with abscesses (12/95) than in patients with infiltrates (5/110). In four patients with infiltrates who failed to respond to CLI therapy, three isolates of the Streptococcus mitis group and four Neisseria spp. resistant to CLI were found. In this study, S. anginosus group and hemolytic streptococci were clearly associated with odontogenic abscesses. Our analysis suggests that viridans group streptococci and Neisseria spp. play a decisive role in the etiology of odontogenic infiltrates. The high in vitro activity of MXF against odontogenic bacteria corresponds well to its clinical results in the treatment of odontogenic abscesses and infiltrates. PMID:22354306

  16. Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria Isolated From Surgical Site Infection of Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Akhi, Mohammad Taghi; Ghotaslou, Reza; Beheshtirouy, Samad; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Pirzadeh, Tahereh; Asghari, Babak; Alizadeh, Naser; Toloue Ostadgavahi, Ali; Sorayaei Somesaraei, Vida; Memar, Mohammad Yousef

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical Site Infections (SSIs) are infections of incision or deep tissue at operation sites. These infections prolong hospitalization, delay wound healing, and increase the overall cost and morbidity. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate anaerobic and aerobic bacteria prevalence in surgical site infections and determinate antibiotic susceptibility pattern in these isolates. Materials and Methods: One hundred SSIs specimens were obtained by needle aspiration from purulent material in depth of infected site. These specimens were cultured and incubated in both aerobic and anaerobic condition. For detection of antibiotic susceptibility pattern in aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, we used disk diffusion, agar dilution, and E-test methods. Results: A total of 194 bacterial strains were isolated from 100 samples of surgical sites. Predominant aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria isolated from these specimens were the members of Enterobacteriaceae family (66, 34.03%) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26, 13.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (24, 12.37%), Acinetobacter spp. (18, 9.28%), Enterococcus spp. (16, 8.24%), coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. (14, 7.22%) and nonhemolytic streptococci (2, 1.03%). Bacteroides fragilis (26, 13.4%), and Clostridium perfringens (2, 1.03%) were isolated as anaerobic bacteria. The most resistant bacteria among anaerobic isolates were B. fragilis. All Gram-positive isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid while most of Enterobacteriaceae showed sensitivity to imipenem. Conclusions: Most SSIs specimens were polymicrobial and predominant anaerobic isolate was B. fragilis. Isolated aerobic and anaerobic strains showed high level of resistance to antibiotics. PMID:26421133

  17. [Tinidazole: a classical anaerobical drug with multiple potential uses nowadays].

    PubMed

    Granizo, J J; Pía Rodicio, M; Manso, F J; Giménez, Ma José

    2009-06-01

    Tinidazole is a 5-nitroimidazole active in vitro against a wide variety of anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. Tinidazole is an effective treatment against anaerobic microorganisms based on its pharmacokinetic characteristics (C(max) 51 microg/ml, t(1/2) 12.5 h) and its excellent in vitro activity. Its long half-life allows once a day regimens. Tinidazole is as effective as metronidazole in the treatment of infections caused by T. vaginalis, giardiasis and amebiasis and bacterial vaginosis, malaria, odontogenic infections, anaerobic bacterial infections (pelvic inflammatory disease, diabetic foot), surgical prophylaxis (abdominal and hysterectomy) and Helicobacter pylori eradication. Tinidazole was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of infections caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia.

  18. Odontogenic Cyst with Verrucous Proliferation Exhibiting Melanin Pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Krupa Mehta; Ahmed, Junaid; Bhat, Keshava; Kottieth Pallam, Nandita; Lewis, Amitha Juanita

    2017-01-01

    Verrucous proliferation arising from odontogenic cysts is a rare entity. We report an unusual case of an infected odontogenic cyst with verrucous proliferation and melanin pigmentation in a 13-year-old male patient who presented with an intraoral swelling in relation to impacted teeth 26 and 27. The enucleated lesion was diagnosed as an odontogenic keratocyst and the patient died within two years of presentation due to multiple recurrences. The clinical, radiological, and microscopic features of the lesion are presented with an attempt to discuss the etiopathogenesis. The case hereby reported is uncommon with only eight cases reported in the literature.

  19. Non-odontogenic toothache.

    PubMed

    Okeson, J P

    2000-01-01

    Toothache is a common complaint in the dental office. Most toothaches have their origin in the pulpal tissues of periodontal structures. These odontogenic pains are managed well and predictably by dental therapies. Non-odontogenic toothaches are often difficult to identify and can challenge the diagnostic ability of the clinician. The most important step toward proper management of toothache is to be suspicious that the pain may not be of dental origin. The cardinal warning symptoms of non-odontogenic toothache are as follow: A. Spontaneous multiple toothaches. B. Inadequate local dental cause for the pain. C. Stimulating, burning, non-pulsatile toothaches. D. Constant, unremitting, non-variable toothaches. E. Persistent, recurrent toothaches. F. Local anesthetic blocking of the offending tooth does not eliminate the pain. G. Failure of the toothache to respond to reasonable dental therapy.

  20. Anaerobic bacteria in upper respiratory tract and head and neck infections: microbiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Brook, Itzhak

    2012-04-01

    Anaerobes are the predominant components of oropharyngeal mucous membranes bacterial flora, and are therefore a common cause of bacterial infections of endogenous origin of upper respiratory tract and head and neck. This review summarizes the aerobic and anaerobic microbiology and antimicrobials therapy of these infections. These include acute and chronic otitis media, mastoiditis and sinusitis, pharyngo-tonsillitis, peritonsillar, retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal abscesses, suppurative thyroiditis, cervical lymphadenitis, parotitis, siliadenitis, and deep neck infections including Lemierre Syndrome. The recovery from these infections depends on prompt and proper medical and when indicated also surgical management.

  1. Cystic Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sonal; Rahim, Ahmed Mujib Bangalore; Parakkat, Nithin Kavassery; Kapoor, Shekhar; Mittal, Kumud; Sharma, Bhushan; Shivappa, Anil Bangalore

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor (AOT) is a well-established benign epithelial lesion of odontogenic origin. Rightfully called “the master of disguise,” this lesion has been known for its varied clinical and histoarchitectural patterns. Not only does AOT predominantly present radiologically as a unilocular cystic lesion enclosing the unerupted tooth (which is commonly mistaken as a dentigerous cyst) but the lesion also presents rarely with a cystic component histopathologically. We present one such unusual case of cystic AOT associated with an impacted canine, mimicking a dentigerous cyst. The present case aims to highlight the difference between cystic AOT and dentigerous cyst radiographically. The exact histogenesis of AOT and its variants still remains obscure. An attempt has been made to hypothesize the new school of thought regarding the origin of AOT. PMID:26579317

  2. Express diagnostic of anaerobic infection and disbacteriosis by optical PNC method in clinical dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Michail T.; Koz'ma, Sergey U.; Taubinsky, Ilia M.; Masychev, Victor I.

    2000-11-01

    In this research a new way of express (real time) diagnostics of anaerobic infection and disbacteriosis is suggested. The express diagnostics of anaerobic infection allows to perform quick assessment of the injury microbiocenosis, the state of gastroenteric tract, the disbacteriosis presence and the degree of its development, to follow up dynamics of microflora variations in the process of medication treatment. The research were performed with optical PNC-method. The basic of the method is in registration of stimulated (secondary) radiations and registration of their space fields, which occur in the process of probing radiation interaction with biological tissues and their active elements. The process is called Photon- undulatory Nonlinear Conversion or in short PNC-process (PNC- method, PNC-diagnostic). The optimal diagnostic PNC-method developed here allows detecting the presence of anaerobic microflora directly at the bed of a patient. It makes possible to control the dynamic of patient rehabilitation process, providing strictly individual assessments.

  3. Fate of pulpectomized deciduous teeth: Bilateral odontogenic cyst?

    PubMed Central

    Sandhyarani, B.; Noorani, Hina; Shivaprakash, P. K.; Dayanand, A. Huddar

    2016-01-01

    Pulpectomy is preferably more conservative treatment option than the extraction of deciduous teeth despite few undesirable consequences of obturating materials of which odontogenic cysts are one. This article aims to report a case of an 11-year-old female child having bilateral odontogenic cysts, i.e., radicular and infected dentigerous cyst followed by pulpectomy of deciduous molars using zinc oxide eugenol which was surgically enucleated and followed up to 6 months until satisfactory healing of bone was observed. The article also emphasizes on the importance of regular follow-up of the pulpectomized tooth which can be harmful otherwise. PMID:27307677

  4. [Necrotizing mucosal ulcers cause by anaerobic bacteria. Fusiform bacterial and spirochete infections].

    PubMed

    Hollandt, J H; Hollandt, H

    1996-12-01

    Vincent's angina (Plaut-Vincent) is the most prominent disease caused by coinciding infections from fusibacteria and spirochaeta both belonging to obligate anaerobic bacteria. A possible symbiotic infection of both anaerobics may become manifest on the mucous membranes of the oral cavity and the oropharynx beside the tonsillas. The clinical outcome may be different and pose difficulties in the differential diagnosis. We report the case of a 29 year old female patient with necrotizing ulcera of the soft palate suspicious for stomatitis ulceromembranacea. In case necrotizing inflammations of the oral cavity area were to be found infections due to anaerobic bacteria should be considered mostly occurring as mixed infections. The correct identification by cultivation turns out to be difficult in that it requires special conditions. Furthermore, reliable detection of these bacteria necessitates careful collection and transport of patients specimens. In case of Fusospirochaetosis (Fusotreponematose) a specimen should be prepared for microscopic examination beside setting up a special culture. This is because the staining is the most suitable procedure for bacteril identification to support the clinical diagnosis of stomatitis ulceromembranacea.

  5. Necrotising fasciitis of odontogenic origin

    PubMed Central

    Chunduri, Nagendra Srinivas; Madasu, Krishnaveni; Tammannavar, Praveen Shrimant; C, Pushpalatha

    2013-01-01

    Necrotising fasciitis (NF) is a rare infection of the fascial planes, which is less common in head and neck, because of the rarity and higher vascularity in the region. We report a case of necrotising fasciitis in a 43-year-old man, arising from a dental infection treated successfully by early diagnosis, prompt surgical management, antibiotic therapy and adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy. The diagnosis of descending NF must always be considered in a patient who presents with a history of oropharyngeal infection with evidence of neck swelling, chest pain, and dyspnea or respiratory distress. Aggressive surgical debridement of all involved tissue along with intravenous antibiotic therapy should be initiated before aerobic and anaerobic cultures are obtained. HBO may also be of some benefit in the treatment of this potentially fatal infection. PMID:23821623

  6. Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis: a review.

    PubMed

    Simuntis, Regimantas; Kubilius, Ričardas; Vaitkus, Saulius

    2014-01-01

    Maxillary sinusitis of odontogenic origin is a well-known condition in both the dental and otolaryngology communities. It occurs when the Schneiderian membrane is violated by conditions arising from dentoalveolar unit. This type of sinusitis differs in its pathophysiology, microbiology, diagnostics and management from sinusitis of other causes, therefore, failure to accurately identify a dental cause in these patients usually lead to persistent symptomatology and failure of medical and surgical therapies directed toward sinusitis. Unilateral recalcitrant disease associated with foul smelling drainage is a most common feature of odontogenic sinusitis. Also, high-resolution CT scans and cone-beam volumetric computed tomography can assist in identifying dental disease. Sometimes dental treatment alone is adequate to resolve the odontogenic sinusitis and sometimes concomitant or subsequent functional endoscopic sinus surgery or Caldwell-Luc operation is required. The aim of this article is to give a review of the most common causes, symptoms, diagnostic and treatment methods of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis. Search on Cochrane Library, PubMed and Science Direct data bases by key words resulted in 35 articles which met our criteria. It can be concluded that the incidence of odontogenic sinusitis is likely underreported in the available literature.

  7. Anaerobic Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor may treat it with intravenous antibiotics (eg, penicillin, ampicillin) for 4 to 6 weeks, followed by ... In most cases, the bacteria are resistant to penicillin drugs. If an abscess has formed, it may ...

  8. A simple procedure to determine the infectivity and host range of viruses infecting anaerobic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Gorlas, Aurore; Geslin, Claire

    2013-03-01

    Plaque assay is the method traditionally used to isolate and purify lytic viruses, to determine the viral titer and host range. Whereas most bacterioviruses are either temperate or lytic, the majority of known archeoviruses are not lytic (i.e. they are temperate or chronic). In view of the widespread occurrence of such viruses in extreme environments, we designed an original method, called the inverted spot test, to determine the host range and infectivity of viruses isolated from anaerobic hyperthermophilic and sulfur-reducing microorganisms. Here, we used this approach to prove for the first time the infectivity of Pyrococcus abyssi virus 1 (PAV1) and to confirm the host range of Thermococcus prieurii virus 1 (TPV1), the only two viruses isolated so far from any of the described marine hyperthermophilic archaea (Euryarchaeota phylum, Thermococcales order).

  9. Minor trauma triggering cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis from odontogenic abscess.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shraddha; Nagpure, Prakash S; Singh, Roohie; Garg, Deepika

    2008-07-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) of the face and neck is a very rare complication of dental infection. Otolaryngologists and dentists should be familiar with this condition because of its similarity to odontogenic deep neck space infection in the initial stages, its rapid spread, and its life-threatening potential. Trauma has been reported to be an important predisposing factor for NF of the face. In this paper, we describe the presentation and treatment of a 62-year-old man who developed NF of the face and neck following bilateral odontogenic deep neck space abscesses. The disease progressed rapidly, with necrosis of the skin, after the patient inflicted minor trauma in the form of application of heated medicinal leaves. The organism isolated in culture from pus was Acinetobacter sp. The comorbid conditions in our patient were anemia and chronic alcoholism. The patient was managed by immediate and repeated extensive debridements and split-skin grafting.

  10. Minor trauma triggering cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis from odontogenic abscess

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Shraddha; Nagpure, Prakash S; Singh, Roohie; Garg, Deepika

    2008-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) of the face and neck is a very rare complication of dental infection. Otolaryngologists and dentists should be familiar with this condition because of its similarity to odontogenic deep neck space infection in the initial stages, its rapid spread, and its life-threatening potential. Trauma has been reported to be an important predisposing factor for NF of the face. In this paper, we describe the presentation and treatment of a 62-year-old man who developed NF of the face and neck following bilateral odontogenic deep neck space abscesses. The disease progressed rapidly, with necrosis of the skin, after the patient inflicted minor trauma in the form of application of heated medicinal leaves. The organism isolated in culture from pus was Acinetobacter sp. The comorbid conditions in our patient were anemia and chronic alcoholism. The patient was managed by immediate and repeated extensive debridements and split-skin grafting. PMID:19561990

  11. In vitro activity of moxifloxacin against 923 anaerobes isolated from human intra-abdominal infections.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Warren, Yumi A; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Merriam, C Vreni; Fernandez, Helen

    2006-01-01

    The in vitro activity of moxifloxacin against 923 recent anaerobic isolates obtained from pretreatment cultures in patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections was studied using the CLSI M11-A-6 agar dilution method. Moxifloxacin was active against 87% (96 of 110) Bacteroides fragilis strains at < or = 1 microg/ml and 87% (79 of 90) B. thetaiotaomicron strains at < or = 2 microg/ml. Species variation was seen, with B. uniformis, B. vulgatus, Clostridium clostridioforme, and C. symbiosum being least susceptible and accounting for most of the resistant isolates; excluding the aforementioned four resistant species, 86% (303 of 363) of Bacteroides species isolates and 94% (417 of 450) of all other genera and species were susceptible to < or = 2 microg/ml of moxifloxacin. Overall, moxifloxacin was active against 763 of 923 (83%) of strains at < or = 2 microg/ml, supporting its use as a monotherapy for some community-acquired intra-abdominal infections.

  12. Intra-abdominal Infections: The Role of Anaerobes, Enterococci, Fungi, and Multidrug-Resistant Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Gil; Levy, Samuel; Salhab, Ghaleb; Mengesha, Bethlehem; Tzuman, Oran; Shur, Shira; Burke, Erica; Mayeda, Rebecca Cruz; Cochavi, Lior; Perluk, Idan; Zaidenstein, Ronit; Lazarovitch, Tsilia; Dadon, Mor

    2016-01-01

    Background. Intra-abdominal infections (IAI) constitute a common reason for hospitalization. However, there is lack of standardization in empiric management of (1) anaerobes, (2) enterococci, (3) fungi, and (4) multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO). The recommendation is to institute empiric coverage for some of these organisms in “high-risk community-acquired” or in “healthcare-associated” infections (HCAI), but exact definitions are not provided. Methods. Epidemiological study of IAI was conducted at Assaf Harofeh Medical Center (May–November 2013). Logistic and Cox regressions were used to analyze predictors and outcomes of IAI, respectively. The performances of established HCAI definitions to predict MDRO-IAI upon admission were calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. Results. After reviewing 8219 discharge notes, 253 consecutive patients were enrolled (43 [17%] children). There were 116 patients with appendicitis, 93 biliary infections, and 17 with diverticulitis. Cultures were obtained from 88 patients (35%), and 44 of them (50%) yielded a microbiologically confirmed IAI: 9% fungal, 11% enterococcal, 25% anaerobic, and 34% MDRO. Eighty percent of MDRO-IAIs were present upon admission, but the area under the ROC curve of predicting MDRO-IAI upon admission by the commonly used HCAI definitions were low (0.73 and 0.69). Independent predictors for MDRO-IAI were advanced age and active malignancy. Conclusions. Multidrug-resistant organism-IAIs are common, and empiric broad-spectrum coverage is important among elderly patients with active malignancy, even if the infection onset was outside the hospital setting, regardless of current HCAI definitions. Outcomes analyses suggest that empiric regimens should routinely contain antianaerobes (except for biliary IAI); however, empiric antienterococcal or antifungals regimens are seldom needed. PMID:28018930

  13. Antibacterial activity of Pinus elliottii against anaerobic bacteria present in primary endodontic infections.

    PubMed

    Caetano da Silva, Sandro Donizete; Mendes de Souza, Maria Gorete; Oliveira Cardoso, Miguel Jorge; da Silva Moraes, Thais; Ambrósio, Sérgio Ricardo; Sola Veneziani, Rodrigo Cássio; Martins, Carlos Henrique G

    2014-12-01

    Endodontic infections have a polymicrobial nature, but anaerobic bacteria prevail among the infectious microbes. Considering that it is easy to eliminate planktonic bacteria, biofilm-forming bacteria still challenge clinicians during the fight against endodontic diseases. The chemical constituents of the oleoresin of Pinus elliottii, a plant belonging to the family Pinaceae, stand out in the search for biologically active compounds based on natural products with potential application in the treatment of endodontic infections. Indeed, plant oleoresins are an abundant natural source of diterpenes that display significant and well-defined biological activities as well as potential antimicrobial action. In this context, this study aimed to (1) evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the oleoresin, fractions, and subfractions of P. elliottii as well as the action of dehydroabietic acid against 11 anaerobic bacteria that cause endodontic infection in both their planktonic and biofilm forms and (2) assess the in vitro antibiofilm activity of dehydroabietic acid against the same group of bacteria. The broth microdilution technique helped to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the oleoresin and fractions. This same technique aided determination of the MIC values of nine subfractions of Fraction 1, the most active fraction. The MIC, minimum bactericidal concentration, and antibiofilm activity of dehydroabietic acid against the tested anaerobic bacteria were also examined. The oleoresin and fractions, especially fraction PE1, afforded promising MIC values, which ranged from 0.4 to 50 μg/mL. Concerning the nine evaluated subfractions, PE1.3 and PE1.4 furnished the most noteworthy MIC values, between 6.2 and 100 μg/mL. Dehydroabietic acid displayed antibacterial activity, with MIC values lying from 6.2 to 50 μg/mL, as well as bactericidal effect for all the investigated bacteria, except for Prevotella nigrescens. Assessment of the antibiofilm

  14. Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst masquerading as dentigerous cyst

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Devi Charan; Rathore, Ajit Singh; Jain, Anshi; Thokchom, Natasha; Khurana, Neha

    2016-01-01

    The orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is a rare developmental odontogenic cyst that has been considered as a variant of the keratocystic odontogenic tumor until Wright (1981) defined it as a different entity. Recognition of OOC as a unique entity has long been due, yet its inexplicable clinical, radiographic presentation resembling dentigerous cyst due to its association to an impacted tooth, and its histological features makes it rather perplexing. This is the report of a case of OOC in relation to an impacted maxillary canine and its immunohistochemical analysis with Ki-67. PMID:27857903

  15. The odontogenic keratocyst: a potential endodontic misdiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Garlock, J A; Pringle, G A; Hicks, M L

    1998-04-01

    Odontogenic keratocysts manifest themselves as radiolucencies that can appear anywhere in the maxilla or mandible, including periradicular areas; they may thus masquerade as lesions of endodontic origin. This retrospective study examined 239 odontogenic keratocysts received by the Oral Pathology Laboratory at Temple University School of Medicine over a 3-year period. Twenty-one (9%) of the cysts received were located periradicularly; of these 21, 12 (57%) were associated with nonvital or endodontically treated teeth and thus mimicked lesions of endodontic origin. Because of its aggressive nature and tendency to recur, the periradicular odontogenic keratocyst should be included in the differential diagnosis of lesions that are refractory to endodontic treatment.

  16. The role of PIN1 on odontogenic and adipogenic differentiation in human dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Man; Shin, Seung-Yun; Jue, Seong-Suk; Kwon, Il-Keun; Cho, Eun-Hee; Cho, Eui-Sic; Park, Sang-Hyuk; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2014-03-15

    Recently, the involvement of PIN1, a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase, has been reported in age-related bone homeostasis and adipogenesis. However, the role of PIN1 during odontogenic and adipogenic differentiation remains to be fully understood, particularly regarding human dental pulp stem cells (HDPSCs). Thus, in the present study, we have investigated the role of PIN1 in odontogenic and adipogenic differentiation of HDPSCs and signaling pathways possibly involved. PIN1 mRNA and protein level were upregulated in a time-dependent manner during adipogenic differentiation, increasing until 1 day of odontogenic induction and then steadily declined during odontogenic differentiation. Treatment of a known PIN1 inhibitor, juglone, significantly increased odontogenic differentiation as confirmed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition, and mRNAs induction of odontogenic markers [ALP, osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), and dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP-1)]. On the contrary, adipogenic differentiation was dramatically reduced upon juglone treatment, with concomitant downregulation of lipid droplet accumulation and adipogenic marker genes [peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (AP2)]. In contrast to PIN1 inhibition, the overexpression of PIN1 via adenoviral infection (Ad-PIN1) in HDPSCs inhibited odontogenic differentiation but increased adipogenic differentiation, in which stem cell property markers such as stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4) and STRO-1 were upregulated during odontogenic differentiation but downregulated in adiopogenic differentiation. Consistently, juglone-mediated inhibition of PIN1 augmented the osteogenic medium (OM)-induced activation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), Wnt/β-catenin, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF

  17. Disseminated necrotic mediastinitis spread from odontogenic abscess: our experience

    PubMed Central

    Filiaci, Fabio; Riccardi, Emiliano; Mitro, Valeria; Piombino, Pasquale; Rinna, Claudio; Agrillo, Alessandro; Ungari, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aims Deep neck infections are rare but potentially fatal complication of pulpal abscess of the teeth. If an infection can progress rapidly from a toothache to a life threatening infection, then it is critical that dentists be able to recognize the danger signs and identify the patients who are at risk. Mediastinitis is a severe inflammatory process involving the connective tissues that fills the intracellular spaces and surrounds the organs in the middle of the chest. This pathology has both an acute and a chronic form and, in most cases, it has an infectious etiology. This study want to expose the experience acquired in the Oral and Maxillo-facial Sciences Department, Policlinico Umberto I, “Sapienza” University of Rome, regarding two clinical cases of disseminated necrotizing mediastinitis starting from an odontogenic abscess. Methods We report two clinical cases of disseminated necrotic mediastinitis with two different medical and surgical approaches. The radiographic and photographic documentation of the patients was collected in the pre-and post-operatively. All patients underwent a CT scan and MRI. Results Mediastinitis can result from a serious odontogenic abscess, and the extent of its inflammation process must be never underestimated. Dental surgeons play a key role as a correct diagnosis can prevent further increasing of the inflammation process. Conclusions A late diagnosis and an inadequate draining represent the major causes of the elevated mortality rate of disseminated necrotizing mediastinitis. PMID:26330907

  18. Simultaneous adenomatoid odontogenic and keratocystic odontogenic tumours in a patient with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shephard, M; Shepard, M; Coleman, H

    2014-03-01

    Gorlin and Goltz described a syndrome in which multiple basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts and bifid ribs occurred in combination. The jaw keratocysts are a consistent feature of 'Gorlin-Goltz' or naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Central nervous system and ocular involvement occurred together with the fairly typical facial features of frontal bossing and hypertelorism. This case report documents the pathology associated with an impacted maxillary canine tooth in a boy with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome. The patient presented for investigation of the failure of eruption of the right permanent maxillary canine tooth. Radiographic investigation showed the presence of a well circumscribed radiolucency located around the crown of an impacted right maxillary canine tooth. The patient's medical history revealed a medulloblastoma that was treated 13 years ago. The right maxillary canine tooth and associated peri-coronal tissue were removed under general anaesthetic. A diagnosis of a keratocystic odontogenic tumour with an associated adenomatoid odontogenic tumour was made. The common differential diagnoses for a peri-coronal radiolucency in the maxilla that need to be considered by dentists include a dentigerous cyst, follicular keratocystic odontogenic tumour and adenomatoid odontogenic tumour. A rare case of both keratocystic odontogenic tumour and associated follicular adenomatoid odontogenic tumour is described in a patient with naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

  19. Keratocystic odontogenic tumour: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this review is to evaluate the principal clinical and conventional radiographic features of non-syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) by systematic review (SR), and to compare the frequencies between four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of Medline and LILACS. Only those reports of KCOTs that occurred in a series of consecutive cases, in the reporting authors' caseload, were considered. Results 51 reports, of 49 series of cases, were included in the SR. 11 SR-included series were in languages other than English. KCOTs affected males more frequently and were three times more prevalent in the mandible. Although the mean age at first presentation was 37 years, the largest proportion of cases first presented in the third decade. The main symptom was swelling. Over a third were found incidentally. Nearly two-thirds displayed buccolingual expansion. Over a quarter of cases recurred. Only a quarter of all SR-included reported series of cases included details of at least one radiological feature. The East Asian global group presented significantly as well-defined, even corticated, multilocular radiolucencies with buccolingual expansion. The KCOTs affecting the Western global group significantly displayed an association with unerupted teeth. Conclusions Long-term follow-up of large series that would have revealed detailed radiographic description and long-term outcomes of non-syndromic KCOT was lacking. PMID:21159911

  20. Odontogenic epithelial stem cells: hidden sources.

    PubMed

    Padma Priya, Sivan; Higuchi, Akon; Abu Fanas, Salem; Pooi Ling, Mok; Kumari Neela, Vasantha; Sunil, P M; Saraswathi, T R; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Kumar, Suresh

    2015-12-01

    The ultimate goal of dental stem cell research is to construct a bioengineered tooth. Tooth formation occurs based on the well-organized reciprocal interaction of epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The dental mesenchymal stem cells are the best explored, but because the human odontogenic epithelium is lost after the completion of enamel formation, studies on these cells are scarce. The successful creation of a bioengineered tooth is achievable only when the odontogenic epithelium is reconstructed to produce a replica of natural enamel. This article discusses the untapped sources of odontogenic epithelial stem cells in humans, such as those present in the active dental lamina in postnatal life, in remnants of dental lamina (the gubernaculum cord), in the epithelial cell rests of Malassez, and in reduced enamel epithelium. The possible uses of these stem cells in regenerative medicine, not just for enamel formation, are discussed.

  1. Immunolocalization of PTCH protein in odontogenic cysts and tumors.

    PubMed

    Barreto, D C; Bale, A E; De Marco, L; Gomez, R S

    2002-11-01

    The human patched gene (PTCH) functions in both embryologic development and tumor suppression. PTCH mutations have been found in odontogenic keratocysts. However, the expression and localization of the protein product of the gene have not been determined in odontogenic tumors and cysts. We investigated 68 odontogenic lesions by immunohistochemistry, and compared their PTCH expression with that in basal cell carcinomas. All odontogenic lesions, including two keratocysts with truncating mutations, were positive for PTCH. Different types of lesions had different amounts of staining. Lack of staining was noted in the majority of basal cell carcinomas. Taken together, these data suggest that odontogenic keratocysts arise with heterozygous mutations of the PTCH gene.

  2. Systemic and Odontogenic Etiologies in Chronic Rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Edward C; Suh, Jeffrey D

    2017-02-01

    Systemic and odontogenic etiologies of chronic rhinosinusitis, although rare, are an integral consideration in the comprehensive management of patients with sinonasal disease. Proper knowledge and timely recognition of each disease process, with referrals to appropriate consultants, will facilitate treatment, because many of these conditions require both local and systemic therapy. In some instances, medical therapy plays a pivotal role, with surgery being a supplemental treatment technique. We review the most commonly encountered systemic etiologies of chronic rhinosinusitis and odontogenic sinusitis, including clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, and treatment outcomes.

  3. Anaerobic soil disinfestation reduces survival and infectivity of Phytophthora nicotianae chlamydospores in pepper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora nicotianae is the principal causal agent of root and crown rot disease of pepper plants in Extremadura (western Spain), a spring-summer crop in this region. Preplant soil treatment by anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) may effectively control plant pathogens in many crop production sys...

  4. Glandular odontogenic cyst: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the principal features of “glandular odontogenic cyst” (GOC), by systematic review (SR), and to compare their frequencies among four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of MEDLINE and LILACS. Only those reports of GOCs that occurred in a series in the reporting authors' caseload were considered. All cases were confirmed histopathologically. Results 18 reports on 17 series of consecutive cases were included in the SR. GOC affected males twice as frequently and the mandible almost three times as frequently. The mean age at first presentation was 44 years, coincident with that of the Western global group, in which the largest proportion of reports and cases first presented in the second half of the fifth decade. However, age at presentation of GOCs in the East Asian and sub-Saharan African global groups was nearly a decade younger, this was significant. Six reports included details of at least one clinical presentation. Eight reports included at least one conventional radiological feature. There were some significant differences between global groups. The Western global group had a particular predilection for the anterior sextants of both jaws. The sub-Saharan African group displayed buccolingual expansion (as did the Latin American group) and tooth displacement in every case. 18% of GOCs recurred overall, except in the sub-Saharan African global group. Conclusions GOCs have a marked propensity to recur in most global groups. GOCs presented in older patients and with swellings, affected the anterior sextants of both jaws, and radiologically were more likely to present as a well-defined unilocular radiolucency with buccolingual expansion. Tooth displacement, root resorption and an association with unerupted teeth occurred in 50%, 30% and 11% of cases, respectively. PMID:20203274

  5. Immunohistochemical evaluation of myofibroblast density in odontogenic cysts and tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kouhsoltani, Maryam; Halimi, Monireh; Jabbari, Golchin

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to investigate myofibroblast (MF) density in a broad spectrum of odontogenic cysts and tumors and the relation between the density of MFs and the clinical behavior of these lesions. Methods. A total of 105 cases of odontogenic lesions, including unicystic ameloblastoma (UAM), solid ameloblastoma (SA), odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), dentigerous cyst (DC), radicular cyst (RC) (15 for each category), and odontogenic myxoma (OM), adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) (10 for each category), were immunohistochemically stained with anti-α-smooth muscle actin antibody. The mean percentage of positive cells in 10 high-power fields was considered as MF density for each case. Results. A statistically significant difference was observed in the mean scores between the study groups (P < 0.001). The intensity of MFs was significantly higher in odontogenic tumors compared to odontogenic cysts (P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between odontogenic tumors, except between UAM and OM (P = 0.041). The difference between OKC and odontogenic tumors was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The number of MFs was significantly higher in OKC and lower in COC compared to other odontogenic cysts (P = 0.007 and P = 0.045, respectively). Conclusion. The results of the present study suggest a role for MFs in the aggressive behavior of odontogenic lesions. MFs may represent an important target of therapy, especially for aggressive odontogenic lesions. Our findings support the classification of OKC in the category of odontogenic tumors. PMID:27092213

  6. Biochemical and Cytological Comparison of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumours to Nonkeratinising Odontogenic Cysts Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Pushparaj; Patidar, Nitesh; Mittal, Sugandh; Singh, Hanspal; Chethna

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the levels of albumin, prealbumin, total protein, inorganic phosphate and presence of keratinocytes in the cystic fluid for the diagnosis and appropriate treatment planning of keratocystic odontogenic tumours and other non keratinizing odontogenic cysts. Materials and Methods Fifteen keratocystic odontogenic tumour and 15 controls were studied. The cystic fluid was aspirated and analysed to determine the levels of albumin, prealbumin, total protein, inorganic phosphate and the presence of keratinocytes. The data collected was statistically evaluated using Mann Whitney U-Test and Student’s t-test. Results A highly significant difference (p<0.0001) was seen when a comparison of Prealbumin, total protein, inorganic phosphate and presence of keratinocytes was made between keratocystic odontogenic tumour and non keratinizing odontogenic cysts. The presence of albumin also showed a significant difference (p<0.01). Conclusion A combined analysis of total protein, albumin, prealbumin, inorganic phosphorous and detection of epithelial squames may be used as a diagnostic adjunct in the preoperative diagnosis of keratocystic odontogenic tumour in a minimally invasive and highly accurate fashion. PMID:26393202

  7. Malignant transformation in odontogenic keratocysts. Case report.

    PubMed

    Keszler, A; Piloni, M J

    2002-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma arising in the epithelial lining of an odontogenic keratocyst is a rare finding. Up to now, only 12 cases have been reported in the literature. The present work reports a new case diagnosed in a 70 year old man. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathological findings and the treatment are described.

  8. A Review of Anaerobic Infections of the Oral Cavity in Egypt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    these oxygen-sensitive bacteria can cause mixed in- troduced into the surrounding tissues of the host, fections which may involve the central nervous...members of and soft tissues itthe resident microflora ". Koch’s postulates con- cerning the monotetiology of diseases are not appli- ANAEROBIC BACTERIA IN...differences in oxygen tension and in tions affecting the periodontium . - - -, nutrition. Some surfaces protect the organisms from I .Gingivitis Healthy

  9. [Isolation of Pseudomonas stutzeri from an odontogenic inflammatory cyst: Diagnostic relevance].

    PubMed

    Molgatini, Susana; Rey, Eduardo; Basilaki, Jorge; Mosca, Christian; Galante, Rafael; Gliosca, Laura

    Pseudomonas stutzeri is distributed widely in the environment, and occupies different ecological niches. However, it is found in clinically relevant infections as an opportunistic pathogen. Isolation of P. stutzeri from an odontogenic inflammatory cyst is an uncommon microbiological finding that has not been reported to date. In the case presented here, the bacterium was isolated from surgical material obtained from excision of an inflammatory odontogenic cyst located in the tooth 1.2, and presenting with concomitant pulp necrosis. Complementary techniques such as radiographs, CAT scans, and histopathological and microbiological studies were used to establish definitive diagnosis. The obtained results allowed classifying the process as an inflammatory cyst infected by P. stutzeri. Biotyping and characterization of the susceptibility profile of the isolated strain allowed adjusting the antibiotic therapy more specifically. The microbiological studies allowed establishing the etiology of the infectious process, adjusting the treatment plan, and re-establishing tissue integrity.

  10. Maxillary peripheral keratocystic odontogenic tumor. A clinical case report

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Romero, María del Carmen; Serrera-Figallo, María de los Angeles; Alberdi-Navarro, Javier; Cabezas-Talavero, Javier; Romero-Ruiz, Manuel-María; Aguirre-Urizar, Jose-Manuel; Gutiérrez-Pérez, Jose-Luis

    2017-01-01

    The keratocystic odontogenic tumor is a benign odontogenic cystic neoplasia characterized by its thin, squamous epithelium with superficial parakeratosis. It has the potential for infiltration and local aggressiveness and has a high rate of recurrence. This neoplasia is predominantly found in males and people of white origin. The mandible is the most frequently involved site, in particular the third molar region, mandibular angle, and ramus. It has a mandible-maxilla ratio of 2:1. Only about twenty cases of peripheral keratocystic odontogenic tumors (PKCOT) have been reported in the international literature. This study presents a case of PKCOT localized in the anterior region of the maxilla, on the vestibular side of the upper left lateral incisor and the upper left canine. The diagnosis and treatment procedures, as based on the literature, are also discussed. Key words:Odontogenic cysts, odontogenic tumors, keratocyst, keratocystic odontogenic tumor. PMID:28149484

  11. Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor associated with ameloblastic fibro-odontoma of the anterior mandible.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun; Song, Young-Gook; Moon, Seong-Yong; Choi, Boyoung; Kim, Bong Chul; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2014-05-01

    Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor, which was formerly named calcifying odontogenic cyst, is a benign odontogenic tumor containing clusters of ghost cells within ameloblastic epithelium. Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors have been associated with other odontogenic tumors, a finding that is a rare event in other types of odontogenic cysts or tumors. This report describes a case of hybrid odontogenic tumor composed of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor and ameloblastic fibroma-odontoma of the anterior mandible that occurred in a 4-year-old Korean girl.

  12. Extrafollicular Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor: An Unusual Case Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Reddy Kundoor, Vinay Kumar; Maloth, Kotya Naik; Guguloth, Nagu Naik; Kesidi, Sunitha

    2016-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is an uncommon tumor of odontogenic origin and often misdiagnosed as an odontogenic cyst. It is predominantly found in young female patients, located more often in maxilla, and in most cases associated with an unerupted permanent tooth. There are three variants of AOT namely follicular, extra follicular, and peripheral. We report an unusual case of extrafollicular AOT in maxilla of a 50-year old male patient. PMID:27942555

  13. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: As an unusual mandibular manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neeraj; Passi, Sidhi; Kumar, Vinay V.

    2012-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a rare odontogenic tumor which is often misdiagnosed as odontogenic cyst and accounts for about 1% until 9% of all odontogenic tumors. It is predominantly found in young and female patients, located more often in the maxilla in most cases associated with an unerupted permanent tooth. It is a benign (hamartomatous), noninvasive lesion with slow but progressive growth. There are three variants of AOT: follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral. We report a rare case of follicular-type AOT in the mandible of a 14-year-old male patient who presented with right -sided jaw swelling. PMID:22629062

  14. Odontogenic keratocyst: a clinical experience in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chow, H T

    1998-11-01

    The odontogenic keratocyst has been well documented and extensively studied. It is of particular interest because of its high recurrence rate and aggressive nature. The material for this study consisted of 70 cases of odontogenic keratocysts in predominantly ethnic Chinese patients who were treated from 1981 to 1996. The cases were retrospectively studied to compare characteristics of the lesion in this population with those in previous reports. Most of the patients in this series were 21 to 30 years of age. Association with an impacted mandibular third molar was found in more than 50% of the cases. The recurrence rate was 20% for 35 patients with a follow-up period of at least 5 years. The follow-up period for the whole series ranged from 1 to 16 years. Treatment was surgical enucleation with peripheral ostectomy. There were no significant differences in characteristics with respect to presentation and prognosis between this series and those described in previous publications.

  15. Pigmented odontogenic tumors: Adding color to diagnosis?

    PubMed Central

    Bhanu, Udhay; Kulkarni, Rasika; Boaz, Karen; Srikant, N

    2014-01-01

    Melanocytes are neural crest derivatives that exhibit a ubiquitous presence in the epidermis. They determine the complexion of an individual and most importantly, provide a barrier against ultraviolet radiations from the sun. Their presence in the oral cavity is a consistent finding, especially in the gingiva and buccal mucosa of the dark complexioned. Melanocytes occasionally form a part of the histology of a variety of odontogenic cysts and tumors. How these cells make their way into the lesional tissue and the diagnostic relevance of their presence remains elusive. This write up attempts to trace the path melanocytes take to find themselves within odontogenic tumors and also offer possible explanations for the same. PMID:25948995

  16. Giant keratocystic odontogenic tumor: a challenging diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Rachna; Punyani, Silky Rajesh; Raj, Vineet

    2016-01-01

    The keratocystic odontogenic tumor, although a benign lesion, is peculiarly aggressive with a high recurrence rate. Its involvement with the maxillary antrum is atypical. We report the unusual case of a 20-year-old male patient with an extensive antral tumor associated with an impacted third molar, which was initially misdiagnosed as a dentigerous cyst. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic aspects were analyzed to provide useful information for the correct diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis within a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:27818958

  17. Non-Candida albicans Candida mediastinitis of odontogenic origin in a diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Kofteridis, Diamantis P; Mantadakis, Elpis; Karatzanis, Alexander D; Bourolias, Constantinos A; Papazoglou, Georgios; Velegrakis, George A; Samonis, George

    2008-06-01

    Descending mediastinitis occurs as a complication of oropharyngeal or cervical infections and its delayed diagnosis and treatment are associated with high mortality. A rare case of an odontogenic infection in a diabetic patient, complicated by Candida parapsilosis and Candida krusei parapharyngeal space infection, descending mediastinitis and aspiration pneumonia is described. Isolate identification was based on colonial and microscopic morphological characteristics and carbohydrate assimilation test results. The patient was successfully treated with surgical drainage and debridement, broad spectrum antibacterials and liposomal amphotericin B followed by prolonged oral voriconazole therapy.

  18. PTCH gene mutations in odontogenic keratocysts.

    PubMed

    Barreto, D C; Gomez, R S; Bale, A E; Boson, W L; De Marco, L

    2000-06-01

    An odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a benign cystic lesion of the jaws that occurs sporadically or in association with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). Recently, the gene for NBCCS was cloned and shown to be the human homologue of the Drosophila segment polarity gene Patched (PTCH), a tumor suppressor gene. The PTCH gene encodes a transmembrane protein that acts in opposition to the Hedgehog signaling protein, controlling cell fates, patterning, and growth in numerous tissues, including tooth. We investigated three cases of sporadic odontogenic keratocysts and three other cases associated with NBCCS, looking for mutations of the PTCH gene. Non-radioactive single-strand conformational polymorphism and direct sequencing of PCR products revealed a deletion of 5 base pairs (bp) in exon 3 (518delAAGCG) in one sporadic cyst as well as mutations in two cysts associated with NBCCS, a nonsense (C2760A) and a missense (G3499A) alteration. This report is the first to describe a somatic mutation of PTCH in sporadic odontogenic keratocysts as well as two novel mutations in cysts associated with NBCCS, indicating a similar pathogenesis in a subset of sporadic keratocysts.

  19. Odontogenic Keratocyst in Children: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kamil, Ahmed H.; Tarakji, Bassel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Is to highlight the characteristics and management of odontogenic keratocyst in children only Material and Method: Computerized search in pubmed between (2005-2015) using specific words such as odontogenic keratocyst in children, odontogenic keratocyst association with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome with abstract written in English only. Result: During computerized literature search 77 articles in the years (2005-2015) were found. All these publications were miscellaneous studies including case series and case reports. Only 35 papers were selected which conform to our criteria. Most of the papers indicate that the histological type of keratocyst prevalent in children was parakeratinized variant, and most of the cases occurred in maxilla rather than mandible. Conclusion: We recommend that the surgeons who treat keratocysts in children take into consideration the late presentation in addition to the destructive nature and high recurrence rate. General practitioners face difficulty in early detection and referral of children with keratocysts or Gorlin syndrome. Treatment by multidiscplinary team is important if associated with Gorlin's syndrome Postoperative follow up is advised every 6 months. PMID:27335612

  20. Classification of odontogenic tumours. A historical review.

    PubMed

    Philipsen, Hans Peter; Reichart, Peter A

    2006-10-01

    Using the term odontome for any tumour arising from the dental formative tissues, Broca suggested a classification of odontogenic tumours (OTs) in 1869. From 1888 to 1914, Bland-Sutton and Gabell, James and Payne modified tumour terminology, while maintaining Broca's odontome concept. Thoma and Goldman's classification (1946) divided the OTs into tumours of ectodermal, mesodermal and mixed origin and abolished the general term odontome. The Pindborg and Clausen classification (1958) based on the idea that the reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal tissue interactions were also operating in the pathogenesis of OTs. In 1966, WHO established a Collaborating Centre for the Histological Classification of Odontogenic Tumours and Allied Lesions (including jaw cysts) headed by Dr Jens Pindborg. In 1971, the first authoritative WHO guide to the classification of OTs and cysts appeared followed in 1992 by a second edition. In 2002, Philipsen and Reichart produced a revision of the 1992-edition and in 2003, the editors of the WHO Blue Book series: 'WHO Classification of Tumours' decided to produce a volume on the Head and Neck Tumours including a chapter on Odontogenic Tumours and Bone Related Lesions. In July of 2005 this volume was published by IARC, Lyon.

  1. Molecular and genetic aspects of odontogenic tumors: a review

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Kavita; Chandra, Shaleen; Raj, Vineet; Fareed, Wamiq; Zafar, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic tumors contain a heterogeneous collection of lesions that are categorized from hamartomas to benign and malignant neoplasms of inconstant aggressiveness. Odontogenic tumors are usually extraordinary with assessed frequency of short of 0.5 cases/100,000 population for every year. The lesions such as odontogenic tumors are inferred from the components of the tooth-structuring contraption. They are discovered solely inside the maxillary and mandibular bones. This audit speaks to experiences and cooperation of the molecular and genetic variations connected to the development and movement of odontogenic tumors which incorporate oncogenes, tumor-silencer genes, APC gene, retinoblastoma genes, DNA repair genes, onco-viruses, development components, telomerase, cell cycle controllers, apoptosis-related elements, and regulators/conttrollers of tooth development. The reasonable and better understanding of the molecular components may prompt new ideas for their detection and administrating a better prognosis of odontogenic tumors. PMID:26221475

  2. Multiple non-syndromic odontogenic keratocysts in three siblings

    PubMed Central

    Nirwan, Amit; Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Saikhedkar, Rashmi; Karun, Vinayak

    2013-01-01

    Occurrence of multiple cysts (MC) involving the jaw is rare. When multiple, it is usually associated with a syndrome. Occurrence of MC without syndromic association is extremely rare. Multiple odontogenic cysts mostly could be odontogenic keratocysts or dentigerous cysts. Odontogenic keratocyst shows involvement of mandible over maxilla, with peak incidence in second and third decade and it is exceedingly rare before 10 years of age. However multiple odontogenic keratocysts found in children are often reflective of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Here is a case report which documents multiple jaw cysts involving both the jaws, in three siblings of ages 10, 13 and 17 years with negative parental history. All three reported cases were free of any systemic involvement. As odontogenic keratocyst spreads through bone marrow, destruction is more before any clinical manifestation. Therefore, early detection and intervention are essential in preventing extensive destruction. PMID:23505078

  3. Multiple non-syndromic odontogenic keratocysts in three siblings.

    PubMed

    Nirwan, Amit; Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Saikhedkar, Rashmi; Karun, Vinayak

    2013-03-14

    Occurrence of multiple cysts (MC) involving the jaw is rare. When multiple, it is usually associated with a syndrome. Occurrence of MC without syndromic association is extremely rare. Multiple odontogenic cysts mostly could be odontogenic keratocysts or dentigerous cysts. Odontogenic keratocyst shows involvement of mandible over maxilla, with peak incidence in second and third decade and it is exceedingly rare before 10 years of age. However multiple odontogenic keratocysts found in children are often reflective of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Here is a case report which documents multiple jaw cysts involving both the jaws, in three siblings of ages 10, 13 and 17 years with negative parental history. All three reported cases were free of any systemic involvement. As odontogenic keratocyst spreads through bone marrow, destruction is more before any clinical manifestation. Therefore, early detection and intervention are essential in preventing extensive destruction.

  4. Central odontogenic fibroma: Retrospective study of 8 clinical cases

    PubMed Central

    Hrichi, Radia; Gargallo-Albiol, Jordi; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: The central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is a benign odontogenic tumour derived from the dental mesenchymal tissues. It is a rare tumour and only 70 cases of it have been published. Bearing in mind the rareness of the tumour, 8 new cases of central odontogenic fibroma have been found by analyzing the clinical, radiological and histopathological characteristics of COF. Patients and Method: A retrospective study was carried out on 3011 biopsies in the Service of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Dental Clinic of Barcelona University between January 1995 and March 2008. 85 odontogenic tumours were diagnosed of which 8 were central odontogenic fibroma. The radiological study was based on orthopantomographs, periapical and occlusal radiographies and computerised tomographics. The variables collected were: sex, age, clinical characteristics of the lesion, treatment received and possible reappearances of the tumour. Results: The central odontogenic fibroma represents 9.4% of all odontogenic tumours. Of the 8 cases, 5 were diagnosed in men and 3 in women. The average age was 19.9 years with an age range of 11 to 38 years. The most common location of the tumour was in the mandible. All cases were associated with unerupted teeth. Of the 8 tumours, 3 provoked rhizolysis of the adjacent teeth and 4 cases caused cortical bone expansion. 50% of the patients complained of pain associated to the lesion. No case of recurrence was recorded up to 2 years after the treatment. Conclusions: Central odontogenic fibromas usually evolve asymptomatically although they can manifest very aggressively provoking dental displacement and rhizolysis. Radiologically, COF manifest as a uni or multilocular radiotransparent image although they can be indistinguishable from other radiotransparent lesions making diagnosis more difficult. COF treatment involves conservative surgery as well as follow-up patient checks. Key words: Odontogenic tumour, central odontogenic

  5. Spondylodiscitis due to anaerobic bacteria about a case of Parvimonas micra infection.

    PubMed

    Pilmis, B; Israel, J; Le Monnier, A; Mizrahi, A

    2015-08-01

    Parvimonas micra is a rare isolate in clinical specimens. We report a case of spondylodiscitis caused by P. micra, a rarely reported Gram positive cocci. The case was an elderly patient with joint surgery and ischaemic heart disease history. Infection resolved after adequate antibiotic therapy.

  6. Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis obscured by midfacial trauma.

    PubMed

    Simuntis, Regimantas; Kubilius, Ričardas; Ryškienė, Silvija; Vaitkus, Saulius

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis whose sinonasal symptomatology was thought to be the consequence of a previous midfacial trauma. The patient was admitted to the Clinic of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery after more than 10 years of exacerbations of sinonasal symptoms, which began to plague soon after a facial contusion. We decided to perform CT of paranasal sinuses, and despite the absence dental symptomatology, the dental origin of sinusitis was discovered. The majority of sinonasal symptoms resolved after appropriate dental treatment, and there was no need for nasal or sinus surgery.

  7. Growth factor-enriched autologous plasma improves wound healing after surgical debridement in odontogenic necrotizing fasciitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Odontogenic necrotizing fasciitis of the neck is a fulminant infection of odontogenic origin that quickly spreads along the fascial planes and results in necrosis of the affected tissues. It is usually polymicrobial, occurs frequently in immunocompromised patients, and has a high mortality rate. Case presentation A 69-year old Mexican male had a pain in the maxillar right-canine region and a swelling of the submental and submandibular regions. Our examination revealed local pain, tachycardia, hyperthermia (39°C), and the swelling of bilateral submental and submandibular regions, which also were erythematous, hyperthermic, crepitant, and with a positive Godet sign. Mobility and third-degree caries were seen in the right mandibular canine. Bacteriological cultures isolated streptococcus pyogenes and staphylococcus aureus. The histopathological diagnosis was odontogenic necrotizing fasciitis of the submental and submandibular regions. The initial treatment was surgical debridement and the administration of antibiotics. After cultures were negative, the surgical wound was treated with a growth factor-enriched autologous plasma eight times every third day until complete healing occurred. Conclusions The treatment with a growth factor-enriched autologous plasma caused a rapid healing of an extensive surgical wound in a patient with odontogenic necrotizing fasciitis. The benefits were rapid tissue regeneration, an aesthetic and a functional scar, and the avoidance of further surgery and possible complications. PMID:21396085

  8. Anaerobic arginine metabolism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is mediated by arginine deiminase (arcA), but is not essential for chronic persistence in an aerogenic mouse model of infection.

    PubMed

    Sürken, Michael; Keller, Christine; Röhker, Claudia; Ehlers, Stefan; Bange, Franz-Christoph

    2008-10-01

    In many pathogens, degradation of arginine via the arginine deiminase pathway supports anaerobic metabolism. Here we show by deletion of Rv1001 (arcA) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis that this gene functions as an arginine deiminase. Arginine metabolism in the presence of oxygen was not affected by the mutation, indicating a separate pathway for arginine degradation under aerobic conditions. Following aerosol infection in mice, the DeltaarcA mutant and wild-type strain of M. tuberculosis multiplied and persisted in infected organs in a similar fashion.

  9. Ornidazole and anaerobic bacteria: in vitro sensitivity and effects on wound infections after appendectomy.

    PubMed

    Palmu, A; Renkonen, O V; Aromaa, U

    1979-05-01

    The sensitivities of 68 clinical isolates of Bacteroides fragilis, 18 of Clostridium perfringens, and 11 of other Clostridium species were tested against ornidazole alone and in combination with ampicillin and gentamicin. A concentration of 3.1 microgram of ornidazole/ml inhibited 98% of the strains of B. fragilis, with greater sensitivity when ampicillin and gentamicin were also present. A concentration of 6.2 microgram of ornidazole/ml inhibited 16 of 18 strains of C. perfringens and all 11 strains of other Clostridium species. Concentrations in serum and tissue were determined after intravenous infusion of 500 mg of ornidazole 15 min prior to appendectomy. During the operation the concentration in serum was 7.90 +/- 0.57 microgram/ml, and in appendix tissue, 5.26 +/- 0.60 microgram/g. In the series of 200 patients undergoing appendectomy, six patients treated with ornidazole and 12 patients treated with placebo developed a wound infection. In patients with perforated appendix, the rate of wound infection was 7.1% in those given ornidazole and 63.6% in those given placebo (P = 0.004). Not a single B. fragilis was isolated from appendix swabs or wound exudates after prophylaxis with ornidazole.

  10. Follicular adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Vera Sempere, Francisco José; Artes Martínez, María Jose; Vera Sirera, Beatriz; Bonet Marco, Jaime

    2006-07-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is an uncommon benign odontogenic lesion that affects young patients, with female predominance, mainly in second decade, showing a radiolucent unilocular image associated with an unerupted tooth, usually a canine. In spite of previous and confusing denominations, such as adenoameloblastoma or adenomatoid ameloblastic tumor, AOT is a benign tumor with a very low rate of recurrence, that show a peculiar morphological picture (basaloid appearance with glandular-like structures, calcifying areas, and amiloid-like material) that allow its histopathological recognition. We present a clinicopathological analysis of a case of follicular AOT affecting the mandible in a 9 years-old female patient associated with unerupted lower left canine. Immunohistochemical study showed some data previously unrecognised. All cellular types that composed AOT showed nuclear positivity for p63 indicating a basal characterization in the different cellular components. According to its benign character and low potential for recurrence, AOT revealed a scant proliferative activity (2-3% nuclei showed Ki-67 positivity) limited to some epithelial nodules (AE1-3 +) of fusiform appearance. Absence of reactivity for hormonal receptors (RE and RPg) excluded a possible hormonodependence in AOT that could explain the observed female predominance.

  11. Current Concepts and Occurrence of Epithelial Odontogenic Tumors: I. Ameloblastoma and Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon Sook

    2013-01-01

    Ameloblastomas and adenomatoid odontogenic tumors (AOTs) are common epithelial tumors of odontogenic origin. Ameloblastomas are clinico-pathologically classified into solid/multicystic, unicystic, desmoplastic, and peripheral types, and also divided into follicular, plexiform, acanthomatous, granular types, etc., based on their histological features. Craniopharyngiomas, derived from the remnants of Rathke's pouch or a misplaced enamel organ, are also comparable to the odontogenic tumors. The malignant transformation of ameloblastomas results in the formation of ameloblastic carcinomas and malignant ameloblastomas depending on cytological dysplasia and metastasis, respectively. AOTs are classified into follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral types. Ameloblastomas are common, have an aggressive behavior and recurrent course, and are rarely metastatic, while AOTs are hamartomatous benign lesions derived from the complex system of the dental lamina or its remnants. With advances in the elucidation of molecular signaling mechanisms in cells, the cytodifferentiation of epithelial tumor cells in ameloblastomas and AOTs can be identified using different biomarkers. Therefore, it is suggested that comprehensive pathological observation including molecular genetic information can provide a more reliable differential diagnosis for the propagation and prognosis of ameloblastomas and AOTs. This study aimed to review the current concepts of ameloblastomas and AOTs and to discuss their clinico-pathological features relevant to tumorigenesis and prognosis. PMID:23837011

  12. Comparision of Immunohistochemical Expression of CD10 in Odontogenic Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Munisekhar, M.S.; Suri, Charu; Rajalbandi, Santosh Kumar; M.R., Pradeep; Gothe, Pavan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Expression of CD10 has been documented in various tumors like nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, odontogenic tumors. Aim: To evaluate and compare CD10 expression in odontogenic cysts like radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst and odontogenic keratocyst (OKC). Materials and Methods: Total 60 cases were included in the study, comprising 20 cases each of radicular, dentigerous and odontogenic keratocyst. Each case was evaluated and compared for immunohistochemical expression of CD10. Results obtained were statistically analysed using ANOVA test followed by post hoc test Tukey-Kramer Multiple Comparisons Test for continuous variable and Chi-square test for discrete variable. Results: More number of cases showing sub-epithelial stromal CD10 expression were found in OKC among the cysts. Conclusion: CD10 expression was more in OKC compared to radicular and dentigerous cysts. PMID:25584313

  13. Bilateral orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst: A rare case report and review

    PubMed Central

    Pimpalkar, Rahul Devidas; Barpande, Suresh R; Bhavthankar, Jyoti D; Mandale, Mandakini S

    2014-01-01

    Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is a developmental cyst of jaw and was initially considered by the World Health Organization (1992) as the uncommon orthokeratinized variant of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC). However, studies have shown that OOC has peculiar clinicopathologic aspects when compared with other developmental odontogenic cysts, especially OKC. So orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst now stands out to be a distinct entity. Clinically, it occurs as a single cyst, shows a predilection for males and is most often found in the second to the fifth decade. Its bilateral occurrence is extremely rare. The purpose of the article is to present a rare case of bilateral OOC arising in the mandible and review the literature on bilateral occurrence of this lesion. PMID:25328309

  14. Odontogenic Myxoma of the Maxilla- A Rare case Report

    PubMed Central

    Subramaiam, Ramkumar; Narasimhan, Malathi; Giri, Veda; Kumar, Santhosh

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is an uncommon, benign, locally invasive, non-metastasizing neoplasm arising from the odontogenic ectomesenchyme that usually occurs in the tooth bearing areas of the jaws. These lesions arouse special interest as they pose high diagnostic challenge. Here, we present a rare case of OM of the maxilla in an 18-year-old male. The clinical, radiographic and histopathological features of the lesion are discussed in this paper. PMID:26155585

  15. Follicular Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor in Mandible: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Belgaumi, UI; Parkar, MI; Malik, NA; Suresh, KV; Havewala, AM; Bhalinge, PM

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a relatively rare, benign, hamartomatous, and cystic odontogenic neoplasm that was first described more than a century ago. The lesion still continues to intrigue experts with its varied histomorphology and controversies regarding its development. The present article describes a case of cystic AOT with an unusual histomorphology associated with an impacted 44 in a 21-year-old male. PMID:27057389

  16. Anaerobic bacteria

    MedlinePlus

    Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow when oxygen is present. In humans, these bacteria ... Goldstein EJ. Diseases caused by non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  17. [Lymphatic system of the tongue and its role in glositis of odontogenic origin].

    PubMed

    Chkhikvishvili, M Dzh

    2005-02-01

    In aged persons reduction of diameter of tongue lymphatic capillaries precedes thinning of the Kaarl net. In the process of tongue inflammation, lymphogenic way of inclusion in 6|6 and 8|8 teeth lower area should be stuck out with existence of alleged "Integration Centers". Lymphatic knots and lymphatic ducts are in prevailed placed in corresponding tissues of lower-chin and lower teeth. Lymphatic-muscular system and its anatomical links and age-related changeability raise the special interest during odontogenic infections with tongue inflammation.

  18. Odontogenic Sinusitis Caused by an Inflammation of a Dentigerous Cyst and Subsequent Finding of a Fibrous Dysplasia. A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    López-Carriches, Carmen; López-Carriches, Inmaculada; Bryan, Rafael Baca-Perez

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 38-year old male patient with sinusitis caused by an infected follicular cyst due to an ectopic impacted third molar in the right maxillary sinus. A 10-day antibiotherapy regimen was administered; subsequently, the cyst and the third molar were removed achieving complete recovery. Fibrous dysplasia was diagnosed at follow-up examination (occupation of the maxillary sinus by bone tissue was observed in a radiographic examination) and confirmed by biopsy. In cases of odontogenic sinusitis, thorough examination is crucial, as evidenced by the case reported in this study. A Literature review was performed in order to identify the diagnostic methods currently available and the clinical features, complications and treatment for both, odontogenic maxillary sinusitis and fibrous dysplasia. PMID:28077969

  19. Malignant changes developing from odontogenic cysts: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Borrás-Ferreres, Jordi; Sánchez-Torres, Alba

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review scientific literature in orderto describe the characteristics and prognosis of malignant entities developing from odontogenic cysts. A search in Pubmed (MEDLINE) and Cochrane databases was conducted. The inclusion criteria were articles published in English related to the malignisation of odontogenic cysts in humans. The exclusion criteria were articles that do not specify the type of odontogenic cyst, malignisation of parakeratinised keratocysts, the presence of an ameloblastic carcinoma and metastasis from distant primary tumours. The selected articles were classified according to Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy criteria. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using statistical package software SPSS version 22.0. From the 1,237 articles initially obtained, the authors included 3 case series and 45 case reports in the end. Descriptive analysis showed that men have a disposition for malignisation from odontogenic cysts and they frequently appear at the posterior mandible, with pain and swelling being the most frequent signs and symptoms. Follicular cysts were the entities that underwent the most malignant changes with well differentiated squamous cell carcinomas being the most prevalent type of malignancy. The real prognosis of this malignancy is not known because of the heterogeneity of available studies. Key words:Odontogenic cysts, squamous cell carcinoma, neoplastic cell transformation, oral cancer. PMID:27957281

  20. Malignant changes developing from odontogenic cysts: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Borrás-Ferreres, Jordi; Sánchez-Torres, Alba; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review scientific literature in orderto describe the characteristics and prognosis of malignant entities developing from odontogenic cysts. A search in Pubmed (MEDLINE) and Cochrane databases was conducted. The inclusion criteria were articles published in English related to the malignisation of odontogenic cysts in humans. The exclusion criteria were articles that do not specify the type of odontogenic cyst, malignisation of parakeratinised keratocysts, the presence of an ameloblastic carcinoma and metastasis from distant primary tumours. The selected articles were classified according to Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy criteria. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using statistical package software SPSS version 22.0. From the 1,237 articles initially obtained, the authors included 3 case series and 45 case reports in the end. Descriptive analysis showed that men have a disposition for malignisation from odontogenic cysts and they frequently appear at the posterior mandible, with pain and swelling being the most frequent signs and symptoms. Follicular cysts were the entities that underwent the most malignant changes with well differentiated squamous cell carcinomas being the most prevalent type of malignancy. The real prognosis of this malignancy is not known because of the heterogeneity of available studies. Key words:Odontogenic cysts, squamous cell carcinoma, neoplastic cell transformation, oral cancer.

  1. Presentation of a keratocystic odontogenic tumor with agenesis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We analyzed the etiopathogenetic, clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic aspects of keratocystic odontogenic tumors, particularly in association with dental anomalies of number, with the aim of providing useful information for their correct diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis within a multidisciplinary approach. Case presentation A 14-year-old Caucasian girl presented for observation of bilateral agenesis of the upper incisors, which was diagnosed by orthopantomography. Approximately one year after starting orthodontic treatment, the patient went to the emergency department because of a phlegmonous tumefaction of the lateroposterior upper left maxillary region. Diagnostic orthopantomography and axial computed tomography scan results of the facial skeleton revealed a large lesion occupying the left maxillary sinus, rhizolysis of dental elements 26 and 27, and dislocation of dental element 28. The lesion and infected sinus mucosa were removed through surgical antral-cystectomy with the Caldwell-Luc approach. Histological examination of the lesion confirmed the suspected diagnosis of keratocystic odontogenic tumor. The 12-month follow-up orthopantomography and computed tomography scan results showed good trabecular bone formation in the lesion area. The 24-month follow-up results showed optimal healing in the area of the lesion, positive pulp vitality tests for teeth 26 and 27, and good periodontal tissue healing, as verified through periodontal probing. Conclusions Combined with our observations from a careful review of the literature, the results of the case study suggest that keratocystic odontogenic tumor and dental agenesis probably do not develop through a common genetic cause. More likely, they are caused by related environmental factors. Management of this case required the multidisciplinary collaboration of different specializations and careful planning to devise a correct therapeutic protocol and reach a favorable prognosis. PMID:24716509

  2. Glandular odontogenic cyst: absence of PTCH gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Barreto, D C; De Marco, L; Castro, W H; Gomez, R S

    2001-02-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare jawbone cyst of odontogenic origin. Human patched (PTCH) is a tumour suppressor gene that has been recently associated with signalling pathways during odontogenesis. Recently alterations of this gene were found on sporadic odontogenic keratocysts. This evidence, together with the biological behaviour similarities of both lesions, and the absence of reports on molecular analysis of GOC, led us to hypothesize that PTCH gene mutations may underlie the tumorigenesis of GOC. Therefore the aim of this study was to report one additional case of GOC and investigate the PTCH gene of the cyst. No mutations were found in the splicing and coding regions of the PTCH gene. In conclusion, the PTCH gene does not seem to be involved in GOC pathogenesis.

  3. Orthokeratinizing odontogenic cyst of maxilla with complex odontoma

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Meena; Kheur, Supriya; Agrawal, Tripti; Ingle, Yashwant

    2013-01-01

    The orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) and odontoma are the odontogenic cyst and tumor respectively that are minimally invasive neoplasms of head and neck region. OOC is a rare variant of odontogenic cyst characterized by the presence of excessive orthokeratin covering the cystic lining. Odontoma is a benign neoplasm/hamartoma often discovered accidently on panoramic radiographs. We came across a case of a 26-year-old male with swelling on his face along with difficulty in breathing. On the basis of radiographic and histopathological findings the final diagnosis of OOC associated with odontoma was given. However, there is no report in the English literature of the simultaneous occurrence of these two lesions and hence this case is very rare. It is unclear whether the two lesions were just coincidental or were actually related to each other. PMID:24574683

  4. Odontogenic calcificant cystic tumor: a report of two clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Daniel; Villanueva, Julio; Espinosa, Sebastián; Cornejo, Marco

    2007-03-01

    Odontogenic Calcificant Cystic Tumor (OCCT) is an infrequent injury. It arises from odontogenic epithelial rests present in the maxilla, jaw or gum. Gorlin and col. described the OCCT for first time as an own pathological entity in 1962. Clinically, the OCCT represents 1% of the odontogenic injuries. It is possible to be found from the first decade to the eighth decade. It affects in same proportion the maxilla and the jaw, being the most common in the dented zones, with greater incidence in the first molar area. Two case reports of OCCT in two different ages, both in female individuals, one at 5 years old and the other at 35 years old are presented. Enucleation of the tumor was the treatment chosen. The purpose of this article is to present a review of the literature related to these two cases of OCCT and its treatment, putting an emphasis on its aetiology, biological behaviour and treatment.

  5. Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst of the mandible: A rare case report with a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Sarvaiya, Bhumi; Vadera, Hitesh; Sharma, Vimal; Bhad, Kaustubh; Patel, Zinal; Thakkar, Mimansa

    2014-01-01

    Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is an odontogenic cyst was initially termed as the uncommon orthokeratinized type of odontogenic keratocyst by the World Health Organization. It usually occurs in mandible. Various studies have shown that OOC has typical characteristic clinicopathologic features when compared to other developmental odontogenic lesions such as dentigerous cyst and the keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). Rare recurrence was noted after surgical removal of the lesion. The purpose of this article is to present a case of OOC arising in the posterior mandible and emphasize on differentiating it from the KCOT and dentigerous cyst. PMID:24818100

  6. Squamous odontogenic tumor-like proliferation in a radicular cyst: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Marco-Molina, Vicente; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    The squamous odontogenic tumour is a rare benign neoplasm whose aetiology remains unknown. It usually appears in the jaw and its origin could be related to the ephitelial remnants of Malassez. Histologically comprises numerous islets of squamous, non-keratinized, well-differentiated and rounded epithelial cells a fibrous stroma without signs of atypical cells. There is a non-neoplastic lesion with the same histological pattern than the squamous odontogenic tumour. This entity is characterized by squamous odontogenic tumour proliferations isolated into the cyst wall of an odontogenic cyst. It is rare and has a benign behavior. It has been suggested that these epithelial proliferations could be the former expression of the neoplastic form. It is very important to carry out clinical and radiological controls periodically. So far it has not been documented any change towards a squamous odontogenic tumour nor toward malignancy in a squamous odontogenic tumour like proliferation. Key words:Radicular cyst, squamous odontogenic tumour. PMID:24455099

  7. Squamous odontogenic tumor-like proliferation in a radicular cyst: A case report.

    PubMed

    Sala-Pérez, Sergi; Marco-Molina, Vicente; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2013-12-01

    The squamous odontogenic tumour is a rare benign neoplasm whose aetiology remains unknown. It usually appears in the jaw and its origin could be related to the ephitelial remnants of Malassez. Histologically comprises numerous islets of squamous, non-keratinized, well-differentiated and rounded epithelial cells a fibrous stroma without signs of atypical cells. There is a non-neoplastic lesion with the same histological pattern than the squamous odontogenic tumour. This entity is characterized by squamous odontogenic tumour proliferations isolated into the cyst wall of an odontogenic cyst. It is rare and has a benign behavior. It has been suggested that these epithelial proliferations could be the former expression of the neoplastic form. It is very important to carry out clinical and radiological controls periodically. So far it has not been documented any change towards a squamous odontogenic tumour nor toward malignancy in a squamous odontogenic tumour like proliferation. Key words:Radicular cyst, squamous odontogenic tumour.

  8. Cervical necrotizing fasciitis and acute mediastinitis of odontogenic origin: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Monsalve-Iglesias, Fernando; Cabello-Serrano, Almudena; Valencia-Laseca, Alfredo; Garcia-Medina, Blas

    2017-01-01

    Necrotising fasciitis (NF) is an uncommon infection. Early signs and symptoms include fever, severe pain and swelling, and redness at the wound site. Moreover, fulminant evolution and high mortality rate are typical of this pathology. In the present report we describes three cases of cervical necrotizing fasciitis complicated by acute mediastinitis. All patients were apparently immunocompetent adults. The main aim of the present report is to show the serious consequences that a dental infection might trigger. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in these cases. The constant interaction between different medical specialties is essential for ensuring a proper management of each case. Key words:Cervical necrotizing fasciitis, acute mediastinitis, odontogenic origin , multidisciplinary approach. PMID:28149480

  9. Orthokeratinized Odontogenic Cyst: A Report of Three Clinical Cases

    PubMed Central

    González Galván, María del Carmen; García-García, Abel; Anitua-Aldecoa, Eduardo; Martinez-Conde Llamosas, Rafael; Aguirre-Urizar, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is a rare developmental odontogenic cyst that has been considered as a variant of the keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) until Wright (1981) defined it as a different entity. Surgery is the usual treatment, and recurrence or association with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome has rarely been described. In this report, we presented three cases of this pathology, and we review the principal clinical, histological, radiological, and therapeutic aspects. Case 1. A 73-year-old female presents with a slight swelling on the right mandible, associated with an unilocular well-defined radiolucent lesion. Case 2. A 27-year-old female presents with a painful mandibular swelling associated with an unilocular radiolucent lesion posterior to the 4.8. Case 3. A 61-year-old male was casually detected presents with an unilocular radiolucent lesion distal to the 4.8. Conclusion. The OOC is a specific odontogenic clinicopathological entity that should be differentiated from the KCOT as it presents a completely different biological behaviour. PMID:24191203

  10. Computed tomographic characteristics of odontogenic neoplasms in dogs.

    PubMed

    Amory, Joseph T; Reetz, Jennifer A; Sánchez, Melissa D; Bradley, Charles W; Lewis, John R; Reiter, Alexander M; Mai, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Odontogenic neoplasms are locally invasive oral tumors in dogs. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe CT characteristics for varying histopathologic types of canine odontogenic neoplasms. A board-certified veterinary radiologist who was unaware of histologic findings reviewed and scored imaging studies. A total of 29 dogs were included in the study. Twenty-three of these dogs had concurrent dental radiographs. The most common CT characteristics for all tumor types were a direct association with or in the region of multiple teeth in 96.4% (27/28), contrast enhancement in 96.3% (26/27), alveolar bone lysis in 93.1% (27/29), and mass-associated tooth displacement in 85.2% (23/27). Mass-associated cyst-like structures were identified in 53.6% (15/28) and were only present in tumors containing odontogenic epithelium. Canine acanthomatous ameloblastomas (n = 15) appeared as extra-osseous (10/15) or intra-osseous (5/15) masses. Intra-osseous canine acanthomatous ameloblastomas were more likely to have mass-associated cyst-like structures and were subjectively more aggressive when compared with extra-osseous canine acanthomatous ameloblastomas. Amyloid-producing odontogenic tumors (n = 3) had subjectively uniform CT imaging characteristics and consisted of round soft tissue and mineral attenuating masses with multiple associated cyst-like structures. Fibromatous epulides of periodontal ligament origin (n = 4) were contrast enhancing extra-osseous masses that were rarely referred for CT examinations and 25% (1/4) were not visible with CT. Other odontogenic tumors were less represented or had more variable CT imaging characteristics. Mass-associated tooth destruction was appreciated more often with dental radiographs and extra-oral tumor extension was identified more often with CT.

  11. Infratemporal Space Infection Following Maxillary Third Molar Extraction in an Uncontrolled Diabetic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Mesgarzadeh, Ali Hossein; Ghavimi, Mohammad Ali; Gok, Gulşen; Zarghami, Afsaneh

    2012-01-01

    Infratemporal space infection is a rare but serious sequel of odontogenic infection. The diagnosis is difficult due to non spe-cific signs and symptoms. Diabetes mellitus as a definitive risk factor for odontogenic infections needs more consideration during clinical procedures. We report a case of an undiagnosed diabetic patient with isolated infratemporal space infection after tooth extraction with presentation of similar signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint and muscle problem. PMID:22991649

  12. Role of inflammation in developmental odontogenic pathosis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sandeep S; Shetty, Devi C; Urs, Aadithya B; Nainani, P

    2016-01-01

    Periapical infection in the primary tooth may lead to periapical abscess, granuloma, radicular cyst and even osteomyelitis. The infection in primary teeth can also affect the developing successor teeth leading to hypomineralization, hypoplasia, arrest of tooth development, regional odontodysplasia, delayed eruption etc. The purpose of this article is to report a case of malformed permanent tooth in relation to overlying infected deciduous teeth. The probable role of inflammation in pathogenesis of the present condition is also being discussed. PMID:27194886

  13. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma in odontogenic keratocyst: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Chitrapriya; Aggarwal, Pooja; Wadhwan, Vijay; Bansal, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from the wall of an odontogenic cyst (also known as primary intraosseous carcinoma) is a rare tumor which occurs only in jaw bones. This tumor was first described by Loos in 1913 as a central epidermoid carcinoma of the jaw. Primary intraosseous carcinomas (PIOC) may theoretically arise from the lining of an odontogenic cyst or de novo from presumed odontogenic cell rests. According to the new histological classification of tumors of the World Health Organization, odontogenic keratocyst is nowadays considered a specific odontogenic tumor and the PIOC derived from it is considered as a specific entity which is different from other PIOCs derived from the odontogenic cysts. The following report describes a case of such extremely rare entity that is primary intraosseous SCC of the mandible derived from an OKC in a 60-year-old male patient with brief review of literature.

  14. Squamous cell carcinoma in a maxillary odontogenic keratocyst: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Maria, Anisha; Sharma, Yogesh; Chhabria, Amit

    2011-07-01

    Odontogenic cysts in the maxilla are common but a malignant change in an odontogenic cyst is a comparatively a rare occurrence; however, these entities present with clinical and radiographic features similar to benign, expansible, central, odontogenic tumor, or cyst of the jaws. A patient reporting with squamous cell carcinoma arising from an odontogenic keratocyst of right maxilla has been worked up clinically, radiographically, and pathologically. The case was surgically managed and followed up. A 54-year-old male patient with a compressible, rapidly growing swelling of right maxilla was clinically diagnosed to be a case of odontogenic cyst. On radiologic examination it appeared similar to a cystic lesion. An incisional biopsy obtained from the cyst wall showed it to be odontogenic keratocyst with histologic evidence of malignant transformation. The pathogenesis of the tumor, the biologic progression, and prognosis and overall clinical and histopathogical features of this rare malignancy is reported and discussed.

  15. Ghost cell odontogenic tumor associated with odontoma--report of two rare cases.

    PubMed

    Hogge, Maritzabel; Velez, Ines; Kaltman, Steven; Movahed, Reza; Yeh, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The ghost cell odontogenic tumor (GCOT) is a neoplastic/cystic lesion with a diverse histopathological and clinical behavior It was formerly known as calcified odontogenic cyst, but in 2005 the World Health Organization categorized this lesion as an odontogenic, benign tumor rather than a cyst; nominating this neoplasm as calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor. A later comprehensive classification named it ghost cell odontogenic tumor because the most remarkable histopathologic characteristic is the presence of a mass of ghost cells embedded in the epithelium. We report two cases of a rare variant of a ghost cell odontogenic tumor associated with odontoma; to our knowledge, one is the youngest patient (four month old) reported in the English literature.

  16. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma in odontogenic keratocyst: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Chitrapriya; Aggarwal, Pooja; Wadhwan, Vijay; Bansal, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from the wall of an odontogenic cyst (also known as primary intraosseous carcinoma) is a rare tumor which occurs only in jaw bones. This tumor was first described by Loos in 1913 as a central epidermoid carcinoma of the jaw. Primary intraosseous carcinomas (PIOC) may theoretically arise from the lining of an odontogenic cyst or de novo from presumed odontogenic cell rests. According to the new histological classification of tumors of the World Health Organization, odontogenic keratocyst is nowadays considered a specific odontogenic tumor and the PIOC derived from it is considered as a specific entity which is different from other PIOCs derived from the odontogenic cysts. The following report describes a case of such extremely rare entity that is primary intraosseous SCC of the mandible derived from an OKC in a 60-year-old male patient with brief review of literature. PMID:26980976

  17. A brain abscess of probable odontogenic origin in a child with cyanotic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Moskovitz, Moti; Birenboim, Ravit; Katz-Sagi, Hadas; Perles, Zeev; Averbuch, Diana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present report was to present a rare case of a brain abscess in a child with heterotaxy syndrome, severe cardiac anomalies, and extensive dental caries. The pathogen was Streptococcus intermedius isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid. The source of the pathogen was probably an infection of a primary molar with a dentoalveolar abscess involving the bud of the permanent successor. After a long course of antibiotic regimens followed by a craniotomy with abscess drainage, a shunt, and comprehensive dental treatment, the patient was discharged from the hospital without any neurological sequel. At home, she completed an additional 3 months of oral antibiotics. This is the only known documented case of a toddler with a brain abscess of probable odontogenic origin without previous dental intervention. It emphasizes the importance of collaboration between cardiologists and pediatric dentists, especially in referring children with congenital heart defects for early dental checkups.

  18. Squamous Odontogenic Tumor: Literature Review Focusing on the Radiographic Features and Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Mardones, Nilson do Rosário; Gamba, Thiago de Oliveira; Flores, Isadora Luana; de Almeida, Solange Maria; Lopes, Sérgio Lúcio Pereira de Castro

    2015-01-01

    Since its first publication in 1975, the squamous odontogenic tumor remains the rarest odontogenic lesion, with around 50 cases in the English-language literature in which the microscopic characteristics are frequently very well demonstrated. However, articles which discuss the radiographic aspects are scarce, especially with emphasis on the differential diagnosis. The present treatise proposes an assessment of jaw lesions with the same radiographic characteristics of the squamous odontogenic tumor to clarify the main findings for dental clinicians during routine diagnosis. PMID:26140060

  19. Surgical management of peripheral variant of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: A rare case report with review

    PubMed Central

    Jindwani, Karuna; Paharia, Y. K.; Kushwah, Atul Pratap Singh

    2015-01-01

    The adenomatoid odontogenic tumour (AOT) is a relatively uncommon lesion constituting around 3% of all odontogenic tumours and often misdiagnosed as an odontogenic cyst. It manifests as a beningn growth which affects young individuals, with a female predeliction usually in the second decade of life, exhibiting more often in the anterior region of maxilla. The current article enumerates the clinical, radiographic and histopathological features of a rare case of extraosseous AOT with its therapeutic consideration PMID:25684929

  20. [A case of the calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg's tumor). Reported and literature review].

    PubMed

    Peña-Torres, Leandro Miguel; Monterrubio-Guerrero, Alejandro; Díaz de León-Sandoval, Laura Alejandra

    2010-01-01

    The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor known as Pindborg's tumor, is a rare odontogenic neoplasm of the jaws. One of their characteristics is the cortical expansion and the relationship with a non erupted tooth. Since the original description in 1955, only 200 cases approximately have been described in the world literature. This article reviews the literature and describes a case of patient who presented calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor in the jaw undergoing surgical excision treatment with an evolution without complications.

  1. Glandular odontogenic cyst of the maxilla: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Nigel Roque; Dinkar, Ajit Dattatray; Khorate, Manisha Maruti

    2016-01-01

    Glandular Odontogenic Cyst is a relatively rare cyst of odontogenic origin, which shows glandular or salivary features that are thought to indicate the pluripotentiality of odontogenic epithelium. It is seen in middle-aged adults, and commonly involves the anterior region of the jaws, especially the mandible. It shows non-specific clinico-radiographic findings which may resemble other lesions, but has characteristic histopathologic features which help in its diagnosis. This paper reports an unusual presentation of a glandular odontogenic cyst which was diagnosed in a 64-year old female in the posterior maxilla, along with a literature review of this cyst, especially the cases reported in India in the past.

  2. A study of 1177 odontogenic lesions in a South Kerala population

    PubMed Central

    Deepthi, PV; Beena, VT; Padmakumar, SK; Rajeev, R; Sivakumar, R

    2016-01-01

    Context: A study on odontogenic cysts and tumors. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of odontogenic cysts and tumors and their distribution according to age, gender, site and histopathologic types of those reported over a period of 1998–2012 in a Tertiary Health Care Center at South Kerala. Settings and Design: The archives of Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, were retrospectively analyzed. Subjects and Methods: Archival records were reviewed and all the cases of odontogenic cysts and tumors were retrieved from 1998 to 2012. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistical analysis was performed using the computer software, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) IBM SPSS Software version 16. Results: Of 7117 oral biopsies, 4.29% were odontogenic tumors. Ameloblastoma was the most common odontogenic tumor comprising 50.2% of cases, followed by keratocystic odontogenic tumor (24.3%). These tumors showed a male predilection (1.19: 1). Odontogenic tumors occurred in a mean age of 33.7 ± 16.8 years. Mandible was the most common jaw affected (76.07%). Odontogenic cysts constituted 12.25% of all oral biopsies. Radicular cyst comprised 75.11% of odontogenic cysts followed by dentigerous cyst (17.2%). Conclusions: This study showed similar as well as contradictory results compared to other studies, probably due to geographical and ethnic variations which is yet to be corroborated. PMID:27601809

  3. Carnoy's solution in the mangement of odontogenic keratocyst

    PubMed Central

    Sivanmalai, Sivaraj; Kandhasamy, Kohila; Prabu, Neetika; Prince, Christo Naveen; Prabu, Chandrakala Shekarappa Annapurna Pannaikadu Somasundaram

    2012-01-01

    Carnoy's solution is a substance used as a complementary treatment after the conservative excision of odontogenic keratocyst. The application of Carnoy's solution promotes a superficial chemical necrosis and is intended to reduce recurrence rates. However, the inferior alveolar vascular–nervous plexus can occasionally be exposed after the removal of a lesion. The safety of the application of Carnoy's solution over this plexus has been reported, but to date, no clinical report has been made. The authors present a case that was given Carnoy's solution over the inferior alveolar vascular–nervous plexus as a complementary treatment for the keratocystic odontogenic tumor. Effective control of recurrence with low and transient neural morbidity was suggested with this technique. PMID:23066248

  4. Glandular Odontogenic Cyst: The Value of Intraepithelial Hemosiderin.

    PubMed

    AbdullGaffar, Badr; Koilelat, Mohamed

    2017-05-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a relatively rare but well-described clinicopathologic entity. Its rarity and unpredictable clinical behavior are challenging to managing clinicians. Its variable and overlapping histomorphologic features are also diagnostically challenging for pathologists. Other odontogenic cysts and oral cystic neoplasms can simulate GOC. There are specific histologic criteria that help distinguish GOC from other mimickers. To our knowledge, the phenomenon of hemosiderin pigments deposition within the lining glandular epithelium of GOC has not been covered in detail or specifically reported so far in the literature. We report a case of nontraumatized anterior mandibular GOC in a middle-aged male, which histologically showed hemosiderin pigments within the lining epithelium without stromal siderophages. This finding might reflect a nonspecific spontaneous intraluminal hemorrhage. However, intraepithelial hemosiderin in GOC may be an additional helpful diagnostic clue of GOC in challenging cases since this phenomenon has not been reported in other mimicker cystic lesions.

  5. Glandular odontogenic cyst: report of an unusual bilateral occurrence.

    PubMed

    Amberkar, Vikram S; Jahagirdar, Abhishek; Ahmed Mujib, B R

    2011-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a recently recognized rare developmental odontogenic cyst having an aggressive behavior and accounting for 0.012% to 1.3% of all jaw cysts. GOC usually presents as a painless, slow-growing swelling that tends to affect the anterior part of the jaws. It chiefly occurs in the fourth and fifth decades of life and presents as an expansion of jaws with or without pain or paresthesia. Aggressive nature of the lesion has been reported, as supported by the fact that 25 to 55% of cases recur following curettage. So far only just over 113 cases of GOC have been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of bilateral GOC in the posterior region of the maxilla, in a 29-year-old male patient, which is unique, being the first case of bilateral GOC to be reported in the literature.

  6. Oral Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli as a reservoir of β-lactam resistance genes facilitating infections with multiresistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dupin, Clarisse; Tamanai-Shacoori, Zohreh; Ehrmann, Elodie; Dupont, Anais; Barloy-Hubler, Frédérique; Bousarghin, Latifa; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Many β-lactamases have been described in various Gram-negative bacilli (Capnocytophaga, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, etc.) of the oral cavity, belonging to class A of the Ambler classification (CepA, CblA, CfxA, CSP-1 and TEM), class B (CfiA) or class D in Fusobacterium nucleatum (FUS-1). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of β-lactams are variable and this variation is often related to the presence of plasmids or other mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that modulate the expression of resistance genes. DNA persistence and bacterial promiscuity in oral biofilms also contribute to genetic transformation and conjugation in this particular microcosm. Overexpression of efflux pumps is facilitated because the encoding genes are located on MGEs, in some multidrug-resistant clinical isolates, similar to conjugative transposons harbouring genes encoding β-lactamases. All these facts lead us to consider the oral cavity as an important reservoir of β-lactam resistance genes and a privileged place for genetic exchange, especially in commensal strictly anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli.

  7. Targeting the Sonic Hedgehog Pathway in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor*

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Changchun; Amm, Hope M.; DeVilliers, Patricia; Wu, Yixin; Deatherage, Joseph R.; Liu, Zhongyu; MacDougall, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT) may occur sporadically or associated with the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. It is a benign aggressive tumor of odontogenic epithelial origin with a high rate of recurrence. A primary human keratocystic odontogenic tumor cell population, KCOT-1, has been established from a tumor explant culture. The KCOT-1 cells were characterized by growth rate, gene expression profiles of major tooth enamel matrix proteins (EMPs), amelogenin (AMELX), enamelin (ENAM), ameloblastin (AMBN), amelotin (AMTN), tumor-related proteins enamelysin (MMP-20), kallikrein-4 (KLK-4), and odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein (ODAM) using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Cytokeratin 14 (CK14) was examined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, expression of the members of the sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway, SHH, patched (PTCH-1), smoothened (SMO), GLI-1, and GLI-2 and of the NOTCH signaling pathway, NOTCH-1, NOTCH-2, NOTCH-3, JAG-2 (Jagged-2), and Delta-like-1 (DLL-1) were evaluated. KCOT-1 cells were treated with SMO antagonist cyclopamine. We found that cyclopamine significantly arrested the growth of KCOT-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner and that the effects of cyclopamine were abolished by adding SHH protein. The protein expression of the SHH pathway was down-regulated by cyclopamine, further confirming that cyclopamine inhibits the SHH signaling pathway; SHH down-regulation correlated with the down-regulation of the NOTCH signaling pathway as well. In conclusion, using an established KCOT-1 cell population, we characterized the gene expression profiles related to the EMPs, SHH, and NOTCH signaling pathway and confirmed that cyclopamine significantly arrested the growth of KCOT-1 cells and may be a viable agent as a novel therapeutic. PMID:22679015

  8. Classification of odontogenic cysts and tumors – Antecedents

    PubMed Central

    Imran, Aesha; Jayanthi, P; Tanveer, Shahela; Gobu, Sreeja C

    2016-01-01

    Pierre Paul Broca produced a monograph on tumor classification which also included the classification of odontogenic tumors (OTs). The terminology used to describe malignant epithelial OTs has varied since the World Health Organization published the initial consensus on the taxonomy of OTs. Minor changes were introduced in the second edition. It is only in the very recent years that additional knowledge has accumulated and refined the classification. This review emphasizes on reasons for modification by each author and the recent acceptance. PMID:27601821

  9. Immunolocalisation of laminin-1 in keratocystic odontogenic tumors.

    PubMed

    Silva Gurgel, Clarissa Araújo; Gonçalves Ramos, Eduardo Antônio; Araújo Melo, Leonardo; Brandi Schlaepfer, Caroline; de Souza, Renata Oliveira; Campos Oliveira, Márcio; dos Santos, Jean Nunes

    2010-11-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KOTs) are distinct odontogenic lesions frequently affecting the jawbones. They may be associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), and may exhibit disorders involving the extracellular matrix. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunolocalisation of laminin-1 in 20 cases of KOTs in order to contribute to the characterization of this protein, which is little studied in odontogenic tumors. Our results showed laminin-1 in all 20 KOTs studied; its labelling intensity was weak in three cases (15%), moderate in five (25%) and strong in 12 cases (60%). Laminin-1 immunolocalisation was predominantly continuous in 18 (90%) KOTs, including areas of acanthosis, subepithelial split and epithelial buds. Weak immunolabelling was observed in regions exhibiting an inflammatory process, especially in the case of intense inflammation. These findings suggest that laminin-1 does not participate in biological processes such as cystic epithelium-cystic wall separation or the formation of epithelial islands in KOTs. Furthermore, the discontinuous and weak labelling of this protein in the basement membrane of these tumors is probably a consequence of the inflammatory process in the tumor stroma.

  10. Amyloid-producing odontogenic tumour (calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour) in the mandible of a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Kang, M-S; Park, M-S; Kwon, S-W; Ma, S-A; Cho, D-Y; Kim, D-Y; Kim, Y

    2006-01-01

    A 13-year-old male tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) had a marked mandibular swelling noticed 12 months earlier and associated with progressive anorexia and weight loss. Radiological and post-mortem examination revealed a mass (13x15 cm) which was firm and poorly defined, with destruction of the adjacent bone tissue. Histologically, the mass was poorly demarcated, with infiltrative growth, and composed of nests, cords and islands of epithelial cells with characteristic basal cell features. Also observed were extensive squamous metaplasia, ghost cells, stellate reticulum, and fibroblastic connective tissue stroma containing inflammatory cells. A prominent feature of this tumour consisted of abundant nodular deposits of congophilic amyloid-like material with partial mineralization (Liesegang rings). Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells and the amyloid-like material were positive for pancytokeratin and negative for vimentin. The findings supported the diagnosis of an amyloid-producing odontogenic tumour (APOT), also known as calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour in man and animals.

  11. A case of central carcinoma of the mandible arising from a recurrent odontogenic keratocyst: delineation of surgical margins and reconstruction with bilateral rectus abdominis myocutaneous free flaps.

    PubMed

    Ota, Y; Karakida, K; Watanabe, D; Miyasaka, M; Tsukinoki, K

    1998-10-01

    A case of central carcinoma of the mandible arising from a recurrent odontogenic keratocyst is reported. A 38-year-old man was admitted to the Tokai University Hospital due to postoperative infection of a recurrent odontogenic keratocyst of the left mandible. He had had a cystectomy for an odontogenic keratocyst 4 years ago. The lesion revealed bony destruction of the mandible with worm-eating shaped margins with extension to the facial skin. A biopsy specimen revealed squamous cell carcinoma. The mandible was resected with facial skin and the sublingual space was dissected to preserve the lingual nerve. The oral and the facial resections were reconstructed with a titanium plate and bilateral rectus abdominis myocutaneous free flaps. The plate was removed due to infection around the margins and readjustment of the flaps was conducted 5 months after the surgery. He has not had a local relapse, metastasis, or incisional hernia for 8 months following surgery. Good occlusion has been attained by the residual mandible, and he is able to eat without any problems.

  12. Microbiological examination and antibiotic sensitivity of infections in the head and neck. Has anything changed?

    PubMed

    Farmahan, Samir; Tuopar, Dery; Ameerally, Phillip J; Kotecha, Rushina; Sisodia, Bijal

    2014-09-01

    Because of the growing concern about antibiotic resistance, we aimed to investigate whether the microbiological picture and antibiotic sensitivity of infections in the head and neck have changed in the last 30-40 years. We retrospectively studied 150 patients admitted for inpatient treatment of infections in the head and neck, and searched published reports from the last 30 - 40 years for comparison. There were 85 male and 65 female patients (mean age 39 years, range 1-95). Most infections originated from the teeth (n = 111) and skin (n = 16), and the submandibular (69%) and buccal (67%) spaces were involved most often. Multiple spaces were involved in 94 patients. Swabs were taken for culture and sensitivity in 102 cases, and microorganisms were isolated in 91 (89%), of which 67 (74%) were aerobic infections and 24 (26%) were anaerobic. Bacteria were isolated in 87 (96%) cultures of which 60 (69%) were Gram-positive. Gram-positive cocci were isolated in 62% of cultures. The most common bacteria isolated were streptococci. Seventy percent of the bacteria were sensitive to amoxicillin and 84% to amoxicillin and metronidazole; 14% (Staphylococcus aureus from infections of the skin) were resistant to penicillin. A comparison of our results with those found in previous reports shows no significant change in the microbiological picture and antibiotic sensitivity of odontogenic infections in the head and neck over the last 30 - 40 years. Amoxicillin still treats these infections effectively.

  13. Odontogenic tumours in children and adolescents: a collaborative study of 431 cases.

    PubMed

    Servato, J P S; de Souza, P E A; Horta, M C R; Ribeiro, D C; de Aguiar, M C F; de Faria, P R; Cardoso, S V; Loyola, Adriano Mota

    2012-06-01

    This study describes the oral and maxillofacial pathological characteristics of a series of odontogenic tumours in children and adolescents from three Brazilian reference centres. The records were reviewed for all odontogenic tumours in patients up to 18 years old based on criteria proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2005. Data concerning sex, age, skin colour and tumour location were collected and plotted. Four hundred and thirty one odontogenic tumours in children and adolescents were found, accounting for 37.5% of the total number of odontogenic tumours diagnosed. Benign tumours were predominant (99.8% of the cases), and odontoma was the most frequent type (41.4%), followed by keratocystic odontogenic tumours (25.5%) and ameloblastoma (14.6%). Odontogenic tumours were rarely detected in early childhood, and their prevalence increased with age. An almost equal distribution was observed with respect to sex and the site of the lesions. This study is the largest reported retrospective analysis describing odontogenic tumours in children and adolescents to date. The authors detected some variation in the relative frequency of odontogenic tumours compared with similar reports. Additional studies should be conducted based on the new WHO classification and predetermined age parameters to enable comparative analysis among different worldwide populations.

  14. Er:YAG Laser Assisted Treatment of Central Odontogenic Fibroma of the Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Luis Silva; Martins, Marco; Pacheco, José Júlio; Salazar, Filomena; Magalhães, João; Vescovi, Paolo; Meleti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Central odontogenic fibroma is a very rare benign odontogenic tumour characterized by a fibrous mature stroma with variable strands or islands of inactive-looking odontogenic epithelium. Our aim is to report a case of a central odontogenic fibroma and describe the clinical usefulness of Er:YAG laser for the surgical treatment of this tumour. A 74-year-old woman presented with an expansive lesion located in a mandible with multilocular and mixed radiographic appearance. A conservative excision using Er:YAG laser was performed. Complete removal was obtained. There were no postoperative complications. The histopatologic features were consistent with the diagnosis of central odontogenic fibroma of rich-epithelium type. No recurrence was observed during follow-up. PMID:26457211

  15. Odontogenic sinusitis, oro-antral fistula and surgical repair by Bichat's fat pad: Literature review.

    PubMed

    Bravo Cordero, Gustavo; Minzer Ferrer, Simona; Fernández, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Odontogenic sinusitis accounts for 10-12% of maxillary sinusitis. It occurs due to an interruption of the mucoperiosteum in response to a series of conditions, most frequently the extraction of a superior tooth. Its treatment has two bases: treating the infection and managing the oroantral fistula that perpetuates the infection. Communications smaller than 5mm can resolve spontaneously; bigger ones must be closed by a flap. Bichat's fat pad flap was first used in 1977 to close an oroantral fistula. It is a pedicled flap that has been shown to be successful, with advantages that make it the best option in oroantral fistula treatment. Its location allows easy access, minimum dissection, great versatility, good mobility, good blood supply, low rate of complications, no morbidity in the donor site, low risk of infection, shortened surgical time and fast cover by epithelium, and it leaves no visible scar, amongst other benefits. That is why we encourage the use of this technique and choose it as the best option for management of our patients.

  16. Ameloblastomatous calcifying odontogenic cyst: a rare histological variant

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Soumi; V, Sreelatha S; S, Venkatesh; Nair, Preeti P

    2013-01-01

    The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) occurs mainly as an intraosseous lesion in mandible or maxilla, but the peripheral variation of COC has also been reported. The confusion regarding its nature as cyst or tumour has not been resolved and a vast diversity has been noted in clinicopathological aspects of COC. We report a case of COCs with minimal mural ameloblastomatous proliferation in a 13-year-old girl, who presented with a painless swelling in the left jaw causing mild facial asymmetry. PMID:23696143

  17. Odontogenic myxoma in a 52-year-old woman

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Hari; Mehta, Gagan; Kumar, Manoj; Lone, Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a rare benign but locally aggressive tumour of the jaws. It is usually seen in the second to third decade of life. Women are more frequently affected than men and it has more predilections for the mandible rather than the maxilla. OM presents as an asymptomatic swelling in most of the cases. Owing to the non-capsulated and aggressive nature of OM, a high rate of recurrence has been reported. Here we present a case of OM in a 52-year-old woman managed by segmental mandibulectomy. Sign of recurrence was seen after 18 months of follow-up. PMID:24859552

  18. Cholesterol Granuloma in Odontogenic Cyst: An Enigmatic Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Anju; Gupta, Shruti

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol granuloma (CG) is the outcome of the foreign body type of response to the accumulation of cholesterol crystals and is frequently present in conjunction with chronic middle ear diseases. Recently, cases of CG in jaws have been reported, but still, very few cases have been found of CG in dental literature. This article presents three rare cases of CG in the wall of odontogenic cysts emphasizing on its possible role in expansion of the associated lesion and bone erosion. It also lays stress on the fact that more cases of CG should be reported so that its nature and pathogenesis in the oral cavity become more perceivable. PMID:28070428

  19. Detection of arenavirus in a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) with inclusion body disease.

    PubMed

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Saey, Veronique; Martel, An

    2015-03-01

    A captive bred red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) was presented with a large intraoral mass originating from the buccal gingiva, attached to the right dentary teeth row. Based on the clinical features and histological examination, the diagnosis of a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma was made. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, indistinguishable from those observed in inclusion body disease-affected snakes. Inclusion bodies were not observed in cells comprising the neoplastic mass. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), arenavirus was detected in the neoplastic tissue. Two years after surgical removal of the mass, recurrence of the neoplastic lesion was observed. Numerous large inclusion body disease inclusions were abundantly present in the neoplastic cells of the recurrent fibromyxoma. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few intracytoplasmic inclusions. The RT-PCR revealed the presence of arenavirus in blood, a liver biopsy, and neoplastic tissue. The present case describes the co-occurrence of an arenavirus infection and an odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa.

  20. Role of carnoy’s solution in the treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumor: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Belenguer, Álvaro; Sánchez-Torres, Alba

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Objective The keratocystic odontogenic tumor is a benign but aggressive neoplasm. As enucleation alone obtains high recurrence rates, some adjuvant treatments such as Carnoy’s solution have been proposed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the reduction of recurrences with the use of Carnoy’s solution as adjuvant in the treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumors. Material and Methods An electronic search in Pubmed (MEDLINE), ScienceDirect and Cochrane databases was conducted with the key words “odontogenic keratocyst”, “keratocystic odontogenic tumor”, “carnoy’s solution”, “treatment” and “enucleation”. The inclusion criteria were clinical studies using Carnoy’s solution as adjuvant for the treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumors, published in English, including at least 10 patients. Articles with an unclear reporting of the treatment applied, nonhuman studies, case reports and lesions associated to Gorlin-Goltz syndrome were excluded. Results All the studies included were case series. The recurrence rate of enucleation ranged from 0% to 58.8%. With the only use of Carnoy’s solution as adjuvant treatment to the enucleation, recurrences varied from 0% to 100%. The use of ≥ 2 adjuvant treatments reduced the range between 0% and 7.9%. Conclusions The use of Carnoy’s solution as adjuvant therapy for the treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumor has a grade C recommendation. Key words:Carnoy’s solution, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, treatment, recurrence. PMID:27475699

  1. Anaerobic Digestion.

    PubMed

    Liebetrau, Jan; Sträuber, Heike; Kretzschmar, Jörg; Denysenko, Velina; Nelles, Michael

    2017-04-09

    The term anaerobic digestion usually refers to the microbial conversion of organic material to biogas, which mainly consists of methane and carbon dioxide. The technical application of the naturally-occurring process is used to provide a renewable energy carrier and - as the substrate is often waste material - to reduce the organic matter content of the substrate prior to disposal.Applications can be found in sewage sludge treatment, the treatment of industrial and municipal solid wastes and wastewaters (including landfill gas utilization), and the conversion of agricultural residues and energy crops.For biorefinery concepts, the anaerobic digestion (AD) process is, on the one hand, an option to treat organic residues from other production processes. Concomitant effects are the reduction of organic carbon within the treated substance, the conversion of nitrogen and sulfur components, and the production of an energy-rich gas - the biogas. On the other hand, the multistep conversion of complex organic material offers the possibility of interrupting the conversion chain and locking out intermediates for utilization as basic material within the chemical industry.

  2. Characterisation of Eubacterium-like strains isolated from oral infections.

    PubMed

    Downes, J; Munson, M A; Spratt, D A; Kononen, E; Tarkka, E; Jousimies-Somer, H; Wade, W G

    2001-11-01

    The genus Eubacterium currently includes a heterogeneous group of gram-positive, non-spore-forming anaerobic bacilli, many of which are slow growing, fastidious and generally unreactive in biochemical tests. As a consequence, cultivation and identification of isolates are difficult and the taxonomy of the group remains indifferent. In this study, 105 isolates from odontogenic infections, infections associated with dental implants or saliva from healthy subjects and provisionally assigned to the genus Eubacterium were subjected to phenotypic and genotypic analysis. Ninety-one of the isolates were identified as belonging to one of 14 previously described species: Atopobium parvulum (5 isolates), A. rimae (29), Bulleidia extructa (2), Cryptobacterium curtum (1), Dialister pneumosintes (1), Eubacterium saburreum (2), E. sulci (8), E. yurii subsp. yurii (1), Filifactor alocis (3), Lactobacillus uli (1), Mogibacterium timidum (13), M. vescum (6), Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus (6) and Slackia exigua (13). The remaining 14 isolates did not correspond to existing species. This study confirms the diversity of organisms provisionally assigned to the genus Eubacterium by conventional identification methods. This group of organisms is frequently isolated from oral infections but their role in the aetiology of these conditions has yet to be determined.

  3. Cervical necrotizing fasciitis of odontogenic origin in a diabetic patient complicated by substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Camino Junior, Rubens; Naclerio-Homem, Maria G; Cabral, Lecy Marcondes; Luz, João Gualberto C

    2014-01-01

    Cervical necrotizing fasciitis (CNF) is an uncommon, potentially fatal soft tissue infection with rapid progression characterized by necrosis in the subcutaneous tissue and fascia. A case of CNF of odontogenic origin in a diabetic patient, complicated by alcohol dependence and tobacco abuse, is presented with a literature review. The emergency procedure comprised hydration, colloid administration, glycemic control and broad spectrum antibiotic therapy, followed by aggressive surgical debridement. Necrosis in the platysma muscle was verified by histopathologic analysis. Reconstructive surgery was performed after suppressing the infection, and the wound was closed with an autologous skin graft. The patient had a long hospital stay, in part because the substance abuse led to a difficult recovery. The principles of early diagnosis, aggressive surgical debridement, broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy and intensive supportive care in the treatment of CNF were confirmed in the present case. It was concluded that given the occurrence of CNF in the presence of diabetes mellitus and abuse of substances such as alcohol and tobacco, the health care professional should consider a stronger response to treatment and longer hospitalization.

  4. [Odontogenic myxoma of nasosinusal localization in a pediatric patient].

    PubMed

    Arjona Amo, M; Belmonte Caro, R; Valdivieso del Pueblo, C; Batista Cruzado, A; Torres Lagares, D; Gutiérrez Pérez, J L

    2011-04-01

    In the present study we report and discuss a case of odontogenic myxoma in a 13-month-old patient. Only two other reports have been published in the literature describing the occurrence of this type of tumor at an earlier age. Odontogenic myxoma is a benign mesenchymal neoplasm of the maxilla more common between the third and fourth decades of life. The case here reported is exceptional as it presents in an infant and, although some cases have been reported in the literature, this type of tumor is rare in early childhood. The most common locations include the ascending ramus and the angle of the jaw, although these tumors may also affect the upper maxilla, in which case they may involve the maxillary sinus. According to the review of the literature, these tumors show a recurrence rate of about 25%. Consequently, after the intraoperative clinical examination of the lesion and the assessment of the initial suspected diagnosis by means of intraoperative biopsy under general anesthesia, we carried out the resection of the tumor with wide margins at some points of the tumor location.

  5. Retrospective study of 289 odontogenic tumors in a Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    Serpa, Marianna-Sampaio; Tenório, Jefferson-da-Rocha; do Nascimento, George-João-Ferreira; de Souza-Andrade, Emanuel-Sávio; Veras-Sobral, Ana-Paula

    2016-01-01

    Background Odontogenic tumors (OTs) are considered important among oral lesions because of their clinicopathological heterogeneity, and variable biological behavior. This paper aims to determine the frequency and distribution of OTs, over a period of 10 years, at a public university in Northeastern Brazil and compare this data with previous reports. Material and Methods We reviewed all cases of OTs from oral pathology laboratory of University of Pernambuco (UPE), from 2004 to 2014. Diagnoses were re-evaluated and the tumors were classified according to the latest (2005) World Health Organization Classification of Tumors. In addition, we searched in the English-language literature retrospective studies on OTs that used the same classification. Results Data was obtained allowing the analysis of the tissue hemodynamics. We were able to map the vascularization of the face and it was possible to access three arteries of small diameter (0,60mm angular artery; 0,55mm greater palatine artery; 0,45mm infraorbital artery). Conclusions OTs are uncommon neoplasms with geographic variation. Our clinicopathological features are according to literature. In the present study, KCOT was the most frequent one, showing that the new classification of OTs altered the distribution of these lesions and possibly made KCOT the most common OT observed in diagnostic services worldwide. Key words:Odontogenic tumors, jaw neoplasms, epidemiology, oral pathology. PMID:26827068

  6. Odontogenic Tumors: A Review of 675 Cases in Eastern Libya

    PubMed Central

    Goteti, Saravana HL

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the relative frequency of odontogenic tumors (OTs) in an Eastern Libyan population based on the 2005 World Health Organization (WHO) classification, and also to compare the actual data with previous studies. Materials and Methods: We retrieved and analyzed 85 OTs from a total of 675 tumors and tumor-like lesions of the oral and perioral structures, for gender, age, tumor site, and frequency. The diagnosis was based on the most recent WHO (2005) classification of OTs. Results: OTs constituted 12.6% of all oral/jaw tumors and tumor-like lesions. Ameloblastoma (28.2%) was the most common type, followed by keratocystic odontogenic tumor (25.2%) and odontoma (19.9%). The male: female ratio was 1.2:1, and maxilla: mandible ratio 1:2. The mean age of occurrence of tumors was 29 years with a peak incidence between 10 and 40 years. Conclusions: OTs are relatively common lesion in this Libyan Population, but the incidence of tumors is neither similar to Caucasians nor Sub-Saharan population. PMID:27013857

  7. Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumour of the Mandible: An Unusually Aggressive Presentation of an Indolent Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Dev, DP Arul; Michael, Manoj Joseph; Akhilesh, AV; Das, Bindu

    2016-01-01

    Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumour (CEOT) or Pindborg tumour is a rare odontogenic tumour of epithelial origin. They constitute less than 1% of odontogenic tumours. Intra-ossseous variant of CEOT are more common compared to extra-osseous variant. Although benign, these can exhibit deceptively aggressive presentation. Here we report a rare case of CEOT in a 36-year-old female patient who presented with aggressive intra-osseous lesion with cortical breach and exuberant soft tissue proliferation. The lesion was treated with resection and reconstructed with titanium reconstruction plate. PMID:27790590

  8. Valuable Radiographic Tool for Odontogenic Jaw Keratocyst Diagnosis and Surgical Planning

    PubMed Central

    Lai, R-F; Li, Z-J

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical use of cone beam computed tomography in the diagnosis of patients with odontogenic jaw keratocyst and to guide computer-aided surgical treatment planning. Methods: Imaging, image processing, and visualization technologies were used to produce clear diagnosis, provide proper treatment, and formulate favourable prognosis. Cone beam computed tomography was used to collect medical information including site, extent, shape, and other characteristic features of a patient with large odontogenic jaw keratocyst. Results: The imaging technique produced excellent results in imaging, image processing and threedimensional (3D) visualization. Conclusion: The 3D digital reconstruction model of the odontogenic jaw keratocyst was shown intuitively. PMID:25429483

  9. Anaerobic Thermophiles

    PubMed Central

    Canganella, Francesco; Wiegel, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    The term “extremophile” was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of “extreme” environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally “hot environments” on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong to the Archaea has

  10. Glandular odontogenic cyst of the maxilla: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Nigel Roque; Dinkar, Ajit Dattatray; Khorate, Manisha Maruti

    2016-01-01

    Glandular Odontogenic Cyst is a relatively rare cyst of odontogenic origin, which shows glandular or salivary features that are thought to indicate the pluripotentiality of odontogenic epithelium. It is seen in middle-aged adults, and commonly involves the anterior region of the jaws, especially the mandible. It shows non-specific clinico-radiographic findings which may resemble other lesions, but has characteristic histopathologic features which help in its diagnosis. This paper reports an unusual presentation of a glandular odontogenic cyst which was diagnosed in a 64-year old female in the posterior maxilla, along with a literature review of this cyst, especially the cases reported in India in the past. PMID:28292079

  11. A Rare Simultaneous Occurrence of Odontogenic Keratocyst and Unicystic Ameloblastoma in Mandible: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dugal, Arun Govind; Pawar, Sudhir Ramlal; Khandelwal, Saurabh Girish; Iyengar, Apoorva

    2016-01-01

    Odontogenic Keratocyst (OKC) and Ameloblastomas are slow growing benign odontogenic lesions that primarily occur in the molar region of the mandible. Clinically and radiographically both ameloblastoma, especially the Unicystic ameloblastoma and OKC are indistinguishable due to the similar location of occurrence and the age of patients. It is very rare for these lesions to arise simultaneously in a patient’s jaw. The co-occurrence of Ameloblastomas with odontogenic cysts or other odontogenic lesions (histologically in a single lesion)have already been described as combined or hybrid lesions. There are very few reported cases in the English literature for simultaneous occurrence of Unicystic Ameloblastoma and OKC as completely distinct lesions. Here we present such a rare case of the simultaneous occurrence of OKC and ameloblastoma in the posterior region of the mandible of a 22-year-old male in close relation. PMID:27656574

  12. Ameloblastic carcinoma with features of ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma in a patient with suspected Gardner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, S G; Hirsch, S A; Listinsky, C M; Lyu, D J-H; Baur, D A

    2015-04-01

    Ameloblastic carcinoma and ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma are rare malignancies arising in odontogenic epithelium within the jaws. Gardner syndrome is a multifaceted autosomal dominant condition, which results in multiple dentofacial anomalies along with premalignant colon polyp formation and tumor formation in the skin and other organs. We report a case of ameloblastic carcinoma with features of ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma and extensive clear cell change and melanin pigmentation in a patient with clinical features of Gardner syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, odontogenic carcinoma arising in a patient with features of Gardner syndrome has not been reported previously. The clinical, radiographic, and histologic features of the case are discussed along with a review of the relevant literature.

  13. The central odontogenic fibroma: How difficult can be making a preliminary diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Pippi, Roberto; Santoro, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is a rare benign odontogenic tumor derived from the dental ectomesenchymal tissues. A 16-year-old Caucasian female patient was referred by her dentist for a radiolucent asymptomatic area associated with the crown of the impacted lower right third molar. A preliminary diagnosis of a follicular cyst was supposed. The lesion was surgically removed under general anesthesia together with the impacted tooth. The microscopic diagnosis of the excised tissue revealed an odontogenic fibroma. No clinical or radiographic signs of recurrence were found five years after surgical excision. Despite the various differential diagnoses of homogeneous unilocular and well delimited radiolucencies of the jaws, enucleation with peripheral curettage, without any other pre-operative imaging exams or biopsies, can be considered as the treatment of choice. Key words:Differential diagnosis, impacted third molar, radiographic imaging, microscopic diagnosis, odontogenic fibroma. PMID:27034766

  14. Differential expression of Cyclin D1 in keratin-producing odontogenic cysts

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Sirera, Beatriz; Forner-Navarro, Leopoldo

    2015-01-01

    Objetives: The aim of the present study was to analyze the expression levels of Cyclin D1 (CCD1), a nuclear protein that plays a crucial role in cell cycle progression, in a series of keratin-producing odontogenic cysts. Study Design: A total of 58 keratin-producing odontogenic cysts, diagnosed over ten years and classified according to the WHO 2005 criteria, were immunohistochemically analyzed in terms of CCD1 expression, which was quantified in the basal, suprabasal and intermediate/superficial epithelial compartments. The extent of immunostaining was measured as a proportion of total epithelial thickness. Quantified immunohistochemical data were correlated with clinicopathological features and clinical recurrence. Results: Keratin-producing odontogenic cysts were classified as 6 syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumors (S-KCOT), 40 sporadic or non-syndromic KCOT (NS-KCOT) and 12 orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts (OOC). Immunohistochemically, CCD1 staining was evident predominantly in the parabasal region of all cystic lesions, but among-lesion differences were apparent, showing a clear expansion of parabasal compartment especially in the S-KCOT, followed to a lesser extent in the NS-KCOT, and being much more reduced in the OOC, which had the greatest average epithelial thickness. Conclusions: The differential expression of CCD1 noted in the present study suggests that dysregulation of cell cycle progression from G1 to the S phase contributes to the different aggressiveness of these lesions. However, CCD1 expression levels did not predict NS-KCOT recurrence, which is likely influenced by factors unrelated to lesion biology. Key words:Keratin-producing odontogenic cyst, keratocyst, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst, cyclin D1, immunohistochemistry. PMID:25475773

  15. Nasal Sinus Tract of Odontogenic Origin: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Sareen, Sagar; Pathak, Anjani Kumar; Purwar, Parth; Dixit, Jaya; Singhal, Divya; Sajjanhar, Isha; Goel, Kopal; Gupta, Vaibhav Sheel

    2015-01-01

    Extraoral sinus tract often poses a diagnostic challenge to the clinician owing to its rare occurrence and absence of symptoms. The accurate diagnosis and comprehensive management are inevitable as the aetiology of such lesions is often masked and requires holistic approach. The present case report encompasses the management of an extraoral discharging sinus tract at the base of the right nostril in a chronic smoker. The lesion which was earlier diagnosed to be of nonodontogenic origin persisted even after erratic treatment modalities. Our investigations showed the aetiology of sinus tract to be odontogenic. Initially, a five-step program as recommended by the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality was used for smoking cessation followed by root canal therapy (RCT) and surgical management of the sinus tract. The patient has been under stringent follow-up and no reoccurrence has been noted. PMID:26649208

  16. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor: a clinico-radio-pathological dilemma.

    PubMed

    Hada, M S; Sable, M; Kane, S V; Pai, Prathamesh S; Juvekar, S L

    2014-01-01

    The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare benign neoplasm of mandible in adults. The presentation of this entity is varied and often confused with a variety of mucosal and jaw lesions and clinical, radiological, and pathological feature of CEOT often-mimic malignancy. The objective of this report is to highlight the clinical features and radiological findings which should arouse suspicion of a benign lesion and importance of providing adequate clinical information to the pathologist to attain accurate diagnosis.We discussed two cases with tumors located in the maxilla. Both presented as expansile lesions with one biopsy proven squamous cell carcinoma. Both were pursued with clinico-radiological suspicion of benign lesions and confirmed with pathological correlation of histology and immunohistochemistry as CEOT. Therefore a High index of suspicion and clinico-radiological information are the key feature for diagnosis of this rare tumor.

  17. Rare and massive odontogenic parakeratotic cyst treated by endoscopic sinus surgery: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Keratocystic odontogenic tumors are benign neoplasms of odontogenic origin with a potential for aggressive and infiltrative behavior. Many different treatments for this type of lesion have been reported. However, no common consensus has emerged to date regarding the most effective therapeutic approach. Cases of maxillary sinus giant keratocystic odontogenic tumors completely excised by enucleation or marsupialization via endoscopic sinus surgery are extremely rare, and, to the best of our knowledge, only one case has been described in the literature since 2005. Case presentation We report a case of a 24-year-old Italian man who came to our department with maxillary sinus region swelling, pain and left nasal obstruction. A massive keratocystic odontogenic tumor involving the right maxillary sinus and causing focal erosions of the bony walls was diagnosed. The keratocystic odontogenic tumor was removed as much as possible by a transnasal approach using endoscopic sinus surgery, which produced optimal surgical and prognostic outcomes. Follow-up is reported for an 8-year period. Conclusion Conservative management in this case demonstrated good therapeutic efficacy with a low risk of recurrence. For injuries involving the maxillary sinus, the possibility of decompression or marsupialization by endoscopic sinus surgery should always be considered because it demonstrated the potential to lead to excellent results even after 8 years of follow-up in our patient. To our knowledge, no case report has described follow-up longer than 8 years for a maxillary sinus keratocystic odontogenic tumor treated with endoscopic sinus surgery. PMID:25193270

  18. The relative frequency of odontogenic tumors: A study of 376 cases in a Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Verde-Osterne, Rafael; Turatti, Eveline; Cordeiro-Teixeira, Renata

    2017-01-01

    Background Odontogenic tumors (OTs) are rare lesions, exclusive of the jaws, that are derived from epithelial and/or ectomesenchymal elements of the tooth-forming apparatus. Their biological behavior is heterogeneous, including hamartomatous tissue proliferation, benign nonaggressive and aggressive neoplasms, and malignant tumors with metastatic capacity. The aim of this study was to describe the relative frequency of odontogenic tumors in a Brazilian population. In addition, a review of the literature identified studies on odontogenic tumors that follow the 2005 World Health Organization. Material and Methods A total of 376 cases of odontogenic tumors from an oral pathology service were reviewed about age, gender, anatomic site and histologic diagnosis. Results Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (31.6%) were the most common, followed by ameloblastoma (28.5%), and odontoma (22.6%). The mean age was 32.2 years, and more than half the patients (52.1%) were in the second and third decades of life. The male to female ratio was 1:1.37, with a maxilla to mandible ratio of 1:2.08. Conclusions The variation in relative frequency of tumors observed among the several series, including the present study, is probably due in part to cultural differences between geographic areas but also to the study design. Key words:Pathology, epidemiology, odontogenic tumors. PMID:28160576

  19. A Rare Case of Extrafollicular Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour in the Posterior Region of the Mandible: Misdiagnosed as Residual Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Shivali, Vaid; Pandey, Anil; Khanna, Vidhi D; Khanna, Prateek; Singh, Ashish; Ahuja, Tarun

    2013-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is a relatively uncommon distinct odontogenic neoplasm. It is an uncommon tumor of odontogenic origin with varying number of ductlike structures and inductive changes in the stroma. It is a benign and slow growing epithelial tumor and represents 3% of all odontogenic tumors. Its occurrence is more common in anterior region of the maxilla than mandible. Most of the adenomatoid odontogenic tumors occur intra-osseously but few peripheral variant have been reported which are attached to the gingival structures. The intra-osseous Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor may be related to unerrupted tooth (follicular varient) or may not (extrafollicular varient) be related to unerrupted tooth. This paper is to present a rare case of an extrafollicular Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor occurring in the body of the mandible in a male patient which is distinct and secondly it was clinically and radiographically diagnosed as residual cyst. The diagnosis of Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor was confirmed by Histopathological investigation. How to cite this article: Shivali V, Khanna VD, Khanna P, Singh A, Pandey A, Ahuja T. A Rare Case of Extrafollicular Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour in the Posterior Region of the Mandible: Misdiagnosed as Residual Cyst. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):124-8. PMID:24324316

  20. Comparison of the benzoyl-DL-arginine-naphthylamide (BANA) test, DNA probes, and immunological reagents for ability to detect anaerobic periodontal infections due to Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Bacteroides forsythus.

    PubMed Central

    Loesche, W J; Lopatin, D E; Giordano, J; Alcoforado, G; Hujoel, P

    1992-01-01

    Most forms of periodontal disease are associated with the presence or overgrowth of anaerobic species that could include Treponema denticola, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Bacteroides forsythus among others. These three organisms are among the few cultivable plaque species that can hydrolyze the synthetic trypsin substrate benzoyl-DL-arginine-naphthylamide (BANA). In turn, BANA hydrolysis by the plaque can be associated with periodontal morbidity and with the presence of these three BANA-positive organisms in the plaque. In this investigation, the results of the BANA test, which simultaneously detects one or more of these organisms, were compared with the detection of these organisms by (i) highly specific antibodies to P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and B. forsythus; (ii) whole genomic DNA probes to P. gingivalis and T. denticola; and (iii) culturing or microscopic procedures. The BANA test, the DNA probes, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or an indirect immunofluorescence assay procedure exhibited high sensitivities, i.e., 90 ot 96%, and high accuracies, i.e., 83 to 92%, in their ability to detect combinations of these organisms in over 200 subgingival plaque samples taken from the most periodontally diseased sites in 67 patients. This indicated that if P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and B. forsythus are appropriate marker organisms for an anaerobic periodontal infection, then the three detection methods are equally accurate in their ability to diagnose this infection. The same statement could not be made for the culturing approach, where accuracies of 50 to 62% were observed. PMID:1311335

  1. Livestock Anaerobic Digester Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Anaerobic Digester Database provides basic information about anaerobic digesters on livestock farms in the United States, organized in Excel spreadsheets. It includes projects that are under construction, operating, or shut down.

  2. Odontogenic myxofibroma: A concise review of the literature with emphasis on the surgical approach

    PubMed Central

    Giovannacci, Ilaria; Corradi, Domenico; Manfredi, Maddalena; Merigo, Elisabetta; Bonanini, Mauro; Vescovi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to report a review of the literature concerning epidemiology, clinical and radiographic features as well as treatment of odontogenic myxofibroma (MF). Methods: The PubMed database was searched using the following keywords: “odontogenic myxofibroma”, “odontogenic fibromyxoma”, “myxofibroma of the jaw” and “fibromyxoma of the jaw”. Results: Fifteen articles reporting the experience with 24 patients were identified. Male/female ratio was 1:1.4 and the average age was 29.5 years. The most frequent location was the mandible. In 66.7% of the cases the radiographic appearance was a multilocular radiolucency. Swelling was observed in 13 patients (92.86%), varying degrees of pain in 5 (35.71%) and paresthesia in only one patient (7.14%). Six out of 24 patients (26.09%) were treated with radical surgery and 17 (73.91%) with a conservative approach. In two out of 21 cases (9.52%) a recurrence was reported. Conclusions: MF is an extremely rare tumor and no agreement exists on the causes of its development. According to the present review, the choice of treatment should depend on variables such as localization, presence of a primary or of a recurrent lesion, age, general medical conditions and aesthetic needs of the patient. Key words:Odontogenic myxofibroma, myxofibroma of the jaw, odontogenic tumors, oral surgery, oral pathology. PMID:25129249

  3. Calcifying odontogenic cyst associated with complex odontoma: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gallana-Alvarez, Silvia; Mayorga-Jimenez, Francisco; Torres-Gómez, Francisco Javier; Avellá-Vecino, Francisco Javier; Salazar-Fernandez, Clara

    2005-01-01

    We report a calcifying odontogenic cyst associated with odontoma (COCaO) and an included permanent canine in the superior maxilla, in a 19 year-old-man. The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) was first described as a distinct entity by Gorlin et al in 1962. The lesion is a mixed odontogenic benign tumor, and although most of the cases present cystic characteristics, a few are of the solid type (15%), and its rare malignant transformation is well documented. The COC may occur in association with other odontogenic tumors, the most common is the odontoma, occurring in about 24% of the cases. For this association the term Odontocalcifying odontogenic cyst has been suggested. Radiographically is a well defined mixed lesion and histologically consists of a large cyst. In the central area of the cyst enamel and dentin deposits can be found, irregularly distributed in areas and in other parts it takes on a well defined organoid aspect. A thorough review of literature takes place and the pathogenesis is discussed.

  4. Odontogenic epithelial proliferation is correlated with COX-2 expression in dentigerous cyst and ameloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Alsaegh, Mohammed Amjed; Miyashita, Hitoshi; Taniguchi, Takahiro; Zhu, Sheng Rong

    2017-01-01

    Investigation of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in dentigerous cyst and ameloblastoma may help to improve understanding of the nature and behavior of odontogenic cysts and tumors, and in addition may eventually represent a definitive target for a pharmacological approach in the management of these lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate COX-2 expression and its correlation with the proliferation of odontogenic epithelium in these lesions. Dentigerous cysts (n=16) and ameloblastomas (n=17) were evaluated. Detection of Ki-67 and COX-2 protein expression was conducted by immunohistochemistry. Data were statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. No significant differences were found in the expression of Ki-67 and COX-2 between dentigerous cysts and ameloblastomas (P>0.05). A significant positive correlation (P=0.018) and highly significant positive correlation (P=0.004) were found between Ki-67 and COX-2 expression in the odontogenic epithelium of dentigerous cyst and ameloblastoma, respectively. COX-2 was expressed in the odontogenic epithelium of dentigerous cyst and ameloblastoma. It may contribute to local extension of these lesions by increasing the proliferation of their odontogenic epithelial cells. PMID:28123497

  5. Evaluation of osteopontin and CD44v6 expression in odontogenic cystic lesions by immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Salehinejad, Jahanshah; Saghafi, Shadi; Sharifi, Nourieh; Zare-Mahmoodabadi, Reza; Saghravanian, Nasrollah; Ghazi, Narges; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi

    2012-07-15

    Odontogenic cysts are common lesions with different biological behavior. Odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) and calcifying odontogenic cysts (COCs) with ameloblastoma-like epithelium are more aggressive than dentigerous cysts (DCs) and radicular cysts (RCs). Therefore, they were included in the list of odontogenic tumors by WHO. Osteopontin (OPN) is a calcium-binding glycoprotein present in many normal tissues. It plays a role in the migration and invasion of transformed epithelial cells. Binding of OPN to its receptor CD44v6 can enhance cell motility and migration. The purpose of this study was to compare the expression of these markers between odontogenic cysts of varying biological behavior. We examined OPN and CD44v6 expression in tissue sections of 14OKCs, 14COCs, 14RCs and 14DCs by immunohistochemistry. OPN and CD44v6 immunostaining was observed in all lining epithelial cells of the studied lesions with different degrees. The highest level of OPN and CD44v6 expression was found in OKCs, followed by COCs, RCs and DCs. Comparison of both markers among four groups revealed significant differences (P<0.001). Our findings suggest that higher level of OPN and CD44v6 expression in epithelial cells of some lesions such as OKC and COC can explain the local aggressive behavior of them.

  6. Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma: A rare case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Alberola-Ferranti, Margarita; Hueto-Madrid, Juan Antonio; Bescós-Atín, Coro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma is a rare condition characterized by ameloblastic-like islands of epithelial cells with aberrant keratinitation in the form of Ghost cell with varying amounts of dysplastic dentina. Material and Methods: We report a case of a 70 year-old woman with a rapid onset of painful swelling right maxillary tumor. Magnetic resonance showed a huge tumor dependent on the right half of the right hard palate with invasion of the pterygoid process and focally to the second branch of the trigeminal. Radiological stage was T4N0. The patient underwent a right subtotal maxillectomy with clear margins. Adjuvant radiotherapy was given. The patient was free of residual or recurrent disease 12 months after surgery. Results: The tumor was 3,9cm in diameter. It was spongy and whitish gray. Microscopically the tumor was arranged in nets and trabeculae, occasionally forming palisade. Tumoral cells had clear cytoplasm with vesicular nuclei. There was atipia and mitosi with vascular and perineural invasion. The excised tumor was diagnosed as a GCOC. Conclusions: Ghost cell carcinoma is a rare odontogenic carcinoma. Its course is unpredictable, ranging from locally invasive tumors of slow growth to highly aggressive and infiltrative ones. Wide surgical excision with clean margins is the treatment of choice although its combination with postoperative radiation therapy, with or without chemotherapy, remains controversial. Key words:Ameloblastic carcinoma, calcifying odontogenic cyst, Ghost cell carcinoma, keratinizing epithelial odontogenic cyst, maxillary tumor, odontogenic carcinoma. PMID:25674335

  7. Rare appearance of an odontogenic myxoma in cone-beam computed tomography: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Dabbaghi, Arash; Nikkerdar, Nafiseh; Bayati, Soheyla; Golshah, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is an infiltrative benign bone tumor that occurs almost exclusively in the facial skeleton. The radiographic characteristics of odontogenic myxoma may produce several patterns, making diagnosis difficult. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) may prove extremely useful in clarifying the intraosseous extent of the tumor and its effects on surrounding structures. Here, we report a case of odontogenic myxoma of the mandible in a 27-year-old female. The patient exhibited a slight swelling in the left mandible. Surgical resection was performed. No recurrence was noted. In the CBCT sections, we observed perforation of the cortical plate and radiopaque line that extended from the periosteum, resembling "sunray" appearance—a rare feature of OM—which could not be assessed by panoramic radiography. PMID:27092217

  8. A case of odontogenic orbital cellulitis causing blindness by severe tension orbit.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Hyun; Jee, Dong Hyun; La, Tae Yoon

    2013-02-01

    We report a very rare case of odontogenic orbital cellulitis causing blindness by severe tension orbit. A 41-yr old male patient had visited the hospital due to severe periorbital swelling and nasal stuffiness while he was treated for a periodontal abscess. He was diagnosed with odontogenic sinusitis and orbital cellulitis, and treated with antibiotics. The symptoms were aggravated and emergency sinus drainage was performed. On the next day, a sudden decrease in vision occurred with findings of ischemic optic neuropathy and central retinal artery occlusion. Deformation of the eyeball posterior pole into a cone shape was found from the orbital CT. A high-dose steroid was administered immediately resulting in improvements of periorbital swelling, but the patient's vision had not recovered. Odontogenic orbital cellulitis is relatively rare, but can cause blindness via rapidly progressing tension orbit. Therefore even the simplest of dental problems requires careful attention.

  9. Mandibular intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma lesion associated with odontogenic keratocyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Park, Han-Kyul; Kim, Tae-Seop; Geum, Dong-Ho; Yoon, Sang-Yong; Song, Jae-Min; Hwang, Dae-Seok; Cho, Yeong-Cheol; Kim, Uk-Kyu

    2015-04-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common malignant tumor in the oral cavity, and it accounts for about 90% of all oral cancers. Several risk factors for oral SCC have been identified; however, SCC associated with odontogenic keratocysts have rarely been reported. The present study describes the case of a 36-year-old man with SCC of the right ramus of the mandible, which was initially diagnosed as a benign odontogenic cyst. He underwent enucleation at another hospital followed by segmental mandibulectomy and fibular free flap reconstruction at our institution. In this case, we introduce a patient with oral cancer associated with odontogenic cyst on the mandible and report a satisfactory outcome with wide resection and immediate free flap reconstruction.

  10. Mandibular intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma lesion associated with odontogenic keratocyst: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Seop; Geum, Dong-Ho; Yoon, Sang-Yong; Song, Jae-Min; Hwang, Dae-Seok; Cho, Yeong-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common malignant tumor in the oral cavity, and it accounts for about 90% of all oral cancers. Several risk factors for oral SCC have been identified; however, SCC associated with odontogenic keratocysts have rarely been reported. The present study describes the case of a 36-year-old man with SCC of the right ramus of the mandible, which was initially diagnosed as a benign odontogenic cyst. He underwent enucleation at another hospital followed by segmental mandibulectomy and fibular free flap reconstruction at our institution. In this case, we introduce a patient with oral cancer associated with odontogenic cyst on the mandible and report a satisfactory outcome with wide resection and immediate free flap reconstruction. PMID:25922819

  11. Bilateral Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumour of Mandible: A Rare Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Pragun; Mhapuskar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour (CCOT) is a relatively rare lesion of oral and maxillofacial region and forms only 2% of all odontogenic tumours. It was previously known as Calcifying odontogenic cyst and only recently has been classified as a tumour by WHO. The controversy regarding its origin can be owed to its diverse clinical and histopathological presentation and variation in reported malignant potential. It was first reported by Gorlin in 1962 and since then conundrum regarding its true nature has persisted. It is seen in association with other lesions like odontoma, ameloblastoma and ameloblastic fibroma. Both intra-osseous and extra-osseous forms of CCOT have been reported. It commnoly occurs in anterior region with equal preponderance in maxilla and mandible. Here we present a rare case of bilateral CCOT in the posterior mandible of a 16-year-old male patient which was discovered incidentally during a radiographic examination. PMID:26673837

  12. Peripheral Odontogenic Fibroma: A Rare Tumor mimicking a Gingival Reactive Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Khot, Komal; Bagri-Manjrekar, Kriti; Khot, Paresh

    2017-01-01

    Gingival growths are one of the most frequently encountered lesions in the oral cavity. A plethora of lesions can be seen having similar clinical presentation, making diagnosis a dilemma. Peripheral odontogenic tumors are rare neoplasms to occur on gingiva, the most common among them being the peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POdF). The POdF is a benign, slow-growing, exophytic lesion. Although considered to have a recurrence potential after excision, the actual recurrence rate is not known due to paucity of reported cases. Presented here is a case of a rare neoplasm mimicking an inflammatory gingival lesion with review of the available literature. How to cite this article Khot K, Deshmane S, Bagri-Manjrekar K, Khot P. Peripheral Odontogenic Fibroma: A Rare Tumor mimicking a Gingival Reactive Lesion. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):103-106. PMID:28377665

  13. Immunohistochemical features of proliferative marker and basement membrane components of two feline inductive odontogenic tumours.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroki; Mori, Takashi; Iida, Tsuneyoshi; Tokuma, Yanai; Maruo, Kouji; Masegi, Toshiaki

    2008-07-01

    Feline inductive odontogenic tumour (FIOT) is a rare and interesting odontogenic neoplasm in which the odontogenic epithelium has inductive potential to form aggregated foci of dental pulp-like mesenchymal cells. Two male cats aged 11 and 10 months presented with nasal swelling and a left maxillary mass. Histopathologically, the masses consisted of non-encapsulated invasive neoplasms exhibiting proliferation of epithelial and mesenchymal components with local infiltration into the maxillary bone in both cases. The epithelial component formed islands, anastomosing strands, and solid sheets of polygonal epithelial cells. Occasionally, these cells formed circular aggregates, resembling the cap stage of odontogenesis. Type IV collagen and laminin were constantly positive around the foci of epithelial cells, and Ki-67 positive indices were extremely low; therefore, these findings consistent with the benign clinical presentation of FIOT.

  14. Kallikrein 4 and matrix metalloproteinase-20 immunoexpression in malignant, benign and infiltrative odontogenic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Crivelini, Marcelo Macedo; Oliveira, Denise Tostes; de Mesquita, Ricardo Alves; de Sousa, Suzana Cantanhede Orsini Machado; Loyola, Adriano Motta

    2016-01-01

    Context: Matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP20) (enamelysin) and kallikrein 4 (KLK4) are enzymes secreted by ameloblasts that play an important role in enamel matrix degradation during amelogenesis. However, studies have shown that neoplastic cells can produce such enzymes, which may affect the tumor infiltrative and metastatic behaviors. Aims: The aim of this study is to assess the biological role of MMP20 and KLK4 in odontogenic tumors. Materials and Methods: The enzymes were analyzed immunohistochemically in ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, keratocystic odontogenic tumor with or without recurrence and odontogenic carcinoma. Statistical Analysis Used: Clinicopathological parameters were statistically correlated with protein expression using the Fisher's exact test. Kruskal–Wallis and Wilcoxon-independent methods were used to evaluate the differences in median values. Results: Positive Immunoexpression was detected in all benign lesions, with a prevalence of 75–100% immunolabeled cells. Patients were predominantly young, Caucasian, female, with slow-growing tumors located in the mandible causing asymptomatic swelling. No KLK4 expression was seen in carcinomas, and the amount of MMP20-positive cells varied between 20% and 80%. Rapid evolution, recurrence and age >60 years characterized the malignant nature of these lesions. Conclusions: Data showed that KLK4 and MMP20 enzymes may not be crucial to tumoral infiltrative capacity, especially in malignant tumors, considering the diversity and peculiarity of these lesions. The significant immunoexpression in benign lesions, remarkably in AOT, is likely associated with differentiated tumor cells that can produce and degrade enamel matrix-like substances. This would be expected since the histogenesis of odontogenic tumors commonly comes from epithelium that recently performed a secretory activity in tooth formation. PMID:27601817

  15. Unusual presentation of localized gingival enlargement associated with a slow-growing odontogenic myxoma

    PubMed Central

    Miranda Rius, Jaume; Nadal, Alfons; Lahor, Eduard; Mtui, Beatus; Brunet, Lluís

    2013-01-01

    Unusual presentation of localized gingival enlargement associated with a subjacent tumoural pathology is reported. The patient was a 55-year-old black male, whose chief complaint was a progressive gingival overgrowth for more than ten years, in the buccal area of the anterior left mandible. According to the clinical features and the radiological diagnosis of odontogenic keratocyst, a conservative surgery with enucleation and curettage was performed. Tissue submitted for histopathological analysis rendered the diagnosis of odontogenic myxoma. After 12-month of follow-up, no evidence of recurrence was found. Clinicians should be cautious when facing any gingival enlargement to avoid diagnostic pitfalls and to indicate the appropriate treatment. PMID:23722914

  16. Management of Recurrent Odontogenic Myxoma of Mandible: A Clinical Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Chugh, Ankita; Varghese, K George; Dwivedi, Shailendra; Goyal, Vidhi

    2016-01-01

    Odontogenic Myxoma (OM) is a slow growing painless locally aggressive tumor seen in gnathic bones and is generally asymptomatic. OM is characterized by spindle, wedge or stellate shaped cells loosely arranged in an abundant mucoid stroma. It is found incidentally on radiographs and may vary from a unilocular radiolucency to a multilocular lesion with well-defined or diffuse margins. Treatment includes surgical management that may range from simple enucleation and curettage to surgical excision including peripheral osteotomy, segmental resection, hemimandibulectomy and maxillectomy. Here we are presenting a case report on odontogenic myxoma with recurrence after conservative treatment. PMID:27891488

  17. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor associated with odontoma: a case report and critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Castro, Wagner Henriques; Gomes, Carolina Cavaliéri; Loyola, Adriano Mota

    2013-08-09

    We describe a case of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) associated with odontoma occurring in the posterior mandible of a 32-year-old man. Although calcifications are commonly found in the AOT, the presence of rudimentary dental structures is a very rare phenomenon. Cases with similar aspects have been described as ameloblastic dentinoma, ameloblastic odontoma, adenoameloblastic odontoma and AOT associated with odontoma. After a careful analysis of the literature we describe the clinical aspects of this tumor. Further case reports and surveys of odontogenic tumors are necessary to define whether AOT associated with odontoma is a variant of AOT or a distinct clinicopathologic condition.

  18. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma: a rare gingival neoplasm with clinico-pathological differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Jaiswal, Shradha; Sharma, Aanchal; Andhare, Vinod; Sabir, Husain

    2015-01-01

    The peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POdF) is a rare gingival neoplasm, characterised by relatively mature collagenous fibrous tissue and varying amounts of odontogenic epithelium. It can be described as a slow growing, firmly attached, solid and smooth gingival mass which may be present asymptomatically for years, which may cause displacement of adjacent teeth. The purpose of this article is to discuss a case of POdF, occurring in the maxillary anterior region, with detailed clinico-pathological differential diagnosis to clarify characteristic features of various gingival overgrowths to enhance easy identification.

  19. Mural Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour as Anterior Mandibular Swelling: A Diagnostic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Reena Bhola; Grewal, Jessica; Grewal, Ripin; Bansal, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour is an uncommon, benign, hamartomatous lesion that commonly affects the anterior maxilla and has two radiographic variants, follicular and extrafollicular where the former is more common than the latter. Here, we report a case of 15-year-old female with midline swelling of the mandible. Radiographically, impacted right permanent mandibular canine was associated with the radiolucent lesion. Dentigerous cyst was given as provisional diagnosis. However, histologically the lesion represented the features of cystic variant of Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour. PMID:25121073

  20. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor associated with an unerupted mandibular lateral incisor: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a rare, benign odontogenic tumor that predominantly appears in the second decade of life in female patients. Most AOTs occur in the anterior part of the maxilla and are usually associated with impacted anterior teeth. There are three types of AOT, follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral, which are classified based on the location of the lesion and its association with the impacted tooth. We report a rare case of AOT associated with an impacted right mandibular lateral incisor in an 11-year-old female patient. PMID:26734563

  1. Central Granular Cell Odontogenic Tumor: Report of a Case with CBCT Features

    PubMed Central

    Anbiaee, Najmeh; Saghafi, Shadi; Mohammadzadeh Rezaei, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Central granular cell odontogenic tumor) CGCOT) of the jaw is an exceedingly rare benign odontogenic neoplasm with 35 reported cases in the literature. Among these, very few studies have focused on the cone-beam CT features of CGCOT. Here, we report a case of an asymptomatic CGCOT in a 16-year-old girl and focus on the cone-beam CT features. Only 36 cases of this lesion, including this one, have been reported so far. The case presented is of special importance due to the young age of the patient, the posterior location of the lesion and the multilocular pattern in the cone beam CT images PMID:25628673

  2. Gram-Positive Anaerobic Cocci

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) are a heterogeneous group of organisms defined by their morphological appearance and their inability to grow in the presence of oxygen; most clinical isolates are identified to species in the genus Peptostreptococcus. GPAC are part of the normal flora of all mucocutaneous surfaces and are often isolated from infections such as deep organ abscesses, obstetric and gynecological sepsis, and intraoral infections. They have been little studied for several reasons, which include an inadequate classification, difficulties with laboratory identification, and the mixed nature of the infections from which they are usually isolated. Nucleic acid studies indicate that the classification is in need of radical revision at the genus level. Several species of Peptostreptococcus have recently been described, but others still await formal recognition. Identification has been based on carbohydrate fermentation tests, but most GPAC are asaccharolytic and use the products of protein degradation for their metabolism; the introduction of commercially available preformed enzyme kits affords a physiologically more appropriate method of identification, which is simple and relatively rapid and can be used in routine diagnostic laboratories. Recent reports have documented the isolation in pure culture of several species, notably Peptostreptococcus magnus, from serious infections. Studies of P. magnus have elucidated several virulence factors which correlate with the site of infection, and reveal some similarities to Staphylococcus aureus. P. micros is a strongly proteolytic species; it is increasingly recognized as an important pathogen in intraoral infections, particularly periodontitis, and mixed anaerobic deep-organ abscesses. Comparison of antibiotic susceptibility patterns reveals major differences between species. Penicillins are the antibiotics of choice, although some strains of P. anaerobius show broad-spectrum β-lactam resistance. PMID:9457430

  3. Expression of cell cycle and apoptosis-related proteins in ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor.

    PubMed

    Metgud, Rashmi; Gupta, Kanupriya

    2013-12-01

    Tumors arising from epithelium of the odontogenic apparatus or from its derivatives or remnants exhibit considerable histologic variation and are classified into several benign and malignant entities. A high proliferative activity of the odontogenic epithelium in ameloblastoma (AM) and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) has been demonstrated in some studies individually. However, very few previous studies have simultaneously evaluated cell proliferation and apoptotic indexes in AM and KCOT, comparing both lesions. The aim of this study was to assess and compare cell proliferation and apoptotic rates between these two tumors. Specimens of 15 solid AM and 15 KCOT were evaluated. The proliferation index (PI) was assessed by immunohistochemical detection of Ki-67 and the apoptotic index (AI) by methyl green-pyronin stain. KCOT presented a higher PI than AM (P < .05). No statistically significant difference was found in the AI between AM and KCOT. PI and AI were higher in the peripheral cells of AM and respectively in the suprabasal and superficial layers of KCOT. In conclusion, KCOT showed a higher cell proliferation than AM and the AI was similar between these tumors. These findings reinforce the classification of KCOT as an odontogenic tumor and should contribute to its aggressive clinical behavior.

  4. Immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine Motility Factor Receptor in Odontogenic Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Sneha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Autocrine motility factor receptor (AMFR) is a tumour motility stimulating protein secreted by tumour cells. The protein encoded by this gene is a glycosylated transmembrane protein and a receptor for autocrine motility factor. It has been known to play a role in progression of neoplastic lesions. Basement membranes are specialized extracellular matrices that serve as structural barriers as well as substrates for cellular interactions. The network of type IV collagen is thought to define the scaffold integrating other components such as laminins and perlecan into highly organized supramolecular architecture. The aim of this study was to determine and evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine motility factor receptor in odontogenic lesions. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine motility factor receptor was evaluated in 31 odontogenic lesions, including unicystic ameloblastoma, multicystic ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumour and ameloblastic carcinoma. Normal follicular tissue formed the control. Results: Maximum expression for Type IV Collagen was seen in multicystic ameloblastoma and minimum expression in keratocystic odontogenic tumour. The maximum expression of AMFR was seen in ameloblastic carcinoma and minimum expression in multicystic ameloblastoma. Conclusion: The results of this study suggested an association of loss of expression of type IV Collagen with progression of lesion. AMFR expression was found to be associated with the aggressive potential of tumours. PMID:25478440

  5. CD166 expression in dentigerous cyst, keratocystic odontogenic tumor and ameloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Gorgizadeh, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background CD166 is a glycoprotein of an immunoglobulin super family of adhesion molecules that has been associated with aggressive characteristics and high recurrence rate of tumors. Different odontogenic lesions exhibit considerable histological variation and different clinical behavior. In an attempt to clarify the mechanisms underlying this different behavior, the present study investigates the immunohistochemical expression of CD166 in these lesions. Material and Methods In this study 69 formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue blocks of odontogenic lesion consist of 15 unicystic ameloblastoma (UA), 17 solid ameloblastoma (SA), 18 keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT), and 19 dentigerous cysts (DC) were reviewed by immunohistochemistry for CD166 staining. Results In this study, CD166 immune staining was evident in all specimen groups except dentigerous cyst. In positive cases, protein localization was cytoplasmic and/or membranous. CD166 expression was seen in76.5% (13) of SA, 73.5% (11) of UA, and 66.7% (12) of KCOTs. Statistical analysis showed that CD166 expression levels were significantly higher in ameloblastoma (SA and UA) and KCOTs than dentigerous cyst (P <0.001), but there was no statistically significant difference between CD166 expression in the other groups (P>0.05). Conclusions This data demonstrates that overexpression of CD166 may have a role in the pathogenesis of ameloblastoma and KCOT. Key words:CD166, ameloblastoma, dentigerous cyst, odontogenic keratocyst. PMID:27398171

  6. The orosomucoid 1 protein (α1 acid glycoprotein) is overexpressed in odontogenic myxoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a benign, but locally invasive, neoplasm occurring in the jaws. However, the molecules implicated in its development are unknown. OM as well as Dental Follicle (DF), an odontogenic tissue surrounding the enamel organ, is derived from ectomesenchymal/mesencyhmal elements. To identify some protein that could participate in the development of this neoplasm, total proteins from OM were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and the profiles were compared with those obtained from DF, used as a control. Results We identified eight proteins with differential expression; two of them were downregulated and six upregulated in OM. A spot consistently overexpressed in odontogenic myxoma, with a molecular weight of 44-kDa and a pI of 3.5 was identified as the orosomucoid 1 protein. Western blot experiments confirmed the overexpression of this protein in odontogenic myxoma and immunohistochemical assays showed that this protein was mainly located in the cytoplasm of stellate and spindle-shaped cells of this neoplasm. Conclusion Orosomucoid 1, which belongs to a group of acute-phase proteins, may play a role in the modulation of the immune system and possibly it influences the development of OM. PMID:22888844

  7. Eruption of an impacted canine in an adenomatid odontogenic tumor treated with combined orthodontic and surgical therapy.

    PubMed

    Erdur, Emire Aybuke; Ileri, Zehra; Ugurluoglu, Ceyhan; Cakir, Mustafa; Dolanmaz, Dogan

    2016-06-01

    An adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is an uncommon asymptomatic lesion that is often misdiagnosed as a dentigerous cyst. It originates from the odontogenic epithelium. Enucleation and curettage is the usual treatment of choice. Marsupialization may be attempted instead of extraction of the impacted tooth, since it provides an opportunity for tooth eruption. This case report is the first to report on the eruption of an impacted canine in an adenomatoid odontogenic tumor treated with combined orthodontics and marsupialization. The impacted canine erupted uneventfully, with no evidence of recurrence 3 years after the treatment.

  8. An unusually large aggressive adenomatoid odontogenic tumor of maxilla involving the third molar: A clinical case report

    PubMed Central

    Dhupar, Vikas; Akkara, Francis; Khandelwal, Pulkit

    2016-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a rare tumor comprising only 3% of all odontogenic tumors. It is a benign, encapsulated, noninvasive, nonaggressive, slowly growing odontogenic lesion associated with an impacted tooth. These lesions may go unnoticed for years. The usual treatment is enucleation and curettage, and the lesion does not recur. Here, we present a rare case of an unusually large aggressive AOT of maxilla associated with impacted third molar. The authors also discuss clinical, radiographic, histopathologic, and therapeutic features of the case. Subtotal maxillectomy with simultaneous reconstruction of the surgical defect with temporalis myofascial flap was planned and carried out. PMID:27095910

  9. Anaerobic thermophilic culture

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Wiegel, Jurgen K. W.

    1981-01-01

    A newly discovered thermophilic anaerobe is described that was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC 3/550. T. Ethanolicus is cultured in aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions and is used in a novel process for producing ethanol by subjecting carbohydrates, particularly the saccharides, to fermentation action of the new microorganism in a biologically pure culture.

  10. Insight into the maintenance of odontogenic potential in mouse dental mesenchymal cells based on transcriptomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pengfei; Yang, Dandan; Hu, Waner; Chen, Shubin; Zhao, Yuming; Cai, Jinglei; Pei, Duanqing

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mouse dental mesenchymal cells (mDMCs) from tooth germs of cap or later stages are frequently used in the context of developmental biology or whole-tooth regeneration due to their odontogenic potential. In vitro-expanded mDMCs serve as an alternative cell source considering the difficulty in obtaining primary mDMCs; however, cultured mDMCs fail to support tooth development as a result of functional failures of specific genes or pathways. The goal of this study was to identify the genes that maintain the odontogenic potential of mDMCs in culture. Methods. We examined the odontogenic potential of freshly isolated versus cultured mDMCs from the lower first molars of embryonic day 14.5 mice. The transcriptome of mDMCs was detected using RNA sequencing and the data were validated by qRT-PCR. Differential expression analysis and pathway analysis were conducted to identify the genes that contribute to the loss of odontogenic potential. Results. Cultured mDMCs failed to develop into well-structured tooth when they were recombined with dental epithelium. Compared with freshly isolated mDMCs, we found that 1,004 genes were upregulated and 948 were downregulated in cultured mDMCs. The differentially expressed genes were clustered in the biological processes and signaling pathways associated with tooth development. Following in vitro culture, genes encoding a wide array of components of MAPK, TGF-β/BMP, and Wnt pathways were significantly downregulated. Moreover, the activities of Bdnf, Vegfα, Bmp2, and Bmp7 were significantly inhibited in cultured mDMCs. Supplementation of VEGFα, BMP2, and BMP7 restored the expression of a subset of downregulated genes and induced mDMCs to form dentin-like structures in vivo. Conclusions. Vegfα, Bmp2, and Bmp7 play a role in the maintenance of odontogenic potential in mDMCs. PMID:26925321

  11. Keratocystic odontogenic tumor: A biopsy service’s experience with 104 solitary, multiple and recurrent lesions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a clinically significant cystic lesion of odontogenic origin. This study aimed to retrospectively review and describe the clinicopathologic features of KCOT and to objectively compare the clinical and histological features of solitary, multiple and recurrent KCOT in a Saudi Arabian population. Material and Methods Biopsy request forms, pathology records and archival materials (all histological slides) of 104 cases of KCOT from 75 patients were retrieved. Demographic and clinical details as well as histological evaluation were analyzed and compared between the 3 groups using chi-squared or Mann-Whitney tests of association as appropriate. Results Significant differences were noted in the age of presentation, location and association with impaction between multiple and solitary cases. Histologically, there was a difference in the mitotic count, presence of satellite cysts and proliferating odontogenic epithelium between solitary and multiple lesions. There was no difference between the KCOT that later recurred and solitary lesion which did not recur even when matched clinically for age, sex and location. There were differences when solitary KCOT that later recurred or recurrent KCOT were compared with multiple lesions. Multiple lesions still had more significant proliferative activity parameters than solitary recurrence-related KCOT. Conclusions KCOTs in Saudi Arabians are not different from those reported from other parts of the world. Clinical and histological analyses showed multiple KCOT is different from its solitary recurrent or non-recurrent counterparts and has a higher proliferative activity than both. Clinicohistologic features alone cannot wholly explain the behavior of KCOT. Key words:Descriptive study, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, odontogenic keratocyst, solitary, multiple, recurrent. PMID:27475695

  12. Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    standing, diagnosis, and treatment of musculoskeletal infections. Key Words: musculoskeletal infection, biofilm , bacteria, biomaterial (J Orthop Trauma...form a biofilm , or slime layer.1 The recurrence of infections is often the result of microbial biofilm formation on the implant, enabling the persistence...Klebsiella pneumoniae). Staphylococcus species is by far the most studied pathogen in musculoskeletal infections and can produce a multilayered biofilm

  13. Pseudomonas aeruginosa anaerobic respiration in biofilms: relationships to cystic fibrosis pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sang Sun; Hennigan, Robert F; Hilliard, George M; Ochsner, Urs A; Parvatiyar, Kislay; Kamani, Moneesha C; Allen, Holly L; DeKievit, Teresa R; Gardner, Paul R; Schwab, Ute; Rowe, John J; Iglewski, Barbara H; McDermott, Timothy R; Mason, Ronald P; Wozniak, Daniel J; Hancock, Robert E W; Parsek, Matthew R; Noah, Terry L; Boucher, Richard C; Hassett, Daniel J

    2002-10-01

    Recent data indicate that cystic fibrosis (CF) airway mucus is anaerobic. This suggests that Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in CF reflects biofilm formation and persistence in an anaerobic environment. P. aeruginosa formed robust anaerobic biofilms, the viability of which requires rhl quorum sensing and nitric oxide (NO) reductase to modulate or prevent accumulation of toxic NO, a byproduct of anaerobic respiration. Proteomic analyses identified an outer membrane protein, OprF, that was upregulated approximately 40-fold under anaerobic versus aerobic conditions. Further, OprF exists in CF mucus, and CF patients raise antisera to OprF. An oprF mutant formed poor anaerobic biofilms, due, in part, to defects in anaerobic respiration. Thus, future investigations of CF pathogenesis and therapy should include a better understanding of anaerobic metabolism and biofilm development by P. aeruginosa.

  14. Recurrent odontogenic ghost cell carcinoma (OGCC) at a reconstructed fibular flap: a case report with immunohistochemical findings.

    PubMed

    Li, B-H; Cho, Y-A; Kim, S-M; Kim, M-J; Hong, S-P; Lee, J-H

    2011-08-01

    Odontogenic ghost cell carcinoma (OGCC), a malignant counterpart of the odontogenic ghost cell tumor (OGCT), with aggressive growth characteristics, is exceedingly rare. A painful swelling in the jaw with local paresthesia is the most common symptom. We described a case of 47-year Korean woman who had a rare central epithelial odontogenic ghost cell carcinoma which recurred at reconstructed fibular flap. Immunohistochemical differences between OGCT and OGCC analyzed using primary and recurred surgical specimen. On the basis of this case, the tumor started as an OGCT and transformed into OGCC with highly aggressive, rapidly growing, infiltrative tumors. Our findings suggest that some of the cytokines produced by ghost cells may play important roles in causing extensive bone resorption in the odontogenic ghost cell carcinoma. Wide local excision with histologically clean margins is the treatment mode of selection. Also, we recommend close long-term surveillance of OGCT because of high recurrence and potential for malignancy transformation.

  15. Odontogenic keratocyst in a 5-year-old child: a rare cause of maxillary swelling in children.

    PubMed

    Smith, I M; Harvey, N; Logan, R M; David, D J; Anderson, P J

    2008-01-01

    Odontogenic keratocysts in children are uncommon. They are cysts of the jaws that have a tendency for recurrence and are usually seen in adults. We report an exceptionally rare case in a young child and discuss its management.

  16. Anaerobic performance at altitude.

    PubMed

    Coudert, J

    1992-10-01

    Anaerobic metabolism is usually evaluated by the determination of the anaerobic capacity and the maximal anaerobic mechanical external power (Wmax). Conflicting results are reported on anaerobic capacity evaluated by maximal oxygen deficit and debt, and maximal blood lactate concentration during acute or chronic hypoxia (acclimatized subjects). Data on muscle biopsies (lactate concentration, changes in ATP, phosphocreatine and glycogen stores, glycolytic enzyme activities) and the few studies on lactate flux give in most cases evidence of a non-alteration of the anaerobic capacity for altitudes up to 5,500 m. No differences are observed in Wmax measured at high altitudes up to 5,200 m during intense short-term exercises: (1) jumps on a force platform which is a good indicator of alactic Wmax, and (2) 7-10 s sprints (i.e. force-velocity test) which solicit alactic metabolism but also lactic pathway. For exercises of duration equal or more than 30 s (i.e. Wingate test), there are conflicting results because a lower participation of aerobic metabolism during this test at high altitude can interfere with anaerobic performance. In conclusion, we can admit that anaerobic performances are not altered by high altitudes up to 5,200 m if the length of exposure does not exceed 5 weeks. After this period, muscle mass begins to decrease.

  17. Decompression Device Using a Stainless Steel Tube and Wire for Treatment of Odontogenic Cystic Lesions: A Technical Report.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eun-Joo; Baek, Jin-A; Leem, Dae-Ho

    2014-11-01

    Decompression is considered an effective treatment for odontogenic cystic lesions in the jaw. A variety of decompression devices are successfully used for the treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumors, radicular cysts, dentigerous cysts, and ameloblastoma. The purpose of these devices is to keep an opening between the cystic lesion and the oral environment during treatment. The aim of this report is to describe an effective decompression tube using a stainless steel tube and wire for treatment of jaw cystic lesions.

  18. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  19. Recovery of anaerobic, facultative, and aerobic bacteria from clinical specimens in three anaerobic transport systems.

    PubMed

    Helstad, A G; Kimball, J L; Maki, D G

    1977-06-01

    With aspirated specimens from clinical infections, we evaluated the recovery of anaerobic, aerobic, and facultative bacteria in three widely used transport systems: (i) aspirated fluid in a gassed-out tube (FGT), (ii) swab in modified Cary and Blair transport medium (SCB), and (iii) swab in a gassed-out tube (SGT). Transport tubes were held at 25 degrees C and semiquantitatively sampled at 0, 2, 24, and 48 h. Twenty-five clinical specimens yielded 75 anaerobic strains and 43 isolates of facultative and 3 of aerobic bacteria. Only one anaerobic isolate was not recovered in the first 24 h, and then, only in the SGT. At 48 h, 73 anaerobic strains (97%) were recovered in the FGT, 69 (92%) in the SCB, and 64 (85%) in the SGT. Two problems hindered the recovery of anaerobes in the SCB and SGT systems: first die-off of organisms, as evidenced by a decrease in colony-forming units of 20 strains (27%) in the SCB and 25 strains (33%) in the SGT, as compared with 7 strains (9%) in the FGT, over 48 h; and second, overgrowth of facultative bacteria, more frequent with SCB and SGT. The FGT method was clearly superior at 48 h to the SCB and SGT systems in this study and is recommended as the preferred method for transporting specimens for anaerobic culture.

  20. Anaerobic brain abscess

    PubMed Central

    Sudhaharan, Sukanya; Chavali, Padmasri

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Brain abscess remains a potentially fatal central nervous system (CNS) disease, especially in developing countries. Anaerobic abscess is difficult to diagnose because of cumbersome procedures associated with the isolation of anaerobes. Materials and Methods: This is a hospital-based retrospective microbiological analysis of 430 brain abscess materials (purulent aspirates and/or tissue), for anaerobic organisms, that were received between 1987–2014, by the Microbiology Laboratory in our Institute. Results: Culture showed growth of bacteria 116/430 (27%) of the cases of which anaerobes were isolated in 48/116 (41.1%) of the cases. Peptostreptococcus (51.4 %), was the predominant organism isolated in four cases followed by Bacteroides and Peptococcus species. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and detection of these organisms would help in the appropriate management of these patients. PMID:27307977

  1. Multicentric Squamous Odontogenic Tumor: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Elmuradi, Sophia; Mair, Yasmin; Suresh, Lakshmanan; DeSantis, James; Neiders, Mirdza; Aguirre, Alfredo

    2016-09-08

    Squamous odontogenic tumor (SOT) is a rare benign epithelial odontogenic neoplasm of the jaws. Both intraosseous and peripheral SOTs have been described in the English language literature. While most intraosseous SOTs occur as solitary lesions, a multicentric variant has also been previously described. Although the radiographic and microscopic features are identical for both solitary and multicentric clinical presentations, there are three significant differences between them. More specifically, multicentric SOT presents at an earlier age (third decade of life), has a slightly higher male to female ratio than the solitary type and has a marked predilection for African-Americans. Here we document the eighth reported case of multicentric SOT, which was diagnosed in a 43-year-old African-American male. In addition, we feature focal sebaceous metaplasia, a heretofore unknown microscopic feature of SOT. Clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings are discussed. The differential diagnosis, biological behavior and management modalities for SOT are also addressed.

  2. Conservative approach to recurrent calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor occupying the maxillary sinus: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) is an uncommon benign cystic neoplasm of the jaw that develops from the odontogenic epithelium. Invasion into the maxillary sinus by a CCOT is not a typical, and the recurrence of the cystic variant of CCOT in the posterior maxilla is rare. This report describes a recurrent CCOT occupying most of the maxillary sinus of a 24-year-old male patient. As a treatment, marsupialization was carried out as a means of decompression, and the involved teeth were all endodontically treated. Afterward, surgical enucleation was performed. The size of the lesion continued to shrink after marsupialization, and the maxillary sinus restored its volume. This patient has been followed-up for 3 years after the surgery, and there have not been any signs of recurrence. PMID:27847742

  3. Oral pulse granuloma associated with keratocystic odontogenic tumor: Report of a case and review on etiopathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S.; Angadi, Punnya V.; Mane, Deepa R.; Hallikerimath, Seema R.

    2011-01-01

    Pulse granuloma is a distinct oral entity characterized as a foreign body reaction occurring either centrally or peripherally. It is usually seen in the periapical or in the sulcus area. Occasionally the lesions occur in the wall of the cyst, commonest being the inflammatory odontogenic cyst. Histologically, they present as eosinophilic hyaline mass with giant cell inclusions and inflammatory cells. They may show different histological characteristics, possibly related to the length of time in the tissue. Adequate recognition is important to avoid misdiagnosis. Many authors suggest that pulse granuloma results due to implantation of food particles of plant or vegetable origin into the tissue following tooth extraction. This paper aims to report a case of pulse granuloma associated with keratocystic odontogenic tumor with its histochemical and polarizing microscopic features and discuss on etiopathogenesis of pulse granuloma. PMID:23482677

  4. Amyloid-Producing Odontogenic Tumors of the Facial Skin in Three Cats.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, K; Endoh, C; Kagawa, Y; Ohmachi, T; Yamagami, T; Nomura, K; Matsuda, K; Okamoto, M; Taniyama, H

    2017-03-01

    Amyloid-producing odontogenic tumors (APOTs) of the facial skin were diagnosed in 3 domestic cats. The neoplasms had the histopathological characteristics of the odontogenic tumor. The neoplastic cells were present in irregular islands, strands, and sheets. The peripheral neoplastic cells of the islands and strands were arranged in a palisading fashion, while the central cells were polyhedral to stellate and randomly arranged. Multiple spherules of homogeneous eosinophilic material were closely apposed to the neoplastic epithelial cells. The spherules stained with Congo red and produced an apple green birefringence under polarization microscopy, indicative of amyloid. Immunohistochemically, amyloid materials of the neoplasms reacted with polyclonal antibodies for ameloblastin, amelogenin, and sheathlin antibodies. Neoplastic epithelial cells also reacted with antiameloblastin, amelogenin, and sheathlin antibodies, with varied intensity. The histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of dermal neoplasms of the 3 cats were analogous to those of APOTs reported in the dog and the cat.

  5. The junctional epithelium originates from the odontogenic epithelium of an erupted tooth.

    PubMed

    Yajima-Himuro, Sara; Oshima, Masamitsu; Yamamoto, Gou; Ogawa, Miho; Furuya, Madoka; Tanaka, Junichi; Nishii, Kousuke; Mishima, Kenji; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Tsuji, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo

    2014-05-02

    The junctional epithelium (JE) is an epithelial component that is directly attached to the tooth surface and has a protective function against periodontal diseases. In this study, we determined the origin of the JE using a bioengineered tooth technique. We transplanted the bioengineered tooth germ into the alveolar bone with an epithelial component that expressed green fluorescence protein. The reduced enamel epithelium from the bioengineered tooth fused with the oral epithelium, and the JE was apparently formed around the bioengineered tooth 50 days after transplantation. Importantly, the JE exhibited green fluorescence for at least 140 days after transplantation, suggesting that the JE was not replaced by oral epithelium. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the origin of the JE was the odontogenic epithelium, and odontogenic epithelium-derived JE was maintained for a relatively long period.

  6. Cone Beam Computed Tomography Findings in Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumor Associated with Odontome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Phulambrikar, Tushar; Vilas Kant, Sanchita; Kode, Manasi; Magar, Shaliputra

    2015-01-01

    The calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) is a rare cystic odontogenic neoplasm frequently found in association with odontome. This report documents a case of CCOT associated with an odontome arising in the anterior maxilla in a 28-year-old man. Conventional radiographs showed internal calcification within the lesion but were unable to visualize its relation with the adjacent structures and its accurate extent. In this case cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) could accurately reveal the extent and the internal structure of the lesion which aided the presumptive diagnosis of the lesion as CCOT. This advanced imaging technique proved to be extremely useful in the radiographic assessment and management of this neoplasm of the maxilla. PMID:26636128

  7. Obstruction of the eruption pathway by peripheral odontogenic fibroma: report of a patient.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Giulio Alessandri; Marini, Ida; Zucchelli, Giovanni; Checchi, Luigi

    2008-02-01

    The diagnostic process and interdisciplinary treatment of a healthy 12-year-old boy with impactions due to a localized peripheral odontogenic fibroma are presented. The treatment consisted of the surgical excision of the peripheral odontogenic fibroma and interceptive orthodontic treatment with an activator appliance to allow the passive eruption of the impacted teeth. Complete orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances was used later to level and coordinate the arches. This report illustrates the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of tooth impactions associated with diffuse gingival enlargement. The cooperation of various specialists in making a differential diagnosis, developing a comprehensive plan for conservative treatment, and delivering excellent care led to a successful result for this patient.

  8. Expression of cytokeratin in the epithelium of dentigerous cysts and odontogenic keratocysts: an aid to diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, A W; Fletcher, A

    1989-01-01

    Sections of tissue embedded in paraffin wax from 18 selected odontogenic cysts were studied both histologically and immunohistochemically with antibodies to cytokeratins using the indirect peroxidase technique. The cysts were divided on a clinical and histological basis into two equal groups comprising dentigerous cysts and odontogenic keratocysts. It was possible to differentiate the two cyst types in every case by the pattern of staining using the monoclonal antibody LP34 for cytokeratins of intermediate molecular weight. The monoclonal antibody CAM 5.2 for cytokeratins of low molecular weight was not discriminatory. Such a clear distinction may prove useful diagnostically in distinguishing between two cysts of similar appearance but very different behaviour. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:2474580

  9. Advanced diagnostic imaging and surgical treatment of an odontogenic retromasseteric abscess in a guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Capello, V; Lennox, A

    2015-02-01

    A two-year-old guinea pig presented for difficulty chewing. Examination and diagnostic imaging, including computed tomography and magnetic resonance, revealed an odontogenic retromasseteric abscess associated with a mandibular cheek tooth. Treatment included removal of the abscess and marsupialisation of the surgical site for repeated debridement and healing by second intention. Unique features of this case included the use of advanced diagnostic imaging and utilisation of marsupialisation for surgical correction.

  10. p53, p63 and p73 expression and angiogenesis in keratocystic odontogenic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Chandrangsu, Soranun

    2016-01-01

    Background Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTSs) are odontogenic tumors previously referred to as odontogenic keratocysts. Several studies have reported that KCOT behavior is more like that of a benign neoplasm than a cyst. KCOTs are locally destructive and exhibit a high recurrence rate. The objective of this study is to characterize the expression of p53, p63 and p73 in KCOTs together with the relationship between their expression and KCOT angiogenesis and recurrence. Material and Methods Standard indirect immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies specific to human p53, p63, p73 and CD105 was performed in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 39 KCOT samples. Grading of p53, p63 and p73 immunohistochemical staining was divided into three groups, whereas microvessel density (MVD) was presented as the mean +/- standard deviation. Associations between p53, p63 and p73 expression and clinical-pathological parameters were analyzed by Fisher’s exact test, whereas associations among MVD levels, clinical and pathological parameters and p53, p63 and p73 expression were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test. Correlations among p53, p63, p73 and MVD levels were analyzed using Spearman’s correlation coefficients. For all analyses, p< 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Results p53, p63 and p73 expression was noted in 23, 32 and 26 of 39 KCOT cases, respectively. The mean MVD was 26.7 ± 15.8 per high-power field. In addition, correlations between the expression levels of p53, p63, p73 and MVD in KCOT were examined. Statistically significant positive relationships were noted for all proteins (p<0.001). Conclusions Three members of the p53 protein family are expressed in KCOTs, and their expression relates to angiogenesis in these tumors. Key words:p53, p63, p73, angiogenesis, keratocystic odontogenic tumors. PMID:27957261

  11. Central odontogenic fibroma: a case report with long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Brazão-Silva, Marco T; Fernandes, Alexandre V; Durighetto-Júnior, Antônio F; Cardoso, Sérgio V; Loyola, Adriano M

    2010-08-13

    An osteolytic tumour of the mandible with prominent expansive growth on the alveolar ridge and displacement of the involved teeth is described in a 28-year-old man. The lesion was diagnosed as a central odontogenic fibroma, an uncommon benign neoplasm derived from dental apparatus, and was removed by curettage. The patient remains asymptomatic after thirteen years of follow-up, which supports the claimed indolent behavior of this poorly documented disease and the adequacy of a conservative surgical treatment.

  12. Expression of CK14 and vimentin in adenomatoid odontogenic tumor and dentigerous cyst

    PubMed Central

    Sudhakara, Muniswamappa; Rudrayya, S Puranik; Vanaki, Srineevas S; Bhullar, RamanPreet Kaur; Shivakumar, MS; Hosur, Mahadevi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Origin of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) has long been a controversy, and the issue of it being a neoplasm or hamartoma was a subject of debate for a long time. Earlier it was grouped under a mixed group of odontogenic tumors considering the varying degrees of inductive changes. Recently, the WHO classification states that the presence of hard tissue within AOT was not due to induction but was rather a metaplastically produced mineralization and hence the tumor was reclassified under a group of tumors arising from odontogenic epithelium. This study is an attempt to identify if both epithelial (cytokeratin 14 [CK14]) and mesenchymal (vimentin) markers are expressed in the follicular and extrafollicular variants of AOT and to compare the expression with dentigerous cyst (DC) as this cyst is known to arise from reduced enamel epithelium which expressed CK14. This is done to possibly relate the origin of AOT with reduced enamel epithelium. Aims and Objectives: To study, analyze and correlate the expression of CK14 and vimentin in AOT and DC. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study on paraffin embedded tissues. Sixteen cases of AOT and 15 cases of DC were retrieved from the departmental archives and subjected to CK14 and vimentin immunostaining. Statistical Methods: Measures of central tendency was used to analyze the results. Results and Observations: Ninety percent of cases of follicular AOT (FAOT) and 100% cases of extra-follicular AOTs (EAOTs) showed positivity for CK14 and all cases of DC showed positivity for CK14. Vimentin was positive in 44% and negative in 56% cases of both FAOT and EAOT taken together. Conclusion: The CK14 expression profile in AOT and DC supports its odontogenic epithelial specific nature. The possible role of reduced enamel epithelium and dental lamina in histogenesis of AOT and DC is strongly evident by their CK14 expression pattern. PMID:27721599

  13. Dentigerous Cyst or Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor: Clinical Radiological and Histopathological Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Shivesh; Goyal, Ashima; Rattan, Vidya; Vaiphei, Kim; Kaur Bhatia, Sarabjot

    2014-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a well-recognised slow growing benign tumor derived from complex system of dental lamina or its remnants. This lesion is categorised into three variants of which the more common variant is follicular type which is often mistaken for dentigerous cyst. We present a case of AOT in a 14-year-old male who was misdiagnosed as dentigerous cyst. Clinical radiological and therapeutic characteristics of the case are commented on in detail. PMID:25097553

  14. Porcine tooth germ cell conditioned medium can induce odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin-Xiong; Ma, Zhao-Feng; Huo, Na; Tang, Liang; Han, Chun; Duan, Yin-Zhong; Jin, Yan

    2011-05-01

    It is suggested that the differentiation of tooth-derived stem cells is modulated by the local microenvironment in which they reside. Previous studies have indicated that tooth germ cell-conditioned medium (TGC-CM) holds the potential to induce dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) to differentiate into the odontogenic lineage. Nevertheless, human TGC-CM (hTGC-CM) is not feasible in practical application, so we conjectured that xenogenic TGC-CM might exert a similar influence on human dental stem cells. In this study, we chose swine as the xenogenic origin and compared the effect of porcine tooth germ cell-conditioned medium (pTGC-CM) with its human counterpart on human DPSCs. Morphological appearance, colony-forming assay, in vitro multipotential ability, protein and gene expression of the odontogenic phenotype and the in vivo differentiation capacity of DPSCs were evaluated. The results showed that pTGC-CM exerted a similar effect to hTGC-CM in inducing human DPSCs to present odontogenic changes, which were indicated by remarkable morphological changes, higher multipotential capability and the expression of some odontogenic markers in gene and protein levels. Besides, the in vivo results showed that pTGC-CM-treated DPSCs, similar to hTGC-CM-treated DPSCs, could form a more regular dentine-pulp complex. Our data provided the first evidence that pTGC-CM is able to exert almost the same effect on DPSCs with hTGC-CM. The observations suggest that the application of xenogenic TGC-CM may facilitate generating bioengineered teeth from tooth-derived stem cells in future.

  15. The early history of odontogenic ghost cell lesions: from Thoma to Gorlin.

    PubMed

    Ide, Fumio; Kikuchi, Kentaro; Miyazaki, Yuji; Kusama, Kaoru; Saito, Ichiro; Muramatsu, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    To reappraise the early history of odontogenic ghost cell lesions (OGCL), the extensive world literature published from 1838 to 1962 was reviewed. In light of the long history of OGCL, the term "calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe" first appeared in a 1931 French report, and the term "ghost cells" had its origin in two American seminal articles by Thoma and Goldman in 1946. Although Gorlin et al. coined the term "calcifying odontogenic cyst" (COC) in 1962, this type of cyst was initially reported three decades earlier by Rywkind in Russia, and almost concurrently by Blood good in the United States and Sato in Japan. In 1948, Willis provided the initial histological evidence of a peripheral COC in his British pathology textbook. Credit for the earliest clinical presentation of odontoma associated calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor belongs to the American radiology textbook by Thoma in 1917. A Scandinavian journal report published in 1953 by Husted and Pindborg was the first to address a dentinogenic ghost cell tumor, and its peripheral counterpart was originally reported in the Swiss literature 7 years later. The current concept of COC was undoubtedly established by Gorlin et al. but the history of OGCL really started with Thoma's pioneering work about a century ago.

  16. Evidence of loss of heterozygosity of the PTCH gene in orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Marina Gonçalves; Galvão, Clarice Ferreira; Macedo, Paula Serelle; Gomes, Carolina Cavaliéri; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

    2011-03-01

    The orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is an odontogenic cyst of unknown etiology. Clinical, histological, and biological differences are reported between keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KOT) and OOC. PTCH is a tumor suppressor gene related to sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway important in embryological development. Considering that alterations in this pathway have been described in sporadic and nevoid basal cell syndrome-associated KOT, we tested the hypothesis that OOC is also associated with loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the PTCH gene. Seven samples of OOC and seven of KOT were included in the study. D9S287, D9S196, and D9S127 microsatellite markers located in the region of PTCH gene, at chromosome 9q, were investigated for LOH. There was loss in at least one locus in 5/7 KOT and in 4/7 OOC samples. The present finding demonstrates that, despite the existence of clinical, morphological, immunohistochemical, and biological behavior differences between OOC and KOT, both harbor similar genetic alterations at 9q.

  17. Odontogenic tumors in Port Harcourt: South–South geopolitical zone of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Iyogun, CA; Omitola, OG; Ukegheson, GE

    2016-01-01

    Aim: A retrospective study of odontogenic tumors (OTs) in Port Harcourt was undertaken to establish its prevalence and compare with known data in the literature from Nigeria and elsewhere. Materials and Methods: All pathologically diagnosed OTs between 2008 and 2013 at the archives of the Department of Oral Pathology and Oral Biology of the University of Port Harcourt/University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital were retrospectively studied and classified according to the 2005 WHO classification of OTs and allied diseases. These were recorded into a computer and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 21.0, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: A total of sixty-three cases of OTs were recorded for the period under review. Fifty-two of these were cases of ameloblastoma (82.54%). This was followed by adenomatoid odontogenic tumour (AOT) 4 (6.35%) and odontogenic myxoma 3 (4.76%). Most lesions were seen within the second to fourth decades of life and mandible was most frequently affected. Conclusion: It is concluded that the pattern of occurrence of OTs in Port Harcourt followed a general pattern in Nigeria and other African countries but slightly differs from findings from other parts of the world. PMID:27601807

  18. Primordial Odontogenic Cyst with Induction Phenomenon (Zonal Fibroblastic Hypercellularity) and Dentinoid Material Versus Archegonous Cystic Odontoma: You Choose!

    PubMed

    Argyris, Prokopios P; Wetzel, Stephanie L; Pambuccian, Stefan E; Gopalakrishnan, Rajaram; Koutlas, Ioannis G

    2016-06-01

    The most recent A.F.I.P. fascicle defines primordial odontogenic cyst (POC) as a distinct, nonkeratinized, odontogenic cyst of "undetermined origin" forming in the place of a developing normal or supernumerary tooth. However, the majority of examples reported in the literature under this term represent odontogenic keratocysts (keratocystic odontogenic tumors). In addition, there are rare reported cases of cystic odontomas. An 18-year-old Caucasian male presented with a unilocular mandibular radiolucent lesion in the place of a congenitally missing molar. Histologically, it featured nonkeratinizing, thin stratified squamous epithelial lining with areas of spongiosis and foci of vacuolization of individual basal cells without significant nuclear palisading. Focally, budding of the basal cell layer was identified. A zone of increased cellularity featuring induction-type fibroblasts was present subepithelially as well as dentinoid deposits with odontogenic epithelial nests. Immunohistochemically, the epithelial lining was negative for calretinin and the induction-like zone negative for S100 protein, smooth muscle actin, and CD34. The case was externally reviewed by five oral pathologists who provided various diagnostic interpretations including primordial cyst, odontogenic cyst not otherwise specified (NOS), cyst with ameloblastic changes, and unicystic ameloblastoma. At that time, a final diagnosis of odontogenic cyst NOS was rendered with a comment that it may represent a true example of POC or a cystic odontoma. The lesion has not recurred within a 13 year follow-up period after initial excision. An unusual cystic lesion is presented that may represent a true example of POC with dentinoid formation or an archegonous cystic odontoma.

  19. Gender comparisons in anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity tests.

    PubMed Central

    Maud, P J; Shultz, B B

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity test scores between young active men and women. Three performance measures of anaerobic power and two of anaerobic capacity were administered to a sample comprising 52 male and 50 female college students (means age = 21.4 yrs). Results indicated significant differences between men and women in body height, weight and per cent fat, in fat free mass (FFM), anaerobic power, and anaerobic capacity when recorded as gross work completed and relative to body weight. However, these differences are reduced when data is adjusted for body weight and further reduced when corrected for FFM. The study found no significant differences between men and women in either anaerobic power or anaerobic capacity when values were given relative to FFM. PMID:3730753

  20. Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... 23(4):251-69. Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC) guideline. Back to Top Administration ... : Hospital Scope | Glossary | References | Site Map | Credits Freedom of ...

  1. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enteric Gram Negative Facultative Anaerobe Bacilli in Aerobic versus Anaerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Amachawadi, Raghavendra G.; Renter, David G.; Volkova, Victoriya V.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial treatments result in the host’s enteric bacteria being exposed to the antimicrobials. Pharmacodynamic models can describe how this exposure affects the enteric bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance. The models utilize measurements of bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility traditionally obtained in vitro in aerobic conditions. However, in vivo enteric bacteria are exposed to antimicrobials in anaerobic conditions of the lower intestine. Some of enteric bacteria of food animals are potential foodborne pathogens, e.g., Gram-negative bacilli Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. These are facultative anaerobes; their physiology and growth rates change in anaerobic conditions. We hypothesized that their antimicrobial susceptibility also changes, and evaluated differences in the susceptibility in aerobic vs. anaerobic conditions of generic E. coli and Salmonella enterica of diverse serovars isolated from cattle feces. Susceptibility of an isolate was evaluated as its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measured by E-Test® following 24 hours of adaptation to the conditions on Mueller-Hinton agar, and on a more complex tryptic soy agar with 5% sheep blood (BAP) media. We considered all major antimicrobial drug classes used in the U.S. to treat cattle: β-lactams (specifically, ampicillin and ceftriaxone E-Test®), aminoglycosides (gentamicin and kanamycin), fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin), classical macrolides (erythromycin), azalides (azithromycin), sulfanomides (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim), and tetracyclines (tetracycline). Statistical analyses were conducted for the isolates (n≥30) interpreted as susceptible to the antimicrobials based on the clinical breakpoint interpretation for human infection. Bacterial susceptibility to every antimicrobial tested was statistically significantly different in anaerobic vs. aerobic conditions on both media, except for no difference in susceptibility to ceftriaxone on BAP agar. A satellite experiment

  2. Reconstruction of defects of maxillary sinus wall after removal of a huge odontogenic lesion using prebended 3D titanium-mesh and CAD/CAM technique

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A 63 year-old male with a huge odontogenic lesion of sinus maxillaris was treated with computer-assisted surgery. After resection of the odontogenic lesion, the sinus wall was reconstructed with a prebended 3D titanium-mesh using CAD/CAM technique. This work provides a new treatment device for maxillary reconstruction via rapid prototyping procedures. PMID:22070833

  3. An active principle of Nigella sativa L., thymoquinone, showing significant antimicrobial activity against anaerobic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Randhawa, Mohammad Akram; Alenazy, Awwad Khalaf; Alrowaili, Majed Gorayan; Basha, Jamith

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Background: Thymoquinone (TQ) is the major active principle of Nigella sativa seed (black seed) and is known to control many fungi, bacteria, and some viruses. However, the activity of TQ against anaerobic bacteria is not well demonstrated. Anaerobic bacteria can cause severe infections, including diarrhea, aspiration pneumonia, and brain abscess, particularly in immunodeficient individuals. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of TQ against some anaerobic pathogens in comparison to metronidazole. Methods: Standard, ATCC, strains of four anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, Bacteroides fragilis, and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron), were initially isolated on special Brucella agar base (with hemin and vitamin K). Then, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of TQ and metronidazole were determined against these anaerobes when grown in Brucella agar, using serial agar dilution method according to the recommended guidelines for anaerobic organisms instructed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: TQ showed a significant antimicrobial activity against anaerobic bacteria although much weaker than metronidazole. MICs of TQ and metronidazole against various anaerobic human pathogens tested were found to be between 10-160 mg/L and 0.19-6.25 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: TQ controlled the anaerobic human pathogenic bacteria, which supports the use of N. sativa in the treatment of diarrhea in folk medicine. Further investigations are in need for determination of the synergistic effect of TQ in combination with metronidazole and the activity of derivatives of TQ against anaerobic infections. PMID:28163966

  4. Anaerobic Bacteriological Microbiota in Surface and Core of Tonsils in Chronic Tonsillitis

    PubMed Central

    Ankle, Nitin R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tonsillar infection may stem from bacteria within tonsillar crypts or parenchyma rather than from those on the surface. Pathogens isolated from surface culture may be colonizing the tonsil, but not essentially infecting it. Anaerobes though not often studied, are known to cause chronic tonsillitis. Aim To study the correlation of anaerobic bacterial isolates in surface and core cultures from recurrently infected and inflamed tonsils. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Charitable Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Belagavi from January 2014 to December 2014 on 100 patients of chronic tonsillitis who underwent tonsillectomy. Swabs were obtained from tonsil surface and core and analysed for anaerobes as per standard protocol. Chi-square test and Fischer-Exact test were used for statistical analysis. Results Twenty eight out of 63 (44.4%) patients had anaerobic growth on tonsil surface and 30 out of 62 (48.4%) patients had anaerobic growth in tonsil core. Porphyromonas sp. was the most common anaerobe isolated from the surface as well as from the core. There was no statistical significance between anaerobes isolated in the tonsil surface and core. Conclusion Anaerobic organisms obtained from tonsil surface and core cultures were similar. A throat swab satisfactorily depicts the core organism and is reliable in recognizing the bacteriology of chronic tonsillitis. Anaerobic organisms known to inhabit the surface as well as the core of tonsils may be treated with suitable antibiotic therapy. PMID:28050412

  5. Infection,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-16

    inapparent infection. A refeeding program may thus become complicated by the sudden appearance of a life-threatening infectious illness (3). (3) The...Beisel, W. R. 23 Unusually low serum concentrations of inorganic phosphate have been reported in patients with gram-negative sepsis and in Reye’s syndrome ...infection should be corrected by a well-managed program of convalescent-period refeeding . This aspect of nutritional support is too often ignored. On the

  6. Anaerobic thermophilic culture system

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Wiegel, Jurgen K. W.

    1981-01-01

    A mixed culture system of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC31550 and the microorganism Clostridium thermocellum ATCC31549 is described. In a mixed nutrient culture medium that contains cellulose, these microorganisms have been coupled and cultivated to efficiently ferment cellulose to produce recoverable quantities of ethanol under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions.

  7. The anaerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C.J.; Boone, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  8. Hybrid ameloblastoma and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: report of a case and review of hybrid variations in the literature.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Manabu; Maruyama, Satoshi; Abé, Tatsuya; Babkair, Hamzah; Fujita, Hajime; Takagi, Ritsuo; Koyama, Jun-Ichi; Hayashi, Takafumi; Cheng, Jun; Saku, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    Hybrid odontogenic tumors including 2 or more different histologic types have been documented, but their occurrences are not very common. We present a case of hybrid odontogenic tumor composed of ameloblastoma and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) arising in the mandibular molar region of a 31-year-old Japanese woman who had a history of familial adenomatous polyposis. The tumor, measuring 10 mm in diameter, was surgically removed from the alveolar bone. Histopathologically, the tumor consisted of both follicular and plexiform types of ameloblastoma in which multiple and smaller foci of AOT were intermingled. There have been 3 reported cases of hybrid ameloblastoma and AOT, all of which presented unicystic types as ameloblastoma components. This, however, is the first report of a hybrid tumor containing an authentic solid-type ameloblastoma compartment and an AOT compartment in a patient with a background of familial adenomatous polyposis.

  9. Metronidazole in prevention and treatment of bacteroides infections after appendicectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Willis, A T; Ferguson, I R; Jones, P H; Phillips, K D; Tearle, P V; Berry, R B; Fiddian, R V; Graham, D F; Harland, D H; Innes, D B; Mee, W M; Rothwell-Jackson, R L; Sutch, I; Kilbey, C; Edwards, D

    1976-01-01

    The frequency of non-clostridial anaerobic infection was studied in 95 patients who had undergone acute appendicectomy: 49 received prophylactic metronidazole and 46 received placebo. Anaerobic infection did not develop in any of the metronidazole-treated patients, but infections did develop in nine (19%) of the 46 controls. Metronidazole is conveniently administered by suppository to patients who cannot take oral drugs. Five patients with intra-abdominal infections caused by non-clostridial anaerobes were successfully treated with metronidazole. PMID:764935

  10. A rare case of recurring calcifying epithelial odontogenic cyst in the maxillary sinus: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Karun, Vinayak; Mishra, Amit Kumar; Saikhedkar, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic cyst (CEOC) is an odontogenic cyst with epithelial lining. CEOC is a rare entity that occurs in a wide age range, does not show any gender predilection, and accounts for only 1% of all jaw cysts. The lesion generally occurs in the region anterior to maxillary and mandibular molars and either intraosseously or extraosseusly. This entity might present as a cystic or solid lesion. Enucleation is the recommended treatment for a simple, unicystic CEOC. A case of recurring CEOC in the right maxilla antrum is presented here. The patient presented to the authors after postsurgical recurrence. The case was evaluated thoroughly, and the cyst was resolved.

  11. Repair of a defect following the removal of a maxillary adenomatoid odontogenic tumor using guided tissue regeneration. A case report.

    PubMed

    Vitkus, R; Meltzer, J A

    1996-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumors (AOT) make up 3% of odontogenic tumors. This tumor, most commonly found in the maxillary arch, mimics a follicular cyst associated with an impacted tooth. This is a case report of an AOT found in a 14-year-old female undergoing active orthodontic therapy. The surgical removal of the lesion resulted in the exposure of a large bony cavity surrounding the maxillary left canine. Placement of freeze-dried bone and coverage with an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membrane resulted in rapid and complete healing of the lesion and restoration of osseous support.

  12. Comparison of immunohistochemical expression of CD10 in keratocystic odontogenic tumor and ameloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Hormozi, Elham; Fard, Vahid Nourollahi; Naseri, Mohammad Ali; Jahromi, Nima Haghighat; Keshani, Forooz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), also called keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT), is a developmental lesion which should be carefully monitored and it exhibits development mechanisms and biologic behaviors different from those of other more common lesions such as dentigerous and radicular cysts. CD10 antigen is a cell surface metalloendopeptidase, which inactivates various peptides that are physiologically active. Studies have shown that increase in the expression of CD10 in the stromal cells helps the progression of the tumor. Ameloblastoma (AB) is a local invasive tumor and given the role of supporting connective tissue stroma in the aggression and progression. The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate the expression of CD10 in the connective tissue stroma of AB and OKC as a KCOT. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective, cross-sectional study, 14 paraffin blocks of KCOT and 9 of AB (7 multicystic and 2 unicystic) were evaluated with CD10 immunohistochemical expression in the connective tissue stroma of AB and the connective tissue wall of KCOT. The data were analyzed with Fisher's exact test (P < 0.05). Results: In 8 samples of 9 AB and in 13 samples of 14 KOT lesions, expression of CD10 was shown. Fisher's exact test did not reveal any significant differences between these two lesions in the expression of CD10 (P = 0.64). Conclusion: The results of this study propose that high expression rate of CD10 might be one of the reasons for the aggressive behavior of AB and high recurrence rate of OKC and reinforce the classification of OKC as an odontogenic tumor. PMID:27076824

  13. Bioinformatics Analysis Reveals Genes Involved in the Pathogenesis of Ameloblastoma and Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Eliane Macedo Sobrinho; Santos, Hércules Otacílio; dos Santos Dias, Ivoneth; Santos, Sérgio Henrique; Batista de Paula, Alfredo Maurício; Feltenberger, John David; Sena Guimarães, André Luiz; Farias, Lucyana Conceição

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenesis of odontogenic tumors is not well known. It is important to identify genetic deregulations and molecular alterations. This study aimed to investigate, through bioinformatic analysis, the possible genes involved in the pathogenesis of ameloblastoma (AM) and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). Genes involved in the pathogenesis of AM and KCOT were identified in GeneCards. Gene list was expanded, and the gene interactions network was mapped using the STRING software. “Weighted number of links” (WNL) was calculated to identify “leader genes” (highest WNL). Genes were ranked by K-means method and Kruskal-Wallis test was used (P<0.001). Total interactions score (TIS) was also calculated using all interaction data generated by the STRING database, in order to achieve global connectivity for each gene. The topological and ontological analyses were performed using Cytoscape software and BinGO plugin. Literature review data was used to corroborate the bioinformatics data. CDK1 was identified as leader gene for AM. In KCOT group, results show PCNA and TP53. Both tumors exhibit a power law behavior. Our topological analysis suggested leader genes possibly important in the pathogenesis of AM and KCOT, by clustering coefficient calculated for both odontogenic tumors (0.028 for AM, zero for KCOT). The results obtained in the scatter diagram suggest an important relationship of these genes with the molecular processes involved in AM and KCOT. Ontological analysis for both AM and KCOT demonstrated different mechanisms. Bioinformatics analyzes were confirmed through literature review. These results may suggest the involvement of promising genes for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of AM and KCOT. PMID:28357197

  14. Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma of the maxilla: a case report with a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Elneel Ahmed Mohamed; karrar, Musadak Ali; El-Siddig, Abeer Abdalla; Gafer, Nahla; satir, Ali Abdel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this report is to present a rare case of a Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC) of a 21-year-old man with review of the literature. The patient was treated surgically, and one of the surgical margins was involved, the patient received adjuvant radiotherapy for local control. Five months later, patient presented with infraorbital lesion which was proven histological to be GCOC. Radiological images, histological sections and clinical photographs are also presented. One year after the second surgery, the patient was tumor free. The only effective treatment modality was surgical removal. PMID:26523195

  15. Cutaneous manifestation of odontogenic infection misdiagnosed as having dermatologic etiology: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Saurabh Kumar; Saxena, Payal

    2011-06-01

    General dentists should be aware that extraoral dental cutaneous lesions can be confused with dermatologic lesions. We report two cases of cutaneous lesions of dental origin that were initially misdiagnosed as being dermatologic in origin. Multiple treatments were performed, including plastic surgery, but the lesions did not resolve. Then, the lesions' dental etiology was identified. Endodontic intervention resulted in resolution of the problem, confirming the initial misdiagnosis. A dental etiology, as part of a differential diagnosis, should be kept in mind with orofacial skin lesions.

  16. Anaerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, M.; Haga, R.; Odawara, Y.

    1982-10-19

    An algae culture grown on the water from the digested slurry of a biogasification plant serves as a means of removing CO/sub 2/ from the methane stream while purifying the wastewater and providing more biomass for the anaerobic digestion plant. Tested on a sewage-sludge digestion system, the proposed process improved the methane yield by 32% and methane concentration by 53-98 vol % while lowering the concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus in the final water.

  17. Early anaerobic metabolisms

    PubMed Central

    Canfield, Don E; Rosing, Minik T; Bjerrum, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, the biosphere was driven by anaerobic metabolisms. We catalogue and quantify the source strengths of the most probable electron donors and electron acceptors that would have been available to fuel early-Earth ecosystems. The most active ecosystems were probably driven by the cycling of H2 and Fe2+ through primary production conducted by anoxygenic phototrophs. Interesting and dynamic ecosystems would have also been driven by the microbial cycling of sulphur and nitrogen species, but their activity levels were probably not so great. Despite the diversity of potential early ecosystems, rates of primary production in the early-Earth anaerobic biosphere were probably well below those rates observed in the marine environment. We shift our attention to the Earth environment at 3.8 Gyr ago, where the earliest marine sediments are preserved. We calculate, consistent with the carbon isotope record and other considerations of the carbon cycle, that marine rates of primary production at this time were probably an order of magnitude (or more) less than today. We conclude that the flux of reduced species to the Earth surface at this time may have been sufficient to drive anaerobic ecosystems of sufficient activity to be consistent with the carbon isotope record. Conversely, an ecosystem based on oxygenic photosynthesis was also possible with complete removal of the oxygen by reaction with reduced species from the mantle. PMID:17008221

  18. Simple Method for Culturing Anaerobes

    PubMed Central

    Davis, C. E.; Hunter, W. J.; Ryan, J. L.; Braude, A. I.

    1973-01-01

    A simple, effective method is needed for growing obligate anaerobes in the clinical laboratory. This report describes a pre-reduced anaerobic bottle that can be taken to the bedside for direct inoculation, provides a flat agar surface for evaluation of number and morphology of colonies, and can be incubated in conventional bacteriological incubators. Each anaerobic culture set consisted of two bottles containing brain heart infusion agar and CO2. Gentamicin sulfate (50 μg/ml) was added to one of these to inhibit facultative enteric bacilli. Comparison of the anaerobic bottles with an identical aerobic bottle which was also routinely inoculated permitted early identification of anaerobic colonies. Representative species of most anaerobic genera of proven pathogenicity for man have been isolated from this system during 10 months of routine use. Images PMID:4571657

  19. Odontogenic tumors in children and adolescents. A 15-year retrospective study in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Guerrisi, Marcela; Piloni, María Julia; Keszler, Alicia

    2007-05-01

    There are few studies on bucco-maxillary lesions in children and adolescents, and reports on odontogenic tumors (OT) are scanty. Comparison among the available data is difficult due to differences in the criteria used in each study. The aim of the present work was to perform a retrospective study of OT in patients aged up to 20 years diagnosed at a center specialized in histopathologic diagnosis of oral diseases. All cases diagnosed with OT between 1990 and 2004 were retrieved from the Service archives. The 153 retrieved cases accounted for 7% of total biopsies performed during that period, and to 78.4% of tumors of the jaws. Mean age of the whole population was 12.7 years and the male to female ratio was 2:1. The most frequent tumor types were Odontoma, (50.9%), Ameloblastoma (18.3%) and Myxoma (8.5%), and the most infrequent was Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor (1.3%). According to our results, OT cannot be considered infrequent. They are the prevalent tumors of the jaws in the age group studied herein.

  20. Desmosomes: A light microscopic and ultrastructural analysis of desmosomes in odontogenic cysts

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Pratima; Wadhwan, Vijay; Chaudhary, Minal S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Desmosomes together with adherens junctions represent the major adhesive cell–cell junctions of epithelial cells. Any damage to these junctions leads to loss of structural balance. Aim: The present study was designed to analyze the desmosomal junctions in different odontogenic cysts and compare them with their corresponding hematoxylin and eosin (H and E)   stained sections. Materials and Methods: Ten cases each of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), dentigerous cysts (DCs), radicular cysts (RCs) and normal mucosa were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the sections was then carried out of all the sections. The area of interest on H and E stained section was marked and this marking was later superimposed onto the corresponding unstained sections and were subjected to SEM analysis. Results and Observations: OKC at ×1000 magnification showed many prominent desmosomes. However, an increase in the intercellular space was also noted. SEM analysis demonstrated similar findings with the presence of many desmosomes, though they were seen to be damaged and fragile. H and E stained DC under oil immersion did not show any prominent desmosomes. SEM analysis of the same confirmed the observation and very minimal number were seen with a very condense arrangement of the epithelial cells. RC at ×1000 magnification revealed plenty of desmosomes, which were again confirmed by SEM. Conclusion: The number and quality of desmosomal junctions in all the cysts has a role in the clinical behavior of the cyst. PMID:25948985

  1. Odontogenic keratocysts: a clinical and histological study with special reference to enzyme histochemistry.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, B C

    1978-02-01

    Of a total of 1,420 odontogenic cysts, 52 (3.3%) were diagnosed as odontogenic keratocysts. Clinical and histological findings in these 52 cysts are reported. Frozen sections of 26 of the keratocysts were incubated to show the following enzyme activities: NADH2- and NADPH2-diaphorase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, leucine aminopeptidase and ATPase. Furthermore, keratinization was studied with the rhodamine B method and lipids with the oil red O, the OTAN and the acid hematein methods. Sections from epidermis, oral mucosa, radicular cysts, residual cysts and follicular cysts served as reference material. The oxidative enzymes showed strong activity in the keratocyst epithelium which contrasted with weak activity in the reference cysts. Acid phosphatase activity was weak in all epithelia except that in keratocysts, which displayed a marked activity. In the fibrous capsule of the keratocyst a high activity of leucine aminopeptidase was recorded. This high activity contrasted with a weak activity in the reference material. The significance of the histochemical results in relation to the aggressive behavior of the keratocyst is discussed.

  2. Metallothionein immunoexpression in non-syndromic and syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumour

    PubMed Central

    Johann, Aline-Cristina-Batista-Rodrigues; Caliari, Marcelo-Vidigal; Gomez, Ricardo-Santiago; Aguiar, Maria-Cássia-Ferreira; Mesquita, Ricardo-Alves

    2015-01-01

    Background To compare the metallothionein (MT) immunoexpression in non-syndromic and syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KOT), to correlate MT with cellular proliferation, and to evaluate the influence of inflammation in MT. Material and Methods Fourteen cases of KOT were submitted to immunohistochemistry for MT and Ki-67 analysis. The lesions were grouped according to their grade of inflammation, and statistical analysis was performed. Results MT was higher in non-syndromic KOT than in syndromic KOT (p<0.05). No statistical difference in Ki-67 could be identified; however, an inverse correlation was observed between MT and Ki-67 in both lesions. When analysing inflammation, non-syndromic KOT showed no differences in either MT or Ki-67. Conclusions The MT immunophenotype of syndromic KOT was different from non-syndromic KOT. MT might not be involved in the proliferation control of both KOT. MT and Ki-67 immunoexpressions proved to be unaffected by inflammation in non-syndromic KOT. Key words: Odontogenic tumours, basal cell nevus syndrome, metallothionein, Ki-67 Antigen, immunohistoche-mistry. PMID:25858080

  3. Non-Syndromic Familial Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour: A Rare Case Report in Japanese Identical Twins

    PubMed Central

    Maruoka, Yutaka; Yamaji, Iena; Kawai, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour (KCOT) is unicystic or multicystic intraosseous benign tumour of odontogenic origin that recurs due to locally destructive behaviour. KCOTs are usually the first manifestation of Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS), an autosomal dominant disorder also known as Gorlin’s syndrome and they are most frequently observed familial symptom regardless of patients’ nationality. In addition, the recurrence rate and multiplicity of KCOTs is relatively high as compared to that of other sporadic carcinomas. KCOT has been considered as a non-hereditary lesion and its familial onset is an extremely rare event in non-NBCCS cases. Here, we describe previously unreported non-syndromic multiple KCOT cases in identical twins in a Japanese family. The subjects were female Japanese identical twins who were 26 and 27 years old, respectively, at the time of diagnosis for KCOT. They had no major or minor features of NBCCS other than KCOT. Although there were lesions that were likely to be dentigerous cysts based on radiographic findings, one of them was KCOT. This case report highlights the importance of precise diagnosis, choice of surgical method and careful observation for multiplicity or familial onset in sporadic KCOT cases without NBCCS. PMID:27656582

  4. Immunoexpression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway proteins in ameloblastoma and calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Sabrina-Nogueira; Pires, Fábio-Ramôa; Armada, Luciana

    2017-01-01

    Background Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is essential for the beginning of odontogenesis and may be involved in the development and progression of some odontogenic tumors. Thus, the aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway proteins in a series of AME and CCOT. Material and Methods Immunohistochemical reactions were performed using antibodies against Wnt1, Wnt5a and β-catenin in 17 cases of solid AME and 6 cases of CCOT. Results In the AME group, Wnt1 and Wnt5a were identified in the epithelium in most of the cases, and β-catenin was mainly identified in the cytoplasm of the tumoral cells. In the CCOT group, Wnt1 and Wnt5a were identified in the epithelium and in the ghost cells in almost all the cases, and β-catenin was mainly identified in the cytoplasm and in the nuclei of the tumoral cells. Conclusions These results contribute to support the importance of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway proteins in AME and CCOT tumorigenesis. The abnormal expression of cytoplasmic and/or nuclear β-catenin appears to contribute to the development of both AME and CCOT. In addition, it is possible that Wnt1 and Wnt5a expression in ghost cells can contribute to its histogenesis in CCOT. Key words:Ameloblastoma, β-catenin, calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor, immunohistochemistry, Wnt. PMID:28149478

  5. Exploring the concept of “inflammatory angiogenesis” in keratocystic odontogenic tumor

    PubMed Central

    Alaeddini, Mojgan; Mostafaloo, Esmat; Mirmohammadkhani, Omid; Eshghyar, Nosratollah

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of inflammation in angiogenesis of keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). Study Design: Twenty inflamed and 20 non-inflamed KCOTs were selected based on quantitative scoring of inflammation which was also applied on 20 radicular cysts. Microvessel density was assessed in all samples using CD34 antibody and angiogenesis was compared between the three groups. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance followed by post-hoc Scheffe test and P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: A statistically significant difference in angiogenesis was found between radicular cysts and both inflamed and non-inflamed KCOTs (P < 0.001), but not between inflamed and non-inflamed KCOTs (P =0.347). Conclusion: Based on the results obtained in the present study, it seems that the effect of inflammation on angiogenesis in KCOT is minimal. However further investigation using other methods of evaluation is suggested to fully clarify the role of “inflammatory angiogenesis” in this neoplasm. Key words:Keratocystic odontogenic tumor, radicular cyst, angiogenesis, inflammation. PMID:23385504

  6. PTCH mutations in sporadic and Gorlin-syndrome-related odontogenic keratocysts.

    PubMed

    Gu, X-M; Zhao, H-S; Sun, L-S; Li, T-J

    2006-09-01

    Odontogenic keratocysts are relatively common lesions that may occur in isolation or in association with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (or Gorlin syndrome). The PTCH gene has been reported to be associated with Gorlin syndrome. We investigated 10 cases of non-syndromic keratocysts and two other cases associated with Gorlin syndrome, looking for PTCH mutations. Four novel and 1 known PTCH mutations were identified in five individual patients. Of the 5 mutations identified, 2 were germ-line mutations (2619C>A; 1338_1339insGCG) in 2 cysts associated with Gorlin syndrome, and 3 were somatic mutations (3124_3129dupGTGTGC; 1361_1364delGTCT; 3913G>T) in 3 non-syndromic cysts. This report describes PTCH mutations in both non-syndromic and Gorlin-syndrome-related odontogenic keratocysts in Chinese patients, and suggests that defects of PTCH are associated with the pathogenesis of syndromic as well as a subset of non-syndromic keratocysts.

  7. Mandibular odontogenic myxoma. Reconstructive considerations by means of the vascularized fibular free flap.

    PubMed

    González García, Raúl; Rodríguez Campo, Francisco J; Naval Gías, Luis; Muñoz Guerra, Mario F; Sastre Pérez, Jesús; Díaz González, Francisco J

    2006-11-01

    The odontogenic myxoma is a rare entity located in mandible and upper maxilla. Due to its local aggressiveness, wide surgical excision is mandatory. Several surgical techniques have been described for the reconstruction of segmental mandibular defects. In comparison with other free flaps, the vascularized free fibular flap (VFFF) supports the longest amount of bone and, due to the nature of the vascular supply a complete freedom in location of the osteotomy is present. A precise mandibular arc can be performed following bone resection. We suggest the performance of the in situ VFFF technique in order to recreate mandibular contour by means of several osteotomies, while the pedicle is still attached to the leg. Substantial decrease in surgical time is obtained. With the double-barrel technique and subsequent osseointegrated implants, good results are obtained in the reconstruction of dentate patients without maxillary atrophy. We present two new cases of large odontogenic mandibular myxoma. Wide surgical excision by means of hemimandibulectomies and subsequent reconstruction with VFFF were performed.

  8. Odontogenic effects of a fast-setting calcium-silicate cement containing zirconium oxide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-A; Yang, Yeon-Mi; Kwon, Young-Sun; Hwang, Yun-Chan; Yu, Mi-Kyung; Min, Kyung-San

    2015-01-01

    A fast-setting calcium-silicate cement (Endocem) was introduced in the field of dentistry for use in vital pulp therapy. Similar to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), it contains bismuth oxide to provide radiopacity. Recently, another product, EndocemZr, which contains zirconium oxide (ZrO2) as a radiopacifier, was developed by the same company. In this study, the biological/odontogenic effects of EndocemZr were investigated in human primary dental pulp cells (hpDPCs) in vitro and on capped rat teeth in vivo. The biocompatibility of EndocemZr was similar to that of ProRoot and Endocem on the basis of cell viability tests and cell morphological analysis. The mineralization nodule formation, expression of odontogenic-related markers, and reparative dentin formation of EndocemZr group was similar to those of other material groups. Our results suggest that EndocemZr has the potential to be used as an effective material for vital pulp therapy, similar to ProRoot and Endocem.

  9. Ventral rhinotomy in a pet rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with an odontogenic abscess and sub-obstructive rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tamara; Beaufrère, Hugues; Brisson, Brigitte; Laniesse, Delphine; Zur Linden, Alex

    2016-08-01

    A rabbit was presented for severe dyspnea and was diagnosed with an odontogenic abscess obstructing the rostral nasopharynx using CT scan and oral endoscopy. The offending tooth was extracted intraorally, but due to persistent dyspnea, an endoscopic-guided ventral rhinotomy was performed. The dyspnea subsequently resolved, but the rabbit died 5 weeks later from a seemingly unrelated cause.

  10. A comparative immunohistochemical study of Ki-67 and Bcl-2 expression in solid ameloblastoma and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Sayed Mohammad; Tabatabaie, Sayed Hosein; Hoseini, Ali Tavakoli; Hoseini, Ehsan Tavakoli; Khabazian, Arezu

    2012-01-01

    Background: Solid ameloblastoma (SAB) is an invasive tumor which infiltrates adjacent normal tissues. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is a noninvasive tumor and never infiltrates surrounding normal tissues. The purpose of this study was to determine the biological behavior of these two epithelial odontogenic neoplasm by detecting Ki-67 and Bcl-2, which are mitotic and anti apoptotic markers respectively. Materials and Methods: In this analytical retrospective study, 16 samples of SAB and 16 samples of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor were selected. The samples were deparafinized and antigens were retrieved. Immunohistochemistry technique was applied for evaluation of these two markers. Monoclonal antibodies MIB1 and Bcl-2 were used to detect Ki-67 and Bcl-2 protein respectively, then the labeling index (LI) was calculated for both markers according to cellular staining. Data were analyzed by “t” test, (P<0.05). Results: The mean values of LI for Ki-67 in SAB and Adenomatiod odontogenic tumor (AOT) were 4 and 1% respectively and for Bcl-2 in SAB and AOT were 63 and 26% respectively. The indices of both markers were higher in SAB compared to AOT (P <0.05). Conclusions: Higher percentage of these two markers in SAB compared to AOT confirms the aggressive behavior of SAB and the hamartomatosis behavior of AOT. PMID:22623937

  11. A prospective epidemiological study on odontogenic tumours in a black African population, with emphasis on the relative frequency of ameloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Oginni, F O; Stoelinga, P J W; Ajike, S A; Obuekwe, O N; Olokun, B Aluko; Adebola, R A; Adeyemo, W L; Fasola, O; Adesina, O A; Akinbami, B O; Iwegbu, I O; Ogunmuyiwa, S A; Obimakinde, O S; Uguru, C C

    2015-09-01

    The persistent view in the literature is that the relative frequency of ameloblastomas is higher in the black population than in Caucasians. The aim of this study was to determine the relative frequency of all odontogenic tumours (OT) in a 100% black population and to compare our findings with those of previous studies. A prospective study was undertaken of all patients presenting with OT to all 16 Nigerian departments of oral and maxillofacial surgery over a 4-year period. The following data were obtained: patient demographics, delay to presentation, extent of the lesion, and histological diagnosis. Six hundred and twenty-two cases were studied. A slight male preponderance was observed (male to female ratio 1.17:1). Patients ranged in age from 5 to 89 years, with a peak incidence in the third decade. The relative frequency of OT was 0.99 per million and that of ameloblastoma was 0.76 per million. Ameloblastoma was the most prevalent OT (76.5%), followed by adenomatoid odontogenic tumours (5.6%), odontogenic myxoma (4.5%), and keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOT) (3.1%). The relative frequency of ameloblastoma among Nigerians was not different from frequencies reported previously among Caucasian and Tanzanian black populations. KCOTs were, however, rarely diagnosed in Nigerians as compared to the white population in the Western world.

  12. Ventral rhinotomy in a pet rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with an odontogenic abscess and sub-obstructive rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tamara; Beaufrère, Hugues; Brisson, Brigitte; Laniesse, Delphine; zur Linden, Alex

    2016-01-01

    A rabbit was presented for severe dyspnea and was diagnosed with an odontogenic abscess obstructing the rostral nasopharynx using CT scan and oral endoscopy. The offending tooth was extracted intraorally, but due to persistent dyspnea, an endoscopic-guided ventral rhinotomy was performed. The dyspnea subsequently resolved, but the rabbit died 5 weeks later from a seemingly unrelated cause. PMID:27493289

  13. Vismodegib hedgehog-signaling inhibition and treatment of basal cell carcinomas as well as keratocystic odontogenic tumors in Gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Booms, Patrick; Harth, Marc; Sader, Robert; Ghanaati, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Vismodegib hedgehog signaling inhibition treatment has potential for reducing the burden of multiple skin basal cell carcinomas and jaw keratocystic odontogenic tumors. They are major criteria for the diagnosis of Gorlin syndrome, also called nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Clinical features of Gorlin syndrome are reported, and the relevance of hedgehog signaling pathway inhibition by oral vismodegib for maxillofacial surgeons is highlighted. In summary, progressed basal cell carcinoma lesions are virtually inoperable. Keratocystic odontogenic tumors have an aggressive behavior including rapid growth and extension into adjacent tissues. Interestingly, nearly complete regression of multiple Gorlin syndrome-associated keratocystic odontogenic tumors following treatment with vismodegib. Due to radio-hypersensitivity in Gorlin syndrome, avoidance of treatment by radiotherapy is strongly recommended for all affected individuals. Vismodegib can help in those instances where radiation is contra-indicated, or the lesions are inoperable. The effect of vismodegib on basal cell carcinomas was associated with a significant decrease in hedgehog-signaling and tumor proliferation. Vismodegib, a new and approved drug for the treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma, is a specific oncogene inhibitor. It also seems to be effective for treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumors and basal cell carcinomas in Gorlin syndrome, rendering the surgical resections less challenging.

  14. Anaerobic wastewater treatment using anaerobic baffled bioreactor: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Siti Roshayu; Dahlan, Irvan

    2013-09-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is receiving renewed interest because it offers a means to treat wastewater with lower energy investment. Because the microorganisms involved grow more slowly, such systems require clever design so that the microbes have sufficient time with the substrate to complete treatment without requiring enormous reactor volumes. The anaerobic baffled reactor has inherent advantages over single compartment reactors due to its circulation pattern that approaches a plug flow reactor. The physical configuration of the anaerobic baffled reactor enables significant modifications to be made; resulting in a reactor which is proficient of treating complex wastewaters which presently require only one unit, ultimately significant reducing capital costs. This paper also concerns about mechanism, kinetic and hydrodynamic studies of anaerobic digestion for future application of the anaerobic baffled reactor for wastewater treatment.

  15. Anaerobes as Sources of Bioactive Compounds and Health Promoting Tools.

    PubMed

    Mamo, Gashaw

    bioactive compounds. In addition to their products, whole cell anaerobes have very interesting applications for enhancing the quality of life. Probiotic anaerobes have been on the market for many years and are receiving growing acceptance as health promoters. Gut anaerobes have been used to treat patients suffering from severe Clostridium difficile infection syndromes including diarrhoea and colitis which cannot be treated by other means. Whole cell anaerobes are also studied to detect and cure cancer. In recent years, evidence is emerging that anaerobes constituting the microbiome are linked to our overall health. A dysfunctional microbiome is believed to be the cause of many diseases including cancer, allergy, infection, obesity, diabetes and several other disorders. Maintaining normal microflora is believed to alleviate some of these serious health problems. Indeed, the use of probiotics and prebiotics which favourably change the number and composition of the gut microflora is known to render a health promoting effect. Our interaction with the microbiome anaerobes is complex. In fact, not only our lives but also our identities are more closely linked to the anaerobic microbial world than we may possibly imagine. We are just at the beginning of unravelling the secret of association between the microbiome and human body, and a clear understanding of the association may bring a paradigm shift in the way we diagnose and treat diseases and disorders. This chapter highlights some of the work done on bioactive compounds and whole cell applications of the anaerobes that foster human health and improve the quality of life.

  16. Localization and expression pattern of amelotin, odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein and follicular dendritic cell-secreted protein in the junctional epithelium of inflamed gingiva.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yohei; Kobayashi, Ryoki; Matsui, Sari; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Iwai, Yasunobu; Noda, Keisuke; Yamazaki, Mizuho; Kurita-Ochiai, Tomoko; Yoshimura, Atsutoshi; Shinomura, Tamayuki; Ganss, Bernhard; Ogata, Yorimasa

    2016-11-02

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the localization of amelotin (AMTN), odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein (ODAM) and follicular dendritic cell-secreted protein (FDC-SP) at the junctional epithelium (JE) in Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans infected mice and inflamed and non-inflamed human gingiva. We performed immunostaining to determine the localization and expression pattern of AMTN, ODAM and FDC-SP. AMTN, ODAM and FDC-SP in A. actinomycetemcomitans infected mice did not change dramatically compared with non-infected mice. AMTN and FDC-SP expressions were observed stronger in P. gingivalis infected mice at early stage. However, at the following stage, the coronal part of the AMTN expression disappeared from the JE, and FDC-SP expression decreased due to severe inflammation by P. gingivalis. ODAM expressed internal and external basal lamina, and the expression increased not only at early stage but also at the following stage in the inflammatory JE induced by P. gingivalis. In the human gingival tissues, AMTN was detected at the surface of the sulcular epithelium and JE in the non-inflamed and inflamed gingiva, and the localization did not change the process of inflammation. ODAM and FDC-SP were more widely detected at the sulcular epithelium and JE in the non-inflamed gingiva. In the inflamed gingiva, localization of ODAM and FDC-SP was spread into the gingival epithelium, compared to AMTN. These studies demonstrated that the expression pattern of AMTN, ODAM and FDC-SP at the JE were changed during inflammation process and these three proteins might play an important role in the resistance to inflammation.

  17. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Wellinger, A.

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  18. Odontogenic myxofibroma of gingiva in a pediatric patient with tuberous sclerosis: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Bhoyar, Nidhi; Gupta, Sunita; Ghosh, Sujoy

    2016-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare multisystem genetic disease, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 6000–1 in 10,000. TSC is an autosomal dominant syndrome involving heart, kidneys, lungs, and skin. The classic triad of TSC is seizures, mental retardation, and angiofibromas; this triad occurs in only 29% of patients. The clinical diagnostic guidelines on TSC are prepared based on clinical features, radiographic findings. The most common oral manifestations of TSC are fibroma, gingival hyperplasia, and enamel hypoplasia. Odontogenic myxofibroma represents a rare slow-growing benign neoplasm found rarely in children below 10 years or adults over 50 years of age. The prevalence of myxoma is between 0.04% and 3.7%. Here, we are reporting a rare case of myxofibroma of gingiva in an 8-year-old female TSC patient. PMID:27994429

  19. Calcifying odontogenic cyst with luminal and mural component (Type 1c)

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Bhushan; Koshy, George; Kapoor, Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    Calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) was first described and classified by Gorlin et al. It is defined as a cystic lesion in which the epithelial lining shows a well defined basal layer of columnar cells, an overlying layer that often resemble stellate reticulum and masses of ghost cells that may be in the epithelial cystic lining or in the fibrous capsule. The lesion generally occurs in the region anterior to maxillary and mandibular molars and either intraosseous or extraosseus. This entity might present as a cystic or solid lesion. Praetorius et al. classified COC into 2 main entities namely a cyst (Type 1) and a neoplasm (Type 2). The present case report exhibit a cystic lesion with both luminal and mural component. PMID:27433053

  20. Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Odontogenic Cysts: Is There Any Impression on Clinical Outcome?

    PubMed Central

    Sadri, Donia; Farhadi, Sareh; Shahabi, Zahra; Sarshar, Samaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The recent scientific reports have shown that angiogenesis can affect biological behavior of pathologic lesions. Objective: Regarding unique clinical outcome of Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), the present study was aimed to compare angiogenesis in Odontogenic keratocyst and Dentigerous cyst (DC). Method: In this experimental study, tissue sections of 46 samples of OKC and DC were stained through immunohistochemical method using Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) antibody. VEGF expression was evaluated in epithelial cells, fibroblasts and endothelial cells. The average percentage of stained cells in any samples was categorized to 3 groups as follows: SCORE 0: 10% of cells or less are positive. SCORE 1: 10 to 50% of cells are positive. SCORE 2: more than 50% of cells are positive. Mann-U-Whitney, T-test and chi-square was used for statistical analysis. Result: The average of VEGF expression in 24 samples of DC was 20.2% and in 22 samples of OKC was 52.6%, respectively. The average of VEGF expression in these two cysts had statistical significant differences. (PV= 0.045). There was significant statistical differences between two cysts in the terms of VEGF SCORE (PV= 0.000). OKC samples had significantly higher SCORE for the purpose of VEGF incidence than DC. Also, there were no differences between VEGF expression in epithelial cells of two cysts (PV= 0.268) there were significant statistical differences between two cysts in terms of endothelial cell staining. The endothelial cell staining was significantly higher in OKC than DC (PV= 0.037%). Conclusion: Regarding higher expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth factor in OKC than DC, it seems that angiogenesis may have great impression on clinical outcome of OKC. PMID:28217191

  1. Odontogenic stimulation of human dental pulp cells with bioactive nanocomposite fiber.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ga-Hyun; Park, Yong-Duk; Lee, So-Youn; El-Fiqi, Ahmed; Kim, Jung-Ju; Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Hae-Won; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a composite nanofibrous matrix made of biopolymer blend polycaprolactone-gelatin (BP) and mesoporous bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGNs) on the odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). BGN-BP nanomatrices, with BGN content of up to 20 wt%, were produced via electrospinning. The differentiation of the HDPCs was evaluated by using an ALP activity assay, calcified nodule formation, and mRNA expression for markers. Integrin and its underlying signal pathways were assessed via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Although cell growth and attachment on the BGN-BP nanomatrix was similar to that on BP, ALP activity, mineralized nodule formation, and mRNA, expressions involving ALP, osteocalcin, osteopontin, dentin sialophosphoprotein, and dentin matrix protein-1 were greater on BGN-BP. BGN-BP upregulated the key adhesion receptors (integrin components α1, α2, α5, and β1) and activated integrin downstream pathways, such as phosphorylated-focal adhesion kinase (p-FAK), and p-paxillin. In addition, BGN-BP activated BMP receptors, BMP-2 mRNA, and p-Smad 1/5/8, and such activation was blocked by the BMP antagonist, noggin. Furthermore, BGN-BP induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, protein kinase 38, and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase mitogen-activated protein kinases and activated expression of the transcription factors Runx2 and Osterix in HDPCs. Collectively, the results indicated for the first time that a BGN-BP composite nanomatrix promoted odontogenic differentiation of HDPCs through the integrin, BMP, and mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathway. Moreover, the nanomatrix is considered to be promising scaffolds for the culture of HDPCs and dental tissue engineering.

  2. Anaerobic Metabolism of Indoleacetate

    PubMed Central

    Ebenau-Jehle, Christa; Thomas, Markus; Scharf, Gernot; Kockelkorn, Daniel; Knapp, Bettina; Schühle, Karola; Heider, Johann

    2012-01-01

    The anaerobic metabolism of indoleacetate (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]) in the denitrifying betaproteobacterium Azoarcus evansii was studied. The strain oxidized IAA completely and grew with a generation time of 10 h. Enzyme activities that transformed IAA were present in the soluble cell fraction of IAA-grown cells but were 10-fold downregulated in cells grown on 2-aminobenzoate or benzoate. The transformation of IAA did not require molecular oxygen but required electron acceptors like NAD+ or artificial dyes. The first products identified were the enol and keto forms of 2-oxo-IAA. Later, polar products were observed, which could not yet be identified. The first steps likely consist of the anaerobic hydroxylation of the N-heterocyclic pyrrole ring to the enol form of 2-oxo-IAA, which is catalyzed by a molybdenum cofactor-containing dehydrogenase. This step is probably followed by the hydrolytic ring opening of the keto form, which is catalyzed by a hydantoinase-like enzyme. A comparison of the proteome of IAA- and benzoate-grown cells identified IAA-induced proteins. Owing to the high similarity of A. evansii with strain EbN1, whose genome is known, we identified a cluster of 14 genes that code for IAA-induced proteins involved in the early steps of IAA metabolism. These genes include a molybdenum cofactor-dependent dehydrogenase of the xanthine oxidase/aldehyde dehydrogenase family, a hydantoinase, a coenzyme A (CoA) ligase, a CoA transferase, a coenzyme B12-dependent mutase, an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, a fusion protein of an enoyl-CoA hydratase and a 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, a beta-ketothiolase, and a periplasmic substrate binding protein for ABC transport as well as a transcriptional regulator of the GntR family. Five predicted enzymes form or act on CoA thioesters, indicating that soon after the initial oxidation of IAA and possibly ring opening, CoA thioesters are formed, and the carbon skeleton is rearranged, followed by a CoA-dependent thiolytic

  3. Anaerobic respiration of Escherichia coli in the mouse intestine.

    PubMed

    Jones, Shari A; Gibson, Terri; Maltby, Rosalie C; Chowdhury, Fatema Z; Stewart, Valley; Cohen, Paul S; Conway, Tyrrell

    2011-10-01

    The intestine is inhabited by a large microbial community consisting primarily of anaerobes and, to a lesser extent, facultative anaerobes, such as Escherichia coli, which we have shown requires aerobic respiration to compete successfully in the mouse intestine (S. A. Jones et al., Infect. Immun. 75:4891-4899, 2007). If facultative anaerobes efficiently lower oxygen availability in the intestine, then their sustained growth must also depend on anaerobic metabolism. In support of this idea, mutants lacking nitrate reductase or fumarate reductase have extreme colonization defects. Here, we further explore the role of anaerobic respiration in colonization using the streptomycin-treated mouse model. We found that respiratory electron flow is primarily via the naphthoquinones, which pass electrons to cytochrome bd oxidase and the anaerobic terminal reductases. We found that E. coli uses nitrate and fumarate in the intestine, but not nitrite, dimethyl sulfoxide, or trimethylamine N-oxide. Competitive colonizations revealed that cytochrome bd oxidase is more advantageous than nitrate reductase or fumarate reductase. Strains lacking nitrate reductase outcompeted fumarate reductase mutants once the nitrate concentration in cecal mucus reached submillimolar levels, indicating that fumarate is the more important anaerobic electron acceptor in the intestine because nitrate is limiting. Since nitrate is highest in the absence of E. coli, we conclude that E. coli is the only bacterium in the streptomycin-treated mouse large intestine that respires nitrate. Lastly, we demonstrated that a mutant lacking the NarXL regulator (activator of the NarG system), but not a mutant lacking the NarP-NarQ regulator, has a colonization defect, consistent with the advantage provided by NarG. The emerging picture is one in which gene regulation is tuned to balance expression of the terminal reductases that E. coli uses to maximize its competitiveness and achieve the highest possible population in

  4. PCB breakdown by anaerobic microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    Recently, altered PCB cogener distribution patterns observed in anaerobic sediment samples from the upper Hudson River are being attributed to biologically mediated reductive dechlorination. The authors report their successful demonstration of biologically mediated reductive dechlorination of an Aroclor mixture. In their investigation, they assessed the ability of microorganisms from PCB-contaminated Hudson River sediments (60-562 ppm PCBs) to dechlorinate Aroclor 1242 under anaerobic conditions by eluting microorganisms from the PCB- contaminated sediments and transferring them to a slurry of reduced anaerobic mineral medium and PCB-free sediments in tightly stoppered bottles. They observed dechlorination to be the most rapid at the highest PCB concentration tried by them.

  5. Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumor in Radiologically Normal Dental Follicular Space of Mandibular Third Molars: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Sarode, Gargi S.; Sarode, Sachin C.; Prajapati, Ghevaram; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Patil, Shankargouda

    2017-01-01

    Two cases of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) of the dental follicle in an impacted third molar without clinical and radiological evidence are reported during routine histopathological examination. In both the cases left mandibular third molar was mesioangularly impacted with pericoronal radiolucency of less than 2.5 mm, which was not indicative of any pathology. As a routine protocol (which is not practiced widely) of our institution, dental follicles associated with extracted molars were sent for histopathological examination. Histopathological features were consistent with CCOT with pathognomonic ghost cell transformation of odontogenic epithelium. The patients were followed for one year with no recurrence. This paper emphasizes the importance of routine histopathological examination of dental follicles associated with asymptomatic impacted teeth without any clinical or radiographic evidence of follicular lesion. PMID:28286639

  6. Extensive Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor of the Maxilla: A Case Report of Conservative Surgical Excision and Orthodontic Alignment of Impacted Canine.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jee-Won

    2014-07-01

    The present report describe the surgical therapy, clinical course, orthodontic treatment and morphological characteristics of an adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in the maxilla of an 11-year-old patient. The cystic tumor filled the maxillary sinus and involved a tooth. Marsupialization was accompanied by partial enucleation and applied traction to the affected tooth by a fixed orthodontic appliance. Healing was uneventful and no local recurrence was observed during a 1-year period of follow-up control.

  7. In vitro osteogenic and odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells seeded on carboxymethyl cellulose-hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Teti, Gabriella; Salvatore, Viviana; Focaroli, Stefano; Durante, Sandra; Mazzotti, Antonio; Dicarlo, Manuela; Mattioli-Belmonte, Monica; Orsini, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells from human dental pulp have been considered as an alternative source of adult stem cells in tissue engineering because of their potential to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Recently, polysaccharide based hydrogels have become especially attractive as matrices for the repair and regeneration of a wide variety of tissues and organs. The incorporation of inorganic minerals as hydroxyapatite nanoparticles can modulate the performance of the scaffolds with potential applications in tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to verify the osteogenic and odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) cultured on a carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel. Human DPSCs were seeded on carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel and on carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogel for 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 21 days. Cell viability assay and ultramorphological analysis were carried out to evaluate biocompatibility and cell adhesion. Real Time PCR was carried out to demonstrate the expression of osteogenic and odontogenic markers. Results showed a good adhesion and viability in cells cultured on carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel, while a low adhesion and viability was observed in cells cultured on carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogel. Real Time PCR data demonstrated a temporal up-regulation of osteogenic and odontogenic markers in dental pulp stem cells cultured on carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel. In conclusion, our in vitro data confirms the ability of DPSCs to differentiate toward osteogenic and odontogenic lineages in presence of a carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel. Taken together, our results provide evidence that DPSCs and carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel could be considered promising candidates for dental pulp complex and periodontal tissue engineering. PMID:26578970

  8. Dance--Aerobic and Anaerobic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlette

    1984-01-01

    This article defines and explains aerobic exercise and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Various studies on dancers are cited indicating that dance is an anaerobic activity with some small degree of aerobic benefit. (DF)

  9. Implementing Livestock Anaerobic Digestion Projects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Page provides information to help make an informed decision about installing an anaerobic digester. Is it a good match for a farm’s organic waste, project financing, development guidelines and permit requirements?

  10. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling plays an essential role in activation of odontogenic mesenchyme during early tooth development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianquan; Lan, Yu; Baek, Jin-A; Gao, Yang; Jiang, Rulang

    2009-10-01

    Classical tissue recombination studies demonstrated that initiation of tooth development depends on activation of odontogenic potential in the mesenchyme by signals from the presumptive dental epithelium. Although several members of the Wnt family of signaling molecules are expressed in the presumptive dental epithelium at the beginning of tooth initiation, whether Wnt signaling is directly involved in the activation of the odontogenic mesenchyme has not been characterized. In this report, we show that tissue-specific inactivation of beta-catenin, a central component of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, in the developing tooth mesenchyme caused tooth developmental arrest at the bud stage in mice. We show that mesenchymal beta-catenin function is required for expression of Lef1 and Fgf3 in the developing tooth mesenchyme and for induction of primary enamel knot in the developing tooth epithelium. Expression of Msx1 and Pax9, two essential tooth mesenchyme transcription factors downstream of Bmp and Fgf signaling, respectively, were not altered in the absence of beta-catenin in the tooth mesenchyme. Moreover, we found that constitutive stabilization of beta-catenin in the developing palatal mesenchyme induced aberrant palatal epithelial invaginations that resembled early tooth buds both morphologically and in epithelial molecular marker expression, but without activating expression of Msx1 and Pax9 in the mesenchyme. Together, these results indicate that activation of the mesenchymal odontogenic program during early tooth development requires concerted actions of Bmp, Fgf and Wnt signaling from the presumptive dental epithelium to the mesenchyme.

  11. Osteo-/odontogenic differentiation of BMP2 and VEGF gene-co-transfected human stem cells from apical papilla

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, WEN; ZHANG, XIAOLEI; LING, JUNQI; WEI, XI; JIAN, YUTAO

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP) possess clear osteo-/odontogenic differentiation capabilities, and are regarded as the major cellular source for root dentin development. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) serve pivotal roles in the modulation of tooth development and dentin formation. However, the synergistic effects of BMP2 and VEGF on osteo-/odontogenic differentiation of SCAP remain unclear. The current study aimed to investigate the proliferative and osteo-/odontogenic differentiating capabilities of BMP2 and VEGF gene-co-transfected SCAP (SCAP-BMP2-VEGF) in vitro. The basic characteristics of the isolated SCAP were identified by the induction of multipotent differentiation and by flow cytometry. Lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfection was conducted with SCAP in order to construct blank vector-transfected SCAP (SCAP-green fluorescent protein), BMP2 gene-transfected SCAP (SCAP-BMP2), VEGF gene-transfected SCAP (SCAP-VEGF) and SCAP-BMP2-VEGF. The Cell Counting Kit 8 assay was used to analyze the proliferative capacities of the four groups of cells. The expression of osteo-/odontogenic genes and proteins in the cells were evaluated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The mineralized nodules formed by the four group cells were visualized by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining. Among the four groups of cells, SCAP-VEGF was demonstrated to exhibit increased proliferation, and SCAP-BMP2-VEGF exhibited reduced proliferation during eight days observation. SCAP-BMP2-VEGF exhibited significantly increased expression levels of ALP, osteocalcin, dentin sialophosphoprotein, dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein gene 1 and dentin sialoprotein than the other three groups at the majority of the time points. Furthermore, the SCAP-BMP2-VEGF group exhibited a significantly greater number of ALP-positive mineralized nodules than the other groups following 16 days culture in

  12. Osteo-/odontogenic differentiation of BMP2 and VEGF gene-co-transfected human stem cells from apical papilla.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Xiaolei; Ling, Junqi; Wei, Xi; Jian, Yutao

    2016-05-01

    Stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP) possess clear osteo‑/odontogenic differentiation capabilities, and are regarded as the major cellular source for root dentin development. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) serve pivotal roles in the modulation of tooth development and dentin formation. However, the synergistic effects of BMP2 and VEGF on osteo‑/odontogenic differentiation of SCAP remain unclear. The current study aimed to investigate the proliferative and osteo‑/odontogenic differentiating capabilities of BMP2 and VEGF gene-co-transfected SCAP (SCAP-BMP2-VEGF) in vitro. The basic characteristics of the isolated SCAP were identified by the induction of multipotent differentiation and by flow cytometry. Lentiviral vector‑mediated gene transfection was conducted with SCAP in order to construct blank vector‑transfected SCAP (SCAP-green fluorescent protein), BMP2 gene-transfected SCAP (SCAP-BMP2), VEGF gene‑transfected SCAP (SCAP‑VEGF) and SCAP-BMP2-VEGF. The Cell Counting Kit 8 assay was used to analyze the proliferative capacities of the four groups of cells. The expression of osteo-/odontogenic genes and proteins in the cells were evaluated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The mineralized nodules formed by the four group cells were visualized by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining. Among the four groups of cells, SCAP‑VEGF was demonstrated to exhibit increased proliferation, and SCAP‑BMP2‑VEGF exhibited reduced proliferation during eight days observation. SCAP‑BMP2‑VEGF exhibited significantly increased expression levels of ALP, osteocalcin, dentin sialophosphoprotein, dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein gene 1 and dentin sialoprotein than the other three groups at the majority of the time points. Furthermore, the SCAP‑BMP2‑VEGF group exhibited a significantly greater number of ALP‑positive mineralized nodules than the other

  13. The aerobic activity of metronidazole against anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dione, Niokhor; Khelaifia, Saber; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Raoult, Didier

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the aerobic growth of strictly anaerobic bacteria was demonstrated using antioxidants. Metronidazole is frequently used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria; however, to date its antibacterial activity was only tested in anaerobic conditions. Here we aerobically tested using antioxidants the in vitro activities of metronidazole, gentamicin, doxycycline and imipenem against 10 common anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. In vitro susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by Etest. Aerobic culture of the bacteria was performed at 37°C using Schaedler agar medium supplemented with 1mg/mL ascorbic acid and 0.1mg/mL glutathione; the pH was adjusted to 7.2 by 10M KOH. Growth of anaerobic bacteria cultured aerobically using antioxidants was inhibited by metronidazole after 72h of incubation at 37°C, with a mean inhibition diameter of 37.76mm and an MIC of 1μg/mL; however, strains remained non-sensitive to gentamicin. No growth inhibition of aerobic bacteria was observed after 24h of incubation at 37°C with metronidazole; however, inhibition was observed with doxycycline and imipenem used as controls. These results indicate that bacterial sensitivity to metronidazole is not related to the oxygen tension but is a result of the sensitivity of the micro-organism. In future, both culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing of strictly anaerobic bacteria will be performed in an aerobic atmosphere using antioxidants in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  14. [Anaerobic bacteria 150 years after their discovery by Pasteur].

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, José Elías; García-Sánchez, Enrique; Martín-Del-Rey, Ángel; García-Merino, Enrique

    2015-02-01

    In 2011 we celebrated the 150th anniversary of the discovery of anaerobic bacteria by Louis Pasteur. The interest of the biomedical community on such bacteria is still maintained, and is particularly focused on Clostridium difficile. In the past few years important advances in taxonomy have been made due to the genetic, technological and computing developments. Thus, a significant number of new species related to human infections have been characterised, and some already known have been reclassified. At pathogenic level some specimens of anaerobic microflora, that had not been isolated from human infections, have been now isolated in some clinical conditions. There was emergence (or re-emergence) of some species and clinical conditions. Certain anaerobic bacteria have been associated with established infectious syndromes. The virulence of certain strains has increased, and some hypotheses on their participation in certain diseases have been given. In terms of diagnosis, the routine use of MALDI-TOF has led to a shortening of time and a cost reduction in the identification, with an improvement directly related to the improvement of data bases. The application of real-time PCR has been another major progress, and the sequencing of 16srRNA gene and others is currently a reality for several laboratories. Anaerobes have increased their resistance to antimicrobial agents, and the emergence of resistance to carbapenems and metronidazole, and multi-resistance is a current reality. In this situation, linezolid could be an effective alternative for Bacteroides. Fidaxomicin is the only anti-anaerobic agent introduced in the recent years, specifically for the diarrhoea caused by C.difficile. Moreover, some mathematical models have also been proposed in relation with this species.

  15. Drug Targets and Mechanisms of Resistance in the Anaerobic Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Upcroft, Peter; Upcroft, Jacqueline A.

    2001-01-01

    The anaerobic protozoa Giardia duodenalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Entamoeba histolytica infect up to a billion people each year. G. duodenalis and E. histolytica are primarily pathogens of the intestinal tract, although E. histolytica can form abscesses and invade other organs, where it can be fatal if left untreated. T. vaginalis infection is a sexually transmitted infection causing vaginitis and acute inflammatory disease of the genital mucosa. T. vaginalis has also been reported in the urinary tract, fallopian tubes, and pelvis and can cause pneumonia, bronchitis, and oral lesions. Respiratory infections can be acquired perinatally. T. vaginalis infections have been associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight, and increased mortality as well as predisposing to human immunodeficiency virus infection, AIDS, and cervical cancer. All three organisms lack mitochondria and are susceptible to the nitroimidazole metronidazole because of similar low-redox-potential anaerobic metabolic pathways. Resistance to metronidazole and other drugs has been observed clinically and in the laboratory. Laboratory studies have identified the enzyme that activates metronidazole, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, to its nitroso form and distinct mechanisms of decreasing drug susceptibility that are induced in each organism. Although the nitroimidazoles have been the drug family of choice for treating the anaerobic protozoa, G. duodenalis is less susceptible to other antiparasitic drugs, such as furazolidone, albendazole, and quinacrine. Resistance has been demonstrated for each agent, and the mechanism of resistance has been investigated. Metronidazole resistance in T. vaginalis is well documented, and the principal mechanisms have been defined. Bypass metabolism, such as alternative oxidoreductases, have been discovered in both organisms. Aerobic versus anaerobic resistance in T. vaginalis is discussed. Mechanisms of metronidazole resistance in E. histolytica have recently

  16. Bacterial Drug Tolerance under Clinical Conditions Is Governed by Anaerobic Adaptation but not Anaerobic Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Hemsley, Claudia M.; Luo, Jamie X.; Andreae, Clio A.; Butler, Clive S.; Soyer, Orkun S.

    2014-01-01

    Noninherited antibiotic resistance is a phenomenon whereby a subpopulation of genetically identical bacteria displays phenotypic tolerance to antibiotics. We show here that compared to Escherichia coli, the clinically relevant genus Burkholderia displays much higher levels of cells that tolerate ceftazidime. By measuring the dynamics of the formation of drug-tolerant cells under conditions that mimic in vivo infections, we show that in Burkholderia bacteria, oxygen levels affect the formation of these cells. The drug-tolerant cells are characterized by an anaerobic metabolic signature and can be eliminated by oxygenating the system or adding nitrate. The transcriptome profile suggests that these cells are not dormant persister cells and are likely to be drug tolerant as a consequence of the upregulation of anaerobic nitrate respiration, efflux pumps, β-lactamases, and stress response proteins. These findings have important implications for the treatment of chronic bacterial infections and the methodologies and conditions that are used to study drug-tolerant and persister cells in vitro. PMID:25049258

  17. Bacterial drug tolerance under clinical conditions is governed by anaerobic adaptation but not anaerobic respiration.

    PubMed

    Hemsley, Claudia M; Luo, Jamie X; Andreae, Clio A; Butler, Clive S; Soyer, Orkun S; Titball, Richard W

    2014-10-01

    Noninherited antibiotic resistance is a phenomenon whereby a subpopulation of genetically identical bacteria displays phenotypic tolerance to antibiotics. We show here that compared to Escherichia coli, the clinically relevant genus Burkholderia displays much higher levels of cells that tolerate ceftazidime. By measuring the dynamics of the formation of drug-tolerant cells under conditions that mimic in vivo infections, we show that in Burkholderia bacteria, oxygen levels affect the formation of these cells. The drug-tolerant cells are characterized by an anaerobic metabolic signature and can be eliminated by oxygenating the system or adding nitrate. The transcriptome profile suggests that these cells are not dormant persister cells and are likely to be drug tolerant as a consequence of the upregulation of anaerobic nitrate respiration, efflux pumps, β-lactamases, and stress response proteins. These findings have important implications for the treatment of chronic bacterial infections and the methodologies and conditions that are used to study drug-tolerant and persister cells in vitro.

  18. Anaerobic benzene degradation by bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Carsten; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Richnow, Hans‐Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Summary Benzene is a widespread and toxic contaminant. The fate of benzene in contaminated aquifers seems to be primarily controlled by the abundance of oxygen: benzene is aerobically degraded at high rates by ubiquitous microorganisms, and the oxygen‐dependent pathways for its breakdown were elucidated more than 50 years ago. In contrast, benzene was thought to be persistent under anoxic conditions until 25 years ago. Nevertheless, within the last 15 years, several benzene‐degrading cultures have been enriched under varying electron acceptor conditions in laboratories around the world, and organisms involved in anaerobic benzene degradation have been identified, indicating that anaerobic benzene degradation is a relevant environmental process. However, only a few benzene degraders have been isolated in pure culture so far, and they all use nitrate as an electron acceptor. In some highly enriched strictly anaerobic cultures, benzene has been described to be mineralized cooperatively by two or more different organisms. Despite great efforts, the biochemical mechanism by which the aromatic ring of benzene is activated in the absence of oxygen is still not fully elucidated; methylation, hydroxylation and carboxylation are discussed as likely reactions. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the ‘key players’ of anaerobic benzene degradation under different electron acceptor conditions and the possible pathway(s) of anaerobic benzene degradation. PMID:21450012

  19. Porphyromonas gingivalis as a Model Organism for Assessing Interaction of Anaerobic Bacteria with Host Cells.

    PubMed

    Wunsch, Christopher M; Lewis, Janina P

    2015-12-17

    Anaerobic bacteria far outnumber aerobes in many human niches such as the gut, mouth, and vagina. Furthermore, anaerobic infections are common and frequently of indigenous origin. The ability of some anaerobic pathogens to invade human cells gives them adaptive measures to escape innate immunity as well as to modulate host cell behavior. However, ensuring that the anaerobic bacteria are live during experimental investigation of the events may pose challenges. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a Gram-negative anaerobe, is capable of invading a variety of eukaryotic non-phagocytic cells. This article outlines how to successfully culture and assess the ability of P. gingivalis to invade human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Two protocols were developed: one to measure bacteria that can successfully invade and survive within the host, and the other to visualize bacteria interacting with host cells. These techniques necessitate the use of an anaerobic chamber to supply P. gingivalis with an anaerobic environment for optimal growth. The first protocol is based on the antibiotic protection assay, which is largely used to study the invasion of host cells by bacteria. However, the antibiotic protection assay is limited; only intracellular bacteria that are culturable following antibiotic treatment and host cell lysis are measured. To assess all bacteria interacting with host cells, both live and dead, we developed a protocol that uses fluorescent microscopy to examine host-pathogen interaction. Bacteria are fluorescently labeled with 2',7'-Bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein acetoxymethyl ester (BCECF-AM) and used to infect eukaryotic cells under anaerobic conditions. Following fixing with paraformaldehyde and permeabilization with 0.2% Triton X-100, host cells are labeled with TRITC phalloidin and DAPI to label the cell cytoskeleton and nucleus, respectively. Multiple images taken at different focal points (Z-stack) are obtained for temporal

  20. Vitamin D Promotes Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Cells via ERK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Su-Mi; Lim, Hae-Soon; Jeong, Kyung-Yi; Kim, Seon-Mi; Kim, Won-Jae; Jung, Ji-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    The active metabolite of vitamin D such as 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3) is a well-known key regulatory factor in bone metabolism. However, little is known about the potential of vitamin D as an odontogenic inducer in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) in vitro. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin D3 metabolite, 1α,25(OH)2D3, on odontoblastic differentiation in HDPCs. HDPCs extracted from maxillary supernumerary incisors and third molars were directly cultured with 1α,25(OH)2D3 in the absence of differentiation-inducing factors. Treatment of HDPCs with 1α,25(OH)2D3 at a concentration of 10 nM or 100 nM significantly upregulated the expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and dentin matrix protein1 (DMP1), the odontogenesis-related genes. Also, 1α,25(OH)2D3 enhanced the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization in HDPCs. In addition, 1α,25(OH)2D3 induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), whereas the ERK inhibitor U0126 ameliorated the upregulation of DSPP and DMP1 and reduced the mineralization enhanced by 1α,25(OH)2D3. These results demonstrated that 1α,25(OH)2D3 promoted odontoblastic differentiation of HDPCs via modulating ERK activation. PMID:26062551

  1. Early dental epithelial transcription factors distinguish ameloblastoma from keratocystic odontogenic tumor.

    PubMed

    Heikinheimo, K; Kurppa, K J; Laiho, A; Peltonen, S; Berdal, A; Bouattour, A; Ruhin, B; Catón, J; Thesleff, I; Leivo, I; Morgan, P R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the molecular relationship between ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) by means of a genome-wide expression analysis. Total RNA from 27 fresh tumor samples of 15 solid/multicystic intraosseous ameloblastomas and 12 sporadic KCOTs was hybridized on Affymetrix whole genome arrays. Hierarchical clustering separated ameloblastomas and KCOTs into 2 distinct groups. The gene set enrichment analysis based on 303 dental genes showed a similar separation of ameloblastomas and KCOTs. Early dental epithelial markers PITX2, MSX2, DLX2, RUNX1, and ISL1 were differentially overexpressed in ameloblastoma, indicating its dental identity. Also, PTHLH, a hormone involved in tooth eruption and invasive growth, was one of the most differentially upregulated genes in ameloblastoma. The most differentially overexpressed genes in KCOT were squamous epithelial differentiation markers SPRR1A, KRTDAP, and KRT4, as well as DSG1, a component of desmosomal cell-cell junctions. Additonally, the epithelial stem cell marker SOX2 was significantly upregulated in KCOT when compared with ameloblastoma. Taken together, the gene expression profile of ameloblastoma reflects differentiation from dental lamina toward the cap/bell stage of tooth development, as indicated by dental epithelium-specific transcription factors. In contrast, gene expression of KCOT indicates differentiation toward keratinocytes.

  2. Conservative surgical approach to aggressive benign odontogenic neoplasm: a report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive benign odontogenic neoplasms have substantial potential to grow to an enormous size with resulting bone deformities, and they often invade adjacent tissues and spread beyond their normal clinical and radiographic margins; as such, they have a high rate of recurrence. Historically, management (conservative versus aggressive) on the basis of clinical, radiographic and/or histopathologic characteristics has been controversial. However, recent advances in the understanding of the biological features of these lesions may provide greater evidence of the benefits of conservative management. Three patients with different complaints and final histopathologic diagnoses were enrolled in the study. All three cases were treated by a single operator with similar conservative surgical procedures. During follow-up, the patients had uneventful secondary healing and bone regeneration, less packing time than previously reported, no clinical or radiographic evidence of recurrence and no apparent deformity. The aggressive behavior of these lesions requires long clinical and radiographic follow-up. Conservative surgical management may be an option to reduce recurrence and morbidity and increase the probability of uneventful secondary healing and bone regeneration. PMID:25741467

  3. Glandular odontogenic cyst: review of literature and report of a new case with cytokeratin-19 expression.

    PubMed

    Mascitti, Marco; Santarelli, Andrea; Sabatucci, Antonio; Procaccini, Maurizio; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Zizzi, Antonio; Rubini, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    The glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) was a rare jawbone cyst described in 1988 as a distinct entity. This lesion can involve either jaw, and the anterior region of the mandible was the most commonly affected area. Clinical and radiographic findings were not specific, and the diagnosis of GOC can be extremely difficult due to the rarity of this lesion. The cyst presented a wall constituted by fibrous connective tissue and was lined by a non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium of variable thickness. Large areas of the lining epithelium presented cylinder cells, sometimes ciliated. A variable amount of mucina was occasionally noted. Due to the strong similarities, this cyst can be easily misdiag-nosed as a central mucoepidermoid carcinoma (CMEC). Immunohistochemistry may be an aid in diagnosis; in fact has been demonstrated that there were differences in the expression of cytokeratins (CK) in GOC and CMEC. In this study, we reported a new case of GOC in a 38 year female patient. In addition, we carried out a review of 110 previous cases reported in literature.

  4. The use of vismodegib to shrink keratocystic odontogenic tumors in basal cell nevus syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Ally, Mina S.; Tang, Jean Y.; Joseph, Timmy; Thompson, Bobbye; Lindgren, Joselyn; Raphael, Maria Acosta; Ulerio, Grace; Chanana, Anita M.; Mackay-Wiggan, Julian M.; Bickers, David R.; Epstein, Ervin H

    2014-01-01

    Importance Keratocystic odontogenic tumors of the jaw (KCOTs) affect more than 65% of patients with basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS). Surgery frequently causes facial disfigurement and is not always curative. Most BCNS-related and some sporadic KCOTs have malignant activation of the Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway. Observations We examined the effect of vismodegib (an oral HH-pathway inhibitor) on KCOT size in BCNS patients enrolled in a clinical trial testing vismodegib for BCC prevention (NCT00957229), using pre and post-treatment MRIs. Four men and 2 women had pretreatment KCOTs, mean longest diameter 2.0cm (range: 0.7–3.3cm), occurring primarily in the mandible. Subjects were treated with vismodegib (150mg/day) for a mean 18 months (SD: 4.8, range: 11–24). Four subjects experienced a size reduction and 2 had no change. Vismodegib reduced the mean longest diameter of KCOTs in all subjects by 1.0cm (95% CI: 0.03, 1.94, p= 0.02) or 50% from baseline. We observed no enlargement of existing KCOTs or new KCOT development. Conclusions and relevance Vismodegib shrinks some KCOTs in BCNS patients and may offer an alternative to surgical therapy. These effects were maintained for at least 9 months after drug cessation in 1 patient. Further studies assessing long-term efficacy and optimal maintenance regimens should be performed. PMID:24623282

  5. FGF signaling sustains the odontogenic fate of dental mesenchyme by suppressing β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Gu, Shuping; Sun, Cheng; Ye, Wenduo; Song, Zhongchen; Zhang, Yanding; Chen, YiPing

    2013-11-01

    Odontoblasts and osteoblasts develop from multipotent craniofacial neural crest cells during tooth and jawbone development, but the mechanisms that specify and sustain their respective fates remain largely unknown. In this study we used early mouse molar and incisor tooth germs that possess distinct tooth-forming capability after dissociation and reaggregation in vitro to investigate the mechanism that sustains odontogenic fate of dental mesenchyme during tooth development. We found that after dissociation and reaggregation, incisor, but not molar, mesenchyme exhibits a strong osteogenic potency associated with robustly elevated β-catenin signaling activity in a cell-autonomous manner, leading to failed tooth formation in the reaggregates. Application of FGF3 to incisor reaggregates inhibits β-catenin signaling activity and rescues tooth formation. The lack of FGF retention on the cell surface of incisor mesenchyme appears to account for the differential osteogenic potency between incisor and molar, which can be further attributed to the differential expression of syndecan 1 and NDST genes. We further demonstrate that FGF signaling inhibits intracellular β-catenin signaling by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway to regulate the subcellular localization of active GSK3β in dental mesenchymal cells. Our results reveal a novel function for FGF signaling in ensuring the proper fate of dental mesenchyme by regulating β-catenin signaling activity during tooth development.

  6. Aperture width of the osteomeatal complex as a predictor of successful treatment of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Tomomatsu, N; Uzawa, N; Aragaki, T; Harada, K

    2014-11-01

    Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis (OMS) is an inflammatory disease caused by the spread of dental inflammation into the sinus. The long-term administration of antibiotic medicine and/or treatment of the causative tooth are the usual initial treatments. These initial treatments are not always effective, and the reason is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to identify factors of significance that may contribute to the results of the initial treatment of OMS. Thirty-nine patients were studied, divided into two groups according to the results of initial treatment: effective or non-effective. The effective group comprised 20 patients who were cured by initial treatment. The non-effective group comprised 19 patients who required an additional operation. The duration of symptoms, spread into the other sinuses, aperture width of the osteomeatal complex (OMC) on the side of the maxillary sinus, and anatomical variations in the sinuses were compared between the groups. The only significant difference found was in the aperture width of the OMC, which was significantly narrower in the non-effective group than in the effective group. The aperture width of the OMC may be a significant predictor of the effectiveness of initial treatment of OMS.

  7. Recurrent squamous odontogenic tumor: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    MOHR, BARBARA; WINTER, JOCHEN; WAHL, GERHARD; JANSKA, EMILIA

    2015-01-01

    Squamous odontogenic tumors (SOTs) are benign, locally infiltrative neoplasms that localize to the periodontium. In total, <50 cases have been reported since the first description of SOTs in 1975. Although the exact etiology of SOTs is unknown, the tumors are considered to derive from the epithelial cell rests of Malassez. SOTs are characterized by radiological and clinical signs and symptoms, including pain with increased sensitivity in the affected area, bone expansion and increased tooth mobility. The present study describes the case of a patient that experienced numerous SOT recurrences and also discusses recommendations for treatment. A locally invasive mandibular SOT was identified in a Caucasian 41-year-old female patient. The treatment involved recommended conservative surgery, including local curettage. In addition, 49 cases published in the literature were reviewed to assess the treatment strategies. The present patient experienced two recurrences of the tumor during the 6-year follow-up period. Ultimately, the vitality of the adjacent teeth was compromised. An apicoectomy with a small amount of resection of the marginal bone was necessary. In >50% of the reported cases of SOT in the literature the adjacent teeth were extracted. The present case of SOT and the associated literature were also discussed. It was concluded that the treatment of choice appears to be a conservative surgical removal, but the successful management of SOTs often requires the removal of the adjacent teeth. PMID:26722231

  8. Tooth replacement and putative odontogenic stem cell niches in pharyngeal dentition of medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Abduweli, Dawud; Baba, Otto; Tabata, Makoto J; Higuchi, Kazunori; Mitani, Hiroshi; Takano, Yoshiro

    2014-04-01

    The small-sized teleost fish medaka, Oryzias latipes, has as many as 1000 pharyngeal teeth undergoing continuous replacement. In this study, we sought to identify the tooth-forming units and determine its replacement cycles, and further localize odontogenic stem cell niches in the pharyngeal dentition of medaka to gain insights into the mechanisms whereby continuous tooth replacement is maintained. Three-dimensional reconstruction of pharyngeal epithelium and sequential fluorochrome labeling of pharyngeal bones and teeth indicated that the individual functional teeth and their successional teeth were organized in families, each comprising up to five generations of teeth and successional tooth germs, and that the replacement cycle of functional teeth was approximately 4 weeks. BrdU label/chase experiments confirmed the existence of clusters of label-retaining epithelial cells at the posterior end of each tooth family where the expression of pluripotency marker Sox2 was confirmed by in situ hybridization. Label-retaining cells were also identified in the mesoderm immediately adjacent to the posterior end of each tooth family. These data suggest the importance of existence of slow-cycling dental epithelial cells and Sox2 expressions at the posterior end of each tooth family to maintain continuous tooth formation and replacement in the pharyngeal dentition of medaka.

  9. The Transition from Aerobic to Anaerobic Metabolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, James S.; McLellan, Thomas H.

    1980-01-01

    The transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism is discussed. More research is needed on different kinds of athletes and athletic activities and how they may affect aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms. (CJ)

  10. Multidrug Efflux Systems in Microaerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zeling; Yan, Aixin

    2015-01-01

    Active drug efflux constitutes an important mechanism of antibiotic and multidrug resistance in bacteria. Understanding the distribution, expression, and physiological functions of multidrug efflux pumps, especially under physiologically and clinically relevant conditions of the pathogens, is the key to combat drug resistance. In animal hosts, most wounded, infected and inflamed tissues display low oxygen tensions. In this article, we summarize research development on multidrug efflux pumps in the medicinally relevant microaerobic and anaerobic pathogens and their implications in the effort to combat drug-resistant infections. PMID:27025630

  11. [The sensitivity of anaerobic bacteria to chemotherapeutic agents (Zurich, 1991)].

    PubMed

    Wüst, J; Hardegger, U

    1991-12-27

    There have been numerous reports on resistance of anaerobic bacteria against antimicrobial agents. Therefore, to assess the situation in Zurich, 187 anaerobic strains of various bacterial genera, isolated from clinical specimens during winter 1990/91, were tested for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents active against anaerobic bacteria. Besides the Bacteroides fragilis group, which is naturally resistant against penicillin, 30% of isolates of other Bacteroides species were also resistant against penicillin. In general, anaerobes have remained susceptible to cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, imipenem, the 5-nitroimidazoles (metronidazole, ornidazole) as well as combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics with beta-lactamase inhibitors (clavulanic acid, sulbactam and tazobactam). Because rare strains resistant against cefoxitin, clindamycin and beta-lactams plus beta-lactamase inhibitors can be found, at least isolates from specific clinical situations should be tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. These are strains isolated from patients with brain abscess, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, arthritis, infected implants and prosthesis as well as those from persisting or recurrent bacteremia. Because the agar diffusion test yields unreliable results, minimal inhibitory concentration should be determined. Maybe the new 'E test' or the spiral gradient procedure can be used after evaluation.

  12. Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolz, J. F.; Oremland, R. S.; Switzer Blum, J.; Hoeft, S. E.; Baesman, S. M.; Bennett, S.; Miller, L. G.; Kulp, T. R.; Saltikov, C.

    2013-12-01

    Arsenic is an element best known for its highly poisonous nature, so it is not something one would associate with being a well-spring for life. Yet discoveries made over the past two decades have delineated that not only are some microbes resistant to arsenic, but that this element's primary redox states can be exploited to conserve energy and support prokaryotic growth ('arsenotrophy') in the absence of oxygen. Hence, arsenite [As(III)] can serve as an electron donor for chemo- or photo-autotrophy while arsenate [As(V)] will serve as an electron acceptor for chemo-heterotrophs and chemo-autotrophs. The phylogenetic diversity of these microbes is broad, encompassing many individual species from diverse taxonomic groups in the Domain Bacteria, with fewer representatives in the Domain Archaea. Speculation with regard to the evolutionary origins of the key functional genes in anaerobic arsenic transformations (arrA and arxA) and aerobic oxidation (aioB) has led to a disputation as to which gene and function is the most ancient and whether arsenic metabolism extended back into the Archaean. Regardless of its origin, robust arsenic metabolism has been documented in extreme environments that are rich in their arsenic content, such as hot springs and especially hypersaline soda lakes associated with volcanic regions. Searles Lake, CA is an extreme, salt-saturated end member where vigorous arsenic metabolism occurs, but there is no detectable sulfate-reduction or methanogenesis. The latter processes are too weak bio-energetically to survive as compared with arsenotrophy, and are also highly sensitive to the abundance of borate ions present in these locales. These observations have implications with respect to the search for microbial life elsewhere in the Solar System where volcanic-like processes have been operative. Hence, because of the likelihood of encountering dense brines in the regolith of Mars (formed by evapo-concentration) or beneath the ice layers of Europa

  13. Anaerobic bioprocessing of organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, W; de Beer, D; Pena, M; Lettinga, G; Lens, P

    1996-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of dissolved, suspended and solid organics has rapidly evolved in the last decades but nevertheless still faces several scientific unknowns. In this review, some fundamentals of bacterial conversions and adhesion are addressed initially. It is argued in the light of ΔG-values of reactions, and in view of the minimum energy quantum per mol, that anaerobic syntrophs must have special survival strategies in order to support their existence: redistributing the available energy between the partners, reduced end-product fermentation reactions and special cell-to-cell physiological interactions. In terms of kinetics, it appears that both reaction rates and residual substrate thresholds are strongly related to minimum ΔG-values. These new fundamental insights open perspectives for efficient design and operation of anaerobic bioprocesses. Subsequently, an overview is given of the current anaerobic biotechnology. For treating wastewaters, a novel and high performance new system has been introduced during the last decade; the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket system (UASB). This reactor concept requires anaerobic consortia to grow in a dense and eco-physiologically well-organized way. The microbial principles of such granular sludge growth are presented. Using a thermodynamic approach, the formation of different types of aggregates is explained. The application of this bioprocess in worldwide wastewater treatment is indicated. Due to the long retention times of the active biomass, the UASB is also suitable for the development of bacterial consortia capable of degrading xenobiotics. Operating granular sludge reactors at high upflow velocities (5-6 m/h) in expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) systems enlarges the application field to very low strength wastewaters (chemical oxygen demand < 1 g/l) and psychrophilic temperatures (10°C). For the treatment of organic suspensions, there is currently a tendency to evolve from the conventional mesophilic

  14. Proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of BMP2 gene‑transfected stem cells from human tooth apical papilla: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Xiaolei; Ling, Junqi; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Xinchun; Ma, Jinglei; Zheng, Jianmao

    2014-10-01

    Stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAP) have odontogenic potential, which plays a pivotal role in the root dentin development of permanent teeth. Human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) is a well-known gene that participates in regulating the odontogenic differentiation of dental tissue‑derived stem cells. However, little is known regarding the effects of the BMP2 gene on the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of SCAP. This study aimed to evaluate the odontogenic differentiation potential of lentiviral‑mediated BMP2 gene‑transfected human SCAP (SCAP/BMP2) in vitro. SCAP were isolated by enzymatic dissociation of human teeth apical papillae. The multipotential of SCAP was verified by their osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation characteristics. The phenotype of SCAP was evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM). The proliferation status of the blank vector‑transfected SCAP (SCAP/Vector) and SCAP/BMP2 was analyzed by a cell counting kit-8 (CCK‑8). Odontogenic genes, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) of the two groups of cells were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). ALP staining and alizarin red (AR) staining of the cells was performed on the 16th day after transfection. In vitro results of CCK-8, qPCR, ALP and AR staining demonstrated that: ⅰ) SCAP/BMP2 had a comparable proliferation rate to SCAP/Vector; ⅱ) SCAP/BMP2 presented significantly better potential to differentiate into odontoblasts compared to SCAP/Vector by upregulating ALP, OCN, DSPP and DMP1 genes; ⅲ) more ALP granules and mineralized deposits were formed by SCAP/BMP2 as compared to SCAP/Vector. The results suggested that lentiviral-mediated BMP2 gene transfection enhances the odontogenic differentiation capacity of human SCAP in vitro.

  15. Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells on Hydrogel Scaffolds Derived from Decellularized Bone Extracellular Matrix and Collagen Type I

    PubMed Central

    White, Lisa J.; Shakesheff, Kevin M.; Tatullo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) on hydrogel scaffolds derived from bone extracellular matrix (bECM) in comparison to those seeded on collagen I (Col-I), one of the main components of dental pulp ECM. Methods DPSCs isolated from human third molars were characterized for surface marker expression and odontogenic potential prior to seeding into bECM or Col-I hydrogel scaffolds. The cells were then seeded onto bECM and Col-I hydrogel scaffolds and cultured under basal conditions or with odontogenic and growth factor (GF) supplements. DPSCs cultivated on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) with and without supplements were used as controls. Gene expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP-1) and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and mineral deposition was observed by Von Kossa staining. Results When DPSCs were cultured on bECM hydrogels, the mRNA expression levels of DSPP, DMP-1 and MEPE genes were significantly upregulated with respect to those cultured on Col-I scaffolds or TCPS in the absence of extra odontogenic inducers. In addition, more mineral deposition was observed on bECM hydrogel scaffolds as demonstrated by Von Kossa staining. Moreover, DSPP, DMP-1 and MEPE mRNA expressions of DPSCs cultured on bECM hydrogels were further upregulated by the addition of GFs or osteo/odontogenic medium compared to Col-I treated cells in the same culture conditions. Significance These results demonstrate the potential of the bECM hydrogel scaffolds to stimulate odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs. PMID:26882351

  16. How anaerobic is the Wingate Anaerobic Test for humans?

    PubMed

    Beneke, R; Pollmann, C; Bleif, I; Leithäuser, R M; Hütler, M

    2002-08-01

    The Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) is generally used to evaluate anaerobic cycling performance, but knowledge of the metabolic profile of WAnT is limited. Therefore the energetics of WAnT was analysed with respect to working efficiency and performance. A group of 11 male subjects [mean (SD), age 21.6 (3.8) years, height 178.6 (6.6) cm, body mass 82.2 (12.1) kg] performed a maximal incremental exercise test and a WAnT. Lactic and alactic anaerobic energy outputs were calculated from net lactate production and the fast component of the kinetics of post-exercise oxygen uptake. Aerobic metabolism was determined from oxygen uptake during exercise. The WAnT mean power of 683 (96.0) W resulted from a total energy output above the value at rest of 128.1 (23.2) kJ x 30 s(-1) [mean metabolic power=4.3 (0.8) kW] corresponding to a working efficiency of 16.2 (1.6)%. The WAnT working efficiency was lower (P < 0.01) than the corresponding value of 24.1 (1.7)% at 362 (41) W at the end of an incremental exercise test. During WAnT the fractions of the energy from aerobic, anaerobic alactic and lactic acid metabolism were 18.6 (2.5)%, 31.1 (4.6)%, and 50.3 (5.1)%, respectively. Energy from metabolism of anaerobic lactic acid explained 83% and 81% of the variance of WAnT peak and mean power, respectively. The results indicate firstly that WAnT requires the use of more anaerobically derived energy than previously estimated, secondly that anaerobic metabolism is dominated by glycolysis, thirdly that WAnT mechanical efficiency is lower than that found in aerobic exercise tests, and fourthly that the latter finding partly explains discrepancies between previously published and the present data about the metabolic profile of WAnT.

  17. Update from the 4th Edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Head and Neck Tumours: Odontogenic and Maxillofacial Bone Tumors.

    PubMed

    Wright, John M; Vered, Marilena

    2017-03-01

    The 4th edition of the World Health Organization's Classification of Head and Neck Tumours was published in January of 2017. This article provides a summary of the changes to Chapter 4 Tumours of the oral cavity and mobile tongue and Chapter 8 Odontogenic and maxillofacial bone tumours. Odontogenic cysts which were eliminated from the 3rd 2005 edition were included in the 4th edition as well as other unique allied conditons of the jaws. Many new tumors published since 2005 have been included in the 2017 classification.

  18. Immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in keratocystic odontogenic tumor, dentigerous cyst, and radicular cyst: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Khajuria, Nidhi; Metgud, Rashmi; Naik, Smitha; Lerra, Sahul; Tiwari, Priya; Mamta; Katakwar, Payal; Tak, Anirudh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cyst and tumors arise from tissue remains of odontogenesis, these interactions have been considered to play an important role in the tumorigenesis of odontogenic lesions. The connective tissue stroma has an essential role in the preservation of epithelial tissues and minor alterations in the epithelium are followed by corresponding changes in the stroma, such as angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is considered the first factor which maintains its position as the most critical driver of vascular formation and is required to initiate the formation of immature vessels, with this aim, present study was executed to evaluate VEGF expression in kertocystic odontogenic tumor, dentigerous cyst and radicular cyst (RC). Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was carried out comprising a total of 31 cases; 13 cases of keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT), nine cases of dentigerous cyst (DC) and nine cases of RC. The sections were stained immunohistochemically with VEGF antibody and were evaluated for the presence and intensity of the immuno reactive cells. Statistical analysis was carried out using Chi-square test to inter-compare the VEGF expression between KCOT, DC, and RC. Results: VEGF expression in the epithelium and connective tissue was significantly higher in KCOT compared to dentigerous and RC. One case of KCOT with carcinomatous change also revealed positive results for the VEGF expression in the dysplastic epithelium, tumor islands, and connective tissue. The significant difference was observed on inter-comparison of the VEGF expression in the connective tissue of KCOT and DC, whereas no significant difference was observed in the VEGF expression in the connective tissue of KCOT and DC. Conclusion: The present study data supports the literature finding that angiogenesis can be important in the progression and enlargement of odontogenic cysts similarly to what occurs in neoplastic conditions and further it can be concluded that

  19. Importance of cone beam computed tomography for diagnosis of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour associated to odontoma. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Marques, Yonara-Maria-Freire-Soares; Botelho, Tessa-de Lucena; Xavier, Flávia-Caló-de Aquino; Rangel, Andrea-Leão; Rege, Inara-Carneiro-Costa; Mantesso, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour (CCOT) is a rare benign cystic neoplasm not infrequently associated with odontoma. This report documents a case of CCOT associated with compound odontoma arising in the anterior maxilla in a 25-year-old woman. Conventional radiographs showed a large calcified mass with poorly visualized radiolucent margins. The extent and condition of the internal structure of the CCOT associated with odontoma was able to be determined based on radiographic findings from cone beam computed tomography. This advanced image technique proved to be extremely useful in the radiographic assessment of this particular neoplasm of the jawbones.

  20. A comparative examination of odontogenic gene expression in both toothed and toothless amniotes

    PubMed Central

    Lainoff, Alexis J.; Moustakas-Verho, Jacqueline E.; Hu, Diane; Kallonen, Aki; Marcucio, Ralph S.; Hlusko, Leslea J.

    2015-01-01

    A well-known tenet of murine tooth development is that BMP4 and FGF8 antagonistically initiate odontogenesis, but whether this tenet is conserved across amniotes is largely unexplored. Moreover, changes in BMP4-signaling have previously been implicated in evolutionary tooth loss in Aves. Here we demonstrate that Bmp4, Msx1, and Msx2 expression is limited proximally in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) mandible at stages equivalent to those at which odontogenesis is initiated in mice, a similar finding to previously reported results in chicks. To address whether the limited domains in the turtle and the chicken indicate an evolutionary molecular parallelism, or whether the domains simply constitute an ancestral phenotype, we assessed gene expression in a toothed reptile (the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis) and a toothed non-placental mammal (the gray short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica). We demonstrate that the Bmp4 domain is limited proximally in M. domestica and that the Fgf8 domain is limited distally in A. mississippiensis just preceding odontogenesis. Additionally, we show that Msx1 and Msx2 expression patterns in these species differ from those found in mice. Our data suggest that a limited Bmp4 domain does not necessarily correlate with edentulism, and reveal that the initiation of odontogenesis in non-murine amniotes is more complex than previously imagined. Our data also suggest a partially conserved odontogenic program in T. scripta, as indicated by conserved Pitx2, Pax9, and Barx1 expression patterns and by the presence of a Shh-expressing palatal epithelium, which we hypothesize may represent potential dental rudiments based on the Testudinata fossil record. PMID:25678399

  1. The Role of Thymosin Beta 4 on Odontogenic Differentiation in Human Dental Pulp Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa-Jeong; Cha, Hee-Jae; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported that overexpression of thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) in transgenic mice promotes abnormal hair growth and tooth development, but the role of Tβ4 in dental pulp regeneration was not completely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Tβ4 on odontoblastic differentiation and the underlying mechanism regulating pulp regeneration in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). Our results demonstrate that mRNA and protein expression of Tβ4 is upregulated during odontogenic differentiation in HDPCs. Transfection with Tβ4 siRNA decreases OM-induced odontoblastic differentiation by decreasing alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mRNA expression of differentiation markers, and calcium nodule formation. In contrast, Tβ4 activation with a Tβ4 peptide promotes these processes by enhancing the phosphorylation of p38, JNK, and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2, BMP4, phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and Smad2/3, and expression of transcriptional factors such as Runx2 and Osterix, which were blocked by the BMP inhibitor noggin. The expression of integrin receptors α1, α2, α3, and β1 and downstream signaling molecules including phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (p-FAK), p-paxillin, and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) were increased by Tβ4 peptide in HDPCs. ILK siRNA blocked Tβ4-induced odontoblastic differentiation and activation of the BMP and MAPK transcription factor pathways in HDPCs. In conclusion, this study demonstrates for the first time that Tβ4 plays a key role in odontoblastic differentiation of HDPCs and activation of Tβ4 could provide a novel mechanism for regenerative endodontics. PMID:23613983

  2. Anaerobic culture to detect periodontal and caries pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Anne C. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaerobic culture has been critical in our understanding of the oral microbiotas. Highlight Studies in advanced periodontitis in the 1970’s revealed microbial complexes that associated with different clinical presentations. Taxonomy studies identified species newly-observed in periodontitis as Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans, Campylobacter (Wolinella) rectus and other Campylobacter species, and Tannerella (Bacteroides) forsythia. Anaerobic culture of initial periodontitis showed overlap in the microbiota with gingivitis, and added Selenomonas noxia and Filifactor alocis as putative periodontal pathogens. Porphyromonas gingivalis and T. forsythia were found to be associated with initial periodontitis in adults. The dominant microbiota of dental caries differs from that of periodontitis. The major cariogenic species are acidogenic and acid tolerant species particularly Streptococcus mutans, and Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species. Anaerobic culture of severe early childhood caries revealed a widely diverse microbiota, comparable to that observed using cloning and sequencing. The PCR-based cloning approach, however, underestimated Actinobacteria compared with culture. Only a subset of the caries-associated microbiota was acid tolerant, with different segments of the microbiota cultured on blood agar compared to a low pH acid agar. While the major caries-associated species was S. mutans, a new species, Scardovia wiggsiae, was significantly associated with early childhood caries. Higher counts of S. wiggsiae were also observed in initial white spot carious lesions in adolescents. Conclusion In periodontitis and dental caries, anaerobic culture studies of advanced disease provided a comprehensive analysis of the microbiota of these infections. Anaerobic culture highlighted the limitation of PCR with standard primers that underestimate detection of Actinobacteria. PMID:25678835

  3. An unusual cause of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection.

    PubMed

    Esmaeilzadeh, Majid; Islamian, Ariyan Pirayesh; Lang, Josef M; Hornef, Mathias; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Krauss, Joachim K

    2015-08-01

    Infection associated with ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt implantation can be a significant problem. VP shunt infection with Serratia marcescens, a gram-negative anaerobic rod, usually is related to underlying abdominal disease. This article describes treatment of two patients suffering from a VP shunt infection with S. marcescens without underlying abdominal disease.

  4. Deep sequencing-based analysis of the anaerobic stimulon in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Maintenance of an anaerobic denitrification system in the obligate human pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, suggests that an anaerobic lifestyle may be important during the course of infection. Furthermore, mounting evidence suggests that reduction of host-produced nitric oxide has several immunomodulary effects on the host. However, at this point there have been no studies analyzing the complete gonococcal transcriptome response to anaerobiosis. Here we performed deep sequencing to compare the gonococcal transcriptomes of aerobically and anaerobically grown cells. Using the information derived from this sequencing, we discuss the implications of the robust transcriptional response to anaerobic growth. Results We determined that 198 chromosomal genes were differentially expressed (~10% of the genome) in response to anaerobic conditions. We also observed a large induction of genes encoded within the cryptic plasmid, pJD1. Validation of RNA-seq data using translational-lacZ fusions or RT-PCR demonstrated the RNA-seq results to be very reproducible. Surprisingly, many genes of prophage origin were induced anaerobically, as well as several transcriptional regulators previously unknown to be involved in anaerobic growth. We also confirmed expression and regulation of a small RNA, likely a functional equivalent of fnrS in the Enterobacteriaceae family. We also determined that many genes found to be responsive to anaerobiosis have also been shown to be responsive to iron and/or oxidative stress. Conclusions Gonococci will be subject to many forms of environmental stress, including oxygen-limitation, during the course of infection. Here we determined that the anaerobic stimulon in gonococci was larger than previous studies would suggest. Many new targets for future research have been uncovered, and the results derived from this study may have helped to elucidate factors or mechanisms of virulence that may have otherwise been overlooked. PMID:21251255

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria in Ontario, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Marchand-Austin, Alex; Rawte, Prasad; Toye, Baldwin; Jamieson, Frances B; Farrell, David J; Patel, Samir N

    2014-08-01

    The local epidemiology of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in anaerobic bacteria is important in guiding the empiric treatment of infections. However, susceptibility data are very limited on anaerobic organisms, particularly among non-Bacteroides organisms. To determine susceptibility profiles of clinically-significant anaerobic bacteria in Ontario Canada, anaerobic isolates from sterile sites submitted to Public Health Ontario Laboratory (PHOL) for identification and susceptibility testing were included in this study. Using the E-test method, isolates were tested for various antimicrobials including, penicillin, cefoxitin, clindamycin, meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam and metronidazole. The MIC results were interpreted based on guidelines published by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Of 2527 anaerobic isolates submitted to PHOL, 1412 were either from sterile sites or bronchial lavage, and underwent susceptibility testing. Among Bacteroides fragilis, 98.2%, 24.7%, 1.6%, and 1.2% were resistant to penicillin, clindamycin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and metronidazole, respectively. Clostridium perfringens was universally susceptible to penicillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and meropenem, whereas 14.2% of other Clostridium spp. were resistant to penicillin. Among Gram-positive anaerobes, Actinomyces spp., Parvimonas micra and Propionibacterium spp. were universally susceptible to β-lactams. Eggerthella spp., Collinsella spp., and Eubacterium spp. showed variable resistance to penicillin. Among Gram-negative anaerobes, Fusobacterium spp., Prevotella spp., and Veillonella spp. showed high resistance to penicillin but were universally susceptible to meropenem and piperacillin-tazobactam. The detection of metronidazole resistant B. fragilis is concerning as occurrence of these isolates is extremely rare. These data highlight the importance of ongoing surveillance to provide clinically relevant information to clinicians for empiric management of

  6. Processing anaerobic sludge for extended storage as anaerobic digester inoculum.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiajia; Zicari, Steven M; Cui, Zongjun; Zhang, Ruihong

    2014-08-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic sludge was processed to reduce the volume and moisture content in order to reduce costs for storing and transporting the sludge as microbial inoculum for anaerobic digester startup. The moisture content of the sludge was reduced from 98.7% to 82.0% via centrifugation and further to 71.5% via vacuum evaporation. The processed sludge was stored for 2 and 4 months and compared with the fresh sludge for the biogas and methane production using food waste and non-fat dry milk as substrates. It was found that fresh unprocessed sludge had the highest methane yield and the yields of both unprocessed and processed sludges decreased during storage by 1-34%, however processed sludges seemed to regain some activity after 4 months of storage as compared to samples stored for only 2 months. Maximum methane production rates obtained from modified Gompertz model application also increased between the 2-month and 4-month processed samples.

  7. Orthodontic treatment of a patient with an impacted maxillary second premolar and odontogenic keratocyst in the maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, Yuko; Miyawaki, Shouichi; Imai, Mikako; Takeda, Ryoko; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2005-11-01

    An eight-year-, four-month-old girl was brought to the orthodontic clinic of Okayama University Medical and Dental Hospital. The patient had an impacted upper left second premolar because of an odontogenic keratocyst and showed a skeletal Class II jaw base relationship. At the age of six years four months, marsupialization of a cyst was performed at the Okayama University Medical and Dental Hospital because the patient had shown a swelling of the left cheek because of the cyst. The upper left second premolar was located in the roof of the maxillary sinus. The cyst was histopathologically diagnosed as an odontogenic keratocyst. At the age of nine years 10 months and after regaining the space for eruption of the premolar, the impacted premolar erupted without traction. At the age of 12 years five months, edgewise treatment was initiated, which continued for three years. After removing the edgewise appliance, an optimum occlusion was achieved. The occlusion was maintained without recurrence of the keratocyst after a retention period of five years.

  8. Odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells by calcium silicate materials stimulating via FGFR/ERK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao-Hsin; Hung, Chi-Jr; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Lin, Chi-Chang; Kao, Chia-Tze; Shie, Ming-You

    2014-10-01

    Bone healing needs a complex interaction of growth factors that establishes an environment for efficient bone formation. We examine how calcium silicate (CS) and tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) cements influence the behavior of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) through fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and active MAPK pathways, in particular ERK. The hDPCs are cultured with β-TCP and CS, after which the cells' viability and odontogenic differentiation markers are determined by using PrestoBlue® assay and western blot, respectively. The effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection targeting FGFR was also evaluated. The results showed that CS promoted cell proliferation and enhances FGFR expression. It was also found that CS increases ERK and p38 activity in hDPCs, and furthermore, raises the expression and secretion of DSP, and DMP-1. Additionally, statistically significant differences (p<0.05) have been found in the calcium deposition in si-FGFR transfection and ERK inhibitor between CS and β-TCP; these variations indicated that ERK/MAPK signaling is involved in the silicon-induced odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs. The current study shows that CS substrates play a key role in odontoblastic differentiation of hDPCs through FGFR and modulate ERK/MAPK activation.

  9. A retrospective review of 61 cases of adenomatoid odontogenic tumour seen in five tertiary health facilities in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adisa, Akinyele Olumuyiwa; Lawal, Ahmed Oluwatoyin; Effiom, Olajumoke Ajibola; Soyele, Olujide Oladele; Omitola, Olufemi Gbenga; Olawuyi, Adetokunbo; Fomete, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a benign lesion originating from the dental lamina or its remnants. It is a relatively uncommon neoplasm representing about 3% of all odontogenic tumors. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical and radiological characteristics of AOTs in five major tertiary centres in Nigeria. Methods Archival hospital-based data stores of five tertiary health facilities in Nigeria were accessed. Case files and biopsy records were retrieved to obtain relevant information. Data was collected according to a proforma for standardization and entered into and analysed using SPSS for Windows (version 20.0; SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL). Results 61 (4.5%) cases of AOT were documented. The age range was 8-46 years with a mean age of 20.4±9.9 years. Male: Female ratio was 1:1.3. The anterior maxilla had 34 (55.8%) cases and the anterior mandible had 20 (32.8%) cases. 40 (65.6%) follicular cases, 20 (32.8%) extra-follicular cases and 1(1.6%) extra-osseous case were found. 31 cases (61.1%) were associated with impacted teeth and the upper canine was involved in 19 (57.6%) cases. Conclusion This study showed AOT to be more common in the maxilla, more in females, most often associated with impacted canines, however, the suggestion of AOT being a “Two third tumour” was not observed in this study. PMID:27642441

  10. Immunohistochemical Comparison of the Expression of CD34 and CD105 in Odontogenic Keratocyst and Dentigerous Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Jamshidi, Shokoofeh; Zargaran, Massoumeh; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Hadadi, Fatemeh; Dehghani| Nazhvani, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a developmental odontogenic cyst with specific histopathological features, high recurrence rate, and aggressive clinical behavior. Angiogenesis might be considered as an important factor for the growth, expansion, and distribution of this lesion. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine the mean vascular densities (MVD) of OKCs and dentigerous cysts to evaluate their relationship with the biologic behavior of these lesions. Materials and Method: In this cross-sectional analytical study, angiogenesis was assessed in OKC and dentigerous cyst by measuring the MVD. Immunohistochemistry was carried out using CD34 and CD105. The results were analyzed with independent samples t-test. The data were analyzed, setting p value at 0.05. Results: The MVDs with the use of CD34 and CD105 markers were significantly higher in OKC compared to dentigerous cyst (p< 0.05). In addition, MVDs obtained by CD105 in dentigerous cysts and OKC were significantly less than those based on CD34 (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, it can be suggested that angiogenesis might be one of the possible mechanisms involved in higher aggressive biologic behavior and greater recurrence rate of OKC compared to dentigerous cysts. PMID:28280759

  11. Sclerosing odontogenic carcinoma with benign fibro-osseous lesion of the mandible: an extremely rare case report.

    PubMed

    Irié, Tarou; Ogawa, Ikuko; Takata, Takashi; Toyosawa, Satoru; Saito, Noriko; Akiba, Masakazu; Isobe, Tomohide; Hokazono, Chie; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2010-10-01

    A case of sclerosing odontogenic carcinoma (SOC) admixed with a benign fibro-osseous lesion (BFOL) is reported herein. A 67-year-old male had paresthesia in the mental region. Computed tomography detected an intragnathic mass that was focally expansile with disappearance of cortical bone, and contained admixed radiolucency and radio-opacity. Under the pathological diagnosis as benign fibro-osseous lesion, it was surgically removed by curettage. Microscopic analysis showed that a few parts of the resected materials contained dispersed thin cords and small nests of epithelial cells accompanied by fibrous stroma. Cellular atypia and mitotic figures were not evident. The diagnosis of BFOL with hyperplastic and metaplastic odontogenic epithelia was ultimately made. Eight months after the operation, the lesion recurred and segmental mandibulectomy was carried out. Histologically, the lesion was predominantly occupied by the fibro-osseous component with irregular-shaped foci of epithelial component. The epithelial component exhibited mostly thin cord or small nest patterns and showed definite perineural infiltration. Immunohistochemically, the epithelial cells were positive for p63, cytokeratin (CK) 6 and CK19, and focally positive for CK7 but negative for vimentin. MIB-1 positive nuclei were inconspicuous. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first case of SOC with BFOL.

  12. Clinicopathological evaluation of 164 dental follicles and dentigerous cysts with emphasis on the presence of odontogenic epithelium in the connective tissue. The hypothesis of “focal ameloblastoma”

    PubMed Central

    Meleti, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Some ameloblastomas presumably originate from odontogenic epithelium within the connective tissue of dental follicles and dentigerous cysts. Therefore, it would seem reasonable to discuss as whether odontogenic epithelium proliferations, frankly displaying ameloblastomatous features (“focal ameloblastoma”), should be considered as an “early” ameloblastoma. Study Design: Histopathological reports from 164 dental follicles and dentigerous cysts from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology of the VU Free University medical center in Amsterdam, The Ne-therlands, were reviewed. Histopathological slides from 39 cases reporting the presence of odontogenic epithelium within the connective tissue were re-evaluated in order to assess the possible presence of focal ameloblastomas. Results: Focal ameloblastomas were detected in one dental follicle and in two dentigerous cysts. During a follow-up period of 6, 8 and 22 years, respectively, no clinical signs of (recurrent) ameloblastoma have occurred in these patients. Conclusions: Focal ameloblastoma possibly represents the early stage of ameloblastoma development. Key words:Ameloblastoma, odontogenic epithelium, dentigerous cyst, dental follicle. PMID:23085710

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Cytokeratin 18 and 19 Expressions in Odontogenic Keratocyst, Dentigerous Cyst and Radicular Cyst with a Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Vandana Sandip; Ghanchi, Mohsin Jiva; Gosavi, Sandesh Sachchidanand; Srivastava, Himanshu Mahesh; Pachore, Nivedita Javahir

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Odontogenic cysts viz Odontogenic Keratocyst (OKC), Dentigerous Cyst (DC) and Radicular Cyst (RC) occur commonly in the oral and maxillofacial region. Cytokeratin (CK) expression studies have been done to evaluate diagnostic accuracy, role in pathogenesis, elucidate behaviour and role in treatment protocols. However, variations have been reported in the expression of CK patterns in these odontogenic cysts, which could be due to the lack of standardization of laboratory techniques. The present study has tried to shed light on CK 18 and 19 expression in odontogenic cysts and offer the brief review of previous studies on these CK. Aim The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intensity and expression patterns of CK 18 and 19 in OKCs, DCs and RCs. Materials and Methods A total of 60 cases, 20 each of OKC, DC and RC were confirmed histologically and evaluated for immunohistochemical expression pattern and intensity of CK 18 and 19. Results A focal and variable expression of CK 18 was observed in 25% of OKCs, 15% of DCs and 10% of RCs. CK 19 was expressed in 75% of OKCs and 100% in DCs as well as RCs. Conclusion The intensity and expression of Cytokeratin 19 was more in all three cysts compared to Cytokeratin 18. PMID:27630961

  14. [First Argentine consensus guidelines for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria in humans/ Anaerobic Subcommittee of the Asociación Argentina de Microbiología].

    PubMed

    Legaria, María C; Bianchini, Hebe M; Castello, Liliana; Carloni, Graciela; Di Martino, Ana; Fernández Canigia, Liliana; Litterio, Mirta; Rollet, Raquel; Rossetti, Adelaida; Predari, Silvia C

    2011-01-01

    Through time, anaerobic bacteria have shown good susceptibility to clinically useful antianaerobic agents. Nevertheless, the antimicrobial resistance profile of most of the anaerobic species related to severe infections in humans has been modified in the last years and different kinds of resistance to the most active agents have emerged, making their effectiveness less predictable. With the aim of finding an answer and for the purpose of facilitating the detection of anaerobic antimicrobial resistance, the Anaerobic Subcommittee of the Asociación Argentina de Microbiología developed the First Argentine consensus guidelines for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria in humans. This document resulted from the compatibilization of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations, the international literature and the work and experience of the Subcommittee. The Consensus document provides a brief taxonomy review, and exposes why and when anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility tests should be conducted, and which antimicrobial agents can be used according to the species involved. The recommendations on how to perform, read and interpret in vitro anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility tests with each method are exposed. Finally, the antibiotic susceptibility profile, the classification of antibiotics according to their in vitro activities, the natural and acquired mechanisms of resistance, the emerging resistance and the regional antibiotic resistance profile of clinically relevant anaerobic species are shown.

  15. Anaerobic digestion of aliphatic polyesters.

    PubMed

    Šmejkalová, Pavla; Kužníková, Veronika; Merna, Jan; Hermanová, Soňa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic processes for the treatment of plastic materials waste represent versatile and effective approach in environmental protection and solid waste management. In this work, anaerobic biodegradability of model aliphatic polyesters, poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA), and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), in the form of powder and melt-pressed films with varying molar mass, was studied. Biogas production was explored in batch laboratory trials at 55 ± 1°C under a nitrogen atmosphere. The inoculum used was thermophilic digested sludge (total solids concentration of 2.9%) from operating digesters at the Central Waste Water Treatment Plant in Prague, Czech Republic. Methanogenic biodegradation of PCLs typically yielded from 54 to 60% of the theoretical biogas yield. The biodegradability of PLAs achieved from 56 to 84% of the theoretical value. High biogas yield (up to 677 mL/g TS) with high methane content (more than 60%), comparable with conventionally processed materials, confirmed the potential of polyester samples for anaerobic treatment in the case of their exploitation in agriculture or as a packaging material in the food industry.

  16. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1991-06-01

    This study seeks to determine numbers, diversity, and morphology of anaerobic microorganisms in 15 samples of subsurface material from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in 18 samples from the Hanford Reservation and in 1 rock sample from the Nevada Test Site; set up long term experiments on the chemical activities of anaerobic microorganisms based on these same samples; work to improve methods for the micro-scale determination of in situ anaerobic microbial activity;and to begin to isolate anaerobes from these samples into axenic culture with identification of the axenic isolates.

  17. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of obligate anaerobic bacteria from clinical samples of animal origin.

    PubMed

    Mayorga, Melissa; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn; López-Ureña, Diana; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Quesada-Gómez, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    The etiology of veterinary infectious diseases has been the focus of considerable research, yet relatively little is known about the causative agents of anaerobic infections. Susceptibility studies have documented the emergence of antimicrobial resistance and indicate distinct differences in resistance patterns related to veterinary hospitals, geographic regions, and antibiotic-prescribing regimens. The aim of the present study was to identify the obligate anaerobic bacteria from veterinary clinical samples and to determinate the in vitro susceptibility to eight antimicrobials and their resistance-associated genes. 81 clinical specimens obtained from food-producing animals, pets and wild animals were examined to determine the relative prevalence of obligate anaerobic bacteria, and the species represented. Bacteroides spp, Prevotella spp and Clostridium spp represented approximately 80% of all anaerobic isolates. Resistance to metronidazole, clindamycin, tetracycline and fluoroquinolones was found in strains isolated from food-producing animals. Ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and cephalotin showed the highest resistance in all isolates. In 17%, 4% and 14% of tetracycline-resistant isolates, the resistance genes tetL, tetM and tetW were respectively amplified by PCR whereas in 4% of clindamycin-resistant strains the ermG gene was detected. 26% of the isolates were positive for cepA, while only 6% harbored the cfxA (resistance-conferring genes to beta-lactams). In this study, the obligate anaerobic bacteria from Costa Rica showed a high degree of resistance to most antimicrobials tested. Nevertheless, in the majority of cases this resistance was not related to the resistance acquired genes usually described in anaerobes. It is important to address and regulate the use of antimicrobials in the agricultural industry and the empirical therapy in anaerobic bacterial infections in veterinary medicine, especially since antibiotics and resistant bacteria can persist in the

  18. EVALUATION OF THE TEA TREE OIL ACTIVITY TO ANAEROBIC BACTERIA--IN VITRO STUDY.

    PubMed

    Ziółkowska-Klinkosz, Marta; Kedzia, Anna; Meissner, Hhenry O; Kedzia, Andrzej W

    2016-01-01

    The study of the sensitivity to tea tree oil (Australian Company TTD International Pty. Ltd. Sydney) was carried out on 193 strains of anaerobic bacteria isolated from patients with various infections within the oral cavity and respiratory tracts. The susceptibility (MIC) of anaerobes was determined by means of plate dilution technique in Brucella agar supplemented with 5% defibrinated sheep blood, menadione and hemin. Inoculum contained 10(5) CFU per spot was cultured with Steers replicator upon the surface of agar with various tea tree oil concentrations or without oil (anaerobes growth control). Incubation the plates was performed in anaerobic jars under anaerobic conditions at 37 degrees C for 48 h. MIC was defined as the lowest concentrations of the essential oil completely inhibiting growth of anaerobic bacteria. Test results indicate, that among Gram-negative bacteria the most sensitive to essential oil were strains of Veillonella and Porphyromonas species. Essential oil in low concentrations (MIC in the range of = 0.12 - 0.5 mg/mL) inhibited growth of accordingly 80% and 68% strains. The least sensitive were strains of the genus Tannerella, Parabacteroides and Dialister (MIC 1.0 - 2.0 mg/mL). In the case of Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria the tea tree oil was the most active to strains of cocci of the genus Anaerococcus and Ruminococcus (MIC in range = 0.12 - 0.5 mg/mL) or strains of rods of the genus Eubacterium and Eggerthella (MIC = 0.25 mg/mL). Among Gram-positive rods the least sensitive were the strains of the genus Bifidobacterium ( MIC = 2.0 mg/mL). The tea tree oil was more active to Gram-positive than to Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria.

  19. Anaerobic bacteria from hypersaline environments.

    PubMed Central

    Ollivier, B; Caumette, P; Garcia, J L; Mah, R A

    1994-01-01

    Strictly anaerobic halophiles, namely fermentative, sulfate-reducing, homoacetogenic, phototrophic, and methanogenic bacteria are involved in the oxidation of organic carbon in hypersaline environments. To date, six anaerobic fermentative genera, containing nine species, have been described. Two of them are homoacetogens. Six species belong to the family Haloanaerobiaceae, as indicated by their unique 16S rRNA oligonucleotide sequences. Desulfohalobium retbaense and Desulfovibrio halophilus represent the only two moderately halophilic sulfate reducers so far reported. Among anoxygenic phototrophic anaerobes, a few purple bacteria with optimal growth at salinities between 6 and 11% NaCl have been isolated from hypersaline habitats. They belong to the genera Rhodospirillum, Chromatium, Thiocapsa, and Ectothiorhodospira. The commonest organisms isolated so far are Chromatium salexigens, Thiocapsa halophila, and Rhodospirillum salinarum. Extremely halophilic purple bacteria have most commonly been isolated from alkaline brines and require about 20 to 25% NaCl for optimal growth. They belong to the family Ectothiorodhospiraceae. Their osmoregulation involves synthesis or uptake of compatible solutes such as glycine-betaine that accumulate in their cytoplasm. The existence of methanogens in hypersaline environments is related to the presence of noncompetitive substrates such as methylamines, which originate mainly from the breakdown of osmoregulatory amines. Methanogenesis probably does not contribute to the mineralization of carbohydrates at NaCl concentrations higher than 15%. Above this concentration, sulfate reduction is probably the main way to oxidize H2 (although at rates too low to use up all the H2 formed) and occupies a terminal function kn the degradation of carbohydrates. Three genera and five species of halophilic methylotrophic methanogens have been reported. A bloom of phototrophic bacteria in the marine salterns of Salins-de-Giraud, located on the

  20. One germline mutation of PTCH gene in a Chinese family with non-syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumours.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Lu, Y; Shen, G; Chen, W

    2011-08-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KOCTs) are common benign cystic tumours that arise sporadically or associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). PTCH mutation can be found in sporadically or NBCCS associated KOCTs. Few PTCH mutations in families with non-syndromic KOCTs have been reported. Through PCR and gene sequence analysis, the authors discovered one missense mutation c.3277G>C in exon 19 of PTCH gene in a Chinese family with non-syndromic KOCTs. This mutation causes one highly conserved glycine residue transit to arginine on the 10th transmembrane region of PTCH protein. This work revealed that the missense mutation of PTCH is the causative and dominant gene of KOCTs in this family.

  1. The beginning of oral pathology. Part I: First dental journal reports of odontogenic tumors and cysts, 1839-1860.

    PubMed

    Bouquot, J E; Lense, E C

    1994-09-01

    Literature reviews of oral lesions frequently lack an appropriate historic perspective, presuming that the mid- to late-twentieth century reports are the first valid reports available. The mid-nineteenth century dental journals, however, are replete with clinical, surgical, and microscopic descriptions of oral tumors and cysts. Most of these have never been referenced during the present century. The purpose of this article is to report the earliest dental journal references for a variety of odontogenic tumors and cysts. These references are derived from a canvass of all dental journals published from the first journal (American Journal of Dental Science) in 1839 to the appearance of Dental Cosmos and the organization of the American Dental Association in 1860.

  2. Odontogenic myxoma involving the orbit in a 3-year-old boy: removal, reconstruction and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Teis Schjals; Danielsson, Lina Isabella; Fast, Søren; Thygesen, Torben H

    2016-02-17

    We present a rare case of a 3-year-old boy with an odontogenic myxoma (OM) involving the orbita. Including our case, only nine cases of OM have been reported to involve the eye in children.There is no gold standard for treatment of OM in children with orbital involvement. The recurrence rate of OM in children seems low, which advocates for less invasive surgery. A gentle resection of the OM was carried out. The floor and medial wall of the orbit was reconstructed immediately using a non-resorbable Medpor implant with passive adaptation. Reconstruction with a Medpor implant in children has rarely been reported in the literature. No clinical or radiological recurrence was observed 24 months after surgical removal, and the patient presented with symmetric appearance and normal vision.

  3. The effect of ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor on the displacement pattern of inferior alveolar canal in CBCT examinations.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Isa; Taheri Talesh, Kourosh; Yazdani, Javad; Keshavarz Meshkin Fam, Sareh; Ghavimi, Mohammad Ali; Arta, Seyed Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background. The inferior alveolar canal should be examined as a significant anatomical landmark, particularly in the posterior body and ramus of the mandible, for dental and surgical procedures. In the present study, the effects of two pathological lesions, ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor, on canal displacement were investigated. Methods. This study had a single-blinded design. Twenty-six patients with lesions in the mandible referred to Imam Reza Hospital, Tabriz, Iran, were studied in two equal groups (13 patients with a histopathological diagnosis of ameloblastoma and 13 with a histopathological diagnosis of odontogenic keratocyst). After confirming the initial incisional biopsy and pathological report, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) of lesions larger than 3 cm mesiodistaly and those involving the mandibular posterior body and ramus were included in the study. Two maxillofacial surgeons in association with an oral and maxillofacial radiologist examined three points on CBCT images to determine the mandibular canal position relative to the lesions from the lingual and buccal aspects. Results. The results of statistical analyses showed that in ameloblastoma, the inferior alveolar canal had been displaced more buccally in the ramus area (point A) (84.6%) but in the distal region (point C), the displacement was less buccal (41.6%). The canal was displaced buccally in 53.8% of cases at point A and in 46.2% of cases at point C in KOT lesions. Finally chi-squared test did not show any statistically significant differences between these two lesions. Conclusion. The results of this study showed no relationship between these lesions and the displacement of the mandibular canal.

  4. The effect of ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor on the displacement pattern of inferior alveolar canal in CBCT examinations

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Isa; Taheri Talesh, Kourosh; Yazdani, Javad; Keshavarz Meshkin Fam, Sareh; Ghavimi, Mohammad Ali; Arta, Seyed Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background. The inferior alveolar canal should be examined as a significant anatomical landmark, particularly in the posterior body and ramus of the mandible, for dental and surgical procedures. In the present study, the effects of two pathological lesions, ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor, on canal displacement were investigated. Methods. This study had a single-blinded design. Twenty-six patients with lesions in the mandible referred to Imam Reza Hospital, Tabriz, Iran, were studied in two equal groups (13 patients with a histopathological diagnosis of ameloblastoma and 13 with a histopathological diagnosis of odontogenic keratocyst). After confirming the initial incisional biopsy and pathological report, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) of lesions larger than 3 cm mesiodistaly and those involving the mandibular posterior body and ramus were included in the study. Two maxillofacial surgeons in association with an oral and maxillofacial radiologist examined three points on CBCT images to determine the mandibular canal position relative to the lesions from the lingual and buccal aspects. Results. The results of statistical analyses showed that in ameloblastoma, the inferior alveolar canal had been displaced more buccally in the ramus area (point A) (84.6%) but in the distal region (point C), the displacement was less buccal (41.6%). The canal was displaced buccally in 53.8% of cases at point A and in 46.2% of cases at point C in KOT lesions. Finally chi-squared test did not show any statistically significant differences between these two lesions. Conclusion. The results of this study showed no relationship between these lesions and the displacement of the mandibular canal. PMID:27651881

  5. Insight from Frogs: Sonic Hedgehog Gene Expression and a Re-evaluation of the Vertebrate Odontogenic Band.

    PubMed

    Grieco, Theresa M; Hlusko, Leslea J

    2016-08-01

    While the identification of conserved processes across multiple taxa leads to an understanding of fundamental developmental mechanisms, the ways in which different animals fail to conform to common developmental processes can elucidate how evolution modifies development to result in the vast array of morphologies seen today-the developmental mechanisms that lead to anatomical variation. Odontogenesis-how teeth are initiated and formed-is well suited to the examination of both developmental conservation and phenotypic diversity. We suggest here that the study of early tooth development, the period of odontogenic band development, reveals departures from conserved mechanisms that question the role of players in the developmental process. In the earliest stages of odontogenesis, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) gene expression is interpreted as critical evidence of tooth initiation prior to any histological indication. However, a detailed examination of studies of tooth development across a wide range of taxa reveals that several vertebrate species fail to conform to the expectations of the Shh Consensus Model, calling for a reconsideration of the assumed causality of epithelial Shh in tooth initiation. We present new Shh gene expression data for an amphibian, the frog Silurana (Xenopus) tropicalis. In these animals, craniofacial and odontogenic developmental processes are more disjunct, and thereby provide a natural test of the hypothesis that Shh is immediately required for subsequent tooth development. Our results suggest that Shh expression may actually be related to the formation of the mouth rather than a required precursor to subsequent tooth formation. Anat Rec, 299:1099-1109, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Anaerobic chamber. 866.2120 Section 866.2120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber....

  7. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anaerobic chamber. 866.2120 Section 866.2120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber....

  8. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Anaerobic chamber. 866.2120 Section 866.2120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber....

  9. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Anaerobic chamber. 866.2120 Section 866.2120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber....

  10. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Anaerobic chamber. 866.2120 Section 866.2120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber....

  11. Factor Analysis of Various Anaerobic Power Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, James M.; And Others

    A study investigated the relationship between selected anthropometric variables and of numerous anaerobic power tests with measures obtained on an isokinetic dynamometer. Thirty-one male college students performed several anaerobic power tests, including: the vertical jump using the Lewis formula; the Margaria-Kalamen stair climb test; the Wingate…

  12. Anaerobic Bacterial Fermentation Products Increase Tuberculosis Risk in Antiretroviral-Drug-Treated HIV Patients.

    PubMed

    Segal, Leopoldo N; Clemente, Jose C; Li, Yonghua; Ruan, Chunhai; Cao, Jane; Danckers, Mauricio; Morris, Alison; Tapyrik, Sarah; Wu, Benjamin G; Diaz, Philip; Calligaro, Gregory; Dawson, Rodney; van Zyl-Smit, Richard N; Dheda, Keertan; Rom, William N; Weiden, Michael D

    2017-03-22

    Despite the immune-reconstitution with antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-infected individuals remain highly susceptible to tuberculosis (TB) and have an enrichment of oral anaerobes in the lung. Products of bacterial anaerobic metabolism, like butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), induce regulatory T cells (Tregs). We tested whether SCFAs contribute to poor TB control in a longitudinal cohort of ART-treated HIV-infected South Africans. Increase in serum SCFAs was associated with increased TB susceptibility. SCFAs inhibited IFN-γ and IL-17A production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected ART-treated individuals in response to M. tuberculosis antigen stimulation. Pulmonary SCFAs correlated with increased oral anaerobes, such as Prevotella in the lung, and with M. tuberculosis antigen-induced Tregs. Metabolites from anaerobic bacterial fermentation may, therefore, increase TB susceptibility by suppressing IFN-γ and IL-17A production during the cellular immune response to M. tuberculosis.

  13. Anaerobic biorefinery: Current status, challenges, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Sawatdeenarunat, Chayanon; Nguyen, Duc; Surendra, K C; Shrestha, Shilva; Rajendran, Karthik; Oechsner, Hans; Xie, Li; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) has been in use for many decades. To date, it has been primarily aimed at treating organic wastes, mainly manures and wastewater sludge, and industrial wastewaters. However, with the current advancements, a more open mind is required to look beyond these somewhat restricted original applications of AD. Biorefineries are such concepts, where multiple products including chemicals, fuels, polymers etc. are produced from organic feedstocks. The anaerobic biorefinery concept is now gaining increased attention, utilizing AD as the final disposal step. This review aims at evaluating the potential significance of anaerobic biorefineries, including types of feedstocks, uses for the produced energy, as well as sustainable applications of the generated residual digestate. A comprehensive analysis of various types of anaerobic biorefineries has been developed, including both large-scale and household level applications. Finally, future directives are highlighted showing how anaerobic biorefinery concept could impact the bioeconomy in the near future.

  14. Toxicants inhibiting anaerobic digestion: a review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian Lin; Ortiz, Raphael; Steele, Terry W J; Stuckey, David C

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion is increasingly being used to treat wastes from many sources because of its manifold advantages over aerobic treatment, e.g. low sludge production and low energy requirements. However, anaerobic digestion is sensitive to toxicants, and a wide range of compounds can inhibit the process and cause upset or failure. Substantial research has been carried out over the years to identify specific inhibitors/toxicants, and their mechanism of toxicity in anaerobic digestion. In this review we present a detailed and critical summary of research on the inhibition of anaerobic processes by specific organic toxicants (e.g., chlorophenols, halogenated aliphatics and long chain fatty acids), inorganic toxicants (e.g., ammonia, sulfide and heavy metals) and in particular, nanomaterials, focusing on the mechanism of their inhibition/toxicity. A better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms behind inhibition/toxicity will enhance the wider application of anaerobic digestion.

  15. Anaerobic digestion for household organics

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, R.; Kelleher, M.

    1995-04-01

    Considerable success in using anaerobic technology for processing household organics is being reported by several recently constructed facilities in Europe. Organic residuals collected separately in a Belgian town are processed to produce biogas and a compost-like material in less than one month. The dry anaerobic conversion process (DRANCO) was developed by Organic Waste Systems (OWS) in the 1980s, with the collaboration of Professor Willy Verstraete at the University of Ghent`s Laboratory of Applied Microbial Ecology. The patented process converts solid and semisolid organic residuals into biogas (for energy recovery) and a stable humus like product. The plant has competing odor sources such as the active landfill and the surrounding farmland - in fact, the smell of livestock manure is quite prevalent in this heavily agricultural area. Addition of the nonrecyclable paper fraction to the feedstock improves the carbon/nitrogen ratio, soaks up moisture, and absorbs odor. The entire Brecht facility does not occupy much space and total material retention time at the site is one month, compared to a number of months for aerobic systems. It also has a low staffing requirement, provides energy self-sufficiency, and the final soil enhancement product meets established quality standards.

  16. Anaerobic digestion in rural China

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The People`s Republic of China has been promoting underground, individual, anaerobic digesters to process rural organic materials. This strategy has resulted in approximately five million household anaerobic digesters installed in China today. Simple reactors provide energy and fertilizer for Chinese farms and villages. Another benefit includes improved household sanitation. Reactor design has evolved over time. In the standard modern design, effluent is removed from the reactor at the top of the water column, meaning that supernatant is collected rather than sludge. Additionally, no mixing of the system occurs when effluent is removed. In some systems, a vertical cylindrical pull-rod port is added to the base of the effluent port. Effluent is removed by moving the pull-rod - simply a wooden shaft with a metal disk on the bottom - up and down in the port. A bucket can be placed directly under the pull-rod port, simplifying effluent removal, while the movement of the wooden shaft provides some mixing in the reactor. The gas primarily is used for cooking and lighting. A digester can provide approximately 60 percent of a family`s energy needs. Effluent from the reactors is an odorless, dark colored slurry, primarily used as an agricultural fertilizer. 3 figs.

  17. Mixed Infections and their Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-29

    used. The complex microflora associated with pyogenic wound and soft tissue infections generally reflect the indigenous flora of the skin or adjacent...microorganisms involved in ii j peritonitis are generally those of the normal flora of the gastrointestinal12 tract where anaerobic bacteria outnumber

  18. Severe forefoot infection complicated by Fusobacterium russii.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Elisabeth; Grisold, Andrea J; Feierl, Gebhard; Lumenta, David B; Leitner, Eva

    2016-12-01

    We present the first case of a complicated foot infection caused by Fusobacterium russii in Austria. F. russii is highly associated with mammals such as cats and dogs. Our case underlines the difficulties in isolation and identification of anaerobes and the pitfalls in antimicrobial treatment of polymicrobial infections.

  19. A case report and short review on changing trends in the site of occurrence of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: Unravelling the past 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Sneha; Kumar, Manish; Aggarwal, Pratul; Indra Kumar, H. S.; Sugandhi, Chetan D.; Singh, Silvie

    2016-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is an uncommon benign odontogenic lesion, with debatable histogenesis and variable histopathology. A systematic and diverse insight into the evolution, clinical presentation, histology, and immunohistochemical findings of this lesion is reviewed and presented. We reviewed the data published from 2000 to 2014 of approximately 255 cases that revealed a significant change in the incidence of predominant site involved, in contrast to the findings published by Reichart. We have also included the chronological order of events leading to the coining of the term AOT, which shows the curiosity that has been dedicated to understanding the lesion. Immunohistochemistry is considered to be a hallmark in pathology for learning the molecular pathogenesis and giving a correct final diagnosis. Several markers have been used to investigate and understand this lesion, and a compilation of the findings has been tabulated. PMID:27857774

  20. [Efficacy of tinidazole against anaerobes in comparison with metronidazole, ornidazole, cefoxitin and lamoxactam].

    PubMed

    Werner, H; Kuchenbecker, K; Hammann, R

    1983-06-01

    The in vitro inhibitory activity of tinidazole, metronidazole, ornidazole, cefoxitin and moxalactam was determined against 150 isolates of clinically important anaerobes including Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides bivius and Clostridium perfringens by means of agar dilution tests. The members of 18 gramnegative and 14 grampositive species were inhibited by tinidazole at less than or equal to 0,01-8 micrograms/ml thus being without exception susceptible to the drug. A similar in vitro activity was recorded for metronidazole and ornidazole. Though cefoxitin and moxalactam generally had a good in vitro activity against most anaerobic species, single strains of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, B. distasonis, Clostridium difficile and Eubacterium rectale were resistant to these drugs. With regard to its in vitro activity, tinidazole seems to be a promising substance for the therapy of anaerobic infections.

  1. [Saprophytic and opportunistic non spore-forming anaerobic microflora of the vagina (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Cavazzini, G; Folegatti, M R; Segala, V; Cenci, P

    1980-01-01

    A microbiological survey has been carried out on 179 healthy, child-bearing aged, non-pregnant women, with the aim to evaluate the incidence of anaerobic non-spore forming bacteria in the normal vaginal flora. This group of bacteria has been isolated in 50.3% of women, with a clear prevalence of "anaerobic Streptococci " and Bacteroides, followed by Fusobacterium and Veillonella. No Propionibacterium, Eubacterium or Bifidobacterium have been isolated. According to many Authors the non-spore forming anaerobes must be considered opportunistic bacteria, responsible of many infections of the female genital tract, especially when associated with other aerobic or facultative bacteria. Antibiograms have demonstrated a wide spectrum of activity of chloramphenicol and clindamycin; although not widely distributed, antibacterial activity have also shown metronidazole, penicillins, cephalosporins and lincomycin.

  2. Effect of long term anaerobic and intermittent anaerobic/aerobic starvation on aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Pijuan, Maite; Werner, Ursula; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2009-08-01

    The effect of long term anaerobic and intermittent anaerobic/aerobic starvation on the structure and activity of aerobic granules was studied. Aerobic granular sludge treating abattoir wastewater and achieving high levels of nutrient removal was subjected to 4-5 week starvation under anaerobic and intermittent anaerobic/aerobic conditions. Microscopic pictures of granules at the beginning of the starvation period presented a round and compact surface morphology with a much defined external perimeter. Under both starvation conditions, the morphology changed at the end of starvation with the external border of the granules surrounded by floppy materials. The loss of granular compactness was faster and more pronounced under anaerobic/aerobic starvation conditions. The release of Ca(2+) at the onset of anaerobic/aerobic starvation suggests a degradation of extracellular polymeric substances. The activity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria was reduced by 20 and 36% during anaerobic and intermittent anaerobic/aerobic starvation, respectively. When fresh wastewater was reintroduced, the granules recovered their initial morphology within 1 week of normal operation and the nutrient removal activity recovered fully in 3 weeks. The results show that both anaerobic and intermittent anaerobic/aerobic conditions are suitable for maintaining granule structure and activity during starvation.

  3. Anaerobic filter for biogas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavadej, S.

    1980-01-01

    A laboratory study evaluated the performance of an anaerobic filter in producing biogas from pig waste with 30,000 mg/l of COD. The filter packing was bamboo rings of 1 and 1/2 in. diameter, 1 in. long; the bamboo-bed filter operated satisfactorily in a wide COD loading range of 3.74-15.65 kg/cu m/d which corresponds to the hydraulic retention of 8.47 to 1.68 days. At the optimum loading of 7.299 kg COD/cu m/d, the largest gas rate of 0.212 cu m/kg of COD was produced. The required volume of the digester for 1.2 cu m/d of gas production would be only 1.5 cu m; in practical applications, consideration should be given to the gas collecting system and clogging problems.

  4. Anaerobic digestion of alcohol stillage

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, L.K.

    1981-01-01

    In the production of ethanol from grain, the distillation step produces a residue of distillers grains or stillage that contains greater than 90% water and is currently dried and used as a cattle feed supplement. Experimental work was carried out on the anaerobic digestion of the stillage to determine the feasibility of using the CH/sub 4/ produced to supply the energy required in the ethanol distillation step. The fermentation characteristics of the stillage were studied, and the amount of CH/sub 4/ produced was determined. Based on an economic analysis, the value of the pressed solids fraction of the stillage as feed is much greater than the potential return from producing CH/sub 4/.

  5. Sleep deprivation induced anxiety and anaerobic performance.

    PubMed

    Vardar, Selma Arzu; Oztürk, Levent; Kurt, Cem; Bulut, Erdogan; Sut, Necdet; Vardar, Erdal

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation induced anxiety on anaerobic performance. Thirteen volunteer male physical education students completed the Turkish version of State Anxiety Inventory and performed Wingate anaerobic test for three times: (1) following a full-night of habitual sleep (baseline measurements), (2) following 30 hours of sleep deprivation, and (3) following partial-night sleep deprivation. Baseline measurements were performed the day before total sleep deprivation. Measurements following partial sleep deprivation were made 2 weeks later than total sleep deprivation measurements. State anxiety was measured prior to each Wingate test. The mean state anxiety following total sleep deprivation was higher than the baseline measurement (44.9 ± 12.9 vs. 27.6 ± 4.2, respectively, p = 0.02) whereas anaerobic performance parameters remained unchanged. Neither anaerobic parameters nor state anxiety levels were affected by one night partial sleep deprivation. Our results suggest that 30 hours continuous wakefulness may increase anxiety level without impairing anaerobic performance, whereas one night of partial sleep deprivation was ineffective on both state anxiety and anaerobic performance. Key pointsShort time total sleep deprivation (30 hours) increases state anxiety without any competition stress.Anaerobic performance parameters such as peak power, mean power and minimum power may not show a distinctive difference from anaerobic performance in a normal sleep day despite the high anxiety level induced by short time sleep deprivation.Partial sleep deprivation does not affect anxiety level and anaerobic performance of the next day.

  6. Cholera Toxin Production Induced upon Anaerobic Respiration is Suppressed by Glucose Fermentation in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Taek; Lee, Kang-Mu; Bari, Wasimul; Kim, Hwa Young; Kim, Hye Jin; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2016-03-01

    The causative agent of pandemic cholera, Vibrio cholerae, infects the anaerobic environment of the human intestine. Production of cholera toxin (CT), a major virulence factor of V. cholerae, is highly induced during anaerobic respiration with trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as an alternative electron acceptor. However, the molecular mechanism of TMAO-stimulated CT production is not fully understood. Herein, we reveal that CT production during anaerobic TMAO respiration is affected by glucose fermentation. When the seventh pandemic V. cholerae O1 strain N16961 was grown with TMAO and additional glucose, CT production was markedly reduced. Furthermore, an N16961 Δcrp mutant, devoid of cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP), was defective in CT production during growth by anaerobic TMAO respiration, further suggesting a role of glucose metabolism in regulating TMAO-mediated CT production. TMAO reductase activity was noticeably decreased when grown together with glucose or by mutation of the crp gene. A CRP binding region was identified in the promoter region of the torD gene, which encodes a structural subunit of the TMAO reductase. Gel shift assays further confirmed the binding of purified CRP to the torD promoter sequence. Together, our results suggest that the bacterial ability to respire using TMAO is controlled by CRP, whose activity is dependent on glucose availability. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for the regulation of major virulence factor production by V. cholerae under anaerobic growth conditions.

  7. Veillonella infections in children.

    PubMed Central

    Brook, I

    1996-01-01

    From 1974 to 1994, 2,033 specimens from children were submitted for cultures for anaerobic bacteria. Eighty-three Veillonella spp. were recovered from 83 children (4%). Most Veillonella species were recovered from abscesses, aspiration pneumonias, burns, bites, and sinuses. The infections were polymicrobial in 79 (95%) patients, but in 4 (5%) patients, Veillonella species were recovered in pure culture. The predisposing conditions associated with the recovery of these organisms were previous surgery, malignancy, steroid therapy, foreign body, and immunodeficiency. These data illustrate that Veillonella spp. are found infrequently in children, mostly in association with mixed infections, and are recovered mixed with mouth and bowel flora. PMID:8727920

  8. Energy from anaerobic methane production. [Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    Since 1970 Swedish researchers have been testing the ANAMET (anaerobic-aerobic-methane) process, which involves converting industrial wastewaters via an initial anaerobic microbiological step followed by an aerobic one. Recycling the biomass material in each step allows shorter hydraulic retention times without decreasing stability or solids reduction. Since the first ANAMET plants began operating at a Swedish sugar factory in 1972, 17 more plants have started up or are under construction. Moreover, the ANAMET process has engendered to offshoot BIOMET (biomass-methane) process, a thermophilic anaerobic scheme that can handle sugar-beet pulp as well as grass and other soft, fast-growing biomasses.

  9. Fate of Trace Metals in Anaerobic Digestion.

    PubMed

    Fermoso, F G; van Hullebusch, E D; Guibaud, G; Collins, G; Svensson, B H; Carliell-Marquet, C; Vink, J P M; Esposito, G; Frunzo, L

    2015-01-01

    A challenging, and largely uncharted, area of research in the field of anaerobic digestion science and technology is in understanding the roles of trace metals in enabling biogas production. This is a major knowledge gap and a multifaceted problem involving metal chemistry; physical interactions of metal and solids; microbiology; and technology optimization. Moreover, the fate of trace metals, and the chemical speciation and transport of trace metals in environments--often agricultural lands receiving discharge waters from anaerobic digestion processes--simultaneously represents challenges for environmental protection and opportunities to close process loops in anaerobic digestion.

  10. Characterization of anaerobic sulfite reduction by Salmonella typhimurium and purification of the anaerobically induced sulfite reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Hallenbeck, P.C. ); Clark, M.A.; Barrett, E.L. )

    1989-06-01

    Mutants of Salmonella typhimurium that lack the biosynthetic sulfite reductase (cysI and cysJ mutants) retain the ability to reduce sulfite for growth under anaerobic conditions. Here we report studies of sulfite reduction by a cysI mutant of S. typhimurium and purification of the associated anaerobic sulfite reductase. Sulfite reduction for anaerobic growth did not require a reducing atmosphere but was prevented by an argon atmosphere contaminated with air (<0.33%). It was also prevented by the presence of 0.1 mM nitrate. Anaerobic growth in liquid minimal medium, but not on agar, was found to require additions of trace amounts (10{sup {minus}7} M) of cysteine. Spontaneous mutants that grew under the argon contaminated with air also lost the requirement for 10{sup {minus}7}M cysteine for anaerobic growth in liquid. A role for sulfite reduction in anaerobic energy generation was contraindicated by the findings that sulfite reduction did not improve cell yields, and anaerobic sulfite reductase activity was greatest during the stationary phase of growth. Sulfite reductase was purified from the cytoplasmic fraction of the anaerobically grown cysI mutant and was purified 190-fold. The most effective donor in crude extracts was NADH. NADHP and methyl viologen were, respectively, 40 and 30% as effective as NADH. Oxygen reversibly inhibited the enzyme. The anaerobic sulfite reductase showed some resemblance to the biosynthetic sulfite reductase, but apparently it has a unique, as yet unidentified function.

  11. Anaerobes in Industrial- and Environmental Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Hatti-Kaul, Rajni; Mattiasson, Bo

    Anaerobic microorganisms present in diverse ecological niches employ alternative strategies for energy conservation in the absence of oxygen which enables them to play a key role in maintaining the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur, and the breakdown of persistent compounds. Thereby they become useful tools in industrial and environmental biotechnology. Although anaerobes have been relatively neglected in comparison to their aerobic counterparts, with increasing knowledge about their diversity and metabolic potential and the development of genetic tools and process technologies to utilize them, we now see a rapid expansion of their applications in the society. This chapter summarizes some of the developments in the use of anaerobes as tools for biomass valorization, in production of energy carriers and chemicals, wastewater treatment, and the strong potential in soil remediation. The ability of several autotrophic anaerobes to reduce carbon dioxide is attracting growing attention as a means for developing a platform for conversion of waste gases to chemicals, materials, and biofuels.

  12. The Energetics of Aerobic versus Anaerobic Respiration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Timothy D.; Schwenz, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures, and a discussion of the results of an experiment designed to investigate the difference in energy gained from the aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of glucose are presented. Sample experimental and calculated data are included. (CW)

  13. An Evaluation of Tests of Anaerobic Power,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    constitutes an important component of physical exercise with great practical implications. Until recently, the assessment of anaerobic capacity has been...anaerobic physical exercise . * 6 .". 2 The development of procedures for measuring the ability of human muscle to generate power during high-intensity...the WT and IET represent valid laboratory tests for evaluitlng high-intensity short-term exercise In which the muscle is primarily dependent upon

  14. Measurement of anaerobic work capacities in humans.

    PubMed

    Green, S

    1995-01-01

    The development of simple, noninvasive tests of work capacities, underpinned primarily by anaerobic metabolism, proliferated in the early 1970s. A 30-second maximal cycle test developed at the Wingate Institute initiated efforts to develop work tests of anaerobic capacities. Such tests can be developed using any ergometer which simulates competitive conditions and enables an accurate determination of mechanical work output. A 10-second all-out test is commonly used to measure maximal work output generated primarily via the hydrolysis of high-energy phosphagens (i.e. the alactic work capacity). In contrast, a variety of constant-load and all-out tests of anaerobic (alactic plus lactic) work capacity have been proposed. It has been suggested that all-out tests provide more information about physiological capabilities and are easier to apply than constant-load tests. The optimal duration for an all-out test of anaerobic work capacity is proposed at 30 seconds, a duration which may also provide the basis for the development of accurate field tests of anaerobic capacity. There is evidence that the y-intercept of the maximal work-derivation regression is a valid work estimate of anaerobic capacity in athletes, although its utility is undermined by the number of tests required for its derivation.

  15. Anaerobic electron acceptor chemotaxis in Shewanella putrefaciens.

    PubMed

    Nealson, K H; Moser, D P; Saffarini, D A

    1995-04-01

    Shewanella putrefaciens MR-1 can grow either aerobically or anaerobically at the expense of many different electron acceptors and is often found in abundance at redox interfaces in nature. Such redox interfaces are often characterized by very strong gradients of electron acceptors resulting from rapid microbial metabolism. The coincidence of S. putrefaciens abundance with environmental gradients prompted an examination of the ability of MR-1 to sense and respond to electron acceptor gradients in the laboratory. In these experiments, taxis to the majority of the electron acceptors that S. putrefaciens utilizes for anaerobic growth was seen. All anaerobic electron acceptor taxis was eliminated by the presence of oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, elemental sulfur, or dimethyl sulfoxide, even though taxis to the latter was very weak and nitrate and nitrite respiration was normal in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide. Studies with respiratory mutants of MR-1 revealed that several electron acceptors that could not be used for anaerobic growth nevertheless elicited normal anaerobic taxis. Mutant M56, which was unable to respire nitrite, showed normal taxis to nitrite, as well as the inhibition of taxis to other electron acceptors by nitrite. These results indicate that electron acceptor taxis in S. putrefaciens does not conform to the paradigm established for Escherichia coli and several other bacteria. Carbon chemo-taxis was also unusual in this organism: of all carbon compounds tested, the only positive response observed was to formate under anaerobic conditions.

  16. Anaerobic electron acceptor chemotaxis in Shewanella putrefaciens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealson, K. H.; Moser, D. P.; Saffarini, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Shewanella putrefaciens MR-1 can grow either aerobically or anaerobically at the expense of many different electron acceptors and is often found in abundance at redox interfaces in nature. Such redox interfaces are often characterized by very strong gradients of electron acceptors resulting from rapid microbial metabolism. The coincidence of S. putrefaciens abundance with environmental gradients prompted an examination of the ability of MR-1 to sense and respond to electron acceptor gradients in the laboratory. In these experiments, taxis to the majority of the electron acceptors that S. putrefaciens utilizes for anaerobic growth was seen. All anaerobic electron acceptor taxis was eliminated by the presence of oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, elemental sulfur, or dimethyl sulfoxide, even though taxis to the latter was very weak and nitrate and nitrite respiration was normal in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide. Studies with respiratory mutants of MR-1 revealed that several electron acceptors that could not be used for anaerobic growth nevertheless elicited normal anaerobic taxis. Mutant M56, which was unable to respire nitrite, showed normal taxis to nitrite, as well as the inhibition of taxis to other electron acceptors by nitrite. These results indicate that electron acceptor taxis in S. putrefaciens does not conform to the paradigm established for Escherichia coli and several other bacteria. Carbon chemo-taxis was also unusual in this organism: of all carbon compounds tested, the only positive response observed was to formate under anaerobic conditions.

  17. Anaerobic Nitrogen Fixers on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, B. G.

    2000-07-01

    The conversion of atmospheric nitrogen gas to the protein of living systems is an amazing process of nature. The first step in the process is biological nitrogen fixation, the transformation of N2 to NH3. The phenomenon is crucial for feeding the billions of our species on Earth. On Mars, the same process may allow us to discover how life can adapt to a hostile environment, and render it habitable. Hostile environments also exist on Earth. For example, nothing grows in coal refuse piles due to the oxidation of pyrite and marcasite to sulfuric acid. Yet, when the acidity is neutralized, alfalfa and soybean plants develop root nodules typical of symbiotic nitrogen fixation with Rhizobium species possibly living in the pyritic material. When split open, these nodules exhibited the pinkish color of leghemoglobin, a protein in the nodule protecting the active nitrogen-fixing enzyme nitrogenase against the toxic effects of oxygen. Although we have not yet obtained direct evidence of nitrogenase activity in these nodules (reduction of acetylene to ethylene, for example), these findings suggested the possibility that nitrogen fixation was taking place in this hostile, non-soil material. This immediately raises the possibility that freeliving anaerobic bacteria which fix atmospheric nitrogen on Earth, could do the same on Mars.

  18. Hemicellulose conversion by anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Christopher, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The digestibility of an aquatic biomass (water hyacinth), a land-based biomass (Coastal Bermuda grass), and a biomass-waste blend (a mixture of hyacinth, grass, MSW, and sludge) under various digestion conditions was studied. Anaerobic digestion of hemicellulose consists of the steps of enzymatic hydrolysis of hemicellulose to glucans, mannans, galactans, xylans, and arabans, and then to simple hexose and pentose sugars; production of C/sub 2/ and higher fatty acids from the simple sugars; conversion of higher fatty acids to acetate; and finally, production of methane and CO/sub 2/ from acetate, and CO/sub 2/ and hydrogen. The conversion of hemicellulose was higher under mesophilic conditions than those of cellulose or protein for all biomass test feeds, probably because the hemicellulose structure was more vulnerable to enzymatic attack than that of the lignocellulosic component. Cellulose conversion efficiencies at the mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures were about the same. However, hemicellulose was converted at a much lower efficiency than cellulose during thermophilic digestion - a situation that was the reverse of that observed at the mesophilic temperature. Cellulose was utilized in preference to hemicellulose during mesophilic digestion of nitrogen-supplemented Bermuda grass. It was speculated that Bermuda grass cellulose was converted at a higher efficiency than hemicellulose in the presence of external nitrogen because the metabolism of the breakdown product (glucose) of cellulose requires the least investment of enzymes and energy.

  19. Notes from the Field: Mycobacterium abscessus Infections Among Patients of a Pediatric Dentistry Practice--Georgia, 2015.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Gianna; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Parham, Angie; Edison, Laura; Lorentzson, Lauren; Smith, Carol; Drenzek, Cherie

    2016-04-08

    On September 13, 2015, the Georgia Department of Public Health (DPH) was notified by hospital A of a cluster of pediatric Mycobacterium abscessus odontogenic infections. Hospital A had provided care for nine children who developed presumptive or confirmed M. abscessus infection after having a pulpotomy at pediatric dentistry practice A (dates of onset: July 23, 2014-September 4, 2015). During a pulpotomy procedure, decay and the diseased pulp are removed to preserve a deciduous tooth. DPH initiated an investigation to identify the outbreak source and recommend prevention and control measures.

  20. Sclerosing odontogenic carcinoma presenting on the hard palate of a 43-year-old female: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wood, Andrew; Young, Fiona; Morrison, James; Conn, Brendon I

    2016-12-01

    We present a case of sclerosing odontogenic carcinoma (SOC) occurring on the hard palate of a 43-year-old female. The tumor presented as an asymptomatic firm swelling and histopathologically was characterized by widely dispersed nests and cords of bland cells infiltrating between hyalinized collagen fibers. Prominent perineural and intraneural invasion and erosion of bone was noted. The tumor cells showed staining with antibodies to pan-cytokeratin (PanCK), cytokeratin 19 (CK19), cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6), cytokeratin 14 (CK14), p63 and E-cadherin, but no staining with antibodies to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin 7 (CK7), cytokeratin 20 (CK20), estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) or S100. Staining for mucin with alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff with diastase was equivocal, with no definite evidence of mucin or muciphages. An initial diagnosis of adenocarcinoma NOS was made upon incisional biopsy, with the prominent filing pattern and cytoplasmic vacuolization prompting consideration of metastatic breast cancer in the first instance. The true nature of the tumor became clear after staging investigations and surgical resection. The patient was treated by surgery alone and is disease-free after 17 months.

  1. One Odontogenic Cell-Population Contributes to the Development of the Mouse Incisors and of the Oral Vestibule

    PubMed Central

    Hovorakova, Maria; Lochovska, Katerina; Zahradnicek, Oldrich; Domonkosova Tibenska, Kristina; Dornhoferova, Michaela; Horakova-Smrckova, Lucie; Bodorikova, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The area of the oral vestibule is often a place where pathologies appear (e.g., peripheral odontomas). The origin of these pathologies is not fully understood. In the present study, we traced a cell population expressing Sonic hedgehog (Shh) from the beginning of tooth development using Cre-LoxP system in the lower jaw of wild-type (WT) mice. We focused on Shh expression in the area of the early appearing rudimentary incisor germs located anteriorly to the prospective incisors. The localization of the labelled cells in the incisor germs and also in the inner epithelial layer of the vestibular anlage showed that the first very early developmental events in the lower incisor area are common to the vestibulum oris and the prospective incisor primordia in mice. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of human historical tooth-like structures found in the vestibular area of jaws confirmed their relation to teeth and thus the capability of the vestibular tissue to form teeth. The location of labelled cells descendant of the early appearing Shh expression domain related to the rudimentary incisor anlage not only in the rudimentary and functional incisor germs but also in the externally located anlage of the oral vestibule documented the odontogenic potential of the vestibular epithelium. This potential can be awakened under pathological conditions and become a source of pathologies in the vestibular area. PMID:27611193

  2. The influence of inflammation on the polarization colors of collagen fibers in the wall of odontogenic keratocyst.

    PubMed

    Hirshberg, Abraham; Lib, Meytal; Kozlovsky, Avital; Kaplan, Ilana

    2007-03-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions have been found to play a role in the pathogenesis of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC). In the present study we investigated the effect of inflammation in the OKC wall on the polarization colors of Picrosirius red-stained collagen fibers. 50 cases of OKC were selected and separated into two groups according to the inflammatory intensity: those with mild-to-moderate inflammation (Group A), and those with intense inflammation (Group B). The polarization colors of the collagen fibers were recorded separately for thick and thin fibers. Polarization colors of the thin fibers were in the green- to yellow spectrum, without significant differences between the groups. However, polarization colors of the thick fibers significantly differ between the groups. In Group B, the frequency of thick fibers with green birefringence decreased significantly, whereas fibers with red polarization colors increased in frequency (4.6% and 44%, respectively) compared with Group A (12.3% and 23.6%, respectively). It can than be concluded that inflammation has an impact on the packing of collagen fibers in the connective tissue wall of OKC as reflected by their birefringence colors under polarized light. In the presence of dense inflammation, the percentage of thick fibers with green birefringence decreases, with an increase in thick fibers with red birefringence which appeared more packed.

  3. Suppression of Eis and expression of Wag31 and GroES in Mycobacterium tuberculosis cytosol under anaerobic culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Vineet K; Singh, Kavita; Sinha, Sudhir

    2014-08-01

    A major impediment in chemotherapy of Tuberculosis (TB) is the persistence of M. tuberculosis in a latent or dormant state, possibly perpetuated by paucity of oxygen within the lung granuloma. Proteome analysis of the anaerobically persisting microbe could therefore provide novel targets for drugs against latent TB infection (LTBI). An Indian clinical isolate of M. tuberculosis was cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions following Wayne's hypoxia model and its cytosolic proteins were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). Peptide mass fingerprinting of 32 differentially expressed spots using MALDI TOF-TOF MS-MS resulted in identification of 23 proteins. Under the anaerobic culture conditions, expression of 12 of these proteins was highly suppressed (>2 fold reduction in spot volumes), with 4 of them (GrpE, CanB, MoxR1 and Eis) appearing as completely suppressed since corresponding spots were not detectable in the anaerobic sample. On the other hand, 4 proteins were highly expressed, with two of them (Wag31 and GroES) being uniquely expressed under anaerobic conditions. Suppression of Eis could make the anaerobically persisting bacilli susceptible to the aminoglycoside antibiotics which are known to be acetylated and inactivated by Eis. Although all 4 overexpressed proteins can be considered as putative drug targets for LTBI, Wag31 appears particularly interesting in view of its role in the cell wall biogenesis.

  4. Changes in gene expression of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in response to anaerobic stress reveal induction of central metabolism and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Zhu, Jiawen; Yang, Kui; Xu, Zhuofei; Liu, Ziduo; Zhou, Rui

    2014-06-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is an important porcine respiratory pathogen causing great economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. Oxygen deprivation is a stress that A. pleuropneumoniae will encounter during both early infection and the later, persistent stage. To understand modulation of A. pleuropneumoniae gene expression in response to the stress caused by anaerobic conditions, gene expression profiles under anaerobic and aerobic conditions were compared in this study. The microarray results showed that 631 genes (27.7% of the total ORFs) were differentially expressed in anaerobic conditions. Many genes encoding proteins involved in glycolysis, carbon source uptake systems, pyruvate metabolism, fermentation and the electron respiration transport chain were up-regulated. These changes led to an increased amount of pyruvate, lactate, ethanol and acetate in the bacterial cells as confirmed by metabolite detection. Genes encoding proteins involved in cell surface structures, especially biofilm formation, peptidoglycan biosynthesis and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis were up-regulated as well. Biofilm formation was significantly enhanced under anaerobic conditions. These results indicate that induction of central metabolism is important for basic survival of A. pleuropneumoniae after a shift to an anaerobic environment. Enhanced biofilm formation may contribute to the persistence of this pathogen in the damaged anaerobic host tissue and also in the early colonization stage. These discoveries give new insights into adaptation mechanisms of A. pleuropneumoniae in response to environmental stress.

  5. A detoxifying oxygen reductase in the anaerobic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Vicente, João B; Tran, Vy; Pinto, Liliana; Teixeira, Miguel; Singh, Upinder

    2012-09-01

    We report the characterization of a bacterial-type oxygen reductase abundant in the cytoplasm of the anaerobic protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Upon host infection, E. histolytica is confronted with various oxygen tensions in the host intestine, as well as increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species at the site of local tissue inflammation. Resistance to oxygen-derived stress thus plays an important role in the pathogenic potential of E. histolytica. The genome of E. histolytica has four genes that encode flavodiiron proteins, which are bacterial-type oxygen or nitric oxide reductases and were likely acquired by lateral gene transfer from prokaryotes. The EhFdp1 gene has higher expression in virulent than in nonvirulent Entamoeba strains and species, hinting that the response to oxidative stress may be one correlate of virulence potential. We demonstrate that EhFdp1 is abundantly expressed in the cytoplasm of E. histolytica and that the protein levels are markedly increased (up to ~5-fold) upon oxygen exposure. Additionally, we produced fully functional recombinant EhFdp1 and demonstrated that this enzyme is a specific and robust oxygen reductase but has poor nitric oxide reductase activity. This observation represents a new mechanism of oxygen resistance in the anaerobic protozoan pathogen E. histolytica.

  6. In Vivo and In Vitro Anaerobic Mating in Candida albicans▿

    PubMed Central

    Dumitru, Raluca; Navarathna, Dhammika H. M. L. P.; Semighini, Camile P.; Elowsky, Christian G.; Dumitru, Razvan V.; Dignard, Daniel; Whiteway, Malcolm; Atkin, Audrey L.; Nickerson, Kenneth W.

    2007-01-01

    Candida albicans cells of opposite mating types are thought to conjugate during infection in mammalian hosts, but paradoxically, the mating-competent opaque state is not stable at mammalian body temperatures. We found that anaerobic conditions stabilize the opaque state at 37°C, block production of farnesol, and permit in vitro mating at 37°C at efficiencies of up to 84%. Aerobically, farnesol prevents mating because it kills the opaque cells necessary for mating, and as a corollary, farnesol production is turned off in opaque cells. These in vitro observations suggest that naturally anaerobic sites, such as the efficiently colonized gastrointestinal (GI) tract, could serve as niches for C. albicans mating. In a direct test of mating in the mouse GI tract, prototrophic cells were obtained from auxotrophic parent cells, confirming that mating will occur in this organ. These cells were true mating products because they were tetraploid, mononuclear, and prototrophic, and they contained the heterologous hisG marker from one of the parental strains. PMID:17259544

  7. Activation of cholera toxin production by anaerobic respiration of trimethylamine N-oxide in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang-Mu; Park, Yongjin; Bari, Wasimul; Yoon, Mi Young; Go, Junhyeok; Kim, Sang Cheol; Lee, Hyung-Il; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2012-11-16

    Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium that causes cholera. Although the pathogenesis caused by this deadly pathogen takes place in the intestine, commonly thought to be anaerobic, anaerobiosis-induced virulence regulations are not fully elucidated. Anerobic growth of the V. cholerae strain, N16961, was promoted when trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) was used as an alternative electron acceptor. Strikingly, cholera toxin (CT) production was markedly induced during anaerobic TMAO respiration. N16961 mutants unable to metabolize TMAO were incapable of producing CT, suggesting a mechanistic link between anaerobic TMAO respiration and CT production. TMAO reductase is transported to the periplasm via the twin arginine transport (TAT) system. A similar defect in both anaerobic TMAO respiration and CT production was also observed in a N16961 TAT mutant. In contrast, the abilities to grow on TMAO and to produce CT were not affected in a mutant of the general secretion pathway. This suggests that V. cholerae may utilize the TAT system to secrete CT during TMAO respiration. During anaerobic growth with TMAO, N16961 cells exhibit green fluorescence when stained with 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, a specific dye for reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, CT production was decreased in the presence of an ROS scavenger suggesting a positive role of ROS in regulating CT production. When TMAO was co-administered to infant mice infected with N16961, the mice exhibited more severe pathogenic symptoms. Together, our results reveal a novel anaerobic growth condition that stimulates V. cholerae to produce its major virulence factor.

  8. Anaerobic energy metabolism in unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Atteia, Ariane; van Lis, Robert; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Martin, William F

    2013-02-01

    Anaerobic metabolic pathways allow unicellular organisms to tolerate or colonize anoxic environments. Over the past ten years, genome sequencing projects have brought a new light on the extent of anaerobic metabolism in eukaryotes. A surprising development has been that free-living unicellular algae capable of photoautotrophic lifestyle are, in terms of their enzymatic repertoire, among the best equipped eukaryotes known when it comes to anaerobic energy metabolism. Some of these algae are marine organisms, common in the oceans, others are more typically soil inhabitants. All these species are important from the ecological (O(2)/CO(2) budget), biotechnological, and evolutionary perspectives. In the unicellular algae surveyed here, mixed-acid type fermentations are widespread while anaerobic respiration, which is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs, appears to be rare. The presence of a core anaerobic metabolism among the algae provides insights into its evolutionary origin, which traces to the eukaryote common ancestor. The predicted fermentative enzymes often exhibit an amino acid extension at the N-terminus, suggesting that these proteins might be compartmentalized in the cell, likely in the chloroplast or the mitochondrion. The green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella NC64 have the most extended set of fermentative enzymes reported so far. Among the eukaryotes with secondary plastids, the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana has the most pronounced anaerobic capabilities as yet. From the standpoints of genomic, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies, anaerobic energy metabolism in C. reinhardtii remains the best characterized among photosynthetic protists. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The evolutionary aspects of bioenergetic systems.

  9. Studies on the pathogenicity of anaerobes, especially Prevotella bivia, in a rat pyometra model.

    PubMed Central

    Mikamo, H; Kawazoe, K; Izumi, K; Watanabe, K; Ueno, K; Tamaya, T

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prevotella bivia is one of the anaerobic bacteria that resides in the flora of the female genital tract. We studied the pathogenicity of P. bivia in a rat pyometra model. METHODS: The experimental animal (rat) model of pyometra was developed to investigate the pathogenicity of P. bivia in a rat pyometra model. RESULTS: In the groups inoculated with aerobes alone, the infection rate was 10% (1/10) in the Staphylococcus aureus- or Staphylococcus agalactiae-inoculated group and 20% (2/10) in the Escherichia coli-inoculated group. Infection was not established in the groups inoculated with anaerobes alone. High infection rates were observed in all the mixed-infection groups. In the S. agalactiae- and Bacteroides fragilis-, S. agalactiae- and P. bivia-, F. coli- and B. fragilis-, and E. coli- and P. bivia-inoculated groups, an infection rate of 100% (10/10) was demonstrated. The efficacy of antibiotics such as flomoxef (FMOX) could be determined using a rat pyometra model. In relation to the alteration of vaginal microbial flora during the menstrual cycle, estrogen increased the growth of P. bivia. CONCLUSION: Mixture of aerobic bacteria and P. bivia increased the pathogenicity of P. bivia. Estrogen would be useful for raising up the inflammatory change of the uterus in experimental models of genital tract infection due to P. bivia. PMID:9702587

  10. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  11. Optical sorting and cultivation of denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation archaea

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xiaoqiong; Carberry, David M.; Cai, Chen; Hu, Shihu; Yuan, Zhiguo; Dunlop, Halin Rubinsztein; Guo, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidizing (DAMO) microorganisms play an important role in the global carbon and nitrogen cycles as they are able to mediate methane oxidation using nitrite/nitrate under anoxic conditions. However, the physiological properties of DAMO microorganisms remain poorly understood, partially since the organisms are difficult to isolate or cultivate in pure culture and partially because of their long cultivation time. In this study, DAMO cell sorting has been conducted by integrating optical tweezers within enclosed microfluidic chips. This integrated cell sorting method has high purity, low infection rates, and causes no discernable harm to cell viability. The purity of the sorted cells was controlled by the microfluidic chip structure design and operation, while the cell viability was verified by imaging the cultured DAMO archaea after 420 days. PMID:28270994

  12. Anaerobic protocol for assessing industrial waste treatability

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.C.; Khandaker, N.R.

    1996-11-01

    Recent promulgation of strict standards for industrial waste pretreatment has greatly increased the number of wastewaters that are candidates for anaerobic treatment. The challenge with industrial wastes is to determine the potential for anaerobic biodegradation prior to investing large amounts of time and expense in design and field investigation. Various methods have been used to assess the treatability of industrial wastewaters, but the methodology has varied significantly. In response to the need for a consistent procedure for determining the treatability of different industrial wastewaters by anaerobic processes, Young developed an anaerobic treatability screening protocol. The purpose of this paper is to describe the protocol and to report a number of case studies in which the test protocol was used to determine the feasibility of using anaerobic processes for treating specific industrial wastes. Specific examples include food processing wastes, chemical production wastes, petroleum wastes, and landfill leachate. Treatability was based on assessment of the rate and extent of biodegradation, identification of the presence of toxic substances, and dilution effects.

  13. Physical properties and biological/odontogenic effects of an experimentally developed fast-setting α-tricalcium phosphate-based pulp capping material

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, fast-setting α-tricalcium-phosphate (TCP) cement was developed for use in the pulp capping process. The aim of this study was to investigate the physical properties and biological effects of α-TCP cement in comparison with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Methods We measured the setting time, pH values, compressive strength, and solubility of the two materials. We evaluated biocompatibility on the basis of cell morphology and a viability test using human dental pulp cells (hDPCs). Chemical composition of each material was analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopic (EDS) analysis. The expression of odontogenic-related genes was evaluated by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. The calcified nodule formation was measured by Alizarin red staining. We performed the pulp capping procedure on rat teeth for histological investigation. The data were analyzed by an independent t-test for physical properties, one-way ANOVA for biological effects, and the Mann-Whitney U test for tertiary dentin formation. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant for all tests. Results The setting time, pH values, and compressive strength of α-TCP was lower than that of MTA (P < 0.05); however, the solubility of α-TCP was higher than that of MTA (P < 0.05). The resultant cell viability observed with the two materials was similar (P > 0.05). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that cells attached to both materials were flat and had cytoplasmic extensions. The expression of odontogenic-related markers and mineralized nodule formation were higher in the two experimental groups compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Continuous tertiary dentin was formed underneath the capping materials in all samples of the tested groups. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that the α-TCP exhibited biocompatibility and odontogenicity comparable to MTA, whereas it had a quicker setting time. PMID:25015173

  14. Odontogenic differentiation and biomineralization potential of dental pulp stem cells inside Mg-based bioceramic scaffolds under low-level laser treatment.

    PubMed

    Theocharidou, Anna; Bakopoulou, Athina; Kontonasaki, Eleana; Papachristou, Eleni; Hadjichristou, Christina; Bousnaki, Maria; Theodorou, George; Papadopoulou, Lambrini; Kantiranis, Nikolaos; Paraskevopoulos, Konstantinos; Koidis, Petros

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) to promote odontogenic differentiation and biomineralization by dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) seeded inside bioceramic scaffolds. Mg-based, Zn-doped bioceramic scaffolds, synthesized by the sol-gel technique, were spotted with DPSCs and exposed to LLLI at 660 nm with maximum output power of 140 mw at fluencies (a) 2 and 4 J/cm(2) to evaluate cell viability/proliferation by the MTT assay and (b) 4 J/cm(2) to evaluate cell differentiation, using real-time PCR (expression of odontogenic markers) and a p-nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP)-based assay for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity measurement. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were used for structural/chemical characterization of the regenerated tissues. Exposure of the DPSCs/scaffold complexes to the proposed LLLI scheme was associated with statistically significant increase of odontogenesis-related markers (bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2): 22.4-fold, dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP): 28.4-fold, Osterix: 18.5-fold, and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2): 3.4-fold). ALP activity was significantly increased at 3 and 7 days inside the irradiated compared to that in the non-irradiated SC/DPSC complexes, but gradually decreased until 14 days. Newly formed Ca-P tissue was formed on the SC/DPSC complexes after 28 days of culture that attained the characteristics of bioapatite. Overall, LLLI treatment proved to be beneficial for odontogenic differentiation and biomineralization of DPSCs inside the bioceramic scaffolds, making this therapeutic modality promising for targeted dentin engineering.

  15. Wingate Anaerobic Test peak power and anaerobic capacity classifications for men and women intercollegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Zupan, Michael F; Arata, Alan W; Dawson, Letitia H; Wile, Alfred L; Payn, Tamara L; Hannon, Megan E

    2009-12-01

    The Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) has been established as an effective tool in measuring both muscular power and anaerobic capacity in a 30-second time period; however, there are no published normative tables by which to compare WAnT performance in men and women intercollegiate athletics. The purpose of this study was to develop a classification system for anaerobic peak power and anaerobic capacity for men and women National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I college athletes using the WAnT. A total of 1,585 (1,374 men and 211 women) tests were conducted on athletes ranging from the ages of 18 to 25 years using the WAnT. Absolute and relative peak power and anaerobic capacity data were recorded. One-half standard deviations were used to set up a 7-tier classification system (poor to elite) for these assessments. These classifications can be used by athletes, coaches, and practitioners to evaluate anaerobic peak power and anaerobic capacity in their athletes.

  16. Anaerobic Degradation of the Benzene Nucleus by a Facultatively Anaerobic Microorganism1

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Barrie F.; Campbell, William L.; Chinoy, Ira

    1970-01-01

    A bacterium was isolated by elective culture with p-hydroxybenzoate as substrate and nitrate as electron acceptor. It grew either aerobically or anaerobically, by nitrate respiration, on a range of aromatic compounds. The organism was identified as a pseudomonad and was given the trivial name Pseudomonas PN-1. Benzoate and p-hydroxybenzoate were metabolized aerobically via protocatechuate, followed by meta cleavage catalyzed by protocatechuic acid-4,5-oxygenase, to yield α-hydroxy-γ-carboxymuconic semialdehyde. Pseudomonas PN-1 grew rapidly on p-hydroxybenzoate under strictly anaerobic conditions, provided nitrate was present, even though protocatechuic acid-4,5-oxygenase was repressed. Suspensions of cells grown anaerobically on p-hydroxybenzoate oxidized benzoate with nitrate and produced 4 to 5 μmoles of CO2 per μmole of benzoate added; these cells did not oxidize benzoate aerobically. The patterns of the oxidation of aromatic substrates with oxygen or nitrate by cells grown aerobically or anaerobically on different aromatic compounds indicated that benzoate rather than protocatechuate was a key intermediate in the early stages of anaerobic metabolism. It was concluded that the pathway for the anaerobic breakdown of the aromatic ring is different and quite distinct from the aerobic pathway. Mechanisms for the anaerobic degradation of the benzene nucleus by Pseudomonas PN-1 are discussed. PMID:5419260

  17. Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    2000-05-18

    We welcome you to The Power of Anaerobes. This conference serves two purposes. One is to celebrate the life of Harry D. Peck, Jr.,who was born May 18, 1927 and would have celebrated his 73rd birthday at this conference. He died November 20, 1998. The second is to gather investigators to exchange views within the realm of anaerobic microbiology, an area in which tremendous progress has been seen during recent years. It is sufficient to mention discoveries of a new form of life (the archaea), hyper or extreme thermophiles, thermophilic alkaliphiles and anaerobic fungi. With these discoveries has come a new realization about physiological and metabolic properties of microorganisms, and this in turn has demonstrated their importance for the development, maintenance and sustenance of life on Earth.

  18. Anaerobic fermentation of beef cattle manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, A. G.; Chen, Y. R.; Varel, V. H.

    1981-01-01

    The conversion of livestock manure and crop residues into methane and a high protein feed ingredient by thermophilic anaerobic fermentation is summarized. The major biological and operational factors involved in methanogenesis are discussed, and a kinetic model that describes the fermentation process is presented. Substrate biodegradability, fermentation temperature, and influent substrate concentration to have significant effects on CH4 production rate. Assessment of the energy requirements for anaerobic fermentation systems showed that the major energy requirement for a thermophilic system was for maintaining the fermenter temperature. The next major energy consumption was due to the mixing of the influent slurry and fermenter liquor. An approach to optimizing anaerobic fermenter s by selecting design criteria that maximize the net energy production per unit cost is presented.

  19. Use of biochars in anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Mumme, Jan; Srocke, Franziska; Heeg, Kathrin; Werner, Maja

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the behavior of biochars from pyrolysis (pyrochar) and hydrothermal carbonization (hydrochar) in anaerobic digestion regarding their degradability and their effects on biogas production and ammonia inhibition. A batch fermentation experiment (42°C, 63 days) was conducted in 100mL syringes filled with 30 g inoculum, 2g biochar and four levels of total ammonium nitrogen (TAN). For pyrochar, no clear effect on biogas production was observed, whereas hydrochar increased the methane yield by 32%. This correlates with the hydrochar's larger fraction of anaerobically degradable carbon (10.4% of total carbon, pyrochar: 0.6%). Kinetic and microbiota analyses revealed that pyrochar can prevent mild ammonia inhibition (2.1 g TANk g(-1)). Stronger inhibitions (3.1-6.6 g TAN kg(-1)) were not mitigated, neither by pyrochar nor by hydrochar. Future research should pay attention to biochar-microbe interactions and the effects in continuously-fed anaerobic digesters.

  20. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1992-06-01

    A variety of different media were used to isolate facultatively (FAB) and obligately anaerobic bacteria (OAB). These bacteria were isolated from core subsamples obtained from boreholes at the Idaho National Engineering Lab. (INEL) or at the Hanford Lab. (Yakima). Core material was sampled at various depths to 600 feet below the surface. All core samples with culturable bacteria contained at least FAB making thisthe most common physiological type of anaerobic bacteria present in the deep subsurface at these two sites. INEL core samples are characterized by isolates of both FAB and OAB. No isolates of acetogenic, methanogenic, or sulfate reducing bacteria were obtained. Yakima core samples are characterized by a marked predominance of FAB in comparison to OAB. In addition, isolates of acetogenic, methanogenic, and sulfate reducing bacteria were obtained. The Yakima site has the potential for complete anaerobic mineralization of organic compounds whereas this potential appears to be lacking at INEL.

  1. Anaerobes: a new aetiology in cavitary pneumoconiosis.

    PubMed Central

    del Campo, J M; Hitado, J; Gea, G; Colmeiro, A; Lanza, A M; Muñoz, J A; Mosquera, J A

    1982-01-01

    The role of mycobacteria in the cavitation of large pneumoconiotic masses is well established. In other cases softness is attributed to an ischaemic or aseptic necrosis. Five cases are described in which cavitation of the pulmonary masses was caused by anaerobic bacteria, confirmed by the growth of such bacterial in cultures after transtracheal or transpleural puncture. Repeated cultures for mycobacteria gave negative results. Two cases were acute, having serious complications such as bronchopleural fistula, empyema, and serious respiratory insufficiency. The role of anaerobes in cavitary pneumoconiosis has not been recognised previously, probably because of the special conditions required to culture these bacteria and the infrequent use of transtracheal puncture in the diagnosis of this entity. The prevalence of anaerobes as agents capable of cavitating pneumoconiotic masses remains to be established. Images PMID:6128024

  2. Anaerobic lipid degradation through acidification and methanization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ijung; Kim, Sang-Hyoun; Shin, Hang-Sik; Jung, Jin-Young

    2010-01-01

    In biological wastewater treatment high lipid concentration is known to inhibit microorganisms and cause active biomass flotation. To reduce lipid inhibition, a two-phase anaerobic system, consisting of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, was applied to synthetic dairy wastewater. During 153 days of operation, the two-phase system showed stable performance in lipid degradation. In the ASBR, a 13% lipid removal efficiency and 10% double bond removal efficiency were maintained. In the UASB, the chemical oxygen demand (COD), lipid and volatile fatty acid (VFA) removal efficiencies were more than 80%, 70% and 95%, respectively, up to organic loading rate 6.5 g COD/L/day. There were no operational problems such as serious scum formation or sludge washout. Protein degradation occurred prior to degradation during acidogenesis.

  3. Improving Project Outcomes and Growing the Anaerobic Digestion Industy Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Anaerobic digestion ombudsmen assist with project development, ensure the long-term sustainability of projects, and help advance the industry. This report explores the benefits of anaerobic digestion ombudsmen and provides guidance for implementing them.

  4. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  5. Variations in the Oral Anaerobic Microbial Flora in Relation to Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Basavaraju, Anuradha; Durga S., Vijaya; Vanitha, B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy gingivitis is a major oral infection. Periodontium acts as a reservoir of inflammatory mediators and sub gingival biofilms of bacteria. Aim: To evaluate the anaerobic oral microbial flora in pregnant women before delivery and after delivery by comparing them with control group. Material and Methods: The study group included fifteen cases of pregnant women before and after delivery and healthy non-pregnant women of same age as control group. Sub gingival plaque samples were collected with the help of dentists. The samples were inoculated immediately into Thioglycollate broth (MV010), transported to the laboratory, inoculated on to selective media for anaerobes (Hi-media laboratories) incubated anaerobically (Gas pack). Results: Prevotella, Tanerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum, Veillonella, Peptostreptococcus were isolated. Discussion: The anaerobic bacteria in pregnant women were Prevotella, Tanerella forsythia and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Viellonella and Peptostreptococcus were seen in control group and after delivery. Research suggests that periodontal pathogens may travel the blood stream from the oral cavity to the placenta. Conclusion: Pregnancy has significant effect on periodontal tissue. There is a significant alteration of bacterial flora during and after pregnancy. Oral health has to become a part of antenatal care /check up. PMID:23285437

  6. In-vitro activity of solithromycin against anaerobic bacteria from the normal intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Andrej; Rashid, Mamun-Ur; Nord, Carl Erik

    2016-12-01

    Solithromycin is a novel fluoroketolide with high activity against bacteria associated with community-acquired respiratory tract infections as well as gonorrhea. However, data on the activity of solithromycin against anaerobic bacteria from the normal intestinal microbiota are scarce. In this study, 1024 Gram-positive and Gram-negative anaerobic isolates from the normal intestinal microbiota were analyzed for in-vitro susceptibility against solithromycin and compared to azithromycin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, metronidazole and levofloxacin by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Solithromycin was active against Bifidobacteria (MIC50, 0.008 mg/L) and Lactobacilli (MIC50, 0.008 mg/L). The MIC50 for Clostridia, Bacteroides, Prevotella and Veillonella were 0.5, 0.5, 0.125 and 0.016 mg/L, respectively. Gram-positive anaerobes were more susceptible to solithromycin as compared to the other antimicrobials tested. The activity of solithromycin against Gram-negative anaerobes was equal or higher as compared to other tested agents.

  7. [Sulfa-drug wastewater treatment with anaerobic/aerobic process].

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Zhang, H; Zhu, H; Zhang, Z; Zhuang, Y; Dai, S

    2001-09-01

    Sulfa drug wastewater was treated with anaerobic/aerobic process. The removal ratios of TOC reached about 50% in anaerobic phase and about 70% in aerobic phase respectively, while volume loading rate of TOC was about 1.2 kg/(m3.d) in anaerobic phase and about 0.6 kg/(m3.d) in aerobic phase. Removal of TOC in anaerobic phase was attributed to the reduction of sulfate.

  8. Robust regulation of anaerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Mailleret, L; Bernard, O; Steyer, J P

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of controlling anaerobic digestion processes. A two-step (i.e. acidogenesis-methanization) mass balance model is considered for a 1 m3 fixed bed digester treating industrial wine distillery wastewater. The control law aims at regulating the organic pollution level while avoiding washout of biomass. To this end, a simple output feedback controller is considered which regulates a variable strongly related to the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Numerical simulations assuming noisy measurements first illustrate the robustness of this control procedure. Then, the regulating procedure is implemented on the considered anaerobic digestion process in order to validate and demonstrate its efficiency in real life experiments.

  9. Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

  10. The Influence of Hydration on Anaerobic Performance: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Justin A.; Green, James M.; Bishop, Phillip A.; Richardson, Mark T.; Neggers, Yasmin H.; Leeper, James D.

    2012-01-01

    This review examines the influence of dehydration on muscular strength and endurance and on single and repeated anaerobic sprint bouts. Describing hydration effects on anaerobic performance is difficult because various exercise modes are dominated by anaerobic energy pathways, but still contain inherent physiological differences. The critical…

  11. Waste to Energy Potential - A High Concentration Anaerobic Bioreactor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-23

    output • Uses the organic portion of solid waste (such as food waste , paper products, and agricultural waste ) to fuel an anaerobic digestion ...Sustainability Symposium & Exhibition Anaerobic Digestion • What does it do? • Offers sustainability by addressing renewable energy, waste ... Waste to Energy Potential – A High Concentration Anaerobic Bioreactor Presenter: Scott Murphy & Rebecca Robbennolt ARCADIS/Malcolm Pirnie Date

  12. Anaerobic and aerobic bacteriology of the saliva and gingiva from 16 captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis): new implications for the "bacteria as venom" model.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Citron, Diane M; Cox, Cathleen R; Recchio, Ian M; Okimoto, Ben; Bryja, Judith; Fry, Bryan G

    2013-06-01

    It has been speculated that the oral flora of the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) exerts a lethal effect on its prey; yet, scant information about their specific oral flora bacteriology, especially anaerobes, exists. Consequently, the aerobic and anaerobic oral bacteriology of 16 captive Komodo dragons (10 adults and six neonates), aged 2-17 yr for adults and 7-10 days for neonates, from three U.S. zoos were studied. Saliva and gingival samples were collected by zoo personnel, inoculated into anaerobic transport media, and delivered by courier to a reference laboratory. Samples were cultured for aerobes and anaerobes. Strains were identified by standard methods and 16S rRNA gene sequencing when required. The oral flora consisted of 39 aerobic and 21 anaerobic species, with some variation by zoo. Adult dragons grew 128 isolates, including 37 aerobic gram-negative rods (one to eight per specimen), especially Enterobacteriaceae; 50 aerobic gram-positive bacteria (two to nine per specimen), especially Staphylococcus sciuri and Enterococcusfaecalis, present in eight of 10 and nine of 10 dragons, respectively; and 41 anaerobes (one to six per specimen), especially clostridia. All hatchlings grew aerobes but none grew anaerobes. No virulent species were isolated. As with other carnivores, captive Komodo oral flora is simply reflective of the gut and skin flora of their recent meals and environment and is unlikely to cause rapid fatal infection.

  13. Environmental impacts of anaerobic digestion and the use of anaerobic residues as soil amendment

    SciTech Connect

    Mosey, F.E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper defines the environmental role of anaerobic digestion within the overall objective of recovering energy from renewable biomass resources. Examples and opportunities for incorporating anaerobic digestion into biomass-to-energy schemes are discussed, together with environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion plants. These include visual, public amenity, pathogens and public health, odor control, and gaseous emissions. Digestate disposal and the benefits of restrictions on recycling organic wastes and biomass residues back to the land are discussed, particularly as they relate to American and European codes of practice and environmental legislation. The paper concludes that anaerobic digestion, if performed in purpose-designed reactors that efficiently recover and use biogas, is an environmentally benign process that can enhance energy recovery and aid the beneficial land use of plant residues in many biomass-to-energy schemes.

  14. In Vitro Activity of Ceftolozane-Tazobactam against Anaerobic Organisms Identified during the ASPECT-cIAI Study

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, David J.; Palchak, Melissa; Steenbergen, Judith N.

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro activities of ceftolozane-tazobactam, meropenem, and metronidazole were determined against anaerobic organisms isolated from patients with complicated intraabdominal infections (cIAI) in global phase III studies. Ceftolozane-tazobactam activity was highly variable among different species of the Bacteroides fragilis group, with MIC90 values ranging from 2 to 64 μg/ml. More-potent in vitro activity was observed against selected Gram-positive anaerobic organisms; however, small numbers of isolates were available, and, therefore, the clinical significance of these results is unknown. Variable activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam against anaerobic organisms necessitates use in combination with metronidazole for the treatment of cIAI. PMID:26552971

  15. Wingate Anaerobic Test Peak Power and Anaerobic Capacity Classification for Men and Women Intercollegiate Athletes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    including football, sprinting, soccer, baseball, lacrosse, and gymnastics - use anaerobic metabolism extensively during competition. This study...1 . 3 62j + 7.7 167.1 + 7 .9 Tennis, track, soccer, and gymnastics urements allow a coach to observe individual improvements; however, it is...require short bursts of peak power and a high anaerobic capacity during competition to include lacrosse, gymnastics , sprint cycling, football, baseball

  16. Studies on upflow anaerobic filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varandani, Nanik Sobhraj

    The thesis presents a critical review of the available literature on the various studies carried out on various aspects of Upflow Anaerobic Filter (UAF) throughout the world. Young and McCarty (1969) did the pioneering work in developing UAF in 1969, since then several studies have been carried out by different researchers using different substrates under different operating conditions and variety of supporting media. However, the most significant modification of the original reactor developed by Young and McCarty (1968), has been the development and use of high porosity media. The use of high porosity media, in fact, has changed the character of the reactor, from basically a fixed film reactor to a fixed film reactor in which the contribution by the suspended bio-solids, entrapped in the numerous media pores, in the substrate removal is quite significant that is to say that the reactor no longer remains a biological reactor which can be modeled and designed on the basis of biofilm kinetics only. The thesis presents an attempt to validate the developed mathematical model(s) by using the laboratory scale reactor performance data and the calculated values of reaction kinetic and bio-kinetic constants. To simplify the verification process, computer programmes have been prepared using the "EXCELL" software and C language. The results of the "EXCELL" computer program runs are tabulated at table no. 7.1 to 7.5. The verification of various mathematical models indicate that the model III B, i.e. Non ideal plug flow model assumed to consist of Complete Mix Reactors in series based on reaction kinetics, gives results with least deviation from the real situation. An interesting observation being that the model offers least deviation or nearly satisfies the real situation for a particular COD removal efficiency, for a particular OLR, eg. the least deviations are obtained at COD removal efficiency of 89% for OLR 2, 81.5% for OLR 4, 78.5% for OLR 6 . However, the use of the

  17. Early Microbial Evolution: The Age of Anaerobes.

    PubMed

    Martin, William F; Sousa, Filipa L

    2015-12-18

    In this article, the term "early microbial evolution" refers to the phase of biological history from the emergence of life to the diversification of the first microbial lineages. In the modern era (since we knew about archaea), three debates have emerged on the subject that deserve discussion: (1) thermophilic origins versus mesophilic origins, (2) autotrophic origins versus heterotrophic origins, and (3) how do eukaryotes figure into early evolution. Here, we revisit those debates from the standpoint of newer data. We also consider the perhaps more pressing issue that molecular phylogenies need to recover anaerobic lineages at the base of prokaryotic trees, because O2 is a product of biological evolution; hence, the first microbes had to be anaerobes. If molecular phylogenies do not recover anaerobes basal, something is wrong. Among the anaerobes, hydrogen-dependent autotrophs--acetogens and methanogens--look like good candidates for the ancestral state of physiology in the bacteria and archaea, respectively. New trees tend to indicate that eukaryote cytosolic ribosomes branch within their archaeal homologs, not as sisters to them and, furthermore tend to root archaea within the methanogens. These are major changes in the tree of life, and open up new avenues of thought. Geochemical methane synthesis occurs as a spontaneous, abiotic exergonic reaction at hydrothermal vents. The overall similarity between that reaction and biological methanogenesis fits well with the concept of a methanogenic root for archaea and an autotrophic origin of microbial physiology.

  18. Hemicellulases from anaerobic thermophiles. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegel, J.

    1994-05-01

    The longterm goal of this research effort is to obtain an anaerobic thermophilic bacterium that efficiently converts various hemicellulose-containing biomass to ethanol over a broad pH range. The strategy is to modify the outfit and regulation of the rate-limiting xylanases, glycosidases and xylan esterases in the ethanologenic, anaerobic thermophile Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus, which grows between pH 4.5 and 9.5. Although it utilizes xylans, the xylanase, acetyl(xylan) esterase and O-methylglucuronidase activities in T. ethanolicus are barely measurable and regarded as the rate limiting steps in its xylan utilization. Thus, and also due to the presently limited knowledge of hemicellulases in anaerobic thermophiles, we characterize the hemicellulolytic enzymes from this and other anaerobic thermophiles as enzyme donors. Beside the active xylosidase/arabinosidase from T. ethanolicus, exhibiting the two different activities, we characterized 2 xylosidases, two acetyl(xylan) esterases, and an O-methylglucuronidase from Thermoanaerobacterium spec. We will continue with the characterization of xylanases from novel isolated slightly acidophilic, neutrophilic and slightly alkalophilic thermophiles. We have cloned, subcloned and partially sequenced the 165,000 Da (2 x 85,000) xylosidase/arabinosidase from T. ethanolicus and started with the cloning of the esterases from Thermoanaerobacterium spec. Consequently, we will develop a shuttle vector and continue to apply electroporation of autoplasts as a method for cloning into T. ethanolicus.

  19. The anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Hartung, H.A.

    1996-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion offers many advantages in the processing of organic solid wastes, using a closed system to convert the waste to combustible gas and a stabilized organic residue.Odors are contained while digestion removes their source and gas is collected for energy recovery as heat or electricity. The stabilized residue is less than the starting waste by the mass of gas produced, and it can be disposed of by land application, land filling, incineration or composting. The stimulation of digesters and the phenomenon of co-digestion are two ways the performance of anaerobic digesters can be enhanced. Data from farm digesters and municipal wastewater treatment plants illustrate the present venue of the process; laboratory studies of the anaerobic digestion of a variety of solid wastes show that the process can be applied to these materials as well. About two thirds of municipal solid waste is shown to be amenable to anaerobic digestion in a substrate from an active municipal sewage plant digester.

  20. Circadian rhythm in anaerobic power and capacity.

    PubMed

    Hill, D W; Smith, J C

    1991-03-01

    Anaerobic power and capacity were measured in nine college-age men at four different times of day: 03.00 h, 09.00 h, 15.00 h, and 21.00 h. Modified Wingate tests were performed against a common resistance of 5.5 kg (0.074 +/- 0.004 kg per kg body mass). Peak power was defined as the highest power output during a 5-s period in the test, and anaerobic capacity was defined as the total external work during the 30-s test. Peak power tended to differ across testing times (F = 2.50, p = .10), with the mean at 21.00 h about 8% higher (p less than .05) than at 03.00 h. Anaerobic capacity differed across the times of day (F = 9.58, p less than .01), with the means at 15.00 h and 21.00 h about 5% higher (p less than .05) than at 03.00 h and 09.00 h. These results suggest that there are circadian rhythms in anaerobic power and capacity.

  1. Gender differences in anaerobic power tests.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, J L; Salm, P C

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the differences in anaerobic power between males and females could be accounted for by differences in body composition, strength, and neuromuscular function. A total of 82 untrained men and 99 women took part in the study. Body composition, somatotype, isometric strength, neuromuscular function were measured, and four anaerobic power tests performed. The men were significantly different from the women on all strength, power, and neuromuscular measurements except reaction time and on all anthropometric and somatotype dimensions except ectomorphy. Strength and anthropometric dimensions were similarly related to anaerobic power values within each sex. Relative fat (%fat) exerted different degrees of influence on sprint and jump performances in each sex. Removing the influence of anthropometric, strength, and neuromuscular differences by analysis of covariance reduced, but did not remove, the significant differences between the sexes. Therefore, factors other than lean body mass, leg strength, and neuromuscular function may be operating in short-term, explosive power performances to account for the differences between the sexes. The task-specific nature of anaerobic power tests and the relatively large influence of anthropometric factors on power production were confirmed.

  2. Anaerobic biodegradation of surrogate naphthenic acids.

    PubMed

    Clothier, Lindsay N; Gieg, Lisa M

    2016-03-01

    Surface bitumen extraction from the Alberta's oil sands region generates large settling basins known as tailings ponds. The oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) stored in these ponds contain solid and residual bitumen-associated compounds including naphthenic acids (NAs) that can potentially be biodedgraded by indigenous tailings microorganisms. While the biodegradation of some NAs is known to occur under aerobic conditions, little is understood about anaerobic NA biodegradation even though tailings ponds are mainly anoxic. Here, we investigated the potential for anaerobic NA biodegradation by indigenous tailings microorganisms. Enrichment cultures were established from anoxic tailings that were amended with 5 single-ringed surrogate NAs or acid-extractable organics (AEO) from OSPW and incubated under nitrate-, sulfate-, iron-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Surrogate NA depletion was observed under all anaerobic conditions tested to varying extents, correlating to losses in the respective electron acceptor (sulfate or nitrate) or the production of predicted products (Fe(II) or methane). Tailings-containing cultures incubated under the different electron-accepting conditions resulted in the enrichment and putative identification of microbial community members that may function in metabolizing surrogate NAs under the various anoxic conditions. In addition, more complex NAs (in the form of AEO) was observed to drive sulfate and iron reduction relative to controls. Overall, this study has shown that simple surrogate NAs can be biodegraded under a variety of anoxic conditions, a key first step in understanding the potential anaerobic metabolism of NAs in oil sands tailings ponds and other industrial wastewaters.

  3. Anaerobic fitness tests: what are we measuring?

    PubMed

    Van Praagh, Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    Anaerobic fitness, during growth and development, has not received the same attention from researchers as aerobic fitness. This is surprising given the level of anaerobic energy used daily during childhood and adolescence. During physical activity and sport, the child is spontaneously more attracted to short-burst movements than to long-term activities. It is, however, well known that in anaerobic activities such as sprint cycling, sprint running or sprint swimming, the child's performance is distinctly poorer than that of the adult. This partly reflects the child's lesser ability to generate mechanical energy from chemical energy sources during short-term high-intensity work or exercise. Direct measurements of the rate or capacity of anaerobic pathways for energy turnover presents several ethical and methodological difficulties. Therefore, rather than measure energy supply, pediatric exercise scientists have concentrated on measuring short-term power output by means of standardized protocol tests such as short-term cycling power tests, running tests or vertical jump tests. There is, however, no perfect test and, therefore, it is important to acknowledge the benefits and limitations of each testing method. Mass-related short-term power output was shown to increase dramatically during growth and development, whereas the corresponding increase in peak blood lactate was considerably lower. This suggests that the observed difference between children and adolescents during short-term power output testing may be related to neuromuscular factors, hormonal factors and improved motor coordination.

  4. Anaerobic Toxicity of Cationic Silver Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized with different capping agents was compared to that of Ag+ under anaerobic conditions. Three AgNPs were investigated: (1) negatively charged citrate-coated AgNPs (citrate-AgNPs), (2) minimally charged p...

  5. Anaerobic Digestion in a Flooded Densified Leachbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chynoweth, David P.; Teixeira, Arthur A.; Owens, John M.; Haley, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    A document discusses the adaptation of a patented biomass-digesting process, denoted sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC), to recycling of wastes aboard a spacecraft. In SEBAC, high-solids-content biomass wastes are converted into methane, carbon dioxide, and compost.

  6. Anaerobic threshold measurements of elite oarsmen.

    PubMed

    Mickelson, T C; Hagerman, F C

    1982-01-01

    Anaerobic threshold (AT) and Vo2max were determined by automated analysis for 25 members of the 1980 U.S. Olympic Rowing Team during a progressive rowing ergometer exercise to exhaustion. Heart rates and power outputs were also measured to gauge severity of the exercise and to compare with metabolic data. Power increments of 27 W each min were achieved by progressively increasing the brake weight resistance on the ergometer while maintaining a stroke rate of 28-32 strokes/min and spinning the ergometer flywheel at 550 rpm. Anaerobic threshold measurements were determined by observing the onset of the non-linear relationship between Vo2 and VE-Vco2; plots of delta FEO2 and FECO2 were also utilized to confirm recorded AT's. A mean AT of 83% of Vo2max attests to the high aerobic capacity of oarsmen and supports previous research conducted with these subjects. Power output data indicated that 72% of total power is generated at AT; this substantiates previous energy cost data recorded during simulated rowing during which work was 70% aerobic and 30% anaerobic. High levels of anaerobic thresholds among oarsmen are attributed to the specific nature of training regimens that increase oxidative capacity of muscle fibers and significantly improve the cardiorespiratory transport system. Measurement of heart rate at AT has provided coaches and athletes an objective method of determining the intensity of training sessions.

  7. Cholera toxin production during anaerobic trimethylamine N-oxide respiration is mediated by stringent response in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Taek; Park, Yongjin; Yoon, Mi Young; Bari, Wasimul; Go, Junhyeok; Min, Kyung Bae; Raskin, David M; Lee, Kang-Mu; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2014-05-09

    As a facultative anaerobe, Vibrio cholerae can grow by anaerobic respiration. Production of cholera toxin (CT), a major virulence factor of V. cholerae, is highly promoted during anaerobic growth using trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as an alternative electron acceptor. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of TMAO-stimulated CT production and uncovered the crucial involvement of stringent response in this process. V. cholerae 7th pandemic strain N16961 produced a significantly elevated level of ppGpp, the bacterial stringent response alarmone, during anaerobic TMAO respiration. Bacterial viability was impaired, and DNA replication was also affected under the same growth condition, further suggesting that stringent response is induced. A ΔrelA ΔspoT ppGpp overproducer strain produced an enhanced level of CT, whereas anaerobic growth via TMAO respiration was severely inhibited. In contrast, a ppGpp-null strain (ΔrelA ΔspoT ΔrelV) grew substantially better, but produced no CT, suggesting that CT production and bacterial growth are inversely regulated in response to ppGpp accumulation. Bacterial capability to produce CT was completely lost when the dksA gene, which encodes a protein that works cooperatively with ppGpp, was deleted. In the ΔdksA mutant, stringent response growth inhibition was alleviated, further supporting the inverse regulation of CT production and anaerobic growth. In vivo virulence of ΔrelA ΔspoT ΔrelV or ΔdksA mutants was significantly attenuated. The ΔrelA ΔspoT mutant maintained virulence when infected with exogenous TMAO despite its defective growth. Together, our results reveal that stringent response is activated under TMAO-stimulated anaerobic growth, and it regulates CT production in a growth-dependent manner in V. cholerae.

  8. 77 FR 59928 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections: Developing Drugs for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... responsible for cIAIs, including Gram-negative aerobic bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and anaerobic bacteria, and there are also mixed infections. This draft guidance includes recommendations for an...

  9. Anaerobic characteristics in male children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Inbar, O; Bar-Or, O

    1986-06-01

    Only sparse information has been published on the effects of growth, development, and maturation on the ability to perform high intensity, short-term "anaerobic" tasks. Cross-sectional studies on Italian, African, British, and American females and males have indicated an age-related progression in the performance of the Margaria step-running test. Children had a distinctly lower mechanical power output than adolescents and young adults, both in absolute terms and when divided by body weight, or by fat-free mass. Data are presented on some 300 10- to 45-yr-old Israeli males who performed the Wingate anaerobic test by cycling or by arm cranking. Both the peak power at any 5-s period and the mean power throughout the test were lowest in the children, whether expressed in absolute power units or corrected for body weight. Performance progressed with age and reached the highest values at the end of the third decade for cycling and at the end of the second decade for arm cranking. This pattern is unlike that described for maximal O2 uptake per kg body weight which, in males, remains virtually unchanged from childhood to young adulthood. In females, maximal O2 uptake per kg is even higher in children than among adolescents or adults. Biochemical correlates of such a low anaerobic performance in children are their lower maximal lactate concentration in muscle and blood, lower rate of anaerobic glycolysis, and lower levels of acidosis at maximal exercise. The mechanisms for the relatively deficient anaerobic characteristics of children are not clear.

  10. Anaerobic benzene oxidation by Geobacter species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian; Bain, Timothy S; Nevin, Kelly P; Barlett, Melissa A; Lovley, Derek R

    2012-12-01

    The abundance of Geobacter species in contaminated aquifers in which benzene is anaerobically degraded has led to the suggestion that some Geobacter species might be capable of anaerobic benzene degradation, but this has never been documented. A strain of Geobacter, designated strain Ben, was isolated from sediments from the Fe(III)-reducing zone of a petroleum-contaminated aquifer in which there was significant capacity for anaerobic benzene oxidation. Strain Ben grew in a medium with benzene as the sole electron donor and Fe(III) oxide as the sole electron acceptor. Furthermore, additional evaluation of Geobacter metallireducens demonstrated that it could also grow in benzene-Fe(III) medium. In both strain Ben and G. metallireducens the stoichiometry of benzene metabolism and Fe(III) reduction was consistent with the oxidation of benzene to carbon dioxide with Fe(III) serving as the sole electron acceptor. With benzene as the electron donor, and Fe(III) oxide (strain Ben) or Fe(III) citrate (G. metallireducens) as the electron acceptor, the cell yields of strain Ben and G. metallireducens were 3.2 × 10(9) and 8.4 × 10(9) cells/mmol of Fe(III) reduced, respectively. Strain Ben also oxidized benzene with anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) as the sole electron acceptor with cell yields of 5.9 × 10(9) cells/mmol of AQDS reduced. Strain Ben serves as model organism for the study of anaerobic benzene metabolism in petroleum-contaminated aquifers, and G. metallireducens is the first anaerobic benzene-degrading organism that can be genetically manipulated.

  11. Anaerobic protozoa and their growth in biomethanation systems.

    PubMed

    Priya, M; Haridas, Ajit; Manilal, V B

    2008-04-01

    This study was to investigate growth of protozoa and its influence on biodegradation in anaerobic treatment systems. It was done by specifically controlling and monitoring growth of protozoa versus degradation in continuous stirred anaerobic reactors and batch anaerobic reactors. Occurrence of a diverse protozoa population such as the ciliates, Prorodon, Vorticella, Cyclidium, Spathidium, Loxodes, Metopus were observed in stable anaerobic systems and the flagellates, Rhynchomonas, Naeglaria, Amoeboflagellates, Tetramitus, Trepomonas and Bodo during increased VFA concentration and affected periods of biomethanation. The abundance of ciliates in the anaerobic system had significant correlation with the reduction of MLSS, increased rate of COD removal and higher methane production. The results of this study thus tend to relate increased anaerobic degradation with the abundance of protozoa, mainly ciliates, which indicate their possible involvement in the process. Present study also reveals that performance of anaerobic process can be assessed by monitoring the protozoa population in the system.

  12. Metabolic determinants in Listeria monocytogenes anaerobic listeriolysin O production.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Nathan; Newton, Eric; Abrams, Elizabeth; Zani, Ashley; Sun, Yvonne

    2017-03-13

    Listeria monocytogenes is a human pathogen and a facultative anaerobe. To better understand how anaerobic growth affects L. monocytogenes pathogenesis, we first showed that anaerobic growth led to decreased growth and changes in surface morphology. Moreover, compared to aerobically grown bacteria, anaerobically grown L. monocytogenes established higher level of invasion but decreased intracellular growth and actin polymerization in cultured cells. The production of listeriolysin O (LLO) was significantly lower in anaerobic cultures-a phenotype observed in wild type and isogenic mutants lacking transcriptional regulators SigB or CodY or harboring a constitutively active PrfA. To explore potential regulatory mechanisms, we established that the addition of central carbon metabolism intermediates, such as acetate, citrate, fumarate, pyruvate, lactate, and succinate, led to an increase in LLO activity in the anaerobic culture supernatant. These results highlight the regulatory role of central carbon metabolism in L. monocytogenes pathogenesis under anaerobic conditions.

  13. Predominance of Enterobacteriaceae isolates in early positive anaerobic blood culture bottles in BacT/Alert system.

    PubMed

    Chiueh, Tzong-Shi; Lee, Shih-Yi; Tang, Sheng-Hui; Lu, Jang-Jih; Sun, Jun-Ren

    2013-03-01

    We collected and analyzed the time to detection (TTD) of blood cultures in the BacT/Alert automated system from 2002 to 2007. Among the 10,893 monomicrobial isolates from a total of 133,735 blood culture sets, the recoveries of aerobic bottles were compared with those of anaerobic bottles in this study. Significantly more Gram-positive cocci (except Staphylococcus aureus and enterococci), glucose nonfermentative Gram-negative bacteria, and yeast were recovered from aerobic bottles than from anaerobic bottles. The average TTD was 19.0 hr and 20.1 hr for the aerobic and anaerobic bottles, respectively, and 96.8% of the microorganisms were detected within the first 72 hr. Of the 5,489 microorganisms recovered from both of the blood culture bottle pair, microbial growth was significantly more often detected first in the anaerobic bottles than the aerobic bottles for Enterobacteriaceae except Serratia marcescens, while S. aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were more often detected first in the aerobic bottles. According to these data, we conclude that the earlier positivity of anaerobic bottles is a useful marker for rapid presumptive identification of Enterobacteriaceae infection.

  14. Continuous Drip Flow System to Develop Biofilm of E. faecalis under Anaerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Ana Maria; Corpus, Erika; Silva-Herzog, Daniel; Aragon-Piña, Antonio; Cohenca, Nestor

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate a structurally mature E. faecalis biofilm developed under anaerobic/dynamic conditions in an in vitro system. Methods. An experimental device was developed using a continuous drip flow system designed to develop biofilm under anaerobic conditions. The inoculum was replaced every 24 hours with a fresh growth medium for up to 10 days to feed the system. Gram staining was done every 24 hours to control the microorganism purity. Biofilms developed under the system were evaluated under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results. SEM micrographs demonstrated mushroom-shaped structures, corresponding to a mature E. faecalis biofilm. In the mature biofilm bacterial cells are totally encased in a polymeric extracellular matrix. Conclusions. The proposed in vitro system model provides an additional useful tool to study the biofilm concept in endodontic microbiology, allowing for a better understanding of persistent root canal infections. PMID:25371913

  15. Urinary tract infection by chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    Swain, Bichitrananda; Otta, Sarita; Sahu, Kundan Kumar; Panda, Kirtika; Rout, Subhrajita

    2014-08-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum, a facultative anaerobic proteobacterium, is particularly isolated from water and soil in tropical areas and has been implicated in few infections like septicemia, visceral abscesses, skin and soft tissue infections, meningitis and diarrhea. But urinary tract infection caused by it is very rare. Limited awareness about this pathogen and inappropriate antibiotic therapy contribute to a high mortality rate. Here, we describe an unusual case of urinary tract infection by Chromobacterium violaceum in a young immuno-competent male which was managed aggressively with proper antibiotics as per the culture sensitivity report.

  16. Ultrastructure and Viral Metagenome of Bacteriophages from an Anaerobic Methane Oxidizing Methylomirabilis Bioreactor Enrichment Culture

    PubMed Central

    Gambelli, Lavinia; Cremers, Geert; Mesman, Rob; Guerrero, Simon; Dutilh, Bas E.; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.; van Niftrik, Laura

    2016-01-01

    With its capacity for anaerobic methane oxidation and denitrification, the bacterium Methylomirabilis oxyfera plays an important role in natural ecosystems. Its unique physiology can be exploited for more sustainable wastewater treatment technologies. However, operational stability of full-scale bioreactors can experience setbacks due to, for example, bacteriophage blooms. By shaping microbial communities through mortality, horizontal gene transfer, and metabolic reprogramming, bacteriophages are important players in most ecosystems. Here, we analyzed an infected Methylomirabilis sp. bioreactor enrichment culture using (advanced) electron microscopy, viral metagenomics and bioinformatics. Electron micrographs revealed four different viral morphotypes, one of which was observed to infect Methylomirabilis cells. The infected cells contained densely packed ~55 nm icosahedral bacteriophage particles with a putative internal membrane. Various stages of virion assembly were observed. Moreover, during the bacteriophage replication, the host cytoplasmic membrane appeared extremely patchy, which suggests that the bacteriophages may use host bacterial lipids to build their own putative internal membrane. The viral metagenome contained 1.87 million base pairs of assembled viral sequences, from which five putative complete viral genomes were assembled and manually annotated. Using bioinformatics analyses, we could not identify which viral genome belonged to the Methylomirabilis- infecting bacteriophage, in part because the obtained viral genome sequences were novel and unique to this reactor system. Taken together these results show that new bacteriophages can be detected in anaerobic cultivation systems and that the effect of bacteriophages on the microbial community in these systems is a topic for further study. PMID:27877158

  17. In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Akhil; Gieg, Lisa M

    2013-01-01

    Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contributing to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more beneficial technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes) metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments.

  18. In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Akhil; Gieg, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contributing to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more beneficial technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes) metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments. PMID:23761789

  19. Biochemistry and evolution of anaerobic energy metabolism in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Müller, Miklós; Mentel, Marek; van Hellemond, Jaap J; Henze, Katrin; Woehle, Christian; Gould, Sven B; Yu, Re-Young; van der Giezen, Mark; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Martin, William F

    2012-06-01

    Major insights into the phylogenetic distribution, biochemistry, and evolutionary significance of organelles involved in ATP synthesis (energy metabolism) in eukaryotes that thrive in anaerobic environments for all or part of their life cycles have accrued in recent years. All known eukaryotic groups possess an organelle of mitochondrial origin, mapping the origin of mitochondria to the eukaryotic common ancestor, and genome sequence data are rapidly accumulating for eukaryotes that possess anaerobic mitochondria, hydrogenosomes, or mitosomes. Here we review the available biochemical data on the enzymes and pathways that eukaryotes use in anaerobic energy metabolism and summarize the metabolic end products that they generate in their anaerobic habitats, focusing on the biochemical roles that their mitochondria play in anaerobic ATP synthesis. We present metabolic maps of compartmentalized energy metabolism for 16 well-studied species. There are currently no enzymes of core anaerobic energy metabolism that are specific to any of the six eukaryotic supergroup lineages; genes present in one supergroup are also found in at least one other supergroup. The gene distribution across lineages thus reflects the presence of anaerobic energy metabolism in the eukaryote common ancestor and differential loss during the specialization of some lineages to oxic niches, just as oxphos capabilities have been differentially lost in specialization to anoxic niches and the parasitic life-style. Some facultative anaerobes have retained both aerobic and anaerobic pathways. Diversified eukaryotic lineages have retained the same enzymes of anaerobic ATP synthesis, in line with geochemical data indicating low environmental oxygen levels while eukaryotes arose and diversified.

  20. Note: Small anaerobic chamber for optical spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chauvet, Adrien A. P.; Agarwal, Rachna; Cramer, William A.; Chergui, Majed

    2015-01-01

    The study of oxygen-sensitive biological samples requires an effective control of the atmosphere in which they are housed. In this aim however, no commercial anaerobic chamber is adequate to solely enclose the sample and small enough to fit in a compact spectroscopic system with which analysis can be performed. Furthermore, spectroscopic analysis requires the probe beam to pass through the whole chamber, introducing a requirement for adequate windows. In response to these challenges, we present a 1 l anaerobic chamber that is suitable for broad-band spectroscopic analysis. This chamber has the advantage of (1) providing access, via a septum, to the sample and (2) allows the sample position to be adjusted while keeping the chamber fixed and hermetic during the experiment. PMID:26520998

  1. FCPP application to utilize anaerobic digester gas

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Yoshio; Kusama, Nobuyuki; Wada, Katsuya

    1996-12-31

    Toshiba and a municipal organization of Yokohama city are jointly conducting a program to utilize ADG (Anaerobic Digester Gas) more effectively. ADG which contains about 60% methane is produced by anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment sludge and has been used as an energy source for heating digestion tanks in sewage treatment plants and/or for combustion engine fuel. This program is focused on operating a commercial Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) power plant on ADG because of its inherently high fuel efficiency and low emissions characteristics. According to the following joint program, we have successfully demonstrated an ADG fueled FCPP The success of this study promises that the ADG fueled FCPP, an environment-friendly power generation system, will be added to the line-up of PC25{trademark}C applications.

  2. Note: Small anaerobic chamber for optical spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chauvet, Adrien A. P. Chergui, Majed; Agarwal, Rachna; Cramer, William A.

    2015-10-15

    The study of oxygen-sensitive biological samples requires an effective control of the atmosphere in which they are housed. In this aim however, no commercial anaerobic chamber is adequate to solely enclose the sample and small enough to fit in a compact spectroscopic system with which analysis can be performed. Furthermore, spectroscopic analysis requires the probe beam to pass through the whole chamber, introducing a requirement for adequate windows. In response to these challenges, we present a 1 l anaerobic chamber that is suitable for broad-band spectroscopic analysis. This chamber has the advantage of (1) providing access, via a septum, to the sample and (2) allows the sample position to be adjusted while keeping the chamber fixed and hermetic during the experiment.

  3. Note: Small anaerobic chamber for optical spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chauvet, Adrien A P; Agarwal, Rachna; Cramer, William A; Chergui, Majed

    2015-10-01

    The study of oxygen-sensitive biological samples requires an effective control of the atmosphere in which they are housed. In this aim however, no commercial anaerobic chamber is adequate to solely enclose the sample and small enough to fit in a compact spectroscopic system with which analysis can be performed. Furthermore, spectroscopic analysis requires the probe beam to pass through the whole chamber, introducing a requirement for adequate windows. In response to these challenges, we present a 1 l anaerobic chamber that is suitable for broad-band spectroscopic analysis. This chamber has the advantage of (1) providing access, via a septum, to the sample and (2) allows the sample position to be adjusted while keeping the chamber fixed and hermetic during the experiment.

  4. The role of anaerobic sludge recycle in improving anaerobic digester performance.

    PubMed

    Young, Michelle N; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Liu, Wenjun; Doyle, Michael L; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2013-01-01

    Solids retention time (SRT) is a critical parameter for the performance of anaerobic digesters (AD) in wastewater treatment plants. AD SRT should increase when active biomass is input to the AD by recycling anaerobic sludge via the wastewater-treatment tanks, creating a hybrid aerobic/anaerobic system. When 85% of the flow through the AD was recycled in pilot-scale hybrid systems, the AD SRT increased by as much as 9-fold, compared to a parallel system without anaerobic-sludge recycle. Longer AD SRTs resulted in increased hydrolysis and methanogenesis in the AD: net solids yield decreased by 39-96% for overall and 23-94% in the AD alone, and AD methane yield increased 1.5- to 5.5-fold. Microbial community assays demonstrated higher, more consistent Archaea concentrations in all tanks in the wastewater-treatment system with anaerobic-sludge recycle. Thus, multiple lines of evidence support that AD-sludge recycle increased AD SRT, solids hydrolysis, and methane generation.

  5. Cultivation of Anaerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Bacteria from Spacecraft-Associated Clean Rooms▿

    PubMed Central

    Stieglmeier, Michaela; Wirth, Reinhard; Kminek, Gerhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2009-01-01

    In the course of this biodiversity study, the cultivable microbial community of European spacecraft-associated clean rooms and the Herschel Space Observatory located therein were analyzed during routine assembly operations. Here, we focused on microorganisms capable of growing without oxygen. Anaerobes play a significant role in planetary protection considerations since extraterrestrial environments like Mars probably do not provide enough oxygen for fully aerobic microbial growth. A broad assortment of anaerobic media was used in our cultivation strategies, which focused on microorganisms with special metabolic skills. The majority of the isolated strains grew on anaerobic, complex, nutrient-rich media. Autotrophic microorganisms or microbes capable of fixing nitrogen were also cultivated. A broad range of facultatively anaerobic bacteria was detected during this study and also, for the first time, some strictly anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium and Propionibacterium) were isolated from spacecraft-associated clean rooms. The multiassay cultivation approach was the basis for the detection of several bacteria that had not been cultivated from these special environments before and also led to the discovery of two novel microbial species of Pseudomonas and Paenibacillus. PMID:19363082

  6. Anaerobic contribution during maximal anaerobic running test: correlation with maximal accumulated oxygen deficit.

    PubMed

    Zagatto, A; Redkva, P; Loures, J; Kalva Filho, C; Franco, V; Kaminagakura, E; Papoti, M

    2011-12-01

    The aims of this study were: (i) to measure energy system contributions in maximal anaerobic running test (MART); and (ii) to verify any correlation between MART and maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD). Eleven members of the armed forces were recruited for this study. Participants performed MART and MAOD, both accomplished on a treadmill. MART consisted of intermittent exercise, 20 s effort with 100 s recovery, after each spell of effort exercise. Energy system contributions by MART were also determined by excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, lactate response, and oxygen uptake measurements. MAOD was determined by five submaximal intensities and one supramaximal intensity exercises corresponding to 120% at maximal oxygen uptake intensity. Energy system contributions were 65.4±1.1% to aerobic; 29.5±1.1% to anaerobic a-lactic; and 5.1±0.5% to anaerobic lactic system throughout the whole test, while only during effort periods the anaerobic contribution corresponded to 73.5±1.0%. Maximal power found in MART corresponded to 111.25±1.33 mL/kg/min but did not significantly correlate with MAOD (4.69±0.30 L and 70.85±4.73 mL/kg). We concluded that the anaerobic a-lactic system is the main energy system in MART efforts and this test did not significantly correlate to MAOD.

  7. Enhancing post anaerobic digestion of full-scale anaerobically digested sludge using free nitrous acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Qilin; Ye, Liu; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-05-01

    In some wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), the ever increasing production of sludge with the expanding population overloaded the anaerobic digestion which compromises the sludge reduction efficiency. Post anaerobic digestion of anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) has been applied to enhance sludge reduction, however, to a very limited extent. This study verified the effectiveness of free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) pre-treatment on enhancing full-scale ADS degradation in post anaerobic digestion. The ADS collected from a full-scale WWTP was subject to FNA treatment at concentrations of 0.77, 1.54, 2.31, 3.08, and 3.85 mg N/L for 24 h followed by biochemical methane potential tests. The FNA treatment at all concentrations resulted in an increase (from 1.5-3.1 % compared to the control) in sludge reduction with the highest improvement achieved at 0.77 mg HNO2-N/L. The FNA treatment at this concentration also resulted in the highest increase in methane production (40 %) compared to the control. The economic analysis indicates that FNA treatment is economically attractive for enhancing post anaerobic digestion of full-scale ADS.

  8. Hog farm in California uses anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, D.

    1995-12-31

    This article describes a system of covered lagoons which help address the waste management problems of hog farmers as well as producing methane used to power generators. Four advantages of anaerobic digestion are described along with the system: energy production from methane; fertilizer for fields; economic development in rural areas; and improved water quality through reduction of nonpoint source pollution. Address for full report is given.

  9. Manganese Dependent Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beal, E.; House, C.

    2007-12-01

    Understanding the anaerobic oxidation is not only important for understanding hydrocarbon degradation but it also important for understanding the global carbon cycle. The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is a large sink for methane consuming 5-20% of today's methane flux (Valentine and Reeburgh, 2000), yet the requirements for this process are not well understood. It has been suggested that no other electron acceptors other than sulfate can be used in the AOM (Nauhaus, 2005). However, our new data suggests that manganese, in the form of birnessite, can be used as an electron acceptor instead of sulfate (Beal et al., in prep). Methane seep sediment from the Eel River Basin, CA was incubated with methane, 13C-labeled methane, and carbon dioxide. Because the net result of the AOM is the production of carbon dioxide from methane, the rate of the AOM in each of the incubations can be determined by measuring the incorporation of 13C in the carbon dioxide. Using this method, it was found that cultures incubated with nitrate showed inhibition of the AOM, while cultures incubated with iron gave inconclusive results. The only positive results that were found for alternate electron acceptors are the incubations that were given manganese and no sulfate, which showed methane oxidation. Further, when more manganese was injected into these incubations, the rate of AOM increased. Preliminary analysis of the microbial population using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) targeting the mcr gene showed an unidentified organism in these cultures. Future work with TRFLP, as well as clone libraries, will help to identify the organisms responsible for this process. Nauhaus, K., 2005, Environmental regulation of the anaerobic oxidation of methane: a comparison of ANME-I and ANME-II communities: Environmental microbiology, v. 7, p. 98. Valentine, D.L., and Reeburgh, W.S., 2000, New perspectives on anaerobic methane oxidation: Environmental Microbiology, v. 2, p

  10. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, A.; Nemerow, N.L.; Farooq, S.; Daly, E.L. Jr.; Sengupta, S.; Gerrish, H.P.; Wong, K.F.

    1981-03-01

    A demonstration anaerobic digestion plant has been installed at Pompano Beach, Florida, capable of treating 100 tons per day of municipal solid waste. The suitability of this process and its environmental effects at a full scale operation level is being examined. The study presented and discussed in this paper had as its main objective the characterization of various waste streams and an assessment of their environmental effects if discharged into the environment.

  11. Anaerobic microbiology in the NASA space program.

    PubMed

    Brewer, J H

    1980-01-01

    After briefly reviewing the earlier methods used to monitor the microbial load of returned lunar material, the author reports the more accurate research on the ability of terrestrial organisms to grow under simulated Martian environments. The possible importance of anaerobic microbiology can readily be seen because of the low level of O2 found on Mars. The question of whether any of the experiments on board the Viking landers show any indication of life on Mars is discussed in detail.

  12. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...

  13. Alternating Current Influences Anaerobic Electroactive Biofilm Activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Zhou, Lean; Lu, Lu; Lobo, Fernanda Leite; Li, Nan; Wang, Heming; Park, Jaedo; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2016-09-06

    Alternating current (AC) is known to inactivate microbial growth in suspension, but how AC influences anaerobic biofilm activities has not been systematically investigated. Using a Geobacter dominated anaerobic biofilm growing on the electrodes of microbial electrochemical reactors, we found that high frequency AC ranging from 1 MHz to 1 kHz (amplitude of 5 V, 30 min) showed only temporary inhibition to the biofilm activity. However, lower frequency (100 Hz, 1.2 or 5 V) treatment led to 47 ± 19% permanent decrease in limiting current on the same biofilm, which is attributed to the action of electrohydrodynamic force that caused biofilm damage and loss of intercellular electron transfer network. Confocal microscopy images show such inactivation mainly occurred at the interface between the biofilm and the electrode. Reducing the frequency further to 1 Hz led to water electrolysis, which generated gas bubbles that flushed all attached cells out of the electrode. These findings provide new references on understanding and regulating biofilm growth, which has broader implications in biofouling control, anaerobic waste treatment, energy and product recovery, and general understanding of microbial ecology and physiology.

  14. Some unique features of alkaliphilic anaerobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roof, Erin; Pikuta, Elena; Otto, Christopher; Williams, George; Hoover, Richard

    2013-09-01

    This article explores two topics involving the examination of four strains of alkaliphilic anaerobes. The first topic was dedicated to detection of the ability of microorganisms to metabolize alternative chirality substrates. Two saccharolytic anaerobic bacteria were chosen for the first experiment: Anaerovirgula multivorans strain SCAT, which is gram positive and spore-forming; and Spirochaeta dissipatitropha, strain ASpC2T, which is gram negative. It was found that both checked sugarlytics were able to use L-ribose and L-arabinose, as growth substrates. The second part was concerned of study a chemolithotrophy in two halo-alkaliphilic sulfate reducing bacteria: Desulfonatornum thiodismutans strain MLF1T and Desulfonatronum lacustre strain Z-7951T. The experiments with lithotrophs had demonstrated that strain MLF1T was capable to grow without any organic source of carbon, while strain Z-7951T had required at least 2 mM sodium acetate for growth. Anaerobic technique was used for preparation of the growth media and maintenance of these bacterial cultures. Standard methods for Gram, spore, and flagella staining were applied for characterization of cytomorphology. In this article, the results of the experiments performed on cytological, physiological, and biochemical levels are presented and discussed.

  15. Anaerobic O-demethylation of phenylmethylethers

    SciTech Connect

    Frazer, A.C.; Young, L.Y.

    1990-01-01

    Anaerobic O-demethylation (AOD) of phenylmethylethers is a process of both basic and applied significance. The aryl-O-methyl ethers are abundant in natural products, particularly as components of lignin. They are present as methoxylated lignin monomers in anaerobic environments and can be completely degraded there by mixed microbial populations. AOD is an essential early step in this process, and it is also a key reaction in the utilization of the O-methyl substituent as a C-one substrate by acetogens. An understanding of the AOD reaction mechanism might suggest new ways in which chemicals could be derived from lignocellulosic materials. The biochemical mechanism for the anaerobic cleavage of the aryl-O-methyl ether bond is an intriguing, but relatively unexplored process. In contrast to aerobic O-demethylating enzymes, AOD appears to involve methyl group transfer. Thus, novel biochemical information on an important biotransformation reaction will be gained from the research proposed. Recently, we have shown that AOD activity is inducible and have developed an assay for detecting AOD activity in cell-free extracts of Acetobacterium woodii. AOD activity is stimulated in vitro by the addition of ATP (1mM) and pyruvate (30 mM), the K{sub M} for vanillate being 0.4 mM. In collaboration with protein purification experts, we proposed to purify the AOD enzyme and characterize the protein(s) and the enzymatic reaction involved. 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Biogeochemistry of anaerobic crude oil biodegradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, Ian; Gray, Neil; Aitken, Caroline; Sherry, Angela; Jones, Martin; Larter, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Anaerobic degradation of crude oil and petroleum hydrocarbons is widely recognized as a globally significant process both in the formation of the world's vast heavy oil deposits and for the dissipation of hydrocarbon pollution in anoxic contaminated environments. Comparative analysis of crude oil biodegradation under methanogenic and sulfate-reducing conditions has revealed differences not only in the patterns of compound class removal but also in the microbial communities responsible. Under methanogenic conditions syntrophic associations dominated by bacteria from the Syntropheaceae are prevalent and these are likely key players in the initial anaerobic degradation of crude oil alkanes to intermediates such as hydrogen and acetate. Syntrophic acetate oxidation plays an important role in these systems and often results in methanogenesis dominated by CO2 reduction by members of the Methanomicrobiales. By contrast the bacterial communities from sulfate-reducing crude oil-degrading systems were more diverse and no single taxon dominated the oil-degrading sulfate-reducing systems. All five proteobacterial subdivisions were represented with Delta- and Gammaproteobacteria being detected most consistently. In sediments which were pasteurized hydrocarbon degradation continued at a relatively low rate. Nevertheless, alkylsuccinates characteristic of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation accumulated to high concentrations. This suggested that the sediments harbour heat resistant, possibly spore-forming alkane degrading sulfate-reducers. This is particularly interesting since it has been proposed recently, that spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria found in cold arctic sediments may have originated from seepage of geofluids from deep subsurface hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  17. Pneumococcal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... the bloodstream (bacteremia) Joint infection (arthritis) Ear infection (otitis media) Infection of the sinus membranes (sinusitis) Eye infection ( ... breathing; for bacteremia, fever and less energy; for ear infections, fever and ear pain; and for sinustitis, fever ...

  18. Anaerobic Degradation of Cyanuric Acid, Cysteine, and Atrazine by a Facultative Anaerobic Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Jessee, J. A.; Benoit, R. E.; Hendricks, A. C.; Allen, G. C.; Neal, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    A facultative anaerobic bacterium that rapidly degrades cyanuric acid (CA) was isolated from the sediment of a stream that received industrial wastewater effluent. CA decomposition was measured throughout the growth cycle by using a high-performance liquid chromatography assay, and the concomitant production of ammonia was also measured. The bacterium used CA or cysteine as a major, if not the sole, carbon and energy source under anaerobic, but not aerobic, conditions in a defined medium. The cell yield was greatly enhanced by the simultaneous presence of cysteine and CA in the medium. Cysteine was preferentially used rather than CA early in the growth cycle, but all of the CA was used without an apparent lag after the cysteine was metabolized. Atrazine was also degraded by this bacterium under anaerobic conditions in a defined medium. PMID:16346187

  19. Anaerobic filters for the treatment of coal gasification wastewater.

    PubMed

    Suidan, M T; Siekerka, G L; Kao, S W; Pfeffer, J T

    1983-06-01

    A process train consisting of the following sequence of unit processes, a berl-saddle-packed anaerobic filter, an expanded bed, granular activated carbon anaerobic filter, and an activated sludge nitrification system was evaluated for the treatment of a synthetically prepared coal gasification wastewater. The first-stage anaerobic filter resulted in very little removal of organic matter and no methane production. Excellent reduction in organic matter occurred in the granular activated carbon anaerobic filter. The removal mechanism was initially adsorptive and near the end of the study, removal of organic matter was primarily through conversion to methane gas. It is felt that the success of the activated carbon anaerobic filter was due to the ability of the activated carbon to sequester some components of the wastewater that were toxic to the mixed culture of anaerobic microorganisms. The activated sludge nitrification system resulted in complete ammonia oxidation and was very efficient in final effluent polishing.

  20. Aerobic and anaerobic cellulase production by Cellulomonas uda.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Willink, Fillip Wolfgang; Ingvorsen, Kjeld

    2016-10-01

    Cellulomonas uda (DSM 20108/ATCC 21399) is one of the few described cellulolytic facultative anaerobes. Based on these characteristics, we initiated a physiological study of C. uda with the aim to exploit it for cellulase production in simple bioreactors with no or sporadic aeration. Growth, cellulase activity and fermentation product formation were evaluated in different media under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and in experiments where C. uda was exposed to alternating aerobic/anaerobic growth conditions. Here we show that C. uda behaves as a true facultative anaerobe when cultivated on soluble substrates such as glucose and cellobiose, but for reasons unknown cellulase activity is only induced under aerobic conditions on insoluble cellulosic substrates and not under anaerobic conditions. These findings enhance knowledge on the limited number of described facultative cellulolytic anaerobes, and in addition it greatly limits the utility of C. uda as an 'easy to handle' cellulase producer with low aeration demands.

  1. Carbon source-dependent effects of anaerobic soil disinfestation on soil microbiome and suppression of rhizoctonia solani AG-5 and pratylenchus penetrans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of carbon source on efficacy of anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) toward suppression of apple root infection by Rhizoctonia solani AG-5 and Pratylenchus penetrans was examined. Orchard grass (GR), rice bran (RB), ethanol (ET), composted steer manure (CM) and Brassica juncea seed meal (S...

  2. Downregulation of adenomatous polyposis coli by microRNA-663 promotes odontogenic differentiation through activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jae-Sung; Park, Min-Gyeong; Lee, Seul Ah; Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Heung-Joong; Yu, Sun-Kyoung; Kim, Chun Sung; Kim, Su-Gwan; Oh, Ji-Su; You, Jae-Seek; Kim, Jin-Soo; Seo, Yo-Seob; Chun, Hong Sung; Park, Joo-Cheol; Kim, Do Kyung

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • miR-663 is significantly up-regulated during MDPC-23 odontoblastic cell differentiation. • miR-663 accelerates mineralization in MDPC-23 odontoblastic cells without cell proliferation. • miR-663 promotes odontoblastic cell differentiation by targeting APC and activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling in MDPC-23 cells. - Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate cell differentiation by inhibiting mRNA translation or by inducing its degradation. However, the role of miRNAs in odontogenic differentiation is largely unknown. In this present study, we observed that the expression of miR-663 increased significantly during differentiation of MDPC-23 cells to odontoblasts. Furthermore, up-regulation of miR-663 expression promoted odontogenic differentiation and accelerated mineralization without proliferation in MDPC-23 cells. In addition, target gene prediction for miR-663 revealed that the mRNA of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, which is associated with the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, has a miR-663 binding site in its 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR). Furthermore, APC expressional was suppressed significantly by miR-663, and this down-regulation of APC expression triggered activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling through accumulation of β-catenin in the nucleus. Taken together, these findings suggest that miR-663 promotes differentiation of MDPC-23 cells to odontoblasts by targeting APC-mediated activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Therefore, miR-663 can be considered a critical regulator of odontoblast differentiation and can be utilized for developing miRNA-based therapeutic agents.

  3. MEPE-Derived ASARM Peptide Inhibits Odontogenic Differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells and Impairs Mineralization in Tooth Models of X-Linked Hypophosphatemia

    PubMed Central

    Khaddam, Mayssam; Naji, Jiar; Coyac, Benjamin R.; Baroukh, Brigitte; Letourneur, Franck; Lesieur, Julie; Decup, Franck; Le Denmat, Dominique; Nicoletti, Antonino; Poliard, Anne; Rowe, Peter S.; Huet, Eric; Vital, Sibylle Opsahl; Linglart, Agnès; McKee, Marc D.; Chaussain, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in PHEX (phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X-chromosome) cause X-linked familial hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH), a disorder having severe bone and tooth dentin mineralization defects. The absence of functional PHEX leads to abnormal accumulation of ASARM (acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif) peptide − a substrate for PHEX and a strong inhibitor of mineralization − derived from MEPE (matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein) and other matrix proteins. MEPE-derived ASARM peptide accumulates in tooth dentin of XLH patients where it may impair dentinogenesis. Here, we investigated the effects of ASARM peptides in vitro and in vivo on odontoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization. Dental pulp stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) were seeded into a 3D collagen scaffold, and induced towards odontogenic differentiation. Cultures were treated with synthetic ASARM peptides (phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated) derived from the human MEPE sequence. Phosphorylated ASARM peptide inhibited SHED differentiation in vitro, with no mineralized nodule formation, decreased odontoblast marker expression, and upregulated MEPE expression. Phosphorylated ASARM peptide implanted in a rat molar pulp injury model impaired reparative dentin formation and mineralization, with increased MEPE immunohistochemical staining. In conclusion, using complementary models to study tooth dentin defects observed in XLH, we demonstrate that the MEPE-derived ASARM peptide inhibits both odontogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization, while increasing MEPE expression. These results contribute to a partial mechanistic explanation of XLH pathogenesis: direct inhibition of mineralization by ASARM peptide leads to the mineralization defects in XLH teeth. This process appears to be positively reinforced by the increased MEPE expression induced by ASARM. The MEPE-ASARM system can therefore be considered as a potential therapeutic

  4. Anaerobic Metabolism and Bioremediation of Explosives-Contaminated Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boopathy, Raj

    Nitroaromatic compounds pollute soil, water, and food via use of pesticides, plastics, pharmaceuticals, landfill dumping of industrial wastes, and the military use of explosives. Biotransformation of trinitrotoluene and other nitroaromatics by aerobic bacteria in the laboratory has been frequently reported, but the anaerobic bacterial metabolism of nitroaromatics has not been studied as extensively perhaps due to the difficulty in working with anaerobic cultures and the slow growth of anaerobes. Sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria can metabolize nitroaromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions if appropriate electron donors and electron acceptors are present in the environment.

  5. Colonizing the embryonic zebrafish gut with anaerobic bacteria derived from the human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Toh, Michael C; Goodyear, Mara; Daigneault, Michelle; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Van Raay, Terence J

    2013-06-01

    The zebrafish has become increasingly popular for microbiological research. It has been used as an infection model for a variety of pathogens, and is also emerging as a tool for studying interactions between a host and its resident microbial communities. The mouse microbiota has been transplanted into the zebrafish gut, but to our knowledge, there has been no attempt to introduce a bacterial community derived from the human gut. We explored two methods for colonizing the developing gut of 5-day-old germ-free zebrafish larvae with a defined anaerobic microbial community derived from a single human fecal sample. Both environmental exposure (static immersion) and direct microinjection into the gut resulted in the establishment of two species-Lactobacillus paracasei and Eubacterium limosum-from a community of 30 strains consisting of 22 anaerobic species. Of particular interest is E. limosum, which, as a strict anaerobe, represents a group of bacteria which until now have not been shown to colonize the developing zebrafish gut. Our success here indicates that further investigation of zebrafish as a tool for studying human gut microbial communities is warranted.

  6. [In vitro activities of sulopenem, a new parenteral penem, against anaerobes].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, K; Kato, N; Tanaka-Bandoh, K; Tanaka, Y; Kato, H; Ueno, K

    1996-04-01

    In vitro activities of sulopenem, a novel parenteral penem, was compared with those of imipenem, flomoxef, cefuzonam, cefoperazone and sulbactam/ampicillin against 66 reference strains (19 genera, 61 species) and 392 recent clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria and fastidious aerobic bacteria. Sulopenem had a very broad spectrum against anaerobic bacteria. In general, this compound was active against anaerobic reference strains with MICs of < or = 0.78 micrograms/ml, while being the least active against Bifidobacterium spp. and less active than imipenem against Lactobacillus spp. Sulopenem was more active against Bacteroides fragilis isolates than imipenem and had the highest activities against Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp. among the antibiotics tested. Sulopenem was not hydrolyzed by oxyiminocephalosporinase type 1 produced by B. fragilis GAI-0558, GAI-7955 and GAI-10150 and its stability was comparable to imipenem. Its susceptibilities to hydrolysis by a metallo-beta-lactamase from B. fragilis GAI-30144 was less than imipenem. Sulopenem (120 mg/kg, 3 times a day for 4 days) was as effective as imipenem/cilastatin against a mixed intraabdominal mice infection due to E. coli and B. fragilis. Sulopenem (20 mg/kg twice a day for 5 days) did not induce an overgrowth of Clostridium difficile in the caecum of mice.

  7. Detection of hydrogen cyanide from oral anaerobes by cavity ring down spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen; Roslund, Kajsa; Fogarty, Christopher L.; Pussinen, Pirkko J.; Halonen, Lauri; Groop, Per-Henrik; Metsälä, Markus; Lehto, Markku

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) has been recognized as a potential biomarker for non-invasive diagnosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in the lung. However, the oral cavity is a dominant production site for exhaled HCN and this contribution can mask the HCN generated in the lung. It is thus important to understand the sources of HCN production in the oral cavity. By screening of oral anaerobes for HCN production, we observed that the genus of Porphyromonas, Prevotella and Fusobacterium generated low levels of HCN in vitro. This is the first study to show that oral anaerobes are capable of producing HCN in vitro. Further investigations were conducted on the species of P. gingivalis and we successfully detected HCN production (0.9–10.9 ppb) in the headspace of three P. gingivalis reference strains (ATCC 33277, W50 and OMG 434) and one clinical isolate. From P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 and W50, a strong correlation between HCN and CO2 concentrations (rs = 0.89, p < 0.001) was observed, indicating that the HCN production of P. gingivalis might be connected with the bacterial metabolic activity. These results indicate that our setup could be widely applied to the screening of in vitro HCN production by both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

  8. Catalase (KatA) Plays a Role in Protection against Anaerobic Nitric Oxide in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shengchang; Panmanee, Warunya; Wilson, Jeffrey J.; Mahtani, Harry K.; Li, Qian; VanderWielen, Bradley D.; Makris, Thomas M.; Rogers, Melanie; McDaniel, Cameron; Lipscomb, John D.; Irvin, Randall T.; Schurr, Michael J.; Lancaster, Jack R.; Kovall, Rhett A.; Hassett, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is a common bacterial pathogen, responsible for a high incidence of nosocomial and respiratory infections. KatA is the major catalase of PA that detoxifies hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive oxygen intermediate generated during aerobic respiration. Paradoxically, PA displays elevated KatA activity under anaerobic growth conditions where the substrate of KatA, H2O2, is not produced. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the mechanism underlying this phenomenon and define the role of KatA in PA during anaerobiosis using genetic, biochemical and biophysical approaches. We demonstrated that anaerobic wild-type PAO1 cells yielded higher levels of katA transcription and expression than aerobic cells, whereas a nitrite reductase mutant ΔnirS produced ∼50% the KatA activity of PAO1, suggesting that a basal NO level was required for the increased KatA activity. We also found that transcription of the katA gene was controlled, in part, by the master anaerobic regulator, ANR. A ΔkatA mutant and a mucoid mucA22 ΔkatA bacteria demonstrated increased sensitivity to acidified nitrite (an NO generator) in anaerobic planktonic and biofilm cultures. EPR spectra of anaerobic bacteria showed that levels of dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC), indicators of NO stress, were increased significantly in the ΔkatA mutant, and dramatically in a ΔnorCB mutant compared to basal levels of DNIC in PAO1 and ΔnirS mutant. Expression of KatA dramatically reduced the DNIC levels in ΔnorCB mutant. We further revealed direct NO-KatA interactions in vitro using EPR, optical spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. KatA has a 5-coordinate high spin ferric heme that binds NO without prior reduction of the heme iron (Kd ∼6 μM). Collectively, we conclude that KatA is expressed to protect PA against NO generated during anaerobic respiration. We proposed that such protective effects of KatA may involve buffering of free NO when potentially toxic concentrations of

  9. Catalase (KatA) plays a role in protection against anaerobic nitric oxide in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Su, Shengchang; Panmanee, Warunya; Wilson, Jeffrey J; Mahtani, Harry K; Li, Qian; Vanderwielen, Bradley D; Makris, Thomas M; Rogers, Melanie; McDaniel, Cameron; Lipscomb, John D; Irvin, Randall T; Schurr, Michael J; Lancaster, Jack R; Kovall, Rhett A; Hassett, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is a common bacterial pathogen, responsible for a high incidence of nosocomial and respiratory infections. KatA is the major catalase of PA that detoxifies hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive oxygen intermediate generated during aerobic respiration. Paradoxically, PA displays elevated KatA activity under anaerobic growth conditions where the substrate of KatA, H2O2, is not produced. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the mechanism underlying this phenomenon and define the role of KatA in PA during anaerobiosis using genetic, biochemical and biophysical approaches. We demonstrated that anaerobic wild-type PAO1 cells yielded higher levels of katA transcription and expression than aerobic cells, whereas a nitrite reductase mutant ΔnirS produced ∼50% the KatA activity of PAO1, suggesting that a basal NO level was required for the increased KatA activity. We also found that transcription of the katA gene was controlled, in part, by the master anaerobic regulator, ANR. A ΔkatA mutant and a mucoid mucA22 ΔkatA bacteria demonstrated increased sensitivity to acidified nitrite (an NO generator) in anaerobic planktonic and biofilm cultures. EPR spectra of anaerobic bacteria showed that levels of dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC), indicators of NO stress, were increased significantly in the ΔkatA mutant, and dramatically in a ΔnorCB mutant compared to basal levels of DNIC in PAO1 and ΔnirS mutant. Expression of KatA dramatically reduced the DNIC levels in ΔnorCB mutant. We further revealed direct NO-KatA interactions in vitro using EPR, optical spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. KatA has a 5-coordinate high spin ferric heme that binds NO without prior reduction of the heme iron (Kd ∼6 μM). Collectively, we conclude that KatA is expressed to protect PA against NO generated during anaerobic respiration. We proposed that such protective effects of KatA may involve buffering of free NO when potentially toxic concentrations of

  10. Atmospheric vs. anaerobic processing of metabolome samples for the metabolite profiling of a strict anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Sooah; Kwon, Min-A; Jung, Young Hoon; Shin, Yong-An; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2014-12-01

    Well-established metabolome sample preparation is a prerequisite for reliable metabolomic data. For metabolome sampling of a Gram-positive strict anaerobe, Clostridium acetobutylicum, fast filtration and metabolite extraction with acetonitrile/methanol/water (2:2:1, v/v) at -20°C under anaerobic conditions has been commonly used. This anaerobic metabolite processing method is laborious and time-consuming since it is conducted in an anaerobic chamber. Also, there have not been any systematic method evaluation and development of metabolome sample preparation for strict anaerobes and Gram-positive bacteria. In this study, metabolome sampling and extraction methods were rigorously evaluated and optimized for C. acetobutylicum by using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, in which a total of 116 metabolites were identified. When comparing the atmospheric (i.e., in air) and anaerobic (i.e., in an anaerobic chamber) processing of metabolome sample preparation, there was no significant difference in the quality and quantity of the metabolomic data. For metabolite extraction, pure methanol at -20°C was a better solvent than acetonitrile/methanol/water (2:2:1, v/v/v) at -20°C that is frequently used for C. acetobutylicum, and metabolite profiles were significantly different depending on extraction solvents. This is the first evaluation of metabolite sample preparation under aerobic processing conditions for an anaerobe. This method could be applied conveniently, efficiently, and reliably to metabolome analysis for strict anaerobes in air.

  11. Chronic odontogenic maxillary sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Ugincius, Paulius; Kubilius, Ricardas; Gervickas, Albinas; Vaitkus, Saulius

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate average age of the patients in both sexes treated for MS, distribution by sex, amount of dexter and sinister MS with and without the fistulas into the maxillary sinus, with and without the foreign-bodies, length of stay in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery at Kaunas Hospital of University of Medicine during the period from 1999 till 2004. The retrospective data analysis of the patients' treated from chronic MS was made. 346 patients (213 females and 133 males) were treated for chronic MS. 55 cases of chronic dexter MS with a fistula into maxillary sinus, 98 cases of chronic dexter MS without a fistula, 45 cases of chronic sinister MS with a fistula, 112 cases chronic sinister MS without a fistula, 16 cases of foreign-bodies in dexter maxillary sinus, 20 cases of foreign-bodies in sinister maxillary sinus have been detected. The main age of the female was 46.6+/-15.0, the main age of the men was 42.1+/-14.4. Statictically significant difference in the age difference of the women and the men was found (p=0.0024). It was determined, that females diagnosed and treated with chronic MS were 1.6 times more than males during the period from 1999 till 2004 in Kaunas Hospital of University of Medicine. Females treated for chronic MS were 4.5 years older than males.

  12. Microbiota Associated with Infections of the Jaws

    PubMed Central

    Gaetti-Jardim, Elerson; Landucci, Luis Fernando; de Oliveira, Kathlenn Liezbeth; Costa, Iracy; Ranieri, Robson Varlei; Okamoto, Ana Cláudia; Schweitzer, Christiane Marie

    2012-01-01

    The microbial infections involving the craniofacial skeleton, particularly maxilla and mandible, have direct relationship with the dental biofilm, with predominance of obligate anaerobes. In some patients, these infections may spread to bone marrow or facial soft tissues, producing severe and life-threatening septic conditions. In such cases, local treatment associated with systemic antimicrobials should be used in order to eradicate the sources of contamination. This paper discuss the possibility of spread of these infections and their clinical implications for dentistry, as well as their etiology and aspects related to microbial virulence and pathogenesis. PMID:22829824

  13. Microbiota associated with infections of the jaws.

    PubMed

    Gaetti-Jardim, Elerson; Landucci, Luis Fernando; de Oliveira, Kathlenn Liezbeth; Costa, Iracy; Ranieri, Robson Varlei; Okamoto, Ana Cláudia; Schweitzer, Christiane Marie

    2012-01-01

    The microbial infections involving the craniofacial skeleton, particularly maxilla and mandible, have direct relationship with the dental biofilm, with predominance of obligate anaerobes. In some patients, these infections may spread to bone marrow or facial soft tissues, producing severe and life-threatening septic conditions. In such cases, local treatment associated with systemic antimicrobials should be used in order to eradicate the sources of contamination. This paper discuss the possibility of spread of these infections and their clinical implications for dentistry, as well as their etiology and aspects related to microbial virulence and pathogenesis.

  14. Can anaerobes be acid fast? A novel, clinically relevant acid fast anaerobe

    PubMed Central

    Jump, Robin; Canaday, David H.; Wnek, Maria D.; SenGupta, Dhruba J.; McQuiston, John R.; Bell, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Anaerobic acid fast bacilli (AFB) have not been previously reported in clinical microbiology. This is the second case report of a novel anaerobic AFB causing disease in humans. Case presentation: An anaerobic AFB was isolated from an abdominal wall abscess in a 64–year-old Caucasian diabetic male, who underwent distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy for resection of a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour. The isolated bacteria were gram-variable and acid-fast, consisting of small irregular rods. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the isolate is a novel organism described in the literature only once before. The organism was studied at the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) by the same group that worked with the isolates from the previous report; their findings suggest that the strain belongs to the suborder Corynebacterineae. Conclusion: This is the fifth reported case of an anaerobic AFB involved in clinical disease; its microbiological features and 16S RNA sequence are identical to previously reported cases. Clinical disease with this organism seems to be associated with recent history of surgery and abscess formation in deep soft tissues. Acquisition from surgical material is uncertain but seems unlikely. PMID:28348766

  15. Application of Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 for simulating anaerobic mesophilic sludge digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Mendes, Carlos Esquerre, Karla Matos Queiroz, Luciano

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The behavior of a anaerobic reactor was evaluated through modeling. • Parametric sensitivity analysis was used to select most sensitive of the ADM1. • The results indicate that the ADM1 was able to predict the experimental results. • Organic load rate above of 35 kg/m{sup 3} day affects the performance of the process. - Abstract: Improving anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge by monitoring common indicators such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), gas composition and pH is a suitable solution for better sludge management. Modeling is an important tool to assess and to predict process performance. The present study focuses on the application of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) to simulate the dynamic behavior of a reactor fed with sewage sludge under mesophilic conditions. Parametric sensitivity analysis is used to select the most sensitive ADM1 parameters for estimation using a numerical procedure while other parameters are applied without any modification to the original values presented in the ADM1 report. The results indicate that the ADM1 model after parameter estimation was able to predict the experimental results of effluent acetate, propionate, composites and biogas flows and pH with reasonable accuracy. The simulation of the effect of organic shock loading clearly showed that an organic shock loading rate above of 35 kg/m{sup 3} day affects the performance of the reactor. The results demonstrate that simulations can be helpful to support decisions on predicting the anaerobic digestion process of sewage sludge.

  16. Oxygen tolerance capacity of upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) with anaerobic filter (AF) system.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yao; Jost, Carsten; Mumme, Jan; Wang, Kaijun; Linke, Bernd

    2016-07-01

    In order to investigate the oxygen tolerance capacity of upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) with anaerobic filter (AF) system, the effect of microaeration on thermophilic anaerobic digestion of maize straw was investigated under batch conditions and in the UASS with AF system. Aeration intensities of 0-431mL O2/gvs were conducted as pretreatment under batch conditions. Aeration pretreatment obviously enhanced anaerobic digestion and an aeration intensity of 431mL O2/gvs increased the methane yield by 82.2%. Aeration intensities of 0-355mL O2/gvs were conducted in the process liquor circulation of the UASS with AF system. Dissolved oxygen (DO) of UASS and AF reactors kept around 1.39±0.27 and 0.99±0.38mg/L, respectively. pH was relatively stable around 7.11±0.04. Volatile fatty acids and soluble chemical oxygen demand concentration in UASS reactor were higher than those in AF reactor. Methane yield of the whole system was almost stable at 85±7mL/gvs as aeration intensity increased step by step. The UASS with AF system showed good oxygen tolerance capacity.

  17. The challenges of anaerobic digestion and the role of biochar in optimizing anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Fagbohungbe, Michael O; Herbert, Ben M J; Hurst, Lois; Ibeto, Cynthia N; Li, Hong; Usmani, Shams Q; Semple, Kirk T

    2017-03-01

    Biochar, like most other adsorbents, is a carbonaceous material, which is formed from the combustion of plant materials, in low-zero oxygen conditions and results in a material, which has the capacity to sorb chemicals onto its surfaces. Currently, research is being carried out to investigate the relevance of biochar in improving the soil ecosystem, digestate quality and most recently the anaerobic digestion process. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic substrates provides both a sustainable source of energy and a digestate with the potential to enhance plant growth and soil health. In order to ensure that these benefits are realised, the anaerobic digestion system must be optimized for process stability and high nutrient retention capacity in the digestate produced. Substrate-induced inhibition is a major issue, which can disrupt the stable functioning of the AD system reducing microbial breakdown of the organic waste and formation of methane, which in turn reduces energy output. Likewise, the spreading of digestate on land can often result in nutrient loss, surface runoff and leaching. This review will examine substrate inhibition and their impact on anaerobic digestion, nutrient leaching and their environmental implications, the properties and functionality of biochar material in counteracting these challenges.

  18. [Distribution and removal of anaerobic antibiotic resistant bacteria during mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge].

    PubMed

    Tong, Juan; Wang, Yuan-Yue; Wei Yuan, Song

    2014-10-01

    Sewage sludge is one of the major sources that releasing antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistant genes (ARG) into the environment since it contains large amount of ARB, but there is little information about the fate of the anaerobic ARB in the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. Therefore, the distribution, removal and seasonal changes of tetracycline and β-lactam antibiotics resistant bacteria in the mesophilic egg-shaped digesters of a municipal wastewater treatment plant were investigated for one year in this study. Results showed that there were higher amounts of ARB and higher resistance rate of β-lactam antibiotics than that of tetracycline antibiotics in the sewage sludge. All ARB could be significantly reduced during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion process by 1.48-1.64 log unit (P < 0.05). Notably, the ampicillin and cephalothin resistance rates were significantly increased after anaerobic digestion by 12.0% and 14.3%, respectively (P < 0.05). The distribution of ARB in the sewage sludge had seasonal change characteristics. Except for chlorotetracycline resistant bacteria, there were more ARB in the sewage sludge in cold season than in warm season (P < 0.05).

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinically isolated anaerobic bacteria in a University Hospital Centre Split, Croatia in 2013.

    PubMed

    Novak, Anita; Rubic, Zana; Dogas, Varja; Goic-Barisic, Ivana; Radic, Marina; Tonkic, Marija

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic bacteria play a significant role in many endogenous polymicrobial infections. Since antimicrobial resistance among anaerobes has increased worldwide, it is useful to provide local susceptibility data to guide empirical therapy. The present study reports recent data on the susceptibility of clinically relevant anaerobes in a University Hospital Centre (UHC) Split, Croatia. A total of 63 Gram-negative and 59 Gram-positive anaerobic clinical isolates from various body sites were consecutively collected from January to December 2013. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using standardized methods and interpreted using EUCAST criteria. Patient's clinical and demographic data were recorded by clinical microbiologist. Among 35 isolates of Bacteroides spp., 97.1% were resistant to penicillin (PCN), 5.7% to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC), 8.6% to piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP), 29.0% to clindamycin (CLI) and 2.9% to metronidazole (MZ). Percentages of susceptible strains to imipenem (IPM), meropenem (MEM) and ertapenem (ETP) were 94.3. Resistance of other Gram-negative bacilli was 76.0% to PCN, 8.0% to AMC, 12.0% to TZP, 28.0% to CLI and 8% to MZ. All other Gram-negative strains were fully susceptible to MEM and ETP, while 96.0% were susceptible to IPM. Clostridium spp. isolates were 100% susceptible to all tested antibiotics except to CLI (two of four tested isolates were resistant). Propionibacterium spp. showed resistance to CLI in 4.3%, while 100% were resistant to MZ. Among other Gram-positive bacilli, 18.2% were resistant to PCN, 9.1% to CLI and 54.5% to MZ, while 81.8% of isolates were susceptible to carbapenems. Gram-positive cocci were 100% susceptible to all tested antimicrobials except to MZ, where 28.6% of resistant strains were recorded. Abdomen was the most common source of isolates (82.5%). The most prevalent types of infection were abscess (22.1%), sepsis (14.8%), appendicitis (13.9%) and peritonitis (6.6%). Twenty four patients (19

  20. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible.

  1. Hybrid modelling of anaerobic wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Karama, A; Bernard, O; Genovesi, A; Dochain, D; Benhammou, A; Steyer, J P

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid approach for the modelling of an anaerobic digestion process. The hybrid model combines a feed-forward network, describing the bacterial kinetics, and the a priori knowledge based on the mass balances of the process components. We have considered an architecture which incorporates the neural network as a static model of unmeasured process parameters (kinetic growth rate) and an integrator for the dynamic representation of the process using a set of dynamic differential equations. The paper contains a description of the neural network component training procedure. The performance of this approach is illustrated with experimental data.

  2. Muscle deoxygenation in aerobic and anaerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Nioka, S; Moser, D; Lech, G; Evengelisti, M; Verde, T; Chance, B; Kuno, S

    1998-01-01

    It has been generally accepted that the use of oxygen is a major contributor of ATP synthesis in endurance exercise but not in short sprints. In anaerobic exercise, muscle energy is thought to be initially supported by the PCr-ATP system followed by glycolysis, not through mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. However, in real exercise practice, we do not know how much of this notion is true when an athlete approaches his/her maximal capacity of aerobic and anaerobic exercise, such as during a graded VO2max test. This study investigates the use of oxygen in aerobic and anaerobic exercise by monitoring oxygen concentration of the vastus lateralis muscle at maximum intensity using Near Infra-red Spectroscopy (NIRS). We tested 14 sprinters from the University of Penn track team, whose competitive events are high jump, pole vault, 100 m, 200 m, 400 m, and 800 m. The Wingate anaerobic power test was performed on a cycle ergometer with 10% body weight resistance for 30 seconds. To compare oxygenation during aerobic exercise, a steady-state VO2max test with a cycle ergometer was used with 25 watt increments every 2 min. until exhaustion. Results showed that in the Wingate test, total power reached 774 +/- 86 watt, about 3 times greater than that in the VO2max test (270 +/- 43 watt). In the Wingate test, the deoxygenation reached approximately 80% of the established maximum value, while in the VO2max test resulted in approximately 36% deoxygenation. There was no delay in onset of deoxygenation in the Wingate test, while in the VO2max test, deoxygenation did not occur under low intensity work. The results indicate that oxygen was used from the beginning of sprint test, suggesting that the mitochondrial ATP synthesis was triggered after a surprisingly brief exercise duration. One explanation is that prior warm-up (unloaded exercise) was enough to provide the mitochondrial substrates; ADP and Pi to activate oxidative phosphorylation by the type II a and type I myocytes. In

  3. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sludge.

    PubMed

    Dohányos, M; Zábranská, J; Kutil, J; Jenícek, P

    2004-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion improvement can be accomplished by different methods. Besides optimization of the process conditions, pretreatment of input sludge and increase of process temperature is frequently used. The thermophilic process brings a higher solids reduction and biogas production, a high resistance to foaming, no problems with odour, better pathogens destruction and an improvement of the energy balance of the whole treatment plant. Disintegration of excess activated sludge in a lysate centrifuge was proved to cause increase of biogas production in full-scale conditions. The rapid thermal conditioning of digested sludge is an acceptable method of particulate matter disintegration and solubilization.

  4. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, A.; Nemerow, N.L.; Farooq, S.; Daly, E.L.Jr.; Sengupta, S.; Gerrish, H.P.; Wong, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    Filtrate from an anaerobic municipal waste digestion plant at Pompano Beach, Florida, has BOD, COD, and total organic C contents of 1075, 6855, and 1655 mg/L, respectively. The treatment does not inactivate total coliforms; that of the digester slurry and filtrate are 2.3 X 10 to the power of 6 and 1.7 X 10 to the power of 6/100 mL, respectively. The average concentrations of Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Zn in the filtrate are 0.48, 1.29, 7.29, 32, 0.35, and 11 mg/L, respectively. The filtrate requires treatment prior to discharge.

  5. Anaerobic wastewater treatment of concentrated sewage using a two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket- anaerobic filter system.

    PubMed

    Halalsheh, Maha M; Abu Rumman, Zainab M; Field, Jim A

    2010-01-01

    A two-stage pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket - anaerobic filter (UASB-AF) reactors system treating concentrated domestic sewage was operated at 23 degrees C and at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 15 and 4 h, respectively. Excess sludge from the downstream AF stage was returned to the upstream UASB reactor. The aim was to obtain higher sludge retention time (SRT) in the UASB reactor for better methanization of suspended COD. The UASB-AF system removed 55% and 65% of the total COD (COD(tot)) and suspended COD (COD(ss)), respectively. The calculated SRT in the UASB reactor ranged from 20-35 days. The AF reactor removed the washed out sludge from the first stage reactor with average COD(ss) removal efficiency of 55%. The volatile fatty acids concentration in the effluent of the AF was 39 mg COD/L compared with 78 mg COD/L measured for the influent. The slightly higher COD(tot) removal efficiency obtained in this study compared with a single stage UASB reactor was achieved at 17% reduction in the total volume.

  6. Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections. PMID:25002979

  7. Human serum activity of telithromycin, azithromycin and amoxicillin/clavulanate against common aerobic and anaerobic respiratory pathogens.

    PubMed

    Stein, Gary E; Schooley, Sharon; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Citron, Diane M; Goldstein, Ellie J C

    2007-01-01

    Telithromycin is a new ketolide antimicrobial with a good in vitro activity against both aerobic and anaerobic respiratory pathogens. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial activity over time of telithromycin (800mg), azithromycin (500mg), and amoxicillin/clavulanate (875/125mg) in serum following single oral doses of these agents to 10 healthy subjects. Inhibitory and bactericidal titers were determined at 2, 6, 12, and 24h after each dose and the median titer was used to determine antibacterial activity. Against two azithromycin-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, both telithromycin (MIC=0.25 and 0.5 microg/mL) and amoxicillin/clavulanate exhibited inhibitory and cidal activity for at least 6h. All three antibiotics provided prolonged (>or=12h) inhibitory activity against strains of Hemophilus influenzae (telithromycin MIC=4.0 microg/ml). Both telithromycin and amoxicillin/clavulanate exhibited rapid and prolonged inhibitory activity (>or=12h) against each of the anaerobes studied (Finegoldia [Peptostreptococcus] magna Peptostreptococcus micros, Prevotella bivia, and Prevotella melaninogenica). Moreover, both agents provided bactericidal activity against both Prevotella species. In this ex vivo pharmacodynamic study, we found that telithromycin provided rapid and prolonged antibacterial activity in serum against macrolide-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae, beta-lactamase-positive and -negative strains of H. influenzae, and common respiratory anaerobic pathogens. These findings suggest that telithromycin could have clinical utility in the treatment of community-acquired mixed aerobic-anaerobic respiratory tract infections, including chronic sinusitis and aspiration pneumonia.

  8. TEST RESULTS FOR FUEL CELL OPERATION ON ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA, in conjunction with ONSI Corp., embarked on a project to define, design, test, and assess a fuel cell energy recovery system for application at anaerobic digester waste water (sewage) treatment plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at these plants during the proce...

  9. Anaerobic soil disinfestation and soil borne pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD; also referred to as Biological Soil Disinfestation (BSD)) is a pre-plant soil treatment method developed to control plant disease and manage yield decline in many crop production systems. The practice involves induction of anaerobic soil conditions by increasing m...

  10. Molecular AND logic gate based on bacterial anaerobic respiration.

    PubMed

    Arugula, Mary Anitha; Shroff, Namita; Katz, Evgeny; He, Zhen

    2012-10-21

    Enzyme coding genes that integrate information for anaerobic respiration in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were used as input for constructing an AND logic gate. The absence of one or both genes inhibited electrochemically-controlled anaerobic respiration, while wild type bacteria were capable of accepting electrons from an electrode for DMSO reduction.

  11. Anaerobic Catabolism of Aromatic Compounds: a Genetic and Genomic View

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Manuel; Zamarro, María Teresa; Blázquez, Blas; Durante-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Juárez, Javier F.; Valderrama, J. Andrés; Barragán, María J. L.; García, José Luis; Díaz, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Aromatic compounds belong to one of the most widely distributed classes of organic compounds in nature, and a significant number of xenobiotics belong to this family of compounds. Since many habitats containing large amounts of aromatic compounds are often anoxic, the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds by microorganisms becomes crucial in biogeochemical cycles and in the sustainable development of the biosphere. The mineralization of aromatic compounds by facultative or obligate anaerobic bacteria can be coupled to anaerobic respiration with a variety of electron acceptors as well as to fermentation and anoxygenic photosynthesis. Since the redox potential of the electron-accepting system dictates the degradative strategy, there is wide biochemical diversity among anaerobic aromatic degraders. However, the genetic determinants of all these processes and the mechanisms involved in their regulation are much less studied. This review focuses on the recent findings that standard molecular biology approaches together with new high-throughput technologies (e.g., genome sequencing, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metagenomics) have provided regarding the genetics, regulation, ecophysiology, and evolution of anaerobic aromatic degradation pathways. These studies revealed that the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds is more diverse and widespread than previously thought, and the complex metabolic and stress programs associated with the use of aromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions are starting to be unraveled. Anaerobic biotransformation processes based on unprecedented enzymes and pathways with novel metabolic capabilities, as well as the design of novel regulatory circuits and catabolic networks of great biotechnological potential in synthetic biology, are now feasible to approach. PMID:19258534

  12. Balancing hygienization and anaerobic digestion of raw sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Astals, S; Venegas, C; Peces, M; Jofre, J; Lucena, F; Mata-Alvarez, J

    2012-12-01

    The anaerobic digestion of raw sewage sludge was evaluated in terms of process efficiency and sludge hygienization. Four different scenarios were analyzed, i.e. mesophilic anaerobic digestion, thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a 60 °C or by an 80 °C hygienization treatment. Digester performance (organic matter removal, process stability and biogas yield) and the hygienization efficiency (reduction of Escherichia coli, somatic coliphages and F-specific RNA phages) were the main examined factors. Moreover, a preliminary economical feasibility study of each option was carried out throughout an energy balance (heat and electricity). The obtained results showed that both thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a hygienization step were able to produce an effluent sludge that fulfills the American and the European legislation for land application. However, higher removal efficiencies of indicators were obtained when a hygienization post-treatment was present. Regarding the energy balance, it should be noted that all scenarios have a significant energy surplus. Particularly, positive heat balances will be obtained for the thermophilic anaerobic digestion and for the mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by 60 °C hygienization post-treatment if an additional fresh-sludge/digested sludge heat exchanger is installed for energy recovery.

  13. Identification, distribution, and toxigenicity of obligate anaerobes in polluted waters.

    PubMed Central

    Daily, O P; Joseph, S W; Gillmore, J D; Colwell, R R; Seidler, R J

    1981-01-01

    A seasonal occurrence of obligately anaerobic bacteria, predominantly of the genera Bacteroides and Clostridium, in a polluted water site has been observed. The number of anaerobes varied from 1.8 X 10(3) cells/ml in the warmer months to 10 cells/ml in winter. Several isolates were toxigenic, indicating a potential human health hazard. PMID:7235706

  14. Streptococcal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease) Group B strep can cause blood infections, pneumonia and meningitis in newborns. A screening test during ... urinary tract infections, blood infections, skin infections and pneumonia in adults. Antibiotics are used to treat strep ...

  15. Kidney Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... X-ray called a voiding cystourethrogram. Antibiotics for kidney infections Antibiotics are the first line of treatment ... the infection is completely eliminated. Hospitalization for severe kidney infections For a severe kidney infection, your doctor ...

  16. Adsorption and decolorization kinetics of methyl orange by anaerobic sludge.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Michael Hon-Wah; Yu, Han-Qing

    2011-05-01

    Adsorption and decolorization kinetics of methyl orange (MO) by anaerobic sludge in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors were investigated. The anaerobic sludge was found to have a saturated adsorption capacity of 36 ± 1 mg g MLSS(-1) to MO. UV/visible spectrophotometer and high-performance liquid chromatography analytical results indicated that the MO adsorption and decolorization occurred simultaneously in this system. This process at various substrate concentrations could be well simulated using a modified two-stage model with apparent pseudo first-order kinetics. Furthermore, a noncompetitive inhibition kinetic model was also developed to describe the MO decolorization process at high NaCl concentrations, and an inhibition constant of 3.67 g NaCl l(-1) was estimated. This study offers an insight into the adsorption and decolorization processes of azo dyes by anaerobic sludge and provides a better understanding of the anaerobic dye decolorization mechanisms.

  17. Performance of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor for pharmaceutical wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Svojitka, Jan; Dvořák, Lukáš; Studer, Martin; Straub, Jürg Oliver; Frömelt, Heinz; Wintgens, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Anaerobic treatment of wastewater and waste organic solvents originating from the pharmaceutical and chemical industries was tested in a pilot anaerobic membrane bioreactor, which was operated for 580days under different operational conditions. The goal was to test the long-term treatment efficiency and identify inhibitory factors. The highest COD removal of up to 97% was observed when the influent concentration was increased by the addition of methanol (up to 25gL(-1) as COD). Varying and generally lower COD removal efficiency (around 78%) was observed when the anaerobic membrane bioreactor was operated with incoming pharmaceutical wastewater as sole carbon source. The addition of waste organic solvents (>2.5gL(-1) as COD) to the influent led to low COD removal efficiency or even to the breakdown of anaerobic digestion. Changes in the anaerobic population (e.g., proliferation of the genus Methanosarcina) resulting from the composition of influent were observed.

  18. Absence of microbial mineralization of lignin in anaerobic enrichment cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Odier, E; Monties, B

    1983-01-01

    The existence of anaerobic biodegradation of lignin was examined in mixed microflora. Egyptian soil samples, in which rapid mineralization of organic matter takes place in the presence of an important anaerobic microflora, were used to obtain the anaerobic enrichment cultures for this study. Specifically, 14CO2 or [14C]lignin wood was used to investigate the release of labeled gaseous or soluble degradation products of lignin in microbial cultures. No conversion of 14C-labeled lignin to 14CO2 or 14CH4 was observed after 6 months of incubation at 30 degrees C in anaerobic conditions with or without NO3-. A small increase in soluble radioactivity was observed in certain cultures, but it could not be related to the release of catabolic products during the anaerobic biodegradation of lignin. PMID:6639020

  19. Anaerobic biodegradation of hexazinone in four sediments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huili; Xu, Shuxia; Tan, Chengxia; Wang, Xuedong

    2009-05-30

    Anaerobic biodegradation of hexazinone was investigated in four sediments (L1, L2, Y1 and Y2). Results showed that the L2 sediment had the highest biodegradation potential among four sediments. However, the Y1 and Y2 sediments had no capacity to biodegrade hexazinone. Sediments with rich total organic carbon, long-term contamination history by hexazinone and neutral pH may have a high biodegradation potential because the former two factors can induce the growth of microorganisms responsible for biodegradation and the third factor can offer suitable conditions for biodegradation. The addition of sulfate or nitrate as electron acceptors enhanced hexazinone degradation. As expected, the addition of electron donors (lactate, acetate or pyruvate) substantially inhibited the degradation. In natural environmental conditions, the effect of intermediate A [3-(4-hydroxycyclohexyl)-6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4(1H, 3H)dione] on anaerobic hexazinone degradation was negligible because of its low level.

  20. Electrolysis-enhanced anaerobic digestion of wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tartakovsky, B; Mehta, P; Bourque, J-S; Guiot, S R

    2011-05-01

    This study demonstrates enhanced methane production from wastewater in laboratory-scale anaerobic reactors equipped with electrodes for water electrolysis. The electrodes were installed in the reactor sludge bed and a voltage of 2.8-3.5 V was applied resulting in a continuous supply of oxygen and hydrogen. The oxygen created micro-aerobic conditions, which facilitated hydrolysis of synthetic wastewater and reduced the release of hydrogen sulfide to the biogas. A portion of the hydrogen produced electrolytically escaped to the biogas improving its combustion properties, while another part was converted to methane by hydrogenotrophic methanogens, increasing the net methane production. The presence of oxygen in the biogas was minimized by limiting the applied voltage. At a volumetric energy consumption of 0.2-0.3 Wh/L(R), successful treatment of both low and high strength synthetic wastewaters was demonstrated. Methane production was increased by 10-25% and reactor stability was improved in comparison to a conventional anaerobic reactor.

  1. Anaerobic and aerobic transformation of TNT

    SciTech Connect

    Kulpa, C.F.; Boopathy, R.; Manning, J.

    1996-12-31

    Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds have used pure cultures of aerobic microorganisms. In many cases, attempts to degrade nitroaromatics under aerobic conditions by pure cultures result in no mineralization and only superficial modifications of the structure. However, mixed culture systems properly operated result in the transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and in some cases mineralization of TNT occurs. In this paper, the mixed culture system is described with emphasis on intermediates and the characteristics of the aerobic microbial process including the necessity for a co-substrate. The possibility of removing TNT under aerobic/anoxic conditions is described in detail. Another option for the biodegradation of TNT and nitroaromatics is under anaerobic, sulfate reducing conditions. In this instance, the nitroaromatic compounds undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. TNT under sulfate reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene presumably by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of nitro groups from TNT is achieved by a series of reductive reactions with the formation of ammonia and toluene by Desulfovibrio sp. (B strain). These metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. The data supporting the anaerobic transformation of TNT under different growth condition are reviewed in this report.

  2. Anaerobic Toxicity of Cationic Silver Nanoparticles | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The microbial toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized with different capping agents was compared to that of Ag+ under anaerobic conditions. Three AgNPs were investigated: (1) negatively charged citrate-coated AgNPs (citrate-AgNPs), (2) minimally charged polyvinylpyrrolidone coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNps) and (3) positively charged branched polyethyleneimine coated AgNPs (BPEI-AgNPs). The AgNPs investigated in this experiment were similar in size (10-15 nm), spherical in shape, but varied in surface charge which ranged from highly negative to highly positive. While, at AgNPs concentrations lower than 5 mg L-1, the anaerobic decomposition process was not influenced by the presence of the nanoparticles, there was an observed impact on the diversity of the microbial community. At elevated concentrations (100 mg L-1 as silver), only the cationic BPEI-AgNPs demonstrated toxicity similar in magnitude to that of Ag+. Both citrate and PVP-AgNPs did not exhibit toxicity at the 100 mg L-1 as measured by biogas evolution. These findings further indicate the varying modes of action for nanoparticle toxicity and represent one of the few studies that evaluate end-of-life management concerns with regards to the increasing use of nanomaterials in our everyday life. These findings also highlight some of the concerns with a one size fits all approach to the evaluation of environmental health and safety concerns associated with the use of nanoparticles. The current

  3. Anaerobic Antimicrobial Therapy After Necrotizing Enterocolitis in VLBW Infants

    PubMed Central

    Autmizguine, Julie; Hornik, Christoph P.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Laughon, Matthew M.; Clark, Reese H.; Cotten, C. Michael; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Benjamin, Daniel K.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of anaerobic antimicrobial therapy for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) on clinical outcomes in very low birth weight (≤1500 g) infants. METHODS: We identified very low birth weight infants with NEC from 348 US NICUs from 1997 to 2012. Anaerobic antimicrobial therapy was defined by antibiotic exposure on the first day of NEC. We matched (1:1) infants exposed to anaerobic antimicrobial therapy with infants who were not exposed by using a propensity score stratified by NEC severity (medical and surgical). The primary composite outcome was in-hospital death or intestinal stricture. We assessed the relationship between anaerobic antimicrobial therapy and outcome by using a conditional logistic regression on the matched cohort. RESULTS: A total of 1390 infants exposed to anaerobic antimicrobial therapy were matched with 1390 infants not exposed. Mean gestational age and birth weight were 27 weeks and 946 g, respectively, and were similar in both groups. We found no significant difference in the combined outcome of death or strictures, but strictures as a single outcome were more common in the anaerobic antimicrobial therapy group (odds ratio 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.11–2.72). Among infants with surgical NEC, mortality was less common with anaerobic antimicrobial therapy (odds ratio 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.52–0.95). CONCLUSIONS: Anaerobic antimicrobial therapy was not associated with the composite outcome of death or strictures but was associated with an increase in intestinal strictures. This higher incidence of intestinal strictures may be explained by the fact that death is a competing outcome for intestinal strictures, and mortality was slightly lower in the anaerobic cohort. Infants with surgical NEC who received anaerobic antimicrobial therapy had lower mortality. PMID:25511117

  4. Biochemistry and Evolution of Anaerobic Energy Metabolism in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Miklós; Mentel, Marek; van Hellemond, Jaap J.; Henze, Katrin; Woehle, Christian; Gould, Sven B.; Yu, Re-Young; van der Giezen, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Major insights into the phylogenetic distribution, biochemistry, and evolutionary significance of organelles involved in ATP synthesis (energy metabolism) in eukaryotes that thrive in anaerobic environments for all or part of their life cycles have accrued in recent years. All known eukaryotic groups possess an organelle of mitochondrial origin, mapping the origin of mitochondria to the eukaryotic common ancestor, and genome sequence data are rapidly accumulating for eukaryotes that possess anaerobic mitochondria, hydrogenosomes, or mitosomes. Here we review the available biochemical data on the enzymes and pathways that eukaryotes use in anaerobic energy metabolism and summarize the metabolic end products that they generate in their anaerobic habitats, focusing on the biochemical roles that their mitochondria play in anaerobic ATP synthesis. We present metabolic maps of compartmentalized energy metabolism for 16 well-studied species. There are currently no enzymes of core anaerobic energy metabolism that are specific to any of the six eukaryotic supergroup lineages; genes present in one supergroup are also found in at least one other supergroup. The gene distribution across lineages thus reflects the presence of anaerobic energy metabolism in the eukaryote common ancestor and differential loss during the specialization of some lineages to oxic niches, just as oxphos capabilities have been differentially lost in specialization to anoxic niches and the parasitic life-style. Some facultative anaerobes have retained both aerobic and anaerobic pathways. Diversified eukaryotic lineages have retained the same enzymes of anaerobic ATP synthesis, in line with geochemical data indicating low environmental oxygen levels while eukaryotes arose and diversified. PMID:22688819

  5. A fatal case of pulmonary chromobacterium violaceum infection in an adult.

    PubMed

    Cheong, B M K

    2010-06-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum is a gram negative, facultative anaerobic coccobacillus. Human infections are rare and usually occur after exposure to contaminated soil or water. Infections can present with fulminant septicemia, multiple abscesses and rapidly spreading soft tissue infections. Here we present a fatal case of pulmonary Chromobacterium violaceum infection following aspiration of drain water. Treatment with fluroquinolones in combination with either co-trimoxazole or amikacin has been described in successfully treated cases.

  6. Bacterial Findings in Infected Hip Joint Replacements in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoarthritis: A Study of 318 Revisions for Infection Reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register

    PubMed Central

    Schrama, J. C.; Lutro, O.; Langvatn, H.; Hallan, G.; Espehaug, B.; Sjursen, H.; Engesaeter, L. B.; Fevang, B.-T.

    2012-01-01

    High rates of Staphylococcus aureus are reported in prosthetic joint infection (PJI) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA patients are considered to have a high risk of infection with bacteria of potentially oral or dental origin. One thousand four hundred forty-three revisions for infection were reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register (NAR) from 1987 to 2007. For this study 269 infection episodes in 255 OA patients served as control group. In the NAR we identified 49 infection episodes in 37 RA patients from 1987 to 2009. The RA patients were, on average, 10 years younger than the OA patients and there were more females (70% versus 54%). We found no differences in the bacterial findings in RA and OA. A tendency towards a higher frequency of Staphylococcus aureus (18% versus 11%) causing PJI was found in the RA patients compared to OA. There were no bacteria of potential odontogenic origin found in the RA patients, while we found 4% in OA. The bacteria identified in revisions for infection in THRs in patients with RA did not significantly differ from those in OA. Bacteria of oral or dental origin were not found in infected hip joint replacements in RA. PMID:24977078

  7. Activation of Bacteroides fragilis toxin by a novel bacterial protease contributes to anaerobic sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Vivian M.; Herrou, Julien; Hecht, Aaron L.; Teoh, Wei Ping; Turner, Jerrold R.; Crosson, Sean; Wardenburg, Juliane Bubeck

    2016-01-01

    Bacteroides fragilis is the leading cause of anaerobic bacteremia and sepsis 1. Enterotoxigenic strains producing B. fragilis toxin (BFT, fragilysin) contribute to colitis 2 and intestinal malignancy 3, yet are also isolated in bloodstream infection 4,5. It is not known whether these strains harbor unique genetic determinants that confer virulence in extra-intestinal disease. We demonstrate that BFT contributes to sepsis and identify a B. fragilis protease, fragipain (Fpn), which is required for endogenous activation of BFT through removal of its auto-inhibitory prodomain. Structural analysis of Fpn reveals a His-Cys catalytic dyad characteristic of C11 family cysteine proteases that are conserved in multiple pathogenic Bacteroides spp and Clostridium spp. Fpn-deficient enterotoxigenic B. fragilis is attenuated in its ability to induce sepsis, however Fpn is dispensable in B. fragilis colitis wherein host proteases mediate BFT activation. Our findings define a role for B. fragilis enterotoxin and its activating protease in the pathogenesis of bloodstream infection, indicating a greater complexity of cellular targeting and action of BFT than previously appreciated. The expression of fpn by both toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains suggests this protease may contribute to anaerobic sepsis beyond its role in toxin activation, potentially serving as a target for disease modification. PMID:27089515

  8. Anaerobes and Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnancy: Virulence Factors Contributing to Vaginal Colonisation

    PubMed Central

    Africa, Charlene W. J.; Nel, Janske; Stemmet, Megan

    2014-01-01

    The aetiology and pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) is unclear but it appears to be associated with factors that disrupt the normal acidity of the vagina thus altering the equilibrium between the normal vaginal microbiota. BV has serious implications for female morbidity, including reports of pelvic inflammatory disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes, increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections and infertility. This paper reviewed new available information regarding possible factors contributing to the establishment of the BV vaginal biofilm, examined the proposed role of anaerobic microbial species recently detected by new culture-independent methods and discusses developments related to the effects of BV on human pregnancy. The literature search included Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO), and Web of Science. Because of the complexity and diversity of population groups, diagnosis and methodology used, no meta-analysis was performed. Several anaerobic microbial species previously missed in the laboratory diagnosis of BV have been revealed while taking cognisance of newly proposed theories of infection, thereby improving our understanding and knowledge of the complex aetiology and pathogenesis of BV and its perceived role in adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25014248

  9. Antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent local infection in Oral Surgery: use or abuse?

    PubMed

    Sancho-Puchades, Manuel; Herráez-Vilas, José María; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2009-01-01

    Antibiotics have a well-documented efficacy in the treatment of established infections and as prophylactic agents in medically compromised patients. However, the systematic administration of antibiotics to prevent local infections in fit patients is much more controversial. The aim of this paper is to reflect on the justification for prophylactic usage of antibiotics to prevent wound infection and to reason out the most appropriate antibiotic guidelines taking into account available scientific data and studies by other authors. Numerous clinical trials question the efficacy of antibiotics in preventing wound infection. While some studies establish that antibiotics reduce the incidence of postoperative infections, others compare their efficacy to that of placebo. Thus, scientific literature suggests that every oral surgical intervention is not tributary of systematic antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent local infections. Intrinsic surgical risk factors and the patient's individual circumstances must be taken into account. Even though the efficacy of other antibiotics cannot be ruled out due to our limited comprehension of the bacteriologic interrelations intervening in the pathogenesis of postextraction local infection, the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination theoretically covers the complete odontogenic bacterial spectrum in Spain. When the prophylactic use of antibiotics is indicated, this should be performed preoperatively, at high doses, and its extent should not exceed 24 hours. Special attention should be paid to antiinfectious local measures that can minimize infection risk during the wound's healing period.

  10. [Properties of anaerobic granules developed by bioflocculant].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Song

    2009-11-01

    Three identical UASB reactors (labeled R1, R2, R3) were applied to treat synthetic wastewater of COD concentration 5 500-6 500 mg x L(-1). Under the same process conditions, R1 was operated with addition of 7.5 g CaCl2 and 400 mL bioflocculant MBF21 weekly, R2 was operated with addition of 140 mg cationic PAM weekly, R3 was operated without any addition of flocculants served as control. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of bioflocculant MBF21 on development of anaerobic granules and compare it to cationic PAM. The results showed that after 67 days of operation, anaerobic granules developed in these three UASB reactors. The average diameters of granules in R1, R2 and R3 were 1.18, 1.21 and 0.76 mm, respectively, the granulation rates in R1, R2, R3 were 15.37, 15.82 and 9.10 microm x d(-1), respectively, the values of SMA (COD-CH4/VSS x t) of granules were 0.740, 0.657 and 0.558 g x (g x d)(-1), respectively, the VSS/SS of granules were 0.667, 0.629 and 0.607, respectively, the SVI of granules were 14.7, 13.1 and 20.4 mL x g(-1), respectively, the densities of granules were 1.061, 1.064 and 1.054 g x cm(-3), respectively, the integrity coefficients of granules were 92.1, 93.5 and 84.7, respectively. From the photos of SEM, granules developed in R1 and R2 were tighter than those in R3. In the formation of mature granules, all the three reactors showed similar laws, i.e. filamentous microorganisms were predominant on the surface of the seed sludge while bacillus and cocci bacteria were predominant on the surface of the mature granules. This study demonstrated that in the development of anaerobic granules, the effect of bioflocculant MBF21 on enhancement the physical properties of granules was similar to cationic PAM, but the effect of bioflocculant MBF21 on improvement of biochemical and physiological properties of granules was better than cationic PAM.

  11. Estimation of Anaerobic Debromination Rate Constants of PBDE Pathways Using an Anaerobic Dehalogenation Model.

    PubMed

    Karakas, Filiz; Imamoglu, Ipek

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to estimate anaerobic debromination rate constants (km) of PBDE pathways using previously reported laboratory soil data. km values of pathways are estimated by modifying a previously developed model as Anaerobic Dehalogenation Model. Debromination activities published in the literature in terms of bromine substitutions as well as specific microorganisms and their combinations are used for identification of pathways. The range of estimated km values is between 0.0003 and 0.0241 d(-1). The median and maximum of km values are found to be comparable to the few available biologically confirmed rate constants published in the literature. The estimated km values can be used as input to numerical fate and transport models for a better and more detailed investigation of the fate of individual PBDEs in contaminated sediments. Various remediation scenarios such as monitored natural attenuation or bioremediation with bioaugmentation can be handled in a more quantitative manner with the help of km estimated in this study.

  12. A Case of Penicillin-Resistant Veillonella Prosthetic Joint Infection of the Knee

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Joy H.; Brodersen, Mark P.; Huff, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Veillonella sp. and V. dispar are emerging pathogens. This is the third case of a monomicrobial Veillonella sp. prosthetic joint infection (PJI) among knees and hips; this is the second prosthetic knee infection described. The infection was treated with a 2-stage procedural approach combined with 6 weeks of ceftriaxone with excellent clinical response. There was no relapse in 2 years of follow-up care. This case exemplifies the importance of incubating anaerobic cultures for at least 7 days to grow some anaerobic pathogens. PMID:28050296

  13. Laribacter hongkongensis anaerobic adaptation mediated by arginine metabolism is controlled by the cooperation of FNR and ArgR.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Lifeng; Yang, Ying; Ye, Yuan-Nong; Teng, Jade L L; Chan, Elaine; Watt, Rory M; Guo, Feng-Biao; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2017-03-01

    Laribacter hongkongensis is a fish-borne pathogen associated with invasive infections and gastroenteritis. Its adaptive mechanisms to oxygen-limiting conditions in various environmental niches remain unclear. In this study, we compared the transcriptional profiles of L. hongkongensis under aerobic and anaerobic conditions using RNA-sequencing. Expression of genes involved in arginine metabolism significantly increased under anoxic conditions. Arginine was exploited as the sole energy source in L. hongkongensis for anaerobic respiration via the arginine catabolism pathway: specifically via the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway. A transcriptional regulator FNR was identified to coordinate anaerobic metabolism by tightly regulating the expression of arginine metabolism genes. FNR executed its regulatory function by binding to FNR boxes in arc operons promoters. Survival of isogenic fnr mutant in macrophages decreased significantly when compared with wild-type; and expression level of fnr increased 8 h post-infection. Remarkably, FNR directly interacted with ArgR, another regulator that influences the biological fitness and intracellular survival of L. hongkongensis by regulating arginine metabolism genes. Our results demonstrated that FNR and ArgR work in coordination to respond to oxygen changes in both extracellular and intracellular environments, by finely regulating the ADI pathway and arginine anabolism pathways, thereby optimizing bacterial fitness in various environmental niches.

  14. Degradation of natural and synthetic polyesters under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Abou-Zeid, D M; Müller, R J; Deckwer, W D

    2001-03-30

    Often, degradability under anaerobic conditions is desirable for plastics claimed to be biodegradable, e.g. in anaerobic biowaste treatment plants, landfills and in natural anaerobic sediments. The biodegradation of the natural polyesters poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate-co-11.6%-beta-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and the synthetic polyester poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) was studied in two anaerobic sludges and individual polyester degrading anaerobic strains were isolated, characterized and used for degradation experiments under controlled laboratory conditions. Incubation of PHB and PHBV films in two anaerobic sludges exhibited significant degradation in a time scale of 6-10 weeks monitored by weight loss and biogas formation. In contrast to aerobic conditions, PHB was degraded anaerobically more rapidly than the copolyester PHBV, when tested with either mixed cultures or a single strained isolate. PCL tends to degrade slower than the natural polyesters PHB and PHBV. Four PHB and PCL degrading isolates were taxonomically identified and are obviously new species belonging to the genus Clostridium group I. The depolymerizing enzyme systems of PHB and PCL degrading isolates are supposed to be different. Using one isolated strain in an optimized laboratory degradation test with PHB powder, the degradation time was drastically reduced compared to the degradation in sludges (2 days vs. 6-10 weeks).

  15. Proteome analysis of aerobically and anaerobically grown Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    PubMed

    Bruckmann, Astrid; Hensbergen, Paul J; Balog, Crina I A; Deelder, André M; Brandt, Raymond; Snoek, I S Ishtar; Steensma, H Yde; van Heusden, G Paul H

    2009-01-30

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to grow under aerobic as well as anaerobic conditions. We and others previously found that transcription levels of approximately 500 genes differed more than two-fold when cells from anaerobic and aerobic conditions were compared. Here, we addressed the effect of anaerobic growth at the post-transcriptional level by comparing the proteomes of cells isolated from steady-state glucose-limited anaerobic and aerobic cultures. Following two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry we identified 110 protein spots, corresponding to 75 unique proteins, of which the levels differed more than two-fold between aerobically and anaerobically-grown cells. For 21 of the 110 spots, the intensities decreased more than two-fold whereas the corresponding mRNA levels increased or did not change significantly under anaerobic conditions. The intensities of the other 89 spots changed in the same direction as the mRNA levels of the corresponding genes, although to different extents. For some genes of glycolysis a small increase in mRNA levels, 1.5-2 fold, corresponded to a 5-10 fold increase in protein levels. Extrapolation of our results suggests that transcriptional regulation is the major but not exclusive mechanism for adaptation of S. cerevisiae to anaerobic growth conditions.

  16. Trace metal speciation and bioavailability in anaerobic digestion: A review.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Pham Minh; Ketheesan, Balachandran; Yan, Zhou; Stuckey, David

    2016-01-01

    Trace metals are essential for the growth of anaerobic microorganisms, however, in practice they are often added to anaerobic digesters in excessive amounts, which can lead to inhibition. The concept of bioavailability of metals in anaerobic digestion has been poorly understood in the past, and a lack of deep understanding of the relationship between trace metal speciation and bioavailability can result in ineffective metal dosing strategies for anaerobic digesters. Sequential extraction schemes are useful for fractionating trace metals into their different forms, and metal sulfides can serve as a store and source for trace metals during anaerobic digestion, while natural/synthetic chelating agents (soluble microbial products-SMPs, extracellular polysaccharides-EPS, and EDTA/NTA) are capable of controlling trace metal bioavailability. Nevertheless, more work is needed to: investigate the speciation and bioavailability of Ca, Mg, Mn, W, and Se; compare the bioavailability of different forms of trace metals e.g. carbonates, sulfides, phosphates to different anaerobic trophic groups; determine what factors influence metal sulfide dissolution; investigate whether chelating agents can increase trace metal bioavailability; develop and adapt specialized analytical techniques, and; determine how trace metal dynamics change in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR).

  17. Effect of nitrate on anaerobic azo dye reduction.

    PubMed

    Cirik, Kevser; Kitiş, Mehmet; Çinar, Özer

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of nitrate on anaerobic color removal efficiencies. For this aim, anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) fed with a simulated textile effluent including Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R azo dye was operated with a total cycle time of 12 h, including anaerobic (6 h) and aerobic cycles (6 h). Microorganism grown under anaerobic phase of the reactor was exposed to different amounts of competitive electron acceptor (nitrate) and performance of the system was determined by monitoring color removal efficiency, nitrate removal, nitrite formation and removal, oxidation reduction potential, color removal rate, chemical oxygen demand (COD), specific anaerobic enzyme (azo reductase) and aerobic enzyme (catechol 1,2 dioxygenase), and formation and removal of aromatic amines. Variations of population dynamics of microorganisms exposed to various amount of nitrate were identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). It was found that nitrate has adverse effect on anaerobic color removal efficiency and color removal was achieved after denitrification process was completed. It was found that nitrate stimulates the COD removal efficiency and accelerates the COD removal in the first hour of anaerobic phase. About 90 % total COD removal efficiencies were achieved in which microorganism exposed to increasing amount of nitrate. Population dynamics of microorganisms exposed to various amount of nitrate were changed and diversity was increased.

  18. Anaerobic Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in Pilot-Scale Anaerobic EGSB Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Large volumes of untreated palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose threat to aquatic environment due to the presence of very high organic content. The present investigation involved two pilot-scale anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors, continuously operated for 1 year to treat POME. Setting HRT at 9.8 d, the anaerobic EGSB reactors reduced COD from 71179 mg/L to 12341 mg/L and recycled half of sludge by a dissolved air flotation (DAF). The average effluent COD was 3587 mg/L with the consistent COD removal efficiency of 94.89%. Adding cationic polymer (PAM) dose of 30 mg/L to DAF unit and recycling its half of sludge caused granulation of anaerobic sludge. Bacilli and small coccid bacteria were the dominant microbial species of the reactor. The reactor produced 27.65 m3 of biogas per m3 of POME which was utilized for electricity generation. PMID:26167485

  19. Two Serious Cases of Infection with Clostridium celatum after 40 Years in Hiding?

    PubMed Central

    Hoegh, Silje Vermedal; Holt, Hanne Marie; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium celatum [ce.la'tum. L. adj. celatum hidden] has been known since 1974, when it was isolated from human feces. In 40 years, no association with human infection has been reported. In this work, we present two serious cases of infection with the anaerobic Gram-positive rod Clostridium celatum. PMID:26560535

  20. Virulence arsenal of the most pathogenic species among the Gram-positive anaerobic cocci, Finegoldia magna.

    PubMed

    Boyanova, Lyudmila; Markovska, Rumyana; Mitov, Ivan

    2016-12-01

    This review focuses on the virulence arsenal of the most pathogenic species among Gram positive anaerobic cocci, Finegoldia magna according to recently published data from 2012 to 2016. Virulence factors like sortase dependent pili and F. magna adhesion factor (FAF) facilitate the start of the infection. Albumin binding protein (PAB) enhances F. magna survival. FAF, subtilisin-like extracellular serine protease (SufA) and superantigen protein L protect the bacteria from factors of innate defense system. SufA, capsule and tissue-destroying enzymes provide a deep penetration or spread of the infections and the protein L is associated with infection severity. Biofilm production results in infection chronification and complicated treatment as well as to persistence of multi-species biofilms. Resistance rates to quinolones (13.0->70%) and clindamycin (0-40.0%) are important, and resistance to penicillins (<4%), chloramphenicol (7.0%) and metronidazole (<7%) has been reported. F. magna should not be overlooked when present in monoinfections or mixed infections in humans.