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Sample records for anaerobic process effects

  1. Effect of anaerobic reactor process configuration on useful energy production.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, Thomas D; Palomar, Albert

    2010-04-01

    The effect of reactor process configuration on anaerobic production of useful energy (hydrogen and methane) from a complex substrate was investigated for the following reactor systems: suspended growth, two-phase mixed, two-stage mixed, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, and two-phase UASB. The mixed two-phase and two-stage configurations yielded the highest specific energy productions of 13.3 and 13.4 kJ/g COD fed, respectively. Reactor process configuration influenced microbial pathways in acidogenic reactors in that butyrate was the predominant volatile acid in phased configurations, whereas acetate was predominant in the staged configuration. The UASB reactor achieved the highest average daily energy production per reactor volume of 101 kJ/L reactor-d. All reactor configurations achieved high COD removals on the order of 99%. However, hydrogen represented only 3% of the total energy produced by the two-phase mixed and two-phase UASB configurations. Theoretical analysis revealed that the maximum specific energy production by the two-phase suspended-growth configuration is only 9% higher than that for a single-stage mixed reactor. Consequently, the production of hydrogen from complex substrates in these process configurations does not seem to be justifiable solely from an energy point of view. Instead, it is suggested that phased anaerobic systems should be considered primarily for improved process stability whereas resultant hydrogen production is of secondary benefit.

  2. Anaerobic digestion of tomato processing waste: Effect of alkaline pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, Paolo S; Greco, Rosa; Evangelou, Alexandros; Komilis, Dimitrios

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the work was to assess the effect of mild alkaline pretreatment on the anaerobic biodegradability of tomato processing waste (TPW). Experiments were carried out in duplicate BMP bottles using a pretreatment contact time of 4 and 24 h and a 1% and 5% NaOH dosage. The cumulative methane production during a 30 d period was recorded and modelled. The alkaline pretreatment did not significantly affect methane production in any of the treatments in comparison to the control. The average methane production for all runs was 320 NmL/gVS. Based on first order kinetic modelling, the alkaline pretreatment was found to slow down the rate of methanogenesis, mainly in the two reactors with the highest NaOH dosage. The biodegradability of the substrates ranged from 0.75 to 0.82 and from 0.66 to 0.72 based on two different approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anaerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, M.; Haga, R.; Odawara, Y.

    1984-04-10

    First, the organic waste slurry of sewage sludge and/or kitchen garbage is stored in a stable condition after effecting partially thereto a liquefaction treatment in advance by adding liquefying bacteria, and next this slurry is effectively digested anaerobically by way of a liquefaction/gasification-mixed step or a liquefaction/gasification separated step.

  4. The anaerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C.J.; Boone, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  5. Anaerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, M.; Haga, R.; Odawara, Y.

    1982-10-19

    An algae culture grown on the water from the digested slurry of a biogasification plant serves as a means of removing CO/sub 2/ from the methane stream while purifying the wastewater and providing more biomass for the anaerobic digestion plant. Tested on a sewage-sludge digestion system, the proposed process improved the methane yield by 32% and methane concentration by 53-98 vol % while lowering the concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus in the final water.

  6. Effects of coffee processing residues on anaerobic microorganisms and corresponding digestion performance.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Sossa, Juan Pablo; Murillo-Roos, Mariana; Uribe, Lidieth; Uribe-Lorio, Lorena; Marsh, Terence; Larsen, Niels; Chen, Rui; Miranda, Alberto; Solís, Kattia; Rodriguez, Werner; Kirk, Dana; Liao, Wei

    2017-08-19

    The objective of this study was to delineate the effects of different coffee processing residues on the anaerobic microbes and corresponding digestion performance. The results elucidated that mucilage-rich feed enhanced the accumulation of methanogens, which consequently led to better digestion performance of biogas production. Fifty percent more methane and up to 3 times more net energy (heat and electricity) output were achieved by the digestion of the mucilage-rich feed (M3). The microbial community and statistical analyses further elucidated that different residues in the feed had significant impact on microbial distribution and correspondingly influenced the digestion performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nitrogen source effects on the denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation culture and anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria enrichment process.

    PubMed

    Fu, Liang; Ding, Jing; Lu, Yong-Ze; Ding, Zhao-Wei; Zeng, Raymond J

    2017-05-01

    The co-culture system of denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) has a potential application in wastewater treatment plant. This study explored the effects of permutation and combination of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium on the culture enrichment from freshwater sediments. The co-existence of NO3(-), NO2(-), and NH4(+) shortened the enrichment time from 75 to 30 days and achieved a total nitrogen removal rate of 106.5 mg/L/day on day 132. Even though ammonium addition led to Anammox bacteria increase and a higher nitrogen removal rate, DAMO bacteria still dominated in different reactors with the highest proportion of 64.7% and the maximum abundance was 3.07 ± 0.25 × 10(8) copies/L (increased by five orders of magnitude) in the nitrite reactor. DAMO bacteria showed greater diversity in the nitrate reactor, and one was similar to M. oxyfera; DAMO bacteria in the nitrite reactor were relatively unified and similar to M. sinica. Interestingly, no DAMO archaea were found in the nitrate reactor. This study will improve the understanding of the impact of nitrogen source on DAMO and Anammox co-culture enrichment.

  8. Effect of process configuration and substrate complexity on the performance of anaerobic processes.

    PubMed

    Azbar, N; Ursillo, P; Speece, R E

    2001-03-01

    The roles of substrate complexity (molecular size of the substrate) and process configuration in anaerobic wastewater treatment were investigated to determine optimal methanogenic technology parameters. Five substrates (glucose, propionate, butyrate, ethanol, and lactate) plus a mixed waste (60% carbohydrate, 34% protein, and 6% lipids) were studied under five reactor configurations: batch-fed single-stage continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), continuously fed single-stage CSTR, two-phase CSTR, two-stage CSTR, and single-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB). The substrate feed concentration was 20,000 mg/L as COD. The solids retention time (SRT) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the CSTR reactors were 20 d, while HRT in the UASB was 2 d. All reactors were operated for at least 60 d (equal to 3SRT). Substrate complexity was observed to be less significant under two-phase, two-stage and UASB reactor configurations. Two-phase CSTR, two-stage CSTR, and single-stage UASB configurations yielded the lowest effluent chemical oxygen demands (130-550, 60-700, and 50-250 mg/L, respectively). The highest effluent chemical oxygen demands were detected when feeding glucose, propionate, and lactate to continuously fed single-stage CSTRs (10, 400, 9900, and 4700 mg/L COD, respectively) and to batch-fed single-stage CSTRs (11, 200, 2500, and 2700 mg/L COD, respectively). Ironically, the one stage CSTR--most commonly utilized in the field--was the worst possible reactor configuration.

  9. Effects of process stability on anaerobic biodegradation of LAS in UASB reactors.

    PubMed

    Løbner, Trine; Toräng, Lars; Batstone, Damien John; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Angelidaki, Irini

    2005-03-30

    Anaerobic biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) was studied in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors operated under mesophilic (37 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C) conditions. LAS C12 concentration in the influents was 10 mg.L(-1), and the hydraulic retention time in the reactors was 2 days. Adsorption of LAS C12 was assessed in an autoclaved control reactor and ceased after 115 days. The reactors were operated for a minimum of 267 days; 40-80% removal of LAS C12 was observed. A temperature reduction from 55 degrees C to 32 degrees C for 30 h resulted in process imbalance as indicated by increase of volatile fatty acids (VFA). The imbalance was much more intense in the LAS amended reactor compared with an unamended reactor. At the same time, the process imbalance resulted in discontinued LAS removal. This finding indicates that process stability is a key factor in anaerobic biological removal of LAS. After a recovery period, the removal of LAS resumed, providing evidence of biological anaerobic LAS degradation. The removal remained constant until termination of experiments in the reactor. Biodegradation of LAS in the mesophilic reactor was at the same level as in the thermophilic reactor under stable conditions.

  10. Effect of carbon source on nitrogen removal in anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weiqiang; Zhang, Peiyu; Dong, Huiyu; Li, Jin

    2017-04-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) has been regarded as an efficient process to treat high-strength wastewater without organic carbon source. To investigate nitrogen removal performance of anammox in presence of organic carbon source can broaden its application on organic wastewater treatment. In this work, effect of carbon source on anammox process was explored. Operating temperature was set at 35 ± 1°C. Influent pH and hydraulic retention time were 7.5 and 6 h, respectively. Effluent [Formula: see text] was affected little with COD no more than 480 mg/L. Independent of carbon source content, nitrite removal rate was around 99%. The variation of [Formula: see text] lagged behind [Formula: see text] at high COD content, and pH could be used as an indicator for [Formula: see text] removal. Specific anammox activity dropped from 0.39 to 0.19  [Formula: see text] at COD=720 mg/L. The remodified logistic model was quite appropriate for describing the nitrogen removal kinetics and predicting the performance of anammox process in presence of carbon source.

  11. Evaluation of COD effect on anammox process and microbial communities in the anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR).

    PubMed

    Chen, Chongjun; Sun, Faqian; Zhang, Haiqing; Wang, Jianfang; Shen, Yaoliang; Liang, Xinqiang

    2016-09-01

    Nitrogen removal with different organic carbon effect was investigated using anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) anammox reactor. Results indicated that organic carbon exert an important effect on nitrogen removal through anammox process. When the feeding COD concentration was lower than 99.7mgL(-1), nitrogen removal could be enhanced via the coexistence of denitrification and anammox. Elevated COD could further deteriorate the anammox activity with almost complete inhibition at the COD concentration of 284.1mgL(-1). The nitrogen removal contribution rate of anammox was varied from 92.7% to 6.9%. However, the anammox activity was recovered when the COD/TN was decreased from 2.33 to 1.25 with influent nitrite addition. And, the anammox process was again intensified from 27.0 to 51.2%. High-throughput Miseq sequencing analyses revealed that the predominant phylum changed from Chloroflexi to Proteobacteria with the elevated COD addition, which indicated COD concentration was the most important factor regulating the bacterial community structure.

  12. The effect of free nitrous acid on key anaerobic processes in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems.

    PubMed

    Ye, Liu; Pijuan, Maite; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2013-02-01

    In this study, the effect of nitrite/FNA on the anaerobic metabolism of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) is investigated. The results clearly show that FNA has a detrimental effect on the acetate uptake rate by both PAOs and GAOs, but this adverse effect is much stronger on PAOs than on GAOs. Also, when FNA was increased, phosphate release to acetate uptake ratio by PAOs increased substantially (250-300% compared to control), which was accompanied by decreases (40-60%) in glycogen degradation and PHA production to VFA uptake. In contrast, these ratios for GAOs remained constant or increased slightly towards the highest FNA concentration applied. These results indicate that the anaerobic metabolism of PAOs is more adversely affected than that of GAOs when FNA is present. This might provide a competitive advantage to GAOs over PAOs in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems when nitrite is present. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of multiple inhibitory components on anaerobic treatment processes in municipal solid waste incineration leachate.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yuqing; Dang, Yan; Lan, Zhangheng; Sun, Dezhi

    2016-06-01

    This study served to investigate the comparative and combined effects of calcium, ammonia nitrogen, and aquatic humic substances (AHS) on specific methanogenic activity (SMA) in municipal solid waste leachate at mesophilic conditions. Using orthogonal experiments, anaerobic granular sludge was cultured with different concentrations combinations of the three added components for 13 days. The combination of 6000 mg/L calcium, 400 mg/L ammonia nitrogen, and 4000 mg/L AHS was the most inhibitory combination on the SMA of granular sludge, with a calculated 4.49 mL (standard temperature and atmospheric pressure) (STP) CH4/(gVSS·d) of SMA. The SMA with the addition of the inhibitory components was much lower than the control group's (1000 mg/L calcium, 200 mg/L ammonia nitrogen and 2000 mg/L AHS) with a calculated 12.97 mL (STP) CH4/(gVSS·d) of SMA. Calcium was the major inhibitor among the three components followed by AHS. High concentrations of calcium significantly inhibited the utilization of propionate and butyrate in the substrate and further affected the methanogenic process.

  14. Effects of aerobic and anaerobic biological processes on leaching of heavy metals from soil amended with sewage sludge compost.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wen; Wei, Yonghong; Liu, Jianguo; Kosson, David S; van der Sloot, Hans A; Zhang, Peng

    2016-12-01

    The risk from leaching of heavy metals is a major factor hindering land application of sewage sludge compost (SSC). Understanding the change in heavy metal leaching resulting from soil biological processes provides important information for assessing long-term behavior of heavy metals in the compost amended soil. In this paper, 180days aerobic incubation and 240days anaerobic incubation were conducted to investigate the effects of the aerobic and anaerobic biological processes on heavy metal leaching from soil amended with SSC, combined with chemical speciation modeling. Results showed that leaching concentrations of heavy metals at natural pH were similar before and after biological process. However, the major processes controlling heavy metals were influenced by the decrease of DOC with organic matter mineralization during biological processes. Mineralization of organic matter lowered the contribution of DOC-complexation to Ni and Zn leaching. Besides, the reducing condition produced by biological processes, particularly by the anaerobic biological process, resulted in the loss of sorption sites for As on Fe hydroxide, which increased the potential risk of As release at alkaline pH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Innovative two-stage anaerobic process for effective codigestion of cheese whey and cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Lorenzo; Grilli, Selene; Spagni, Alessandro; Fava, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The valorisation of agroindustrial waste through anaerobic digestion represents a significant opportunity for refuse treatment and renewable energy production. This study aimed to improve the codigestion of cheese whey (CW) and cattle manure (CM) by an innovative two-stage process, based on concentric acidogenic and methanogenic phases, designed for enhancing performance and reducing footprint. The optimum CW to CM ratio was evaluated under batch conditions. Thereafter, codigestion was implemented under continuous-flow conditions comparing one- and two-stage processes. The results demonstrated that the addition of CM in codigestion with CW greatly improved the anaerobic process. The highest methane yield was obtained co-treating the two substrates at equal ratio by using the innovative two-stage process. The proposed system reached the maximum value of 258 mL(CH4) g(gv(-1), which was more than twice the value obtained by the one-stage process and 10% higher than the value obtained by the two-stage one.

  16. Modelling inhibitory effects of long chain fatty acids in the anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Zonta, Z; Alves, M M; Flotats, X; Palatsi, J

    2013-03-01

    Mathematical modelling of anaerobic digestion process has been used to give new insights regarding dynamics of the long chain fatty acids (LCFA) inhibition. Previously published experimental data, including batch tests with clay mineral bentonite additions, were used for parameter identification. New kinetics were considered to describe the bio-physics of the inhibitory process, including: i) adsorption of LCFA over granular biomass and ii) specific LCFA substrate (saturated/unsaturated) and LCFA-degrading populations. Furthermore, iii) a new variable was introduced to describe the state of damage of the acetoclastic methanogens in order to account for the loss of cell-functionality (inhibition) induced by the adsorbed LCFAs. The proposed model modifications are state compatible and easy to be integrated into the International Water Association's Anaerobic Digestion Model N°1 (ADM1) framework. Practical identifiability of model parameters was assessed with a global sensitivity analysis, while calibration and model structure validation were performed on independent data sets. A reliable simulation of the LCFA-inhibition process can be achieved, if the model includes the description of the adsorptive nature of the LCFAs and the LCFA-damage over specific biomass. The importance of microbial population structure (saturated/unsaturated LCFA-degraders) and the high sensitivity of acetoclastic population to LCFA are evidenced, providing a plausible explanation of experimental based hypothesis.

  17. Processing anaerobic sludge for extended storage as anaerobic digester inoculum.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiajia; Zicari, Steven M; Cui, Zongjun; Zhang, Ruihong

    2014-08-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic sludge was processed to reduce the volume and moisture content in order to reduce costs for storing and transporting the sludge as microbial inoculum for anaerobic digester startup. The moisture content of the sludge was reduced from 98.7% to 82.0% via centrifugation and further to 71.5% via vacuum evaporation. The processed sludge was stored for 2 and 4 months and compared with the fresh sludge for the biogas and methane production using food waste and non-fat dry milk as substrates. It was found that fresh unprocessed sludge had the highest methane yield and the yields of both unprocessed and processed sludges decreased during storage by 1-34%, however processed sludges seemed to regain some activity after 4 months of storage as compared to samples stored for only 2 months. Maximum methane production rates obtained from modified Gompertz model application also increased between the 2-month and 4-month processed samples.

  18. POLISHING THE EFFLUENT FROM AN ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL PERCHLORATE TREATMENT PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic biological processes effectively reduce perchlorate to chloride. However, the effluent can be biologically unstable, high in particulates and high in disinfection by-product precursor compounds. Such an effluent would be unsuitable for transmission into a drinking water...

  19. POLISHING THE EFFLUENT FROM AN ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL PERCHLORATE TREATMENT PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic biological processes effectively reduce perchlorate to chloride. However, the effluent can be biologically unstable, high in particulates and high in disinfection by-product precursor compounds. Such an effluent would be unsuitable for transmission into a drinking water...

  20. [Effect of different volume loading of aerobic/anaerobic zone on nitrogen and phosphorus removal by biofilm and granular sludge coupling process].

    PubMed

    Yin, Hang; Liu, Chang; Gao, Hui; Gao, Da-Wen

    2014-05-01

    The effect of different aerobic/anaerobic zone volume loading on nitrogen and phosphorus removal by biological film and granular coupling process was investigated using a self-designed Biofilm/Granular sludge coupling reactor. Three operating modes were conducted in the experiment. In operating mode I ,the volume of aerobic zone was 9. 66 L, and the volume of anaerobic zone was 15. 34 L. In operating mode II , the volume of aerobic zone was 12. 56 L, and the volume of anaerobic zone was 12. 44 L. In operating mode III , the volume of aerobic zone was 15.42 L, and the volume of anaerobic zone was 9.58 L. Three operating modes expressed different volume loading of the reactor because of different aerobic/anaerobic zone. The results showed that the performance of ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus removal was a bit poor in operating mode I , the effluent nitrate nitrogen was higher in operating mode III compared with other modes, which brought the total nitrogen removal efficiency lower. The operating mode II was optimal for nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In operating mode II , the ammonia nitrogen removal efficiency was about 80. 63% , the volume loading rate of nitrogen removal was about 150. 27 g(m3 d)-1, and the COD removal efficiency was higher than 83.24%; the amounts of phosphorus release and uptake under anaerobic conditions were 7. 23 mg L-1 and 11. 93 mg L-1.

  1. Robust regulation of anaerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Mailleret, L; Bernard, O; Steyer, J P

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of controlling anaerobic digestion processes. A two-step (i.e. acidogenesis-methanization) mass balance model is considered for a 1 m3 fixed bed digester treating industrial wine distillery wastewater. The control law aims at regulating the organic pollution level while avoiding washout of biomass. To this end, a simple output feedback controller is considered which regulates a variable strongly related to the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Numerical simulations assuming noisy measurements first illustrate the robustness of this control procedure. Then, the regulating procedure is implemented on the considered anaerobic digestion process in order to validate and demonstrate its efficiency in real life experiments.

  2. Anammox for nitrogen removal from anaerobically pre-treated municipal wastewater: Effect of COD/N ratios on process performance and bacterial community structure.

    PubMed

    Leal, Cíntia Dutra; Pereira, Alyne Duarte; Nunes, Fernando Terra; Ferreira, Luísa Ornelas; Coelho, Aline Carolina Cirilo; Bicalho, Sarah Kinaip; Mac Conell, Erika F Abreu; Ribeiro, Thiago Bressani; de Lemos Chernicharo, Carlos Augusto; de Araújo, Juliana Calábria

    2016-07-01

    Long-term effects of COD/N ratios on the nitrogen removal performance and bacterial community of an anammox reactor were evaluated by adding a synthetic medium (with glucose) and real anaerobic effluent to a SBR. At a COD/N ratio of 2.8 (COD, 390mg·L(-1)) ammonium removal efficiency was 66%, while nitrite removal remained high (99%). However, at a COD/N ratio of 5.0 (COD, 300mg·L(-1)), ammonium and nitrite removal efficiencies were high (84% and 99%, respectively). High COD, nitrite, and ammonium removal efficiencies (80%, 90% and 95%, respectively) were obtained on adding anaerobically pre-treated municipal wastewater (with nitrite) to the reactor. DGGE revealed that the addition of anaerobic effluent changed the bacterial community structure and selected for DNA sequences related to Brocadia sinica and Chloroflexi. Adding glucose and anaerobic effluent increased denitrifiers concentration threefold. Thus, the possibility of using the anammox process to remove nitrogen from anaerobically pre-treated municipal wastewater was demonstrated.

  3. Inhibitory Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Removal of Organic Pollutants and Sulfate in an Anaerobic Biological Wastewater Treatment Process.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Kashif; Lee, Dae Sung

    2016-05-01

    The increasing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in commercial products and industrial processes raises issues regarding the toxicity of sludge biomass in biological wastewater treatment plants, due to potential antimicrobial properties. This study investigated the effects of AgNPs on removal of organic pollutants and sulfate in an anaerobic biological sulfate reduction process. At AgNPs concentrations of up to 10 mg/L, no significant inhibition of sulfate and COD removal was observed. However, at higher concentrations (50-200 mg/L) sulfate and COD removal efficiencies were significantly decreased to 51.8% and 33.6%, respectively. Sulfate and COD reduction followed first-order kinetics at AgNPs concentrations of up to 10 mg/L and second-order kinetics at AgNPs concentrations of 50-200 mg/L. Lactate dehydrogenase release profiles showed increases in cytotoxicity at AgNPs concentrations greater than 50 mg/L suggesting cell membrane disruption. Analysis of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from sulfidogenic sludge biomass and of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra showed a decrease in concentrations of carbohydrates, proteins, humic substances, and lipids in the presence of AgNPs. Moreover, the interaction of AgNPs with sludge biomass and the damage caused to cell walls were confirmed through scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  4. Effects of different garlic-derived allyl sulfides on peroxidative processes and anaerobic sulfur metabolism in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Iciek, Małgorzata B; Kowalczyk-Pachel, Danuta; Kwiecień, Inga; Dudek, Magdalena B

    2012-03-01

    Biological activity of garlic has been attributed to organosulfur compounds, most of all to oil-soluble allyl sulfides, such as diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS) and diallyl trisulfide (DATS). This study evaluated the effectiveness of garlic-derived allyl sulfides in influencing peroxidative processes, levels of thiols and sulfane sulfur and its metabolic enzymes in normal mouse liver cells. Various allyl sulfides (DAS, DADS and DATS) dissolved in corn oil were given intraperitoneally to mice for 10 days. After sacrificing the mice, biochemical assays were performed in liver homogenates and in plasma in order to establish liver function. All allyl sulfides under study had a beneficial effect in the mouse liver since they decreased reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde levels and increased glutathione S-transferase activity and non-protein sulfhydryl group level. Moreover, DADS and DATS elevated total sulfane sulfur pool and activity of sulfane sulfur biosynthetic enzymes. The increase in sulfane sulfur level entailed augmentation of its antioxidant and regulatory capacities. Garlic-derived allyl sulfides exhibited antioxidant action in the liver and elevated anaerobic cysteine metabolism leading to the formation of sulfane sulfur-containing compounds. Thus, DADS and DATS showed beneficial action in the liver, which can be used for protection of normal liver cells during chemotherapy or for alleviation of liver damage. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Effects of freeze-thaw cycles on anaerobic microbial processes in an Arctic intertidal mud flat.

    PubMed

    Sawicka, Joanna E; Robador, Alberto; Hubert, Casey; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Brüchert, Volker

    2010-04-01

    Insight into the effects of repeated freezing and thawing on microbial processes in sediments and soils is important for understanding sediment carbon cycling at high latitudes acutely affected by global warming. Microbial responses to repeated freeze-thaw conditions were studied in three complementary experiments using arctic sediment collected from an intertidal flat that is exposed to seasonal freeze-thaw conditions (Ymerbukta, Svalbard, Arctic Ocean). The sediment was subjected to oscillating freeze-thaw incubations, either gradual, from -5 to 4 degrees C, or abrupt, from -20 to 10 degrees C. Concentrations of low-molecular weight carboxylic acids (volatile fatty acids) were measured and sulfate reduction was assessed by measuring (35)S sulfate reduction rates (SRRs). Gradual freeze-thaw incubation decreased microbial activity in the frozen state to 0.25 % of initial levels at 4 degrees C, but activity resumed rapidly reaching >60 % of initial activity in the thawed state. Exposure of sediments to successive large temperature changes (-20 versus 10 degrees C) decreased SRR by 80% of the initial activity, suggesting that a fraction of the bacterial community recovered rapidly from extreme temperature fluctuations. This is supported by 16S rRNA gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles that revealed persistence of the dominant microbial taxa under repeated freeze-thaw cycles. The fast recovery of the SRRs suggests that carbon mineralization in thawing arctic sediment can resume without delay or substantial growth of microbial populations.

  6. Hybrid modelling of anaerobic wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Karama, A; Bernard, O; Genovesi, A; Dochain, D; Benhammou, A; Steyer, J P

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid approach for the modelling of an anaerobic digestion process. The hybrid model combines a feed-forward network, describing the bacterial kinetics, and the a priori knowledge based on the mass balances of the process components. We have considered an architecture which incorporates the neural network as a static model of unmeasured process parameters (kinetic growth rate) and an integrator for the dynamic representation of the process using a set of dynamic differential equations. The paper contains a description of the neural network component training procedure. The performance of this approach is illustrated with experimental data.

  7. Decolorization of anthraquinone dye intermediate and its accelerating effect on reduction of azo acid dyes by Sphingomonas xenophaga in anaerobic-aerobic process.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hong; Zhou, Jiti; Wang, Jing; Ai, Haixin; Zheng, Chunli; Yang, Yusuo

    2008-09-01

    Decolorization of 1-aminoanthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid (ASA-2) and its accelerating effect on the reduction of azo acid dyes by Sphingomonas xenophaga QYY were investigated. The study showed that ASA-2 could be efficiently decolorized by strain QYY under aerobic conditions according to the analysis of total organic carbon removal and UV-VIS spectra changes. Moreover, strain QYY was able to reduce azo acid dyes under anaerobic conditions. The effects of various operating conditions such as carbon sources, temperature, and pH on the reduction rate were studied. It was demonstrated that ASA-2 used as a redox mediator could accelerate the reduction process. Consequently the reduction of azo acid dyes mediated by ASA-2 and the decolorization of ASA-2 with strain QYY could be achieved in an anaerobic-aerobic process.

  8. Modelling sodium inhibition on the anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Hierholtzer, A; Akunna, J C

    2012-01-01

    Sodium is a known process inhibitor in anaerobic systems and impacts on methanogens through an increase of osmotic pressure or complete dehydration of microorganisms. In this study, a combination of experimental and modelling approaches has been employed to determine and simulate sodium inhibition on the anaerobic digestion process. The ADM1, which has been successfully used in modelling anaerobic processes, has been modified to include an extra inhibition function that considers the effect of sodium on acetoclastic methanogens and the impact on biogas production and composition. A non-competitive inhibition function was added to the rate of acetate uptake for the model to take into account sodium toxicity. Experimental studies consisted of both batch and reactor tests to obtain parameters for model calibration and validation. The calibrated model was used to predict the effect of ammonia nitrogen on sodium toxicity. It was found that relatively low sodium levels can bring about significant levels of process inhibition in the presence of high levels of ammonia. On the other hand, where the concentration of ammonia is relatively low, the tolerance threshold for sodium ions increases. Hence, care must be taken in the use of sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment during anaerobic digestion of protein-rich substrates.

  9. Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

  10. [Sulfa-drug wastewater treatment with anaerobic/aerobic process].

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Zhang, H; Zhu, H; Zhang, Z; Zhuang, Y; Dai, S

    2001-09-01

    Sulfa drug wastewater was treated with anaerobic/aerobic process. The removal ratios of TOC reached about 50% in anaerobic phase and about 70% in aerobic phase respectively, while volume loading rate of TOC was about 1.2 kg/(m3.d) in anaerobic phase and about 0.6 kg/(m3.d) in aerobic phase. Removal of TOC in anaerobic phase was attributed to the reduction of sulfate.

  11. Process and design considerations for the anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Shrivastava, S.R.; Bastuk, B.

    1993-12-31

    Full scale experience exists and justifies implementing anaerobic digestion for pretreatment of high strength industrial waste water and side streams. Anaerobic treatment of sludge and manure have demonstrated cost effective, environmentally sound treatment of these wastes. Recent attention has focused on the potential for anaerobically treating high solids municipal solid wastes to assist in meeting state waste reduction goals and provide a new renewable source of energy. This paper focuses on the fundamental facility design and process protocol considerations necessary for a high solids anaerobic digesting facility. The primary design and equipment considerations are being applied to a 5 to 10 ton per day demonstration anaerobic digestion facility in Bergen, New York.

  12. Effect of pH on phosphine production and the fate of phosphorus during anaerobic process with granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lili; Wang, Xiaorong; Zhu, Yixin; Edwards, Marc; Glindemann, Dietmar; Ren, Hongqiang

    2005-03-01

    The effect of pH on phosphine formation during anaerobic cultivation of granular sludge was investigated. The sludge was taken from full-scale anaerobic reactors treating brewery wastewater. Acetate and phosphate were used as the carbon source and phosphorus source respectively. After 10 days cultivation in the dark, results showed that acidic conditions were more favorable for free phosphine production. At pH 5, the optimum concentration 86.42 ng PH3 m-3 of free phosphine was obtained. The level at pH 7 was reduced to 18.53 ng PH3 m-3, about 1/5 of the maximum. The maximum concentration of matrix-bound phosphine of 3.30 ng PH3 kg-1 wet sludge was achieved at pH 6. More than 83% of the total phosphine was matrix-bound phosphine, which accounted for 0.003-0.009 per thousand of the phosphate removal, while free phosphine comprised 0.00002-0.001 per thousand of the phosphate removal. Most of the phosphorus removal from solution was turned into chemical precipitation or was adsorbed by sludge. The mechanism of the phosphate reduction-step in the formation of phosphine production is still unknown. The promotion of phosphine formation by low pH is compatible with an acidic bio-corrosion mechanism of metal particles in the sludge or of metal phosphides which form phosphine at low pH.

  13. Pulse power enhancement of the anaerobic digester process

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, H.W.

    1996-12-31

    A pilot study of the effects of Pulse Power Processing on an anaerobic digester system was completed at the Decatur Utilities Dry Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant, in Decatur Alabama, in September, 1995. This patented method generates several significant effects when all biosolids material is treated as it enters the anaerobic system. Intense, high peak-power plasma arcs are created, one at each end of the parabolic processing chamber, to produce an amplified synergy of alterations to the digester sludge flowing between them. The millisecond electric discharges generate localized temperatures as high as 30,000 K{degrees}, followed by a rapid cooling of the flowing liquid, which produces acoustic shock waves with pressures approaching 5,000 atmospheres. This destructive force: ruptures many of the cell walls of the bacteria and other single-cell organisms, releasing their vacuole fluids; breaks carbon bonds to form smaller organic compounds; and pulverizes large particle conglomerates, increasing the overall surface area of the solids. These beneficial results serve to boost the nutrient source for the anaerobes in the digester. In conjunction with LTV radiation, the formation of excited chemical radicals (including OH{sup -}), and the changes in ionic charge through alteration of the zeta potential, the bioreactor system is turbocharged to enhance the conversion of volatile biosolids to methane gas, which is the natural respiratory by-product of anaerobic digestion.

  14. The effect of polymer addition on granulation in an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR). Part I: process performance.

    PubMed

    Uyanik, S; Sallis, P J; Anderson, G K

    2002-02-01

    The stability and performance of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) treating an ice-cream wastewater at several organic loading rates have been investigated. Specifically, it was determined whether an ABR would promote phase separation and if a polymer additive was capable of enhancing granule formation in an ABR. In order to achieve these goals, two ABRs, having identical dimensions and configurations, were used to study the above objectives using a synthetic ice-cream wastewater. The ABR proved to be an efficient reactor configuration for the treatment of a high-strength synthetic ice-cream wastewater. An organic loading rate of around 15 kg CODm(-3) d(-1) was treated with a 99% COD removal efficiency. From the jar test and inhibition assay, it was concluded that Kymene SLX-2 was the most effective and least inhibitory polymer tested. The methane yield was higher in the polymer-amended reactor compared to the control reactor. In addition, polymer addition resulted in a considerably higher degree of biomass retention and lower solids washout from the ABR. Consequently, it demonstrated that there was a considerable potential for sludge conditioning in ABRs by facilitating better biomass retention within the reactor which in turn led to better process performance. Granulation was achieved in both ABRs within 3 months. However, the granules from the polymer-amended reactor appeared earlier and were generally larger and more compact, although this was not quantified in detail during the present study. The main advantage of using an ABR comes from its compartmentalised structure. The first compartment of an ABR may act as a buffer zone to all toxic and inhibitory material in the feed thus allowing the later compartments to be loaded with a relatively harmless, balanced and mostly acidified influent. In this respect, the latter compartments would be more likely to support active populations of the relatively sensitive methanogenic bacteria and partly explains why the

  15. Effect of the Organic Loading Rate Increase and the Presence of Zeolite on Microbial Community Composition and Process Stability During Anaerobic Digestion of Chicken Wastes.

    PubMed

    Ziganshina, Elvira E; Belostotskiy, Dmitry E; Ilinskaya, Olga N; Boulygina, Eugenia A; Grigoryeva, Tatiana V; Ziganshin, Ayrat M

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the effect of the organic loading rate (OLR) increase from 1.0 to 3.5 g VS L(-1) day(-1) at constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 35 days on anaerobic reactors' performance and microbial diversity during mesophilic anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich chicken wastes in the absence/presence of zeolite. The effects of anaerobic process parameters on microbial community structure and dynamics were evaluated using a 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based pyrosequencing approach. Maximum 12 % of the total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) was efficiently removed by zeolite in the fixed zeolite reactor (day 87). In addition, volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the fixed zeolite reactor accumulated in lower concentrations at high OLR of 3.2-3.5 g VS L(-1) day(-1). Microbial communities in the fixed zeolite reactor and reactor without zeolite were dominated by various members of Bacteroidales and Methanobacterium sp. at moderate TAN and VFA levels. The increase of the OLR accompanied by TAN and VFA accumulation and increase in pH led to the predominance of representatives of the family Erysipelotrichaceae and genera Clostridium and Methanosarcina. Methanosarcina sp. reached relative abundances of 94 and 57 % in the fixed zeolite reactor and reactor without zeolite at the end of the experimental period, respectively. In addition, the diminution of Synergistaceae and Crenarchaeota and increase in the abundance of Acholeplasmataceae in parallel with the increase of TAN, VFA, and pH values were observed.

  16. Anaerobic treatment for C and S removal in "zero-discharge" paper mills: effects of process design on S removal efficiencies.

    PubMed

    van Lier, J B; Lens, P N; Pol, L W

    2001-01-01

    Stringent environmental laws in Europe and Northern America lead to the development towards closure of the process water streams in pulp and paper mills. Application of a "zero-discharge" process is already a feasible option for the board and packaging paper industry, provided in-line treatment is applied. Concomitant energy conservation inside the mill results in process water temperatures of 50-60 degrees C. Thermophilic anaerobic treatment complemented with appropriate post-treatment is considered as the most cost-effective solution to meet re-use criteria of the process water and to keep its temperature. In the proposed closed-cycle, the anaerobic treatment step removes the largest fraction of the biodegradable COD and eliminates "S" as H2S from the process stream, without the use of additional chemicals. The anaerobic step is regarded as the only possible location to bleed "S" from the process water cycle. In laboratory experiments, the effect of upward liquid velocity (Vupw) and the specific gas loading rate (Vgas) on the S removal capacity of thermophilic anaerobic bio-reactors was investigated. Acidifying, sulphate reducing sludge bed reactors were fed with partly acidified synthetic paper mill wastewater and were operated at 55 degrees C and pH 6. The reactors were operated at organic loading rates up to 50 g COD.l-1.day-1 at COD/SO4(2-) ratios of 10. The effect of Vupw was researched by comparing the performance of a UASB reactor operated at 1.0 m.h-1 and an EGSB reactor, operated at 6.8 m.h-1. The Vupw had a strong effect on the fermentation patterns. In the UASB reactor, acidification yielded H2, acetate and propionate, leading to an accumulation of reducing equivalents. These were partly disposed of by the production of n-butyrate and n-valerate from propionate. In the EGSB reactor net acetate consumption was observed as well as high volumetric gas (CO2 and CH4) production rates. The higher gas production rates in the EGSB reactor resulted in higher S

  17. Two-stage anaerobic digestion of sugar beet silage: The effect of the pH-value on process parameters and process efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kumanowska, Elzbieta; Uruñuela Saldaña, Mariana; Zielonka, Simon; Oechsner, Hans

    2017-09-06

    The study investigated the influence of the target pH-values 4.5, 5, 5.5 and 6 in the acidification reactor on process parameters, such as substrate-specific methane yield and the intermediates, in the two-stage anaerobic digestion of sugar beet silage. The total specific methane yield (Nlkg(-1)CODd(-1)) increased with an increase in the pH (pH 4.5: 140.58±70.08, pH 5: 181.21±55.71, pH 5.5: 218.32±51.01, pH 6: 256.47±28.78). The pH-value also had an effect on the dominant intermediate in hydrolysate. At the pH-value of 4.5, almost no acidification and microbial activity was observed. At pH 5 and 5.5, butyric acid production dominated, guided by H2 production. At pH 6 acetic acid was the main product. The absence of H2 and the highest SMY makes it favorable under practical aspects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of metal salt addition on odor and process stability during the anaerobic digestion of municipal waste sludge.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Timothy; Eskicioglu, Cigdem

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an effective way to recover energy and nutrients from organic waste; however, several issues including the solubilization of bound nutrients and the production of corrosive, highly odorous and toxic volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in AD biogas can limit its wider adoption. This study explored the effects of adding two different doses of ferric chloride, aluminum sulfate and magnesium hydroxide directly to the feed of complete mix semi-continuously fed mesophilic ADs on eight of the most odorous VSCs in AD biogas at three different organic loading rates (OLR). Ferric chloride was shown to be extremely effective in reducing VSCs by up to 87%, aluminum sulfate had the opposite effect and increased VSC levels by up to 920%, while magnesium hydroxide was not shown to have any significant impact. Ferric chloride, aluminum sulfate and magnesium hydroxide were effective in reducing the concentration of orthophosphate in AD effluent although both levels of alum addition caused digester failure at elevated OLRs. Extensive foaming was observed within the magnesium hydroxide dosed digesters, particularly at higher doses and high OLRs. Certain metal salt additions may be a valuable tool in overcoming barriers to AD and to meet regulatory targets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anaerobic digestion of tannery waste: semi-continuous and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor processes.

    PubMed

    Zupancic, Gregor D; Jemec, A

    2010-01-01

    Disposal of the vast amounts of tannery waste that are currently generated is a significant problem. Anaerobic treatment of different types of tannery waste (fleshings, skin trimmings and wastewater sludge) was investigated. The biochemical methane potential is the same at 37 degrees C or 55 degrees C and an assay of this was shown to be an appropriate screening tool with which to estimate the susceptibility of a substrate to anaerobic digestion. The start-up procedure of a tannery waste thermophilic anaerobic digestion in 100 days using seed from mesophilic digester processing municipal sludge is presented. The specific methane production potential at 55 degrees C is estimated to be 0.617 m(3)kg(-1) of volatile suspended solids for tannery waste sludge, 0.377 m(3)kg(-1) for tannery waste trimmings and 0.649 m(3)kg(-1) for tannery waste fleshings. Additional concerns such as chromium content, salinity and temperature fluctuations were also addressed. Chromium content and salinity showed no adverse effects; however a reactor temperature reduction of 4.4 degrees C led to a drop in biogas production of 25%, indicating a requirement to keep the temperature constant at 55 degrees C.

  20. A novel application of an anaerobic membrane process in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    You, H S; Tseng, C C; Peng, M J; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Peng, S H

    2005-01-01

    The applications of membrane processes in anaerobic biological wastewater treatment still have some limitations due to severe membrane scaling and fouling, although they have been proven to achieve superior COD removal and biomass retention. An innovative anaerobic membrane process for wastewater treatment was conducted to control the membrane scaling problems. The process comprises an anaerobic reactor, an aerobic reactor, and a membrane separation tank. Anaerobic sludge from a full-scale UASB reactor treating food wastewater was inoculated to anaerobic and aerobic reactor to purify synthetic wastewater consisting of glucose and sodium acetate. The anaerobic reactor was operated in a sludge bed type without three-phase separator. The aerobic reactor can eliminate residual organics from the anaerobic reactor effluent using facultative microorganisms. To provide solid-liquid separation, hollow fiber ultrafiltration module was submerged in the separation tank. The results clearly show that the anaerobic membrane process combined methanogenic and aerobic COD reduction is a stable system. No fatal scaling was found after two months of operation even without chemical cleaning for the membrane. It was also found that inorganic precipitates formed in the aerobic reactor were reduced due to CO2 stripping in aerobic reactor. Another important finding was that the inorganic precipitates were entrapped into facultative aerobes floc. The ash/SS ratio of aerobes floc increased from 0.17 to 0.55 after 50 days of operation, which confirms this phenomenon. Based on our investigation, the new process can control scaling effectively to extend the membrane application in anaerobic treatment.

  1. EFFECT OF MUSIC ON ANAEROBIC EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST) under 3 conditions on separate days: while listening to “slow rhythm music”, “fast rhythm music” or “no music”. 48 hours after the subjects completed RAST under 3 conditions, Wingate Anaerobic Power (WAN) tests were performed under 3 music conditions. The order of the 3 conditions (slow music, fast music and no music) was selected randomly to prevent an order effect. Results showed no significant differences between 3 conditions in anaerobic power assessments, heart rate or blood lactate (p > 0.05). On the basis of these results it can be said that music cannot improve anaerobic performance. The type of music had no impact on power outputs during RAST and WAN exercise. As a conclusion, listening to music and its rhythm cannot enhance anaerobic performance and cannot change the physiological response to supramaximal exercise. PMID:24744463

  2. An innovative intermittent-vacuum assisted thermophilic anaerobic digestion process for effective animal manure utilization and treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Renchuan; Anderson, Erik; Addy, Min; Deng, Xiangyuan; Kabir, Fayal; Lu, Qian; Ma, Yiwei; Cheng, Yanling; Liu, Yuhuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2017-11-01

    Intermittent-vacuum stripping (IVS) was developed as a pretreatment for thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD) to improve methanogenesis and hydrolysis activity through preventing free ammonia and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) inhibition from liquid swine manure (LSM). Over 98% of ammonia and 38% organic nitrogen were removed in 60min from 55°C to 85°C with vacuum pressure (from 100.63±3.79mmHg to 360.91±7.39mmHg) at initial pH 10.0 by IVS. Thermophilic methanogenesis and hydrolysis activity of pretreated LSM increased 52.25% (from 11.56±1.75% to 17.60±0.49%) in 25days and 40% (from 10days to 6days) in bio-methane potential assay. Over 80% H2S and total nitrogen were removed by IVS assistance, while around 70% nitrogen was recycled as ammonium sulfate. Therefore, IVS-TAD combination could be an effective strategy to improve TAD efficiency, whose elution is more easily utilized in algae cultivation and/or hydroponic system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Benzalkonium Chloride, Proxel LV, P3 Hypochloran, Triton X-100 and DOWFAX 63N10 on anaerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Flores, German Antonio Enriquez; Fotidis, Ioannis A; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Kjellberg, Kasper; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the individual and synergistic toxicity of the following xenobiotics: Benzalkonium Chloride (BKC), Proxel LV (PRX), P3 Hypochloran (HPC), Triton X-100 (TRX), and DOWFAX 63N10 (DWF), on anaerobic digestion (AD) process, was assessed. The experiments were performed in batch and continuous (up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB) reactors with biochemical-industrial wastewater, as substrate. In batch experiments, half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for the tested xenobiotics were found to be 13.1, 1003, 311.5 and 24.3 mg L(-1) for BKC, PRX, DWF and TRX, respectively while HPC did not affect the AD process. Furthermore, the xenobiotics mixture tested did not present any synergistic inhibitory effect on the AD process. In continuous experiments, BKC and xenobiotics' mixture induced even stronger (more than 85%) of inhibition, expressed as IC50, compared to the levels observed from the batch reactors. Oppositely, TRX showed no inhibition in continuous mode, while inhibition was detected at batch mode.

  4. Effect of nitrate on anaerobic azo dye reduction.

    PubMed

    Cirik, Kevser; Kitiş, Mehmet; Çinar, Özer

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of nitrate on anaerobic color removal efficiencies. For this aim, anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) fed with a simulated textile effluent including Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R azo dye was operated with a total cycle time of 12 h, including anaerobic (6 h) and aerobic cycles (6 h). Microorganism grown under anaerobic phase of the reactor was exposed to different amounts of competitive electron acceptor (nitrate) and performance of the system was determined by monitoring color removal efficiency, nitrate removal, nitrite formation and removal, oxidation reduction potential, color removal rate, chemical oxygen demand (COD), specific anaerobic enzyme (azo reductase) and aerobic enzyme (catechol 1,2 dioxygenase), and formation and removal of aromatic amines. Variations of population dynamics of microorganisms exposed to various amount of nitrate were identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). It was found that nitrate has adverse effect on anaerobic color removal efficiency and color removal was achieved after denitrification process was completed. It was found that nitrate stimulates the COD removal efficiency and accelerates the COD removal in the first hour of anaerobic phase. About 90 % total COD removal efficiencies were achieved in which microorganism exposed to increasing amount of nitrate. Population dynamics of microorganisms exposed to various amount of nitrate were changed and diversity was increased.

  5. Effect of Cambi Thermal Hydrolysis Process-Anaerobic digestion treatment on concentrations on phthalate plasticisers in wastewater sludge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The impact of the recently implemented Cambi Thermal Hydrolysis Process™-Anaerobic Digestion (TH-AD) solids treatment method on concentrations of 4 phthalate plasticisers in wastewater sludge samples was explored in this study. Samples were analysed for diisononyl phthalate (DiNP), diisodecyl phthal...

  6. Effects of internal recycling time mode and hydraulic retention time on biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal in a sequencing anoxic/anaerobic membrane bioreactor process.

    PubMed

    Song, Kyung-Guen; Cho, Jinwoo; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of internal recycling time mode and hydraulic retention time (HRT) on nutrient removal in the sequencing anoxic/anaerobic membrane bioreactor process. Denitrification and phosphorus release were reciprocally dependent on the anoxic/anaerobic time ratio (Ax/An). As Ax/An increased, nitrogen removal rate increased but phosphorus removal rate decreased. The increasing Ax/An provided the longer denitrification period so that the organic substrate were consumed more for denitrification rather than phosphorus release in the limited condition of readily biodegradable substrate. Decreasing HRT increased both nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency because as HRT decreased, food-to-microorganism loading ratio increased and thus enhanced the biological capacity and activity of denitrifying bacteria. This could be verified from the observation mixed liquor suspended solids concentration and specific denitrification rate. The change of Ax/An and HRT affected phosphorus removal more than nitrogen removal due to the limitation of favourable carbon source for phosphorus accumulating organisms.

  7. The effect of the uremic toxin cyanate (CNO⁻) on anaerobic cysteine metabolism and oxidative processes in the rat liver: a protective effect of lipoate.

    PubMed

    Sokołowska, Maria; Niedzielska, Ewa; Iciek, Małgorzata; Bilska, Anna; Lorenc-Koci, Elżbieta; Włodek, Lidia

    2011-07-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) patients have an increased plasma level of urea, which can be a source of cyanate. This compound can cause protein carbamoylation thereby changing biological activity of proteins. Therefore, in renal failure patients, cyanate can disturb metabolism and functioning of the liver. This work presents studies demonstrating that the treatment of rats with cyanate alone causes the following changes in the liver: (1) inhibition of rhodanese (TST), cystathionase (CST) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfotransferase (MPST) activities, (2) decrease in sulfane sulfur level (S*), (3) lowering of nonprotein sulfhydryl groups (NPSH) group level, and (4) enhancement of prooxidant processes (rise in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) level). This indicates that cyanate inhibits anaerobic cysteine metabolism and shows prooxidant action in the liver. Out of the above-mentioned changes, lipoate administered with cyanate jointly was able to correct MDA, ROS and NPSH levels, and TST activity. It had no significant effect on MPST and CST activities. It indicates that lipoate can prevent prooxidant cyanate action and cyanate-induced TST inhibition. These observations can be promising for CRF patients since lipoate can play a dual role in these patients as an efficient antioxidant defense and a protection against cyanate and cyanide toxicity.

  8. Advanced anaerobic processes to enhance waste activated sludge stabilization.

    PubMed

    Braguglia, C M; Carozza, N; Gagliano, M C; Gallipoli, A; Gianico, A; Rossetti, S; Suschka, J; Tomei, M C; Mininni, G

    2014-01-01

    The requirement for enhanced stabilization processes to obtain a more stable, pathogen-free sludge for agricultural use is an increasing challenge to comply with in the waste hierarchy. With this in mind, the Routes European project ('Novel processing routes for effective sewage sludge management') is addressed to assess innovative solutions with the aim of maximizing sludge quality and biological stability. In order to increase anaerobic stabilization performances, the sequential anerobic/aerobic process and the thermophilic digestion process, with or without integration of the thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment, were investigated as regards the effect on sludge stabilization, dewaterability and digestion performances. Thermal pre-treatment improved anaerobic digestion in terms of volatile solids reduction and biogas production, but digestate dewaterability worsened. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) quantification showed an increase of methanogens consistent with the increase of biogas produced. The aerobic post-treatment after mesophilic digestion had a beneficial effect on dewaterability and stability of the digested sludge even if was with a reduction of the potential energy recovery.

  9. Anaerobic

    MedlinePlus

    ... more prolonged exercise like walking or jogging. Anaerobic reactions are faster. We need them during shorter, more intense activities like sprinting. Anaerobic exercise leads to a buildup of lactic acid in our tissues. We need oxygen to remove ...

  10. POLISHING THE EFFLUENT FROM AN ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL PERCHLORATE TREATMENT PROCESS - SLIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic biological processes effectively reduce perchlorate to chloride. However, the effluent can be biologically unstable, high in particulates and high in disinfection by-product precursor compounds. Such an effluent would be unsuitable for transmission into a drinking water...

  11. POLISHING THE EFFLUENT FROM AN ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL PERCHLORATE TREATMENT PROCESS - SLIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic biological processes effectively reduce perchlorate to chloride. However, the effluent can be biologically unstable, high in particulates and high in disinfection by-product precursor compounds. Such an effluent would be unsuitable for transmission into a drinking water...

  12. Characteristics, process parameters, and inner components of anaerobic bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Abdelgadir, Awad; Chen, Xiaoguang; Liu, Jianshe; Xie, Xuehui; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Heng; Liu, Na

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic bioreactor applies the principles of biotechnology and microbiology, and nowadays it has been used widely in the wastewater treatment plants due to their high efficiency, low energy use, and green energy generation. Advantages and disadvantages of anaerobic process were shown, and three main characteristics of anaerobic bioreactor (AB), namely, inhomogeneous system, time instability, and space instability were also discussed in this work. For high efficiency of wastewater treatment, the process parameters of anaerobic digestion, such as temperature, pH, Hydraulic retention time (HRT), Organic Loading Rate (OLR), and sludge retention time (SRT) were introduced to take into account the optimum conditions for living, growth, and multiplication of bacteria. The inner components, which can improve SRT, and even enhance mass transfer, were also explained and have been divided into transverse inner components, longitudinal inner components, and biofilm-packing material. At last, the newly developed special inner components were discussed and found more efficient and productive.

  13. Characteristics, Process Parameters, and Inner Components of Anaerobic Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Abdelgadir, Awad; Chen, Xiaoguang; Liu, Jianshe; Xie, Xuehui; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Heng; Liu, Na

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic bioreactor applies the principles of biotechnology and microbiology, and nowadays it has been used widely in the wastewater treatment plants due to their high efficiency, low energy use, and green energy generation. Advantages and disadvantages of anaerobic process were shown, and three main characteristics of anaerobic bioreactor (AB), namely, inhomogeneous system, time instability, and space instability were also discussed in this work. For high efficiency of wastewater treatment, the process parameters of anaerobic digestion, such as temperature, pH, Hydraulic retention time (HRT), Organic Loading Rate (OLR), and sludge retention time (SRT) were introduced to take into account the optimum conditions for living, growth, and multiplication of bacteria. The inner components, which can improve SRT, and even enhance mass transfer, were also explained and have been divided into transverse inner components, longitudinal inner components, and biofilm-packing material. At last, the newly developed special inner components were discussed and found more efficient and productive. PMID:24672798

  14. Effect of different pH-values on process parameters in two-phase anaerobic digestion of high-solid substrates.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Jonas; Zielonka, Simon; Oechsner, Hans; Lemmer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In many publications, primary fermentation is described as a limiting step in the anaerobic digestion of fibre-rich biomass [Eastman JA, Ferguson JF. Solubilization of particulacte carbon during the anaerobic digeston. J WPCF. 1981;53:352-366; Noike T, Endo G, Chang J, Yaguchi J, Matsumoto J. Characteristics of carbohydrate degradation and the rate-limiting step in anaerobic digestion. Biotechnol Bioeng. 1985;27:1482-1489; Arntz HJ, Stoppok E, Buchholz K. Anaerobic hydroysis of beet pulp-discontiniuous experiments. Biotechnol Lett. 1985;7:113-118]. The microorganisms of the primary fermentation process differ widely from the methanogenic microorganisms [Pohland FG, Ghosh S. Developments in anaerobic stabilization of organic wastes-the two-phase concept. Environ Lett. 1971;1:255-266]. To optimize the biogas process, a separation in two phases is suggested by many authors [Fox P, Pohland GK. Anaerobic treatment applications and fundamentals: substrate specificity during phase separation. Water Environ Res. 1994;66:716-724; Cohen A, Zoetemeyer RJ, van Deursen A, van Andel JG. Anaerobic digestion of glucose with separated acid production and methane formation. Water Res. 1979;13:571-580]. To carry out the examination, a two-phase laboratory-scale biogas plant was established, with a physical phase separation. In previous studies, the regulation of the pH-value during the acid formation was usually carried out by the addition of sodium hydroxide [Cohen A, Zoetemeyer RJ, van Deursen A, van Andel JG. Anaerobic digestion of glucose with separated acid production and methane formation. Water Res. 1979;13:571-580; Ueno Y, Tatara M, Fukui H, Makiuchi T, Goto M, Sode K. Production of hydrogen and methane from organic solid wastes by phase separation of anaerobic process. Bioresour Technol. 2007;98:1861-1865; Zoetemeyer RJ, van den Heuvel JC, Cohen A. pH influence on acidogenic dissimilation of glucose in an anaerobic digestor. Water Res. 1982;16:303-311]. A new technology

  15. A long-term study on the effect of magnetite supplementation in continuous anaerobic digestion of dairy effluent - Enhancement in process performance and stability.

    PubMed

    Baek, Gahyun; Kim, Jaai; Lee, Changsoo

    2016-12-01

    Interspecies electron transfer (IET) between microbial populations with different functions is critical to stable anaerobic digestion. This study, in an attempt to facilitate IET, investigated the effect of magnetite supplementation on the biomethanation of dairy effluent in continuous mode. The magnetite-added reactor (RM) was significantly more resistant and resilient to process imbalance than the reactor run without magnetite addition (RC). RC showed unstable performance with repeated process upsets, but its performance improved to be comparable to that of RM after applying magnetite supplementation. Magnetite was particularly effective in stabilizing a build-up of propionic acid and therefore improving the process robustness and reliability. The enhanced biomethanation in terms of productivity and stability was attributed to the facilitated direct IET (DIET) between exoelectrogens and methanogens via magnetite particles. Methanosaeta was the predominant methanogen group in the experimental reactors and likely played a key role in both DIET-mediated carbon dioxide-reducing and aceticlastic methanogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of acidic pH and presence of metals as parameters in establishing a sulfidogenic process in anaerobic reactor.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Bárbara F; Couto, Pâmela T; Sancinetti, Giselle P; Klein, Bernhard; van Zyl, Dirk; Rodriguez, Renata P

    2016-08-23

    The successful use of anaerobic reactors for bioremediation of acid mine drainage has been shown in systems with neutral pH. However, the choice of an efficient and suitable process for such wastewater must consider the capability of operating at acidic pH and in the presence of metals. This work studies the performance of an anaerobic batch reactor, under conditions of varying initial pH for its efficiencies in sulfate removal and metal precipitation from synthetic acid mine drainage. The chemical oxygen demand/sulfate (COD/SO4(2-)) ratio used was 1.00, with ethanol chosen as the only energy and carbon source. The initial pH of the synthetic drainage was progressively set from 7.0 to 4.0 to make it as close as possible to that of real acid mine drainage. Metals were also added starting with iron, zinc, and finally copper. The effectiveness of sulfate and COD removal from the synthetic acid mine drainage increased as the initial pH was reduced. The sulfate removal increased from 38.5 ± 3.7% to 52.2 ± 3%, while the removal of organic matter started at 91.7 ± 2.4% and ended at 99 ± 1%. These results indicate that the sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) community adapted to lower pH values. The metal removal observed was 88 ± 7% for iron, 98.0 ± 0.5% for zinc and 99 ± 1% for copper. At this stage, an increase in the sulfate removal was observed, which reaches up to 82.2 ± 5.8%. The kinetic parameters for sulfate removal were 0.22 ± 0.04 h(-1) with Fe, 0.26 ± 0.04 h(-1) with Fe and Zn and 0.44 ± 0.04 h(-1) with Fe, Zn, and Cu.

  17. Methane recovery from water hyacinth through anaerobic activated sludge process

    SciTech Connect

    Saraswat, N.; Khanna, P.

    1986-02-01

    The concepts of phase separation, anaerobic activated sludge process, and alkali pretreatment have been incorporated in this investigation with the objective of developing rational and cost-effective designs of diphasic anaerobic activated sludge systems, with and without alkali treatment, for methane recovery from water hyacinth (WH). Evaluation of process kinetics and optimization analyses of laboratory data reveal that a diphasic system with alkali treatment could be designed with an alkali pretreatment step (3.6% Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ + 2.5% Ca(OH)/sub 2/ (w/w) of WH, 24 h duration) followed by an open acid phase (2.1 days HRT) and closed methane reactor with sludge recycle (5.7 days HRT, 7.7 days MCRT) for gas yield of 50 l/kg WH/d at 35-37/sup 0/C. Likewise, a diphasic system without alkali treatment could be designed with an open acid phase (2 days HRT) followed by close methane reactor with sludge recycle (3.2 days HRT, 6 days MCRT) for gas yield of 32.5 l.kg WH/d at 35-37/sup 0/C. Detailed economic analyses bring forth greater cost-efficacy of the diphasic system without alkali treatment and reveal that the advantage accrued in terms of higher gas yield is overshadowed by the cost of chemicals in the diphasic system with alkali treatment.

  18. Methane recovery from water hyacinth through anaerobic activated sludge process

    SciTech Connect

    Savaswat, N.; Khana, P.

    1986-02-01

    The concepts of phase separation, anaerobic activated sludge process, and alkali pretreatment have been incorporated in this investigation with the objective of developing rational and cost-effective designs of diphasic anaerobic activated sludge systems, with and without alkali treatment, for methane recovery from water hyacinth (WH). Evaluation of process kinetics and optimization analyses of laboratory data reveal that a diphasic system with alkali treatment could be designed with an alkali pretreatment step (3.6% Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ + 2.5% Ca(OH)/sub 2/ (w/w) of WH, 24 h duration) followed by an open acid phase (2.1 days HRT) and closed methane reactor with sludge recycle (5.7 days HRT, 7.7 days MCRT) for gas yield of 50 L/kg WH/d at 35-37/sup 0/C. Likewise, a diphasic system without alkali treatment could be designed with an open acid phase (2 days HRT) followed by closed methane reactor with sludge recycle (3.2 days HRT, 6 days MCRT) for gas yield of 32.5 L/kg WH/d at 35-37/sup 0/C. Detailed economic analyses bring forth greater cost-efficacy of the diphasic system without alkali treatment and reveal that the advantage accrued in terms of higher gas yield is overshadowed by the cost of chemicals in the diphasic system with alkali treatment.

  19. Effect of influent C/N ratio on N2O emissions from anaerobic/anoxic/oxic biological nitrogen removal processes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xu; Zheng, Jiaxi; Han, Yunping; Liu, Jianwei; Sun, Jianhui

    2017-09-01

    The problem of producing strong greenhouse gas of nitrous oxide (N2O) from biological nitrogen removal (BNR) process in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) has elicited great concern from various sectors. In this study, three laboratory-scale wastewater treatment systems, with influent C/N ratios of 3.4, 5.4, and 7.5, were set up to study the effect of influent C/N ratio on N2O generation in anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A(2)O) process. Results showed, with the increased influent C/N ratio, N2O generation from both nitrification and denitrification process was decreased, and the N2O-N conversion ratio of the process was obviously reduced from 2.23 to 0.05%. Nitrification rate in oxic section was reduced, while denitrification rate in anaerobic and anoxic section was elevated and the removal efficiency of COD, NH4(+)-N, TN, and TP was enhanced in different extent. As the C/N ratio increased from 3.4 to 7.5, activities of three key denitrifying enzymes of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, and nitrous oxide reductase were increased. Moreover, microorganism analysis indicated that the relative abundance of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were positively correlated with N2O generation, which was reduced from (8.42 ± 3.65) to (3.61 ± 1.66)% and (10.38 ± 4.12) to (4.67 ± 1.62)%, respectively. NosZ gene copy numbers of the A(2)O system were increased from (1.19 ± 0.49) × 10(7) to (2.84 ± 0.54) × 10(8) copies/g MLSS with the influent C/N ratio elevated from 3.4 to 7.5. Hence, appropriate influent C/N condition of A(2)O process could optimize the microbial community structure that simultaneously improve treatment efficiency and decrease the N2O generation.

  20. Effects of free ammonia on volatile fatty acid accumulation and process performance in the anaerobic digestion of two typical bio-wastes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xuchuan; Lin, Jia; Zuo, Jiane; Li, Peng; Li, Xiaoxia; Guo, Xianglin

    2017-05-01

    The effect of free ammonia on volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation and process instability was studied using a lab-scale anaerobic digester fed by two typical bio-wastes: fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) and food waste (FW) at 35°C with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 3.0kg VS/(m(3)·day). The inhibitory effects of free ammonia on methanogenesis were observed due to the low C/N ratio of each substrate (15.6 and 17.2, respectively). A high concentration of free ammonia inhibited methanogenesis resulting in the accumulation of VFAs and a low methane yield. In the inhibited state, acetate accumulated more quickly than propionate and was the main type of accumulated VFA. The co-accumulation of ammonia and VFAs led to an "inhibited steady state" and the ammonia was the main inhibitory substance that triggered the process perturbation. By statistical significance test and VFA fluctuation ratio analysis, the free ammonia inhibition threshold was identified as 45mg/L. Moreover, propionate, iso-butyrate and valerate were determined to be the three most sensitive VFA parameters that were subject to ammonia inhibition. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Effect of long term anaerobic and intermittent anaerobic/aerobic starvation on aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Pijuan, Maite; Werner, Ursula; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2009-08-01

    The effect of long term anaerobic and intermittent anaerobic/aerobic starvation on the structure and activity of aerobic granules was studied. Aerobic granular sludge treating abattoir wastewater and achieving high levels of nutrient removal was subjected to 4-5 week starvation under anaerobic and intermittent anaerobic/aerobic conditions. Microscopic pictures of granules at the beginning of the starvation period presented a round and compact surface morphology with a much defined external perimeter. Under both starvation conditions, the morphology changed at the end of starvation with the external border of the granules surrounded by floppy materials. The loss of granular compactness was faster and more pronounced under anaerobic/aerobic starvation conditions. The release of Ca(2+) at the onset of anaerobic/aerobic starvation suggests a degradation of extracellular polymeric substances. The activity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria was reduced by 20 and 36% during anaerobic and intermittent anaerobic/aerobic starvation, respectively. When fresh wastewater was reintroduced, the granules recovered their initial morphology within 1 week of normal operation and the nutrient removal activity recovered fully in 3 weeks. The results show that both anaerobic and intermittent anaerobic/aerobic conditions are suitable for maintaining granule structure and activity during starvation.

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis of TOC removal from slaughterhouse wastewater using combined anaerobic-aerobic and UV/H2O2 processes.

    PubMed

    Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab; Quiñones-Bolaños, Edgar

    2014-02-15

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the operating costs of treating slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) using combined biological and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). This study compares the performance and the treatment capability of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR), an aerated completely mixed activated sludge reactor (AS), and a UV/H2O2 process, as well as their combination for the removal of the total organic carbon (TOC). Overall efficiencies are found to be up to 75.22, 89.47, 94.53, 96.10, 96.36, and 99.98% for the UV/H2O2, ABR, AS, combined AS-ABR, combined ABR-AS, and combined ABR-AS-UV/H2O2 processes, respectively. Due to the consumption of electrical energy and reagents, operating costs are calculated at optimal conditions of each process. A cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is performed at optimal conditions for the SWW treatment by optimizing the total electricity cost, H2O2 consumption, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). The combined ABR-AS-UV/H2O2 processes have an optimal TOC removal of 92.46% at an HRT of 41 h, a cost of $1.25/kg of TOC removed, and $11.60/m(3) of treated SWW. This process reaches a maximum TOC removal of 99% in 76.5 h with an estimated cost of $2.19/kg TOC removal and $21.65/m(3) treated SWW, equivalent to $6.79/m(3) day. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anaerobic oxidation of methane: an “active” microbial process

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Mengmeng; Ma, Anzhou; Qi, Hongyan; Zhuang, Xuliang; Zhuang, Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is an important sink of methane that plays a significant role in global warming. AOM was first found to be coupled with sulfate reduction and mediated by anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). ANME, often forming consortia with SRB, are phylogenetically related to methanogenic archaea. ANME-1 is even able to produce methane. Subsequently, it has been found that AOM can also be coupled with denitrification. The known microbes responsible for this process are Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera (M. oxyfera) and Candidatus Methanoperedens nitroreducens (M. nitroreducens). Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera belongs to the NC10 bacteria, can catalyze nitrite reduction through an “intra-aerobic” pathway, and may catalyze AOM through an aerobic methane oxidation pathway. However, M. nitroreducens, which is affiliated with ANME-2d archaea, may be able to catalyze AOM through the reverse methanogenesis pathway. Moreover, manganese (Mn4+) and iron (Fe3+) can also be used as electron acceptors of AOM. This review summarizes the mechanisms and associated microbes of AOM. It also discusses recent progress in some unclear key issues about AOM, including ANME-1 in hypersaline environments, the effect of oxygen on M. oxyfera, and the relationship of M. nitroreducens with ANME. PMID:25530008

  4. Effect of aerobic pre-treatment on hydrogen and methane production in a two-stage anaerobic digestion process using food waste with different compositions.

    PubMed

    Rafieenia, Razieh; Girotto, Francesca; Peng, Wei; Cossu, Raffaello; Pivato, Alberto; Raga, Roberto; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Aerobic pre-treatment was applied prior to two-stage anaerobic digestion process. Three different food wastes samples, namely carbohydrate rich, protein rich and lipid rich, were prepared as substrates. Effect of aerobic pre-treatment on hydrogen and methane production was studied. Pre-aeration of substrates showed no positive impact on hydrogen production in the first stage. All three categories of pre-aerated food wastes produced less hydrogen compared to samples without pre-aeration. In the second stage, methane production increased for aerated protein rich and carbohydrate rich samples. In addition, the lag phase for carbohydrate rich substrate was shorter for aerated samples. Aerated protein rich substrate yielded the best results among substrates for methane production, with a cumulative production of approximately 351ml/gVS. With regard to non-aerated substrates, lipid rich was the best substrate for CH4 production (263ml/gVS). Pre-aerated P substrate was the best in terms of total energy generation which amounted to 9.64kJ/gVS. This study revealed aerobic pre-treatment to be a promising option for use in achieving enhanced substrate conversion efficiencies and CH4 production in a two-stage AD process, particularly when the substrate contains high amounts of proteins.

  5. Effective ethanol production by reutilizing waste distillage anaerobic digestion effluent in an integrated fermentation process coupled with both ethanol and methane fermentations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng Ming; Mao, Zhong Gui; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Jian Hua; Sun, Fu Bao; Tang, Lei; Zhang, Hong Jian

    2010-11-01

    An integrated ethanol-methane fermentation coupled system characterized with full wastewater reutilization was proposed. The waste distillage originated from ethanol distillation was treated with anaerobic digestion and then recycled for medium preparation in the next ethanol fermentation run. This process could enhance wastewater reutilization, save fresh water and reduce energy consumption in the cassava-based ethanol production. The results indicated that, when using anaerobic effluents from the digestion process with only one tank, an ethanol concentration of 10.5% (v/v) compatible with that of conventional one could be achieved, but ethanol fermentation was partially inhibited and operation time gradually prolonged from 48 to 105 h. Using anaerobic effluents from the digestion process with two subsequently connected tanks, ethanol fermentation performance could be largely improved, and the fermentation lag could be completely eliminated. The performance enhancement was due to the concentrations reduction in organic acids, such as acetic and propionic acids in the digestion effluents using two digestion tanks in-series.

  6. A novel process for anaerobic composting of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, D.P.; Bosch, G.; Earle, J.F.K.

    1991-12-31

    A novel process has been developed and evaluated in a pilot-scale program for conversion of the biodegradable fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW) to methane via anaerobic composting. The sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC) process employs leachate management to provide organisms, moisture, and nutrients required for rapid conversion of MSW and removal of inhibitory fermentation products during start-up. The biodegradable organic materials are converted to methane and carbon dioxide in 21-42 d, rather than the years required in landfills.

  7. Simultaneous C and N removal from saline salmon effluents in filter reactors comprising anoxic-anaerobic-aerobic processes: effect of recycle ratio.

    PubMed

    Giustinianovich, Elisa A; Aspé, Estrella R; Huiliñir, César E; Roeckel, Marlene D

    2014-01-01

    Salmon processing generates saline effluents with high protein load. To treat these effluents, three compact tubular filter reactors were installed and an integrated anoxic/anaerobic/aerobic process was developed with recycling flow from the reactor's exit to the inlet stream in order to save organic matter (OM) for denitrification. The reactors were aerated in the upper section with recycle ratios (RR) of 0, 2, and 10, respectively, at 30°C. A tubular reactor behave as a plug flow reactor when RR = 0, and as a mixed flow reactor when recycle increases, thus, different RR values were used to evaluate how it affects the product distribution and the global performance. Diluted salmon process effluent was prepared as substrate. Using loads of 1.0 kg COD m(-3)d(-1) and 0.15 kg total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) m(-3)d(-1) at HRT of 2 d, 100% removal efficiencies for nitrite and nitrate were achieved in the anoxic-denitrifying section without effect of the dissolved oxygen in the recycled flow on denitrification. Removals >98% for total organic carbon (TOC) was achieved in the three reactors. The RR had no effect on the TOC removal; nevertheless a higher efficiency in total nitrogen removal in the reactor with the highest recycle ratio was observed: 94.3% for RR = 10 and 46.6% for RR = 2. Results showed that the proposed layout with an alternative distribution in a compact reactor can efficiently treat high organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations from a saline fish effluent with OM savings in denitrification.

  8. Biochemical reaction engineering and process development in anaerobic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Aivasidis, Alexander; Diamantis, Vasileios

    2005-01-01

    Developments in production technology have frequently resulted in the concentrated local accumulation of highly organic-laden wastewaters. Anaerobic wastewater treatment, in industrial applications, constitutes an advanced method of synthesis by which inexpensive substrates are converted into valuable disproportionate products. A critical discussion of certain fundamental principles of biochemical reaction engineering relevant to the anaerobic mode of operation is made here, with special emphasis on the roles of thermodynamics, kinetics, mass and heat transfer, reactor design, biomass retention and recycling. The applications of the anaerobic processes are discussed, introducing the principles of an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor and a fixed-bed loop reactor. The merits of staging reactor systems are presented using selected examples based on two decades of research in the field of anaerobic fermentation and wastewater treatment at the Forschungszentrum Julich (Julich Research Center, Germany). Wastewater treatment is an industrial process associated with one of the largest levels of mass throughput known, and for this reason it provides a major impetus to further developments in bioprocess technology in general.

  9. Nitrogen removal with the anaerobic ammonium oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ziye; Lotti, Tommaso; van Loosdrecht, Mark; Kartal, Boran

    2013-08-01

    Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria convert ammonium to N2 with nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor in the absence of O2. Nitritation-anammox bioreactors provide a cost-effective and environment-friendly alternative to conventional nitrification/denitrification nitrogen removal systems. Currently, this process is only applied for ammonium removal from wastewater with high ammonium load and temperature. Nevertheless, recent results obtained with laboratory-scale bioreactors suggest new possible routes of application of the Nitritation-anammox technology including (1) municipal wastewater treatment, removal of (2) methane in combination with nitrite-reducing methane-oxidizing bacteria, (3) nitrate coupled to organic acid oxidation and (4) nitrogen oxides. The current review summarizes the state-of-the-art of the application of Nitritation-anammox systems and discusses the possibilities of utilizing these recent results for wastewater treatment.

  10. Growth media in anaerobic fermentative processes: The underestimated potential of thermophilic fermentation and anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, A T W M; van Lier, J B; de Kreuk, M K

    2017-09-01

    Fermentation and anaerobic digestion of organic waste and wastewater is broadly studied and applied. Despite widely available results and data for these processes, comparison of the generated results in literature is difficult. Not only due to the used variety of process conditions, but also because of the many different growth media that are used. Composition of growth media can influence biogas production (rates) and lead to process instability during anaerobic digestion. To be able to compare results of the different studies reported, and to ensure nutrient limitation is not influencing observations ascribed to process dynamics and/or reaction kinetics, a standard protocol for creating a defined growth medium for anaerobic digestion and mixed culture fermentation is proposed. This paper explains the role(s) of the different macro- and micronutrients, as well as the choices for a growth medium formulation strategy. In addition, the differences in nutrient requirements between mesophilic and thermophilic systems are discussed as well as the importance of specific trace metals regarding specific conversion routes and the possible supplementary requirement of vitamins. The paper will also give some insight into the bio-availability and toxicity of trace metals. A remarkable finding is that mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes are quite comparable at their optimum temperatures. This has consequences for the trace metal requirements of thermophiles under certain conditions. Under non-limiting conditions, the trace metal requirement of thermophilic systems is about 3 times higher than for mesophilic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Atmospheric vs. anaerobic processing of metabolome samples for the metabolite profiling of a strict anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Sooah; Kwon, Min-A; Jung, Young Hoon; Shin, Yong-An; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2014-12-01

    Well-established metabolome sample preparation is a prerequisite for reliable metabolomic data. For metabolome sampling of a Gram-positive strict anaerobe, Clostridium acetobutylicum, fast filtration and metabolite extraction with acetonitrile/methanol/water (2:2:1, v/v) at -20°C under anaerobic conditions has been commonly used. This anaerobic metabolite processing method is laborious and time-consuming since it is conducted in an anaerobic chamber. Also, there have not been any systematic method evaluation and development of metabolome sample preparation for strict anaerobes and Gram-positive bacteria. In this study, metabolome sampling and extraction methods were rigorously evaluated and optimized for C. acetobutylicum by using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, in which a total of 116 metabolites were identified. When comparing the atmospheric (i.e., in air) and anaerobic (i.e., in an anaerobic chamber) processing of metabolome sample preparation, there was no significant difference in the quality and quantity of the metabolomic data. For metabolite extraction, pure methanol at -20°C was a better solvent than acetonitrile/methanol/water (2:2:1, v/v/v) at -20°C that is frequently used for C. acetobutylicum, and metabolite profiles were significantly different depending on extraction solvents. This is the first evaluation of metabolite sample preparation under aerobic processing conditions for an anaerobe. This method could be applied conveniently, efficiently, and reliably to metabolome analysis for strict anaerobes in air.

  12. Aerobic and anaerobic cecal bacterial flora of commercially processed broilers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Differences in the bacterial flora of aerobic and anaerobic cultures of broiler ceca collected from a commercial poultry processing facility were determined. Bacterial isolates from cecal cultures were selected based on the ability of the bacteria to grow in media supplemented with lactate and succ...

  13. Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megonigal, J. P.; Hines, M. E.; Visscher, P. T.

    2003-12-01

    's surface area, they have a profound influence on the biogeochemistry of the planet. This is evident from the observation that the O2 and CH4 content of Earth's atmosphere are in extreme disequilibrium (Sagan et al., 1993). The combination of high aerobic primary production and anoxic sediments provided the large deposits of fossil fuels that have become vital and contentious sources of energy for modern industrialized societies. Anaerobic metabolism is responsible for the abundance of N2 in the atmosphere; otherwise N2-fixing bacteria would have consumed most of the N2 pool long ago (Schlesinger, 1997). Anaerobic microorganisms are common symbionts of termites, cattle, and many other animals, where they aid digestion. Nutrient and pollutant chemistry are strongly modified by the reduced conditions that prevail in wetland and aquatic ecosystems.This review of anaerobic metabolism emphasizes aerobic oxidation, because the two processes cannot be separated in a complete treatment of the topic. It is process oriented and highlights the fascinating microorganisms that mediate anaerobic biogeochemistry. We begin this review with a brief discussion of CO2 assimilation by autotrophs, the source of most of the reducing power on Earth, and then consider the biological processes that harness this potential energy. Energy liberation begins with the decomposition of organic macromolecules to relatively simple compounds, which are simplified further by fermentation. Methanogenesis is considered next because CH4 is a product of acetate fermentation, and thus completes the catabolism of organic matter, particularly in the absence of inorganic electron acceptors. Finally, the organisms that use nitrogen, manganese, iron, and sulfur for terminal electron acceptors are considered in order of decreasing free-energy yield of the reactions.

  14. The effect of anaerobic fermentation processing of cattle waste for biogas as a renewable energy resources on the number of contaminant microorganism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurnani, Tb. Benito A.; Hidayati, Yuli Astuti; Marlina, Eulis Tanti; Harlia, Ellin

    2016-02-01

    Beef cattle waste has a positive potential that can be exploited, as well as a negative potential that must be controlled so as not to pollute the environment. Beef cattle waste can be processed into an alternative energy, namely biogas. Anaerobic treatment of livestock waste to produce gas can be a solution in providing optional energy, while the resulted sludge as the fermentation residue can be used as organic fertilizer for crops. However, this sludge may containt patogenic microorganism that will damage human and environmet healt. Therefor, this study was aimed to know the potency of beef cattle waste to produce biogas and the decrease of the microorganism's number by using fixed dome digester. Beef cattle waste was processed into biogas using fixed dome digester with a capacity of 12 m3. Biogas composition was measured using Gas Cromatografi, will microorganism species was identified using Total plate Count Methode. The result of this study shows that the produced biogas contains of 75.77% Mol (CH4), 13.28% Mol (N), and 6.96% Mol (CO2). Furthermor, this study show that the anaerobic fermrntation process is capable of reducing microorganisms that could potentially pollute the environment. The number of Escherichia coli and Samonella sp. were <30 MPN/ml respectively save for environment. This process can reduce 84.70% the amount of molds. The only molds still existed after fermentation was A.fumigatus. The number of protozoa can be reduced in order of 94.73%. Protozoa that can be identified in cattle waste before, and after anaerobic fermentation was merely Eimeria sp.. The process also reduced the yeast of 86.11%. The remaining yeast after fermentation was Candida sp. Finally, about 93.7% of endoparasites was reduced by this process. In this case, every trematode and cestoda were 100% reduced, while the nematode only 75%. Reducing some microorganisms that have the potential to pollute the environment signifies sludge anaerobic fermentation residue is safe to

  15. Treatment of low strength domestic wastewater by using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket process

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, N.H.; Torres, C.L.; Speece, R.E.

    1996-11-01

    The tropical environment of Puerto Rico offers great potential for using anaerobic treatment in place of conventional, aerobic activated sludge processes in the treatment of its warm, dilute municipal wastewaters. It will minimize the troublesome problem of land disposal of municipal sludges, achieve secondary effluent standards and not be an energy intensive form of treatment. When the infrastructure of sewage treatment needs to be improved, anaerobic sewage treatment may serve as one of the better alternatives. Anaerobic sewage treatment is a totally enclosed process. It has very little environmental impact on the surrounding areas of the treatment site. However, sometimes its effluent may cause serious odor problems. There are many small communities in Puerto Rico where the anaerobic process can be an ideal form of treatment for their sewage. This study is focused on using the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process for treating raw domestic sewage. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance and stability of the UASB process for treating raw sewage and to ascertain the effect on efficiency of hydraulic detention time of the UASB reactor. A further key objective was to evaluate the impact on process performance of a packed bed solids removals device following the UASB reactor.

  16. [Enhancement for anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge pretreated by microwave and its combined processes ].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-bao; Ni, Xiao-tang; Wei, Yuan-song; Tong, Juan; Wang, Ya-wei

    2014-09-01

    To improve anaerobic digestion and dewatering of sludge, impacts of sludge pretreated by microwave (MW) and its combined processes on sludge anaerobic digestion and dewatering were investigated. The results showed that microwave and its combined processes could effectively enhance anaerobic sludge digestion. Not only the cumulative methane production in the test of the MW-H2O2-alkaline (0. 2) was increased by 13. 34% compared with the control, but also its methane production rate was much higher than that of the control. Compared with the single MW process, the addition of both H2O2 and alkaline enhanced the solubilization of particle COD( >0. 45 micron) , indicating that synergistically generated soluble organics were faster to biodegrade which resulted in the enhancement of anaerobic digestion. The MW-acid process was effective in improving sludge dewaterability, e. g. , Capillary Suction Time (CST) at only 9. 85 s. The improvement of sludge dewatering was significantly correlated with sludge physical properties such as zeta potential, surface charge density and particle size. Under different sludge pretreatment conditions, the sludge dewatering after anaerobic digestion was similar, though the difference of sludge dewatering to some degrees was observed for pretreated sludge.

  17. A bio-hybrid anaerobic treatment of papaya processing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, P.Y.; Chou, C.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Hybrid anaerobic treatment of papaya processing wastes is technically feasible. At 30/sup 0/C, the optimal organic loading rates for maximizing organic removal efficiency and methane production are 1.3 and 4.8 g TCOD/1/day, respectively. Elimination of post-handling and treatment of digested effluent can also be achieved. The system is more suitable for those processing plants with a waste amount of more than 3,000 metric tons per year.

  18. Multi-wavelength fluorometry for anaerobic digestion process monitoring.

    PubMed

    Morel, E; Santamaria, K; Perrier, M; Guiot, S R; Tartakovsky, B

    2005-01-01

    Applicability of multi-wavelength fluorometry for anaerobic digestion process monitoring was investigated in a 3.5 L upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) lab-scale reactor. Both off-line and on-line monitoring of key process parameters was tested. Off-line emission spectra were measured at an angle of 90 degrees to the excitation beam using a cuvette. On-line measurements were carried out using a fiber optic probe in the external recirculation line of the digester. Fluorescence spectra were correlated to available analytical measurements to obtain partial least square regression models. An independent set of measurements was used to validate the regression models. Model estimations showed reasonable agreement with analytical measurements with multiple determination coefficients (R2) between 0.6 and 0.95. Results showed that offline fluorescence measurements can be used for fast estimation of anaerobic digestor effluent quality. At the same time, the on-line implementation of multi-wavelength fluorescence measurements can be used for realtime process monitoring and, potentially, for on-line process control.

  19. A model for anaerobic ponds combining settling and biological processes.

    PubMed

    Effebi, K R; Jupsin, H; Keffala, C; Vasel, J L

    2013-01-01

    This work presents an approach to an anaerobic pond model by combining the stoichiometry of the hydrolysis and acidogenic processes of the main constituents of wastewater, i.e. carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids, grouped as a 'combined substrate' with a previously published settling model (see 'Suspended solids settling and half removal time in stabilization ponds (Tunisia)' by Effebi et al. (2011)). This approach includes biomass production. Coupling the kinetics and stoichiometry of the previous processes with the usual methanogenic model, we developed an anaerobic pond model. This paper gives the stoichiometry of the different chemical reactions that occur during the degradation of a conventional influent (corresponding to what we define as a 'combined substrate') of domestic wastewater and the model's first results.

  20. A robust and cost-effective integrated process for nitrogen and bio-refractory organics removal from landfill leachate via short-cut nitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation in tandem with electrochemical oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Na; Liang, Da-Wei; Xu, Ying-Ying; Liu, Ting; Peng, Yong-Zhen; Zhang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    A cost-effective process, consisting of a denitrifying upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), an oxygen-limited anoxic/aerobic (A/O) process for short-cut nitrification, and an anaerobic reactor (ANR) for anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox), followed by an electrochemical oxidation process with a Ti-based SnO2-Sb2O5 anode, was developed to remove organics and nitrogen in a sewage diluted leachate. The final chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) and total nitrogen (TN) of 70, 11.3 and 39 (all in mg/L), respectively, were obtained. TN removal in UASB, A/O and ANR were 24.6%, 49.6% and 16.1%, respectively. According to the water quality and molecular biology analysis, a high degree of anammox besides short-cut nitrification and denitrification occurred in A/O. Counting for 16.1% of TN removal in ANR, at least 43.2-49% of TN was removed via anammox. The anammox bacteria in A/O and ANR, were in respective titers of (2.5-5.9)×10(9) and 2.01×10(10)copy numbers/(gSS). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Does residual H2O2 result in inhibitory effect on enhanced anaerobic digestion of sludge pretreated by microwave-H2O2 pretreatment process?

    PubMed

    Liu, Jibao; Jia, Ruilai; Wang, Yawei; Wei, Yuansong; Zhang, Junya; Wang, Rui; Cai, Xing

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of residual H2O2 on hydrolysis-acidification and methanogenesis stages of anaerobic digestion after microwave-H2O2 (MW-H2O2) pretreatment of waste activated sludge (WAS). Results showed that high sludge solubilization at 35-45 % was achieved after pretreatment, while large amounts of residual H2O2 remained and refractory compounds were thus generated with high dosage of H2O2 (0.6 g H2O2/g total solids (TS), 1.0 g H2O2/g TS) pretreatment. The residual H2O2 not only inhibited hydrolysis-acidification stage mildly, such as hydrolase activity, but also had acute toxic effect on methanogens, resulting in long lag phase, low methane yield rate, and no increase of cumulative methane production during the 30-day BMP tests. When the low dosage of H2O2 at 0.2 g H2O2/g TS was used in MW-H2O2 pretreatment, sludge anaerobic digestion was significantly enhanced. The cumulative methane production increased by 29.02 %, but still with a lag phase of 1.0 day. With removing the residual H2O2 by catalase, the initial lag phase of hydrolysis-acidification stage decreased from 1.0 to 0.5 day.

  2. Improved ADM1 model for anaerobic digestion process considering physico-chemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Piccard, Sarah; Zhou, Wen

    2015-11-01

    The "Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1" (ADM1) was modified in the study by improving the bio-chemical framework and integrating a more detailed physico-chemical framework. Inorganic carbon and nitrogen balance terms were introduced to resolve the discrepancies in the original bio-chemical framework between the carbon and nitrogen contents in the degraders and substrates. More inorganic components and solids precipitation processes were included in the physico-chemical framework of ADM1. The modified ADM1 was validated with the experimental data and used to investigate the effects of calcium ions, magnesium ions, inorganic phosphorus and inorganic nitrogen on anaerobic digestion in batch reactor. It was found that the entire anaerobic digestion process might exist an optimal initial concentration of inorganic nitrogen for methane gas production in the presence of calcium ions, magnesium ions and inorganic phosphorus.

  3. Recent development of anaerobic digestion processes for energy recovery from wastes.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Naomichi; Nakashimada, Yutaka

    2007-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion leads to the overall gasification of organic wastewaters and wastes, and produces methane and carbon dioxide; this gasification contributes to reducing organic matter and recovering energy from organic carbons. Here, we propose three new processes and demonstrate the effectiveness of each process. By using complete anaerobic organic matter removal process (CARP), in which diluted wastewaters such as sewage and effluent from a methane fermentation digester were treated under anaerobic condition for post-treatment, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) in wastewater was decreased to less than 20 ppm. The dry ammonia-methane two-stage fermentation process (Am-Met process) is useful for the anaerobic treatment of nitrogen-rich wastes such as waste excess sludge, cow feces, chicken feces, and food waste without the dilution of the ammonia produced by water or carbon-rich wastes. The hydrogen-methane two-stage fermentation (Hy-Met process), in which the hydrogen produced in the first stage is used for a fuel cell system to generate electricity and the methane produced in the second stage is used to generate heat energy to heat the two reactors and satisfy heat requirements, is useful for the treatment of sugar-rich wastewaters, bread wastes, and biodiesel wastewaters.

  4. Low temperature thermo-chemical pretreatment of dairy waste activated sludge for anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Rani, R Uma; Kumar, S Adish; Kaliappan, S; Yeom, Ick-Tae; Banu, J Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    An investigation into the influence of low temperature thermo-chemical pretreatment on sludge reduction in a semi-continuous anaerobic reactor was performed. Firstly, effect of sludge pretreatment was evaluated by COD solubilization, suspended solids reduction and biogas production. At optimized condition (60 °C with pH 12), COD solubilization, suspended solids, reduction and biogas production was 23%, 22% and 51% higher than the control, respectively. Secondly, semi-continuous process performance was studied in a lab-scale semi-continuous anaerobic reactor (5 L), with 4 L working volume. With three operated SRTs, the SRT of 15 days was found to be most appropriate for economic operation of the reactor. Combining pretreatment with anaerobic digestion led to 80.5%, 117% and 90.4% of TS, SS and VS reduction respectively, with an improvement of 103% in biogas production. Thus, low temperature thermo-chemical can play an important role in reducing sludge production.

  5. Anaerobic digestion of straw and corn stover: The effect of biological process optimization and pre-treatment on total bio-methane yield and energy performance.

    PubMed

    Croce, Serena; Wei, Qiao; D'Imporzano, Giuliana; Dong, Renjie; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a useful method for producing renewable energy/biofuel. Today, biogas production uses a large amount of energy crops (EC), with the effect of increasing AD costs and creating conflict between food/feed vs. energy use. A partial solution to this might be the substitution of EC with agricultural wastes, e.g. straw. Straw and corn stover are widely available in the world and approximately 1600millionMgyear(-1) of these substrates are available. Straw can be useful used for biogas production but its characteristics limit its performance so that sometimes the energetic balance can be negative. In this review, the limits for the conversion of this substrate into biogas were investigated and solutions/proposals for getting higher straw biogas production performance are reported. In addition, energetic balances for untreated and pre-treated substrates are reported, giving indicative evaluations of the sustainability of straw and corn stover use for biogas production.

  6. Process performance of anaerobic co-digestion of raw and acidified pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Moset, V; Cerisuelo, A; Sutaryo, S; Møller, H B

    2012-10-15

    The effect of incorporating different ratios of acidified pig slurry on methane yield was evaluated in two scales of anaerobic digesters: Thermophilic (50 °C) pilot scale digester (120 l), operating with an average hydraulic retention time of 20 days and thermophilic (52 °C) full-scale digesters (10 and 30 m(3)), operating with an average hydraulic retention time of 30 days. In the lab-scale digester, different inclusion levels of acidified slurry (0-60%) were tested each 15 days, to determine the maximum ratio of acidified to non-acidified slurry causing inhibition and to find process state indicators helping to prevent process failure. In the full-scale digesters, the level of inclusion of the acidified slurry was chosen from the ratio causing methane inhibition in the pilot scale experiment and was carried on in a long-term process of 100 days. The optimal inclusion level of acidified pig slurry in anaerobic co-digestion with conventional slurry was 10%, which promoted anaerobic methane yield by nearly 20%. Higher inclusion levels caused methane inhibition and volatile fatty acids accumulations in both experiments. In order to prevent process failure, the most important traits to monitor in the anaerobic digestion of acidified pig slurry were found to be: sulfate content of the slurry, alkalinity parameters (especially partial alkalinity and the ratio of alkalinity) and total volatile fatty acids (especially acetic and butyric acids). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Automatic process control in anaerobic digestion technology: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Nitayavardhana, Saoharit; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a mature technology that relies upon a synergistic effort of a diverse group of microbial communities for metabolizing diverse organic substrates. However, AD is highly sensitive to process disturbances, and thus it is advantageous to use online monitoring and process control techniques to efficiently operate AD process. A range of electrochemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic devices can be deployed for on-line monitoring and control of the AD process. While complexity of the control strategy ranges from a feedback control to advanced control systems, there are some debates on implementation of advanced instrumentations or advanced control strategies. Centralized AD plants could be the answer for the applications of progressive automatic control field. This article provides a critical overview of the available automatic control technologies that can be implemented in AD processes at different scales. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Stability and inhibition of anaerobic processes caused by insufficiency or excess of ammonia nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Procházka, Jindřich; Dolejš, Petr; Máca, Josef; Dohányos, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia increases buffer capacity of methanogenic medium in mesophilic anaerobic reactor thus increasing the stability of anaerobic digestion process. Optimal ammonia concentration ensures sufficient buffer capacity while not inhibiting the process. It was found out in this paper that this optimum depends on the quality of anaerobic sludge under investigation. The optimal concentrations for methanogens were 2.1, 2.6 and 3.1 g/L of ammonia nitrogen in dependence on inoculum origin. High ammonia nitrogen concentration (4.0 g/L) inhibited methane production, while low ammonia nitrogen concentration (0.5 g/L) caused low methane yield, loss of biomass (as VSS) and loss of the aceticlastic methanogenic activity. It was found out that negative effect of low ammonia nitrogen concentration on biomass is caused not only by low buffer capacity but also by insufficiency of nitrogen as nutrient. It was also found out that anaerobic sludge with higher ammonia nitrogen concentration (4.2 g/L) tolerates even concentration of volatile fatty acids (160 mmol/L) which causes inhibition of the process with low ammonia nitrogen concentration (0.2 g/L).

  9. Citrus essential oils and their influence on the anaerobic digestion process: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, B; Flotats, X

    2014-11-01

    Citrus waste accounts for more than half of the whole fruit when processed for juice extraction. Among valorisation possibilities, anaerobic digestion for methane generation appears to be the most technically feasible and environmentally friendly alternative. However, citrus essential oils can inhibit this biological process. In this paper, the characteristics of citrus essential oils, as well as the mechanisms of their antimicrobial effects and potential adaptation mechanisms are reviewed. Previous studies of anaerobic digestion of citrus waste under different conditions are presented; however, some controversy exists regarding the limiting dosage of limonene for a stable process (24-192 mg of citrus essential oil per liter of digester and day). Successful strategies to avoid process inhibition by citrus essential oils are based either on recovery or removal of the limonene, by extraction or fungal pre-treatment respectively.

  10. Treatment of phenol and cresols in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process: a review.

    PubMed

    Veeresh, Gali S; Kumar, Pradeep; Mehrotra, Indu

    2005-01-01

    Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process has been successfully applied in the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters. Several researchers have investigated the suitability of the process for the treatment of phenols and phenolic wastewaters. The anaerobic treatment of phenols is still at an investigative stage. With increasing recognition of the UASB process, feasibility studies on the treatment of wastewater containing phenol and cresols (o-, m- and p- isomers) in UASB have been reviewed. It is reported that phenol concentration up to a range of 500-750 mg/L is generally not inhibitory to the UASB process. Phenol concentrations greater than 500 mg/L can be effectively treated with acclimatization of inocula, recirculation of the treated effluent and/or supplementing with co-substrates such as glucose, VFA and dilute molasses. The degradability of phenol is more than p-cresol, which in turn is more than m- and o-cresol.

  11. Anaerobic co-digestion of meat-processing by-products and sewage sludge - effect of hygienization and organic loading rate.

    PubMed

    Luste, Sami; Luostarinen, Sari

    2010-04-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of a mixture of animal by-products (ABP) from meat-processing industry and of sewage sludge was studied at 35 degrees Celsius for co-digesting such by-products in digesters at wastewater treatment plants. The three reactors were fed with ABP mixture and sewage sludge (1) in a ratio of 1:7 (v/v), (2) in the same ratio but with hygienization (70 degrees Celsius, 60 min) and (3) in a ratio of 1:3 (v/v). Hydraulic retention time (HRT) was decreased from 25 to 20 days and finally to 14 days, while organic loading rates (OLR) ranged from 1.8 to 4.0 kg VS/m(3) day. The highest specific methane yields were achieved with 20-days-HRT (1) 400 + or - 30, (2) 430 + or - 40, (3) 410 + or - 30 m(3) CH(4)/t VS. Hygienization improved methane production to a level above the highest OLR applied (feed ratio 1:3 (3)), while the quality of the digestate remained similar to the other reactors. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion of sugar beet byproduct and pig manure: Effect of the organic loading rate (OLR) on process performance.

    PubMed

    Aboudi, Kaoutar; Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos José; Romero-García, Luis Isidoro

    2015-10-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of dried pellet of exhausted sugar beet cossettes (ESBC-DP) with pig manure (PM) was investigated in a semi-continuous stirred tank reactor (SSTR) under mesophilic conditions. Seven hydraulic retention times (HRT) from 20 to 5 days were tested with the aim to evaluate the methane productivities and volatile solids (VS) removal. The corresponding organic loading rates (OLR) ranged from 4.2 to 12.8 gVS/L(reactor) d. The findings revealed that highest system efficiency was achieved at an OLR of 11.2 gVS/L(reactor) d (6 days-HRT) with a methane production rate (MPR) and volatile solids (VS) reduction of 2.91 LCH4/L(reactor) d and 57.5%, respectively. The HRT of 5 days was found critical for the studied process, which leads to volatile fatty acids (VFA) accumulation and sharp drop in pH. However, the increase of HRT permits the recovery of system.

  13. The effects of operational and environmental variations on anaerobic wastewater treatment systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Leitão, Renato Carrhá; van Haandel, Adrianus Cornelius; Zeeman, Grietje; Lettinga, Gatze

    2006-06-01

    With the aim of improving knowledge about the stability and reliability of anaerobic wastewater treatment systems, several researchers have studied the effects of operational or environmental variations on the performance of such reactors. In general, anaerobic reactors are affected by changes in external factors, but the severity of the effect is dependent upon the type, magnitude, duration and frequency of the imposed changes. The typical responses include a decrease in performance, accumulation of volatile fatty acids, drop in pH and alkalinity, change in biogas production and composition, and sludge washout. This review summarises the causes, types and effects of operational and environmental variation on anaerobic wastewater treatment systems. However, there still remain some unclear technical and scientific aspects that are necessary for the improvement of the stability and reliability of anaerobic processes.

  14. Optimization of process parameters for production of volatile fatty acid, biohydrogen and methane from anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Khan, M A; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Liu, Y; Nghiem, L D; Hai, F I; Deng, L J; Wang, J; Wu, Y

    2016-11-01

    The anaerobic digestion process has been primarily utilized for methane containing biogas production over the past few years. However, the digestion process could also be optimized for producing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and biohydrogen. This is the first review article that combines the optimization approaches for all three possible products from the anaerobic digestion. In this review study, the types and configurations of the bioreactor are discussed for each type of product. This is followed by a review on optimization of common process parameters (e.g. temperature, pH, retention time and organic loading rate) separately for the production of VFA, biohydrogen and methane. This review also includes additional parameters, treatment methods or special additives that wield a significant and positive effect on production rate and these products' yield.

  15. Treatment of artificial soybean wastewater anaerobic effluent in a continuous aerobic-anaerobic coupled (CAAC) process with excess sludge reduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Li, Xiaoxia; Fu, Weichao; Wu, Shihan; Li, Chun

    2012-12-01

    In this study, treatment of artificial soybean wastewater anaerobic effluent was studied in a continuous aerobic-anaerobic coupled (CAAC) process. The focus was on COD and nitrogen removal as well as excess sludge reduction. During the continuous operation without reflux, the COD removal efficiency was 96.5% at the optimal hydraulic retention time (HRT) 1.3 days. When HRT was shortened to 1.0 day, reflux from anaerobic zone to moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was introduced. The removal efficiencies of COD and TN were 94.4% and 76.0% at the optimal reflux ratio 30%, respectively. The sludge yield coefficient of CAAC was 0.1738, the simultaneous removal of COD and nitrogen with in situ sludge reduction could be achieved in this CAAC process. The sludge reduction mechanism was discussed by soluble components variation along the water flow.

  16. A modeling approach to direct interspecies electron transfer process in anaerobic transformation of ethanol to methane.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwen; Zhang, Yaobin; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Zhou, Junliang; Peng, Lai; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) plays an important part in contributing to methane production from anaerobic digestion. However, so far anaerobic digestion models that have been proposed only consider two pathways for methane production, namely, acetoclastic methanogenesis and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, via indirect interspecies hydrogen transfer, which lacks an effective way for incorporating DIET into this paradigm. In this work, a new mathematical model is specifically developed to describe DIET process in anaerobic digestion through introducing extracellular electron transfer as a new pathway for methane production, taking anaerobic transformation of ethanol to methane as an example. The developed model was able to successfully predict experimental data on methane dynamics under different experimental conditions, supporting the validity of the developed model. Modeling predictions clearly demonstrated that DIET plays an important role in contributing to overall methane production (up to 33 %) and conductive material (i.e., carbon cloth) addition would significantly promote DIET through increasing ethanol conversion rate and methane production rate. The model developed in this work will potentially enhance our current understanding on syntrophic metabolism via DIET.

  17. Robust interval-based regulation for anaerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz-González, V; Harmand, J; Rapaport, A; Steyer, J P; González-Alvarez, V; Pelayo-Ortiz, C

    2005-01-01

    A robust regulation law is applied to the stabilization of a class of biochemical reactors exhibiting partially known highly nonlinear dynamic behavior. An uncertain environment with the presence of unknown inputs is considered. Based on some structural and operational conditions, this regulation law is shown to exponentially stabilize the aforementioned bioreactors around a desired set-point. This approach is experimentally applied and validated on a pilot-scale (1 m3) anaerobic digestion process for the treatment of raw industrial wine distillery wastewater where the objective is the regulation of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) by using the dilution rate as the manipulated variable. Despite large disturbances on the input COD and state and parametric uncertainties, this regulation law gave excellent performances leading the output COD towards its set-point and keeping it inside a pre-specified interval.

  18. Two-stage process combines anaerobic and aerobic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kayhanian, M.; Lindenauer, K.; Hardy, S.; Tchobanoglous, G.

    1991-03-01

    The organic fraction of the material diverted from landfills has potential to be utilized as a raw material to be recycled, used for the production of compost, converted to energy in waste-to-energy facilities, or used for the production of other end products. Given the uncertainties concerning the future availability, production costs, and market prices for conventional fuels, any potential source of alternate energy and alternative energy technologies deserve serious consideration. Faced with an uncertain energy future, several European countries have already started using biomass and MSW as a source of energy. An innovative high-solids anaerobic digestion/aerobic composting process currently under investigation at the University of California, Davis is as an ideal candidate for processing a large fraction of the organic matter in MSW. The principal advantages of this innovative process which is described and discussed in this paper are: (1) the recovery of biogas that can be used as a fuel for the production of energy, and (2) the production of humus-like material that can be used as a high-quality soil amendment or as boiler fuel. The fact that a liquid waste stream that needs further treatment is not generated in this process is another significant advantage.

  19. Impact of agricultural activities on anaerobic processes in stream sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schade, J. D.; Ludwig, S.; Nelson, L. C.; Porterfield, J.; Sather, K. L.; Songpitak, M.; Spawn, S.; Weigel, B.

    2013-12-01

    Streams draining agriculture watersheds are subject to significant anthropogenic impacts, including sedimentation from soil erosion and high nitrate input from heavy fertilizer application. Sedimentation degrades habitat and can reduce hydrologic exchange between surface and subsurface waters. Disconnecting surface and subsurface flow reduces oxygen input to hyporheic water, increasing the extent of anoxic zones in stream sediments and creating hotspots for anaerobic processes like denitrification and methanogenesis that can be important sources of nitrous oxide and methane, both powerful greenhouse gases. Increased nitrate input may influence greenhouse gas fluxes from stream sediments by stimulating rates of denitrification and potentially reducing rates of methanogenesis, either through direct inhibition or by increasing competition for organic substrates from denitrifying bacteria. We hypothesized that accumulation of fine sediments in stream channels would result in high rates of methanogenesis in stream sediments, and that increased nitrate input from agricultural runoff would stimulate denitrification and reduce rates of methane production. Our work focused on streams in northern and central Minnesota, in particular on Rice Creek, a small stream draining an agricultural watershed. We used a variety of approaches to test our hypotheses, including surveys of methane concentrations in surface waters of streams ranging in sediment type and nitrate concentration, bottle incubations of sediment from several sites in Rice Creek, and the use of functional gene probes and RNA analyses to determine if genes for these processes are present and being expressed in stream sediments. We found higher methane concentrations in surface water from streams with large deposits of fine sediments, but significantly less methane in these streams when nitrate concentrations were high. We also found high potential for both methanogenesis and denitrification in sediment incubations

  20. Phenols in anaerobic digestion processes and inhibition of ammonia oxidising bacteria (AOB) in soil.

    PubMed

    Levén, Lotta; Nyberg, Karin; Korkea-Aho, Lena; Schnürer, Anna

    2006-07-01

    This study focuses on the presence of phenols in digestate from seven Swedish large-scale anaerobic digestion processes and their impact on the activity of ammonia oxidising bacteria (AOB) in soil. In addition, the importance of feedstock composition and phenol degradation capacity for the occurrence of phenols in the digestate was investigated in the same processes. The results revealed that the content of phenols in the digestate was related to the inhibition of the activity of AOB in soil (EC(50)=26 microg phenols g(-1) d.w. soil). In addition, five pure phenols (phenol, o-, p-, m-cresol and 4-ethylphenol) inhibited the AOB to a similar extent (EC(50)=43-110 microg g(-1) d.w. soil). The phenol content in the digestate was mainly dependent on the composition of the feedstock, but also to some extent by the degradation capacity in the anaerobic digestion process. Swine manure in the feedstock resulted in digestate containing higher amounts of phenols than digestate from reactors with less or no swine manure in the feedstock. The degradation capacity of phenol and p-cresol was studied in diluted small-scale batch cultures and revealed that anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperatures generally exhibited a higher degradation capacity compared to digestion at thermophilic temperature. Although phenol, p-cresol and 4-ethylphenol were quickly degraded in soil, the phenols added with the digestate constitute an environmental risk according to the guideline values for contaminated soils set by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. In conclusion, the management of anaerobic digestion processes is of decisive importance for the production of digestate with low amounts of phenols, and thereby little risks for negative effects of the phenols on the soil ecosystem.

  1. Treatment of oilfield produced water by anaerobic process coupled with micro-electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Guo, Shuhai; Li, Fengmei

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of oilfield produced water was investigated using an anaerobic process coupled with micro-electrolysis (ME), focusing on changes in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biodegradability. Results showed that COD exhibited an abnormal change in the single anaerobic system in which it increased within the first 168 hr, but then decreased to 222 mg/L after 360 hr. The biological oxygen demand (five-day) (BODs)/COD ratio of the water increased from 0.05 to 0.15. Hydrocarbons in the wastewater, such as pectin, degraded to small molecules during the hydrolytic acidification process. Comparatively, the effect of ME was also investigated. The COD underwent a slight decrease and the BOD5/COD ratio of the water improved from 0.05 to 0.17 after ME. Removal of COD was 38.3% under the idealized ME conditions (pH 6.0), using iron and active carbon (80 and 40 g/L, respectively). Coupling the anaerobic process with ME accelerated the COD removal ratio (average removal was 53.3%). Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to analyze organic species conversion. This integrated system appeared to be a useful option for the treatment of water produced in oilfields.

  2. [Analysis of aliphatic carboxylic acids in anaerobic digestion process waters by ion-exclusion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Ito, Kazuaki; Sakamoto, Jun; Nagaoka, Kazuya; Takayama, Yohichi; Kanahori, Takashi; Sunahara, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Tsuneo; Sato, Shinji; Hirokawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of seven aliphatic carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, iso-butyric, n-butyric, iso-valeric and n-valeric acid) in anaerobic digestion process waters for biogas production was examined by ion-exclusion chromatography with dilute acidic eluents (benzoic acid, perfluorobutyric acid (PFBA) and sulfuric acid) and non-suppressed conductivity/ultraviolet (UV) detection. The columns used were a styrene/divinylbenzene-based strongly acidic cation-exchange resin column (TSKgel SCX) and a polymethacrylate-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column (TSKgel Super IC-A/C). Good separation was performed on the TSKgel SCX in shorter retention times. For the TSKgel Super IC-A/C, peak shape of the acids was sharp and symmetrical in spite of longer retention times. In addition, the mutual separation of the acids was good except for iso- and n-butyric acids. The better separation and good detection was achieved by using the two columns (TSKgel SCX and TSKgel Super IC-A/C connected in series), lower concentrations of PFBA and sulfuric acid as eluents, non-suppressed conductivity detection and UV detection at 210 nm. This analysis was applied to anaerobic digestion process waters. The chromatograms with conductivity detection were relatively simpler compared with those of UV detection. The use of two columns with different selectivities for the aliphatic carboxylic acids and the two detection modes was effective for the determination and identification of the analytes in anaerobic digestion process waters containing complex matrices.

  3. Modeling of two-phase anaerobic process treating traditional Chinese medicine wastewater with the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaobo; Hu, Dongxue; Zhang, Zhenpeng; Ren, Nanqi; Zhu, Haibo

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the study was to implement a mathematical model to simulate two-phase anaerobic digestion (TPAD) process which consisted of an anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor in series treating traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) wastewater. A model was built on the basis of Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) while considering complete mixing model for the CSTR, and axial direction discrete model and mixed series connection model for the UASB. The mathematical model was implemented with the simulation software package MATLABTM/Simulinks. System performance, in terms of COD removal, volatile fatty acids (VFA) accumulation and pH fluctuation, was simulated and compared with the measured values. The simulation results indicated that the model built was able to well predict the COD removal rate (-4.8-5.0%) and pH variation (-2.9-1.4%) of the UASB reactor, while failed to simulate the CSTR performance. Comparing to the measured results, the simulated acetic acid concentration of the CSTR effluent was underpredicted with a deviation ratios of 13.8-23.2%, resulting in an underprediction of total VFA and COD concentrations despite good estimation of propionic acid, butyric acid and valeric acid. It is presumed that ethanol present in the raw wastewater was converted into acetic acid during the acidification process, which was not considered by the model. Additionally, due to the underprediction of acetic acid the pH of CSTR effluent was overestimated.

  4. Effect of humic acid in leachate on specific methanogenic activity of anaerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mengfei; Xian, Ping; Yang, Longhui; Liu, Xi; Zhan, Longhui; Bu, Guanghui

    2015-01-01

    In order to find out the effects of humic acid (HA) in anaerobic-treated landfill leachate on granular sludge, the anaerobic biodegradability of HA as well as the influences of HA on the total cumulative methane production, the anaerobic methanization process and the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of granular sludge are studied in this paper. Experimental results show that as a non-biodegradable organic pollutant, HA is also difficult to be decomposed by microbes in the anaerobic reaction process. Presence of HA and changes in the concentration have no significant influences on the total cumulative methane production and the anaerobic methanization process of granular sludge. Besides, the total cumulative methane production cannot reflect the inhibition of toxics on the methanogenic activity of granular sludge on the premise of sufficient reaction time. Results also show that HA plays a promoting role on SMA of granular sludge. Without buffering agent the SMA value increased by 19.2% on average due to the buffering and regulating ability of HA, while with buffering agent the SMA value increased by 5.4% on average due to the retaining effect of HA on the morphology of the sludge particles. However, in the presence of leachate the SMA value decreased by 27.6% on average, because the toxic effect of the toxics in the leachate on granular sludge is much larger than the promoting effect of HA.

  5. Advanced dynamical risk analysis for monitoring anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Hess, Jonathan; Bernard, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Methanogenic fermentation involves a natural ecosystem that can be used for waste water treatment. This anaerobic process can have two locally stable steady-states and an unstable one making the process hard to handle. The aim of this work is to propose analytical criteria to detect hazardous working modes, namely situations where the system evolves towards the acidification of the plant. We first introduce a commonly used simplified model and recall its main properties. To assess the evolution of the system we study the phase plane and split it into nineteen zones according to some qualitative traits. Then a methodology is introduced to monitor in real-time the trajectory of the system across these zones and determine its position in the plane. It leads to a dynamical risk index based on the analysis of the transitions from one zone to another, and generates a classification of the zones according to their dangerousness. Finally the proposed strategy is applied to a virtual process based on model ADM1. It is worth noting that the proposed approach do not rely on the value of the parameters and is thus very robust.

  6. A modified oxic-settling-anaerobic activated sludge process using gravity thickening for excess sludge reduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Li, Shi-Yu; Jiang, Feng; Wu, Ke; Liu, Guang-Li; Lu, Hui; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2015-09-09

    Oxic-settling-anaerobic process (OSA) was known as a cost-effective way to reduce the excess sludge production with simple upgrade of conventional activated sludge process (CAS). A low oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) level was the key factor to sludge decay and lysis in the sludge holding tank of the OSA process. However, the ORP control with nitrogen purge or chemical dosing in the OSA process would induce extra expense and complicate the operation. Hence, in this study, a sludge holding tank using gravity thickening was applied to OSA process to reduce the excess sludge production without any ORP control. Results showed that the modified OSA process not only reduced the excess sludge production effectively but also improved the sludge settleability without affected the treatment capacity. The reduction of the excess sludge production in the modified OSA process resulted from interactions among lots of factors. The key element of the process was the gravity thickening sludge holding tank.

  7. A modified oxic-settling-anaerobic activated sludge process using gravity thickening for excess sludge reduction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Li, Shi-Yu; Jiang, Feng; Wu, Ke; Liu, Guang-Li; Lu, Hui; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Oxic-settling-anaerobic process (OSA) was known as a cost-effective way to reduce the excess sludge production with simple upgrade of conventional activated sludge process (CAS). A low oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) level was the key factor to sludge decay and lysis in the sludge holding tank of the OSA process. However, the ORP control with nitrogen purge or chemical dosing in the OSA process would induce extra expense and complicate the operation. Hence, in this study, a sludge holding tank using gravity thickening was applied to OSA process to reduce the excess sludge production without any ORP control. Results showed that the modified OSA process not only reduced the excess sludge production effectively but also improved the sludge settleability without affected the treatment capacity. The reduction of the excess sludge production in the modified OSA process resulted from interactions among lots of factors. The key element of the process was the gravity thickening sludge holding tank. PMID:26350761

  8. A modified oxic-settling-anaerobic activated sludge process using gravity thickening for excess sludge reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Li, Shi-Yu; Jiang, Feng; Wu, Ke; Liu, Guang-Li; Lu, Hui; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2015-09-01

    Oxic-settling-anaerobic process (OSA) was known as a cost-effective way to reduce the excess sludge production with simple upgrade of conventional activated sludge process (CAS). A low oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) level was the key factor to sludge decay and lysis in the sludge holding tank of the OSA process. However, the ORP control with nitrogen purge or chemical dosing in the OSA process would induce extra expense and complicate the operation. Hence, in this study, a sludge holding tank using gravity thickening was applied to OSA process to reduce the excess sludge production without any ORP control. Results showed that the modified OSA process not only reduced the excess sludge production effectively but also improved the sludge settleability without affected the treatment capacity. The reduction of the excess sludge production in the modified OSA process resulted from interactions among lots of factors. The key element of the process was the gravity thickening sludge holding tank.

  9. Effect of linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS) on the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M T; Campos, E; Sánchez-Leal, J; Ribosa, I

    2006-08-01

    Batch anaerobic biodegradation tests with different alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS) at increasing concentrations were performed in order to investigate the effect of LAS homologues on the anaerobic digestion process of sewage sludge. Addition of LAS homologues to the anaerobic digesters increased the biogas production at surfactant concentrations 5-10 g/kg dry sludge and gave rise to a partial or total inhibition of the methanogenic activity at higher surfactant loads. Therefore, at the usual LAS concentration range in sewage sludge, no adverse effects on the anaerobic digesters functioning of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) can be expected. The increase of biogas production at low surfactant concentrations was attributed to an increase of the bioavailability and subsequent biodegradation of organic pollutants associated with the sludge, promoted by the surfactant adsorption at the solid/liquid interface. When the available surfactant fraction in the aqueous phase instead of the nominal surfactant concentration was used to evaluate the toxicity of LAS homologues, a highly significant relationship between toxicity and alkyl chain length was obtained. Taking into account the homologue distribution of commercial LAS in the liquid phase of the anaerobic digesters of a WWTP, an EC(50) value of 14 mg/L can be considered for LAS toxicity on the anaerobic microorganisms.

  10. Early warning indicators for monitoring the process failure of anaerobic digestion system of food waste.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; He, Qingming; Wei, Yunmei; He, Qin; Peng, Xuya

    2014-11-01

    To determine reliable state parameters which could be used as early warning indicators of process failure due to the acidification of anaerobic digestion of food waste, three mesophilic anaerobic digesters of food waste with different operation conditions were investigated. Such parameters as gas production, methane content, pH, concentrations of volatile fatty acid (VFA), alkalinity and their combined indicators were evaluated. Results revealed that operation conditions significantly affect the responses of parameters and thus the optimal early warning indicators of each reactor differ from each other. None of the single indicators was universally valid for all the systems. The universally valid indicators should combine several parameters to supply complementary information. A combination of total VFA, the ratio of VFA to total alkalinity (VFA/TA) and the ratio of bicarbonate alkalinity to total alkalinity (BA/TA) can reflect the metabolism of the digesting system and realize rapid and effective early warning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microbiology, ecology, and application of the nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation process

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Li-Dong; He, Zhan-Fei; Zhu, Qun; Chen, Dong-Qing; Lou, Li-Ping; Xu, Xiang-Yang; Zheng, Ping; Hu, Bao-Lan

    2012-01-01

    Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo), which couples the anaerobic oxidation of methane to denitrification, is a recently discovered process mediated by “Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera.” M. oxyfera is affiliated with the “NC10” phylum, a phylum having no members in pure culture. Based on the isotopic labeling experiments, it is hypothesized that M. oxyfera has an unusual intra-aerobic pathway for the production of oxygen via the dismutation of nitric oxide into dinitrogen gas and oxygen. In addition, the bacterial species has a unique ultrastructure that is distinct from that of other previously described microorganisms. M. oxyfera-like sequences have been recovered from different natural habitats, suggesting that the n-damo process potentially contributes to global carbon and nitrogen cycles. The n-damo process is a process that can reduce the greenhouse effect, as methane is more effective in heat-trapping than carbon dioxide. The n-damo process, which uses methane instead of organic matter to drive denitrification, is also an economical nitrogen removal process because methane is a relatively inexpensive electron donor. This mini-review summarizes the peculiar microbiology of M. oxyfera and discusses the potential ecological importance and engineering application of the n-damo process. PMID:22905032

  12. Microbiology, ecology, and application of the nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li-Dong; He, Zhan-Fei; Zhu, Qun; Chen, Dong-Qing; Lou, Li-Ping; Xu, Xiang-Yang; Zheng, Ping; Hu, Bao-Lan

    2012-01-01

    Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo), which couples the anaerobic oxidation of methane to denitrification, is a recently discovered process mediated by "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera." M. oxyfera is affiliated with the "NC10" phylum, a phylum having no members in pure culture. Based on the isotopic labeling experiments, it is hypothesized that M. oxyfera has an unusual intra-aerobic pathway for the production of oxygen via the dismutation of nitric oxide into dinitrogen gas and oxygen. In addition, the bacterial species has a unique ultrastructure that is distinct from that of other previously described microorganisms. M. oxyfera-like sequences have been recovered from different natural habitats, suggesting that the n-damo process potentially contributes to global carbon and nitrogen cycles. The n-damo process is a process that can reduce the greenhouse effect, as methane is more effective in heat-trapping than carbon dioxide. The n-damo process, which uses methane instead of organic matter to drive denitrification, is also an economical nitrogen removal process because methane is a relatively inexpensive electron donor. This mini-review summarizes the peculiar microbiology of M. oxyfera and discusses the potential ecological importance and engineering application of the n-damo process.

  13. The effect of biological sulfate reduction on anaerobic color removal in anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors.

    PubMed

    Cirik, Kevser; Kitis, Mehmet; Cinar, Ozer

    2013-05-01

    Combination of anaerobic-aerobic sequencing processes result in both anaerobic color removal and aerobic aromatic amine removal during the treatment of dye-containing wastewaters. The aim of the present study was to gain more insight into the competitive biochemical reactions between sulfate and azo dye in the presence of glucose as electron donor source. For this aim, anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor fed with a simulated textile effluent including Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R (RBV 5R) azo dye was operated with a total cycle time of 12 h including anaerobic (6 h) and aerobic cycles (6 h). Microorganism grown under anaerobic phase of the reactor was exposed to different amounts of competitive electron acceptor (sulfate). Performance of the anaerobic phase was determined by monitoring color removal efficiency, oxidation reduction potential, color removal rate, chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, specific anaerobic enzyme (azo reductase) and aerobic enzyme (catechol 1,2-dioxygenase), and formation of aromatic amines. The presence of sulfate was not found to significantly affect dye decolorization. Sulfate and azo dye reductions took place simultaneously in all operational conditions and increase in the sulfate concentration generally stimulated the reduction of RBV 5R. However, sulfate accumulation under anaerobic conditions was observed proportional to increasing sulfate concentration.

  14. Temperature regulates deterministic processes and the succession of microbial interactions in anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiang; De Vrieze, Jo; Li, Chaonan; Li, Jiaying; Li, Jiabao; Yao, Minjie; Hedenec, Petr; Li, Huan; Li, Tongtong; Rui, Junpeng; Frouz, Jan; Li, Xiangzhen

    2017-10-15

    Temperature plays crucial roles in microbial interactions that affect the stability and performance of anaerobic digestion. In this study, the microbial interactions and their succession in the anaerobic digestion process were investigated at three levels, represented by (1) present and (2) active micro-organisms, and (3) gene expressions under a temperature gradient from 25 to 55 °C. Network topological features indicated a global variation in microbial interactions at different temperatures. The variations of microbial interactions in terms of network modularity and deterministic processes based on topological features, corresponded well with the variations of methane productions, but not with temperatures. A common successional pattern of microbial interactions was observed at different temperatures, which showed that both deterministic processes and network modularity increased over time during the digestion process. It was concluded that the increase in temperature-mediated network modularity and deterministic processes on shaping the microbial interactions improved the stability and efficiency of anaerobic digestion process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. In-Situ Anaerobic Biosurfactant Production Process For Remediation Of DNAPL Contamination In Subsurface Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albino, J. D.; Nambi, I. M.

    2009-12-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) and remediation of aquifers contaminated with hydrophobic contaminants require insitu production of biosurfactants for mobilization of entrapped hydrophobic liquids. Most of the biosurfactant producing microorganisms produce them under aerobic condition and hence surfactant production is limited in subsurface condition due to lack of oxygen. Currently bioremediation involves expensive air sparging or excavation followed by exsitu biodegradation. Use of microorganisms which can produce biosurfactants under anaerobic conditions can cost effectively expedite the process of insitu bioremediation or mobilization. In this work, the feasibility of anaerobic biosurfactant production in three mixed anaerobic cultures prepared from groundwater and soil contaminated with chlorinated compounds and municipal sewage sludge was investigated. The cultures were previously enriched under complete anaerobic conditions in the presence of Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) for more than a year before they were studied for biosurfactant production. Biosurfactant production under anaerobic conditions was simulated using two methods: i) induction of starvation in the microbial cultures and ii) addition of complex fermentable substrates. Positive result for biosurfactant production was not observed when the cultures were induced with starvation by adding PCE as blobs which served as the only terminal electron acceptor. However, slight reduction in interfacial tension was noticed which was caused by the adherence of microbes to water-PCE interface. Biosurfactant production was observed in all the three cultures when they were fed with complex fermentable substrates and surface tension of the liquid medium was lowered below 35 mN/m. Among the fermentable substrates tested, vegetable oil yielded highest amount of biosurfactant in all the cultures. Complete biodegradation of PCE to ethylene at a faster rate was also observed when vegetable oil was amended to the

  16. Treatment of slaughter wastewater by coagulation sedimentation-anaerobic biological filter and biological contact oxidation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, M.; Yu, P. F.; Fu, J. X.; Ji, X. Q.; Jiang, T.

    2017-08-01

    The optimal process parameters and conditions for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater by coagulation sedimentation-AF - biological contact oxidation process were studied to solve the problem of high concentration organic wastewater treatment in the production of small and medium sized slaughter plants. The suitable water temperature and the optimum reaction time are determined by the experiment of precipitation to study the effect of filtration rate and reflux ratio on COD and SS in anaerobic biological filter and the effect of biofilm thickness and gas water ratio on NH3-N and COD in biological contact oxidation tank, and results show that the optimum temperature is 16-24°C, reaction time is 20 min in coagulating sedimentation, the optimum filtration rate is 0.6 m/h, and the optimum reflux ratio is 300% in anaerobic biological filter reactor. The most suitable biological film thickness range of 1.8-2.2 mm and the most suitable gas water ratio is 12:1-14:1 in biological contact oxidation pool. In the coupling process of continuous operation for 80 days, the average effluent’s mass concentrations of COD, TP and TN were 15.57 mg/L, 40 mg/L and 0.63 mg/L, the average removal rates were 98.93%, 86.10%, 88.95%, respectively. The coupling process has stable operation effect and good effluent quality, and is suitable for the industrial application.

  17. Effect of respiratory warm-up on anaerobic power.

    PubMed

    Özdal, Mustafa; Bostanci, Özgür; Dağlioğlu, Önder; Ağaoğlu, Seydi Ahmet; Kabadayi, Menderes

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of respiratory muscle warm-up on anaerobic power. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty male field hockey players (age, 20.5 ± 2.0 years) each participated in a control (CAN) trial and an experimental (EAN) trial. The EAN trial involved respiratory muscle warm-up, while the CAN trial did not. Anaerobic power was measured using the Wingate protocol. Paired sample t-tests were used to compare the EAN and CAN trials. [Results] There were significant increases in peak power and relative peak power, and decreases in the time to peak after the EAN trial by 8.9%, 9.6%, and 28.8% respectively. [Conclusion] Respiratory muscle warm-up may positively affect anaerobic power due to faster attainment of peak power.

  18. Effect of respiratory warm-up on anaerobic power

    PubMed Central

    Özdal, Mustafa; Bostanci, Özgür; Dağlioğlu, Önder; Ağaoğlu, Seydi Ahmet; Kabadayi, Menderes

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of respiratory muscle warm-up on anaerobic power. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty male field hockey players (age, 20.5 ± 2.0 years) each participated in a control (CAN) trial and an experimental (EAN) trial. The EAN trial involved respiratory muscle warm-up, while the CAN trial did not. Anaerobic power was measured using the Wingate protocol. Paired sample t-tests were used to compare the EAN and CAN trials. [Results] There were significant increases in peak power and relative peak power, and decreases in the time to peak after the EAN trial by 8.9%, 9.6%, and 28.8% respectively. [Conclusion] Respiratory muscle warm-up may positively affect anaerobic power due to faster attainment of peak power. PMID:27512273

  19. Effect of initial bulk density on high-solids anaerobic digestion of MSW: General mechanism.

    PubMed

    Caicedo, Luis M; Wang, Hongtao; Lu, Wenjing; De Clercq, Djavan; Liu, Yanjun; Xu, Sai; Ni, Zhe

    2017-06-01

    Initial bulk density (IBD) is an important variable in anaerobic digestion since it defines and optimizes the treatment capacity of a system. This study reveals the mechanism on how IBD might affect anaerobic digestion of waste. Four different IBD values: D1 (500-700kgm(-3)), D2 (900-1000kgm(-3)), D3 (1100-1200kgm(-3)) and D4 (1200-1400kgm(-3)) were set and tested over a period of 90days in simulated landfill reactors. The main variables affected by the IBD are the methane generation, saturation degree, extraction of organic matter, and the total population of methanogens. The study identified that IBD >1000kgm(-3) may have significant effect on methane generation, either prolonging the lag time or completely inhibiting the process. This study provides a new understanding of the anaerobic digestion process in saturated high-solids systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermo- and mesophilic anaerobic digestion of wheat straw by the upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) process.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Marcel; Mumme, Jan; Heeg, Kathrin; Nettmann, Edith

    2012-11-01

    In this experimental work, the feasibility of wheat straw as a feedstock for biogas production is investigated using the newly developed upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) process. With the analytical emphasis placed on methane and metabolite production, both mesophilic and thermophilic 39 L UASS reactors were operated for 218 days at an organic loading rate of 2.5 g(VS)L(-1)d(-1) using wheat straw as sole substrate. For improved methanization of soluble metabolites, each UASS reactor was connected to an individual 30 L anaerobic filter (AF). During steady state thermophilic straw digestion was found to have a 36% higher methane yield (0.165 L g(VS)(-1)) whereas the hydrolysis rate constant increased by 106% (0.066 d(-1)).

  1. Bioremediation of trichloroethylene contaminated groundwater using anaerobic process.

    PubMed

    Chomsurin, Cheema; Kajorntraidej, Juthathip; Luangmuang, Kongrit

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic remediation of trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated soil and groundwater was studied in laboratory setups. In this process fermentation of polymeric organic materials (POMS) produced volatile fatty acids (VFAs) that were electron donors in reductive dechlorination of TCE. Shredded peanut shell was selected as low cost POM and the experiments were set up in 500 ml Erlenmeyer flasks. In the setups, approximately 25 mg of leachate contaminated soil was used as the main source of microorganisms and about 5 g of shredded peanut shell (0.5-2.36 mm) was added to produce VFAs for dechlorination of TCE. In the first set of experiments, fermentation of soil and shredded peanut shell was studied and it was found that VFAs were produced continuously with increasing concentration (5.63 mM as CH3COOH from the first day to 17.17 in the 10th day of the experiment). During the fermentation, concentration of ammonia-nitrogen was 22-50 mg/L, the ratio of VFA to NH3 was 15.29-23.44 and pH was 5.24-6.00. These results show that the system was appropriate for microorganism activities. In the second set of experiments, TCE (approximately 48 mg/L) was added to the fermentation system and remediation of TCE by reductive dechlorination was studied. It was found that 0.04(+/-0.01) mg TCE adsorbed to a gram of soil and peanut shells at the beginning of the experiment and based on mass balance of the system, TCE concentration in water was linearly reduced at the rate of 0.0098 mg/hr.

  2. Anaerobic methanotrophy in tidal wetland: Effects of electron acceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Li-Hung; Yu, Zih-Huei; Wang, Pei-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands have been considered to represent the largest natural source of methane emission, contributing substantially to intensify greenhouse effect. Despite in situ methanogenesis fueled by organic degradation, methanotrophy also plays a vital role in controlling the exact quantity of methane release across the air-sediment interface. As wetlands constantly experience various disturbances of anthropogenic activities, biological burrowing, tidal inundation, and plant development, rapid elemental turnover would enable various electron acceptors available for anaerobic methanotrophy. The effects of electron acceptors on stimulating anaerobic methanotrophy and the population compositions involved in carbon transformation in wetland sediments are poorly explored. In this study, sediments recovered from tidally influenced, mangrove covered wetland in northern Taiwan were incubated under the static conditions to investigate whether anaerobic methanotrophy could be stimulated by the presence of individual electron acceptors. Our results demonstrated that anaerobic methanotrophy was clearly stimulated in incubations amended with no electron acceptor, sulfate, or Fe-oxyhydroxide. No apparent methane consumption was observed in incubations with nitrate, citrate, fumarate or Mn-oxides. Anaerobic methanotrophy in incubations with no exogenous electron acceptor appears to proceed at the greatest rates, being sequentially followed by incubations with sulfate and Fe-oxyhydroxide. The presence of basal salt solution stimulated methane oxidation by a factor of 2 to 3. In addition to the direct impact of electron acceptor and basal salts, incubations with sediments retrieved from low tide period yielded a lower rate of methane oxidation than from high tide period. Overall, this study demonstrates that anaerobic methanotrophy in wetland sediments could proceed under various treatments of electron acceptors. Low sulfate content is not a critical factor in inhibiting methane

  3. Involvement of protozoa in anaerobic wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Priya, M; Haridas, Ajit; Manilal, V B

    2007-12-01

    It is only very rarely recognised in literature that anaerobic reactors may contain protozoa in addition to various bacterial and archeal groups. The role of protozoa in anaerobic degradation was studied in anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) and batch tests. Anaerobic protozoa, especially the ciliated protozoa, have direct influence on the performance of CSTR at all organic loading rates (1-2g CODl(-1)d(-1)) and retention times (5-10 days). The studies revealed that chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal is strongly correlated to ciliate density in CSTR fed with oleate (suspended COD) and acetate (soluble COD). There was no significant difference in COD removal between reactors fed suspended COD and those fed soluble COD. However, the diversity and number of ciliates is greater in CSTR fed with particulate feed. The mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) representing biomass was significantly lower (16-34%) in CSTR with protozoa. In batch tests, increased COD removal and methane production was observed in sludge having ciliates as compared with sludge without protozoa. Methane production increased linearly with number of ciliates (R(2)=0.96) in batch tests with protozoa. Direct utilization of COD by flagellates and ciliates was observed in bacteria-suppressed cultures. The technological importance of these results is that reactors with protozoa-rich sludge can enhance the rate of mineralization of complex wastewater, especially wastewater containing particulate COD.

  4. Anaerobic Digestion. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This instructor's guide contains materials needed to teach a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. These materials include: (1) unit overview; (2) lesson plans; (3) lecture outlines; (4) student worksheets for each lesson (with answers); and (5) two copies of a final quiz (with and without answers). Lesson 1 is a review of the theory of…

  5. Aerobic and anaerobic nitrogen transformation processes in N2-fixing cyanobacterial aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Klawonn, Isabell; Bonaglia, Stefano; Brüchert, Volker; Ploug, Helle

    2015-01-01

    Colonies of N2-fixing cyanobacteria are key players in supplying new nitrogen to the ocean, but the biological fate of this fixed nitrogen remains poorly constrained. Here, we report on aerobic and anaerobic microbial nitrogen transformation processes that co-occur within millimetre-sized cyanobacterial aggregates (Nodularia spumigena) collected in aerated surface waters in the Baltic Sea. Microelectrode profiles showed steep oxygen gradients inside the aggregates and the potential for nitrous oxide production in the aggregates' anoxic centres. 15N-isotope labelling experiments and nutrient analyses revealed that N2 fixation, ammonification, nitrification, nitrate reduction to ammonium, denitrification and possibly anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) can co-occur within these consortia. Thus, N. spumigena aggregates are potential sites of nitrogen gain, recycling and loss. Rates of nitrate reduction to ammonium and N2 were limited by low internal nitrification rates and low concentrations of nitrate in the ambient water. Presumably, patterns of N-transformation processes similar to those observed in this study arise also in other phytoplankton colonies, marine snow and fecal pellets. Anoxic microniches, as a pre-condition for anaerobic nitrogen transformations, may occur within large aggregates (⩾1 mm) even when suspended in fully oxygenated waters, whereas anoxia in small aggregates (<1 to ⩾0.1 mm) may only arise in low-oxygenated waters (⩽25 μM). We propose that the net effect of aggregates on nitrogen loss is negligible in NO3−-depleted, fully oxygenated (surface) waters. In NO3−-enriched (>1.5 μM), O2-depleted water layers, for example, in the chemocline of the Baltic Sea or the oceanic mesopelagic zone, aggregates may promote N-recycling and -loss processes. PMID:25575306

  6. Potential of biohydrogen production from effluents of citrus processing industry using anaerobic bacteria from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Torquato, Lilian D M; Pachiega, Renan; Crespi, Marisa S; Nespeca, Maurílio Gustavo; de Oliveira, José Eduardo; Maintinguer, Sandra I

    2017-01-01

    Citrus crops are among the most abundant crops in the world, which processing is mainly based on juice extraction, generating large amounts of effluents with properties that turn them into potential pollution sources if they are improperly discarded. This study evaluated the potential for bioconversion of effluents from citrus-processing industry (wastewater and vinasse) into hydrogen through the dark fermentation process, by applying anaerobic sewage sludge as inoculum. The inoculum was previously heat treated to eliminate H2-consumers microorganisms and improve its activity. Anaerobic batch reactors were operated in triplicate with increasing proportions (50, 80 and 100%) of each effluent as substrate at 37°C, pH 5.5. Citrus effluents had different effects on inoculum growth and H2 yields, demonstrated by profiles of acetic acid, butyric acid, propionic acid and ethanol, the main by-products generated. It was verified that there was an increase in the production of biogas with the additions of either wastewater (7.3, 33.4 and 85.3mmolL(-1)) or vinasse (8.8, 12.7 and 13.4mmolL(-1)) in substrate. These effluents demonstrated remarkable energetic reuse perspectives: 24.0MJm(-3) and 4.0MJm(-3), respectively. Besides promoting the integrated management and mitigation of anaerobic sludge and effluents from citrus industry, the biohydrogen production may be an alternative for the local energy supply, reducing the operational costs in their own facilities, while enabling a better utilization of the biological potential contained in sewage sludges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Aerobic and anaerobic nitrogen transformation processes in N2-fixing cyanobacterial aggregates.

    PubMed

    Klawonn, Isabell; Bonaglia, Stefano; Brüchert, Volker; Ploug, Helle

    2015-06-01

    Colonies of N(2)-fixing cyanobacteria are key players in supplying new nitrogen to the ocean, but the biological fate of this fixed nitrogen remains poorly constrained. Here, we report on aerobic and anaerobic microbial nitrogen transformation processes that co-occur within millimetre-sized cyanobacterial aggregates (Nodularia spumigena) collected in aerated surface waters in the Baltic Sea. Microelectrode profiles showed steep oxygen gradients inside the aggregates and the potential for nitrous oxide production in the aggregates' anoxic centres. (15)N-isotope labelling experiments and nutrient analyses revealed that N(2) fixation, ammonification, nitrification, nitrate reduction to ammonium, denitrification and possibly anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) can co-occur within these consortia. Thus, N. spumigena aggregates are potential sites of nitrogen gain, recycling and loss. Rates of nitrate reduction to ammonium and N(2) were limited by low internal nitrification rates and low concentrations of nitrate in the ambient water. Presumably, patterns of N-transformation processes similar to those observed in this study arise also in other phytoplankton colonies, marine snow and fecal pellets. Anoxic microniches, as a pre-condition for anaerobic nitrogen transformations, may occur within large aggregates (⩾1 mm) even when suspended in fully oxygenated waters, whereas anoxia in small aggregates (<1 to ⩾0.1 mm) may only arise in low-oxygenated waters (⩽25 μM). We propose that the net effect of aggregates on nitrogen loss is negligible in NO(3)(-)-depleted, fully oxygenated (surface) waters. In NO(3)(-)-enriched (>1.5 μM), O(2)-depleted water layers, for example, in the chemocline of the Baltic Sea or the oceanic mesopelagic zone, aggregates may promote N-recycling and -loss processes.

  8. Anaerobic-ion exchange (AN-IX) process for local-scale nitrogen recovery from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel P; Smith, Nathaniel T

    2015-11-01

    An anaerobic-ion exchange (AN-IX) process was developed for point-of-origin recovery of nitrogen from household wastewater. The process features upflow solids-blanket anaerobic treatment (ammonification) followed by ammonium ion exchange onto natural zeolite. The AN-IX system is configured as a series of linked upflow chambers that operate passively without energy input, and is amenable to intermittent and seasonal operation. A 57L prototype was operated for over 1.8 years treating actual wastewater under field conditions. Total nitrogen removal exceeded 96% through the first 160 days of operation and effluent ammonium nitrogen remained below detection for 300 days. Ion exchange chambers exhibited sequential NH4(+)-N breakthrough over extended operation and complete media exhaustion was approached at Day 355. The ammonium capacity of zeolite was estimated as 13.5mg NH4(+)-N per gram dry weight. AN-IX is a resilient and cost effective process for local-scale nitrogen recovery and reuse, suitable for small scale and larger systems.

  9. Suitability of anaerobic digestion effluent as process water for corn fuel ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Liu, Pei; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-01-01

    A corn fuel ethanol plant integrated with anaerobic digestion treatment of thin stillage increases the net energy balance. Furthermore, the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) can be reused as a potential substitute for process water in the ethanol fermentation. In this study, the suitability of ADE as process water for corn ethanol fermentation was investigated by analyzing the potential inhibitory components in the ADE. It was found that ammonium influenced the growth and metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Maximum ethanol production was obtained when the concentration of ammonium nitrogen was 200 mg/L, and ammonium could replace urea as the nitrogen source for S. cerevisiae under this concentration. In the ethanol fermentation with a higher concentration of ammonium, more glycerol was produced, thereby resulting in the decrease of ethanol production. In addition, components except ammonium in the ADE caused no inhibition to ethanol production. These results suggest that ADE could be reused as process water for corn ethanol fermentation without negative effect when ammonium concentration is well controlled.

  10. Hydroponic potato production on nutrients derived from anaerobically-processed potato plant residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Stutte, G. W.; Garland, J. L.; Finger, B. W.; Ruffe, L. M.

    1997-01-01

    Bioregenerative methods are being developed for recycling plant minerals from harvested inedible biomass as part of NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) research. Anaerobic processing produces secondary metabolites, a food source for yeast production, while providing a source of water soluble nutrients for plant growth. Since NH_4-N is the nitrogen product, processing the effluent through a nitrification reactor was used to convert this to NO_3-N, a more acceptable form for plants. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Norland plants were used to test the effects of anaerobically-produced effluent after processing through a yeast reactor or nitrification reactor. These treatments were compared to a mixed-N treatment (75:25, NO_3:NH_4) or a NO_3-N control, both containing only reagent-grade salts. Plant growth and tuber yields were greatest in the NO_3-N control and yeast reactor effluent treatments, which is noteworthy, considering the yeast reactor treatment had high organic loading in the nutrient solution and concomitant microbial activity.

  11. Hydroponic potato production on nutrients derived from anaerobically-processed potato plant residues.

    PubMed

    Mackowiak, C L; Stutte, G W; Garland, J L; Finger, B W; Ruffe, L M

    1997-01-01

    Bioregenerative methods are being developed for recycling plant minerals from harvested inedible biomass as part of NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) research. Anaerobic processing produces secondary metabolites, a food source for yeast production, while providing a source of water soluble nutrients for plant growth. Since NH4-N is the nitrogen product, processing the effluent through a nitrification reactor was used to convert this to NO3-N, a more acceptable form for plants. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Norland plants were used to test the effects of anaerobically-produced effluent after processing through a yeast reactor or nitrification reactor. These treatments were compared to a mixed-N treatment (75:25, NO3:NH4) or a NO3-N control, both containing only reagent-grade salts. Plant growth and tuber yields were greatest in the NO3-N control and yeast reactor effluent treatments, which is noteworthy, considering the yeast reactor treatment had high organic loading in the nutrient solution and concomitant microbial activity.

  12. Aerobic vs anaerobic exercise training effects on the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Patel, Harsh; Alkhawam, Hassan; Madanieh, Raef; Shah, Niel; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2017-02-26

    Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods to help prevent cardiovascular (CV) disease and to promote CV health. Aerobic and anaerobic exercises are two types of exercise that differ based on the intensity, interval and types of muscle fibers incorporated. In this article, we aim to further elaborate on these two categories of physical exercise and to help decipher which provides the most effective means of promoting CV health.

  13. Aerobic vs anaerobic exercise training effects on the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Harsh; Alkhawam, Hassan; Madanieh, Raef; Shah, Niel; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods to help prevent cardiovascular (CV) disease and to promote CV health. Aerobic and anaerobic exercises are two types of exercise that differ based on the intensity, interval and types of muscle fibers incorporated. In this article, we aim to further elaborate on these two categories of physical exercise and to help decipher which provides the most effective means of promoting CV health. PMID:28289526

  14. Anaerobic codigestion of sewage sludge and glycerol, focusing on process kinetics, microbial dynamics and sludge dewaterability.

    PubMed

    Jensen, P D; Astals, S; Lu, Y; Devadas, M; Batstone, D J

    2014-12-15

    Anaerobic codigestion (AcoD) is a proven option to significantly boost biogas production while utilizing existing digesters and infrastructure. The aim of the present research was to conduct an exhaustive study regarding anaerobic codigestion of mixed sewage sludge and crude glycerol considering impacts on organic load, hydraulic load, process performance and microbial community. The methane potential of crude glycerol varied from 370 mL CH4·g(-1) VS to 483 mL CH4·g(-1) VS for different samples tested. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of crude glycerol was 1.01 g VS L(-1), and the primary mechanism of inhibition was through overload from rapid fermentation rather than the presence of toxic compounds in the crude glycerol. In continuous operation over 200 days, feeding glycerol at up to 2% v/v, increased organic load by up to 70% and resulted in a 50% increase in methane production. Glycerol dosing resulted in no change in apparent dewaterability, with both codigestion and control reactors returning values of 22%-24%. Members of the phylum Thermotogae emerged as a niche population during AcoD of sewage sludge and glycerol; however there was no gross change in microbial community structure and only minimal changes in diversity. AcoD did not result in synergisms between sewage sludge and crude glycerol. Actually, at dose rate up to 2% v/v glycerol dosing is still an effective strategy to increase the organic loading rate of continuous anaerobic digesters with minimal impact of the hydraulic retention time. Nonetheless, the dose rate must be managed to: (i) prevent process inhibition and (ii) ensure sufficient degradation time to produce a stable biosolids product.

  15. Effects of spiked metals on the MSW anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Lo, H M; Chiang, C F; Tsao, H C; Pai, T Y; Liu, M H; Kurniawan, T A; Chao, K P; Liou, C T; Lin, K C; Chang, C Y; Wang, S C; Banks, C J; Lin, C Y; Liu, W F; Chen, P H; Chen, C K; Chiu, H Y; Wu, H Y; Chao, T W; Chen, Y R; Liou, D W; Lo, F C

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of eight metals on the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) in bioreactors. Anaerobic bioreactors containing 200 mL MSW mixed completely with 200 m L sludge seeding. Ca and K (0, 1000, 2000 and 6,000 mg L(-1)) and Cr, Ni, Zn, Co, Mo and W (0, 5, 50 and 100 mg  L(-1)) of various dose were added to anaerobic bioreactors to examine their anaerobic digestion performance. Results showed that except K and Zn, Ca (~728 to ~1,461 mg  L(-1)), Cr (~0.0022 to ~0.0212 mg  L(-1)), Ni (~0.801 to ~5.362 mg  L(-1)), Co (~0.148 to ~0.580 mg  L(-1)), Mo (~0.044 to ~52.94 mg  L(-1)) and W (~0.658 to ~40.39 mg  L(-1)) had the potential to enhance the biogas production. On the other hand, except Mo and W, inhibitory concentrations IC(50) of Ca, K, Cr, Ni, Zn and Co were found to be ~3252, ~2097, ~0.124, ~7.239, ~0.482, ~8.625 mg  L(-1), respectively. Eight spiked metals showed that they were adsorbed by MSW to a different extent resulting in different liquid metals levels and potential stimulation and inhibition on MSW anaerobic digestion. These results were discussed and compared to results from literature.

  16. Trace metal pyritization variability in response to mangrove soil aerobic and anaerobic oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Machado, W; Borrelli, N L; Ferreira, T O; Marques, A G B; Osterrieth, M; Guizan, C

    2014-02-15

    The degree of iron pyritization (DOP) and degree of trace metal pyritization (DTMP) were evaluated in mangrove soil profiles from an estuarine area located in Rio de Janeiro (SE Brazil). The soil pH was negatively correlated with redox potential (Eh) and positively correlated with DOP and DTMP of some elements (Mn, Cu and Pb), suggesting that pyrite oxidation generated acidity and can affect the importance of pyrite as a trace metal-binding phase, mainly in response to spatial variability in tidal flooding. Besides these aerobic oxidation effects, results from a sequential extraction analyses of reactive phases evidenced that Mn oxidized phase consumption in reaction with pyrite can be also important to determine the pyritization of trace elements. Cumulative effects of these aerobic and anaerobic oxidation processes were evidenced as factors affecting the capacity of mangrove soils to act as a sink for trace metals through pyritization processes.

  17. Anaerobic digestion of food waste stabilized by lime mud from papermaking process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jishi; Wang, Qinqing; Zheng, Pengwei; Wang, Yusong

    2014-10-01

    The effects of lime mud from papermaking process (LMP) addition as buffer agent and inorganic nutrient on the anaerobic digestion stability of food waste (FW) were investigated under mesophilic conditions with the aim of avoiding volatile fatty acids accumulation, and inorganic elements deficiency. When LMP concentration ranged from 6.0 to 10g/L, the FW anaerobic digestion could maintain efficient and stable state. These advantages are attributed to the existence of Ca, Na, Mg, K, Fe, and alkaline substances that favor the methanogenic process. The highest CH4 yield of 272.8mL/g-VS was obtained at LMP and VS concentrations of 10.0 and 19.8g/L, respectively, with the corresponding lag-phase time of 3.84d and final pH of 8.4. The methanogens from residue digestates mainly consisted of Methanobrevibacter, coccus-type and sarcina-type methanogens with LMP addition compared to Methanobacteria in control. However, higher concentration of LMP inhibited methanogenic activities and methane production.

  18. Effective ammonium removal by anaerobic oxidation in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Dipak A; Ghangrekar, Makarand M

    2015-01-01

    Dual-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs), made of clayware cylinder, were operated at different chemical oxygen demands: ammonium-nitrogen (COD:NH4+) ratio (1:1, 10:1 and 5:1) under batch mode for simultaneous removal of ammonia and organic matter from wastewater. Ammonium-N removal efficiencies of 63-32.66% were obtained for COD:NH4+ ratio of 1:10, respectively. Average COD removal efficiencies demonstrated by these MFCs were about 88%; indicating effective use of MFCs for treatment of wastewater containing organic matter and high ammonia concentration. MFCs operated with COD:NH4+ ratio of 10:1 produced highest volumetric power density of 752.88 mW/m3. The ammonium-N removal slightly increased when microbes were exposed to only ammonium as a source of electron when organic source was not supplemented. When this MFC was operated with imposed potential on cathode and without aeration in the cathode chamber, oxidation of ammonium ions at a faster rate confirmed anaerobic oxidation. During the non-turnover condition of cyclic voltammetry, MFC operated with COD:NH4+ ratio of 10:1 gave higher oxidative and reductive currents than MFC operated with COD:NH4+ ratio of 1:1 due to higher redox species. Successful application of such an anammox process for ammonium oxidation in MFCs will be useful for treatment of wastewater containing higher ammonium concentration and harvesting energy in the form of electricity.

  19. High-strength fermentable wastewater reclamation through a sequential process of anaerobic fermentation followed by microalgae cultivation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wenqiang; Chen, Taojing; Wang, Liang; Wu, Minghong; Zhao, Quanyu; Wei, Wei

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the sequential process of anaerobic fermentation followed by microalgae cultivation was evaluated from both nutrient and energy recovery standpoints. The effects of different fermentation type on the biogas generation, broth metabolites' composition, algal growth and nutrients' utilization, and energy conversion efficiencies for the whole processes were discussed. When the fermentation was designed to produce hydrogen-dominating biogas, the total energy conversion efficiency (TECE) of the sequential process was higher than that of the methane fermentation one. With the production of hydrogen in anaerobic fermentation, more organic carbon metabolites were left in the broth to support better algal growth with more efficient incorporation of ammonia nitrogen. By applying the sequential process, the heat value conversion efficiency (HVCE) for the wastewater could reach 41.2%, if methane was avoided in the fermentation biogas. The removal efficiencies of organic metabolites and NH4(+)-N in the better case were 100% and 98.3%, respectively.

  20. Elemental copper nanoparticle toxicity to different trophic groups involved in anaerobic and anoxic wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Estrella, Jorge; Puyol, Daniel; Gallagher, Sara; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A

    2015-04-15

    Elemental copper nanoparticles (Cu(0) NPs) are potentially inhibitory to the different key microbial trophic groups involved in biological wastewater treatment processes. Cu-based NPs are known to be toxic to methanogens at low concentrations. However, very little is known about the toxic effect of Cu(0) NPs on other microbial groups involved in either upper trophic levels of anaerobic digestion or anoxic nitrogen removal processes. This study evaluated the toxicity of Cu(0) NPs to glucose fermentation, syntrophic propionate oxidation and denitrification in shaken batch bioassays with soluble substrates. Batch experiments were also supplemented with CuCl2 to evaluate the inhibitory impact of soluble Cu(II) ions. Syntrophic propionate oxidation and glucose fermentation were the least and most inhibited processes with inhibition constant (Ki) values of 0.202 and 0.047 mM of added Cu(0) NPs, respectively. Further analyses revealed that the Ki values calculated as a function of the free soluble Cu concentration were <0.003 mM for every biological process tested and most of these Ki values were similar in order of magnitude regardless of whether the Cu source was CuCl2 or Cu(0) NPs. The results taken as a whole indicate that Cu(0) NPs are toxic to all the microbial processes studied. Therefore, Cu(0) NPs can potentially be an important inhibitor of anaerobic wastewater treatment processes that rely on these trophic groups. The evidence suggests that the inhibitory impact of Cu(0) NPs was mainly due to the release of toxic Cu(II) ions originating from the corrosion and dissolution of Cu(0) NPs.

  1. Effective reduction of enteric bacteria and viruses during the anaerobic digestion of biomass and wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Fannin, K.F.; Hsu, P.H.; Mensinger, J.; Cahill, C.

    1984-01-01

    Natural resource depletion increases the amount of waste requiring efficient and affordable disposal alternatives. Through effective management, many of these so-called wastes can be utilized as important energy and agricultural resources. One such management approach involves the utilization of emergent aquatic plant species, such as water hyacinth, to remove nutrients from the wastewater during growth. This process produces an energy-containing biomass that can then be anaerobically digested either separately or with other waste components to produce energy-containing methane and an effluent residue containing significant quantities of protein and nutrients. This residue can be utilized as an effective fertilizer, soil conditioner, or animal feed supplement provided it is rendered reasonably safe from such contaminants as enteric microorganisms. This study was conducted to identify the digester operating parameters that affect the survival of enteric bacteria and viruses during the anaerobic digestion of blends of water hyacinth and primary sewage sludge. Solids retetion time and temperature were demonstrated to be important parameters affecting the survival of poliovirus, f-2 coliphage, Streptoccus fecalis, and Escherichia coli during anaerobic digestion. The die-off rates of the coliphages were similar to those of the poliovirus at 35/sup 0/C. S. fecalis appeared to be the most stable of any of the bacteria and viruses studied. All organisms were more stable at 25 than at 35/sup 0/C. The data demonstrate that the concentration of enteric bacteria and viruses can be effectively reduced during anaerobic digestion using techniques, such as increased solids retention times and mesophilic temperatures, that are consistent with achieving high methane yields. The survival of enteric viruses during anaerobic digestion may be affected by the characteristics of the feedstock as well as by the process operating conditions.

  2. Combined treatment of olive mill wastewater by Fenton's reagent and anaerobic biological process.

    PubMed

    Amor, Carlos; Lucas, Marco S; García, Juan; Dominguez, Joaquín R; De Heredia, J Beltrán; Peres, José A

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the application of Fenton's reagent process combined with anaerobic digestion to treat an olive mill wastewater (OMW). Firstly, OMW was pre-treated by chemical oxidation in a batch reactor with Fenton's reagent, using a fixed H2O2/COD ratio of 0.20, pH = 3.5 and a H2O2/Fe(2+) molar ratio of 15:1. This advanced oxidation treatment allowed reaching reductions of 17.6 and 82.5% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total polyphenols (TP), respectively. Secondly, OMW treatment by anaerobic digestion was performed using previously adapted microorganisms immobilized in Sepiolite. These biological tests were carried out varying the substrate concentration supplied to the reactor and COD conversions from 52 to 74% were obtained. Afterwards, Fenton's reagent followed by anaerobic digestion was applied to OMW treatment. This combined process presented a significant improvement on organic load removal, reaching COD degradations from 64 to 88%. Beyond the pollutant load removal, it was also monitored the yield of methane generated throughout anaerobic experiments. The methane produced ranged from 281 cm(3) to 322 cm(3) of CH4/g COD removed. Additionally, a methane generation kinetic study was performed using the Monod Model. The application of this model allowed observing a kinetic constant increase of the combined process (kFN = 0.036 h(-1)) when compared to the single anaerobic process (kF = 0.017 h(-1)).

  3. Optimization of the anaerobic treatment of a waste stream from an enhanced oil recovery process.

    PubMed

    Alimahmoodi, Mahmood; Mulligan, Catherine N

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to optimize the anaerobic treatment of a waste stream from an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process. The treatment of a simulated waste water containing about 150 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and the saturation level of CO2 was evaluated. A two-step anaerobic system was undertaken in the mesophilic temperature range (30-40°C). The method of evolutionary operation EVOP factorial design was used to optimize pH, temperature and organic loading rate with the target parameters of CO2 reduction and CH4 production in the first reactor and TPH removal in the second reactor. The results showed 98% methanogenic removal of CO2 and CH4 yield of 0.38 L/gCOD in the first reactor and 83% TPH removal in the second reactor. In addition to enhancing CO2 and TPH removal and CH4 production, application of this method showed the degree of importance of the operational variables and their interactive effects for the two reactors in series. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of packing material on organic matter removal efficiency in an anaerobic-aerobic baffled bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Tabla-Hernandez, Jacobo; Lopez-Galvan, E

    2017-04-13

    The aim of the present work was to study the effect of packing material on the organic matter removal efficiency (OMRE) in an anaerobic-aerobic baffled bioreactor (AAB). For this purpose, two different experiments were conducted with two types of packing material: activated carbon particles (AC) and polyurethane foam (PF). The system consisted of two treatments; the first one was anaerobic, where it took place hydrolysis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. In anaerobic chambers, there were no packing material and the operating conditions were the same in both experiments. The second treatment was aerobic and both materials were placed at different times as a bedding. The parameters measured were: chemical oxygen demand (COD) dissolved chemical oxygen demand (CODd), total organic carbon (TOC), nitrate concentration (NO3(-)), ammonium concentration (NH4(+)), electric conductivity (σ), alkalinity (Alky) and hydrogen potential (pH). Paired t-student test showed that there was no significant difference between the OMRE in anaerobic treatment, whereas there was in aerobic treatment, due to the effect of packing material. NH4(+) and NO3(-) showed a negative Pearson correlation in both experiments, witnessing the presence of the nitrification process in aerobic chamber. AAB packed with PF (AAB-PF) had better performance at obtaining an OMRE of around 63%, whereas AAB packed with AC (AAB-AC) presented an OMRE of around 51%.

  5. [Effects of Nitrate and CH4 on Anaerobic Oxidation of BETX in Landfill Cover Soils].

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Long, Yan; Wang, Li-li; He, Ting; Ye, Jin-shao

    2015-05-01

    BETX is one of the important components of stink organic gases in landfills, which simultaneously release much of greenhouse CH4. The microorganisms in landfill cover soils are able to degrade CH4 and BETX. Therefore, improving the capacity of biological oxidation of microorganisms in landfill cover soils can effectively reduce and control pollution caused by landfill gases. Some electron acceptors can couple to anaerobic oxidation of methane and some organic pollutants, thus eliminating methane and organic substances. Based on the above theory, this research investigated the effect of nitrate (NO3-) and CH4 on anaerobic degradation of benzene series (toluene, xylene and isopropyl benzene) with coexistence of SO4(2-) in landfill cover soils through static incubation experiment. The results showed that BTEX inhibited the degradation of CH4 without adding nitrate, however, BTEX instead improved the removal of CH4 after nitrate addition. Although single addition of nitrate or CH4 could improve the removal of BTEX in landfill cover soils, adding both of them could improve the removal of BTEX better as the removal efficiencies for benzene, toluene and isopropyl benzene were respectively reached 65%, 88% and 82%, much higher than those of 53%, 76% and 31% when not adding nitrate and CH4. The process of anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to nitrate reduction was able to synchronously improve anaerobic oxidation of BETX.

  6. Relating Anaerobic Digestion Microbial Community and Process Function

    PubMed Central

    Venkiteshwaran, Kaushik; Bocher, Benjamin; Maki, James; Zitomer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) involves a consortium of microorganisms that convert substrates into biogas containing methane for renewable energy. The technology has suffered from the perception of being periodically unstable due to limited understanding of the relationship between microbial community structure and function. The emphasis of this review is to describe microbial communities in digesters and quantitative and qualitative relationships between community structure and digester function. Progress has been made in the past few decades to identify key microorganisms influencing AD. Yet, more work is required to realize robust, quantitative relationships between microbial community structure and functions such as methane production rate and resilience after perturbations. Other promising areas of research for improved AD may include methods to increase/control (1) hydrolysis rate, (2) direct interspecies electron transfer to methanogens, (3) community structure–function relationships of methanogens, (4) methanogenesis via acetate oxidation, and (5) bioaugmentation to study community–activity relationships or improve engineered bioprocesses. PMID:27127410

  7. Enhancing phosphorus release from waste activated sludge containing ferric or aluminum phosphates by EDTA addition during anaerobic fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jinte; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Lin; Li, Yongmei

    2017-03-01

    The effect of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) addition on phosphorus release from biosolids and phosphate precipitates during anaerobic fermentation was investigated. Meanwhile, the impact of EDTA addition on the anaerobic fermentation process was revealed. The results indicate that EDTA addition significantly enhanced the release of phosphorus from biosolids, ferric phosphate precipitate and aluminum phosphate precipitate during anaerobic fermentation, which is attributed to the complexation of metal ions and damage of cell membrane caused by EDTA. With the optimal EDTA addition of 19.5 mM (0.41 gEDTA/gSS), phosphorus release efficiency from biosolids was 82%, which was much higher than that (40%) without EDTA addition. Meanwhile, with 19.5 mM EDTA addition, almost all the phosphorus in ferric phosphate precipitate was released, while only 57% of phosphorus in aluminum phosphate precipitate was released. This indicates that phosphorus in ferric phosphate precipitate was much easier to be released than that in aluminum phosphate precipitate during anaerobic fermentation of sludge. In addition, proper EDTA addition facilitated the production of soluble total organic carbon and volatile fatty acids, as well as solid reduction during sludge fermentation, although methane production could be inhibited. Therefore, EDTA addition can be used as an alternative method for recovering phosphorus from waste activated sludge containing ferric or aluminum precipitates, as well as recovery of soluble carbon source.

  8. Resource recovery and epidemiology of anaerobic wastewater treatment process in a controlled ecological life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Ku-Yen; Hunt, Madelyn D.

    1995-01-01

    The results of work accomplished under two different areas: (1) Resource Recovery of an Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment process, and (2) Epidemiological Study of an Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment Process are documented. The first part of the work was to set up and test three anaerobic digesters and then run these three digesters with a NASA-simulated wastewater. The second part of the work was to use a multi-drug resistant strain of Salmonella choleraesuis as the indicator bacteria for the epidemiological study. Details of these two parts can be found in two master's theses and are described in Sections 3 and 4 of this report. Several important results condensed from these two parts are summarized in Section 2.

  9. Anaerobic digestion of post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater for improved energy efficiency of hydrothermal bioenergy processes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Schideman, Lance; Zheng, Mingxia; Martin-Ryals, Ana; Li, Peng; Tommaso, Giovana; Zhang, Yuanhui

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a promising process for converting wet biomass and organic wastes into bio-crude oil. It also produces an aqueous product referred to as post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater (PHWW) containing up to 40% of the original feedstock carbon, which reduces the overall energy efficiency of the HTL process. This study investigated the feasibility of using anaerobic digestion (AD) to treat PHWW, with the aid of activated carbon. Results showed that successful AD occurred at relatively low concentrations of PHWW (≤ 6.7%), producing a biogas yield of 0.5 ml/mg CODremoved, and ∼53% energy recovery efficiency. Higher concentrations of PHWW (≥13.3%) had an inhibitory effect on the AD process, as indicated by delayed, slower, or no biogas production. Activated carbon was shown to effectively mitigate this inhibitory effect by enhancing biogas production and allowing digestion to proceed at higher PHWW concentrations (up to 33.3%), likely due to sequestering toxic organic compounds. The addition of activated carbon also increased the net energy recovery efficiency of AD with a relatively high concentration of PHWW (33.3%), taking into account the energy for producing activated carbon. These results suggest that AD is a feasible approach to treat PHWW, and to improve the energy efficiency of the HTL processes.

  10. Feasibility tests for treating shampoo and hair colorant wastewaters using anaerobic processes.

    PubMed

    Ahammad, Shaikh Z; Yakubu, A; Dolfing, J; Mota, C; Graham, D W

    2012-01-01

    Wastes from the personal care product (PCP) industry are often high in biodegradable carbon, which makes them amenable to aerobic biological treatment, although process costs are usually high due to aeration inefficiencies, high electricity demand and production of large amounts of sludge. As such, anaerobic treatment technologies are being considered to lower net energy costs by reducing air use and increasing methane production. To assess the amenability of PCP wastes to anaerobic treatment, methane yields and rates were quantified in different anaerobic reactors treating typical PCP wastes, including wastes from shampoo and hair colorant products. Overall, shampoo wastes were more amenable to methanogenesis with almost double the methane yields compared with colour wastes. To assess relevant microbial guilds, qPCR was performed on reactor biomass samples. Methanosaetaceae abundances were always significantly higher than Methanosarcinaceae and Methanomicrobiales abundances (P < 0.05), and did not differ significantly between waste types. Although colour wastes were less amenable to anaerobic treatment than shampoo wastes, differences cannot be explained by relative microbial abundances and probably result from the presence of inhibiting compounds in hair colorants (e.g., oxidants) at higher levels. Results showed that anaerobic technologies have great potential for treating PCP wastes, but additional work is needed to establish the basis of elevated methane yields and inhibition, especially when colorant wastes are present.

  11. Observer-based input estimation in continuous anaerobic wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui-Medina, E A; Alcaraz-González, V; Méndez-Acosta, H O; González-Alvarez, V

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a "virtually controlled observer" (VCO) is proposed to estimate simultaneously the influent substrate concentration and unmeasured state variables in continuous anaerobic digestion processes. The hypothetical (unmeasured) influent substrate concentration is updated by a feedback control, which is regulated by the estimation error of a measured output. The proposed approach is firstly illustrated upon a simple continuous bioprocess. Then, the performance of the observer is tested via numerical simulations in a continuous anaerobic digestion model. Results showed that it is possible to estimate both, the influent substrate concentration and unmeasured states in the digester in the face of parametric uncertainties.

  12. Effects of shearing on biogas production and microbial community structure during anaerobic digestion with recuperative thickening.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shufan; Phan, Hop V; Bustamante, Heriberto; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Nghiem, Long D

    2017-06-01

    Recuperative thickening can intensify anaerobic digestion to produce more biogas and potentially reduce biosolids odour. This study elucidates the effects of sludge shearing during the thickening process on the microbial community structure and its effect on biogas production. Medium shearing resulted in approximately 15% increase in biogas production. By contrast, excessive or high shearing led to a marked decrease in biogas production, possibly due to sludge disintegration and cell lysis. Microbial analysis using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that medium shearing increased the evenness and diversity of the microbial community in the anaerobic digester, which is consistent with the observed improved biogas production. By contrast, microbial diversity decreased under either excessive shearing or high shearing condition. In good agreement with the observed decrease in biogas production, the abundance of Bacteroidales and Syntrophobaterales (which are responsible for hydrolysis and acetogenesis) decreased due to high shearing during recuperative thickening. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Alkali-solubilized organic matter from sludge and its degradability in the anaerobic process.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongzhe; Zhou, Yan; Tan, Youming; Pathak, Santosh; Majid, Maszenan Bin Abdul; Ng, Wun Jern

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates alkali-solubilized dissolved organic matter (DOM) and its fate in the anaerobic treatment process. DOM was fractionated into high molecular weight (HMW) protein-like substances (PL), HMW saccharide-like substances (SL), low molecular weight (LMW) PL, LMW SL, and humic acid-like substances (HAL). The results indicate alkali-solubilized DOM is primarily composed of LMW PL, HMW SL, and HAL. Alkaline pretreatment improved the overall anaerobic degradability of DOM in sludge (removal efficiency of total DOM increased by 28.4%). However, certain DOM fractions (mainly HMW PL and HAL) exhibited low degradability during anaerobic treatment, primarily caused by the low degradability of aromatic groups (such as aromatic amine groups from tryptophan-like PL). Alkaline pretreatment also resulted in an increase of residual DOM, which is mainly composed of HAL (52.9%) and HMW SL (49.9%).

  14. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste: Utility of process residues as a soil amendment

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.; Kay, B.D.

    1995-12-31

    Tuna processing wastes (sludges high in fat, oil, and grease [FOG]) and municipal solid waste (MSW) generated on Tutuila Island, American Samoa, represent an ongoing disposal challenge. The biological conversion of the organic fraction of these wastes to useful products, including methane and fertilizer-grade residue, through anaerobic high-solids digestion is currently in scale-up development. The suitability of the anaerobic digestion residues as a soil amendment was evaluated through extensive chemical analysis and greenhouse studies using corn as an indicator crop. Additionally, native Samoan soil was used to evaluate the specific application rates for the compost. Experiments established that anaerobic residues increase crop yields in direct proportion to increases in the application rate. Additionally, nutrient saturation was not demonstrated within the range of application rates evaluated for the Samoan soil. Beyond nutrient supplementation, organic residue amendment to Samoan soil imparts enhanced water and nutrient-binding capacities.

  15. On-line near infrared monitoring of glycerol-boosted anaerobic digestion processes: evaluation of process analytical technologies.

    PubMed

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Lomborg, Carina Juel; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Esbensen, Kim H

    2008-02-01

    A study of NIR as a tool for process monitoring of thermophilic anaerobic digestion boosted by glycerol has been carried out, aiming at developing simple and robust Process Analytical Technology modalities for on-line surveillance in full scale biogas plants. Three 5 L laboratory fermenters equipped with on-line NIR sensor and special sampling stations were used as a basis for chemometric multivariate calibration. NIR characterisation using Transflexive Embedded Near Infra-Red Sensor (TENIRS) equipment integrated into an external recurrent loop on the fermentation reactors, allows for representative sampling, of the highly heterogeneous fermentation bio slurries. Glycerol is an important by-product from the increasing European bio-diesel production. Glycerol addition can boost biogas yields, if not exceeding a limiting 5-7 g L(-1) concentration inside the fermenter-further increase can cause strong imbalance in the anaerobic digestion process. A secondary objective was to evaluate the effect of addition of glycerol, in a spiking experiment which introduced increasing organic overloading as monitored by volatile fatty acids (VFA) levels. High correlation between on-line NIR determinations of glycerol and VFA contents has been documented. Chemometric regression models (PLS) between glycerol and NIR spectra needed no outlier removals and only one PLS-component was required. Test set validation resulted in excellent measures of prediction performance, precision: r(2) = 0.96 and accuracy = 1.04, slope of predicted versus reference fitting. Similar prediction statistics for acetic acid, iso-butanoic acid and total VFA proves that process NIR spectroscopy is able to quantify all pertinent levels of both volatile fatty acids and glycerol. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Bio-electrolytic sensor for rapid monitoring of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiangdan; Li, Xiaohu; Zhao, Nannan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    2017-03-15

    This study presents an innovative biosensor that was developed on the basis of a microbial electrolysis cell for fast and reliable measurement of volatile fatty acids (VFA) during anaerobic digestion (AD) process. The bio-electrolytic sensor was first tested with synthetic wastewater containing varying concentrations of VFA. A linear correlation (R(2) = 0.99) between current densities (0.03 ± 0.01 to 2.43 ± 0.12 A/m(2)) and VFA concentrations (5-100 mM) was found. The sensor performance was then investigated under different affecting parameters such as the external voltage, VFA composition ratio, and ionic strength. Linear relationship between the current density and VFA concentrations was always observed. Furthermore, the bio-electrolytic sensor proved ability to handle interruptions such as the presence of complex organic matter, anode exposure to oxygen and low pH. Finally, the sensor was applied to monitor VFA concentrations in a lab-scale AD reactor for a month. The VFA measurements from the sensor correlated well with those from GC analysis which proved the accuracy of the system. Since hydrogen was produced in the cathode as byproduct during monitoring, the system could be energy self-sufficient. Considering the high accuracy, short response time, long-term stability and additional benefit of H2 production, this bio-electrolytic sensor could be a simple and cost-effective method for VFA monitoring during AD and other anaerobic processes.

  17. Characteristics of hydrogen and methane production from cornstalks by an augmented two- or three-stage anaerobic fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuan; Lai, Qiheng; Zhang, Chong; Zhao, Hongxin; Ma, Kun; Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Hongzhang; Liu, Dehua; Xing, Xin-Hui

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents the co-production of hydrogen and methane from cornstalks by a two- or three-stage anaerobic fermentation process augmented with effective artificial microbial community. Two-stage fermentation by using the anaerobic sludge and DGGE analysis showed that effective and stable strains should be introduced into the system. We introduced Enterobacter aerogens or Clostridium paraputrificum into the hydrogen stage, and C. paraputrificum was proven to be more effective. In the three-stage process consisting of the improved hydrolysis, hydrogen and methane production stages, the highest soluble sugars (0.482 kg/kg cornstalks) were obtained after the introduction of Clostridium thermocellum in the hydrolysis stage, under the thermophilic (55 degrees C) and acidic (pH 5.0) conditions. Hydrolysates from 1 kg of cornstalks could produce 2.61 mol (63.7 l) hydrogen by augmentation with C. paraputrificum and 4.69 mol (114.6 l) methane by anaerobic granular sludge, corresponding to 54.1% energy recovery.

  18. Biohydrogen Production from Cheese Processing Wastewater by Anaerobic Fermentation Using Mixed Microbial Communities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hydrogen (H2) production from simulated cheese processing wastewater via anaerobic fermentation was conducted using mixed microbial communities under mesophilic conditions. In batch H2 fermentation experiments H2 yields of 8 and 10 mM/g-COD fed were achieved at food-to-microorganism (F/M) ratios of ...

  19. 40 CFR Table II-2 to Subpart II - Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Processes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Processes II Table II-2 to Subpart II Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Industrial Wastewater Treatment Pt. 98...

  20. 40 CFR Table II-2 to Subpart II - Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Processes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Collection Efficiencies of Anaerobic Processes II Table II-2 to Subpart II Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Industrial Wastewater Treatment Pt. 98...

  1. Isotope effects associated with the anaerobic oxidation of sulfite and thiosulfate by the photosynthetic bacterium, Chromatium vinosum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, B.; Gest, H.; Hayes, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The purple photosynthetic bacterium Chromatium vinosum, strain D, catalyzes several oxidations of reduced sulfur compounds under anaerobic conditions in the light: e.g., sulfide --> sulfur --> sulfate, sulfite --> sulfate, and thiosulfate --> sulfur + sulfate. Here it is shown that no sulfur isotope effect is associated with the last of these processes; isotopic compositions of the sulfur and sulfate produced can differ, however, if the sulfane and sulfonate positions within the thiosulfate have different isotopic compositions. In the second process, an observed change from an inverse to a normal isotope effect during oxidation of sulfite may indicate the operation of 2 enzymatic pathways. In contrast to heterotrophic anaerobic reduction of oxidized sulfur compounds, anaerobic oxidations of inorganic sulfur compounds by photosynthetic bacteria are characterized by relatively small isotope effects.

  2. Isotope effects associated with the anaerobic oxidation of sulfite and thiosulfate by the photosynthetic bacterium, Chromatium vinosum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, B.; Gest, H.; Hayes, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The purple photosynthetic bacterium Chromatium vinosum, strain D, catalyzes several oxidations of reduced sulfur compounds under anaerobic conditions in the light: e.g., sulfide --> sulfur --> sulfate, sulfite --> sulfate, and thiosulfate --> sulfur + sulfate. Here it is shown that no sulfur isotope effect is associated with the last of these processes; isotopic compositions of the sulfur and sulfate produced can differ, however, if the sulfane and sulfonate positions within the thiosulfate have different isotopic compositions. In the second process, an observed change from an inverse to a normal isotope effect during oxidation of sulfite may indicate the operation of 2 enzymatic pathways. In contrast to heterotrophic anaerobic reduction of oxidized sulfur compounds, anaerobic oxidations of inorganic sulfur compounds by photosynthetic bacteria are characterized by relatively small isotope effects.

  3. Effect of increasing total solids contents on anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: performance and microbial characteristics analysis.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jing; Dong, Bin; Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies.

  4. Effect of Increasing Total Solids Contents on Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste under Mesophilic Conditions: Performance and Microbial Characteristics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies. PMID:25051352

  5. Two-stage anaerobic and post-aerobic mesophilic digestion of sewage sludge: Analysis of process performance and hygienization potential.

    PubMed

    Tomei, M Concetta; Mosca Angelucci, Domenica; Levantesi, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    Sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion has been demonstrated to be effective for enhanced sludge stabilization, in terms of increased solid reduction and improvement of sludge dewaterability. In this study, we propose a modified version of the sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion process by operating the aerobic step under mesophilic conditions (T=37 °C), in order to improve the aerobic degradation kinetics of soluble and particulate chemical oxygen demand (COD). Process performance has been assessed in terms of "classical parameters" such as volatile solids (VS) removal, biogas production, COD removal, nitrogen species, and polysaccharide and protein fate. The aerobic step was operated under intermittent aeration to achieve nitrogen removal. Aerobic mesophilic conditions consistently increased VS removal, providing 32% additional removal vs. 20% at 20 °C. Similar results were obtained for nitrogen removal, increasing from 64% up to 99% at the higher temperature. Improved sludge dewaterability was also observed with a capillary suction time decrease of ~50% during the mesophilic aerobic step. This finding may be attributable to the decreased protein content in the aerobic digested sludge. The post-aerobic digestion exerted a positive effect on the reduction of microbial indicators while no consistent improvement of hygienization related to the increased temperature was observed. The techno-economic analysis of the proposed digestion layout showed a net cost saving for sludge disposal estimated in the range of 28-35% in comparison to the single-phase anaerobic digestion.

  6. The effects of certain antibiotics on biogas production in the anaerobic digestion of pig waste slurry.

    PubMed

    Lallai, A; Mura, G; Onnis, N

    2002-04-01

    Antibiotics commonly used in the treatment of pigs - amoxicillin trihydrate, oxytetracycline hydrochloride and thiamphenicol were added at different concentrations to aliquots of pig waste slurry plus anaerobic sludge in serum bottles. The biogas production and methane concentration in the headspace were monitored to determine the effect of the antibiotics on the anaerobic process. With thiamphenicol significant differences in methane production were found for concentrations of 80 and 160 mg l(-1) slurry. Compared to the control, only minor differences in methane production were noted in the bottles to which amoxicillin (60 and 120 mg l(-1)) had been added. Methane production was about the same for the bottles with different oxytetracycline concentrations (125 and 250 mg l(-1)) and for the control.

  7. Effect of sodium salt on anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Naveed; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Jie; Li, Yeqing; Chen, Chang; Liu, Guangqing; Zhang, Ruihong

    2016-01-01

    The effect of different sodium salt concentration on anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste was investigated. The methane production performance, the corresponding methane production model and sodium salt inhibition model were studied, and the degradation efficiency was analyzed. With the increase of sodium salt concentration, the methane yield and the maximal methane production rate decreased along with the increase of lag phase time. The highest methane yield of 594 mL/g-VSadded (VS: volatile solids) was found with no sodium salt addition while the lowest was obtained with addition of 16 g/L NaCl. The declines of the methane yield were negligible when the sodium salt concentration was below 8 g/L, which corresponded to <10% inhibiting efficiency. In contrast, a sharp decrease of methane yield was observed with addition of >8 g/L NaCl (causing 17-80% inhibition). Five kinds of regression models were developed to describe the sodium salt inhibition efficiency, and the cubic regression model of y = 0.508 + 2.401x - 0.369x(2) + 0.033x(3) showed the best fitting. The volatile fatty acids/ethanol gradually accumulated along with the increase of the sodium salt concentration, and the volatile solid removal efficiency represented a gradual decline accordingly. It is recommended that the sodium salt concentration in the anaerobic digesters should be controlled below 8 g/L in order to avoid intense methane inhibition.

  8. Effect of inoculum-substrate ratio on acclimatization of pharmaceutical effluent in an anaerobic batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Muruganandam, B; Saravanane, R; Lavanya, M; Sivacoumar, R

    2008-07-01

    Anaerobic treatment has gained tremendous success over the past two decades for treatment of industrial effluents. Over the past 30 years, the popularity of anaerobic wastewater treatment has increased as public utilities and industries have utilized its considerable benefits. Low biomass production, row nutrient requirements and the energy production in terms of methane yield are the significant advantages over aerobic treatment process. Due to the disadvantages reported in the earlier investigations, during the past decade, anaerobic biotechnology now seems to become a stable process technology in respect of generating a high quality effluent. The objective of the present experimental study was to compare the biodegradability of recalcitrant effluent (pharmaceutical effluent) for various inoculum-substrate ratios. The batch experiments were conducted over 6 months to get effect of ratio of inoculum-substrate on the acclimatization of pharmaceutical effluent. The tests were carried out in batch reactors, serum bottles, of volume 2000 mL and plastic canes of 10000 mL. Each inoculum was filled with a cow dung, sewage and phosphate buffer. The batch was made-up of diluted cow dung at various proportions of water and cow dung, i.e., 1:1 and 1:2 (one part of cow dung and one part of water by weight for 1:1). The bottles were incubated at ambient temperature (32 degrees C-35 degrees C). The bottles were closed tightly so that the anaerobic condition is maintained. The samples were collected and biodegradability was measured once in four days. The bottles were carefully stirred before gas measurement. The substrate was added to a mixture of inoculum and phosphate nutrients. The variations in pH, conductivity, alkalinity, COD, TS, TVS, VSS, and VFA were measured for batch process. The biogas productivity was calculated for various batches of inoculum-substrate addition and conclusions were drawn for expressing the biodegradability of pharmaceutical effluent on

  9. Seasonal and spatial variation in soil chemistry and anaerobic processes in an Arctic ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipson, D.; Mauritz, M.; Bozzolo, F.; Raab, T. K.; Santos, M. J.; Friedman, E. F.; Rosenbaum, M.; Angenent, L.

    2009-12-01

    Drained thaw lake basins (DTLB) are the dominant landform in the Arctic coastal plain near Barrow, Alaska. Our previous work in a DTLB showed that Fe(III) and humic substances are important electron acceptors in anaerobic respiration, and play a significant role in the C cycle of these organic-rich soils. In the current study, we investigated seasonal and spatial patterns of availability of electron acceptors and labile substrate, redox conditions and microbial activity. Landscapes within DTLB contain complex, fine-scale topography arising from ice wedge polygons, which produce raised and lowered areas. One goal of our study was to determine the effects of microtopographic variation on the potential for Fe(III) reduction and other anaerobic processes. Additionally, the soil in the study site has a complex vertical structure, with an organic peat layer overlying a mineral layer, overlying permafrost. We described variations in soil chemistry across depth profiles into the permafrost. Finally, we installed an integrated electrode/potentiostat system to electrochemically monitor microbial activity in the soil. Topographically low areas differed from high areas in most of the measured variables: low areas had lower oxidation-reduction potential, higher pH and electrical conductivity. Soil pore water from low areas had higher concentrations of Fe(III), Fe(II), dissolved organic C (DOC), and aromaticity (UV absorbance at 260nm, “A260”). Low areas also had higher concentrations of dissolve CO2 and CH4 in soil pore water. Laboratory incubations of soil showed a trend toward higher potentials for Fe(III) reduction in topographically low areas. Clearly, ice wedge-induced microtopography exerts a strong control on microbial processes in this DTLB landscape, with increased anaerobic activity occurring in the wetter, depressed areas. Soil water extracted from 5-15 cm depth had higher concentrations of Fe(III), Fe(II), A260, and DOC compared to soil water sampled from 0-5cm

  10. Nutrient removal and microbial granulation in an anaerobic process treating inorganic and organic nitrogenous wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Y H; Kim, H C

    2004-01-01

    The sustainable anaerobic nitrogen removal and microbial granulation were investigated by using a laboratory anaerobic granular sludge bed reactor, treating synthetic (inorganic and organic) wastewater and piggery waste. From inorganic synthetic wastewater, lithoautotrophic ammonium oxidation to nitrite/nitrate was observed by an addition of hydroxylamine. Also, the results revealed that the Anammox intermediates (particularly, hydrazine) contents in the substrate would be one of the important parameters for success of the anaerobic nitrogen removal process. The results from organic synthetic wastewater show that if the Anammox organism were not great enough in the startup of the process, denitritation and anaerobic ammonification would be a process prior to the Anammox reaction. The anaerobic ammonium removal from the piggery waste was performed successfully, probably due to the Anammox intermediates contained in the substrate. This reactor shows a complex performance including the Anammox reaction and HAP crystallization, as well as having partial denitritation occurring simultaneously. From the activity test, the maximum specific N conversion rate was 0.1 g NH4-N/g VSS/day (0.77 g T-N/g VSS/day), indicating that potential denitritation is quite high. The NO2-N/NH4-N ratio to Anammox is 1.17. The colour of the biomass treating the piggery waste changed from black to dark red. It was also observed that the red-colored granular sludge had a diameter of 1-2 mm. The settleability assessment of the granular sludge revealed that the granular sludge had a good settleability even though it was worse than that of seed granular sludge.

  11. Performance evaluation of a two-phase anaerobic digestion process of synthetic domestic wastewater at ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, L; Montalvo, S; Coronado, E; Chamy, R; Poirrier, P; Crutchik, D; Sánchez, E; De La Rubia, M A; Borja, R

    2009-06-01

    A two-phase anaerobic digestion process of synthetic domestic wastewater was studied at ambient temperature in mild to cold climates. The hydrolytic stage was carried out in a continuous stirred tank reactor with an effective volume of 1.2 L. The hydrolytic reactor operated at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) in the range of 1.3 to 2.7 h, which allowed for optimum HRT to be obtained in order to achieve a maximum amount of soluble COD. For the methanogenic stage, an up-flow anaerobic filter with a volume of 1.35 L and corrugated plastic rings as biomass immobilization support were used. During the investigation, the ambient temperature ranged between 21 degrees C and 24 degrees C. Synthetic domestic wastewater with a COD of 700 mg/L was used as substrate. The study was performed at total organic loading rates (OLR(T)) of 2.0-4.3 g COD/L. d, with a global HRT (including both hydrolytic and methanogenic stages) of 2.8-5.8 hours. A maximum percentage of organic matter removed of 88% was achieved at a global HRT of 5.8 hours. Under these operating conditions, the production of biogas was 97% higher than that obtained in the one-phase anaerobic digestion process. Additionally, the kinetics involved in the hydrolytic stage was determined using the Contois kinetic model, which adequately predicted the experimental results.

  12. Dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion of simulated organic fraction of municipal solid waste: process modeling.

    PubMed

    Fdez-Güelfo, L A; Álvarez-Gallego, C; Sales Márquez, D; Romero García, L I

    2011-01-01

    Solid retention time (SRT) is a very important operational variable in continuous and semicontinuous waste treatment processes since the organic matter removal efficiency--expressed in terms of percentage of Dissolved Organic Carbon (% DOC) or Volatile Solids (% VS) removed--and the biogas or methane production are closely related with the SRT imposed. Optimum SRT is depending on the waste characteristics and the microorganisms involved in the process and, hence, it should be determined specifically in each case. In this work a series of experiments were carried out to determine the effect of SRT, from 40 to 8 days, on the performance of the dry (30% Total Solids) thermophilic (55°C) anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of Municipal Solid Wastes (OFMSW) operating at semicontinuous regime of feeding. The experimental results show than 15days is the optimum SRT (the best between all proved) for this process. Besides, data of organic matter concentration and methane production versus SRT have been used to obtain the kinetic parameters of the kinetic model of Romero García (1991): the maximum specific growth rate of the microorganisms (μmax=0.580 days(-1)) and the fraction of substrate non-biodegradable (α=0.268).

  13. Putting microbes to work in sequence: recent advances in temperature-phased anaerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wen; Schanbacher, Floyd L; Yu, Zhongtang

    2010-12-01

    Methane biogas production through anaerobic digestion (or biomethanation) is one of the few technologies that both produce bioenergy and protect the environment. When the focus of anaerobic digestion (AD) is shifted from primarily wastewater treatment to bioenergy production, efficiency and process stability become critical to the economic viability of AD technologies. Temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) is a promising process that can significantly enhance both digestion efficiency and process robustness. A TPAD system separates the conventional AD process into two phases, so both phases can be optimized according to their individual functional needs. In the first, thermophilic phase, the often rate-limiting hydrolysis step of polymeric feedstock is accelerated by elevated temperatures, while in the second, mesophilic phase, the fastidious syntrophic acetogens and methanogens are provided with permissive conditions where inhibitions to key guilds (e.g., syntrophic acetogens and methanogens) are attenuated. Although large-scale TPAD systems have not been applied widely, researchers have demonstrated the potential superiority of TPAD systems over single-stage digesters and other AD processes with enhanced VS (volatile solids) and pathogen removal; increased methane yield, process stability, OLR (organic loading rate); shorter HRT (hydraulic retention time); decreased foaming and short-chain fatty acids in effluent. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhanced Versus Conventional Sludge Anaerobic Processes: Performances and Techno-Economic Assessment.

    PubMed

    Gianico, Andrea; Bertanza, Giorgio; Braguglia, Camilla M; Canato, Matteo; Gallipoli, Agata; Laera, Giuseppe; Levantesi, Caterina; Mininni, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Sewage sludge processing is a key issue in water resource recovery facilities due to the inefficacy of conventional treatments to produce high quality biosolids to be safely used in agriculture. Under this framework, the performances of several enhanced stabilization processes, namely ultrasound-pretreated Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion (US+MAD), thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD), thermal-pretreated TAD (TH+TAD) and ultrasound-pretreated inverse Temperature Phased Anaerobic Digestion (US+iTPAD) have been investigated. Such enhanced processes resulted in higher biogas yields and higher destruction of pathogens with respect to conventional MAD process, thus suggesting their feasibility in full-scale implementation perspectives. A procedure for technical-economic comparison of new sludge processing lines against conventional ones (benchmarking) was developed, based on the definition of technical issues (e.g. reliability, complexity, etc.) which are rated for each situation. Moreover, capital and operating costs were estimated. The enhanced processes analyzed in this work showed some potentially critical items, mainly related to energy balance and reagent consumption.

  15. Evaluation of granular anaerobic ammonium oxidation process for the disposal of pre-treated swine manure

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    With rising environmental concerns on potable water safety and eutrophication, increased media attention and tighter environmental regulations, managing animal waste in an environmentally responsible and economically feasible way can be a challenge. In this study, the possibility of using granular anammox process for ammonia removal from swine waste treatment water was investigated. A rapid decrease of NO2−–N and NH4+–N was observed during incubation with wastewater from an activated sludge deodorization reactor and anaerobic digestion-partial oxidation treatment process treating swine manure and its corresponding control artificial wastewaters. Ammonium removal dropped from 98.0 ± 0.6% to 66.9 ± 2.7% and nearly absent when the organic load in the feeding increased from 232 mg COD/L to 1160 mg COD/L and 2320 mg COD/L. The presence of organic carbon had limited effect on nitrite and total nitrogen removal. At a COD to N ratio of 0.9, COD inhibitory organic load threshold concentration was 727 mg COD/L. Mass balance indicated that denitrifiers played an important role in nitrite, nitrate and organic carbon removal. These results demonstrated that anammox system had the potential to effectively treat swine manure that can achieve high nitrogen standards at reduced costs. PMID:24765570

  16. Effects of reservoir anaerobic, reducing conditions on surfactant retention in chemical flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, F.H.L. )

    1993-05-01

    Surfactant retentions observed in four microemulsion-flooding pilot tests at the Loudon field were substantially lower than predicted from conventional laboratory coreflood experiments. This paper presents research results that explain this discrepancy. The oil reservoir was in an anaerobic, reducing conditions, whereas laboratory corefloods were normally conducted under aerobic, oxidizing conditions. The difference in redox condition was shown to have a serious effect on surfactant retention. Laboratory corefloods conducted under reservoir-like, anaerobic, reducing conditions gave surfactant retention results significantly closer to those observed in field tests. The effect of redox conditions on surfactant adsorption was substantiated further by results from static adsorption experiments with various clay types. Exposure of preserved cores from a reduced reservoir to aerobic conditions can cause high surfactant retention in corefloods. Methods were developed to restore such oxygen-contaminated core material to its original, anaerobic, reduced state. These coreflood procedures simulate actual reservoir conditions better and give meaningful surfactant-retention results for process design optimization.

  17. Saponification pretreatment and solids recirculation as a new anaerobic process for the treatment of slaughterhouse waste.

    PubMed

    Affes, R; Palatsi, J; Flotats, X; Carrère, H; Steyer, J P; Battimelli, A

    2013-03-01

    Different configurations of anaerobic process, adapted to the treatment of solid slaughterhouse fatty waste, were proposed and evaluated in this study. The tested configurations are based on the combination of anaerobic digestion with/without waste saponification pretreatment (70 °C during 60 min) and with/without recirculation of the digestate solid fraction (ratio=20% w/w). After an acclimation period of substrate pulses-feeding cycles, the reactors were operated in a semi-continuous feeding mode, increasing organic loading rates along experimental time. The degradation of the raw substrate was shown to be the bottleneck of the whole process, obtaining the best performance and process yields in the reactor equipped with waste pretreatment and solids recirculation. Saponification promoted the emulsification and bioavailability of solid fatty residues, while recirculation of solids minimized the substrate/biomass wash-out and induced microbial adaptation to the treatment of fatty substrates.

  18. Effect of anaerobic pretreatment on environmental and physicochemical characteristics of duckweed based stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Caicedo, J R; Espinosa, C; Andrade, M; Gijzen, H

    2002-01-01

    Duckweed based stabilization ponds, an alternative for wastewater treatment, are attracting a growing interest from researchers because they are basically a low cost technology, easy to built and operate, and produce tertiary quality effluents. Besides, this technology offers the possibility of resource recovery by producing high quality duckweed protein, which can be of further use. Since the technology is rather new, there are many aspects to be studied before its full-scale implementation. It is necessary to gain sound knowledge of the basic principles of the complex processes occurring in the system, as well as of the practical aspects of design and operation. The presence of a layer of duckweed on the surface is expected to produce different environmental and physicochemical conditions in the water from those found in conventional stabilization ponds. These environmental and physicochemical conditions affect both plant growth and biological treatment processes in the system, therefore it is important to determine their behavior in a duckweed system and how they can be affected by an anaerobic pretreatment. Continuous flow pilot plants composed of seven ponds in series were operated with artificial substrate under two different conditions: with anaerobic pretreatment and without anaerobic pretreatment. The flow was kept constant during the operation. Conditions such as pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, total and ammonium nitrogen, nitrites and nitrates, and phosphorus were evaluated in the system under steady state conditions. The main conclusions from the study include the following: pH, temperature and oxygen profiles are more stable in duckweed ponds than in conventional stabilization ponds; anaerobic pretreatment has a significant effect on the oxygen concentration in the system and on the organic matter removal but not on the nutrient removal.

  19. Evaluation of an Anaerobic Digestion System for Processing CELSS Crop Residues for Resource Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strayer, R. F.; Finger, B. W.; Alazraki, M. P.

    1997-01-01

    Three bioreactors, connected in series, were used to process CELSS potato residues for recovery of resources. The first stage was an anaerobic digestor (8 L working volume; cow rumen contents inoculum; fed-batch; 8 day retention time; feed rate 25 gdw/day) that converted 33% of feed (dry weight loss) to CO2 and "volatile fatty acids" (vfa, 83:8:8 mmolar ratio acetic:propionic:butyric). High nitrate-N in the potato residue feed was absent in the anaerobic effluent, with a high portion converted to NH4(+)-N and the remainder unaccounted and probably lost to denitrification and NH4(+) volatilization. Liquid anaerobic effluent was fed to an aerobic, yeast biomass production vessel (2 L volume; Candida ingens inoculum; batch [pellicle] growth; 2 day retention time) where the VFAs and some NH4(+)-N were converted into yeast biomass. Yeast yields accounted for up to 8% of potato residue fed into the anaerobic bioreactor. The third bioreactor (0.5 L liquid working volume; commercial nitrifier inoculum; packed-bed biofilm; continuous yeast effluent feed; recirculating; constant volume; 2 day hydraulic retention time) was used to convert successfully the remaining NH4(+)-N into nitrate-N (preferred form of N for CELSS crop production) and to remove the remaining degradable soluble organic carbon. Effluents from the last two stages were used for partial replenishment of minerals for hydroponic potato production.

  20. Evaluation of an anaerobic digestion system for processing CELSS crop residues for resource recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, R. F.; Finger, B. W.; Alazraki, M. P.

    1997-01-01

    Three bioreactors, connected in series, were used to process CELSS potato residues for recovery of resources. The first stage was an anaerobic digestor (8 L working volume; cow rumen contents inoculum; fed-batch; 8 day retention time; feed rate 25 gdw day^-1) that converted 33% of feed (dry weight loss) to CO_2 and ``volatile fatty acids'' (vfa, 83:8:8 mmolar ratio acetic:propionic:butyric). High nitrate-N in the potato residue feed was absent in the anaerobic effluent, with a high portion converted to NH_4^+-N and the remainder unaccounted and probably lost to denitrification and NH_4^+ volatilization. Liquid anaerobic effluent was fed to an aerobic, yeast biomass production vessel (2 L volume; Candida ingens inoculum; batch [pellicle] growth; 2 day retention time) where the VFAs and some NH_4^+-N were converted into yeast biomass. Yeast yields accounted for up to 8% of potato residue fed into the anaerobic bioreactor. The third bioreactor (0.5 L liquid working volume; commercial nitrifier inoculum; packed-bed biofilm; continuous yeast effluent feed; recirculating; constant volume; 2 day hydraulic retention time) was used to convert successfully the remaining NH_4^+-N into nitrate-N (preferred form of N for CELSS crop production) and to remove the remaining degradable soluble organic carbon. Effluents from the last two stages were used for partial replenishment of minerals for hydroponic potato production.

  1. Evaluation of an Anaerobic Digestion System for Processing CELSS Crop Residues for Resource Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strayer, R. F.; Finger, B. W.; Alazraki, M. P.

    1997-01-01

    Three bioreactors, connected in series, were used to process CELSS potato residues for recovery of resources. The first stage was an anaerobic digestor (8 L working volume; cow rumen contents inoculum; fed-batch; 8 day retention time; feed rate 25 gdw/day) that converted 33% of feed (dry weight loss) to CO2 and "volatile fatty acids" (vfa, 83:8:8 mmolar ratio acetic:propionic:butyric). High nitrate-N in the potato residue feed was absent in the anaerobic effluent, with a high portion converted to NH4(+)-N and the remainder unaccounted and probably lost to denitrification and NH4(+) volatilization. Liquid anaerobic effluent was fed to an aerobic, yeast biomass production vessel (2 L volume; Candida ingens inoculum; batch [pellicle] growth; 2 day retention time) where the VFAs and some NH4(+)-N were converted into yeast biomass. Yeast yields accounted for up to 8% of potato residue fed into the anaerobic bioreactor. The third bioreactor (0.5 L liquid working volume; commercial nitrifier inoculum; packed-bed biofilm; continuous yeast effluent feed; recirculating; constant volume; 2 day hydraulic retention time) was used to convert successfully the remaining NH4(+)-N into nitrate-N (preferred form of N for CELSS crop production) and to remove the remaining degradable soluble organic carbon. Effluents from the last two stages were used for partial replenishment of minerals for hydroponic potato production.

  2. Simulation of aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation processes at a crude oil spill site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Essaid, Hedeff I.; Bekins, Barbara A.; Godsy, E. Michael; Warren, Ean; Baedecker, Mary Jo; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    1995-01-01

    A two-dimensional, multispecies reactive solute transport model with sequential aerobic and anaerobic degradation processes was developed and tested. The model was used to study the field-scale solute transport and degradation processes at the Bemidji, Minnesota, crude oil spill site. The simulations included the biodegradation of volatile and nonvolatile fractions of dissolved organic carbon by aerobic processes, manganese and iron reduction, and methanogenesis. Model parameter estimates were constrained by published Monod kinetic parameters, theoretical yield estimates, and field biomass measurements. Despite the considerable uncertainty in the model parameter estimates, results of simulations reproduced the general features of the observed groundwater plume and the measured bacterial concentrations. In the simulation, 46% of the total dissolved organic carbon (TDOC) introduced into the aquifer was degraded. Aerobic degradation accounted for 40% of the TDOC degraded. Anaerobic processes accounted for the remaining 60% of degradation of TDOC: 5% by Mn reduction, 19% by Fe reduction, and 36% by methanogenesis. Thus anaerobic processes account for more than half of the removal of DOC at this site.

  3. Hybrid alkali-hydrodynamic disintegration of waste-activated sludge before two-stage anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Grübel, Klaudiusz; Suschka, Jan

    2015-05-01

    The first step of anaerobic digestion, the hydrolysis, is regarded as the rate-limiting step in the degradation of complex organic compounds, such as waste-activated sludge (WAS). The aim of lab-scale experiments was to pre-hydrolyze the sludge by means of low intensive alkaline sludge conditioning before applying hydrodynamic disintegration, as the pre-treatment procedure. Application of both processes as a hybrid disintegration sludge technology resulted in a higher organic matter release (soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)) to the liquid sludge phase compared with the effects of processes conducted separately. The total SCOD after alkalization at 9 pH (pH in the range of 8.96-9.10, SCOD = 600 mg O2/L) and after hydrodynamic (SCOD = 1450 mg O2/L) disintegration equaled to 2050 mg/L. However, due to the synergistic effect, the obtained SCOD value amounted to 2800 mg/L, which constitutes an additional chemical oxygen demand (COD) dissolution of about 35 %. Similarly, the synergistic effect after alkalization at 10 pH was also obtained. The applied hybrid pre-hydrolysis technology resulted in a disintegration degree of 28-35%. The experiments aimed at selection of the most appropriate procedures in terms of optimal sludge digestion results, including high organic matter degradation (removal) and high biogas production. The analyzed soft hybrid technology influenced the effectiveness of mesophilic/thermophilic anaerobic digestion in a positive way and ensured the sludge minimization. The adopted pre-treatment technology (alkalization + hydrodynamic cavitation) resulted in 22-27% higher biogas production and 13-28% higher biogas yield. After two stages of anaerobic digestion (mesophilic conditions (MAD) + thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD)), the highest total solids (TS) reduction amounted to 45.6% and was received for the following sample at 7 days MAD + 17 days TAD. About 7% higher TS reduction was noticed compared with the sample after 9

  4. Effects of intermittent hypoxic training on aerobic and anaerobic performance.

    PubMed

    Morton, James Peter; Cable, Nigel Tim

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether short-term intermittent hypoxic training would enhance sea level aerobic and anaerobic performance over and above that occurring with equivalent sea level training. Over a 4-week period, two groups of eight moderately trained team sports players performed 30 min of cycling exercise three times per week. One group trained in normobaric hypoxia at a simulated altitude of 2750 m (F(I)O2= 0.15), the other group trained in a laboratory under sea level conditions. Each training session consisted of ten 1-min bouts at 80% maximum workload maintained for 2 min (Wmax) during the incremental exercise test at sea level separated by 2-min active recovery at 50% Wmax. Training intensities were increased by 5% after six training sessions and by a further 5% (of original Wmax) after nine sessions. Pre-training assessments of VO(2max), power output at onset of 4 mM blood lactate accumulation (OBLA), Wmax and Wingate anaerobic performance were performed on a cycle ergometer at sea level and repeated 4-7 d following the training intervention. Following training there were significant increases (p < 0.01) in VO(2max) (7.2 vs. 8.0%), Wmax (15.5 vs. 17.8%), OBLA (11.1 vs. 11.9%), mean power (8.0 vs. 6.5%) and peak power (2.9 vs. 9.3%) in both the hypoxic and normoxic groups respectively. There were no significant differences between the increases in any of the above-mentioned performance parameters in either training environment (p > 0.05). In addition, neither haemoglobin concentration nor haematocrit were significantly changed in either group (p > 0.05). It is concluded that acute exposure of moderately trained subjects to normobaric hypoxia during a short-term training programme consisting of moderate- to high-intensity intermittent exercise has no enhanced effect on the degree of improvement in either aerobic or anaerobic performance. These data suggest that if there are any advantages to training in hypoxia for sea level

  5. Hyperspectral imaging techniques applied to the monitoring of wine waste anaerobic digestion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serranti, Silvia; Fabbri, Andrea; Bonifazi, Giuseppe

    2012-11-01

    An anaerobic digestion process, finalized to biogas production, is characterized by different steps involving the variation of some chemical and physical parameters related to the presence of specific biomasses as: pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile solids, nitrate (NO3-) and phosphate (PO3-). A correct process characterization requires a periodical sampling of the organic mixture in the reactor and a further analysis of the samples by traditional chemical-physical methods. Such an approach is discontinuous, time-consuming and expensive. A new analytical approach based on hyperspectral imaging in the NIR field (1000 to 1700 nm) is investigated and critically evaluated, with reference to the monitoring of wine waste anaerobic digestion process. The application of the proposed technique was addressed to identify and demonstrate the correlation existing, in terms of quality and reliability of the results, between "classical" chemical-physical parameters and spectral features of the digestate samples. Good results were obtained, ranging from a R2=0.68 and a RMSECV=12.83 mg/l for nitrate to a R2=0.90 and a RMSECV=5495.16 mg O2/l for COD. The proposed approach seems very useful in setting up innovative control strategies allowing for full, continuous control of the anaerobic digestion process.

  6. Novel anaerobic process for the recovery of methane and compost from food waste.

    PubMed

    Han, S K; Shin, H S; Song, Y C; Lee, C Y; Kim, S H

    2002-01-01

    Multi-step sequential batch two-phase anaerobic composting (MUSTAC) process was used to recover methane and composted material from food waste. The MUSTAC process consists of five leaching beds for hydrolysis, acidification and post-treatment, and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for methane recovery. This process involves the combined methods of sequential batch operation and two-phase anaerobic digestion for simple operation and high efficiency. Rumen microorganisms are inoculated due to their enhanced cellulolytic activity. Each leaching bed is operated in a sequential batch mode. Five leaching beds are operated in a multi-step mode with a two-day interval between degradation stages. Acidified products in the leachate from the leaching beds are converted to methane in the UASB reactor. The MUSTAC process demonstrated that it was capable of removing 84.9% of volatile solids (VS) and converting 85.6% of biochemical methane potential (BMP) into methane at 10.9 kg VS/m3 x d in 10 days. Methane gas production rate was 2.31 m3/m3 x d. The output from the post-treatment of residues in the same leaching bed without troublesome moving met the Korean regulation on compost, indicating that it could be used for soil amendment.

  7. Performance of the ANAMMOX process using multi- and single-fed upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors.

    PubMed

    Xing, Bao-Shan; Qin, Tian-Yue; Chen, Shen-Xing; Zhang, Jue; Guo, Li-Xin; Jin, Ren-Cun

    2013-12-01

    The performance of the ANAMMOX process was investigated in two identical laboratory-scale multi- and single-fed upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors (denoted R1 and R0) at different hydraulic residence times (HRTs) varying from 2.06 to 1.52 h and NH4(+)-N inf concentrations ranging from 70 to 266 mg L(-1). The substrate removal efficiencies of both reactors decreased as HRT decreased and NH4(+)-N inf increased. The kinetics of these reactions were analyzed, and the Stover-Kincannon model was appropriate to describe the process kinetics of the reactors. In addition, an empirical model incorporating the influent substrate concentration and HRT adequately described R1. Shock experiments were conducted in which the reactors were subjected to transient shock loads. The results showed that the operation of R1 was more stable than that of R0, especially in response to the substrate shocks. Subsequently, the properties of the ANAMMOX granules and the effects of the feeding protocol on those properties were investigated.

  8. Dissolved air flotation as a potential treatment process to remove Giardia cysts from anaerobically treated sewage.

    PubMed

    Santos, Priscila Ribeiro Dos; Daniel, Luiz Antonio

    2016-11-30

    Controlling Giardia cysts in sewage is an essential barrier for public health protection, reducing possible routes of protozoa transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of dissolved air flotation (DAF), on a bench scale, to remove Giardia cysts from anaerobic effluent. Moreover, removals of indicator microorganisms and physical variables were also investigated. Flocculation conditions were studied, associating different flocculation times with different mean velocity gradients. DAF treatment achieved mean log removals in the range of 2.52-2.62 for Giardia cysts, depending on the flocculation condition. No statistical differences were observed among the flocculation conditions in terms of cyst removal. Low levels of turbidity and apparent color obtained from the treated effluent may indicate good treatment conditions for the DAF process in cyst removal. Indicator microorganisms were not able to predict the parasitological quality of the wastewater treated by flotation in terms of cyst concentrations. The DAF process provided an effective barrier to control cysts from sewage, which is an important parasite source.

  9. Effect of anaerobic promoters on the microaerobic production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao-Xing; Shi, Zhen-Yu; Yuan, Mei-Qing; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2009-03-01

    Nine anaerobic promoters were cloned and constructed upstream of PHB synthesis genes phbCAB from Ralstonia eutropha for the micro- or anaerobic PHB production in recombinant Escherichia coli. Among the promoters, the one for alcohol dehydrogenase (PadhE) was found most effective. Recombinant E. coli JM 109 (pWCY09) harboring PadhE and phbCAB achieved a 48% PHB accumulation in the cell dry weight after 48 h of static culture compared with only 30% PHB production under its native promoter. Sixty-seven percent PHB was produced in the dry weight (CDW) of an acetate pathway deleted (Deltapta deletion) E. coli JW2294 harboring the vector pWCY09. In a batch process conducted in a 5.5-l NBS fermentor containing 3 l glucose LB medium, E. coli JW2294 (pWCY09) grew to 7.8 g/l CDW containing 64% PHB after 24 h of microaerobic incubation. In addition, molecular weight of PHB was observed to be much higher under microaerobic culture conditions. The high activity of PadhE appeared to be the reason for improved micro- or anaerobic cell growth and PHB production while high molecular weight contributed to the static culture condition.

  10. Effect of ferrihydrite biomineralization on methanogenesis in an anaerobic incubation from paddy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Li; Xu, Jielong; Tang, Jia; Zhou, Shungui

    2015-05-01

    Microbial reduction of Fe(III) can be one of the major factors controlling methane production from anaerobic sedimentary environments, such as paddy soils and wetlands. Although secondary iron mineralization following Fe(III) reduction is a process that occurs naturally over time, it has not yet been considered in methanogenic systems. This study performed a long-term anaerobic incubation of a paddy soil and ferrihydrite-supplemented soil cultures to investigate methanogenesis during ferrihydrite biomineralization. The results revealed that the long-term effect of ferrihydrite on methanogenesis may be enhancement rather than suppression documented in previous studies. During initial microbial ferrihydrite reduction, methanogenesis was suppressed; however, the secondary minerals of magnetite formation was simultaneous with facilitated methanogenesis in terms of average methane production rate and acetate utilization rate. In the phase of magnetite formation, microbial community analysis revealed a strong stimulation of the bacterial Geobacter, Bacillus, and Sedimentibacter and the archaeal Methanosarcina in the ferrihydrite-supplemented cultures. Direct electric syntrophy between Geobacter and Methanosarcina via conductive magnetite is the plausible mechanism for methanogenesis acceleration along with magnetite formation. Our data suggested that a change in iron mineralogy might affect the conversion of anaerobic organic matter to methane and might provide a fresh perspective on the mitigation of methane emissions from paddy soils by ferric iron fertilization.

  11. The Effect of Enzyme Addition on Anaerobic Digestion of Jose Tall Wheat Grass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of the addition of enzyme products containing cellulase, hemicellulase, and Beta-glucosidase to anaerobic digestion systems were studied. Anaerobic digestion tests were performed using batch reactors operated at 35°C. The application of enzyme products in three digestion configurations w...

  12. Effects of anaerobic digestion and aerobic treatment on gaseous emissions from dairy manure storages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Effects of anaerobic digestion and aerobic treatment on the reduction of gaseous emissions from dairy manure storages were evaluated in this study. Screened dairy manure containing 3.5% volatile solids (VS) was either anaerobically digested or aerobically treated prior to storage in air-tight vessel...

  13. Application of multi-wavelength fluorometry for on-line monitoring of an anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Morel, E; Santamaria, K; Perrier, M; Guiot, S R; Tartakovsky, B

    2004-01-01

    This work examined the use of multi-wavelength fluorometry for on-line monitoring of an anaerobic digestion process. Experiments were carried out in a laboratory-scale anaerobic digestor fed with either synthetic or agricultural (cheese factory) wastewater. An in-line fiber optic probe installed in the external recirculation loop of the reactor was used to acquire fluorescence spectra with an interval of 5-10 min. The spectra were compared with analytical measurements taken at the same time to develop regression models, which were then used to predict concentrations of chemical oxygen demand, volatile fatty acids, and other key process parameters. A comparison of partial least squares (PLS), nonlinear principal components regression, and step-wise regression models on an independent set of data showed that the PLS model gave the best prediction accuracy.

  14. Copper stressed anaerobic fermentation: biogas properties, process stability, biodegradation and enzyme responses.

    PubMed

    Hao, He; Tian, Yonglan; Zhang, Huayong; Chai, Yang

    2017-07-15

    The effect of copper (added as CuCl2) on the anaerobic co-digestion of Phragmites straw and cow dung was studied in pilot experiments by investigating the biogas properties, process stability, substrate degradation and enzyme activities at different stages of mesophilic fermentation. The results showed that 30 and 100 mg/L Cu(2+) addition increased the cumulative biogas yields by up to 43.62 and 20.77% respectively, and brought forward the daily biogas yield peak, while 500 mg/L Cu(2+) addition inhibited biogas production. Meanwhile, the CH4 content in the 30 and 100 mg/L Cu(2+)-added groups was higher than that in the control group. Higher pH values (close to pH 7) and lower oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) values in the Cu(2+)-added groups after the 8th day indicated better process stability compared to the control group. In the presence of Cu(2+), the degradation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and other organic molecules (represented by chemical oxygen demand, COD) generated from hydrolysis was enhanced, and the ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) concentrations were more stable than in the control group. The contents of lignin and hemicellulose in the substrate declined in the Cu(2+)-added groups while the cellulose contents did not. Neither the cellulase nor the coenzyme F420 activities could determine the biogas producing efficiency. Taking the whole fermentation process into account, the promoting effect of Cu(2+) addition on biogas yields was mainly attributable to better process stability, the enhanced degradation of lignin and hemicellulose, the transformation of intermediates into VFA, and the generation of CH4 from VFA.

  15. Effects of anaerobic selector hydraulic retention time on biological foam control and enhanced biological phosphorus removal in a pure-oxygen activated sludge system.

    PubMed

    Jolis, Domènec; Mitch, Azalea A; Marneri, Matina; Ho, Chu-Fei

    2007-05-01

    Increased anaerobic selector hydraulic retention times (HRTs) in a high-purity oxygen activated sludge process resulted in an increase in soluble orthophosphate release and biodegradable chemical oxygen demand removal, confirming that enhanced biological phosphorus removal occurs at aeration solids retention times (SRTs) below 1.7 days. Under operating conditions that included biological foam trapping and recycling, an anaerobic selector with HRTs higher than 55 minutes resulted in a decrease in filament counts and effective foam control. Effective norcardioform control is achieved through the combination of metabolic selective pressure and increased soluble organic substrate removal in the anaerobic selector and low aeration SRT.

  16. Ammonia removal in food waste anaerobic digestion using a side-stream stripping process.

    PubMed

    Serna-Maza, A; Heaven, S; Banks, C J

    2014-01-01

    Three 35-L anaerobic digesters fed on source segregated food waste were coupled to side-stream ammonia stripping columns and operated semi-continuously over 300 days, with results in terms of performance and stability compared to those of a control digester without stripping. Biogas was used as the stripping medium, and the columns were operated under different conditions of temperature (55, 70, 85 °C), pH (unadjusted and pH 10), and RT (2-5 days). To reduce digester TAN concentrations to a useful level a high temperature (≥70 °C) and a pH of 10 were needed; under these conditions 48% of the TAN was removed over a 138-day period without any detrimental effects on digester performance. Other effects of the stripping process were an overall reduction in digestate organic nitrogen-containing fraction compared to the control and a recovery in the acetoclastic pathway when TAN concentration was 1770±20 mg kg(-1).

  17. Physicothermochemical pretreatments of food processing waste for enchancing anaerobic digestion and biogas generation

    SciTech Connect

    Azzam, A.M. Menoufia Univ., Sadat City ); Nasr, M.I. )

    1993-10-01

    This paper was conducted to evaluate the effect of milling and alkali lime cooking pretreatments on the rate and extent of methane generation from sugar Cane bagasse. The effect of pretreatment process variables (Particle size 8.0.003 mm, temperature between 100 and 250[degree]C and alkaline dosage between 0 and 8g CaO/kg VS) on the biogas generation from Sugar Cane bagasse has been investigated. Methane generation from the pretreated cane bagasse was studied using serum bottle technique and an upflow anaerobic filter bioreactor. The optimum condition involves alkali-cooking of cane bagasse (0.5 mm) with 4% CaO at 200[degree]C, dissolving most of the cellulose and converting it in a mixture of organic acids, including formic, acetic, lactic, and succinic acids. About 80% of the COD content of the cellulose was retained in the cooked liquor. A very rapid biogas were observed in the first three days of 70% methane content from the pretreated cane bagasse and the digestion was completed within 8 days. It has been concluded, that the lime-cooking of CB could produce methane as much as 70% of that from glucose. Inhibition did not seems to be serious problem in the biogas generation from the alkali-cooking cane bagasse. 29 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. A novel process simulation model (PSM) for anaerobic digestion using Aspen Plus.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Karthik; Kankanala, Harshavardhan R; Lundin, Magnus; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2014-09-01

    A novel process simulation model (PSM) was developed for biogas production in anaerobic digesters using Aspen Plus®. The PSM is a library model of anaerobic digestion, which predicts the biogas production from any substrate at any given process condition. A total of 46 reactions were used in the model, which include inhibitions, rate-kinetics, pH, ammonia, volume, loading rate, and retention time. The hydrolysis reactions were based on the extent of the reaction, while the acidogenic, acetogenic, and methanogenic reactions were based on the kinetics. The PSM was validated against a variety of lab and industrial data on anaerobic digestion. The P-value after statistical analysis was found to be 0.701, which showed that there was no significant difference between discrete validations and processing conditions. The sensitivity analysis for a ±10% change in composition of substrate and extent of reaction results in 5.285% higher value than the experimental value. The model is available at http://hdl.handle.net/2320/12358 (Rajendran et al., 2013b). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Microorganism-regulated mechanisms of temperature effects on the performance of anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiang; He, Guihua; Rui, Junpeng; Fang, Xiaoyu; Tao, Yong; Li, Jiabao; Li, Xiangzhen

    2016-06-03

    Temperature is an important factor determining the performance and stability of the anaerobic digestion process. However, the microorganism-regulated mechanisms of temperature effects on the performance of anaerobic digestion systems remain further elusive. To address this issue, we investigated the changes in composition, diversity and activities of microbial communities under temperature gradient from 25 to 55 °C using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing approach based on genomic DNA (refer to as "16S rDNA") and total RNA (refer to as "16S rRNA"). Microbial community structure and activities changed dramatically along the temperature gradient, which corresponded to the variations in digestion performance (e.g., daily CH4 production, total biogas production and volatile fatty acids concentration). The ratios of 16S rRNA to 16S rDNA of microbial taxa, as an indicator of the potentially relative activities in situ, and whole activities of microbial community assessed by the similarity between microbial community based on 16S rDNA and rRNA, varied strongly along the temperature gradient, reflecting different metabolic activities. The daily CH4 production increased with temperature from 25 to 50 °C and declined at 55 °C. Among all the examined microbial properties, the whole activities of microbial community and alpha-diversity indices of both microbial communities and potentially relative activities showed highest correlations to the performance. The whole activities of microbial community and alpha-diversity indices of both microbial communities and potentially relative activities were sensitive indicators for the performance of anaerobic digestion systems under temperature gradient, while beta-diversity could predict functional differences. Microorganism-regulated mechanisms of temperature effects on anaerobic digestion performance were likely realized through increasing alpha-diversity of both microbial communities and potentially relative activities to supply

  20. Bench-scale assessment of the effectiveness of an anaerobic selector in controlling filamentous bulking.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y; Oleszkiewicz, J A

    2004-07-01

    A laboratory scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used to assess the ability of an anaerobic selector to control filamentous growth in an activated sludge plant experiencing bulking problems. The SBR was operated under a sequence of 60 min anaerobic followed by 120 min of aerobic period at 20 degrees C, with a total solids retention time (SRT) of 4 d and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8 h. The apparent soluble organic carbon (SOC) removal from the liquid phase averaged 18% during the anaerobic period, which is significantly less than the 80-90% removal generally considered to be required to suppress the growth of filamentous bacteria. The anaerobic selector was, however, able to control sludge bulking, resulting in an average sludge volume index (SVI) below 140 ml g(-1). The true amount of the SOC uptake was masked by simultaneous hydrolysis of particulate organic matter during the anaerobic period, a process which should be considered in future studies and comparisons.

  1. Research on Anaerobic Digestion: Optimization and Scalability of Mixed High-strength Food Processing Wastes for Renewable Biogas Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Zhongtang; Hitzhusen, Fredrick

    2012-12-27

    This research project developed and improved anaerobic digestion technologies, created a comprehensive Inventory of Ohio Biomass and a database of microorganisms of anaerobic digesters, and advanced knowledge and understanding of the underpinning microbiology of the anaerobic digestion process. The results and finding of this research project may be useful for future development and implementation of anaerobic digesters, especially at livestock farms. Policy makers and investors may also find the information on the biomass availability in Ohio and valuation of energy projects useful in policy making and making of investment decisions. The public may benefit from the information on biogas as an energy source and the potential impact of anaerobic digester projects on their neighborhoods.

  2. Analysis of a model for the effects of an external toxin on anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Weedermann, Marion

    2012-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion has been modeled as a two-stage process using coupled chemostat models with non-monotone growth functions, [9]. This study incorporates the effects of an external toxin. After reducing the model to a 3-dimensional system, global stability of boundary and interior equilibria is proved using differential inequalities and comparisons to the corresponding toxin-free model. Conditions are given under which the behavior of the toxin-free model is preserved. Introduction of the toxin results in additional patterns such as bistabilities of coexistence steady states or of a periodic orbit and an interior steady state.

  3. Kinetics of phenol degradation in an anaerobic fixed-biofilm process.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Hui; Lee, Kwang K

    2006-06-01

    A mathematical model was developed to describe phenol degradation in an anaerobic fixed-biofilm process. The model incorporates the mechanisms of diffusive mass transport and Monod kinetics. The model was solved using a combination of the orthogonal collocation method and Gear's method. A pilot-scale column reactor was used to verify the model. Batch kinetic tests were conducted independently to determine the biokinetic parameters used in the model, while shear loss and initial thickness of biofilm were assumed so that the model simulated the substrate concentration results well. The removal efficiency for phenol was approximately 98.5% at a steady-state condition. The model accurately described the effluent substrate concentrations and the sequence of biodegradation in the reactor. The model simulations are in agreement with the experimental results. The approaches presented in this paper could be used to design fullscale anaerobic fixed-biofilm reactor systems for the biodegradation of phenolic substrates.

  4. Microbial fuel cell based biosensor for in situ monitoring of anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhidan; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Songping; Xing, Xin-Hui; Su, Zhiguo

    2011-11-01

    A wall-jet microbial fuel cell (MFC) was developed for the monitoring of anaerobic digestion (AD). This biofilm based MFC biosensor had a character of being portable, short hydraulic retention time (HRT) for sample flow through and convenient for continuous operation. The MFC was installed in the recirculation loop of an upflow anaerobic fixed-bed (UAFB) reactor in bench-scale where pH of the fermentation broth and biogas flow were monitored in real time. External disturbances to the AD were added on purpose by changing feedstock concentration, as well as process configuration. MFC signals had good correlations with online measurements (i.e. pH, gas flow rate) and offline analysis (i.e. COD) over 6-month operation. These results suggest that the MFC signal can reflect the dynamic variation of AD and can potentially be a valuable tool for monitoring and control of bioprocess. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Kinetics of phenol degradation in an anaerobic fixed-biofilm process

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.H.; Lee, K.K.

    2006-06-15

    A mathematical model was developed to describe phenol degradation in an anaerobic fixed-biofilm process. The model incorporates the mechanisms of diffusive mass transport and Monod kinetics. The model was solved using a combination of the orthogonal collocation method and Gear's method. A pilot-scale column reactor was used to verify the model. Batch kinetic tests were conducted independently to determine the biokinetic parameters used in the model, while shear loss and initial thickness of biofilm were assumed so that the model simulated the substrate concentration results well. The removal efficiency for phenol was approximately 98.5% at a steady-state condition. The model accurately described the effluent substrate concentrations and the sequence of biodegradation in the reactor. The model simulations are in agreement with the experimental results. The approaches presented in this paper could be used to design full-scale anaerobic fixed-biofilm reactor systems for the biodegradation of phenolic substrates.

  6. Bioelectrochemically-assisted anaerobic composting process enhancing compost maturity of dewatered sludge with synchronous electricity generation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hang; Jiang, Junqiu; Zhao, Qingliang; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Yunshu; Zheng, Zhen; Hao, Xiaodi

    2015-10-01

    Bioelectrochemically-assisted anaerobic composting process (AnCBE) with dewatered sludge as the anode fuel was constructed to accelerate composting of dewatered sludge, which could increase the quality of the compost and harvest electric energy in comparison with the traditional anaerobic composting (AnC). Results revealed that the AnCBE yielded a voltage of 0.60 ± 0.02 V, and total COD (TCOD) removal reached 19.8 ± 0.2% at the end of 35 d. The maximum power density was 5.6 W/m(3). At the end of composting, organic matter content (OM) reduction rate increased to 19.5 ± 0.2% in AnCBE and to 12.9 ± 0.1% in AnC. The fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA) result indicated that the membership degree of class I of AnCBE compost (0.64) was higher than that of AnC compost (0.44). It was demonstrated that electrogenesis in the AnCBE could improve the sludge stabilization degree, accelerate anaerobic composting process and enhance composting maturity with bioelectricity generation.

  7. Characterization of products from hydrothermal carbonization of orange pomace including anaerobic digestibility of process liquor.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Ezgi; Atila, Buse; Mumme, Jan; Reza, M Toufiq; Toptas, Asli; Elibol, Murat; Yanik, Jale

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the effect of the temperature and reaction time on hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of orange pomace was investigated. In addition, a set of anaerobic batch tests were performed to determine the resulting biogas and methane potential of the spent liquor. Hydrochar yields followed a decreasing trend with the increasing temperature, whereas reaction time had no considerably effect on the yield. The evolution of the H/C and O/C atomic ratios from the raw material to the hydrochars suggested that dehydration reactions prevail during HTC. The hydrochars tended to become enriched in Ca, Mg and P minerals by increasing HTC temperature. The heavy metal contents in hydrochars were found below limits and no PAH compound was detected. Anaerobic digestion tests showed that the aqueous phase from HTC can be used as feedstocks for biogas production.

  8. Combined anaerobic-ozonation process for treatment of textile wastewater: removal of acute toxicity and mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Punzi, Marisa; Nilsson, Filip; Anbalagan, Anbarasan; Svensson, Britt-Marie; Jönsson, Karin; Mattiasson, Bo; Jonstrup, Maria

    2015-07-15

    A novel set up composed of an anaerobic biofilm reactor followed by ozonation was used for treatment of artificial and real textile effluents containing azo dyes. The biological treatment efficiently removed chemical oxygen demand and color. Ozonation further reduced the organic content of the effluents and was very important for the degradation of aromatic compounds, as shown by the reduction of UV absorbance. The acute toxicity toward Vibrio fischeri and the shrimp Artemia salina increased after the biological treatment. No toxicity was detected after ozonation with the exception of the synthetic effluent containing the highest concentration, 1 g/l, of the azo dye Remazol Red. Both untreated and biologically treated textile effluents were found to have mutagenic effects. The mutagenicity increased even further after 1 min of ozonation. No mutagenicity was however detected in the effluents subjected to longer exposure to ozone. The results of this study suggest that the use of ozonation as short post-treatment after a biological process can be beneficial for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds and the removal of toxicity of textile wastewater. However, monitoring of toxicity and especially mutagenicity is crucial and should always be used to assess the success of a treatment strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Printing and dyeing wastewater treatment using combined process of anaerobic bioreactor and MBR].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiang; Liu, Jun-xin

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes a labor-scale experiment for printing and dyeing wastewater treatment of woolen mill using a combined process of an anaerobic reactor and a membrane bioreactor (MBR). The experimental results showed that when the concentration of COD, BOD5 and color in the influent were 128-321 mg/L, 36-95 mg/L and 40-70 dilution times (DT), the average concentrations of COD, BOD5, color and turbidity in the effluent were 36.9 mg/L, 3.7 mg/L, 21 DT and 0.24 NTU, respectively, and the corresponding removal rates were 80.3%, 95%, 59% and 99.3%, respectively. A new integrated membrane bioreactor by gravity drain of liquid level in the bioreactor was developed in this study. It not only lessens suction pump for effluent and controlling unit comparing to the traditional integrated membrane bioreactor, but also has the characters of high and continuous flux, concise configuration and simple operation and maintenance. According to the experimental results, the air flow rate through the membrane module is a significant factor to affect the flux rate and cake layer deposited on the membrane. With application of optimal air flow rate, it is effective to reduce membrane fouling and maintain high flux rate.

  10. Anaerobic digestion of Jatropha curcas L. press cake and effects of an iron-additive.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Thomas

    2011-11-01

    Oil production from Jatropha curcas L. seeds generates large amounts of Jatropha press cake (JPC) which can be utilized as a substrate for biogas production. The objective of this work was to investigate anaerobic mono-digestion of JPC and the effects of an iron additive (IA) on gas quality and process stability during the increase of the organic loading rate (OLR). With the increase of the OLR from 1.3 to 3.2 g(VS) L(-1) day(-1), the biogas yield in the reference reactor (RR) without IA decreased from 512 to 194 L(N) kg(VS) (-1) and the CH₄ concentration decreased from 69.3 to 44.4%. In the iron additive reactor (IAR), the biogas yield decreased from 530 to 462 L(N) kg(VS) (-1) and the CH₄ concentration decreased from 69.4 to 61.1%. The H₂S concentration in the biogas was reduced by addition of the IA to values below 258 ppm in the IAR while H₂S concentration in the RR increased and exceeded the detection limit of 5000 ppm. The acid capacity (AC) in the RR increased to more than 20 g L(-1), indicating an accumulation of organic acids caused by process instability. AC values in the IAR remained stable at values below 5 g L(-1). The results demonstrate that JPC can be used as sole substrate for anaerobic digestion up to an OLR of 2.4 g(VS) l(-1) day(-1). The addition of IA has effectively decreased the H(2)S content in the biogas and has improved the stability of the anaerobic process and the biogas quality.

  11. Characterization and single-stage denitrification anaerobic digestion of spent stream from the hydrolysis-fermentation-combustion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ramnik

    The demand for ethanol as an oxygenate and octane booster in automobile fuel is growing. A number of processes are being investigated for conversion of biomass to ethanol. The Hydrolysis-Fermentation-Combustion (HFC) process for fuel ethanol production developed at the University of California Forest Products Laboratory, Richmond, California is at the stage of technology transfer following over two decades of research and development. This study addresses the technology to be used in treatment of spent streams to be discharged from this process. The treatment design combines a single stage denitrification and anaerobic digestion (SSDAD) for the biological treatment of a representative stream from this process. A typical spent stream contained a wide range of soluble organic materials including: unfermented sugars, components of the feedstocks solubilized in the hydrolysis, acid degradation products of carbohydrates, cleavage products of lignin, water-soluble extractives and phenolics, terpenes and other unfermented organic material, and nitrate ion from the nitric acid used as a catalyst in the hydrolysis reaction. Three sets of experiments were conducted in laboratory scale anaerobic digesters. Commonly available anaerobic sludge from local sewage treatment plants was used as a starter seed and was successfully acclimated to the high nitrate substrate leading to enrichment of denitrifiers. Necessary nutrients and trace elements were identified and supplied to satisfy the obligatory requirements of different groups of bacterial groups present. A major finding was the unique role of ammonium hydroxide in controlling pH leading to steady-state operation of the digester. At steady state operation the reduction in COD was 65%, the nitrate reduction was 88% and the nitrite reduction was 100%. Nitrate was reduced to safe nitrogen gas without buildup of any intermediate products. Organic material was converted to useful methane gas and carbon dioxide. The SSDAD system was

  12. Behavior of cellulose-degrading bacteria in thermophilic anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Syutsubo, K; Nagaya, Y; Sakai, S; Miya, A

    2005-01-01

    Previously, we found that the newly isolated Clostridium sp. strain JC3 became the dominant cellulose-degrading bacterium in thermophilic methanogenic sludge. In the present study, the behavior of strain JC3 in the thermophilic anaerobic digestion process was investigated quantitatively by molecular biological techniques. A cellulose-degrading experiment was conducted at 55 degrees C with a 9.5 L of anaerobic baffled reactor having three compartments (Nos. 1, 2, 3). Over 80% of the COD input was converted into methane when 2.5 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1) was loaded for an HRT of 27 days. A FISH probe specific for strain JC3 was applied to sludge samples harvested from the baffled reactor. Consequently, the ratio of JC3 cells to DAPI-stained cells increased from below 0.5% (undetectable) to 9.4% (compartment 1), 13.1% (compartment 2) and 21.6% (compartment 3) at day 84 (2.5 kgCOD m(-3)d(-1)). The strain JC3 cell numbers determined by FISH correlated closely with the cellulose-degrading methanogenic activities of retained sludge. A specific primer set targeting the cellulase gene (cellobiohydrolaseA: cbhA) of strain JC3 was designed and applied to digested sludge for treating solid waste such as coffee grounds, wastepaper, garbage, cellulose and so on. The strain JC3 cell numbers determined by quantitative PCR correlated closely with the cellulose-sludge loading of the thermophilic digester. Strain JC3 is thus important in the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulose in thermophilic anaerobic digestion processes.

  13. Anaerobic treatment of complex chemical wastewater in a sequencing batch biofilm reactor: process optimization and evaluation of factor interactions using the Taguchi dynamic DOE methodology.

    PubMed

    Venkata Mohan, S; Chandrasekhara Rao, N; Krishna Prasad, K; Murali Krishna, P; Sreenivas Rao, R; Sarma, P N

    2005-06-20

    The Taguchi robust experimental design (DOE) methodology has been applied on a dynamic anaerobic process treating complex wastewater by an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (AnSBBR). For optimizing the process as well as to evaluate the influence of different factors on the process, the uncontrollable (noise) factors have been considered. The Taguchi methodology adopting dynamic approach is the first of its kind for studying anaerobic process evaluation and process optimization. The designed experimental methodology consisted of four phases--planning, conducting, analysis, and validation connected sequence-wise to achieve the overall optimization. In the experimental design, five controllable factors, i.e., organic loading rate (OLR), inlet pH, biodegradability (BOD/COD ratio), temperature, and sulfate concentration, along with the two uncontrollable (noise) factors, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and alkalinity at two levels were considered for optimization of the anae robic system. Thirty-two anaerobic experiments were conducted with a different combination of factors and the results obtained in terms of substrate degradation rates were processed in Qualitek-4 software to study the main effect of individual factors, interaction between the individual factors, and signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio analysis. Attempts were also made to achieve optimum conditions. Studies on the influence of individual factors on process performance revealed the intensive effect of OLR. In multiple factor interaction studies, biodegradability with other factors, such as temperature, pH, and sulfate have shown maximum influence over the process performance. The optimum conditions for the efficient performance of the anaerobic system in treating complex wastewater by considering dynamic (noise) factors obtained are higher organic loading rate of 3.5 Kg COD/m3 day, neutral pH with high biodegradability (BOD/COD ratio of 0.5), along with mesophilic temperature range (40 degrees C), and

  14. Inhibitory effects of the macrolide antimicrobial tylosin on anaerobic treatment.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Toshio; Zilles, Julie L; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2008-09-01

    A laboratory-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was operated using a glucose-based synthetic wastewater to study the effects of tylosin, a macrolide antimicrobial commonly used in swine production, on treatment performance. The experimental period was divided into three consecutive phases with different influent tylosin concentrations (0, 1.67, and 167 mg/L). The addition of 1.67 mg/L tylosin to the reactor had negligible effects on the overall treatment performance, that is, total methane production and effluent chemical oxygen demand did not change significantly (P < 0.05), yet analyses of individual ASBR cycles revealed a decrease in the rates of both methane production and propionate uptake after tylosin was added. The addition of 167 mg/L tylosin to the reactor resulted in a gradual decrease in methane production and the accumulation of propionate and acetate. Subsequent inhibition of methanogenesis was attributed to a decrease in the pH of the reactor. After the addition of 167 mg/L tylosin to the reactor, an initial decrease in the rate of glucose uptake during the ASBR cycle followed by a gradual recovery was observed. In batch tests, the specific biogas production with the substrate butyrate was completely inhibited in the presence of tylosin. This study indicated that tylosin inhibited propionate- and butyrate-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria and fermenting bacteria resulting in unfavorable effects on methanogenesis.

  15. Effect of alkaline pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of solid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez Torres, M. Espinosa Llorens, Ma. del C.

    2008-11-15

    The introduction of the anaerobic digestion for the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is currently of special interest. The main difficulty in the treatment of this waste fraction is its biotransformation, due to the complexity of organic material. Therefore, the first step must be its physical, chemical and biological pretreatment for breaking complex molecules into simple monomers, to increase solubilization of organic material and improve the efficiency of the anaerobic treatment in the second step. This paper describes chemical pretreatment based on lime addition (Ca(OH){sub 2}), in order to enhance chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization, followed by anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW. Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in completely mixed reactors, 1 L capacity. Optimal conditions for COD solubilization in the first step of pretreatment were 62.0 mEq Ca(OH){sub 2}/L for 6.0 h. Under these conditions, 11.5% of the COD was solubilized. The anaerobic digestion efficiency of the OFMSW, with and without pretreatment, was evaluated. The highest methane yield under anaerobic digestion of the pretreated waste was 0.15 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg volatile solids (VS), 172.0% of the control. Under that condition the soluble COD and VS removal were 93.0% and 94.0%, respectively. The results have shown that chemical pretreatment with lime, followed by anaerobic digestion, provides the best results for stabilizing the OFMSW.

  16. Effects of anaerobic training in children with cystic fibrosis: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Klijn, Peter H C; Oudshoorn, Annemarie; van der Ent, Cornelis K; van der Net, Janjaap; Kimpen, Jan L; Helders, Paul J M

    2004-04-01

    Children's physical activity patterns are characterized by short-term anaerobic activities. Anaerobic exercise performance in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) has received little attention compared to aerobic performance. This study investigated the effects of anaerobic training in children with CF. Twenty patients were randomly assigned to the training group (TG) [11 patients; mean (+/- SD) age, 13.6 +/- 1.3 years; mean FEV(1), 75.2 +/- 20.7% predicted] or the control group (CG) [9 patients; mean age, 14.2 +/- 2.1 years; FEV(1), 82.1 +/- 19.1% predicted]. The TG trained 2 days per week for 12 weeks, with each session lasting 30 to 45 min. The training program consisted of anaerobic activities lasting 20 to 30 s. The control subjects were asked not to change their normal daily activities. Body composition, pulmonary function, peripheral muscle force, habitual physical activity, aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance, and quality of life were reevaluated at the end of the training program, and again after a 12-week follow-up period. Patients in the TG significantly improved their anaerobic performance, aerobic performance, and quality of life. No significant changes were seen in other parameters, and no improvements were found in CG. After the follow-up period, only anaerobic performance and quality of life in TG were significantly higher compared to pretraining values. Anaerobic training has measurable effects on aerobic performance (although not sustained), anaerobic performance, and health-related quality of life in children with CF. Therefore, anaerobic training could be an important component of therapeutic programs for CF patients.

  17. Evaluation of anaerobic digestion processes for short sludge-age waste activated sludge combined with anammox treatment of digestate liquor.

    PubMed

    Ge, Huoqing; Batstone, Damien; Keller, Jurg

    2016-01-01

    The need to reduce energy input and enhance energy recovery from wastewater is driving renewed interest in high-rate activated sludge treatment (i.e. short hydraulic and solids retention times (HRT and SRT, respectively)). This process generates short SRT activated sludge stream, which should be highly degradable. However, the evaluation of anaerobic digestion of short SRT sludge has been limited. This paper assesses anaerobic digestion of short SRT sludge digestion derived from meat processing wastewater under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. The thermophilic digestion system (55°C) achieved 60 and 68% volatile solids destruction at 8 day and 10 day HRT, respectively, compared with 50% in the mesophilic digestion system (35°C, 10 day HRT). The digestion effluents from the thermophilic (8-10 day HRT) and mesophilic systems were stable, as assessed by residual methane potentials. The ammonia rich sludge dewatering liquor was effectively treated by a batch anammox process, which exhibited comparable nitrogen removal rate as the tests using a control synthetic ammonia solution, indicating that the dewatering liquor did not have inhibiting/toxic effects on the anammox activity.

  18. Modeling of the denitrification/anaerobic digestion process of salmon fishery wastewater in a biofilm tubular reactor.

    PubMed

    Huiliñir, César; Aspé, Estrella; Roeckel, Marlene

    2011-06-01

    The literature has paid scarce attention to the modeling of the denitrification-anaerobic digestion process in packed bed biofilm tubular reactors used to treat wastewater. The present study obtained a steady-state model for industrial salmon fishery wastewater treatment in a biofilm tubular reactor, including pH as a variable and the effect of biomass on hydrolysis. The axial profile of the reactor components and process efficiency were predicted with deviations below 6%. The optimal operating zone for the process was found at hydraulic retention time (HRT)>1.5d and inlet protein concentration (S(prot,0))<3000 mgTOCL(-1). Based on our results, we concluded that the removal of organic matter and nitrogen compounds depended mainly on HRT. The effluent pH was mainly affected by the C/N ratio, where a decrease increases pH. Organic matter removal was related with the anaerobic digestion process, while denitrification influenced mostly nitrate and nitrite removal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anaerobic Digestion.

    PubMed

    Liebetrau, Jan; Sträuber, Heike; Kretzschmar, Jörg; Denysenko, Velina; Nelles, Michael

    2017-04-09

    The term anaerobic digestion usually refers to the microbial conversion of organic material to biogas, which mainly consists of methane and carbon dioxide. The technical application of the naturally-occurring process is used to provide a renewable energy carrier and - as the substrate is often waste material - to reduce the organic matter content of the substrate prior to disposal.Applications can be found in sewage sludge treatment, the treatment of industrial and municipal solid wastes and wastewaters (including landfill gas utilization), and the conversion of agricultural residues and energy crops.For biorefinery concepts, the anaerobic digestion (AD) process is, on the one hand, an option to treat organic residues from other production processes. Concomitant effects are the reduction of organic carbon within the treated substance, the conversion of nitrogen and sulfur components, and the production of an energy-rich gas - the biogas. On the other hand, the multistep conversion of complex organic material offers the possibility of interrupting the conversion chain and locking out intermediates for utilization as basic material within the chemical industry.

  20. Insights into the respective role of acidification and oxidation for enhancing anaerobic digested sludge dewatering performance with Fenton process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weijun; Yang, Peng; Yang, Xiaoyin; Chen, Zhan; Wang, Dongsheng

    2015-04-01

    Digested sludges generally exhibit poorer dewaterability than activated sludges. This study investigated the effects of acidification and oxidation on EPS properties and dewaterability of anaerobic digested sludge in Fenton treatment in order to unravel the underlying mechanism of sludge conditioning. The results indicated that sludge dewatering property was improved after acidification treatment. Meanwhile, fluorescence analysis revealed that the protein-like substances were effectively removed from sludge bulk after acidification treatment. Acidification and Fenton oxidation showed a significant synergetic effect in enhancing sludge dewatering process. Solubilization and decomposition of bound EPS occurred synchronously during Fenton conditioning. Oxidation process is very likely to play a more important role in sludge conditioning than Fenton coagulation. According to pilot test, Fenton treatment performed much better in cake moisture content reduction than chemical conditioning with traditional inorganic coagulants. Additionally, full-scale application of Fenton conditioning will not have detrimental effects on performance of wastewater treatment system.

  1. Thermophilic two-phase anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste for bio-hythane production: effect of recirculation sludge on process stability and microbiology over a long-term pilot-scale experience.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, A; Zanetti, L; Micolucci, F; Cavinato, C

    2014-01-01

    A two-stage thermophilic anaerobic digestion process for the concurrent production of hydrogen and methane through the treatment of the source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste was carried out over a long-term pilot scale experience. Two continuously stirred tank reactors were operated for about 1 year. The results showed that stable production of bio-hythane without inoculum treatment could be obtained. The pH of the dark fermentation reactor was maintained in the optimal range for hydrogen-producing bacteria activity through sludge recirculation from a methanogenic reactor. An average specific bio-hythane production of 0.65 m(3) per kg of volatile solids fed was achieved when the recirculation flow was controlled through an evaporation unit in order to avoid inhibition problems for both microbial communities. Microbial analysis indicated that dominant bacterial species in the dark fermentation reactor are related to the Lactobacillus family, while the population of the methanogenic reactor was mainly composed of Defluviitoga tunisiensis. The archaeal community of the methanogenic reactor shifted, moving from Methanothermobacter-like to Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales, the latter found also in the dark fermentation reactor when a considerable methane production was detected.

  2. Effects of lipid concentration on anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yifei; Wang, Dian; Yan, Jiao; Qiao, Wei; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Tianle

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Lipid in municipal biomass would not inhibited the anaerobic digestion process. • A lipid concentration of 65% of total VS was the inhibition concentration. • The amount of Brevibacterium decreased with the increasing of the lipid contents. • Long chain fatty acids stacked on the methanogenic bacteria and blocked the mass transfer process. - Abstract: The influence of the lipid concentration on the anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste-activated sludge was assessed by biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests and by bench-scale tests in a mesophilic semi-continuous stirred tank reactor. The effect of increasing the volatile solid (VS) concentration of lipid from 0% to 75% was investigated. BMP tests showed that lipids in municipal biomass waste could enhance the methane production. The results of bench-scale tests showed that a lipids concentration of 65% of total VS was the inhibition concentration. Methane yields increased with increasing lipid concentration when lipid concentrations were below 60%, but when lipid concentration was set as 65% or higher, methane yields decreased sharply. When lipid concentrations were below 60%, the pH values were in the optimum range for the growth of methanogenic bacteria and the ratios of volatile fatty acid (VFA)/alkalinity were in the range of 0.2–0.6. When lipid concentrations exceeded 65%, the pH values were below 5.2, the reactor was acidized and the values of VFA/alkalinity rose to 2.0. The amount of Brevibacterium decreased with increasing lipid content. Long chain fatty acids stacked on the methanogenic bacteria and blocked the mass transfer process, thereby inhibiting anaerobic digestion.

  3. Evaluation of a Ca-modified porphyritic andesite for ammonium removal in the anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinghong; Yang, Yingnan; Li, Dawei; Zhang, Zhenya

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a Ca-modified porphyritic andesite (wheat-rice-stone (WRS)) was developed for the anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich wastes. The Ca-modified WRS was obtained with integrated Ca-salt treatment and calcination. Scanning electron microscope and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analyses were performed to characterize the Ca-modified WRS, and adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated to clarify the adsorption mechanism. The ammonium adsorption process was explained well with a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The specific surface area of the Ca-modified WRS was determined to be 4.56 sq. m/g, and the maximum NH4(+)-N adsorption capacity was determined to be 45.45 mg/g. These values are improvements over those of natural WRS. The ammonium adsorption capacity remained constant at a pH range from 5.0 to 9.0, which indicates that Ca-modified WRS is a promising material for various applications. The methane-production and chemical oxygen demand-removal aspects of anaerobic digestion were much improved with the addition of Ca-modified WRS. Therefore, Ca-modified WRS could be developed into a viable ammonium adsorbent for the anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich wastes.

  4. Comparison of aerobic and anaerobic stability indices through a MSW biological treatment process.

    PubMed

    Ponsá, Sergio; Gea, Teresa; Alerm, Llorenç; Cerezo, Javier; Sánchez, Antoni

    2008-12-01

    A complex mechanical-biological waste treatment plant designed for the processing of mixed municipal solid wastes (MSW) and source-selected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) has been studied by using stability indices related to aerobic (respiration index, RI) and anaerobic conditions (biochemical methane potential, BMP). Several selected stages of the plant have been characterized: waste inputs, mechanically treated wastes, anaerobically digested materials and composted wastes, according to the treatment sequence used in the plant. Results obtained showed that the main stages responsible for waste stabilization were the two first stages: mechanical separation and anaerobic digestion with a diminution of both RI and BMP around 40% and 60%, respectively, whereas the third stage, composting of digested materials, produced lesser biological degradation (20-30%). The results related to waste stabilization were similar in both lines (MSW and OFMSW), although the indices obtained for MSW were significantly lower than those obtained for OFMSW, which demonstrated a high biodegradability of OFMSW. The methodology proposed can be used for the characterization of organic wastes and the determination of the efficiency of operation units used in mechanical-biological waste treatment plants.

  5. The effect of anaerobic biomass drying and exposure to air on their recovery and evolution.

    PubMed

    Massalha, Nedal; Brenner, Asher; Sheindorf, Chaim; Sabbah, Isam

    2014-10-15

    The main goal of this study was to test the effect of various drying methods of granular anaerobic biomass on biomass survival, potential and rate of methane re-production, and structure. This may facilitate the development of drying methods to preserve excess anaerobic biomass in dry form for re-inoculation of existing digesters after process failure or wash out or for the start-up of new digesters. To that end, anaerobic granular biomass was collected from an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The biomass was dried using two alternative methods: oven with air circulation at 50 °C for 24 h (DAO), and vacuum rotary evaporator at anaerobic conditions (DAN). For comparison, the control was a biomass with no drying (WET). Biomass samples were tested for specific methanogenic activity using synthetic wastewater. The microbial communities were also tested for viability using the LIVE/DEAD kit, and total biomass was initially quantified by qPCR targeting 16S rRNA genes. In addition, the mcrA functional gene was used s a target for the detection of the most abundant methanogens. Basic bacterial morphology classification was done by VIT(®) gene probe technology using a fluorescence microscope. Dried DAN and DAO biomasses required approximately four operational runs to recover their initial methanogenic activity compared to WET biomass. LIVE/DEAD results showed clear increases in the proportions of the viable biomass of the total bacterial communities over time, especially for the DAN and DAO samples. A comparison of the qPCR results of both DAN and DAO to the WET biomass showed that the methanogenic mcrA gene fraction of the total biomass population of 16S rRNA gene concentrations decreased moderately by about 17.2% in the samples of DAO and by approximately 6.7% in the samples of DAN over all runs after Run1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Decolorization and biogas production by an anaerobic consortium: effect of different azo dyes and quinoid redox mediators.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, L H; Valdez-Espinoza, R; García-Reyes, R B; Olivo-Alanis, D; Garza-González, M T; Meza-Escalante, E R; Gortáres-Moroyoqui, P

    2015-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of azo dyes and quinoid compounds on an anaerobic consortium was evaluated during a decolorization process and biogas production. In addition, the impact of quinoid compounds such as lawsone (LAW) and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) on the rate of decolorization of Direct Blue 71 (DB71) was assessed. The anaerobic consortium was not completely inhibited under all tested dye concentrations (0.1-2 mmol l(-1)), evidenced by an active decolorization process and biogas production. The presence of quinoid compounds at different concentrations (4, 8, and 12 mmol l(-1)) also inhibited biogas production compared to the control incubated without the quinoid compounds. In summary, the anaerobic consortium was affected to a greater extent by increasing the quantity of azo dyes or quinoid compounds. Nevertheless, at a lower concentration (1 mmol l(-1)) of quinoid compounds, the anaerobic consortium effectively decolorized 2 mmol l(-1) of DB71, increasing up to 5.2- and 20.4-fold the rate of decolorization with AQDS and LAW, respectively, compared to the control lacking quinoid compounds.

  7. Effect of simulated weightlessness on exercise-induced anaerobic threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Karst, G. M.; Kirby, C. R.; Goldwater, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of simulated weightlessness, induced by ten days of continuous bedrest (BR) in the -6 deg head-down position, on the exercise-induced anaerobic threshold (AT) was determined by comparing specific ventilatory and gas-exchange measurements during an incremental ergometer test performed before and after BR. The primary index for determining the exercise-induced AT values of each subject was visual identification of the workrate or oxygen uptake (VO2) at which the ratio of the expired minute ventilation volume (VE) to VO2 exhibited a systematic increase without a concomitant increase in the VE/VCO2 value. Following BR, the mean VO2max of the subjects decreased by 7.0 percent, and the AT decreased from a mean of 1.26 L/min VO2 before BR to 0.95 L/min VO2 after BR. The decrease in AT was manifested by a decrease in both absolute and relative workrates. The change in AT correlated significantly with the change in plasma volume but not with the change in VO2max. The results suggest that the reduction in AT cannot be completely explained by the reduction in VO2, and that the AT decrease is associated with the reduction in intravascular fluid volume.

  8. Silver Sulfidation in Thermophilic Anaerobic Digesters and Effects on Antibiotic Resistance Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Bojeong; Miller, Jennifer H.; Monsegue, Niven; Levard, Clément; Hong, Yanjuan; Hull, Matthew S.; Murayama, Mitsuhiro; Brown, Gordon E.; Vikesland, Peter J.; Knocke, William R.; Pruden, Amy; Hochella, Michael F.

    2015-12-15

    Physical and chemical transformations and biological responses of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in wastewater treatment systems are of particular interest because of the extensive existing and continually growing uses of AgNPs in consumer products. In this study, we investigated the transformation of AgNPs and AgNO3 during thermophilic anaerobic digestion and effects on selection or transfer of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Ag2S-NPs, sulfidation products of both AgNPs and AgNO3, were recovered from raw and digested sludges and were analyzed by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). TEM and XAS revealed rapid (≤20 min) Ag sulfidation for both Ag treatments. Once transformed, Ag2S-NPs (as individual NPs or an NP aggregate) persisted for the duration of the batch digestion. The digestion process produced Ag2S-NPs that were strongly associated with sludge organics and/or other inorganic precipitates. Ag treatments (up to 1,000 mg Ag/kg) did not have an impact on the performance of thermophilic anaerobic digesters or ARG response, as indicated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction measurements of sul1, tet(W), and tet(O) and also intI1, an indicator of horizontal gene transfer of ARGs. Thus, rapid Ag sulfidation and stabilization with organics effectively sequester Ag and prevent biological interactions with the digester microbial community that could induce horizontal gene transfer or adversely impact digester performance through antimicrobial activity. This finding suggests that sulfide-rich anaerobic environments, such as digesters, likely have a high buffer capacity to mitigate the biological effects of AgNPs.

  9. The effect of SRT on nitrate formation during autotrophic nitrogen removal of anaerobically treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lee, Po-Heng; Kwak, Wonji; Bae, Jeaho; McCarty, Perry L

    2013-01-01

    Autotrophic nitrogen removal, coupling nitritation (ammonium to nitrite) with anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), offers a promising nitrogen-removal alternative, especially for post-treatment of anaerobically-treated wastewater. However, previous reports suggest that less than 90% total nitrogen removal should be expected with this process alone because over 10% of the ammonium removed will be converted to nitrate. This is caused because nitrite conversion to nitrate is required for reduction of carbon dioxide to cell carbon. However, recent research results suggest that more limited nitrate formation of only a few per cent sometimes occurs. It was hypothesized such lower nitrate yields may result from use of long solids retention times (SRT) where net biological yields are low, and providing that the ratio of oxygen added to influent ammonium concentrations is maintained at or below 0.75 mol/mol. Overall reaction equations were developed for each process and combined to evaluate the potential effect of SRT on process stoichiometry. The results support the use of a long SRT to reduce net cell yield, which in turn results in a small percentage conversion to nitrate during ammonium removal and high total nitrogen removals in the range of 90 to 94%.

  10. Effects of ferric iron on the anaerobic treatment and microbial biodiversity in a coupled microbial electrolysis cell (MEC)--anaerobic reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingxin; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo

    2013-10-01

    Adding Fe(III) into a MEC - anaerobic reactor enhanced the degradation of organic matters. To clarify the respective effects of combining Fe(III) dosage and a MEC and Fe(III) dosage only on strengthening anaerobic digestion, three anaerobic reactors were operated in parallel: a MEC - anaerobic reactor with dosing Fe(OH)3 (R1), an anaerobic reactor with dosing Fe(OH)3 (R2) and a common anaerobic reactor (R3). With increasing influent COD from 1500 to 4000 mg/L, the COD removal in R1 was maintained at 88.3% under a voltage of 0.8 V, which was higher than that in reactor R2 and R3. When the power was cut off, the COD removal in R1 decreased by 5.9%. The addition of Fe(OH)3 enhanced both anaerobic digestion and anodic oxidation, resulting in the effective mineralization of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The reduced Fe(II) combined with electric field resulted more extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production. Quantitative real - time PCR showed a higher abundance of bacteria in the anodic biofilm and R1. Pyrosequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed that the dominant bacteria and archaea communities were richer and more abundant in the anode biofilm and R1.

  11. Reconsideration of anaerobic fermentation from excess sludge at pH 10.0 as an eco-friendly process.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guang-Hui; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Li-Ming

    2010-03-15

    Volatile fatty acids' (VFA) production from excess sludges during the initial stage (133 h) in the fermentation processes and the disposal risk of sludge were investigated under the real time controlled condition of pH at 5.5 and 10.0. The results showed that the total VFA production at pH 10.0 was markedly higher than that at pH 5.5. Anaerobic fermentation at pH 10.0 was the first be shown having marked reduction effect on total bromate in excess sludge when compared with pH 5.5. Meanwhile, at pH 5.5, sludge dewaterability deteriorated slightly with the fermentation time, whereas at pH 10.0 it deteriorated greatly with the fermentation time. Moreover, the mechanism of VFA improvement was also explored. It was suggested that anaerobic fermentation process at pH 10.0 should be reconsidered to be applied as an eco-friendly material recycling process, based on its sludge dewaterability and total bromate. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of Anaerobic Digestion of Liquid Dairy Manure on Ammonia Volatilization Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koirala, K.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effect of anaerobic digestion (AD) on the mechanism of ammonia volatilization from liquid dairy manure, in storage or treatment lagoon, prior to land application. Physical-chemical properties of liquid dairy manure, which may affect ammonia volatilization process, were determined before and after AD. The properties of interest included: particle size distribution (PSD), total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), viscosity, pH, total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN), and ionic strength (IS). The overall mass transfer coefficient of ammonia (KoL) and the NH3 fraction of TAN (β) for the undigested (UD) and AD manures were then experimentally determined in a laboratory convective emission chamber (CEC) at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1 and fixed air temperature of 25 °C at liquid manure temperatures of 15, 25, and 35 °C. The PSD indicated non-normal left skewed distribution for both AD and UD manures particles, suggestive of heavier concentrations of particles towards the lower particle size range. The volume median diameters (VMD) for solids from UD and AD were not significantly different (p= 0.65), but the geometric standard deviations (GSD) were significantly different (p = 0.001), indicating slightly larger particles but more widely distributed solids in UD than AD manure. Results also indicated significantly higher pH, TAN, ionic strength (IS) and viscosity in AD manure. The KoL and β for AD manure determined under identical conditions (air temperature, liquid temperature, and airflow) were significantly higher (p > 0.05) than for UD manure. Overall, these findings suggest that AD of dairy manure significantly increased initial ammonia volatilization potential from liquid dairy manure; with the largest increase (~62%) emanating from increased ammonium dissociation. The initial flux of ammonia, during the experiment period, was ~84% more from AD than in UD dairy manure. Keywords. Process based models, mass transfer

  13. Bioaugmentation of anaerobic sludge digestion with iron-reducing bacteria: process and microbial responses to variations in hydraulic retention time.

    PubMed

    Baek, Gahyun; Kim, Jaai; Shin, Seung Gu; Lee, Changsoo

    2016-01-01

    Although anaerobic digestion (AD) is a widely used option to manage waste activated sludge (WAS), there are some drawbacks related to its slow reaction rate and low energy productivity. This study examined an anaerobic WAS digester, augmented with an iron-reducing microbial consortium, relative to changes in microbial community structure and process performance at decreasing hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 20 to 10 days. The enhanced methanation performance (approximately 40 % increase in methane yield) by the bioaugmentation was sustained until the HRT was decreased to 12.5 days, under Fe(3+)-rich conditions (ferric oxyhydroxide, 20 mM Fe). Enhanced iron-reducing activity was evidenced by the increased Fe(2+) to total Fe ratio maintained above 50 % during the stable operational phases. A further decrease in HRT to 10 days resulted in a significant performance deterioration, along with a drop in the Fe(2+) to total Fe ratio to <35 %, after four turnovers of operation. Prevailing existence of putative iron-reducing bacteria (IRBs) was identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), with Spirochaetaceae- and Thauera-related organisms being dominant members, and clear dominance shifts among them with respect to decrease in HRT were observed. Lowering HRT led to evident shifts in bacterial community structure likely associated with washout of IRBs, leading to decreases in iron respiration activity and AD performance at a lower HRT. The bacterial community structure shifted dynamically over phases, and the community transitions correlated well with the changes in process performance. Overall, the combined biostimulation and bioaugmentation investigated in this study proved effective for enhanced methane recovery from anaerobic WAS digestion, which suggests an interesting potential for high-rate AD.

  14. Stress hormone epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) effects on the anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Boyanova, Lyudmila

    2017-01-08

    Microbial endocrinology is a relatively new research area that already encompasses the anaerobes. Stress hormones, epinephrine and norepinephrine, can affect the growth of anaerobic bacteria such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella spp., Porhyromonas spp., Tanerella forsythia and Propionibacterium acnes and can increase virulence gene expression, iron acquisition and many virulence factors of some anaerobic species such as Clostridium perfringens, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Brachyspira pilosicoli. Epinephrine and norepinephrine effects can lead to a growth increase or decrease, or no effect on the growth of the anaerobes. The effects are species-specific and perhaps strain-specific. Discrepancies in the results of some studies can be due to the different methods and media used, catecholamine concentrations, measurement techniques and the low number of strains tested. Biological effects of the stress hormones on the anaerobes may range from halitosis and a worsening of periodontal diseases to tissue damages and atherosclerotic plaque ruptures. Optimizations of the research methods and a detailed assessment of the catecholamine effects in conditions mimicking those in affected organs and tissues, as well as the effects on the quorum sensing and virulence of the anaerobes and the full spectrum of biological consequences of the effects are interesting topics for further evaluation.

  15. Wastewater sludges pretreated by different oxidation systems at mild conditions to promote the biogas formation in anaerobic processes.

    PubMed

    Segura, Y; Puyol, D; Ballesteros, L; Martínez, F; Melero, J A

    2016-12-01

    The effect of different oxidation processes at mild conditions including the coupled-Fenton (sono-Fenton, photo-Fenton, and sono-photo-Fenton) and their blank systems (ultrasound, ultraviolet, zero valent iron, and Fenton) on anaerobic digestion of the sludge for biogas production was investigated. Ultrasounds led to the highest organic matter solubilization (3.8 up to 5.2 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L, for the raw and treated sludge, respectively), while for the rest, organic matter transformation was observed resulting in an almost soluble COD net balance. Results indicated that for the most oxidative processes, the released organic matter was probably mineralized by the hydroxyl radicals produced during the treatments. It is interesting to remark that even if the biochemical methane potential was barely enhanced by the different methods applied, all the methods demonstrated to enhance the overall kinetics of the biomethanation processes, increasing the rapidly biodegradable fraction of the sludge.

  16. Electropolar effects on anaerobic fermentation of lignocellulosic materials in novel single-electrode cells.

    PubMed

    Qu, Guangfei; Qiu, Weixia; Liu, Yuhuan; Zhong, Dongwei; Ning, Ping

    2014-05-01

    As a promising renewable energy technology, anaerobic fermentation is consistently limited by low production and calorific value of biogas, along with the difficulty of lignocellulose degradation. The effects of polarity and micro-voltage on anaerobic fermentation from lignocellulosic materials were investigated in single-electrode fermenter to explore cost-efficient technology. The results illustrated that the biogas production and quality were significantly affected by electric polarity. And cathode-assisted fermentation led to more positive effects than anode-assisted. Compared with results in control group without electrode, the average biogas and methane yield under cathodic micro-voltage (-250 mV) were astonishingly improved by 2.82 and 2.44 mL g(-1)d(-1) respectively. Meanwhile, the degradation ratios of lignin and cellulose were also improved by 23.11% and 19.46%. It demonstrated that single micro-voltage can not only promote lignocellulose degradation but biogas production and calorific value. These micro-voltage effects on fermentation process also provided great opportunity to breakthrough the present limitation of lignocellulosic materials fermentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of Anaerobic Chemical Processes in Reservoirs: Problem Description and Conceptual Model Formulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    CHARACTERIZATION OF ANAEROBIC CHEMICAL PROCESSES IN RESERVOIRS...ETC(U) APR al D GUNNISON, J M BRANNON UNCLASSIFIED WES/TR/E-8i-6 L 1111 1.01115 32...INISTRUCTIONS REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE RECINT. COMSPLETIG FORM 4. TIL adSb~)S. TYPE Of REPORT G PERIOD COySRED OIARACTERIZATION OFAAEROBIC QEMICAL...Engineers, U. S. Army Ap(J%8 Washington, D . C. 2031480r J 14. MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADORESS(f different bass Conti.IIing Office) 1S. SECURITY CLASS

  18. Assessment of anaerobic bacterial diversity and its effects on anaerobic system stability and the occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Sevcan; Ince, Bahar; Ince, Orhan

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the link between anaerobic bacterial diversity and, the biodegradation of antibiotic combinations and assessed how amending antibiotic combination and increasing concentration of antibiotics in a stepwise fashion influences the development of resistance genes in anaerobic reactors. The biodegradation, sorption and occurrence of the known antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) of erythromycin and tetracycline were investigated using the processes of UV-HPLC and qPCR analysis respectively. Ion Torrent sequencing was used to detect microbial community changes in response to the addition of antibiotics. The overall results indicated that changes in the structure of a microbial community lead to changes in biodegradation capacity, sorption of antibiotics combinations and occurrence of ARGs. The enhanced biodegradation efficiency appeared to generate variations in the structure of the bacterial community. The results suggested that controlling the ultimate Gram-negative bacterial community, especially Acinetobacter-related populations, may promote the successful biodegradation of antibiotic combinations and reduce the occurrence of ARGs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Solid mining residues from ni extraction applied as nutrients supplier to anaerobic process: optimal dose approach through Taguchi's methodology.

    PubMed

    Pereda, I; Irusta, R; Montalvo, S; del Valle, J L

    2006-01-01

    The use of solid mining residues (Cola) which contain a certain amount of Ni, Fe and Co, to stimulate anaerobic processes was evaluated. The effect over methane production and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was analysed. The studies were carried out in discontinuous reactors at lab scale under mesophilic conditions until exhausted. 0, 3, 5 and 7 mg Cola l(-1) doses were applied to synthetic wastewater. Volatile fatty acids (VFA) and sucrose were used as substrate, sulphur and nitrogen concentration, being the noise variable. Cola addition at dose around 5 mg I(-1), turned out to be stimulating for the anaerobic process. It was the factor that most influenced on methane production rate together with VFA and high content of volatile suspended solids. In the case of methane yield, pH was the control factor of strongest influence. Higher values of COD removal efficiency were obtained when the reactors were operated with sucrose at relatively low pH and at the smallest concentration of nitrogen and sulphur. Solid residues dose and the type of substrate were the factors that had most influence on COD removal efficiency.

  20. Sludge reduction and microbial community structure in an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic process coupled with potassium ferrate disintegration.

    PubMed

    An, Ying; Zhou, Zhen; Yao, Jie; Niu, Tianhao; Qiu, Zhan; Ruan, Danian; Wei, Haijuan

    2017-09-05

    An anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (AAO) wastewater treatment system combining with a potassium ferrate (K2FeO4) oxidation side-stream reactor (SSR) was proposed for sludge reduction. Batch experiments showed that optimal K2FeO4 dosage and reaction time for sludge disintegration was 100mg/g suspended solids (SS) and 24h, respectively. Subsequently, an AAO-SSR and a conventional AAO were operated in parallel to investigate effects of K2FeO4 oxidation on process performance, sludge characteristics and microbial community structures. The AAO-SSR process operated under the optimized condition achieved efficient COD and NH4(+)-N removal, and reduced sludge by 47.5% with observed yield coefficient of 0.21gSS/g COD. K2FeO4 addition broke sludge particles, increased dissolved organic matters in the mixed liquor, and improved sludge dewaterability. Illumina-MiSeq sequencing results showed that K2FeO4 oxidation in the AAO-SSR decreased microbial richness and diversity, enriched slow growers (Dechloromonas), anaerobic fermentative bacteria (Azospira) and Fe(III)-reducing bacteria (Ferribacterium), but limited the growth of phosphate-accumulating organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibitory effect of erythromycin, tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole antibiotics on anaerobic treatment of a pharmaceutical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Sevcan; Ince, Bahar; Ince, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals enter ecosystems, which causes changes to microbial community structure and development of resistant genes. Anaerobic treatments can be an alternative application for treatment of pharmaceutical wastewaters, which has high organic content. This study aims to develop an understanding of the effects of sulfamethoxazole-erythromycin-tetracycline (ETS), sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline (ST), erythromycin-sulfamethoxazole (ES) and erythromycin-tetracycline (ET) combinations on the anaerobic treatment of pharmaceutical industry wastewater. The results of this investigation revealed that bacteria have a competitive advantage over archaea under all antibiotic combinations. The ET reactor showed a better performance compared to other reactors; this could be due to antagonistic effects of sulfamethoxazole. Acute inhibition in the microbial community was also strongly affected by antibiotics concentrations. This indicated that the composition of the microbial community changed in association with anaerobic sequencing batch reactor performances. The results of this research support the idea that an acute test could be used to control and improve the anaerobic treatment system.

  2. Biogas production and methanogenic archaeal community in mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Yu, D; Kurola, J M; Lähde, K; Kymäläinen, M; Sinkkonen, A; Romantschuk, M

    2014-10-01

    Over 258 Mt of solid waste are generated annually in Europe, a large fraction of which is biowaste. Sewage sludge is another major waste fraction. In this study, biowaste and sewage sludge were co-digested in an anaerobic digestion reactor (30% and 70% of total wet weight, respectively). The purpose was to investigate the biogas production and methanogenic archaeal community composition in the anaerobic digestion reactor under meso- (35-37 °C) and thermophilic (55-57 °C) processes and an increasing organic loading rate (OLR, 1-10 kg VS m(-3) d(-1)), and also to find a feasible compromise between waste treatment capacity and biogas production without causing process instability. In summary, more biogas was produced with all OLRs by the thermophilic process. Both processes showed a limited diversity of the methanogenic archaeal community which was dominated by Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales (e.g. Methanosarcina) in both meso- and thermophilic processes. Methanothermobacter was detected as an additional dominant genus in the thermophilic process. In addition to operating temperatures, the OLRs, the acetate concentration, and the presence of key substrates like propionate also affected the methanogenic archaeal community composition. A bacterial cell count 6.25 times higher than archaeal cell count was observed throughout the thermophilic process, while the cell count ratio varied between 0.2 and 8.5 in the mesophilic process. This suggests that the thermophilic process is more stable, but also that the relative abundance between bacteria and archaea can vary without seriously affecting biogas production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Deterministic processes guide long-term synchronised population dynamics in replicate anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Vanwonterghem, Inka; Jensen, Paul D; Dennis, Paul G; Hugenholtz, Philip; Rabaey, Korneel; Tyson, Gene W

    2014-10-01

    A replicate long-term experiment was conducted using anaerobic digestion (AD) as a model process to determine the relative role of niche and neutral theory on microbial community assembly, and to link community dynamics to system performance. AD is performed by a complex network of microorganisms and process stability relies entirely on the synergistic interactions between populations belonging to different functional guilds. In this study, three independent replicate anaerobic digesters were seeded with the same diverse inoculum, supplied with a model substrate, α-cellulose, and operated for 362 days at a 10-day hydraulic residence time under mesophilic conditions. Selective pressure imposed by the operational conditions and model substrate caused large reproducible changes in community composition including an overall decrease in richness in the first month of operation, followed by synchronised population dynamics that correlated with changes in reactor performance. This included the synchronised emergence and decline of distinct Ruminococcus phylotypes at day 148, and emergence of a Clostridium and Methanosaeta phylotype at day 178, when performance became stable in all reactors. These data suggest that many dynamic functional niches are predictably filled by phylogenetically coherent populations over long time scales. Neutral theory would predict that a complex community with a high degree of recognised functional redundancy would lead to stochastic changes in populations and community divergence over time. We conclude that deterministic processes may play a larger role in microbial community dynamics than currently appreciated, and under controlled conditions it may be possible to reliably predict community structural and functional changes over time.

  4. On-line monitoring of a two-stage anaerobic digestion process using a BOD analyzer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Olsson, Gustaf; Mattiasson, Bo

    2004-04-29

    A computer-controlled biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) analyzer has been developed for fast estimation of biochemical oxygen demand (BODst) automatically with the purpose of on-line monitoring of a process for conversion of biomass under field conditions. The instrument was tested by on-line monitoring of the connecting stream between two stages of a two-stage anaerobic process in laboratory scale. In the first stage, hydrolysis of sugar beet leaves and its conversion into volatile fatty acids and other low molecular weight substrates took place. The effluent from the first reactor was used as a feed stream to the second stage, i.e. an anaerobic contact reactor. The feed stream was sampled intermittently, diluted and analyzed by the BOD analyzer automatically in order to estimate the organic loading rate to the reactor. The results from this study demonstrated that the BOD analyzer could be a stand-alone and promising sensor device for rapid on-line monitoring of easily biodegradable organic substances in biological treatment processes.

  5. Evaluation of a four year experience with a fully instrumented anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Steyer, J P; Bouvier, J C; Conte, T; Gras, P; Sousbie, P

    2002-01-01

    For several years, a 1 m3 fixed bed anaerobic digestion process has been operated for the treatment of distillery vinasses. This reactor has been fully instrumented with the following variables available on-line: pH, temperature, liquid and gas flow rates, gas composition (i.e., CH4, CO2 and H2), concentration of bicarbonate, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, volatile fatty acids and partial and total alkalinity, these last four variables being measured twice by different techniques (i.e., using a TOC analyzer, a titrimetric sensor and an infrared spectrometer). The purpose of this paper is to compare the respective benefits of advanced instrumentation for the monitoring of wastewater treatment processes in general, and for anaerobic digestion in particular. It will also provide some statistical analysis of the time required to operate a fully instrumented wastewater treatment process. It is indeed well admitted in the literature that instrumentation is usually the main limitation step for using closed-loop control. However, it is our opinion that, in the near future, this situation will change. This point is discussed based on our four years practical experience.

  6. Recovery of methane from anaerobic process effluent using poly-di-methyl-siloxane membrane contactors.

    PubMed

    Cookney, J; Cartmell, E; Jefferson, B; McAdam, E J

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the potential for recovering dissolved methane from low temperature anaerobic processes treating domestic wastewater. In the absence of methane recovery, ca. 45% of the produced methane is released as a fugitive emission which results in a net carbon footprint of -0.47 kg CO(2e) m(-3). A poly-di-methyl-siloxane (PDMS) membrane contactor was applied to support sweep gas desorption of dissolved methane using nitrogen. The dense membrane structure controlled gaseous mass transfer thus recovery was maximised at low liquid velocities. At the lowest liquid velocity, V(L), of 0.0025 m s(-1), 72% of the dissolved methane was recovered. A vacuum was also trialled as an alternative to sweep-gas operation. At vacuum pressures below 30 mbar, reasonable methane recovery was observed at an intermediate V(L) of 0.0056 m s(-1). Results from this study demonstrate that dissolved methane recovery could increase net electrical production from low temperature anaerobic processes by ca. +0.043 kWh(e) m(-3) and reduce the net carbon footprint to +0.01 kg CO(2e) m(-3). However, further experimental work to optimise the gas-side hydrodynamics is required as well as validation of the long-term impacts of biofouling on process performance.

  7. Acclimatization process of tofu wastewater on hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor using polyvinyl chloride rings as a growth medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanqoritha, Nyimas; Turmuzi, Muhammad; Derlini

    2017-05-01

    The appropriate process to resolve sewage contamination which have a high organic using anaerobic technology. Hybrid Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor is one of the anaerobic process which consists of a suspended growth media and attached growth media. The reactor has the ability to work at high load rate, sludge produced easily settles, high biomass and the separation of gas, solid and liquid excelent. The purpose of research is to study the acclimatization process in the reactor of Hybrid Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket using a polyvinl chloride ring as the attached growth medium. Reactor of Hybrid Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket use a working volume of 8.6 L. The operation consisting of 3 L suspended reactor and 5.6 L attached reactor. Acclimatization is conducted by providing the substrate from the smallest concentration of COD up to a concentration that will be processed. During the 50th day, acclimatization process assumed the bacteria begin to work, indicated by the dissolved COD and VSS decrease and biogas production. Due to the wastewater containing the high of protein in consequence operational parameters should be controlled and some precautions should be taken to prevent process partially or totally inhibited.

  8. Effect of antimicrobial compounds tylosin and chlortetracycline during batch anaerobic swine manure digestion.

    PubMed

    Stone, James J; Clay, Sharon A; Zhu, Zhenwei; Wong, Kwok L; Porath, Laura R; Spellman, Garth M

    2009-10-01

    Tylosin and chlortetracycline (CTC) are antimicrobial chemicals that are fed to >45% of the US swine herds at therapeutic and sub-therapeutic dosages to enhance growth rates and treat swine health problems. These compounds are poorly absorbed during digestion so that the bioactive compound or metabolites are excreted. This study investigated the degradation and stabilization of swine manure that contained no additives and compared the observed processes with those of manure containing either tylosin or CTC. The batch anaerobic incubation lasted 216 days. The breakdown of insoluble organic matter through anaerobic hydrolysis reactions was faster for manure containing CTC compared with tylosin or no-antimicrobial treatments. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation, including acetate, butyrate, and propionate, was greater for CTC-containing manure compared to tylosin and no-antimicrobial treatments. The relative abundance of two aceticlastic methanogens, Methanosaetaceae and Methanosarcinaceae spp., were less for CTC manure than manure with no-antimicrobial treatment. In addition, generation of methane and carbon dioxide was inhibited by 27.8% and 28.4%, respectively, due to the presence of CTC. Tylosin effects on manure degradation were limited, however the relative abundance of Methanosarcinaceae spp. was greater than found in the CTC or no-antimicrobial manures. These data suggest that acetate and other C-1 VFA compounds would be effectively utilized during methanogenesis in the presence of tylosin.

  9. Effect of anaerobic soil disinfestation on weed seed germination

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The project goal is to optimize anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation using strawberry in coastal California and pepper/eggplant double crop in southeast Florida as model systems (Shennan et al., 2007). In preparation for field experiments, a series of po...

  10. Effect of sulfate on low-temperature anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Madden, Pádhraig; Al-Raei, Abdul M; Enright, Anne M; Chinalia, Fabio A; de Beer, Dirk; O'Flaherty, Vincent; Collins, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    The effect of sulfate addition on the stability of, and microbial community behavior in, low-temperature anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed-based bioreactors was investigated at 15°C. Efficient bioreactor performance was observed, with chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of >90%, and a mean SO(2-) 4 removal rate of 98.3%. In situ methanogensis appeared unaffected at a COD: SO(2-) 4 influent ratio of 8:1, and subsequently of 3:1, and was impacted marginally only when the COD: SO(2-) 4 ratio was 1:2. Specific methanogenic activity assays indicated a complex set of interactions between sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), methanogens and homoacetogenic bacteria. SO(2-) 4 addition resulted in predominantly acetoclastic, rather than hydrogenotrophic, methanogenesis until >600 days of SO(2-) 4-influenced bioreactor operation. Temporal microbial community development was monitored by denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridizations (FISH), qPCR and microsensor analysis were combined to investigate the distribution of microbial groups, and particularly SRB and methanogens, along the structure of granular biofilms. qPCR data indicated that sulfidogenic genes were present in methanogenic and sulfidogenic biofilms, indicating the potential for sulfate reduction even in bioreactors not exposed to SO(2-) 4. Although the architecture of methanogenic and sulfidogenic granules was similar, indicating the presence of SRB even in methanogenic systems, FISH with rRNA targets found that the SRB were more abundant in the sulfidogenic biofilms. Methanosaeta species were the predominant, keystone members of the archaeal community, with the complete absence of the Methanosarcina species in the experimental bioreactor by trial conclusion. Microsensor data suggested the ordered distribution of sulfate reduction and sulfide accumulation, even in methanogenic granules.

  11. Effect of sulfate on low-temperature anaerobic digestion

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Pádhraig; Al-Raei, Abdul M.; Enright, Anne M.; Chinalia, Fabio A.; de Beer, Dirk; O'Flaherty, Vincent; Collins, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    The effect of sulfate addition on the stability of, and microbial community behavior in, low-temperature anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed-based bioreactors was investigated at 15°C. Efficient bioreactor performance was observed, with chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of >90%, and a mean SO2−4 removal rate of 98.3%. In situ methanogensis appeared unaffected at a COD: SO2−4 influent ratio of 8:1, and subsequently of 3:1, and was impacted marginally only when the COD: SO2−4 ratio was 1:2. Specific methanogenic activity assays indicated a complex set of interactions between sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), methanogens and homoacetogenic bacteria. SO2−4 addition resulted in predominantly acetoclastic, rather than hydrogenotrophic, methanogenesis until >600 days of SO2−4-influenced bioreactor operation. Temporal microbial community development was monitored by denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridizations (FISH), qPCR and microsensor analysis were combined to investigate the distribution of microbial groups, and particularly SRB and methanogens, along the structure of granular biofilms. qPCR data indicated that sulfidogenic genes were present in methanogenic and sulfidogenic biofilms, indicating the potential for sulfate reduction even in bioreactors not exposed to SO2−4. Although the architecture of methanogenic and sulfidogenic granules was similar, indicating the presence of SRB even in methanogenic systems, FISH with rRNA targets found that the SRB were more abundant in the sulfidogenic biofilms. Methanosaeta species were the predominant, keystone members of the archaeal community, with the complete absence of the Methanosarcina species in the experimental bioreactor by trial conclusion. Microsensor data suggested the ordered distribution of sulfate reduction and sulfide accumulation, even in methanogenic granules. PMID:25120534

  12. Anaerobic trophic interactions of contrasting methane-emitting mire soils: processes versus taxa.

    PubMed

    Hunger, Sindy; Gößner, Anita S; Drake, Harold L

    2015-05-01

    Natural wetlands such as mires contribute up to 33% to the global emission of methane. The emission of methane is driven by trophic interactions of anaerobes that collectively degrade biopolymers. The hypothesis of this study was that these interactions in contrasting methane-emitting mire soils are functionally similar but linked to dissimilar taxa. This hypothesis was addressed by evaluating anaerobic processes and microbial taxa of eutrophic, mesotrophic and oligotrophic mire soils. Glucose was fermented to various products (e.g. H2, CO2, butyrate, acetate). Acetoclastic methanogenesis occurred, and acetogenesis and methanogenesis transformed H2-CO2 to acetate and methane, respectively. Although product profiles, cultivable cell numbers and gene copy numbers [mcrA (encodes alpha-subunit of methyl-CoM reductase) and 16S rRNA genes] were similar for all mire soils, only approximately 15% of detected family-level bacteria and species-level methanogens were shared by all mire soils. Approximately, 40% of the detected family-level taxa of each mire soil have no cultured isolates. Acidic conditions appeared to restrict the number of dominant phylotypes. The results indicated (a) that microbial processes which drive methanogenesis are similar but facilitated by dissimilar microbial communities in contrasting mire soils and (b) that mire soils harbor a large number of taxa with no cultured isolates.

  13. Effects of household detergent on anaerobic fermentation of kitchen wastewater from food waste disposer.

    PubMed

    Lee, K H; Park, K Y; Khanal, S K; Lee, J W

    2013-01-15

    This study examines the effects of household detergent on anaerobic methane fermentation of wastewater from food waste disposers (FWDs). Anaerobic toxicity assay (ATA) demonstrated that methane production substantially decreased at a higher detergent concentration. The Gompertz three-parameter model fitted well with the ATA results, and both the extent of methane production (M) and methane production rate (R(m)) obtained from the model were strongly affected by the concentration of the detergent. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of the detergent was 603 mg/L based on R(m). Results from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) analysis of microbial culture revealed that deterioration of methane fermentation was attributed to impaired structure of anaerobic microbial membrane due to detergent. This study suggests that wastewater from FWD could be used for methane production, but it is necessary to reduce the concentration of detergent prior to anaerobic fermentation.

  14. Effect of anaerobic HRT on biological phosphorus removal and the enrichment of phosphorus accumulating organisms.

    PubMed

    Coats, Erik R; Watkins, David L; Brinkman, Cynthia K; Loge, Frank J

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a better understanding of the dynamic effects of anaerobic hydraulic retention time (HRT) on both enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) performance and enrichment of phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs). The research was conducted using laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors inoculated with mixed microbial consortia and fed real wastewater. Exposing microorganisms to extended anaerobic HRTs is not recommended for EBPR configured systems. In this research, however, longer anaerobic exposure did not negatively affect performance even if volatile fatty acids were depleted. Further, extended anaerobic HRTs may positively affect phosphorus removal through enhanced aerobic uptake. The EBPR consortia also appear to maintain reserve energetic capacity in the form of polyphosphate that can be used to survive and grow under variable operational and environmental conditions. Finally, the tested EBPR systems yield mixed microbial consortia enriched with PAOs (specifically Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis) at approximately 7.1 to 21.6% of the total population.

  15. Effects of substrates on N2O emissions in an anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) reactor.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yue; Wang, Dunqiu; Zhang, Wenjie

    2016-01-01

    N2O emission in the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process is of growing concern. In this study, effects of substrate concentrations on N2O emissions were investigated in an anammox reactor. Extremely high N2O emissions of 1.67 % were led by high NH4-N concentrations. Results showed that N2O emissions have a positive correlation with NH4-N concentrations in the anammox reactor. Reducing NH4-N concentrations by recycling pump resulted in decreasing N2O emissions. In addition, further studies were performed to identify a key biological process that is contributed to N2O emissions from the anammox reactor. Based on the results obtained, Nitrosomonas, which can oxidize ammonia to nitrite, was deemed as the main sources of N2O emissions.

  16. Enhanced coproduction of hydrogen and methane from cornstalks by a three-stage anaerobic fermentation process integrated with alkaline hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xi-Yu; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2012-01-01

    A three-stage anaerobic fermentation process including H(2) fermentation I, H(2) fermentation II, methane fermentation was developed for the coproduction of hydrogen and methane from cornstalks. Hydrogen production from cornstalks using direct microbial conversion by Clostridium thermocellum 7072 was markedly enhanced in the two-stage thermophilic hydrogen fermentation process integrated with alkaline treatment. The highest total hydrogen yield from cornstalks in the two-stage fermentation process reached 74.4 mL/g-cornstalk. The hydrogen fermentation effluents and alkaline hydrolyzate were further used for methane fermentation by anaerobic granular sludge, and the total methane yield reached 205.8 mL/g-cornstalk. The total energy recovery in the three-stage anaerobic fermentation process integrated with alkaline hydrolysis reached 70.0%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Central treatment of different emulsion wastewaters by an integrated process of physicochemically enhanced ultrafiltration and anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weijun; Xiao, Ping; Wang, Dongsheng

    2014-05-01

    The feasibility of an integrated process of ultrafiltration (UF) enhanced by combined chemical emulsion breaking with vibratory shear and anaerobic/aerobic biofilm reactor for central treatment of different emulsion wastewaters was investigated. Firstly, it was found that calcium chloride exhibited better performance in oil removal than other inorganic salts. Chemical demulsification pretreatment could efficiently improve oil removal and membrane filtration in emulsion wastewater treatment by VSEP. According to aerobic batch bioassay, UF permeate exhibited good biodegradability and could be further treated with biological process. Additionally, pilot test indicated that anaerobic-aerobic biofilm exhibited an excellent ability against rise in organic loading and overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of biological system was more than 93% of which 82% corresponded to the anaerobic process and 11% to the aerobic degradation. The final effluent of integrated process could meet the "water quality standards for discharge to municipal sewers" in China.

  18. Growth of Chlorella vulgaris on sugarcane vinasse: the effect of anaerobic digestion pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Marques, Sheyla Santa Isabel; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; de Almeida, Paulo Fernando; Chinalia, Fábio Alexandre

    2013-12-01

    Microalgae farming has been identified as the most eco-sustainable solution for producing biodiesel. However, the operation of full-scale plants is still limited by costs and the utilization of industrial and/or domestic wastes can significantly improve economic profits. Several waste effluents are valuable sources of nutrients for the cultivation of microalgae. Ethanol production from sugarcane, for instance, generates significant amounts of organically rich effluent, the vinasse. After anaerobic digestion treatment, nutrient remaining in such an effluent can be used to grow microalgae. This research aimed to testing the potential of the anaerobic treated vinasse as an alternative source of nutrients for culturing microalgae with the goal of supplying the biodiesel industrial chain with algal biomass and oil. The anaerobic process treating vinasse reached a steady state at about 17 batch cycles of 24 h producing about 0.116 m(3)CH4 kgCODvinasse (-1). The highest productivity of Chlorella vulgaris biomass (70 mg l(-1) day(-1)) was observed when using medium prepared with the anaerobic digester effluent. Lipid productivity varied from 0.5 to 17 mg l(-1) day(-1). Thus, the results show that it is possible to integrate the culturing of microalgae with the sugarcane industry by means of anaerobic digestion of the vinasse. There is also the advantageous possibility of using by-products of the anaerobic digestion such as methane and CO2 for sustaining the system with energy and carbon source, respectively.

  19. Effect of step aerobics training on anaerobic performance of men and women.

    PubMed

    Kin-Isler, Ayse; Kosar, Sukran Nazan

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 10 weeks of step aerobics training on anaerobic performance of men and women. College-age volunteers (64 women and 54 men) were divided into step aerobics (33 women, 27 men) and control (31 women, 27 men) groups. Before and after the 10-week period, the subjects' body composition, muscular strength, Wingate anaerobic performance, and vertical jump anaerobic performance were determined. The step aerobics group participated in step aerobics sessions of 50 minutes per day, 3 days per week for 10 weeks, at 60-80% of their heart rate reserve. Results of 2 x 2 analysis of covariance with repeated measures indicated significant sex differences in percentage body fat, lean body mass, muscular strength, and in all of the measured indices of the Wingate Anaerobic Test. The step aerobics group showed significant improvement only in mean power relative to body weight compared with the control group and women showed significant improvement only in anaerobic power of vertical jump when compared with men. It can be concluded that 10 weeks of step aerobics was not effective in improving all of the measured anaerobic indices in men and women.

  20. Microbial community in anoxic-oxic-settling-anaerobic sludge reduction process revealed by 454 pyrosequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Ning, Xinqiang; Qiao, Wenwen; Zhang, Lei; Gao, Xu

    2014-12-01

    Modification of the anoxic-oxic (AO) process by inserting a sludge holding tank (SHT) into the sludge return line forms an anoxic-oxic-settling-anaerobic (A+OSA) process that can achieve a 48.98% sludge reduction rate. The 454 pyrosequencing method was used to obtain the microbial communities of the AO and A+OSA processes. Results showed that the microbial community structures of the 2 processes were different as a result of the SHT insertion. Bacteria assigned to the phyla Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes commonly existed and dominated the microbial populations of the 2 processes. However, the relative abundance of these populations shifted in the presence of SHT. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria decreased during the A+OSA process. A specific comparison at the class level showed that Sphingobacteria was enriched in the A+OSA process. The result suggested that the fermentative bacteria Sphingobacteria may have key functions in reducing the sludge from the A+OSA process. Uncultured Nitrosomonadaceae gradually became the dominant ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, and the nitrite-oxidizing bacterium Nitrospira was enriched in the A+OSA process. Both occurrences were favorable for stabilized nitrogen removal. The known denitrifying species in the A+OSA process were similar to those in the AO process; however, their relative abundance also decreased.

  1. Feasibility and interest of the anammox process as treatment alternative for anaerobic digester supernatants in manure processing--an overview.

    PubMed

    Magrí, Albert; Béline, Fabrice; Dabert, Patrick

    2013-12-15

    Completely autotrophic nitrogen removal (ANR) is based on the combination of partial nitritation (PN) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). It is a promising alternative for the subsequent treatment of biogas digester supernatants in livestock manure processing and nitrogen surplus scenarios. However, as no full-scale experiences in the treatment of manure digestates by ANR have been published to date, future field studies addressing treatment of this kind of effluent would be of great interest. Some topics to be considered in these studies would be coupling anaerobic digestion and ANR, analysis of the factors that affect the process, comparing reactor configurations, microbial ecology, gas emissions, and achieving robust performance. This paper provides an overview of published studies on ANR. Specific issues related to the applicability of the process for treating manure digestates are discussed. The energy requirements of ANR are compared with those of other technological alternatives aimed at recovering nitrogen from digester supernatants. The results of the assessment were shown to depend on the composition of the supernatant. In this regard, the PN-anammox process was shown to be more competitive than other alternatives particularly at concentrations of up to 2 kg NH4(+)-N m(-3).

  2. Mathematical modeling of the effects of aerobic and anaerobic chelate bioegradation on actinide speciation.

    SciTech Connect

    Banaszak, J.E.; VanBriesen, J.; Rittmann, B.E.; Reed, D.T.

    1998-03-19

    Biodegradation of natural and anthropogenic chelating agents directly and indirectly affects the speciation, and, hence, the mobility of actinides in subsurface environments. We combined mathematical modeling with laboratory experimentation to investigate the effects of aerobic and anaerobic chelate biodegradation on actinide [Np(IV/V), Pu(IV)] speciation. Under aerobic conditions, nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) biodegradation rates were strongly influenced by the actinide concentration. Actinide-chelate complexation reduced the relative abundance of available growth substrate in solution and actinide species present or released during chelate degradation were toxic to the organisms. Aerobic bio-utilization of the chelates as electron-donor substrates directly affected actinide speciation by releasing the radionuclides from complexed form into solution, where their fate was controlled by inorganic ligands in the system. Actinide speciation was also indirectly affected by pH changes caused by organic biodegradation. The two concurrent processes of organic biodegradation and actinide aqueous chemistry were accurately linked and described using CCBATCH, a computer model developed at Northwestern University to investigate the dynamics of coupled biological and chemical reactions in mixed waste subsurface environments. CCBATCH was then used to simulate the fate of Np during anaerobic citrate biodegradation. The modeling studies suggested that, under some conditions, chelate degradation can increase Np(IV) solubility due to carbonate complexation in closed aqueous systems.

  3. Effect of oxygen on the microbial activities of thermophilic anaerobic biomass.

    PubMed

    Pedizzi, C; Regueiro, L; Rodriguez-Verde, I; Lema, J M; Carballa, M

    2016-07-01

    Low oxygen levels (μgO2L(-1)) in anaerobic reactors are quite common and no relevant consequences are expected. On the contrary, higher concentrations could affect the process. This work aimed to study the influence of oxygen (4.3 and 8.8mgO2L(-1), respectively) on the different microbial activities (hydrolytic, acidogenic and methanogenic) of thermophilic anaerobic biomass and on the methanogenic community structure. Batch tests in presence of oxygen were conducted using specific substrates for each biological activity and a blank (with minimum oxygen) was included. No effect of oxygen was observed on the hydrolytic and acidogenic activities. In contrast, the methane production rate decreased by 40% in all oxygenated batches and the development of active archaeal community was slower in presence of 8.8mgO2L(-1). However, despite this sensitivity of methanogens to oxygen at saturation levels, the inhibition was reversible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of substrate concentration on dark fermentation hydrogen production using an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    de Amorim, Eduardo Lucena Cavalcante; Sader, Leandro Takano; Silva, Edson Luiz

    2012-03-01

    The effect of substrate (glucose) concentration on the stability and yield of a continuous fermentative process that produces hydrogen was studied. Four anaerobic fluidized bed reactors (AFBRs) were operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 1 to 8 h and an influent glucose concentration from 2 to 25 g L(-1). The reactors were inoculated with thermally pre-treated anaerobic sludge and operated at a temperature of 30 °C with an influent pH around 5.5 and an effluent pH of about 3.5. The AFBRs with a HRT of 2 h and a feed strength of 2, 4, and 10 g L(-1) showed satisfactory H(2) production performance, but the reactor fed with 25 g L(-1) of glucose did not. The highest hydrogen yield value was obtained in the reactor with a glucose concentration of 2 g L(-1) when it was operated at a HRT of 2 h. The maximum hydrogen production rate value was achieved in the reactor with a HRT of 1 h and a feed strength of 10 g L(-1). The AFBRs operated with glucose concentrations of 2 and 4 g L(-1) produced greater amounts of acetic and butyric acids, while AFBRs with higher glucose concentrations produced a greater amount of solvents.

  5. Prediction and quantifying parameter importance in simultaneous anaerobic sulfide and nitrate removal process using artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jing; Zheng, Ping; Qaisar, Mahmood; Luo, Tao

    2015-06-01

    The present investigation deals with the prediction of the performance of simultaneous anaerobic sulfide and nitrate removal in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor through an artificial neural network (ANN). Influent sulfide concentration, influent nitrate concentration, S/N mole ratio, pH, and hydraulic retention time (HRT) for 144 days' steady-state condition were the inputs of the model; whereas output parameters were sulfide removal percentage, nitrate removal percentage, sulfate production percentage, and nitrogen production percentage. The prediction performance was evaluated by calculating root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), mean absolute relative error (MARE), and determination coefficient (R (2)) values. Generally, the ANN model exhibited good prediction of the simultaneous sulfide and nitrate removal process. The effect of five input parameters to the performance of the reactor was quantified and compared using the connection weights method, Garson's algorithm method, and partial derivatives (PaD) method. The results showed that HRT markedly affects the performance of the reactor.

  6. Comparison of methanogenic community structure and anaerobic process performance treating swine wastewater between pilot and optimized lab scale bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woong; Cho, Kyungjin; Lee, Seungyong; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2013-10-01

    To investigate methanogenic community structure and process performance of anaerobic digestion treating swine wastewater at different scale, a pilot plant with 20 m(3) of effective working volume and lab scale methanogenic digester with 6L working volume were operated for 71 days and 6 turnover periods, respectively. During the steady state of anaerobic digestion, COD and VS removal efficiency in pilot plant were 65.3±3.2, 51.6±4.3%, respectively, which was similar to those in lab scale. However, calculated VFAs removal efficiency and methane yield were lower in pilot plant than in lab scale digester. Also, organics removal efficiencies, which consist of total carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids, were different between pilot and lab scale. These results were thought to be due to the ratio of carbohydrates to proteins in the raw swine wastewater. As a result of qualitative microbial analysis, Methanoculleus receptaculii, and Methanoculleus bourgensis, were commonly concerned with methane production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Improvement of the anaerobic treatment of potato processing wastewater in a UASB reactor by co-digestion with glycerol.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingxing; Van Wambeke, Mariane; Carballa, Marta; Verstraete, Willy

    2008-05-01

    The effect of three different types of glycerol on the performance of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors treating potato processing wastewater was investigated. High COD removal efficiencies were obtained in both control and supplemented UASB reactors (around 85%). By adding 2 ml glycerol product per liter of raw wastewater, the biogas production could be increased by 0.74 l biogas ml(-1) glycerol product, which leads to energy values in the range of 810-1270 kWh(electric) per m(3) product. Moreover, a better in-reactor biomass yield was observed for the supplemented UASB reactor (0.012 g VSS g(-1) COD(removed)) compared to the UASB control (0.002 g VSS g(-1) COD(removed)), which suggests a positive effect of glycerol on the sludge blanket growth.

  8. Kinetic parameters estimation in an anaerobic digestion process using successive quadratic programming.

    PubMed

    Aceves-Lara, C A; Aguilar-Garnica, E; Alcaraz-González, V; González-Reynoso, O; Steyer, J P; Dominguez-Beltran, J L; González-Alvarez, V

    2005-01-01

    In this work, an optimization method is implemented in an anaerobic digestion model to estimate its kinetic parameters and yield coefficients. This method combines the use of advanced state estimation schemes and powerful nonlinear programming techniques to yield fast and accurate estimates of the aforementioned parameters. In this method, we first implement an asymptotic observer to provide estimates of the non-measured variables (such as biomass concentration) and good guesses for the initial conditions of the parameter estimation algorithm. These results are then used by the successive quadratic programming (SQP) technique to calculate the kinetic parameters and yield coefficients of the anaerobic digestion process. The model, provided with the estimated parameters, is tested with experimental data from a pilot-scale fixed bed reactor treating raw industrial wine distillery wastewater. It is shown that SQP reaches a fast and accurate estimation of the kinetic parameters despite highly noise corrupted experimental data and time varying inputs variables. A statistical analysis is also performed to validate the combined estimation method. Finally, a comparison between the proposed method and the traditional Marquardt technique shows that both yield similar results; however, the calculation time of the traditional technique is considerable higher than that of the proposed method.

  9. Anaerobic digestion for simultaneous sewage sludge treatment and CO biomethanation: process performance and microbial ecology.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gang; Wang, Wen; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-09-17

    Syngas is produced by thermal gasification of both nonrenewable and renewable sources including biomass and coal, and it consists mainly of CO, CO2, and H2. In this paper we aim to bioconvert CO in the syngas to CH4. A novel technology for simultaneous sewage sludge treatment and CO biomethanation in an anaerobic reactor was presented. Batch experiments showed that CO was inhibitory to methanogens, but not to bacteria, at CO partial pressure between 0.25 and 1 atm under thermophilic conditions. During anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge supplemented with CO added through a hollow fiber membrane (HFM) module in continuous thermophilic reactors, CO did not inhibit the process even at a pressure as high as 1.58 atm inside the HFM, due to the low dissolved CO concentration in the liquid. Complete consumption of CO was achieved with CO gas retention time of 0.2 d. Results from high-throughput sequencing analysis showed clear differences of the microbial community structures between the samples from liquid and biofilm on the HFM in the reactor with CO addition. Species close to Methanosarcina barkeri and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus were the two main archaeal species involved in CO biomethanation. However, the two species were distributed differently in the liquid phase and in the biofilm. Although the carboxidotrophic activities test showed that CO was converted by both archaea and bacteria, the bacterial species responsible for CO conversion are unknown.

  10. On-line titrimetric monitoring of anaerobic-anoxic EBPR processes.

    PubMed

    Vargas, M; Guisasola, A; Lafuente, J; Casas, C; Baeza, J A

    2008-01-01

    Denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms (DPAO) are able to remove nitrogen and phosphorus simultaneously. The use of DPAO in EBPR systems results in a substantial saving on aeration cost and a lower sludge production when compared to anaerobic-aerobic EBPR systems. This process is usually studied in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) and monitored with off-line measurements. However, off-line monitoring implies low frequency data sampling and delay between sampling and obtainment of the results. For this reason, an online measurement such as titrimetry is strongly recommended to improve the daily management of the lab-scale SBR. This paper shows different applications of titrimetric measurements for on-line monitoring of DPAO lab-scale SBR cycles. The results demonstrate that titrimetry is a suitable tool for detecting the end of phosphorus release and carbon substrate depletion point in the anaerobic phase. Moreover, this paper proposes the indirect measurement of nitrate/nitrite uptake rate with titrimetric measurements, which allows the on-line estimation of its concentration during the anoxic phase. Therefore, titrimetry is an on-line measurement with a high potential to implement new control strategies in DPAO lab-scale SBR systems.

  11. The effect of rumen chitinolytic bacteria on cellulolytic anaerobic fungi.

    PubMed

    Kopecný, J; Hodrová, B; Stewart, C S

    1996-09-01

    The polycentric anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces joyonii A4 was cultivated on microcrystalline cellulose alone and in association with the rumen chitinolytic bacterium Clostridium sp. strain ChK5, which shows strong phenotypic similarity to Clostridium tertium. The presence of strain ChK5 significantly depressed the solubilization of microcrystalline cellulose, the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and the release of endoglucanase by the fungus. Co-culture of the monocentric anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix frontalis strain RE1, Neocallimastix sp. strain G-1 and Caecomyces sp. strain SC2 with strain ChK5 also resulted in depressed fungal cellulolysis. Cell-free supernatant fluids from strain ChK5 inhibited the release of reducing sugars from carboxymethylcellulose by cell-free supernatant fluids from O. joyonii strain A4. Strain 007 of the cellulolytic anaerobe Ruminococcus flavefaciens was also shown to produce small amounts of soluble products upon incubation with colloidal chitin. Mixtures of culture supernates from this bacterium and from O. joyonii strain A4 showed cellulase activity that was less than that of the component cultures. It is suggested that the ability of some rumen bacteria to hydrolyse or transform chitin may be an important factor in the interactions between bacteria and fungi in the rumen.

  12. Developing a vacuum thermal stripping - acid absorption process for ammonia recovery from anaerobic digester effluent.

    PubMed

    Ukwuani, Anayo T; Tao, Wendong

    2016-12-01

    To prevent acetoclastic methanogens from ammonia inhibition in anaerobic digestion of protein-rich substrates, ammonia needs to be removed or recovered from digestate. This paper presents an innovative ammonia recovery process that couples vacuum thermal stripping with acid absorption. Ammonia is stripped out of digestate boiling at a temperature below the normal boiling point due to vacuum. Stripped ammonia is absorbed to a sulfuric acid solution, forming ammonium sulfate crystals as a marketable product. Three common types of digestate were found to have boiling point temperature-vacuum curves similar to water. Seven combinations of boiling temperature and vacuum (50 °C 16.6 kPa, 58 °C 20.0 kPa, 65 °C 25.1 kPa, 70 °C 33.6 kPa, 80 °C 54.0 kPa, 90 °C 74.2 kPa, and 100 °C 101.3 kPa) were tested for batch stripping of ammonia in dairy manure digestate. 93.3-99.9% of ammonia was stripped in 3 h. The Lewis-Whitman model fitted ammonia stripping process well. Ammonia mass transfer coefficient was significantly higher at boiling temperature 65-100 °C and vacuum pressure 25.1-101.3 kPa than 50-58 °C and 16.6-20.0 kPa. The low ammonia saturation concentrations (0-24 mg N/L) suggested a large driving force to strip ammonia. The optimum boiling point temperature - vacuum pressure for ammonia recovery in a recirculation line of a mesophilic digester was 65 °C and 25.1 kPa, at which the ammonia mass transfer coefficient was as high as 37.3 mm/h. Installation of a demister and liquid trap could avoid negative effects of higher stripping temperature and stronger vacuum on formation of ammonium sulfate crystals. Pilot tests demonstrated that high-purity ammonium sulfate crystals could be produced by controlling sulfuric acid content and maintaining acid solution saturated with ammonium sulfate. Although volatile organic compounds such as cyclohexene were found in the final acid solutions, no volatile organic compounds were found in the recovered

  13. Enantioselective reductive transformation of climbazole: A concept towards quantitative biodegradation assessment in anaerobic biological treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Brienza, Monica; Chiron, Serge

    2017-06-01

    An efficient chiral method-based using liquid chromatography-high resolution-mass spectrometry analytical method has been validated for the determination of climbazole (CBZ) enantiomers in wastewater and sludge with quantification limits below the 1 ng/L and 2 ng/g range, respectively. On the basis of this newly developed analytical method, the stereochemistry of CBZ was investigated over time in sludge biotic and sterile batch experiments under anoxic dark and light conditions and during wastewater biological treatment by subsurface flow constructed wetlands. CBZ stereoselective degradation was exclusively observed under biotic conditions, confirming the specificity of enantiomeric fraction variations to biodegradation processes. Abiotic CBZ enantiomerization was insignificant at circumneutral pH and CBZ was always biotransformed into CBZ-alcohol due to the specific and enantioselective reduction of the ketone function of CBZ into a secondary alcohol function. This transformation was almost quantitative and biodegradation gave good first order kinetic fit for both enantiomers. The possibility to apply the Rayleigh equation to enantioselective CBZ biodegradation processes was investigated. The results of enantiomeric enrichment allowed for a quantitative assessment of in situ biodegradation processes due to a good fit (R(2) > 0.96) of the anoxic/anaerobic CBZ biodegradation to the Rayleigh dependency in all the biotic microcosms and was also applied in subsurface flow constructed wetlands. This work extended the concept of applying the Rayleigh equation towards quantitative biodegradation assessment of organic contaminants to enantioselective processes operating under anoxic/anaerobic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anammox process for nitrogen removal from anaerobically digested fish canning effluents.

    PubMed

    Dapena-Mora, A; Campos, J L; Mosquera-Corral, A; Méndez, R

    2006-01-01

    The Anammox process was used to treat the effluent generated in an anaerobic digester which treated the wastewater from a fish cannery once previously processed in a Sharon reactor. The effluents generated from the anaerobic digestion are characterised by their high ammonium content (700-1000 g NH4+ -Nm(-3)), organic carbon content (1000-1300 g TOCm(-3)) and salinity up to 8,000-10,000 g NaCl m(-3). In the Sharon reactor, approximately 50% of the NH4+ -N was oxidised to NO2- -N via partial nitrification. The effluent of the Sharon step was fed to the Anammox reactor which treated an averaged nitrogen loading rate of 500 g N m(-3) x d(-1). The system reached an averaged nitrogen removal efficiency of 68%, mainly limited due to the nonstoichiometric relation, for the Anammox process, between the ammonium and nitrite added in the feeding. The Anammox reactor bacterial population distribution, followed by FISH analysis and batch activity assays, did not change significantly despite the continuous entrance to the system of aerobic ammonium oxidisers coming from the Sharon reactor. Most of the bacteria corresponded to the Anammox population and the rest with slight variable shares to the ammonia oxidisers. The Anammox reactor showed an unexpected robustness despite the continuous variations in the influent composition regarding ammonium and nitrite concentrations. Only in the period when NO2- -N concentration was higher than the NH4+ -N concentration did the process destabilise and it took 14 days until the nitrogen removal percentage decreased to 34% with concentrations in the effluent of 340g NH4+ -N m(-3) and 440 g NO2- -N m(-3), respectively. Based on these results, it seems that the Sharon-Anammox system can be applied for the treatment of industrial wastewaters with high nitrogen load and salt concentration with an appropriate control of the NO2- -N/NH4+ -N ratio.

  15. Effect of persulfate and persulfate/H₂O₂ on biodegradability of an anaerobic stabilized landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Hilles, Ahmed H; Abu Amr, Salem S; Hussein, Rim A; Arafa, Anwar I; El-Sebaie, Olfat D

    2015-10-01

    The current study investigated the effects of S2O8(2-) and S2O8(2-)/H2O2 oxidation processes on the biodegradable characteristics of an anaerobic stabilized leachate. Total COD removal efficiency was found to be 46% after S2O8(2-) oxidation (using 4.2 g S2O8(2-)/1g COD0, at pH 7, for 60 min reaction time and at 350 rpm shaking speed), and improved to 81% following S2O8(2-)/H2O2 oxidation process (using 5.88 g S2O8(2-) dosage, 8.63 g H2O2 dosage, at pH 11 and for 120 min reaction time at 350 rpm). Biodegradability in terms of BOD5/COD ratio of the leachate enhanced from 0.09 to 0.1 and to 0.17 following S2O8(2-) and S2O8(2-)/H2O2 oxidation processes, respectively. The fractions of COD were determined before and after each oxidation processes (S2O8(2-) and S2O8(2-)/H2O2). The fraction of biodegradable COD(bi) increased from 36% in raw leachate to 57% and 68% after applying S2O8(2-) and S2O8(2-)/H2O2 oxidation, respectively. As for soluble COD(s), its removal efficiency was 39% and 78% following S2O8(2-) and S2O8(2-)/H2O2 oxidation, respectively. The maximum removal for particulate COD was 94% and was obtained after 120 min of S2O8(2-)/H2O2 oxidation. As a conclusion, S2O8(2-)/H2O2 oxidation could be an efficient method for improving the biodegradability of anaerobic stabilized leachate.

  16. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  17. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  18. The effect of music during warm-up on consecutive anaerobic performance in elite adolescent volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Eliakim, M; Meckel, Y; Nemet, D; Eliakim, A

    2007-04-01

    Music is believed to improve athletic performance. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of arousing music during warm-up on anaerobic performance in elite national level adolescent volleyball players. Twenty-four players (12 males and 12 females) performed the Wingate Anaerobic Test following a 10-minute warm-up with and without music (two separate occasions, random order). During warm-up with music, mean heart rate was significantly higher. Following the warm-up with music, peak anaerobic power was significantly higher in all volleyball players (10.7 +/- 0.3 vs. 11.1 +/- 0.3 Watts/kg, p < 0.05, without and with music, respectively). Gender did not influence the effect of music on peak anaerobic power. Music had no significant effect on mean anaerobic output or fatigue index in both genders. Music affects warm-up and may have a transient beneficial effect on anaerobic performance.

  19. Evaluation of the rotary drum reactor process as pretreatment technology of municipal solid waste for thermophilic anaerobic digestion and biogas production.

    PubMed

    Gikas, Petros; Zhu, Baoning; Batistatos, Nicolas Ion; Zhang, Ruihong

    2017-08-21

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) contains a large fraction of biodegradable organic materials. When disposed in landfills, these materials can cause adverse environmental impact due to gaseous emissions and leachate generation. This study was performed with an aim of effectively separating the biodegradable materials from a Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) facility and treating them in well-controlled anaerobic digesters for biogas production. The rotary drum reactor (RDR) process (a sub-process of the MBT facilities studied in the present work) was evaluated as an MSW pretreatment technology for separating and preparing the biodegradable materials in MSW to be used as feedstock for anaerobic digestion. The RDR processes used in six commercial MSW treatment plants located in the USA were surveyed and sampled. The samples of the biodegradable materials produced by the RDR process were analyzed for chemical and physical characteristics as well as anaerobically digested in the laboratory using batch reactors under thermophilic conditions. The moisture content, TS, VS and C/N of the samples varied between 64.7 and 44.4%, 55.6 to 35.3%, 27.0 to 41.3% and 24.5 to 42.7, respectively. The biogas yield was measured to be between 533.0 and 675.6 mL g(-1)VS after 20 days of digestion. Approximately 90% of the biogas was produced during the first 13 days. The average methane content of the biogas was between 58.0 and 59.9%. The results indicated that the biodegradable materials separated from MSW using the RDR processes could be used as an excellent feedstock for anaerobic digestion. The digester residues may be further processed for compost production or further energy recovery by using thermal conversion processes such as combustion or gasification. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Deterministic processes guide long-term synchronised population dynamics in replicate anaerobic digesters

    PubMed Central

    Vanwonterghem, Inka; Jensen, Paul D; Dennis, Paul G; Hugenholtz, Philip; Rabaey, Korneel; Tyson, Gene W

    2014-01-01

    A replicate long-term experiment was conducted using anaerobic digestion (AD) as a model process to determine the relative role of niche and neutral theory on microbial community assembly, and to link community dynamics to system performance. AD is performed by a complex network of microorganisms and process stability relies entirely on the synergistic interactions between populations belonging to different functional guilds. In this study, three independent replicate anaerobic digesters were seeded with the same diverse inoculum, supplied with a model substrate, α-cellulose, and operated for 362 days at a 10-day hydraulic residence time under mesophilic conditions. Selective pressure imposed by the operational conditions and model substrate caused large reproducible changes in community composition including an overall decrease in richness in the first month of operation, followed by synchronised population dynamics that correlated with changes in reactor performance. This included the synchronised emergence and decline of distinct Ruminococcus phylotypes at day 148, and emergence of a Clostridium and Methanosaeta phylotype at day 178, when performance became stable in all reactors. These data suggest that many dynamic functional niches are predictably filled by phylogenetically coherent populations over long time scales. Neutral theory would predict that a complex community with a high degree of recognised functional redundancy would lead to stochastic changes in populations and community divergence over time. We conclude that deterministic processes may play a larger role in microbial community dynamics than currently appreciated, and under controlled conditions it may be possible to reliably predict community structural and functional changes over time. PMID:24739627

  1. Evaluation of the hydrolytic-acidogenic step of a two-stage mesophilic anaerobic digestion process of sunflower oil cake.

    PubMed

    De la Rubia, M A; Raposo, F; Rincón, B; Borja, R

    2009-09-01

    The influence of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR) on the performance of the hydrolytic-acidogenic step of a two-stage anaerobic digestion process of sunflower oil cake (SuOC) were assessed. The experiments were performed in laboratory-scale completely stirred tank reactors at mesophilic (35 degrees C) temperature. Six OLR (ranging from 4 to 9 g VS L(-1) d(-1)) for four HRTs (8, 10, 12 and 15 days) were tested to check the effect of each operational variable. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the hydrolysis yields obtained for all HRTs and OLRs assayed were in the range of 20.5-30.1%. In addition, the acidification degree of the substrate was mainly influenced by the OLR but not by the HRTs, the highest value (83.8%) being achieved for an HRT of 10 days and an OLR of 6 g VS L(-1) d(-1).

  2. The effects of rare earth elements on an anaerobic hydrogen producing microorganism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Y.; St Jeor, J. D.; Reed, D. W.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid growth of new energy technologies and consumer electronics is leading to increased fluxes of rare earth elements (REE), during the phases of resource extraction, product usage, recycling, and disposal. However, little is known about the impacts of these increased REE fluxes on environmental ecosystems, whether natural or engineered (e.g., biological waste treatment systems). We have been evaluating the effects of europium and yttrium on hydrogen production by an anaerobic fermenting microorganism, Sporacetigenium mesophilum, originally isolated from an anaerobic digester at a wastewater treatment plant.1 Europium and yttrium are important components of phosphors used in fluorescent lighting, and are expected to be recycled in larger quantities in the future. Also tested was the compound tributyl phosphate (TBP), a widely used complexing agent in lanthanide and actinide separations. TBP and related compounds may be used in recycling processes for REE. S. mesophilumcultures were amended with Eu at 100 ppb, 1 ppm and 10 ppm and hydrogen production was measured. While the lowest Eu concentration had minimal effect on hydrogen production compared to the no Eu control, the two higher Eu amendment levels appeared to enhance hydrogen production. TBP at 0.1 g/L completely inhibited hydrogen production. Measurements of aqueous Eu concentrations indicated that >85% of the added Eu remained soluble at all three of the Eu addition levels tested. Experiments to ascertain whether enhancement (or inhibition) occurs at even higher Eu concentrations are underway, as are corresponding experiments with yttrium. This work contributes to the assessment of the potential impacts of increased REE recycling and processing on ecosystems, and supports decision making with respect to disposal of wastewaters generated during these industrial practices. 1Chen, S., Song, L. and X. Dong. Int J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 56, 721-725, doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.63686-0 (2006).

  3. Dynamical model development and parameter identification for an anaerobic wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Bernard, O; Hadj-Sadok, Z; Dochain, D; Genovesi, A; Steyer, J P

    2001-11-20

    This paper deals with the development and the parameter identification of an anaerobic digestion process model. A two-step (acidogenesis-methanization) mass-balance model has been considered. The model incorporates electrochemical equilibria in order to include the alkalinity, which has to play a central role in the related monitoring and control strategy of a treatment plant. The identification is based on a set of dynamical experiments designed to cover a wide spectrum of operating conditions that are likely to take place in the practical operation of the plant. A step by step identification procedure to estimate the model parameters is presented. The results of 70 days of experiments in a 1-m(3) fermenter are then used to validate the model.

  4. Development of an efficient anaerobic co-digestion process for garbage, excreta, and septic tank sludge to create a resource recycling-oriented society.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhao-Yong; Liu, Kai; Tan, Li; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2017-03-01

    In order to develop a resource recycling-oriented society, an efficient anaerobic co-digestion process for garbage, excreta and septic tank sludge was studied based on the quantity of each biomass waste type discharged in Ooki machi, Japan. The anaerobic digestion characteristics of garbage, excreta and 5-fold condensed septic tank sludge (hereafter called condensed sludge) were determined separately. In single-stage mesophilic digestion, the excreta with lower C/N ratios yielded lower biogas volumes and accumulated higher volumes of volatile fatty acid (VFA). On the other hand, garbage allowed for a significantly larger volatile total solid (VTS) digestion efficiency as well as biogas yield by thermophilic digestion. Thus, a two-stage anaerobic co-digestion process consisting of thermophilic liquefaction and mesophilic digestion phases was proposed. In the thermophilic liquefaction of mixed condensed sludge and household garbage (wet mass ratio of 2.2:1), a maximum VTS loading rate of 24g/L/d was achieved. In the mesophilic digestion of mixed liquefied material and excreta (wet mass ratio of 1:1), biogas yield reached approximately 570ml/g-VTS fed with a methane content of 55% at a VTS loading rate of 1.0g/L/d. The performance of the two-stage process was evaluated by comparing it with a single-stage process in which biomass wastes were treated separately. Biogas production by the two-stage process was found to increase by approximately 22.9%. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of a two-stage anaerobic co-digestion process in enhancement of biogas production.

  5. The role of paraffin oil on the interaction between denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation and Anammox processes.

    PubMed

    Fu, Liang; Ding, Zhao-Wei; Ding, Jing; Zhang, Fang; Zeng, Raymond J

    2015-10-01

    Methane is sparingly soluble in water, resulting in a slow reaction rate in the denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) process. The slow rate limits the feasibility of research to examine the interaction between the DAMO and the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process. In this study, optimized 5 % (v/v) paraffin oil was added as a second liquid phase to improve methane solubility in a reactor containing DAMO and Anammox microbes. After just addition, methane solubility was found to increase by 25 % and DAMO activity was enhanced. After a 100-day cultivation, the paraffin reactor showed almost two times higher consumption rates of NO3 (-) (0.2268 mmol/day) and NH4 (+) (0.1403 mmol/day), compared to the control reactor without paraffin oil. The microbes tended to distribute in the oil-water interface. The quantitative (q) PCR result showed the abundance of gene copies of DAMO archaea, DAMO bacteria, and Anammox bacteria in the paraffin reactor were higher than those in the control reactor after 1 month. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that the percentages of the three microbes were 55.5 and 77.6 % in the control and paraffin reactors after 100 days, respectively. A simple model of mass balance was developed to describe the interactions between DAMO and Anammox microbes and validate the activity results. A mechanism was proposed to describe the possible way that paraffin oil enhanced DAMO activity. It is quite clear that paraffin oil enhances not only DAMO activity but also Anammox activity via the interaction between them; both NO3 (-) and NH4 (+) consumption rates were about two times those of the control.

  6. Transcriptional Analysis of Biofilm Formation Processes in the Anaerobic, Hyperthermophilic Bacterium Thermotoga maritima

    PubMed Central

    Pysz, Marybeth A.; Conners, Shannon B.; Montero, Clemente I.; Shockley, Keith R.; Johnson, Matthew R.; Ward, Donald E.; Kelly, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    Thermotoga maritima, a fermentative, anaerobic, hyperthermophilic bacterium, was found to attach to bioreactor glass walls, nylon mesh, and polycarbonate filters during chemostat cultivation on maltose-based media at 80°C. A whole-genome cDNA microarray was used to examine differential expression patterns between biofilm and planktonic populations. Mixed-model statistical analysis revealed differential expression (twofold or more) of 114 open reading frames in sessile cells (6% of the genome), over a third of which were initially annotated as hypothetical proteins in the T. maritima genome. Among the previously annotated genes in the T. maritima genome, which showed expression changes during biofilm growth, were several that corresponded to biofilm formation genes identified in mesophilic bacteria (i.e., Pseudomonas species, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus epidermidis). Most notably, T. maritima biofilm-bound cells exhibited increased transcription of genes involved in iron and sulfur transport, as well as in biosynthesis of cysteine, thiamine, NAD, and isoprenoid side chains of quinones. These findings were all consistent with the up-regulation of iron-sulfur cluster assembly and repair functions in biofilm cells. Significant up-regulation of several β-specific glycosidases was also noted in biofilm cells, despite the fact that maltose was the primary carbon source fed to the chemostat. The reasons for increased β-glycosidase levels are unclear but are likely related to the processing of biofilm-based polysaccharides. In addition to revealing insights into the phenotype of sessile T. maritima communities, the methodology developed here can be extended to study other anaerobic biofilm formation processes as well as to examine aspects of microbial ecology in hydrothermal environments. PMID:15466556

  7. Liquefaction and methanization of solid and liquid coffee wastes by two phase anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Houbron, E; Larrinaga, A; Rustrian, E

    2003-01-01

    This study attempted to investigate the feasibility of volatile fatty acid (VFA) production from coffee pulp hydrolyse, and further to determine the potential of methanization of both the pre-acidified effluent and the coffee wastewater. The experiments were carried out in 2 completely mixed reactors, each one with a working volume of 4 litres. Coffee pulp was used as substrate in the acidogenic reactor and different mixtures of pulper and wash-water and pre-acidified effluent in the methanogenic one. The acidogenic and methanogenic reactors were operated at an organic loading rate of 5 COD g x l(-1) x d(-1) and 0.5 COD g x l(-1) x d(-1). The total, soluble and VFA's effluent COD concentrations of the acidogenic reactor present average values of 57.75, 17.00 and 13.92 g x l(-1) respectively. Under these experimental conditions, 23% (COD based) of coffee pulp was hydrolysed with a rate of 1.32 gCOD x l(-1) x d(-1) and the soluble fraction was transformed to VFA's with an acidification efficiency of 82%. Total VFA's concentration reached a value of 13.9 gCOD x l(-1), and acetate, propionate, butyrate and valerate represented 52%, 28%, 9% and 11% respectively of the liquid phase COD. In the methanogenic reactor, COD removal and methanization of fresh coffee wastewater, pre-acidified effluent and both combined occur with an efficiency of 85% to 95% respectively, with a characteristic biogas composition of 80% CH4 and 20% CO2. These results show that a humid coffee "Beneficio" processing daily 23 tons of cherry coffee (fresh fruit), equipped with a two stage anaerobic digestion process could generate at least 1,886 CH4 m3 x d(-1). This represents an increase in methane production by a factor 3 to 5 compared to a "Beneficio" using anaerobic digestion only for the treatment of its wastewater.

  8. Process performance and methane production optimizing of anaerobic co-digestion of swine manure and corn straw.

    PubMed

    Mao, Chunlan; Zhang, Tong; Wang, Xiaojiao; Feng, Yongzhong; Ren, Guangxin; Yang, Gaihe

    2017-08-24

    During anaerobic digestion (AD) process, process parameters e.g., VFA, pH, COD removal … and kinetic parameters e.g., hydrolysis rate, lag phase and methane production potential… are the important indicator for illustrating AD process performance, however, the AD process performance based on these parameters remains poorly understood. To estimate process performance focusing on initial pH and substrate composition, the effects of initial pH and swine manure to corn straw ratio on biogas production and these parameters and linkages of these parameters were analyzed. Also, the methane production was optimized. The results revealed that the maximum methane yield and methane production rate were obtained with initial pH 7.5 and SM/CS ratio of 70:30. Kinetic parameters are coupled with process parameters, especially for COD removal rate, VS degradation rate, VFA and pH. Hydrolysis constant positively correlated with pH, COD removal rate and VS degradation rate, then impacted methane production and lag phase. Meanwhile, lag phase and the maximum methane production rate were directly determined by VFA and COD removal rate. The optimum initial pH and SM/CS ratio were 7.15 and 0.62, respectively, with a predicted maximum methane content of 55.12%. Thinking these findings together, they provide a scientific theory for estimating AD performance.

  9. Anaerobic slurry co-digestion of poultry manure and straw: effect of organic loading and temperature.

    PubMed

    Babaee, Azadeh; Shayegan, Jalal; Roshani, Anis

    2013-07-03

    In order to obtain basic design criteria for anaerobic digestion of a mixture of poultry manure and wheat straw, the effects of different temperatures and organic loading rates on the biogas yield and methane contents were evaluated. Since poultry manure is a poor substrate, in term of the availability of the nutrients, external supplementation of carbon has to be regularly performed, in order to achieve a stable and efficient process. The complete-mix, pilot-scale digester with working volume of 70 L was used. The digestion operated at 25°C, 30°C and 35°C with organic loading rates of 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 kg Volatile solid/m3d and a HRT of 15 days. At a temperature of 35°C, the methane yield was increased by 43% compared to 25°C. Anaerobic co-digestion appeared feasible with a loading rate of 3.0 kg VS/m3d at 35°C. At this state, the specific methane yield was calculated about 0.12 m3/kg VS with a methane content of 53-70.2% in the biogas. The volatile solid (VS) removal was 72%. As a result of volatile fatty acid accumulation and decrease in pH, when the loading rate was less than 1 or greater than 4 kg VS/m3d, the process was inhibited or overloaded, respectively. Both the lower and higher loading rates resulted in a decline in the methane yield.

  10. The Effect of Sleep Deprivation on Choice Reaction Time and Anaerobic Power of College Student Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Morteza; Arabameri, Elaheh

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the effect of one night's sleep deprivation on anaerobic performance and Reaction time of subjects in the morning of the following day. Methods Eighteen male college student athletes were studied twice in a balanced, randomized design. Subjects were measured for peak power, mean power and Reaction time. Results The performance showed no significant difference in both tests of anaerobic power (peak power, mean power) over the sleep deprivation period (P= 0.3; P= 0.4 respectively), but reaction time differed significantly from baseline (P=0.003). Results support the hypothesis that sleep serves a function of cognitive restitution, particularly in the maintenance of attentional mechanisms. In the light of the above considerations. Conclusions It was concluded that short-term sleep deprivation is not effective on anaerobic performance, but adversely affects cognitive function such as Reaction Time. PMID:22461961

  11. The effect of sleep deprivation on choice reaction time and anaerobic power of college student athletes.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Morteza; Arabameri, Elaheh

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of one night's sleep deprivation on anaerobic performance and Reaction time of subjects in the morning of the following day. Eighteen male college student athletes were studied twice in a balanced, randomized design. Subjects were measured for peak power, mean power and Reaction time. The performance showed no significant difference in both tests of anaerobic power (peak power, mean power) over the sleep deprivation period (P= 0.3; P= 0.4 respectively), but reaction time differed significantly from baseline (P=0.003). Results support the hypothesis that sleep serves a function of cognitive restitution, particularly in the maintenance of attentional mechanisms. In the light of the above considerations. It was concluded that short-term sleep deprivation is not effective on anaerobic performance, but adversely affects cognitive function such as Reaction Time.

  12. [Acidification and its effect on the population distributions of microorganisms in an anaerobic baffled reactor].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ran; Peng, Jian-feng; Song, Yong-hui; Wang, Yi-li; Yu, Lei; Yuan, Peng; Xie, Ming-shu

    2010-07-01

    The changes of pH, COD, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and microbial morphology of the acidification process in an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) were investigated. And the population succession process of the anaerobic microorganisms was quantitatively analyzed by using the Fluorescent In situ hybridization technology (FISH). The results show that the ABR reactor is acidified gradually from the front to the back. After the reactor is entirely acidified, the COD removal efficiency is only 30.9%, and the pH values are lowered by 1.0-2.2, while the VFA in effluent increases by 5.1 times. Additionally, the microbial morphology is significantly affected by the acidification process, in which not only the bacteria are deformed or died, but also the internal and external mass transfer of granular sludge becomes difficult. The quantitative analyses with FISH shows that in the acidification process the Archaea growth is inhibited but the Eubacteria growth is promoted, thus resulting in the sharp decrease of the three crucial microorganisms of the anaerobic digestion. The abundance of the butyrate-oxidizing acetogenic bacteria Syntrophomonas spp. reduces by 30.9%, the propionate-oxidizing acetogenic bacteria Syntrophobacter wolinii reduces by 85.5%, the homoacetogenic bacteria Acetobacterium species E. limosum reduces by 60.0%, and methanomicrobium Methanomicrobiales reduces by 54.3%. All these result in the upsetting of the mass transfer balances of different anaerobic microorganism populations.

  13. Influence of carbon source amendment on effectiveness of anaerobic soil disinfestation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD; also termed biological soil disinfestation or soil reductive sterilization) is a non-chemical soil disinfestation process which includes 1) soil incorporation of a labile carbon (C) source, 2) mulching with a polyethylene film to limit gas exchange, and 3) drip ir...

  14. Effect of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic conditions on viability of helminth ova (Ascaris suum) in sanitization of municipal sludge.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Oropeza, Marcelo; Hernández-Uresti, Alejandro S; Ortega-Charleston, Luis S; Cabirol, Nathalie

    2017-09-01

    The present work aimed at evaluating the effect of four different mixtures of diverse volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on the viability of helminth ova (Ascaris suum), under mesophilic (35°C) anaerobic conditions and at different incubation times, in order to reproduce the process of two-phase anaerobic digestion. The mixtures of VFAs contained acetic, propionic, butyric, valeric, and isovaleric acids, used at concentrations normally found in acidogenic anaerobic digesters. The four treatments all showed a reduction in Ascaris suum ova viability, among which Treatment III (4.2 g-acetic acid L(-1) +  2.2 g-propionic acid L(-1) + 0.6 g-valeric acid L(-1) + 0.6 g-isovaleric acid L(-1)) resulted the most efficient. We found that the full effect of VFAs on the viability loss of Ascaris suum ova in mesophilic conditions requires a minimum incubation time of 3 days. The highest efficiency in the loss of viability was observed with Treatment III and 4-day incubation. Interestingly, the proportion of acetic acid was three times as much in this treatment than in the other ones and resulted in an effect in a minimum time of 3 days. The mesophilic condition, however, was not sufficient to induce a complete loss of viability.

  15. Identification and quantification of microbial populations in activated sludge and anaerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Reyes, M; Borrás, L; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2015-01-01

    Eight different phenotypes were studied in an activated sludge process (AeR) and anaerobic digester (AnD) in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant by means of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and automated FISH quantification software. The phenotypes were ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, denitrifying bacteria, phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO), glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO), sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), methanotrophic bacteria and methanogenic archaea. Some findings were unexpected: (a) Presence of PAO, GAO and denitrifiers in the AeR possibly due to unexpected environmental conditions caused by oxygen deficiencies or its ability to survive aerobically; (b) presence of SRB in the AeR due to high sulphate content of wastewater intake and possibly also due to digested sludge being recycled back into the primary clarifier; (c) presence of methanogenic archaea in the AeR, which can be explained by the recirculation of digested sludge and its ability to survive periods of high oxygen levels; (d) presence of denitrifying bacteria in the AnD which cannot be fully explained because the nitrate level in the AnD was not measured. However, other authors reported the existence of denitrifiers in environments where nitrate or oxygen was not present suggesting that denitrifiers can survive in nitrate-free anaerobic environments by carrying out low-level fermentation; (e) the results of this paper are relevant because of the focus on the identification of nearly all the significant bacterial and archaeal groups of microorganisms with a known phenotype involved in the biological wastewater treatment.

  16. A combined upflow anaerobic sludge bed and trickling biofilter process for the treatment of swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bowei; Li, Jiangzheng; Buelna, Gerardo; Dubé, Rino; Le Bihan, Yann

    2016-01-01

    A combined upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-trickling biofilter (TBF) process was constructed to treat swine wastewater, a typical high-strength organic wastewater with low carbon/nitrogen ratio and ammonia toxicity. The results showed that the UASB-TBF system can remarkably enhance the removal of pollutants in the swine wastewater. At an organic loading rate of 2.29 kg/m(3) d and hydraulic retention time of 48 h in the UASB, the chemical oxygen demand (COD), Suspended Solids and Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen removals of the combined process reached 83.6%, 84.1% and 41.2%, respectively. In the combined system the UASB served as a pretreatment process for COD removal while nitrification and denitrification occurred only in the TBF process. The TBF performed reasonably well at a surface hydraulic load as high as 0.12 m(3)/m(2) d. Since the ratio of influent COD to total mineral nitrogen was less than 3.23, it is reasonable to suggest that the wood chips in TBF can serve as a new carbon source for denitrification.

  17. Evidence for anaerobic ammonium oxidation process in freshwater sediments of aquaculture ponds.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li-dong; Wu, Hong-sheng; Gao, Zhi-qiu; Ruan, Yun-jie; Xu, Xiang-hua; Li, Ji; Ma, Shi-jie; Zheng, Pei-hui

    2016-01-01

    The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process, which can simultaneously remove ammonium and nitrite, both toxic to aquatic animals, can be very important to the aquaculture industry. Here, the presence and activity of anammox bacteria in the sediments of four different freshwater aquaculture ponds were investigated by using Illumina-based 16S rRNA gene sequencing, quantitative PCR assays and (15)N stable isotope measurements. Different genera of anammox bacteria were detected in the examined pond sediments, including Candidatus Brocadia, Candidatus Kuenenia and Candidatus Anammoxoglobus, with Candidatus Brocadia being the dominant anammox genus. Quantitative PCR of hydrazine synthase genes showed that the abundance of anammox bacteria ranged from 5.6 × 10(4) to 2.1 × 10(5) copies g(-1) sediment in the examined ponds. The potential anammox rates ranged between 3.7 and 19.4 nmol N2 g(-1) sediment day(-1), and the potential denitrification rates varied from 107.1 to 300.3 nmol N2 g(-1) sediment day(-1). The anammox process contributed 1.2-15.3% to sediment dinitrogen gas production, while the remainder would be due to denitrification. It is estimated that a total loss of 2.1-10.9 g N m(-2) per year could be attributed to the anammox process in the examined ponds, suggesting that this process could contribute to nitrogen removal in freshwater aquaculture ponds.

  18. A novel full recycling process through two-stage anaerobic treatment of distillery wastewater for bioethanol production from cassava.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-Hua; Lu, Xin; Tang, Lei; Mao, Zhong-Gui; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Sun, Fu-Bao

    2010-07-15

    In the present study, a novel full recycling process for bioethanol production was investigated, where three mathematical models were established to simulate the accumulation of major soluble inhibitory substances, including organic compounds, total ions, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and colorants. These inhibitory substances in the reused water reached a relative steady state after 3-7 batches of anaerobic treatment and recycling process, which coincided with the results of mathematical models. There were no negative effects of these inhibitory substances on ethanol fermentation and the final ethanol yield, fermentation time, starch utilization ratio were very close to that of the conventional process using tap water. However, approximately 7.54% (w/w) of water was lost during each circulation, which was replenished in subsequent circulations, to assure consistent fermentation broth volume. This novel process was confirmed to have a stable operation over 13 recycles. It is concluded the stable states of the inhibitory substances in the reused water can assure this recycling process will run successfully. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by pretreatment: effect of volatile to total solids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Duan, Xu; Chen, Jianguang; Fang, Kuo; Feng, Leiyu; Yan, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Qi

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effect of volatile to total solids (VS/TS) on anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) pretreated by alkaline, thermal and thermal-alkaline strategies was studied. Experimental results showed that the production of methane from sludge was increased with VS/TS. When anaerobic digesters were fed with sludge pretreated by the thermal-alkaline method, the average methane yield was improved from 2.8 L/d at VS/TS 0.35 to 4.7 L/d at VS/TS 0.56. Also, the efficiency of VS reduction during sludge anaerobic digestion varied between 18.9% and 45.6%, and increased gradually with VS/TS. Mechanism investigation of VS/TS on WAS anaerobic digestion suggested that the general activities of anaerobic microorganisms, activities of key enzymes related to sludge hydrolysis, acidification and methanogenesis, and the ratio of Archaea to Bacteria were all increased with VS/TS, showing good agreement with methane production.

  20. Effect of nonylphenol on volatile fatty acids accumulation during anaerobic fermentation of waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xu; Wang, Xiao; Xie, Jing; Feng, Leiyu; Yan, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Qi

    2016-11-15

    Most of the reported studies on anaerobic fermentation of sludge focused on the influences of operating conditions, pretreatment methods, and its characteristics, and little attention was paid to those of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which widespreadly appeared in sludge. In this study, the effect of nonylphenol, a typical POPs in waste activated sludge (WAS), on anaerobic fermentation for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) accumulation was investigated. The concentration of VFAs during WAS anaerobic fermentation was found to be affected positively from 2856 mg COD/L in the control (without NP) to 5620 mg COD/L with NP of 200 mg/kg dry sludge. Mechanism exploration exhibited that the main reason for the enhanced VFAs accumulation in the presence of NP was that more acetic acid was generated during the acidification of WAS, which was increased by almost three times (3790 versus 1310 mg COD/L). In WAS fermentation systems, the abundance of anaerobic functional microorganisms was advantageous to the accumulation of acetic acid. Further investigation by the pure acetogen revealed that both the viability and activity of Proteiniphilum acetatigenes were improved by NP during anaerobic fermentation, resulting in more production of acetic acid and showing good agreement with that in the real WAS fermentation systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Microbial community redundancy in anaerobic digestion drives process recovery after salinity exposure.

    PubMed

    De Vrieze, Jo; Christiaens, Marlies E R; Walraedt, Diego; Devooght, Arno; Ijaz, Umer Zeeshan; Boon, Nico

    2017-03-15

    Anaerobic digestion of high-salinity wastewaters often results in process inhibition due to the susceptibility of the methanogenic archaea. The ability of the microbial community to deal with increased salinity levels is of high importance to ensure process perseverance or recovery after failure. The exact strategy of the microbial community to ensure process endurance is, however, often unknown. In this study, we investigated how the microbial community is able to recover process performance following a disturbance through the application of high-salinity molasses wastewater. After a stable start-up, methane production quickly decreased from 625 ± 17 to 232 ± 35 mL CH4 L(-1) d(-1) with a simultaneous accumulation in volatile fatty acids up to 20.5 ± 1.4 g COD L(-1), indicating severe process disturbance. A shift in feedstock from molasses wastewater to waste activated sludge resulted in complete process recovery. However, the bacterial and archaeal communities did not return to their original composition as before the disturbance, despite similar process conditions. Microbial community diversity was recovered to similar levels as before disturbance, which indicates that the metabolic potential of the community was maintained. A mild increase in ammonia concentration after process recovery did not influence methane production, indicating a well-balanced microbial community. Hence, given the change in community composition following recovery after salinity disturbance, it can be assumed that microbial community redundancy was the major strategy to ensure the continuation of methane production, without loss of functionality or metabolic flexibility.

  2. Feasibility of thermophilic anaerobic processes for treating waste activated sludge under low HRT and intermittent mixing.

    PubMed

    Leite, Wanderli; Magnus, Bruna Scandolara; Guimarães, Lorena Bittencourt; Gottardo, Marco; Belli Filho, Paulo

    2017-10-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) arises as an optimized solution for the waste activated sludge (WAS) management. However, there are few feasibility studies using low solids content typically found in the WAS, and that consider uncommon operational conditions such as intermittent mixing and low hydraulic retention time (HRT). In this investigation, a single-stage pilot reactor was used to treat WAS at low HRT (13, 9, 6 and 5 days) and intermittent mixing (withholding mixing 2 h prior feeding). Thermophilic anaerobic digestion (55 °C) was initiated from a mesophilic digester (35 °C) by the one-step startup strategy. Although instabilities on partial alkalinity (1245-3000 mgCaCO3/L), volatile fatty acids (1774-6421 mg/L acetic acid) and biogas production (0.21-0.09 m(3)/m(3)reactor.d) were observed, methanogenesis started to recover in 18 days. The thermophilic treatment of WAS at 13 and 9 days HRT efficiently converted VS into biogas (22 and 21%, respectively) and achieved high biogas yield (0.24 and 0.22 m(3)/kgVSfed, respectively). Intermittent mixing improved the retention of methanogens inside the reactor and reduced the washout effect even at low HRT (<9 days). The negative thermal balance found was influenced by the low solids content in the WAS (2.1% TS) and by the heat losses from the digester walls. The energy balance and economic analyses demonstrated the feasibility of thermophilic AD of WAS in a hypothetical full-scale system, when the heat energy could be recovered from methane in a scenario of higher solids concentration in the substrate (>5% TS). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Research progress in microbiological characteristics in combined N2 removal process by partial nitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Rui; Hou, Yan-Lin

    2014-07-01

    Partial nitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation is a very significant biological nitrogen removal technology for saving energy and carbon sources. The development of this technology and the community ecology of ammonia-oxidizing bacterium (AOB) and anaerobic ammonium- oxidizing bacteria (ANAOB) using molecular biological methods have attracted growing attention. The paper reviewed the technological mechanism and the effects of key factors such as temperature, pH, dissolve oxygen and free ammonia on the distribution of AOB and ANAOB. It was also introduced that the populations of AOB and ANAOB species and their abundance in various environments. At the end, some suggestions were provided for the development of this technology in the future.

  4. Soaking pretreatment of corn stover for bioethanol production followed by anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Zhuang; Tian, Shen; Chen, Zebing; Li, Jia; Yang, Xiushan

    2012-08-01

    The production of ethanol and methane from corn stover (CS) was investigated in a biorefinery process. Initially, a novel soaking pretreatment (NaOH and aqueous-ammonia) for CS was developed to remove lignin, swell the biomass, and improve enzymatic digestibility. Based on the sugar yield during enzymatic hydrolysis, the optimal pretreatment conditions were 1 % NaOH+8 % NH(4)OH, 50°C, 48 h, with a solid-to-liquid ratio 1:10. The results demonstrated that soaking pretreatment removed 63.6 % lignin while reserving most of the carbohydrates. After enzymatic hydrolysis, the yields of glucose and xylose were 78.5 % and 69.3 %, respectively. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated CS using Pichia stipitis resulted in an ethanol concentration of 36.1 g/L, corresponding only to 63.3 % of the theoretical maximum. In order to simplify the process and reduce the capital cost, the liquid fraction of the pretreatment was used to re-soak new CS. For methane production, the re-soaked CS and the residues of SSF were anaerobically digested for 120 days. Fifteen grams CS were converted to 1.9 g of ethanol and 1337.3 mL of methane in the entire process.

  5. Assessment of anti-fouling strategies for membrane coupled with upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (MUASB) process.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thao Minh; Ye, Yun; Chen, Vicki; Stuetz, Richard; Le-Clech, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In this novel process, domestic wastewater was filtered by a hollow-fibre membrane coupled with an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (MUASB) bioreactor. To improve the process sustainability and decrease energy costs, the membranes were operated under low fluxes with little, or no, shear. The efficiency of anti-fouling strategies, including relaxation, backwashing and supply of low aeration and stir rates, was assessed through detailed characterization of the fouling layers. Results indicated that backwashing was more efficient than relaxation, even when the systems were operated under the same flux productivity. In terms of shear supply, stir provided a better fouling limitation strategy compared to aeration, at similar shear stress values. Physical and chemical cleaning methods were applied to recover three fouling fractions (i.e. cake, residual and irreversible) for better characterization of the fouling layers. Under the sustainable operating conditions used in this study, most of the fouling was easily reversible by simple rinsing. In addition, permanent and irreversible fouling, resulting in the need for frequent chemical cleanings and potential membrane degradation, is limited once small shear stresses are applied. These outcomes are expected to form the basis for the future assessment of trade-off between operation, maintenance and replacement costs of membrane filtration processes used in wastewater treatment.

  6. The effect of the source of microorganisms on adaptation of hydrolytic consortia dedicated to anaerobic digestion of maize silage.

    PubMed

    Poszytek, Krzysztof; Pyzik, Adam; Sobczak, Adam; Lipinski, Leszek; Sklodowska, Aleksandra; Drewniak, Lukasz

    2017-02-17

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the source of microorganisms on the selection of hydrolytic consortia dedicated to anaerobic digestion of maize silage. The selection process was investigated based on the analysis of changes in the hydrolytic activity and the diversity of microbial communities derived from (i) a hydrolyzer of a commercial agricultural biogas plant, (ii) cattle slurry and (iii) raw sewage sludge, during a series of 10 passages. Following the selection process, the adapted consortia were thoroughly analyzed for their ability to utilize maize silage and augmentation of anaerobic digestion communities. The results of selection of the consortia showed that every subsequent passage of each consortium leads to their adaptation to degradation of maize silage, which was manifested by the increased hydrolytic activity of the adapted consortia. Biodiversity analysis (based on the 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing) confirmed the changes microbial community of each consortium, and showed that after the last (10th) passage all microbial communities were dominated by the representatives of Lactobacillaceae, Prevotellaceae, Veillonellaceae. The results of the functional analyses showed that the adapted consortia improved the efficiency of maize silage degradation, as indicated by the increase in the concentration of glucose and volatile fatty acids (VFAs), as well as the soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD). Moreover, bioaugmentation of anaerobic digestion communities by the adapted hydrolytic consortia increased biogas yield by 10-29%, depending on the origin of the community. The obtained results also indicate that substrate input (not community origin) was the driving force responsible for the changes in the community structure of hydrolytic consortia dedicated to anaerobic digestion.

  7. Biotic and abiotic processes contribute to successful anaerobic degradation of cyanide by UASB reactor biomass treating brewery waste water.

    PubMed

    Novak, Domen; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H; Pirc, Elizabeta Tratar; Jerman, Vesna; Insam, Heribert; Logar, Romana Marinšek; Stres, Blaž

    2013-07-01

    In contrast to the general aerobic detoxification of industrial effluents containing cyanide, anaerobic cyanide degradation is not well understood, including the microbial communities involved. To address this knowledge gap, this study measured anaerobic cyanide degradation and the rearrangements in bacterial and archaeal microbial communities in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor biomass treating brewery waste water using bio-methane potential assays, molecular profiling, sequencing and microarray approaches. Successful biogas formation and cyanide removal without inhibition were observed at cyanide concentrations up to 5 mg l(-1). At 8.5 mg l(-1) cyanide, there was a 22 day lag phase in microbial activity, but subsequent methane production rates were equivalent to when 5 mg l(-1) was used. The higher cumulative methane production in cyanide-amended samples indicated that part of the biogas was derived from cyanide degradation. Anaerobic degradation of cyanide using autoclaved UASB biomass proceeded at a rate more than two times lower than when UASB biomass was not autoclaved, indicating that anaerobic cyanide degradation was in fact a combination of simultaneous abiotic and biotic processes. Phylogenetic analyses of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes for the first time identified and linked the bacterial phylum Firmicutes and the archaeal genus Methanosarcina sp. as important microbial groups involved in cyanide degradation. Methanogenic activity of unadapted granulated biomass was detected at higher cyanide concentrations than reported previously for the unadapted suspended biomass, making the aggregated structure and predominantly hydrogenotrophic nature of methanogenic community important features in cyanide degradation. The combination of brewery waste water and cyanide substrate was thus shown to be of high interest for industrial level anaerobic cyanide degradation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of an indigenous iron-oxidizing bacterium and its effectiveness in bioleaching heavy metals from anaerobically digested sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Gu, X Y; Wong, J W C

    2004-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to isolate the indigenous iron-oxidizing bacterium and compare its effectiveness in bioleaching of heavy metals from fresh anaerobically digested sludge and aged sludge which had undergone a storage period in a sludge holding tank. An acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain ANYL-1 was successfully isolated from the sludge collected from a wastewater treatment plant at Yuen Long district in Hong Kong. It was a Gram negative, non-motile rod shaped bacterium which used ferrous iron, elemental sulfur or thiosulfate as energy source, but did not utilize tetrathionate or glucose as energy source. The optimal temperature and pH for its growth and iron oxidation were 30-35 degrees C and pH 2.0-2.5, respectively. When it was used in the bioleaching of anaerobically digested sewage sludge, an inhibition on metal solubilization was observed in fresh sludge except for Zn whose dissolution was solely a chemical process. Compared to the 3 and 4 days required for solubilization of Cu and Cr respectively from the sludge sample collected after the sludge holding tank (Sludge SHT), 6 days were required to bioleach Cu and Cr from fresh sludge (Sludge AD). The fresh sewage sludge posed an unfavorable condition for bioleaching of heavy metals from anaerobically digested sludge as reflected by the prolonged bioleaching time. Therefore, further studies were needed to understand the inhibitory effects in the fresh anaerobically digested sludge and develop measures to remove it in order to improve the heavy metal bioleaching efficiency.

  9. Is anaerobic digestion effective for the removal of organic micropollutants and biological activities from sewage sludge?

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gil, L; Papa, M; Feretti, D; Ceretti, E; Mazzoleni, G; Steimberg, N; Pedrazzani, R; Bertanza, G; Lema, J M; Carballa, M

    2016-10-01

    The occurrence of emerging organic micropollutants (OMPs) in sewage sludge has been widely reported; nevertheless, their fate during sludge treatment remains unclear. The objective of this work was to study the fate of OMPs during mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion (AD), the most common processes used for sludge stabilization, by using raw sewage sludge without spiking OMPs. Moreover, the results of analytical chemistry were complemented with biological assays in order to verify the possible adverse effects (estrogenic and genotoxic) on the environment and human health in view of an agricultural (re)use of digested sludge. Musk fragrances (AHTN, HHCB), ibuprofen (IBP) and triclosan (TCS) were the most abundant compounds detected in sewage sludge. In general, the efficiency of the AD process was not dependent on operational parameters but compound-specific: some OMPs were highly biotransformed (e.g. sulfamethoxazole and naproxen), while others were only slightly affected (e.g. IBP and TCS) or even unaltered (e.g. AHTN and HHCB). The MCF-7 assay evidenced that estrogenicity removal was driven by temperature. The Ames test did not show point mutation in Salmonella typhimurium while the Comet test exhibited a genotoxic effect on human leukocytes attenuated by AD. This study highlights the importance of combining chemical analysis and biological activities in order to establish appropriate operational strategies for a safer disposal of sewage sludge. Actually, it was demonstrated that temperature has an insignificant effect on the disappearance of the parent compounds while it is crucial to decrease estrogenicity.

  10. A novel process for synthesis of spherical nanocellulose by controlled hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose using anaerobic microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Satyamurthy, P; Vigneshwaran, N

    2013-01-10

    Degradation of cellulose by anaerobic microbial consortium is brought about either by an exocellular process or by secretion of extracellular enzymes. In this work, a novel route for synthesis of nanocellulose is described where in an anaerobic microbial consortium enriched for cellulase producers is used for hydrolysis. Microcrystalline cellulose derived from cotton fibers was subjected to controlled hydrolysis by the anaerobic microbial consortium and the resultant nanocellulose was purified by differential centrifugation technique. The nanocellulose had a bimodal size distribution (43±13 and 119±9 nm) as revealed by atomic force microscopy. A maximum nanocellulose yield of 12.3% was achieved in a span of 7 days. While the conventional process of nanocellulose preparation using 63.5% (w/w) sulfuric acid resulted in the formation of whisker shaped nanocellulose with surface modified by sulfation, controlled hydrolysis by anaerobic microbial consortium yielded spherical nanocellulose also referred to as nano crystalline cellulose (NCC) without any surface modification as evidenced from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Also, it scores over chemo-mechanical production of nanofibrillated cellulose by consuming less energy due to enzyme (cellulase) assisted catalysis. This implies the scope for use of microbial prepared nanocellulose in drug delivery and bio-medical applications requiring bio-compatibility.

  11. Investigating Aerobic, Anaerobic Combine Technical Trainings' Effects on Performance in Tennis Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suna, Gürhan; Kumartasli, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate eight-week aerobic, anaerobic combine technical trainings' effects on developments of performance. 21 athletes of tennis proficiency students from Sports Sciences Department were joined to the study voluntarily. Participated in the research athletes' ages' mean was 22,2 ± 0,3 year, lengths' mean was 177,3 ±…

  12. Pilot plant study of the effects of quebracho and wattle on anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Eye, J.D.; Ficker, C.F.

    1982-01-01

    Quebracho and wattle tannin adversely affected the operational control required for the systems as well as CH4 production. The anaerobic organisms however degraded the tannins and the characteristic red color was effectively removed from the supernatant (liquid phase of digested sludge) during digestion.

  13. Effect of Short-Term, High-Intensity Exercise on Anaerobic Threshold in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Blanche W.

    This study investigated the effects of a six-week, high-intensity cycling program on anaerobic threshold (AT) in ten women. Subjects trained four days a week using high-intensity interval-type cycle exercises. Workouts included six 4-minute intervals cycling at 85 percent maximal oxygen uptake (VO sub 2 max), separated by 3-minute intervals of…

  14. Is the continuous two-stage anaerobic digestion process well suited for all substrates?

    PubMed

    Lindner, Jonas; Zielonka, Simon; Oechsner, Hans; Lemmer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Two-stage anaerobic digestion systems are often considered to be advantageous compared to one-stage processes. Although process conditions and fermenter setups are well examined, overall substrate degradation in these systems is controversially discussed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate how substrates with different fibre and sugar contents (hay/straw, maize silage, sugar beet) influence the degradation rate and methane production. Intermediates and gas compositions, as well as methane yields and VS-degradation degrees were recorded. The sugar beet substrate lead to a higher pH-value drop 5.67 in the acidification reactor, which resulted in a six time higher hydrogen production in comparison to the hay/straw substrate (pH-value drop 5.34). As the achieved yields in the two-stage system showed a difference of 70.6% for the hay/straw substrate, and only 7.8% for the sugar beet substrate. Therefore two-stage systems seem to be only recommendable for digesting sugar rich substrates.

  15. Anaerobic rotating disc batch reactor nutrient removal process enhanced by volatile fatty acid addition.

    PubMed

    Rodziewicz, Joanna; Janczukowicz, Wojciech; Mielcarek, Artur; Filipkowska, Urszula; Kłodowska, Izabella; Ostrowska, Kamila; Duchniewicz, Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    RBC effluent needs further treatment because of water-quality standards requiring low nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. It may be achieved by using reactors with biomass immobilized on the filling's surface as post-denitrification biofilm reactors. Due to the lack of organic matter in treated wastewater, the introduction of external carbon sources becomes necessary. The new attached growth bioreactor--anaerobic rotating disc batch reactor (ARDBR)--was examined as a post-denitrification reactor. The impact of selected volatile fatty acids on nutrient removal efficiency in an ARDBR was studied. The biofilm was developing on totally submerged discs mounted coaxially on a vertical shaft. Acetic, propionic, butyric and caproic acids were applied. Wastewaters were removed from the reactors after 24-h treatment, together with the excess solids. In the ARDBR tank, there was no biomass in the suspended form at the beginning of the treatment process. Acids with a higher number of carbon atoms (butyric and caproic) were the most efficient in denitrification process. The highest phosphorus removal efficiency was noted in the ARDBR with butyric and propionic acids. The lowest unitary consumption of the external source of carbon in denitrification was recorded for acetic acid, whereas the highest one for caproic acid.

  16. Two-stage anaerobic digestion process for complete inactivation of enteric bacterial pathogens in human night soil.

    PubMed

    Kunte, D P; Yeole, T Y; Ranade, D R

    2004-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion offers a good alternative for human waste treatment. However, the fate of enteric bacterial pathogens present in human night soil (HNS) remains a major concern for hygienic safety of the process. A two-stage anaerobic digestion process, consisting of separate acidogenic and methanogenic digesters, was designed and its efficacy in the inactivation of Salmonella typhi was compared to a single-stage digestion process. In a single-stage digestion, complete pathogen inactivation was achieved only in the digesters with high levels of volatile fatty acids (VFA approximately equal to 18,000 mg/l) and acidic pH (approximately equal to 6.0). These digesters, however, showed drastic reduction in methane yield. In the two-stage digestion process, S. typhi was completely inactivated in the acidogenic digester and the methanogenic digester was free from the pathogen even after receiving a daily dose of the pathogen. The process also achieved complete inactivation of other enteric pathogens, viz., Shigella dysenteriae and Vibrio cholerae. The two-stage process was efficient in biogas generation from HNS. Thus, the two-stage process ensures complete hygienic safety in anaerobic digestion of human night soil.

  17. Techno-economic evaluation of stillage treatment with anaerobic digestion in a softwood-to-ethanol process.

    PubMed

    Barta, Zsolt; Reczey, Kati; Zacchi, Guido

    2010-09-15

    Replacing the energy-intensive evaporation of stillage by anaerobic digestion is one way of decreasing the energy demand of the lignocellulosic biomass to the ethanol process. The biogas can be upgraded and sold as transportation fuel, injected directly into the gas grid or be incinerated on-site for combined heat and power generation. A techno-economic evaluation of the spruce-to-ethanol process, based on SO2-catalysed steam pretreatment followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, has been performed using the commercial flow-sheeting program Aspen Plus™. Various process configurations of anaerobic digestion of the stillage, with different combinations of co-products, have been evaluated in terms of energy efficiency and ethanol production cost versus the reference case of evaporation. Anaerobic digestion of the stillage showed a significantly higher overall energy efficiency (87-92%), based on the lower heating values, than the reference case (81%). Although the amount of ethanol produced was the same in all scenarios, the production cost varied between 4.00 and 5.27 Swedish kronor per litre (0.38-0.50 euro/L), including the reference case. Higher energy efficiency options did not necessarily result in lower ethanol production costs. Anaerobic digestion of the stillage with biogas upgrading was demonstrated to be a favourable option for both energy efficiency and ethanol production cost. The difference in the production cost of ethanol between using the whole stillage or only the liquid fraction in anaerobic digestion was negligible for the combination of co-products including upgraded biogas, electricity and district heat.

  18. Techno-economic evaluation of stillage treatment with anaerobic digestion in a softwood-to-ethanol process

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Replacing the energy-intensive evaporation of stillage by anaerobic digestion is one way of decreasing the energy demand of the lignocellulosic biomass to the ethanol process. The biogas can be upgraded and sold as transportation fuel, injected directly into the gas grid or be incinerated on-site for combined heat and power generation. A techno-economic evaluation of the spruce-to-ethanol process, based on SO2-catalysed steam pretreatment followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, has been performed using the commercial flow-sheeting program Aspen Plus™. Various process configurations of anaerobic digestion of the stillage, with different combinations of co-products, have been evaluated in terms of energy efficiency and ethanol production cost versus the reference case of evaporation. Results Anaerobic digestion of the stillage showed a significantly higher overall energy efficiency (87-92%), based on the lower heating values, than the reference case (81%). Although the amount of ethanol produced was the same in all scenarios, the production cost varied between 4.00 and 5.27 Swedish kronor per litre (0.38-0.50 euro/L), including the reference case. Conclusions Higher energy efficiency options did not necessarily result in lower ethanol production costs. Anaerobic digestion of the stillage with biogas upgrading was demonstrated to be a favourable option for both energy efficiency and ethanol production cost. The difference in the production cost of ethanol between using the whole stillage or only the liquid fraction in anaerobic digestion was negligible for the combination of co-products including upgraded biogas, electricity and district heat. PMID:20843330

  19. Reviewing the anaerobic digestion and co-digestion process of food waste from the perspectives on biogas production performance and environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Sam L H; Lo, Irene M C

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, factors that affect biogas production in the anaerobic digestion (AD) and anaerobic co-digestion (coAD) processes of food waste are reviewed with the aim to improve biogas production performance. These factors include the composition of substrates in food waste coAD as well as pre-treatment methods and anaerobic reactor system designs in both food waste AD and coAD. Due to the characteristics of the substrates used, the biogas production performance varies as different effects are exhibited on nutrient balance, inhibitory substance dilution, and trace metal element supplement. Various types of pre-treatment methods such as mechanical, chemical, thermal, and biological methods are discussed to improve the rate-limiting hydrolytic step in the digestion processes. The operation parameters of a reactor system are also reviewed with consideration of the characteristics of the substrates. Since the environmental awareness and concerns for waste management systems have been increasing, this paper also addresses possible environmental impacts of AD and coAD in food waste treatment and recommends feasible methods to reduce the impacts. In addition, uncertainties in the life cycle assessment (LCA) studies are also discussed.

  20. Influence of digestion temperature and organic loading rate on the continuous anaerobic treatment of process liquor from hydrothermal carbonization of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Benjamin; Reza, Toufiq; Mumme, Jan

    2015-12-01

    This experimental study investigates the use of process liquor from hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of sewage sludge as sole substrate for anaerobic digestion (AD). The process performance at 37°C (mesophilic) and 55°C (thermophilic) was determined based on two identical continuously-fed anaerobic filters (26 L each) operated for 20 weeks. During operation, the organic loading rate was stepwise increased from 1 to 5 gCOD L(-1)d(-)(1). This decreased the hydraulic retention time from 34 to 5 days. Significant differences in methane production were not observed as both reactors yielded up to 0.18 LCH4 gCOD(-)(1). Increased temperature had no effect on the steady-state COD removal efficiency with both reactors stabilized at 68-75%. Macro- and micronutrients were provided by HTC liquor in sufficient concentrations throughout the experiment. Methanogenesis was identified as the speed-limiting step in anaerobic digestion of HTC liquor. Hydrolysis was of an order of magnitude faster than methanogenesis.

  1. Anaerobic co-digestion of grease sludge and sewage sludge: the effect of organic loading and grease sludge content.

    PubMed

    Noutsopoulos, C; Mamais, D; Antoniou, K; Avramides, C; Oikonomopoulos, P; Fountoulakis, I

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of co-digesting grease sludge (GS) originating from domestic wastewater along with sewage sludge (SS) and to assess the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) and GS content on process performance. Three lab-scale semi-continuous fed mesophilic anaerobic digesters were operated under various OLRs and SS-GS mixtures. According to the results, addition of GS up to 60% of the total VS load of feed resulted in a 55% increase of biogas yield (700 vs. 452m(3)/tVSadded) for an OLR of 3.5kg VS/m(3)/d. A stable and satisfactory operation of anaerobic co-digestion units can be achieved for a GS-OLR up to 2.4kg VSGS/m(3)/d. For such values biogas yield is linearly proportional to the applied GS-OLR, whereas biogas yield is minimal for GS-OLR higher than this limit and acidification of the anaerobic digestion units is taking place.

  2. Effect of medium, pH, and inoculum size on activity of ceftizoxime and Sch-34343 against anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Borobio, M V; Pascual, A; Dominguez, M C; Perea, E J

    1986-01-01

    The effect of two media, three pH values, and three inoculum densities on the activity of ceftizoxime and Sch-34343 against anaerobic bacteria was evaluated. The activities of both antimicrobial agents were affected by medium composition, especially against Bacteroides fragilis. Changes in pH and inoculum size affected only the activity of ceftizoxime against anaerobic bacteria. PMID:3466569

  3. Energy efficacy used to score organic refuse pretreatment processes for hydrogen anaerobic production.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Bernardo; Luongo Malave, Andrea C; Bernardi, Milena; Fino, Debora

    2013-11-01

    The production of hydrogen through Anaerobic Digestion (AD) has been investigated to verify the efficacy of several pretreatment processes. Three types of waste with different carbon structures have been tested to obtain an extensive representation of the behavior of the materials present in Organic Waste (OW). The following types of waste were selected: Sweet Product Residue (SPR), i.e., confectionary residue removed from the market after the expiration date, Organic Waste Market (OWM) refuse from a local fruit and vegetable market, and Coffee Seed Skin (CSS) waste from a coffee production plant. Several pretreatment processes have been applied, including physical, chemical, thermal, and ultrasonic processes and a combination of these processes. Two methods have been used for the SPR to remove the packaging, manual (SPR) and mechanical (SPRex). A pilot plant that is able to extrude the refuse to 200atm was utilized. Two parameters have been used to score the different pretreatment processes: efficiency (ξ), which takes into account the amount of energy produced in the form of hydrogen compared with the available energy embedded in the refuse, and efficacy (η), which compares the efficiency obtained using the pretreated refuse with that obtained using the untreated refuse. The best result obtained for the SPR was the basic pretreatment, with η=6.4, whereas the thermal basic pretreatment gave the highest value, η=17.0 for SPRex. The best result for the OWM was obtained through a combination of basic/thermal pretreatments with η=9.9; lastly, the CSS residue with ultrasonic pretreatment produced the highest quantity of hydrogen, η=5.2.

  4. Effects of psychological priming, video, and music on anaerobic exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Loizou, G; Karageorghis, C I

    2015-12-01

    Peak performance videos accompanied by music can help athletes to optimize their pre-competition mindset and are often used. Priming techniques can be incorporated into such videos to influence athletes' motivational state. There has been limited empirical work investigating the combined effects of such stimuli on anaerobic performance. The present study examined the psychological and psychophysiological effects of video, music, and priming when used as a pre-performance intervention for an anaerobic endurance task. Psychological measures included the main axes of the circumplex model of affect and liking scores taken pre-task, and the Exercise-induced Feeling Inventory, which was administered post-task. Physiological measures comprised heart rate variability and heart rate recorded pre-task. Fifteen males (age = 26.3 ± 2.8 years) were exposed to four conditions prior to performing the Wingate Anaerobic Test: music-only, video and music, video with music and motivational primes, and a no-video/no-music control. Results indicate that the combined video, music, and primes condition was the most effective in terms of influencing participants' pre-task affect and subsequent anaerobic performance; this was followed by the music-only condition. The findings indicate the utility of such stimuli as a pre-performance technique to enhance athletes' or exercisers' psychological states. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Long-term effect of ZnO nanoparticles on waste activated sludge anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Mu, Hui; Chen, Yinguang

    2011-11-01

    The increasing use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) raises concerns about their environmental impacts, but the potential effect of ZnO NPs on sludge anaerobic digestion remains unknown. In this paper, long-term exposure experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of ZnO NPs on methane production during waste activated sludge (WAS) anaerobic digestion. The presence of 1 mg/g-TSS of ZnO NPs did not affect methane production, but 30 and 150 mg/g-TSS of ZnO NPs induced 18.3% and 75.1% of inhibition respectively, which showed that the impact of ZnO NPs on methane production was dosage dependant. Then, the mechanisms of ZnO NPs affecting sludge anaerobic digestion were investigated. It was found that the toxic effect of ZnO NPs on methane production was mainly due to the release of Zn(2+) from ZnO NPs, which may cause the inhibitory effects on the hydrolysis and methanation steps of sludge anaerobic digestion. Further investigations with enzyme and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays indicated that higher concentration of ZnO NPs decreased the activities of protease and coenzyme F(420), and the abundance of methanogenesis Archaea.

  6. Integrated anaerobic ammonium oxidization with partial denitrification process for advanced nitrogen removal from high-strength wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shenbin; Du, Rui; Niu, Meng; Li, Baikun; Ren, Nanqi; Peng, Yongzhen

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a novel integrated anaerobic ammonium oxidization with partial denitrification process (termed as ANAMMOX-PD) was developed for advanced nitrogen removal from high-strength wastewater, which excess NO3(-)-N produced by ANAMMOX was fed into PD reactor for NO2(-)-N production and then refluxing to ANAMMOX reactor for further removal. Results showed that total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency as high as 97.8% was achieved and effluent TN-N was below 20mg/L at influent TN-N of 820mg/L. Furthermore, the feasibility of simultaneously treating domestic wastewater was demonstrated in ANAMMOX-PD process, and NH4(+)-N removal efficiency of 96.7% was obtained. The nitrogen removal was mainly carried out through ANAMMOX pathway, and high-throughput sequencing revealed that Candidatus_Brocadia was the major ANAMMOX species. The presented process could effectively solve the problem of excess nitrate residual in ANAMMOX effluent, which hold a great potential in application of currently ANAMMOX treating high-strength wastewater (e.g. sludge digestion supernatant).

  7. Effects of organic composition on mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    PubMed

    Li, Yangyang; Jin, Yiying; Borrion, Aiduan; Li, Hailong; Li, Jinhui

    2017-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion of food waste (FW) has been widely investigated, however, little is known about the influence of organic composition on the FW digestion process. This study aims to identify the optimum composition ratios of carbohydrate (CA), protein (CP) and lipid (EE) for maintaining high methane yield and process stability. The results show that the CA-CP-EE ratio was significantly correlated with performance and degradability parameters. Controlling the CA-CP-EE ratio higher than 1.89 (CA higher than 8.3%, CP lower than 5.0%, and EE lower than 5.6%) could be an effective way to maintain stable digestion and achieve higher methane production (385-627mL/gVS) and shorter digestion retention (196-409h). The CA-CP-EE ratio could be used as an important indicator for digestion performance. To effectively evaluate organic reduction, the concentration and removal efficiency of organic compositions in both solid phases and total FW should be considered. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Synergistic effect of co-digestion to enhance anaerobic degradation of catering waste and orange peel for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Muzammil; Khalid, Azeem; Qadeer, Samia; Miandad, Rashid

    2017-09-01

    Catering waste and orange peel were co-digested using an anaerobic digestion process. Orange peel is difficult to degrade anaerobically due to the presence of antimicrobial agents such as limonene. The present study aimed to examine the feasibility of anaerobic co-digestion of catering waste with orange peel to provide the optimum nutrient balance with reduced inhibitory effects of orange peel. Batch experiments were conducted using catering waste as a potential substrate mixed in varying ratios (20-50%) with orange peel. Similar ratios were followed using green vegetable waste as co-substrate. The results showed that the highest organic matter degradation (49%) was achieved with co-digestion of catering waste and orange peel at a 50% mixing ratio (CF4). Similarly, the soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) was increased by 51% and reached its maximum value (9040 mg l(-1)) due to conversion of organic matter from insoluble to soluble form. Biogas production was increased by 1.5 times in CF4 where accumulative biogas was 89.61 m(3) t(-1)substrate compared with 57.35 m(3) t(-1)substrate in the control after 80 days. The main reason behind the improved biogas production and degradation is the dilution of inhibitory factors (limonene), with subsequent provision of balanced nutrients in the co-digestion system. The tCOD of the final digestate was decreased by 79.9% in CF4, which was quite high as compared with 68.3% for the control. Overall, this study revealed that orange peel waste is a highly feasible co-substrate for anaerobic digestion with catering waste for enhanced biogas production.

  9. The anaerobic digestion process capability to produce biostimulant: the case study of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) vs. auxin-like property.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Barbara; Pognani, Michele; Adani, Fabrizio

    2017-07-01

    Biostimulants improve plant growth by stimulating nutrient uptake and efficiency, improving tolerance to abiotic stress and raising crop quality. Biostimulants are currently only recognised in five categories. However, the recent interest in this sector has led to the identification of some new ones. The aim of this work was to study the auxin-like activity of digestate dissolved organic matter (DOM) obtained from full scale anaerobic digester plants. All DOMs had biostimulant capacity comparable with humic acid and amino acids. The auxin-like activities depended mainly on the hydrophobic DOM fractions for the presence of auxin-active and other auxin-like molecules. Significant correlations were found for the auxin-effect in relation to auxin-active molecules and fatty acids responsible for most of the auxin-like effects (67% of the total importance in giving auxin-like activity) while a minor or null contribution was attributable to the carboxylic acids and aminoacid categories. Therefore, the anaerobic digestion process seems to be a useful biotechnology to produce biostimulants. Basing on these first results, the expanding anaerobic digestion sector could become important for the production of new biostimulant classes to meet the agricultural sector's new requirements and saving on raw materials.

  10. Implementation of in-line infrared monitor in full-scale anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Spanjers, H; Bouvier, J C; Steenweg, P; Bisschops, I; van Gils, W; Versprille, B

    2006-01-01

    During start up but also during normal operation, anaerobic reactor systems should be run and monitored carefully to secure trouble-free operation, because the process is vulnerable to disturbances such as temporary overloading, biomass wash out and influent toxicity. The present method of monitoring is usually by manual sampling and subsequent laboratory analysis. Data collection, processing and feedback to system operation is manual and ad hoc, and involves high-level operator skills and attention. As a result, systems tend to be designed at relatively conservative design loading rates resulting in significant over-sizing of reactors and thus increased systems cost. It is therefore desirable to have on-line and continuous access to performance data on influent and effluent quality. Relevant variables to indicate process performance include VFA, COD, alkalinity, sulphate, and, if aerobic post-treatment is considered, total nitrogen, ammonia and nitrate. Recently, mid-IR spectrometry was demonstrated on a pilot scale to be suitable for in-line simultaneous measurement of these variables. This paper describes a full-scale application of the technique to test its ability to monitor continuously and without human intervention the above variables simultaneously in two process streams. For VFA, COD, sulphate, ammonium and TKN good agreement was obtained between in-line and manual measurements. During a period of six months the in-line measurements had to be interrupted several times because of clogging. It appeared that the sample pre-treatment unit was not able to cope with high solids concentrations all the time.

  11. Effect of thermal hydrolysis and ultrasounds pretreatments on foaming in anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, N; Cano, R; Fdz-Polanco, F

    2014-10-01

    Foam appears regularly in anaerobic digesters producing operational and safety problems. In this research, based on the operational observation at semi-industrial pilot scale where sludge pretreatment mitigated foaming in anaerobic digesters, this study aimed at evaluating any potential relationship between foaming tools applied to activated sludge at lab-scale (foam potential, foam stability and Microthrix parvicella abundance) and the experimental behavior observed in pilot scale and full-scale anaerobic digesters. The potential of thermal hydrolysis and ultrasounds for reducing foaming capacity was also evaluated. Filamentous bacteria abundance was directly linked to foaming capacity in anaerobic processes. A maximum reduction of M.parvicella abundance (from 5 to 2) was reached using thermal hydrolysis with steam explosion at 170°C and ultrasounds at 66.7kWh/m(3), showing both good anti-foaming properties. On the other hand, foam potential and stability determinations showed a lack of consistency with the bacteria abundance results and experimental evidences.

  12. Process stability and microbial community structure in anaerobic hydrogen-producing microflora from food waste containing kimchi.

    PubMed

    Jo, Ji Hye; Jeon, Che Ok; Lee, Dae Sung; Park, Jong Moon

    2007-09-15

    Hydrogen production by the dark fermentation of food wastes is an economic and environmentally friendly technology to produce the clean energy source as well as to treat the problematic wastes. However, the long-term operations of the continuous anaerobic reactor for fermentative hydrogen production were frequently unstable. In this study, the structure of microbial community within the anaerobic reactor during unstable hydrogen production was examined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) techniques. The changes in microbial community from H(2)-producing Clostridium spp. to lactic acid-producing Lactobacillus spp. were well coincident with the unexpected process failures and the changes of metabolites concentrations in the effluent of the anaerobic reactor. As the rate of hydrogen production decreased, effluent lactic acid concentration increased. Low rate of hydrogen production and changes in microbial community were related to the 'kimchi' content and storage temperature of food waste feed solution. After low temperature control of the storage tank of the feed solution, any significant change in microbial community within the anaerobic reactor did not occur and the hydrogen production was very stably maintained for a long time.

  13. Application of the upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) process for treatment of complex wastewaters at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Koster, I.W.; Lettinga, G.

    1985-10-01

    The feasibility of the upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) process for the treatment of potato starch wastewater at low ambient temperatures was demonstrated by operating two 5.65 l reactors at 14 degrees C and 20 degrees C, respectively. The organic space loading rates achieved in these laboratory-scale reactors were 3 kg COD/cubic m/day at 14 degrees C and 4-5 kg COD/cubic m/day at 20 degrees C. The corresponding sludge loading rates were 0.12 kg COD/kg VSS/day at 14 degrees C and 0.16-0.18 kg COD/kg VSS/day at 20 degrees C. These findings are of considerable practical importance because application of anaerobic treatment at low ambient temperatures will lead to considerable savings in energy needed for operating the process. As compared with various other anaerobic wastewater treatment processes, a granular sludge upflow process represents one of the best options developed so far. Although the overall sludge yield under psychrophilic conditions is slightly higher than under optimal mesophilic conditions, this doesn't seriously hamper the operation of the process. The extra sludge yield, due to accumulation of slowly hydrolyzing substrate ingredients, was 4.75% of the COD input at 14 degrees C and 1.22% of the COD input at 20 degrees C. 26 references.

  14. Ubiquitous anaerobic ammonium oxidation in inland waters of China: an overlooked nitrous oxide mitigation process.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guibing; Wang, Shanyun; Zhou, Leiliu; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Siyan; Xia, Chao; Wang, Weidong; Zhou, Rong; Wang, Chaoxu; Jetten, Mike S M; Hefting, Mariet M; Yin, Chengqing; Qu, Jiuhui

    2015-11-27

    Denitrification has long been regarded as the only pathway for terrestrial nitrogen (N) loss to the atmosphere. Here we demonstrate that large-scale anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), an overlooked N loss process alternative to denitrification which bypasses nitrous oxide (N2O), is ubiquitous in inland waters of China and contributes significantly to N loss. Anammox rates in aquatic systems show different levels (1.0-975.9 μmol N m(-2) h(-1), n = 256) with hotspots occurring at oxic-anoxic interfaces and harboring distinct biogeochemical and biogeographical features. Extrapolation of these results to the China-national level shows that anammox could contribute about 2.0 Tg N yr(-1), which equals averagely 11.4% of the total N loss from China's inland waters. Our results indicate that a significant amount of the nitrogen lost from inland waters bypasses denitrification, which is important for constructing more accurate climate models and may significantly reduce potential N2O emission risk at a large scale.

  15. Ubiquitous anaerobic ammonium oxidation in inland waters of China: an overlooked nitrous oxide mitigation process

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Guibing; Wang, Shanyun; Zhou, Leiliu; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Siyan; Xia, Chao; Wang, Weidong; Zhou, Rong; Wang, Chaoxu; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Hefting, Mariet M.; Yin, Chengqing; Qu, Jiuhui

    2015-01-01

    Denitrification has long been regarded as the only pathway for terrestrial nitrogen (N) loss to the atmosphere. Here we demonstrate that large-scale anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), an overlooked N loss process alternative to denitrification which bypasses nitrous oxide (N2O), is ubiquitous in inland waters of China and contributes significantly to N loss. Anammox rates in aquatic systems show different levels (1.0–975.9 μmol N m−2 h−1, n = 256) with hotspots occurring at oxic-anoxic interfaces and harboring distinct biogeochemical and biogeographical features. Extrapolation of these results to the China-national level shows that anammox could contribute about 2.0 Tg N yr−1, which equals averagely 11.4% of the total N loss from China’s inland waters. Our results indicate that a significant amount of the nitrogen lost from inland waters bypasses denitrification, which is important for constructing more accurate climate models and may significantly reduce potential N2O emission risk at a large scale. PMID:26610807

  16. Modeling and biokinetics in anaerobic acidogenesis of starch-processing wastewater to acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Johng-Hwa; Lee, Sangyoung; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2004-01-01

    Starch-processing wastewater was anaerobically treated to produce acetic acid in laboratory-scale, continuously stirred tank reactors. The optimal conditions, in which the maximum acetic acid production occurred, were 0.56 d hydraulic retention time, pH 5.9, and 36.1 degrees C. Acetic acid production at the optimum conditions was 672 +/- 20 mg total organic carbon(equivalent) L(-)(1), which indicated a 75% conversion efficiency of influent total organic carbon into acetic acid. A fourth order Runge-Kutta approximation was used to determine the Monod kinetics of the acidogens by using unsteady-state data from continuous unsteady-state experiments at the optimum conditions. The model outputs and experimental data fit together satisfactorily, suggesting that the unsteady-state approach was appropriate for the evaluation of acidogenic biokinetics. These included micro(m), K(s), Y, and k(d), which were evaluated as being 0.13 h(-)(1), 25 mg total carbohydrate (TC) L(-)(1), 0.38 mg volatile suspended solid mg(-)(1) TC, and 0.002 h(-)(1), respectively.

  17. Mdodeling a nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation process: parameters identification and model evaluation.

    PubMed

    He, Zhanfei; Cai, Chen; Geng, Sha; Lou, Liping; Xu, Xiangyang; Zheng, Ping; Hu, Baolan

    2013-11-01

    Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) is a recently discovered process that is intermediated by n-damo bacteria that oxidize methane with nitrite to generate nitrogen gas. In this work, a kinetic model based on Monod type kinetics and diffusion-reaction model was developed to describe the bioprocess. Some key kinetic parameters needed in the model were obtained from a series of batch activity tests and a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) operation over 100 days. The growth rate, decay rate, methane affinity constant, nitrite affinity constant and inhibition constant were 0.0277±0.0022 d(-1), 0.00216±0.00010 d(-1), 0.092±0.005 mmol L(-1), 0.91±0.09 mmol L(-1) and 4.1±0.5 mmol L(-1) for n-damo bacteria at 30 °C, respectively. The results showed that the model could simulate actual performance of the SBR in the first 76 days, that methane was not a limiting factor at atmospheric pressure for its high affinity, and that the optimum nitrite concentration was 1.92 mmol L(-1).

  18. The effect of anaerobicity and temperature on N2 and N2O dynamics in forestry drained boreal peat soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihlatie, Mari; Hongisto, Isto; Dannenmann, Michael; Georg, Willibald; Rainer, Gasche; Klaus, Butterbach-Bahl

    2013-04-01

    Molecular nitrogen (N2) is the dominant end-product of microbial denitrification in soils; however, due to difficulties in measuring N2 exchange, the emissions of N2 from terrestrial ecosystems are largely unknown. In boreal peatland soils, the combination of high soil carbon and nitrogen contents, fluctuating water-table and high decomposition activity of the peat make these soils potentially large emitters of N gases via microbial denitrification processes. This motivated us to quantify the N2 and nitrous oxide (N2O) losses from boreal drained peat soils varying in fertility status. Soil samples were collected from two drained peatland forests: a nutrient-rich (Lettosuo) and a nutrient-poor (Kalevansuo) site, both located in the boreal zone of Southern Finland. N2 and N2O emissions from intact soil cores were measured using the helium gas flow soil core method. Two incubation experiments were conducted focusing on the effects of anaerobicity and temperature on N2 and N2O dynamics of the top-soil (experiment 1), and the effect of anaerobicity on N2 and N2O dynamics in the peat profile (experiment 2). Soil samples in experiment 1 were incubated under 1) cold (2° C) aerobic (20% O2, 80% He), 2) cold (2° C) anaerobic (0% O2, 100% He), and 3) warm (15° C) anaerobic conditions, while those in experiment 2 were incubated under 1) warm aerobic and 2) warm anaerobic conditions. Dynamics of N2 and N2O fluxes for each incubation condition were followed until fluxes stabilized. In general, the N2 and N2O fluxes in the nutrient-rich Lettosuo peat were higher and more variable than those at the nutrient-poor Kalevansuo peat. In the nutrient-rich Lettosuo, both the N2 and N2O emissions increased dramatically after the change from aerobic to anaerobic conditions, and again after the temperature rise from 2 to 15° C. This latter peak in emissions was followed by a switch from N2O production to N2O consumption and a simultaneous sharp decrease in N2 emissions. Although, the N2

  19. Effects of alkalinity sources on the stability of anaerobic digestion from food waste.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shujun; Zhang, Jishi; Wang, Xikui

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of some alkalinity sources on the stability of anaerobic digestion (AD) from food waste (FW). Four alkalinity sources, namely lime mud from papermaking (LMP), waste eggshell (WES), CaCO3 and NaHCO3, were applied as buffer materials and their stability effects were evaluated in batch AD. The results showed that LMP and CaCO3 had more remarkable effects than NaHCO3 and WES on FW stabilization. The methane yields were 120.2, 197.0, 156.2, 251.0 and 194.8 ml g(-1) VS for the control and synergistic digestions of CaCO3, NaHCO3, LMP and WES added into FW, respectively. The corresponding final alkalinity reached 5906, 7307, 9504, 7820 and 6782 mg l(-1), while the final acidities were determined to be 501, 200, 50, 350 and 250 mg l(-1), respectively. This indicated that the synergism between alkalinity and inorganic micronutrients from different alkalinity sources played an important role in the process stability of AD from FW.

  20. Comprehensive microbial analysis of combined mesophilic anaerobic-thermophilic aerobic process treating high-strength food wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Min; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Park, Jong Moon; Kim, Mi-Sun; Sommer, Sven G

    2015-04-15

    A combined mesophilic anaerobic-thermophilic aerobic process was used to treat high-strength food wastewater in this study. During the experimental period, most of solid residue from the mesophilic anaerobic reactor (R1) was separated by centrifugation and introduced into the thermophilic aerobic reactor (R2) for further digestion. Then, thermophilic aerobically-digested sludge was reintroduced into R1 to enhance reactor performance. The combined process was operated with two different Runs: Run I with hydraulic retention time (HRT) = 40 d (corresponding OLR = 3.5 kg COD/m(3) d) and Run II with HRT = 20 d (corresponding OLR = 7 kg COD/m(3)). For a comparison, a single-stage mesophilic anaerobic reactor (R3) was operated concurrently with same OLRs and HRTs as the combined process. During the overall digestion, all reactors showed high stability without pH control. The combined process demonstrated significantly higher organic matter removal efficiencies (over 90%) of TS, VS and COD and methane production than did R3. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) results indicated that higher populations of both bacteria and archaea were maintained in R1 than in R3. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed relatively high abundance of phylum Actinobacteria in both R1 and R2, and a predominance of phyla Synergistetes and Firmicutes in R3 during Run II. Furthermore, R1 and R2 shared genera (Prevotella, Aminobacterium, Geobacillus and Unclassified Actinobacteria), which suggests synergy between mesophilic anaerobic digestion and thermophilic aerobic digestion. For archaea, in R1 methanogenic archaea shifted from genus Methanosaeta to Methanosarcina, whereas genera Methanosaeta, Methanobacterium and Methanoculleus were predominant in R3. The results demonstrated dynamics of key microbial populations that were highly consistent with an enhanced reactor performance of the combined process.

  1. Electricity assisted anaerobic treatment of salinity wastewater and its effects on microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingxin; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie

    2012-07-01

    High salinity wastewater is often difficult to treat using common anaerobic technologies. Considering that high conductivity of salinity wastewater may enhance electrodes reaction to accelerate the decomposition of volatile fatty acids produced in anaerobic digestion, a pair of electrodes was packed into an anaerobic reactor (R1) with the aim to enhance the treatment of salinity wastewater. With increasing the salt concentration (NaCl) gradually from 0 to 50 g/L in 137 days' operation, COD removal in this reactor under the voltage for the electrodes of 1.2 V was well maintained at 93%, while the COD removal in a reference anaerobic reactor without electrodes (R2) decreased to 53%. When the voltage for R1 was cut off, about 10% COD removal was declined, which was still 30 percentage points higher than that in R2. The electrodes enhanced the biodegradation of volatile fatty acids, especially propionate. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis confirmed that the relative abundance of propionate-utilizing bacteria in R1 was significantly higher than that in R2. PCR-DGGE analysis of bacteria and archaea domains indicated that the electric field stimulation effectively enriched salt-adapted microorganisms during the treatment.

  2. The effect of water restriction on anaerobic power and vertical jumping height in basketball players.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, J R; Stavsky, H; Falk, B

    1995-05-01

    This study examined the effect of high intensity, moderate duration (40 min) exercise and water restriction on anaerobic power, vertical jumping height, and basketball shooting performance. Ten healthy male basketball players participated in two simulated '2 on 2 full-court' basketball games. Water consumption was permitted in one game (Wa) but not in the other (NWa), in a balanced cross-over design. Subjects began each game euhydrated. All jump tests (squat jump, counter movement jump, and 30 second jump test) were performed prior to, at half-time, and immediately following each game (POST). Performance was measured by both field goal (FG%) and free throw (FT%) percentages recorded during each half. Players incurred a -1.9 +/- 0.4% body weight loss during NWa. No significant differences were observed between WA and NWa in anaerobic power, squat jump, or counter movement jump. However, a 19% difference in anaerobic power (p > 0.05) was observed between Wa (36.1 +/- 4.8 W.kg-1) and NWa (30.4 +/- 6.6 W.kg-1) at POST. No significant differences were observed between Wa and NWa in both FG% and FT% however, an 8.1% decrease (p > 0.05) in FG% was seen between the first and second half during NWa. Although the decreases in anaerobic power and FG% did not reach significance, the results suggest that the combination of high intensity, moderate duration exercise, and fluid restriction might be detrimental to performance.

  3. Effects of Nasal or Oral Breathing on Anaerobic Power Output and Metabolic Responses

    PubMed Central

    RECINTO, CHRISTINE; EFTHEMEOU, THEODORE; BOFFELLI, P. TONY; NAVALTA, JAMES W.

    2017-01-01

    Nasal and oral exclusive breathing modes have benefits and drawbacks during submaximal exercise. It is unknown whether these responses would extend to anaerobic work performed at high intensity. Nine individuals (males N = 7, females N = 2) performed a standard Wingate Anaerobic cycle test on a cycle ergometer under nose (N) and mouth (M) only respiratory conditions, performed in a counterbalanced order. A 2 (condition: nose, mouth) × 6 (time: 0–5 sec, 5–10 sec, 10–15 sec, 15–20 sec, 20–25 sec, 25–30 sec) repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the data with significance accepted at the p<0.05 level. No differences between breathing mode were observed for any power output or performance measures associated with the Wingate Anaerobic cycle test. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was significantly higher in the oral respiration condition from 10 seconds to 25 seconds during the test (p<0.05). On the other hand, heart rate (HR) in the nasal condition was significantly greater during the final two time intervals (p<0.05). Nasal breathing was effective in reducing hyperventilation as RER remained below 1.0. However, elevated HR with nasal breathing indicates increased cardiovascular stress associated with this mode. As breathing mode does not affect power output or performance measures during completion of a high-intensity anaerobic test, preference of the participant should be the determining factor if a choice is available. PMID:28674596

  4. Effect of co-substrates on biogas production and anaerobic decomposition of pentachlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Danish; Khan, Nishat; Nizami, Abdul-Sattar; Rehan, Mohammad; Sabir, Suhail; Khan, Mohammad Zain

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of different co-substrates on the anaerobic degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) with simultaneous production of biogas. Acetate and glucose were added as co-substrates to monitor and compare the methanogenic reaction during PCP degradation. During the experiment, a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 80% was achieved. Methane (CH4) production was higher in glucose-fed anaerobic reactors with the highest amount of CH4 (303.3µL) produced at 200ppm of PCP. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrates the high porous structure of anaerobic sludge with uniform channels confirming better mass transfer and high PCP removal. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) revealed that methanogens were the dominating species while some sulfate reducing bacteria (SRBs) were also found in the reactors. The study shows that strategic operation of the anaerobic reactor can be a feasible option for efficient degradation of complex substrates like PCP along with the production of biogas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of an aerobic interval training program on intermittent anaerobic performance.

    PubMed

    Gaiga, M C; Docherty, D

    1995-12-01

    The effects of a 9-week aerobic interval training program on anaerobic intermittent performance were investigated. Intermittent work consisted of four repeat 30-sec maximal efforts on a cycle ergometer (Wingate test) with 3-min recovery intervals. Thirteen men trained 3 days a week on the cycle ergometer, completing 3-min work-to-rest intervals and progressing from 5 to 10 reps. Relative and absolute values of aerobic power increased significantly for the training group (p < .05). No significant change was observed for the control group (n = 11). The training group demonstrated significant increases in the four anaerobic variables of short-term peak power (SPP), short-term anaerobic capacity (SAC), intermediate-term peak power (IPP), and total work (TW), and across the four 30-sec maximal repeats for anaerobic performance (T1-T4) (p < .05). Greater percentages of increase occurred for IPP and TW, especially during Repeats 3 and 4. The control group only demonstrated a significant increase in SPP for Repeat 3. These data suggest that the type of interval training program used in the study increased aerobic power and also enhanced performance in repeated high intensity, short duration work.

  6. [Effects of mild thermal pretreatment on anaerobic digestibility of sludge with low organic content].

    PubMed

    Chen, Han-Long; Yan, Yuan-Yuan; He, Qun-Biao; Dai, Xiao-Hu; Zhou, Qi

    2013-02-01

    The effects of mild pretreatment at temperature of 100 degrees C on the solubilization anP anaerobic digestibility of high solid sludge with low organic content were studied with the variation of heating times. Experimental results show soluble organic concentrations in supernatant increase with the prolonging of thermal pretreatment time rapidly, and slowly after 30 min. The dissolution rates of COD, protein and carbohydrate with 30 min of thermal pretreatment at 100 degrees C were 10.5%, 11.6% and 8.2%, respectively. Mild thermal pretreatment not only enhanced total methane yield, but also advanced the peak time of methane production. The methane production ratio with 30 min of thermal hydrolysis was 136 mL.g-1 (VS) at day 10 of anaerobic digestion, with an 86% increase over the control group. VS reduction ratio after 30 days anaerobic digestion o also increased to 33.3% with 30 min of thermal pretreatment at 100 degrees C compared with 19.1% in control group. In addition, studies on enzymatic activity indicated the activities of four key enzymes (protease, acetokinase, phosphotransacetylase and coenzyme F420) involved in anaerobic digestion were all enhanced by mild thermal pretreatment.

  7. Effects of Nasal or Oral Breathing on Anaerobic Power Output and Metabolic Responses.

    PubMed

    Recinto, Christine; Efthemeou, Theodore; Boffelli, P Tony; Navalta, James W

    2017-01-01

    Nasal and oral exclusive breathing modes have benefits and drawbacks during submaximal exercise. It is unknown whether these responses would extend to anaerobic work performed at high intensity. Nine individuals (males N = 7, females N = 2) performed a standard Wingate Anaerobic cycle test on a cycle ergometer under nose (N) and mouth (M) only respiratory conditions, performed in a counterbalanced order. A 2 (condition: nose, mouth) × 6 (time: 0-5 sec, 5-10 sec, 10-15 sec, 15-20 sec, 20-25 sec, 25-30 sec) repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the data with significance accepted at the p<0.05 level. No differences between breathing mode were observed for any power output or performance measures associated with the Wingate Anaerobic cycle test. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was significantly higher in the oral respiration condition from 10 seconds to 25 seconds during the test (p<0.05). On the other hand, heart rate (HR) in the nasal condition was significantly greater during the final two time intervals (p<0.05). Nasal breathing was effective in reducing hyperventilation as RER remained below 1.0. However, elevated HR with nasal breathing indicates increased cardiovascular stress associated with this mode. As breathing mode does not affect power output or performance measures during completion of a high-intensity anaerobic test, preference of the participant should be the determining factor if a choice is available.

  8. Effect of saponification on the anaerobic digestion of solid fatty residues.

    PubMed

    Mouneimne, A H; Carrère, H; Bernet, N; Delgenès, J P

    2003-10-01

    In France, fatty residues considered as "non-ultimate" waste will not be accepted in landfill from 2002, in accordance with French legislation. Anaerobic digestion appears as an alternative process to mobilize and profitably use such fermentable waste. In this work, the effect of an alkaline pretreatment on the degradation of hexane extractible matter (HEM) and the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was compared in reactors working at pH 6.5 and 8.5. The results obtained showed that 40% (+/- 0.1) of HEM were degraded at pH 8.5 versus 10% (+/- 0.3) at pH 6.5, regardless of the alkali agent used to saponify the greasy wastes. The highest performances of VFA production (8.45% +/- 0.3) were obtained at pH 8.5 with greases saponified by potassium hydroxide, compared to results (4.25% +/- 0.1) with greasy waste saponified by sodium hydroxide. This difference in VFA production might be attributable to biotoxic molecules generated during the saponification of greases by soda, limiting consequently the VFA production process.

  9. Volatile fatty acids production from anaerobic treatment of cassava waste water: effect of temperature and alkalinity.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Salah Din Mahmud; Giongo, Citieli; Fiorese, Mônica Lady; Gomes, Simone Damasceno; Ferrari, Tatiane Caroline; Savoldi, Tarcio Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), intermediates in the anaerobic degradation process of organic matter from waste water, was evaluated in this work. A batch reactor was used to investigate the effect of temperature, and alkalinity in the production of VFAs, from the fermentation of industrial cassava waste water. Peak production of total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs) was observed in the first two days of acidogenesis. A central composite design was performed, and the highest yield (3400 mg L(-1) of TVFA) was obtained with 30°C and 3 g L(-1) of sodium bicarbonate. The peak of VFA was in 45 h (pH 5.9) with a predominance of acetic (63%) and butyric acid (22%), followed by propionic acid (12%). Decreases in amounts of cyanide (12.9%) and chemical oxygen demand (21.6%) were observed, in addition to the production of biogas (0.53 cm(3) h(-1)). The process was validated experimentally and 3400 g L(-1) of TVFA were obtained with a low relative standard deviation.

  10. Study of novel pure culture HBCD-1, effectively degrading Hexabromocyclododecane, isolated from an anaerobic reactor.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xingxing; Huang, Xiangyan; Jing, Fei; Zhang, Zaili; Wei, Dongyang; Jia, Xiaoshan

    2015-06-01

    In this study, two pure strains, named HBCD-1 and HBCD-2, were isolated from a continuous anaerobic reactor over 300-days acclimation, which processed high capability of biodegrading Hexabromocyclododecane. Both of the two strains degraded HBCD diastereomers in different extents, especially strain HBCD-1, which interestingly degraded α-HBCD effectively. All of the degrading results were well fitted with the first-order kinetics model. By morphological observation and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the strain HBCD-1 showed highest similarity with Achromobacter sp. Under the optimal culturing conditions of 30°C, pH 7 and the initial HBCD concentration of 500μg/L, the biodegradation rate of HBCD-1 reached 90% after 8days treatment. Moreover, during the biodegradation process by HBCD-1 strain, the concentration of bromide ion was lower than the theoretical value. Finally, 4 metabolites were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), as well as a biodegradation pathway was proposed.

  11. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of thermal pretreated sludge: role of microbial community structure and correlation with process performances.

    PubMed

    Gagliano, M C; Braguglia, C M; Gianico, A; Mininni, G; Nakamura, K; Rossetti, S

    2015-01-01

    Thermal hydrolysis pretreatment coupled with Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (TAD) for Waste Activated Sludge (WAS) treatment is a promising combination to improve biodegradation kinetics during stabilization. However, to date there is a limited knowledge of the anaerobic biomass composition and its impact on TAD process performances. In this study, the structure and dynamics of the microbial communities selected in two semi-continuous anaerobic digesters, fed with untreated and thermal pretreated sludge, were investigated. The systems were operated for 250 days at different organic loading rate. 16S rRNA gene clonal analysis and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) analyses allowed us to identify the majority of bacterial and archaeal populations. Proteolytic Coprothermobacter spp. and hydrogenotrophic Methanothermobacter spp. living in strict syntrophic association were found to dominate in TAD process. The establishment of a syntrophic proteolytic pathway was favoured by the high temperature of the process and enhanced by the thermal pretreatment of the feeding sludge. Proteolytic activity, alone or with thermal pretreatment, occurred during TAD as proven by increasing concentration of soluble ammonia and soluble COD (sCOD) during the process. However, the availability of a readily biodegradable substrate due to pretreatment allowed to significant sCOD removals (more than 55%) corresponding to higher biogas production in the reactor fed with thermal pretreated sludge. Microbial population dynamics analysed by FISH showed that Coprothermobacter and Methanothermobacter immediately established a stable syntrophic association in the reactor fed with pretreated sludge in line with the overall improved TAD performances observed under these conditions.

  12. Probabilistic risk assessment for zinc in some commercial dishwashing detergents: the anaerobic digestion processes in US POTWs.

    PubMed

    Ren, S

    2008-03-01

    A US patent was issued to a commercial dishwashing detergent composition in which soluble zinc serves as an anti-corrosion agent. Since the detergents are used in a down-the-drain fashion, some of the detergents are discharged as wastewater and treated in publicly owned treatment works (POTWs). A risk assessment was previously conducted which focused on the nitrification processes in US POTWs. As a conservative pollutant, zinc removed from wastewater during treatment is transferred to sludges and at sufficiently high concentrations may inhibit the sludge treatment processes. In the present assessment, a probabilistic risk assessment was conducted to quantitatively determine the risk of zinc in the detergents to the anaerobic digestion processes in US POTWs. The procedure for POTW local limit development designed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was used as a reference when conducting the risk assessment. The assessment took into account the background zinc concentrations in POTW influents and was conducted at different market penetration rates (MPRs) for the US market of detergents based on the patented formula. Several factors were present that contributed to the conservativeness of the assessment. Results indicate that zinc in detergents does not present a significant risk to the anaerobic digestion processes in POTWs at a MPR up to 10%, with a probability of anaerobic digestion inhibition of below 1%.

  13. Towards a sustainable paradigm of waste-to-energy process: Enhanced anaerobic digestion of sludge with woody biochar

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yanwen; Linville, Jessica L.; Ignacio-de Leon, Patricia Anne A.; Schoene, Robin P.; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem

    2016-11-01

    This study presents an integrated waste-to-energy process, using two waste streams, sludge generated from the municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and biochar generated from the biomass gasification systems, to produce fungible biomethane and nutrient-rich digestate with fertilizer value. Two woody biochar, namely pinewood (PBC) and white oak biochar (WOBC) were used as additives during anaerobic digestion (AD) of WWTP sludge to enhance methane production at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. The PBC and WOBC have porous structure, large surface area and desirable chemical properties to be used as AD amendment material to sequester CO2 from biogas in the digester. The biochar-amended digesters achieved average methane content in biogas of up to 92.3% and 79.0%, corresponding to CO2 sequestration by up to 66.2% and 32.4% during mesophilic and thermophilic AD, respectively. Biochar addition enhanced process stability by increasing the alkalinity, but inhibitory effects were observed at high dosage. It also alleviated free ammonia inhibition by up to 10.5%. The biochar-amended digesters generated digestate rich in macro- and micronutrients including K (up to 300 m/L), Ca (up to 750 mg/L), Mg (up to 1800 mg/L) and Fe (up to 390 mg/L), making biochar-amended digestate a potential alternative used as agricultural lime fertilizer.

  14. Treatment of anaerobic digester effluents of nylon wastewater through chemical precipitation and a sequencing batch reactor process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiming; Song, Qianwu; Wang, Wenjun; Wu, Shaowei; Dai, Jiankun

    2012-06-30

    Chemical precipitation, in combination with a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process, was employed to remove pollutants from anaerobic digester effluents of nylon wastewater. The effects of the chemicals along with various Mg:N:P ratios on the chemical precipitation (struvite precipitation) were investigated. When brucite and H(3)PO(4) were applied at an Mg:N:P molar ratio of 3:1:1, an ammonia-removal rate of 81% was achieved, which was slightly more than that (80%) obtained with MgSO(4)·7H(2)O and Na(2)HPO(4)·12H(2)O at Mg:N:P molar ratios greater than the stoichiometric ratio. To further reduce the ammonia loads of the successive biotreatment, an overdose of phosphate with brucite and H(3)PO(4) was applied during chemical precipitation. The ammonia-removal rate at the Mg:N:P molar ratio of 3.5:1:1.05 reached 88%, with a residual PO(4)-P concentration of 16 mg/L. The economic analysis showed that the chemical cost of chemical precipitation could be reduced by about 41% when brucite and H(3)PO(4) were used instead of MgSO(4)·7H(2)O and Na(2)HPO(4)·12H(2)O. The subsequent biological process that used a sequencing batch reactor showed high removal rates of contaminants. The quality of the final effluent met the requisite effluent-discharging standards.

  15. Acute effects of jaw clenching using a customized mouthguard on anaerobic ability and ventilatory flows.

    PubMed

    Morales, Jose; Buscà, Bernat; Solana-Tramunt, Mònica; Miró, Adrià

    2015-12-01

    The latest findings on the ergogenic effects of a dentistry-design, bite-aligning mouthpiece require additional research to assess its impact on anaerobic ability and ventilatory parameters. This paper was aimed at determining the ergogenic acute effects of wearing a custom-made mouthpiece on oral airflow dynamics, 30-s Wingate Anaerobic Test performance parameters. Twenty-eight healthy and physically-active male subjects (age: 24.50 ± 3.32, height: 181.34 ± 7.4, weight: 78.14 ± 8.21), were voluntarily studied. The subjects were first briefed on the test protocols, and then performed the 30s Wingate test and Spirometer test. The experimental trials were performed in a random counterbalanced order. We evaluate maximum expiratory volume (VEmax L min(-1)), mean power (W kg(-1)), peak power (W kg(-1)), time to peak (s), rate to fatigue (Ws(-1)) and lactate production (mMol L(-1)), rate of perceived exertion (RPE). There were significant differences between mouthguard and no-mouthguard conditions in mean power (W kg(-1)), peak power (W kg(-1)), time to peak (s), and rate to fatigue (Ws(-1)) for the 30-s Wingate Anaerobic Test. Significantly lower lactate production (mMol L(-1)) was observed, in mouthguard condition but no significant differences were found in RPE. In airflow dynamics, the VEmax L min(-1) was significantly higher when comparing the mouthguard and the no mouthguard conditions in both forced and unforced conditions. In conclusion, wearing a customized mouthguard improves anaerobic ability and increases forced expiratory volume. This study will help practitioners improve athlete's performance in anaerobic activities where high intensity action might provoke jaw-clenching, contributing in reductions of lactate and fatigue, and improving ventilatory parameters.

  16. Reduction of greenhouse gases emissions during anoxic wastewater treatment by strengthening nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ru; Hu, Zhen; Zhang, Jian; Ma, Hao; Jiang, Liping; Ru, Dongyun

    2017-03-20

    Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) is a recently discovered process performed by NC10 phylum, which plays an important role in greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction. In this study, co-existence of n-damo bacteria and methanogens was successfully achieved by using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Reactor with inorganic carbon source (CO2/H2) showed the highest abundance of n-damo bacteria and the highest n-damo potential activity, resulted in its highest nitrogen removal rate. Significant reduction in GHG was obtained after introduction of n-damo process, especially for N2O. Furthermore, GHG emissions decreased with the increase of n-damo bacteria abundance. Community structure analysis found carbon source could influence the diversity of n-damo bacteria indirectly. And phylogenetic analysis showed that all the obtained sequences were assigned to group B, mainly due to in situ production and consumption of CH4.

  17. Study of the diversity of microbial communities in a sequencing batch reactor oxic-settling-anaerobic process and its modified process.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lianpeng; Chen, Jianfan; Wei, Xiange; Guo, Wuzhen; Lin, Meishan; Yu, Xiaoyu

    2016-05-01

    To further reveal the mechanism of sludge reduction in the oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA) process, the polymerase chain reaction - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis protocol was used to study the possible difference in the microbial communities between a sequencing batch reactor (SBR)-OSA process and its modified process, by analyzing the change in the diversity of the microbial communities in each reactor of both systems. The results indicated that the structure of the microbial communities in aerobic reactors of the 2 processes was very different, but the predominant microbial populations in anaerobic reactors were similar. The predominant microbial population in the aerobic reactor of the SBR-OSA belonged to Burkholderia cepacia, class Betaproteobacteria, while those of the modified process belonged to the classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria. These 3 types of microbes had a cryptic growth characteristic, which was the main cause of a greater sludge reduction efficiency achieved by the modified process.

  18. Effects of pulp and paper mill effluent extracts on liver anaerobic and aerobic metabolic enzymes in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Orrego, Rodrigo; Pandelides, Zacharias; Guchardi, John; Holdway, Douglas

    2011-05-01

    This study investigates whether pulse exposure to Chilean pulp and paper mill effluent solid phase extracted (SPE) extracts via intraperitoneal injection (IP), would result in changes in the activities of the respiratory metabolic enzymes citrate synthase (CS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in rainbow trout livers. It also investigated if an alteration in liver metabolic capacity influenced the liver detoxification processes and estrogenic effects previously reported. Besides, a comparison of those enzymatic activities with fish IP injected with SPE extracts of two model effluents coming from industries that process 100% different type of feedstock (softwood, SW and hardwood, HW) was also evaluated. An initial induction of the anaerobic metabolism (increase in LDH enzymatic activity) was detected in all Chilean pulp mill effluent extracts evaluated, contrary to the initial unaltered aerobic metabolism (CS enzymatic activity) observed. A compensatory relationship in energy metabolism (Pasteur effect) was observed when comparing both enzymatic activities of fish exposed to those effluent extracts. LDH and CS activities observed in fish injected with Chilean extracts seem to be related to the effects observed in fish injected with SW extracts. This study showed that intraperitoneal injection of pulp and paper mill effluent extracts affected the anaerobic and aerobic metabolic capacities in rainbow trout livers, but this metabolic alteration did not affect detoxification capability or estrogenic effect previously reported.

  19. Effect of temperature on anaerobic treatment of black water in UASB-septic tank systems.

    PubMed

    Luostarinen, Sari; Sanders, Wendy; Kujawa-Roeleveld, Katarzyna; Zeeman, Grietje

    2007-03-01

    The effect of northern European seasonal temperature changes and low temperature on the performance of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-septic tanks treating black water was studied. Three UASB-septic tanks were monitored with different operational parameters and at different temperatures. The results indicated the feasibility of the UASB-septic tank for (pre)treatment of black water at low temperatures with respect to removal of suspended solids and dissolved organic material. Inoculum sludge had little effect on COD(ss) removal, though in the start-up phase some poorly adapted inoculum disintegrated and washed out, thus requiring consideration when designing the process. Removal of COD(dis) was at first negative, but improved as the sludge adapted to low temperature. The UASB-septic tank alone did not comply with Finnish or Dutch treatment requirements and should therefore be considered mainly as a pre-treatment method. However, measuring the requirements as mgCOD l(-1) may not always be the best method, as the volume of the effluent discharged is also an important factor in the final amount of COD entering the receiving water bodies.

  20. Inoculum and zeolite synergistic effect on anaerobic digestion of poultry manure.

    PubMed

    Fotidis, Ioannis A; Kougias, Panagiotis G; Zaganas, Ioannis D; Kotsopoulos, Thomas A; Martzopoulos, Gerasimos G

    2014-01-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate due to its high content of proteins and amino acids. Ammonia is the major inhibitor of anaerobic digestion (AD) process, affecting biogas production and causing great economic losses to the biogas plants. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite dosages on the mesophilic AD of poultry manure inoculated with a non-acclimatized to ammonia inoculum (dairy manure) was investigated. Additionally, a comparative analysis was performed between the data extracted from this study and the results of a previous study, which has been conducted under the same experimental conditions but with the use of ammonia acclimatized inoculum (swine manure). At 5 and 10 g zeolite L(-1), the methane yield of poultry manure was 43.4% and 80.3% higher compared with the experimental set without zeolite addition. However, the ammonia non-acclimatized inoculum was not efficient in digesting poultry manure even in the presence of 10 g zeolite L(-1), due to low methane production (only 39%) compared with the maximum theoretical yield. Finally, ammonia acclimatized inoculum and zeolite have demonstrated a possible 'synergistic effect', which led to a more efficient AD of poultry manure. The results of this study could potentially been used by the biogas plant operators to efficiently digest poultry manure.

  1. Evaluation of sludge reduction by an environmentally friendly chemical uncoupler in a pilot-scale anaerobic/anoxic/oxic process.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuesong; Yang, Jianming; Liang, Yuan; Liu, Junxin; Xiao, Benyi

    2014-03-01

    An environmentally friendly chemical, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate (THPS), was used as a metabolic uncoupler to reduce sludge production in a pilot-scale anaerobic/anoxic/oxic process. The results show that the addition of THPS (1.08-1.86 mL/m(3) influent) in the sludge return section could reduce waste activated sludge by about 22.5 %, and decrease the sludge yield by about 14.7 % at the end of a run. At the same time, the addition of THPS slightly lowered the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), soluble COD and NH4 (+)-N, and slightly improved removal of total nitrogen. The effects of THPS addition on two characteristics of activated sludge in oxic tank are discussed in detail and the results suggest that the settleability of sludge was reduced by addition of THPS, while the specific oxygen uptake rate was increased. Molecular biology analysis shows that the addition of THPS had little effect on the microbial communities of sludge.

  2. Metabolic and microbial community dynamics during the anaerobic digestion of maize silage in a two-phase process.

    PubMed

    Sträuber, Heike; Lucas, Rico; Kleinsteuber, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Two-phasic anaerobic digestion processes (hydrolysis/acidogenesis separated from acetogenesis/methanogenesis) can be used for biogas production on demand or a combined chemicals/bioenergy production. For an effective process control, detailed knowledge about the microbial catalysts and their correlation to process conditions is crucial. In this study, maize silage was digested in a two-phase process and interrelationships between process parameters and microbial communities were revealed. In the first-phase reactor, alternating metabolic periods were observed which emerged independently from the feeding frequency. During the L-period, up to 11.8 g L(-1) lactic acid was produced which significantly correlated to lactic acid bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus as the most abundant community members. During the alternating G-period, the production of volatile fatty acids (up to 5.3, 4.0 and 3.1 g L(-1) for propionic, n-butyric and n-caproic acid, respectively) dominated accompanied by a high gas production containing up to 28 % hydrogen. The relative abundance of various Clostridiales increased during this metabolic period. In the second-phase reactor, the metabolic fluctuations of the first phase were smoothed out resulting in a stable biogas production as well as stable bacterial and methanogenic communities. However, the biogas composition followed the metabolic dynamics of the first phase: the hydrogen content increased during the L-period whereas highest CH4/CO2 ratios (up to 2.8) were reached during the G-period. Aceticlastic Methanosaeta as well as hydrogenotrophic Methanoculleus and Methanobacteriaceae were identified as dominant methanogens. Consequently, a directed control of the first-phase stabilizing desired metabolic states can lead to an enhanced productivity regarding chemicals and bioenergy.

  3. Enhancement of phosphorus removal in a low temperature A(2)/O process by anaerobic phosphorus release of activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianzheng; Jin, Yu; Guo, Yaqiong; He, Junguo

    2013-01-01

    An anaerobic phosphorus release tank was introduced to an anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic (A(2)/O) process treating domestic sewage to enhance the phosphorus removal at low temperature. Phosphorus release of the activated sludge from the second sedimentation tank was evaluated at 14 °C by batch cultures, and the nutrient removal in the modified low temperature A(2)/O process was further investigated at the same temperature. The results showed that the feasible sludge retention time was 14 h for sequencing batch reaction and 12 h for continuous flow operation. The ratio of raw sewage to activated sludge from the second sedimentation tank was 1:1 in volume to meet the demand of carbon resource for the growth of phosphorus release microbes. The feasible chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rate of the activated sludge in the phosphorus release tank was 0.015-0.02 g COD/g MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids) and the nitrate concentration should be less than 5 mg/L. The phosphorus release was doubled when the sludge was blended intermittently and gently. The anaerobic phosphorus release of the activated sludge improved the phosphate removal remarkably, as well as the removal of NH4(+)-N and total nitrogen (TN) in the modified low temperature A(2)/O process. The effluent COD, NH4(+)-N, TN and total phosphorus could meet a stricter discharge standard.

  4. The effect of metabolic inhibitors on the development of respiration in anaerobically grown yeast

    PubMed Central

    Bartley, W.; Tustanoff, E. R.

    1966-01-01

    1. Iodoacetate and fluoride did not prevent the development of respiration in aerobically grown yeast. 2. The effect of dinitrophenol suggested that phosphorylation developed simultaneously with respiration in anaerobically grown yeast, but the effect of oligomycin suggested that the phosphorylation and oxidation were not tightly coupled. 3. Inhibitors of electron transport showed that both the respiratory peak and the subsequent respiration were cyanide-sensitive, but the peak respiration was insensitive to antimycin. 4. Of the inhibitors of protein or RNA synthesis tested, only p-fluorophenylalanine inhibited the development of respiration. The results are not consistent with a new synthesis of mitochondria. 5. 2-Phenylethanol inhibited the development of respiration in anaerobically grown yeast and also yeast growth. Other inhibitors of DNA synthesis had no effect on the development of respiration. 6. The relevance of the results to mitochondrial morphogenesis is discussed. PMID:4290405

  5. Treatment process and toxicities assessment of wastewater issued from anaerobic digestion of household wastes.

    PubMed

    Djelal, Hayet; Tahrani, Leyla; Fathallah, Salem; Cabrol, Audrey; Mansour, Hedi Ben

    2014-02-01

    Modern society grapples with large amounts of household waste. The anaerobic digestion of this waste offers a promising source for energy-rich biogas production but generates high toxic effluents that require treatment before reuse or disposal into the environment. This study aimed to investigate three techniques, namely coagulation/flocculation, electro-coagulation, and activated sludge, in terms of efficiency in the treatment of these effluents. It also aimed to assess their toxicity effects on the germination and growth of durum wheat Triticum aestivum L. seeds before and after 6 days of treatment. Activated sludge was most efficient in reducing chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, and conductivity (95.7 %, 15.8 %, and 37.5 %, respectively). The effluent treated with this technique induced a marked delay in germination (low mean time of germination) and a significant reduction in the percentages of seed germination and root and leaf growths. It was also noted to strongly induce lipid peroxidation in roots and leaves, which presumably explained the germination/growth inhibition of the wheat seeds. The effluent also induced marked lipid peroxidation effects and strongly inhibited the activities of butyrylcholinesterase in mice bone marrows. The effluent shows a high ability to inhibit the growth of three microalgae; these endpoints are useful tools to biomonitor the physico-chemical quality of this wastewater. Overall, while no significant alterations were observed in terms of animal and vegetable toxicities when the effluent was treated by coagulation/flocculation, activated sludge treatment proved efficient in reducing the toxicities induced by the untreated effluents. The results indicate that the application of this technique is promising with regards to attaining efficient, eco-friendly, and cost-effective strategies for the management and treatment of household waste.

  6. Gas-liquid chromatography in routine processing of blood cultures for detecting anaerobic bacteraemia.

    PubMed Central

    Reig, M; Molina, D; Loza, E; Ledesma, M A; Meseguer, M A

    1981-01-01

    Gas-liquid chromatography was performed on 233 positive blood cultures and findings were compared with culture results. Obligate anaerobic bacteria were recovered from 78 out of 79 blood cultures containing butyric or iso-valeric acids, or both; from 28 out of 69 blood cultures containing succinic acid; and from only one out of 41 blood cultures containing succinic but not butyric or iso-valeric acid. Good correlations (88%) were found for the recovery of anaerobic bacteria and the detection of butyric and/or iso-valeric acids. Detecting volatile fatty acids by gas-liquid chromatography performed on blood cultures at the first signs of growth can therefore provide an early and reliable indication of the presence of anaerobic bacteria. PMID:7014645

  7. Impacts of trace element supplementation on the performance of anaerobic digestion process: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Choong, Yee Yaw; Norli, Ismail; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Yhaya, Mohd Firdaus

    2016-06-01

    This paper critically reviews the impacts of supplementing trace elements on the anaerobic digestion performance. The in-depth knowledge of trace elements as micronutrients and metalloenzyme components justifies trace element supplementation into the anaerobic digestion system. Most of the earlier studies reported that trace elements addition at (sub)optimum dosages had positive impacts mainly longer term on digester stability with greater organic matter degradation, low volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration and higher biogas production. However, these positive impacts and element requirements are not fully understood, they are explained on a case to case basis because of the great variance of the anaerobic digestion operation. Iron (Fe), nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) are the most studied and desirable elements. The right combination of multi-elements supplementation can have greater positive impact. This measure is highly recommended, especially for the mono-digestion of micronutrient-deficient substrates. The future research should consider the aspect of trace element bioavailability.

  8. The effects of different mixing intensities during anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lindmark, Johan Eriksson, Per; Thorin, Eva

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Effects of mixing on the anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste. • Digestion of fresh substrate and post-digestion at three mixing intensities were evaluated. • Mixing performed at 150 RPM, 25 RPM and minimally intermittently. • Increased biogas production rates and yields at lower mixing intensities. - Abstract: Mixing inside an anaerobic digester is often continuous and is not actively controlled. The selected mixing regime can however affect both gas production and the energy efficiency of the biogas plant. This study aims to evaluate these effects and compare three different mixing regimes, 150 RPM and 25 RPM continuous mixing and minimally intermittent mixing for both digestion of fresh substrate and post-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. The results show that a lower mixing intensity leads to a higher biogas production rate and higher total biogas production in both cases. 25 RPM continuous mixing and minimally intermittent mixing resulted in similar biogas production after process stabilization, while 150 RPM continuous mixing resulted in lower production throughout the experiment. The lower gas production at 150 RPM could not be explained by the inhibition of volatile fatty acids. Cumulative biogas production until day 31 was 295 ± 2.9, 317 ± 1.9 and 304 ± 2.8 N ml/g VS added during digestion of fresh feed and 113 ± 1.3, 134 ± 1.1 and 130 ± 2.3 N ml/g VS added during post digestion for the 150 RPM, 25 RPM and minimally mixed intensities respectively. As well as increasing gas production, optimal mixing can improve the energy efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process.

  9. Anaerobic digestion of different feedstocks: impact on energetic and environmental balances of biogas process.

    PubMed

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Negri, Marco; Fiala, Marco; González-García, Sara

    2013-10-01

    The possibility of limiting the global warming is strictly linked to the reduction of GHG emissions. Renewable energy both allows reducing emissions and permits to delay fossil fuel depletion. The anaerobic digestion of animal manure and energy crops is a promising way of reducing GHG emissions. In Italy agricultural biogas production was considerably increased; nowadays there are about 520 agricultural biogas plants. The increasing number of biogas plants, especially of those larger than 500 kW(e) (electrical power), involves a high consumption of energy crops, large transport distances of biomass and digestate and difficulties on thermal energy valorization. In this study the energetic (CED) and environmental (GHG emissions) profiles associated with the production of electricity derived from biogas have been identified. Three biogas plants located in Northern Italy have been analyzed. The study has been carried out considering a cradle-to-grave perspective and thus, special attention has been paid on the feedstock production and biogas production process. The influences on the results taking into account different plant sizes and feeding rate has been assessed in detail. Energy analysis was performed using the Cumulative Energy Demand method (CED). The climate change was calculated for a 100-year time frame based on GHG emissions indicated as CO2 equivalents (eq) and defined by the IPCC (2006). In comparison to the fossil reference system, the electricity production using biogas saves GHG emissions from 0.188 to 1.193 kg CO2eq per kWh(e). Electricity supply from biogas can also contribute to a considerable reduction of the use of fossil energy carriers (from -3.97 to 10.08 MJ(fossil) per kWh(e)). The electricity production from biogas has a big potential for energy savings and reduction of GHG emissions. Efficient utilization of the cogenerated heat can substantially improve the GHG balance of electricity production from biogas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B

  10. [Characterisation of excess sludge reduction in an anoxic + oxic-settling-anaerobic activated sludge process].

    PubMed

    Gao, Xu; Lu, Yan-Hua; Guo, Jin-Song

    2009-05-15

    An energy balance analysis method with auto calorimeter being adopted was introduced to determine calorific values of sludge samples in influent and effluent of uncoupling tank in an anoxic (A) + oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA) process and a reference system. The affiliation of sludge amount change and its energy content were studied, as well as potential of excess sludge reduction was evaluated through modifying performance of uncoupling tank. The characteristi s and causes of sludge reduction in OSA system were deduced according to energy and matter balance analysis. Results show that when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of uncoupling tank are 5.56 h, 7.14 h and 9 h, the excess sludge reduction of whole A + OS Asystem are 1.236 g/d, 0.771 g/d and 0.599 g/d respectively. Energy content of sludge flows into and out of the uncoupling tank changes, the specific calorific value of sludge in effluent is inclined to be higher than that in influent with the HRT of the tank increasing: there isn't any significant difference of sludge calorific values between influent and effluent at 5.56 h, while the differences are in 99-113 J/g at 7.14 h, and 191-329 J/g at 9 h. Sludge in uncoupling tank would decay and longer HRT will result in more attenuation. It could be concluded that excess sludge reduction of A + OSA system is caused by both of sludge decay in uncoupling tank and sludge proliferation in AO reaction zone.

  11. Treatment of high-strength pharmaceutical wastewater by electrocoagulation combined with anaerobic process.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, A M; Satyanarayan, S; Ramakant, S

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses a combined treatment system comprising electrocoagulation (EC) as a pre-treatment followed by anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor (AFFBR) for treatment of high strength pharmaceutical wastewater. The effect of various operating parameters such as pH, current density and electrolysis duration on COD, BOD and colour removal was studied. The maximum removals for COD, BOD and colour under optimal operating conditions i.e. pH 7.2, current density (CD) of 80 A/m(2) and electrolysis time of 25 minutes were 24%, 35% and 70.25% respectively. Increase in current density has resulted in decrease in electrolysis duration with marginal improvement in treatment efficiency. The efficiency of removal is discussed in terms of kg COD(r) A(-1)m(-2)h(-1) and energy consumption as Wh kg(-1)COD(r). The effluents obtained after EC were treated by AFFBR at various organic loading rates (OLRs) and hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The results indicated removals in the range of 80-90% for COD and 86-94% for BOD respectively, at OLRs between 0.6 to 4.0 Kg COD/m(3) d at an HRT of 2 days. The total gas quantity increased with increase in both HRT and OLR up to a loading of 6 Kg COD/m(3)/d but it did not commensurate with organic load. The results indicated that the combined treatment option is competitive and can be used effectively for high strength wastewaters.

  12. Uncoupled hydrogen and volatile fatty acids generation in a two-step biotechnological anaerobic process fed with actual site wastewater.

    PubMed

    Monti, Matilde; Scoma, Alberto; Martinez, Gonzalo; Bertin, Lorenzo; Fava, Fabio

    2015-05-25

    Among agro-wastes, olive mill wastewater (OMW) truly qualifies as a high impact organic residue due to its biochemical-rich composition and high annual production. In the present investigation, dephenolized OMW (OMWdeph) was employed as the feedstock for a biotechnological two-stage anaerobic process dedicated to the production of biohydrogen and volatile fatty acids (VFAs), respectively. To this end, two identically configured packed-bed biofilm reactors were operated sequentially. In the first, the hydraulic retention time was set to 1 day, whereas in the second it was equal to 5 days. The rationale was to decouple the hydrolysis of the organic macronutrients held by the OMWdeph, so as to quantitatively generate a biogas enriched in H2 (first stage aim), for the acidogenesis of the residual components left after hydrolysis, to then produce a highly concentrated mixture of VFAs (second stage aim). Results showed that the generation of H2 and VFAs was effectively split, with carbohydrates and lipids, respectively, being the main substrates of the two processes. About 250 ml H2 L(-1) day(-1) was produced, corresponding to a yield of 0.36 mol mol(-1) of consumed carbohydrates (expressed as glucose equivalents). The overall concentration of VFAs in the acidogenic process was 13.80 g COD L(-1), so that 2.76 g COD L(-1) day(-1) was obtained. Second generation biorefineries use a selected fraction of an organic waste to conduct a microbiologically-driven pathway towards the generation of one target molecule. With the proposed approach, a greater value of the waste was attained, since the multi-purpose two-stage process did not entail competition for substrates between the first and the second steps.

  13. [Effect of TS loading rates of biogas residue of Spartina alterniflora for secondary anaerobic digestion].

    PubMed

    Luo, Yan; Luo, Xing-Zhang; Zheng, Zheng; Chen, Guang-Yin; Liang, Yue-Gan

    2011-11-01

    Biogas residue of Spartina alterniflora treated by NaOH solution for 48h at room temperature was used for secondary anaerobic digestion with TS loading rates were 8%, 10%, 12% at (35 +/- 1) degrees C. The biogas yield, pH, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) were analyzed during the anaerobic digestion. The peak of daily gas production were 10, 14, 13 mL x g(-1) and the rates of cumulate gas production were 217, 227, 228 mL x g(-1) respectively. The methane content exceeded 65% and the lowest pH value was 7.04 during the process. The concentrations of acetic acid concentrations were 3 364, 3 286, 5 728 mg x L(-1) respectively while propionic acid and butyric acid concentrations were below 1 100 mg x L(-1). Biogas residue as a non-degradation organic compound with high potential biogas yield was decomposed slowly and no acid accumulation was not observed.

  14. Kinetic evaluation and performance of a mesophilic anaerobic contact reactor treating medium-strength food-processing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sentürk, E; Ince, M; Onkal Engin, G

    2010-06-01

    High rate mesophilic anaerobic contact reactors (MACR) represent a proven sustainable technology for a wide range of different industrial effluents. These reactors demonstrate quite similar features to their aerobic counterparts, activated sludge systems. A lab-scale high rate mesophilic anaerobic contact reactor was operated with wastewater originated from a potato-processing plant, at six different loading rates of 1.1-5g COD/L per day. The operational performance of MACR was monitored from start-up by assessing COD removal efficiency, total volatile fatty acid production and biogas composition. Furthermore, various kinetic models have been successfully applied to the experimental data to determine substrate balance, maximum utilization rate and volumetric methane production. The COD removal efficiencies were found to be 78-92% and the methane percentage of the biogas produced was 80-89%. Additionally, the methane yield coefficient was found to be 0.394 L CH(4)/gTCOD(rem).

  15. Anaerobic biodegradability and inhibitory effects of some anionic and cationic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Armendáriz, Beatriz; Moreno, Yésica Mayett; Monroy-Hermosillo, Oscar; Guyot, Jean Pierre; González, Rosa O

    2010-09-01

    The anaerobic biodegradability and inhibitory effects on the methane production of three different surfactants, two anionic: sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), and a cationic surfactant: trialkyl-methylammonium chloride (TMAC), were evaluated with two different anaerobic sludges, granular and flocculent. Five different concentrations of the surfactants, 5, 50, 100, 250 and 500 mg/L, were tested. SLS was biodegraded at concentrations of 5, 50 and 100 mg/L with flocculent sludge and at 100 and 250 mg/L with granular sludge. However an inhibitory effect on methane production was observed in both sludges at 500 mg/L. The results indicate that SDBS was not biodegradable under anoxic conditions. TMAC was slightly degraded 50 and 100 mg/L with the flocculent sludge, and from 100 to 500 mg/L with the granular sludge.

  16. Effect of body cooling on subsequent aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ranalli, Gregory F; Demartini, Julianne K; Casa, Douglas J; McDermott, Brendon P; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2010-12-01

    Body cooling has become common in athletics, with numerous studies looking at different cooling modalities and different types of exercise. A search of the literature revealed 14 studies that measured performance following cooling intervention and had acceptable protocols for exercise and performance measures. These studies were objectively analyzed with the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale, and 13 of the studies were included in this review. These studies revealed that body cooling by various modalities had consistent and greater impact on aerobic exercise performance (mean increase in performance = 4.25%) compared to anaerobic (mean increase in performance = 0.66%). Different cooling modalities, and cooling during different points during an exercise protocol, had extremely varied results. In conclusion, body cooling seems to have a positive effect on aerobic performance, although the impact on anaerobic performance may vary and often does not provide the same positive effect.

  17. Effect of heating strategy on power consumption and performance of a pilot plant anaerobic digester.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Solares, Teodoro; Valle-Guadarrama, Salvador; Bombardiere, John; Domaschko, Max; Easter, Michael

    2009-05-01

    The effect of heating strategy on power consumption and performance of a pilot plant anaerobic digester treating chicken litter, under thermophilic conditions, has been studied. Heating strategy was evaluated using three different spans (0.2 degrees C, 0.6 degrees C, and 1.0 degree C) for triggering the temperature control system from target temperature (56.7 degrees C). The hydraulic retention time in the pilot plant digester was in the range of 32 to 37 days, varying the total solids concentration fed from 5% to 6%. The results showed that under the experimental conditions, heating was the most energy-demanding process with 95.5% of the energy used. Increments up to 7.5% and 3.8%, respectively, on mechanical and heating power consumption, were observed as the span, for triggering the temperature control system from target temperature, was increased. Under the experimental conditions studied here, an increment of 30.6% on the global biodigester performance index was observed when a span of 1.0 degree C was compared to the one of 0.2 degrees C.

  18. Effect of temperature and temperature fluctuation on thermophilic anaerobic digestion of cattle manure.

    PubMed

    El-Mashad, Hamed M; Zeeman, Grietje; van Loon, Wilko K P; Bot, Gerard P A; Lettinga, Gatze

    2004-11-01

    The influence of temperature, 50 and 60 degrees C, at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 20 and 10 days, on the performance of anaerobic digestion of cow manure has been investigated in completely stirred tank reactors (CSTRs). Furthermore, the effect of both daily downward and daily upward temperature fluctuations has been studied. In the daily downward temperature fluctuation regime the temperatures of each reactor was reduced by 10 degrees C for 10 h while in the daily upward fluctuation regime the temperature of each reactor was increased 10 degrees C for 5 h. The results show that the methane production rate at 60 degrees C is lower than that at 50 degrees C at all experimental conditions of imposed HRT except when downward temperature fluctuations were applied at an HRT of 10 days. It also was found that the free ammonia concentration not only affects the acetate-utilising bacteria but also the hydrolysis and acidification process. The upward temperature fluctuation affects the maximum specific methanogenesis activity more severely as compared to imposed downward temperature fluctuations. The results clearly reveal the possibility of using available solar energy at daytime to heat up the reactor(s) without the need of heat storage during nights, especially at an operational temperature of 50 degrees C and at a 20 days HRT, and without the jeopardising of the overheating.

  19. [Effect of moisture content on anaerobic methanization of municipal solid waste].

    PubMed

    Qu, Xian; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Li-Ming; Bouchez, Théodore

    2009-03-15

    Biogas production, gas and liquid characteristics were investigated for comparing the effect of moisture content on methanization process of MSW with different compositions of food waste and cellulosic waste. Batch reactors were used to study the anaerobic methanization of typical Chinese and French municipal solid waste (MSW) and cellulosic waste with different moisture content, as 35%, field capacity (65%-70%), 80%, and saturated state (> 95%). The results showed that for the typical Chinese and French waste, which contained putrescible waste, the intermediate product, VFA, was diluted by high content of water, which helped to release the VFA inhibition on hydrolysis and methanization. Mass amount of methane was produced only when the moisture content of typical French waste was higher than 80%, while higher content of moisture was needed when the content of putrescible waste was higher in MSW, as > 95% for typical Chinese waste. Meanwhile the methane production rate and the ultimate cumulated methane production were increased when moisture content was leveled up. The ultimate cumulated methane production of the typical French waste with saturated state was 0.6 times higher than that of the waste with moisture content of 80%. For cellulosic waste, high moisture content of cellulosic materials contributed to increase the attachment area of microbes and enzyme on the surface of the materials, which enhance the waste hydrolysis and methanization. When the moisture content of the cellulosic materials increased from field capacity (65%) to saturated state (> 95%), the ultimate cumulated methane production increased for 3.8 times.

  20. Acidification of In-Storage-Psychrophilic-Anaerobic-Digestion (ISPAD) process to reduce ammonia volatilization: Model development and validation.

    PubMed

    Madani-Hosseini, Mahsa; Mulligan, Catherine N; Barrington, Suzelle

    2016-06-01

    In-Storage-Psychrophilic-Anaerobic-Digestion (ISPAD) is an ambient temperature treatment system for wastewaters stored for over 100days under temperate climates, which produces a nitrogen rich digestate susceptible to ammonia (NH3) volatilization. Present acidification techniques reducing NH3 volatilization are not only expensive and with secondary environmental effects, but do not apply to ISPAD relying on batch-to-batch inoculation. The objectives of this study were to identify and validate sequential organic loading (OL) strategies producing imbalances in acidogen and methanogen growth, acidifying ISPAD content one week before emptying to a pH of 6, while also preserving the inoculation potential. This acidification process is challenging as wastewaters often offer a high buffering capacity and ISPAD operational practices foster low microbial populations. A model simulating the ISPAD pH regime was used to optimize 3 different sequential OLs to decrease the ISPAD pH to 6.0. All 3 strategies were compared in terms of biogas production, volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, microbial activity, glucose consumption, and pH decrease. Laboratory validation of the model outputs confirmed that a sequential OL of 13kg glucose/m(3) of ISPAD content over 4days could indeed reduce the pH to 6.0. Such OL competes feasibly with present acidification techniques. Nevertheless, more research is required to explain the 3-day lag between the model results and the experimental data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A cost-effective anaerobic culture method & its comparison with a standard method

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Uma Shankar; Misra, Richa; Tiwari, Dinesh; Prasad, Kashi Nath

    2016-01-01

    Twenty six anaerobes were recovered from 150 deep-seated abscess samples cultured by the proposed two-step combustion-modified candle-jar system and Anoxomat. The degree of growth and colony size were similar in both systems, except for Clostridium difficile. The modified candle-jar system was found to be a sensitive and cost-effective alternative that might be used in resource-limited settings. PMID:28256472

  2. Effect of the chlortetracycline addition method on methane production from the anaerobic digestion of swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Wen, Xin; Wang, Yan; Zou, Yongde; Ma, Baohua; Liao, Xindi; Liang, Juanboo; Wu, Yinbao

    2014-10-01

    Effects of antibiotic residues on methane production in anaerobic digestion are commonly studied using the following two antibiotic addition methods: (1) adding manure from animals that consume a diet containing antibiotics, and (2) adding antibiotic-free animal manure spiked with antibiotics. This study used chlortetracycline (CTC) as a model antibiotic to examine the effects of the antibiotic addition method on methane production in anaerobic digestion under two different swine wastewater concentrations (0.55 and 0.22mg CTC/g dry manure). The results showed that CTC degradation rate in which manure was directly added at 0.55mg CTC/g (HSPIKE treatment) was lower than the control values and the rest of the treatment groups. Methane production from the HSPIKE treatment was reduced (p<0.05) by 12% during the whole experimental period and 15% during the first 7days. The treatments had no significant effect on the pH and chemical oxygen demand value of the digesters, and the total nitrogen of the 0.55mg CTC/kg manure collected from mediated swine was significantly higher than the other values. Therefore, different methane production under different antibiotic addition methods might be explained by the microbial activity and the concentrations of antibiotic intermediate products and metabolites. Because the primary entry route of veterinary antibiotics into an anaerobic digester is by contaminated animal manure, the most appropriate method for studying antibiotic residue effects on methane production may be using manure from animals that are given a particular antibiotic, rather than adding the antibiotic directly to the anaerobic digester.

  3. Utilization of Re-processed Anaerobically Digested Fiber from Dairy Manure as a Container Media Substrate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The solid fraction (fiber) from the effluent of the anaerobic digestion of dairy manure by plug flow technology yields material that has consistent physical properties (total porosity, air filled porosity at saturation, and water holding capacity) to perform satisfactorily as a plant growth media su...

  4. Anaerobic digestion of poultry manure: A bench-scale evaluation of methane yield and process monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Ripley, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Poultry manure from a commercial farm (caged layers) was fed to three 5-liter, intermittently-mixed, mesophilic anaerobic digesters on a daily basis. Large batches of manure were frozen, then thawed and diluted as needed to give a consistent composition through each phase of the study. Volatile solids (VS) destruction, methane yield (Yma), alkalinity, and other parameters were evaluated at fifteen operating configurations, with feed concentrations of 4.0, 5.5, and 7.0% VS and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) ranging from 10 to 50 days. Effluent was partially decanted in two configurations to increase the solids retention time over the HRT by about 50%, and one configuration was a replicate to estimate experimental error. Digestion was successful at loading rates as high as 5.6 g VS per liter-day, although acclimation times as long as 5-7 HRTs were needed at start-up and between step-changes. The main problem at high loading rates was foam formation, which was controlled by chemical addition and increased mixing frequency. Grit and feathers were not serious problems at bench scale. VS destruction averaged 51.4% and was largely unaffected by HRT or feed concentration. Yma averaged 241 mls methane/g VS added, with low values in the 4.0% VS, 10-20 day HRT range. Yma also dropped 6% as the feed rose from 5.5% to 7.0 %. Batch (200 ml) bioassays indicated that the acetoclastic methanogens were not inhibited by volatile acids up to 5 g/l as HAc. Decant operation improved VS destruction slightly but had little effect on Yma. A double-endpoint alkalimetric technique was developed to rapidly and easily monitor digester performance.

  5. Simple, rapid and effective preservation and reactivation of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacterium "Candidatus Brocadia sinica".

    PubMed

    Ali, Muhammad; Oshiki, Mamoru; Okabe, Satoshi

    2014-06-15

    It is still the biggest challenge to secure enough seeding biomass for rapid start-up of full-scale (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) anammox processes due to slow growth. Preservation of active anammox biomass could be one of the solutions. In this study, biomass of anammox bacterium, "Candidatus Brocadia sinica", immersed in various nutrient media were preserved at -80 °C, 4 °C and room temperature. After 45, 90 and 150 days of preservation, specific anammox activity (SAA) of the preserved anammox biomass was determined by measuring (29)N2 production rate and transcription levels of hzsA gene encoding hydrazine synthase alpha subunit. Storage in nutrient medium containing 3 mM of molybdate at room temperature with periodical (every 45 days) supply of NH4(+) and NO2(-) was proved to be the most effective storage technique for "Ca. Brocadia sinica" biomass. Using this preservation condition, 96, 92 and 65% of the initial SAA was sustained after 45, 90 and 150 days of storage, respectively. Transcription levels of hzsA gene in biomass correlated with the SAA (R(2) = 0.83), indicating it can be used as a genetic marker to evaluate the anammox activity of preserved biomass. Furthermore, the 90-day-stored biomass was successfully reactivated by immobilizing in polyvinyl alcohol (6%, w/v) and sodium alginate (2%, w/v) gel and then inoculated to up-flow column reactors. Total nitrogen removal rates rapidly increased to 7 kg-N m(-3) d(-1) within 35 days of operation. Based on these results, the room temperature preservation with molybdate addition is simple, cost-effective and feasible at a practical scale, which will accelerate the practical use of anammox process for wastewater treatment.

  6. Effect of digestion time on anaerobic digestion with high ammonia concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktavitri, Nur Indradewi; Purnobasuki, Hery; Kuncoro, Eko Prasetyo; Purnamasari, Indah; Semma Hadinnata, P.

    2016-03-01

    Anaerobic digestion was developed to treat high concentration organic compound efficiently in certain Digestion Time (DT). High ammonia concentration could influenced removal organic compound in digestion. This bench scale study investigated the effect of digestion time on anaerobic batch reactor with high ammonia concentration. Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN) concentration was adjusted 4000 and 5000 mg/1, Digestion time was ranged from 0-26 d, operation temperature was ranged from 28-29°C, inoculum was collected from slaughter house sludge. The degradation of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) correlated with digestion time. The concentration of TAN from synthetic wastewater contain 5000 mg/1 of TAN more fluctuated than those use 4000 mg/1 of TAN. However, the biogas production from wastewater contained 4000 mg/1 of TAN gradually increased until 24 d of DT. The reactor contain 5000 mg/1 of TAN only growth until 12 d and steady state at over 12 d of digestion time.

  7. Effect of solids retention time on the bioavailability of organic carbon in anaerobically digested swine waste.

    PubMed

    Kinyua, Maureen N; Cunningham, Jeffrey; Ergas, Sarina J

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) can be used to stabilize and produce energy from livestock waste; however, digester effluents may require further treatment to remove nitrogen. This paper quantifies the effects of varying solids retention time (SRT) methane yield, volatile solids (VS) reduction and organic carbon bioavailability for denitrification during swine waste AD. Four bench-scale anaerobic digesters, with SRTs of 14, 21, 28 and 42 days, operated with swine waste feed. Effluent organic carbon bioavailability was measured using anoxic microcosms and respirometry. Excellent performance was observed for all four digesters, with >60% VS removal and CH4 yields between 0.1 and 0.3(m(3)CH4)/(kg VS added). Organic carbon in the centrate as an internal organic carbon source for denitrification supported maximum specific denitrification rates between 47 and 56(mg NO3(-)-N)/(g VSS h). The digester with the 21-day SRT had the highest CH4 yield and maximum specific denitrification rates.

  8. Short-term germ-killing effect of sugar-sweetened cinnamon chewing gum on salivary anaerobes associated with halitosis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Carvalho, Regina; Scher, Aubrey; Wu, Christine D

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the short-term germ-killing effect of sugar-sweetened cinnamon chewing gum on total and H2S-producing salivary anaerobes. Fifteen healthy adult subjects were recruited in the double-blind, crossover clinical study. The three test chewing gums included: 1) sugared chewing gum containing cinnamic aldehyde and natural flavors (CinA+); 2) sugared chewing gum without cinnamic aldehyde but with natural flavors (CinA-); and 3) non-sugared chewing gum base (GB) without any flavors and without cinnamic aldehyde. A three-day "washout" period followed each treatment. Each subject chewed gum under supervision for 20 minutes at 60 chews/minute. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected before the subjects chewed the gum and at 20 minutes after expectoration of the gum. All saliva samples were serially diluted, plated on blood agar or agar plates that select for bacteria producing H2S, incubated anaerobically for three days, and enumerated for viable colony counts of total and H2S-producing salivary anaerobes. Significant reductions in total salivary anaerobes (p < 0.01) and H2S-producing salivary anaerobes (p < 0.01) were observed 20 minutes after subjects chewed the CinA+ gum. The chewing of CinA- gum also significantly reduced total salivary anaerobes (p < 0.05) and H2S-producing salivary anaerobes (p < 0.05). However, no statistically significant difference in germ-killing effect was detected between the CinA+ and CinA- gums, although there was a numeric difference. The chewing of a gum base (GB) alone did not result in a significant reduction in the total or H2S-producing salivary anaerobes (p > 0.05). The commercially available sugar-sweetened cinnamon chewing gum may benefit halitosis by reducing volatile sulfur compounds producing anaerobes in the oral cavity.

  9. In situ identification of the synthrophic protein fermentative Coprothermobacter spp. involved in the thermophilic anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Gagliano, Maria Cristina; Braguglia, Camilla Maria; Rossetti, Simona

    2014-09-01

    Thermophilic bacteria have recently attracted great attention because of their potential application in improving different biochemical processes such as anaerobic digestion of various substrates, wastewater treatment or hydrogen production. In this study we report on the design of a specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe for detecting members of Coprothermobacter genus characterized by a strong protease activity to degrade proteins and peptides. The newly designed CTH485 probe and helper probes hCTH429 and hCTH439 were optimized for use in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on thermophilic anaerobic sludge samples. In situ probing revealed that thermo-adaptive mechanisms shaping the 16S rRNA gene may affect the identification of thermophilic microorganisms. The novel developed FISH probe extends the possibility to study the widespread thermophilic syntrophic interaction of Coprothermobacter spp. with hydrogenotrophic methanogenic archaea, whose establishment is a great benefit for the whole anaerobic system. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of hydrogen and methane production from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysates by two-stage anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Baêta, Bruno Eduardo Lobo; Lima, Diego Roberto Sousa; Filho, José Gabriel Balena; Adarme, Oscar Fernando Herrera; Gurgel, Leandro Vinícius Alves; Aquino, Sérgio Francisco de

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at optimizing the net energy recovery from hydrogen and methane production through anaerobic digestion of the hemicellulose hydrolysate (HH) obtained by desirable conditions (DC) of autohydrolysis pretreatment (AH) of sugarcane bagasse (SB). Anaerobic digestion was carried out in a two-stage (acidogenic-methanogenic) batch system where the acidogenic phase worked as a hydrolysis and biodetoxification step. This allowed the utilization of more severe AH pretreatment conditions, i.e. T=178.6°C and t=55min (DC3) and T=182.9°C and t=40.71min (DC4). Such severe conditions resulted in higher extraction of hemicelluloses from SB (DC1=68.07%, DC2=48.99%, DC3=77.40% and DC4=73.90%), which consequently improved the net energy balance of the proposed process. The estimated energy from the combustion of both biogases (H2 and CH4) accumulated during the two-stage anaerobic digestion of HH generated by DC4 condition was capable of producing a net energy of 3.15MJ·kgSB(-1)dry weight.

  11. Effects of key operational parameters on biohydrogen production via anaerobic fermentation in a sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Won, S G; Lau, A K

    2011-07-01

    In this study, a series of tests were conducted in a 6L anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) to investigate the effect of pH, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate on biohydrogen production at 28°C. Sucrose was used as the main substrate to mimic carbohydrate-rich wastewater and inoculum was prepared from anaerobic digested sludge without pretreatment. The reactor was operated initially with nitrogen sparging to form anaerobic condition. Results showed that methanogens were effectively suppressed. The optimum pH value would vary depending on the HRT. Maximum hydrogen production rate and yield of 3.04 L H(2)/L reactor d and 2.16 mol H(2)/mol hexose respectively were achieved at pH 4.5, HRT 30 h, and OLR 11.0 kg/m(3)d. Two relationships involving the propionic acid/acetic acid ratio and ethanol/acetic acid ratio were derived from the analysis of the metabolites of fermentation. Ethanol/acetic acid ratio of 1.25 was found to be a threshold value for higher hydrogen production.

  12. Effects of Predation by Protists on Prokaryotic Community Function, Structure, and Diversity in Anaerobic Granular Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Hirakata, Yuga; Oshiki, Mamoru; Kuroda, Kyohei; Hatamoto, Masashi; Kubota, Kengo; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Harada, Hideki; Araki, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Predation by protists is top-down pressure that regulates prokaryotic abundance, community function, structure, and diversity in natural and artificial ecosystems. Although the effects of predation by protists have been studied in aerobic ecosystems, they are poorly understood in anoxic environments. We herein studied the influence of predation by Metopus and Caenomorpha ciliates—ciliates frequently found in anoxic ecosystems—on prokaryotic community function, structure, and diversity. Metopus and Caenomorpha ciliates were cocultivated with prokaryotic assemblages (i.e., anaerobic granular sludge) in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for 171 d. Predation by these ciliates increased the methanogenic activities of granular sludge, which constituted 155% of those found in a UASB reactor without the ciliates (i.e., control reactor). Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons using Illumina MiSeq revealed that the prokaryotic community in the UASB reactor with the ciliates was more diverse than that in the control reactor; 2,885–3,190 and 2,387–2,426 operational taxonomic units (>97% sequence similarities), respectively. The effects of predation by protists in anaerobic engineered systems have mostly been overlooked, and our results show that the influence of predation by protists needs to be examined and considered in the future for a better understanding of prokaryotic community structure and function. PMID:27431197

  13. Effects of Predation by Protists on Prokaryotic Community Function, Structure, and Diversity in Anaerobic Granular Sludge.

    PubMed

    Hirakata, Yuga; Oshiki, Mamoru; Kuroda, Kyohei; Hatamoto, Masashi; Kubota, Kengo; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Harada, Hideki; Araki, Nobuo

    2016-09-29

    Predation by protists is top-down pressure that regulates prokaryotic abundance, community function, structure, and diversity in natural and artificial ecosystems. Although the effects of predation by protists have been studied in aerobic ecosystems, they are poorly understood in anoxic environments. We herein studied the influence of predation by Metopus and Caenomorpha ciliates-ciliates frequently found in anoxic ecosystems-on prokaryotic community function, structure, and diversity. Metopus and Caenomorpha ciliates were cocultivated with prokaryotic assemblages (i.e., anaerobic granular sludge) in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for 171 d. Predation by these ciliates increased the methanogenic activities of granular sludge, which constituted 155% of those found in a UASB reactor without the ciliates (i.e., control reactor). Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons using Illumina MiSeq revealed that the prokaryotic community in the UASB reactor with the ciliates was more diverse than that in the control reactor; 2,885-3,190 and 2,387-2,426 operational taxonomic units (>97% sequence similarities), respectively. The effects of predation by protists in anaerobic engineered systems have mostly been overlooked, and our results show that the influence of predation by protists needs to be examined and considered in the future for a better understanding of prokaryotic community structure and function.

  14. Microbial Internal Storage Alters the Carbon Transformation in Dynamic Anaerobic Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Batstone, Damien; Zhao, Bai-Hang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-08-04

    Microbial internal storage processes have been demonstrated to occur and play an important role in activated sludge systems under both aerobic and anoxic conditions when operating under dynamic conditions. High-rate anaerobic reactors are often operated at a high volumetric organic loading and a relatively dynamic profile, with large amounts of fermentable substrates. These dynamic operating conditions and high catabolic energy availability might also facilitate the formation of internal storage polymers by anaerobic microorganisms. However, so far information about storage under anaerobic conditions (e.g., anaerobic fermentation) as well as its consideration in anaerobic process modeling (e.g., IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1, ADM1) is still sparse. In this work, the accumulation of storage polymers during anaerobic fermentation was evaluated by batch experiments using anaerobic methanogenic sludge and based on mass balance analysis of carbon transformation. A new mathematical model was developed to describe microbial storage in anaerobic systems. The model was calibrated and validated by using independent data sets from two different anaerobic systems, with significant storage observed, and effectively simulated in both systems. The inclusion of the new anaerobic storage processes in the developed model allows for more successful simulation of transients due to lower accumulation of volatile fatty acids (correction for the overestimation of volatile fatty acids), which mitigates pH fluctuations. Current models such as the ADM1 cannot effectively simulate these dynamics due to a lack of anaerobic storage mechanisms.

  15. Diagnosis of the anaerobic reject water effects on WWTP operational characteristics as a precursor of bulking and foaming.

    PubMed

    Erdirençelebi, Dilek; Küçükhemek, Murat

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effects observed on operational parameters in a large and full-scale wastewater treatment plant subjected to anaerobic reject water (ARW) diversion off the main line for a 3-month period and further monitoring for a 2-year period. The plant's secondary unit consists of a two-stage plug-flow-modified Bardenpho process receiving wastewater from both municipal and industrial origins. As a result, ARW was found to have a direct effect on bulking in secondary clarifiers and foaming in anaerobic digesters (AD) despite its relatively small flow rate. During the cut-off period a highly stable sludge volume index at 80 mL g(-1) level was obtained in the secondary clarifiers, effluent suspended solids concentration was reduced and continuous feeding to AD was recovered. Sludge density increased in the thickeners during hot season. Secondary clarifiers showed good and stable settleability despite low dissolved oxygen, food/microorganism ratio and high sludge retention time and ammonium levels in the biological unit. The bulking and foaming effect was presented on the plant's internal flow balance. ARW needs serious consideration for elimination by appropriate technologies because of its high potential as a multi-dimensional pollutant source, not only as a carrier of nutrients but also as a possible carrier of filamentous bacteria, which might promote chronic seeding and retention in the system.

  16. Effects of alternative dietary substrates on competition between human colonic bacteria in an anaerobic fermentor system.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Sylvia H; Scott, Karen P; Ramsay, Alan G; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Welling, Gjalt W; Stewart, Colin S; Flint, Harry J

    2003-02-01

    Duplicate anaerobic fermentor systems were used to examine changes in a community of human fecal bacteria supplied with different carbohydrate energy sources. A panel of group-specific fluorescent in situ hybridization probes targeting 16S rRNA sequences revealed that the fermentors supported growth of a greater proportion of Bacteroides and a lower proportion of gram-positive anaerobes related to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Ruminococcus flavefaciens-Ruminococcus bromii, Eubacterium rectale-Clostridium coccoides, and Eubacterium cylindroides than the proportions in the starting fecal inoculum. Nevertheless, certain substrates, such as dahlia inulin, caused a pronounced increase in the number of bacteria related to R. flavefaciens-R. bromii and E. cylindroides. The ability of three strictly anaerobic, gram-positive bacteria to compete with the complete human fecal flora was tested in the same experiment by using selective plating to enumerate the introduced strains. The Roseburia-related strain A2-183(F) was able to grow on all substrates despite the fact that it was unable to utilize complex carbohydrates in pure culture, and it was assumed that this organism survived by cross-feeding. In contrast, Roseburia intestinalis L1-82(R) and Eubacterium sp. strain A2-194(R) survived less well despite the fact that they were able to utilize polysaccharides in pure culture, except that A2-194(R) was stimulated 100-fold by inulin. These results suggest that many low-G+C-content gram-positive obligate anaerobes may be selected against during in vitro incubation, although several groups were stimulated by inulin. Thus, considerable caution is necessary when workers attempt to predict the in vivo effects of probiotics and prebiotics from their effects in vitro.

  17. Anaerobic thermophilic culture

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Wiegel, Jurgen K. W.

    1981-01-01

    A newly discovered thermophilic anaerobe is described that was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC 3/550. T. Ethanolicus is cultured in aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions and is used in a novel process for producing ethanol by subjecting carbohydrates, particularly the saccharides, to fermentation action of the new microorganism in a biologically pure culture.

  18. Effect of solid-state NaOH pretreatment on methane production from thermophilic semi-dry anaerobic digestion of rose stalk.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yue-Gan; Cheng, Beijiu; Si, You-Bin; Cao, De-Ju; Li, Dao-Lin; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The effects of solid-state NaOH pretreatment on the efficiency of methane production from semi-dry anaerobic digestion of rose (Rosa rugosa) stalk were investigated at various NaOH loadings (0, 1, 2, and 4% (w/w)). Methane production, process stability and energy balance were analyzed. Results showed that solid-state NaOH pretreatment significantly improved biogas and methane yields of 30-day anaerobic digestion, with increases from 143.7 mL/g volatile solids (VS) added to 157.1 mL/g VS -192.1 mL/g VS added and from 81.8 mL/g VS added to 88.8 mL/g VS-117.7 mL/g VS added, respectively. Solid-state NaOH pretreatment resulted in anaerobic digestion with higher VS reduction and lower technical digestion time. The 4% NaOH-treated group had the highest methane yield of 117.7 mL/g VS added, which was 144% higher compared to the no NaOH-treated group, and the highest net energy recovery. Higher rate of lignocellulose breakage and higher process stability of anaerobic digestion facilitated methane production in the NaOH-pretreated groups.

  19. The effects of different mixing intensities during anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Lindmark, Johan; Eriksson, Per; Thorin, Eva

    2014-08-01

    Mixing inside an anaerobic digester is often continuous and is not actively controlled. The selected mixing regime can however affect both gas production and the energy efficiency of the biogas plant. This study aims to evaluate these effects and compare three different mixing regimes, 150 RPM and 25 RPM continuous mixing and minimally intermittent mixing for both digestion of fresh substrate and post-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. The results show that a lower mixing intensity leads to a higher biogas production rate and higher total biogas production in both cases. 25 RPM continuous mixing and minimally intermittent mixing resulted in similar biogas production after process stabilization, while 150 RPM continuous mixing resulted in lower production throughout the experiment. The lower gas production at 150 RPM could not be explained by the inhibition of volatile fatty acids. Cumulative biogas production until day 31 was 295 ± 2.9, 317 ± 1.9 and 304 ± 2.8N ml/g VS added during digestion of fresh feed and 113 ± 1.3, 134 ± 1.1 and 130 ± 2.3N ml/g VS added during post digestion for the 150 RPM, 25 RPM and minimally mixed intensities respectively. As well as increasing gas production, optimal mixing can improve the energy efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process.

  20. Effect of domestication on microorganism diversity and anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    PubMed

    Bi, S J; Hong, X J; Wang, G X; Li, Y; Gao, Y M; Yan, L; Wang, Y J; Wang, W D

    2016-08-19

    To accomplish the rapid start-up and stable operation of biogas digesters, an efficient inoculum is required. To obtain such an inoculum for food waste anaerobic digestion, we domesticated dairy manure anaerobic digestion residue by adding food waste every day. After 36 days, the pH and biogas yield stabilized signifying the completion of domestication. During domestication, the microbial communities in the inocula were investigated by constructing 16S rDNA clone libraries. We evaluated the effect of the domesticated inoculum by testing batch food waste anaerobic digestion with a non-domesticated inoculum as a control. The pH and methane yield of the digestion systems were determined as measurement indices. Domestication changed the composition and proportion of bacteria and archaea in the inocula. Of the bacteria, Clostridia (49.3%), Bacteroidales (19.5%), and Anaerolinaceae (8.1%) species were dominant in the seed sludge; Anaerolinaceae (49.0%), Clostridia (28.4%), and Bacteroidales (9.1%), in domestication sludge. Methanosaeta was the dominant genus in both of the seed (94.3%) and domestication (74.3%) sludge. However, the diversity of methanogenic archaea was higher in the domestication than in seed sludge. Methanoculleus, which was absent from the seed sludge, appeared in the domestication sludge (21.7%). When the domesticated inoculum was used, the digestion system worked stably (organic loading rate: 20 gVS/L; methane yield: 292.2 ± 9.8 mL/gVS; VS = volatile solids), whereas the digestion system inoculated with seed sludge failed to generate biogas. The results indicate that inoculum domestication ensures efficient and stable anaerobic digestion by enriching the methanogenic strains.

  1. Effect of aerobic and anaerobic exercises on glycemic control in type 1 diabetic youths

    PubMed Central

    Lukács, Andrea; Barkai, László

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the long-term effect of aerobic and/or anaerobic exercise on glycemic control in youths with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Literature review was performed in spring and summer 2014 using PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Scopus, and ScienceDirect with the following terms: aerobic, anaerobic, high-intensity, resistance, exercise/training, combined with glycemic/metabolic control, glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and type 1 diabetes. Only peer-reviewed articles in English were included published in the last 15 years. It was selected from 1999 to 2014. Glycemic control was measured with HbA1c. Studies with an intervention lasting at least 12 wk were included if the HbA1c was measured before and after the intervention. RESULTS: A total of nine articles were found, and they were published between the years of 2002-2011. The sample size was 401 diabetic youths (166 males and 235 females) with an age range of 10-19 years except one study, in which the age range was 13-30 years. Study participants were from Australia, Tunisia, Lithuania, Taiwan, Turkey, Brazilia, Belgium, Egypt and France. Four studies were aerobic-based, four were combined aerobic and anaerobic programs, and one compared aerobic exercise to anaerobic one. Available studies had insufficient evidence that any type of exercise or combined training would clearly improve the glycemic control in type 1 diabetic youth. Only three (two aerobic-based and one combined) studies could provide a significant positive change in glycemic control. CONCLUSION: The regular physical exercise has several other valuable physiological and health benefits that justify the inclusion of exercise in pediatric diabetes treatment and care. PMID:25897363

  2. Enhanced anaerobic treatment of CSTR-digested effluent from chicken manure: The effect of ammonia inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Zhanguang; Zhou Xuefei; Zhang Yalei; Zhu Hongguang

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced anaerobic treatment of CSTR-digested effluent from chicken manure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SCOD/TAN (soluble COD/total ammonia nitrogen) ratio was key controlling factor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The threshold of the SCOD/TAN ratio was 2.4 at an influent pH of 8.5-9. - Abstract: The effect of ammonia inhibition was evaluated during the enhanced anaerobic treatment of digested effluent from a 700 m{sup 3} chicken-manure continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). A 12.3 L internal circulation (IC) reactor inoculated with an anaerobic granular sludge and operated at 35 {+-} 1 Degree-Sign C was employed for the investigation. With a corresponding organic loading rate of 1.5-3.5 kg-COD/m{sup 3} d over a hydraulic retention time of 1.5 d, a maximum volumetric biogas production rate of 1.2 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3} d and TCOD (total COD) removal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80% was achieved. However, the continual increase in the influent TAN content led to ammonia inhibition in the methanogenesis system. The SCOD/TAN (soluble COD/total ammonia nitrogen) ratio was presented to be the key controlling factor for the anaerobic treatment of semi-digested chicken manure, and further validation through shock loading and ammonia inhibition experiments was conducted. The threshold value of the SCOD/TAN ratio was determined to be 2.4 (corresponding to a TAN of 1250 mg/L) at an influent pH of 8.5-9.

  3. Effectiveness of phosphate removal during anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by dosing iron(III).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiang; Wang, Jue; Chen, Bing; Wang, Yu; Liu, Jiaqi; Liu, Lubo

    2017-05-15

    Phosphate-Fe(II) precipitation induced by Fe(III) reduction during the anaerobic digestion of excess activated sludge was investigated for the removal of phosphorus and its possible recovery. The experiments were conducted with three Fe(III) sources at 35 °C and 55 °C. The results show that ferrihydrite-Fe(III) was effectively reduced during the anaerobic sludge digestion by 63% and 96% under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. Whereas FeCl3-Fe(III) was only mesophilically reducible and the reduction of hematite-Fe(III) was unnoticeable at either temperature. Efficient precipitation of vivianite was not observed although high saturation index values, e.g., >14 (activity reduction not considered), had been reached. This reveals the complexity of vivianite precipitation in anaerobic digestion systems; for example, Fe(II) complexation and organic interference could not be ignored. With ferrihydrite amendments at a Fe/TP of 1.5, methane production from sludge digestion was reduced by 35.1% at 35 °C, and was unaffected when the digestion temperature went up to 55 °C. But, acidic FeCl3 severely inhibited the methane production and consequently the sludge biomass degradation.

  4. Enhanced anaerobic treatment of CSTR-digested effluent from chicken manure: The effect of ammonia inhibition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhan-Guang; Zhou, Xue-Fei; Zhang, Ya-Lei; Zhu, Hong-Guang

    2012-01-01

    The effect of ammonia inhibition was evaluated during the enhanced anaerobic treatment of digested effluent from a 700m(3) chicken-manure continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). A 12.3L internal circulation (IC) reactor inoculated with an anaerobic granular sludge and operated at 35±1°C was employed for the investigation. With a corresponding organic loading rate of 1.5-3.5kg-COD/m(3)d over a hydraulic retention time of 1.5d, a maximum volumetric biogas production rate of 1.2m(3)/m(3)d and TCOD (total COD) removal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80% was achieved. However, the continual increase in the influent TAN content led to ammonia inhibition in the methanogenesis system. The SCOD/TAN (soluble COD/total ammonia nitrogen) ratio was presented to be the key controlling factor for the anaerobic treatment of semi-digested chicken manure, and further validation through shock loading and ammonia inhibition experiments was conducted. The threshold value of the SCOD/TAN ratio was determined to be 2.4 (corresponding to a TAN of 1250mg/L) at an influent pH of 8.5-9.

  5. Effect of temperature on methane production from field-scale anaerobic digesters treating dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Osman A; Mulbry, Walter; Lansing, Stephanie

    2015-09-01

    Temperature is a critical factor affecting anaerobic digestion because it influences both system heating requirements and methane production. Temperatures of 35-37°C are typically suggested for manure digestion. In temperate climates, digesters require a considerable amount of additional heat energy to maintain temperatures at these levels. In this study, the effects of lower digestion temperatures (22 and 28°C), on the methane production from dairy digesters were evaluated and compared with 35°C using duplicate replicates of field-scale (FS) digesters with a 17-day hydraulic retention time. After acclimation, the FS digesters were operated for 12weeks using solids-separated manure at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.4kgVSm(-3)d(-1) and then for 8weeks using separated manure amended with manure solids at an OLR of 2.6kgVSm(-3)d(-1). Methane production values of the FS digesters at 22 and 28°C were about 70% and 87%, respectively, of the values from FS digesters at 35°C. The results suggest that anaerobic digesters treating dairy manure at 28°C were nearly as efficient as digesters operated at 35°C, with 70% of total methane achievable at 22°C. These results are relevant to small farms interested in anaerobic digestion for methane reduction without heat recovery from generators or for methane recovery from covered lagoon digesters.

  6. Effect of thermal alkaline pretreatment on the anaerobic digestion of wasted activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Vigueras-Carmona, S E; Ramírez, F; Noyola, A; Monroy, O

    2011-01-01

    The effect of alkaline pretreatment of waste-activated sludge, using two models to study the sequential hydrolysis rates of suspended (Sanders' surface model) and dissolved (Goel's saturation model) solids, on the mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion rate is evaluated. The pretreatment, which reduces the size of the solids, increases the reaction rate by increasing the surface area and the specific surface hydrolysis constant (K(SBK)); at thermophilic conditions from 0.45 x 10(-3) kg m(-2) d(-1) for the fresh sludge to 0.74 x 10(-3) kg m(-2) d(-1) for the pretreated sludge and at mesophilic conditions these values are 0.28 x 10(-3) kg m(-2) d(-1) and 0.47 x 10(-3) kg m(-2) d(-1) confirming the usefulness of a pretreatment for solids reduction. But for soluble solids, the thermoalkaline pretreatment decreases the reaction rates by inducing a competitive inhibition on the thermophilic anaerobic digestion rate while in the mesophilic range, a non-competitive inhibition is observed. A mathematical simulation of the consecutive reactions, suspended solids to dissolved solids and to methane in staged anaerobic thermophilic-mesophilic digestion, shows that with 4% suspended solids concentration it is better not to use a thermoalkaline pretreatment because overall solids reduction and total methane production are not as good as without pretreatment.

  7. Effects of caffeine ingestion on performance and anaerobic metabolism during the Wingate Test.

    PubMed

    Collomp, K; Ahmaidi, S; Audran, M; Chanal, J L; Préfaut, C

    1991-10-01

    In order to determine the effects of caffeine ingestion on performance and metabolic responses during supramaximal exercise, six healthy volunteers performed the Wingate Anaerobic Test twice. Sixty min before each trial, while in a fasting state, they took capsules containing either caffeine (5 mg/kg) or a placebo, according to a single blind and randomized procedure. Caffeine administration did not significantly change either maximal anaerobic capacity (AC) or power (AP) and power decrease (PD). It did, however, induce significant (p less than 0.05) increases in both catecholamine and blood lactate levels as compared to values obtained after placebo administration. Moreover, maximal blood lactate occurred earlier (p less than 0.05), and lactate output seemed to be greater with caffeine (p less than 0.01). There was a strong correlation, both with and without caffeine, between epinephrine and lactate levels (r = 0.81) and between both AP and AC and lactate levels. These data suggest that caffeine, essentially via epinephrine, modifies glycolytic metabolism but fails to improve performance during the Wingate Anaerobic Test in nonspecifically trained subjects.

  8. Effects of total ammonia nitrogen concentration on solid-state anaerobic digestion of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongjiang; Xu, Fuqing; Li, Yebo

    2013-09-01

    The inhibitive effect of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) (including NH3 and NH4(+)) on solid-state anaerobic digestion of corn stover was investigated in batch reactors at 37°C. The highest methane yield of 107.0 L/kg VS(feed) was obtained at a TAN concentration of 2.5 g/kg (based on total weight). TAN concentrations greater than 2.5 g/kg resulted in decreased methane yields, with a 50% reduction observed at a concentration of 6.0 g/kg. Reduced reaction rates and microbial activities for hydrolysis of cellulose and methanogenesis from acetate were observed at TAN concentrations higher than 4.3 g/kg. Strong ammonia stress was indicated at butyrate concentrations higher than 300 mg/kg. Result showed that the effluent of liquid anaerobic digestion can provide enough nitrogen for solid-state anaerobic digestion of corn stover. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reuse of recalcitrant-rich anaerobic effluent as dilution water after enhancement of biodegradability by Fenton processes.

    PubMed

    Arimi, Milton M; Zhang, Yongjun; Namango, Saul S; Geißen, Sven-Uwe

    2016-03-01

    Anaerobic digestion is used to treat effluents with a lot of organics, such as molasses distillery wastewater (MDW) which is the effluent of bioethanol production from molasses. The raw MDW requires a lot of dilution water before biodigestion, while the digested MDW has high level of recalcitrants which are problematic for its discharge. This study investigated ferric coagulation, Fenton, Fenton-like (with ferric ions as catalyst) processes and their combinations on the biodegradability of digested MDW. The Fenton and Fenton-like processes after coagulation increased the MDW biodegradability defined by (BOD5/COD) from 0.07 to (0.4-0.6) and saved 50% of H2O2 consumed in the classic Fenton process. The effluent from coagulation coupled to a Fenton-like process was used as dilution water for the raw MDW before the anaerobic digestion. The process was stable with volumetric loading of approx. 2.7 g COD/L/d. It resulted in increased overall biogas recovery and significantly decreased the demand for the dilution water.

  10. Super blue box recycling (SUBBOR) enhanced two-stage anaerobic digestion process for recycling municipal solid waste: laboratory pilot studies.

    PubMed

    Vogt, G M; Liu, H W; Kennedy, K J; Vogt, H S; Holbein, B E

    2002-12-01

    The super blue box recycling (SUBBOR) process is an enhanced, multi-stage anaerobic digestion process for mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) and other biomass feedstock materials. The technology centers on enhanced high solids, thermophilic digestion after steam-pressure disruption of the ligno-cellulosic fiber components that are recalcitrant to conventional anaerobic digestion. Mixed MSW, rich in organic components but also containing inorganic materials, such as glass, aluminum and steel, as well as non-digestible plastic materials, has been laboratory pilot tested with a fully integrated process train designed to treat and recycle all of the MSW components. Methane yields from the MSW were 0.36 m3 CH4/kg volatile solids (VS) representing a 40% increase over the yield obtained from conventional single stage digestion. The secondary digestion step after steam pressure disruption also provided a 40% improvement in total solids and VS reduction. The residual organic fraction following two-stage digestion was fine in texture and was recovered as a clean peat fraction with reduced contents of heavy metal and other fugitive non-digested contaminants. Mass and energy balance determinations indicated a high degree of MSW diversion from landfill disposal (>80%) was achievable by the SUBBOR process as well as substantial net electrical and thermal energy production. Continuous long-term trials of the SUBBOR process at 25,000 tonnes/year are underway.

  11. Assessment of the state of the art of technologies for the processing of digestate residue from anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, W; Drosg, B

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is widely used as an important source of renewable energy. With the increasing number and capacity of biogas plants also, adequate treatment technologies for whole digestate - the residue from anaerobic digestion - are gaining attention. In this study the state of the art of digestate processing is analysed, and currently used treatment schemes and the various technological processes involved are evaluated. The study combines data and experiences from existing large-scale digestate processing facilities in Austria, Germany, Switzerland and Italy, as well as know-how from technology providers and relevant research projects. However, the field of digestate processing is still quite new and little detailed information about the performance of different technologies at industrial scale is available. Digestate processing is gaining importance since digestate utilisation can become an important bottleneck when increasing biogas production. In addition, the production of renewable fertiliser from digestate is increasingly of interest to replace fossil fertilisers. This study is the first profound attempt to establish an assessment of the state-of-the-art technologies in use.

  12. Anaerobic bacteria

    MedlinePlus

    Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow when oxygen is present. In humans, these bacteria ... Goldstein EJ. Diseases caused by non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  13. Treatment of high-ammonium anaerobic digester supernatant by aerobic granular sludge and ultrafiltration processes.

    PubMed

    Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Zielińska, Magdalena; Bernat, Katarzyna; Wojnowska-Baryła, Irena; Truchan, Tomasz

    2013-02-01

    Anaerobic sludge digester supernatant characterized by 569 mg TKN L(-1), high color and a COD/N ratio of 1.4 was treated in granular sequencing batch reactors (GSBRs) followed by post-denitrification (P-D) and ultrafiltration (UF) steps. The use of granular sludge allowed for the oxidation of ammonium in anaerobic digester supernatant at all investigated GSBR cycle lengths of 6, 8 and 12 h. The highest ammonium removal rate (15 mg N g(-1) VSS h(-1)) with removal efficiency of 99% was noted at 8 h. Since the GSBR effluent was characterized by a high concentration of nitrites, slowly-degradable substances and biomass, additional purification steps were applied. In P-D stage, the microbial activity of granular biomass in the GSBR effluent was implemented. The P-D was supported by external carbon source addition and the most advantageous variant comprised dosing of half of the theoretical acetate dose for nitrite reduction in the 3-h intervals. The use of the system consisting of the GSBR with 8 h, an optimal P-D variant and a UF for the treatment of anaerobic digester supernatant allowed for the 99%, 71% and 97% reductions of TKN, COD and color, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Novel process combining anaerobic-aerobic digestion and ion exchange resin for full recycling of cassava stillage in ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinchao; Wang, Ke; Wang, Huijun; Zhang, Jianhua; Mao, Zhonggui

    2017-04-01

    A novel cleaner ethanol production process has been developed. Thin stillage is treated initially by anaerobic digestion followed by aerobic digestion and then further treated by chloride anion exchange resin. This allows the fully-digested and resin-treated stillage to be completely recycled for use as process water in the next ethanol fermentation batch, which eliminates wastewater discharges and minimizes consumption of fresh water. The method was evaluated at the laboratory scale. Process parameters were very similar to those found using tap water. Maximal ethanol production rate in the fully-recycled stillage was 0.9g/L/h, which was similar to the 0.9g/L/h found with the tap water control. The consumption of fresh water was reduced from 4.1L/L (fresh water/ethanol) to zero. Compared with anaerobically-aerobically digested stillage which had not been treated with resin, the fermentation time was reduced by 28% (from 72h to 52h) and reached the level achieved with tap water. This novel process can assist in sustainable development of the ethanol industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of a selective sleep deprivation on subsequent anaerobic performance.

    PubMed

    Mougin, F; Bourdin, H; Simon-Rigaud, M L; Didier, J M; Toubin, G; Kantelip, J P

    1996-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a partial sleep deprivation on a subsequent supramaximal exercise evaluated from the 30 second Wingate test, and on the following recovery. To take into account the active muscle mass, the Wingate test was performed against a constant braking force related to the data of a force-velocity test conducted on a Monark cycle ergometer (Model 814 E with weights) one week before the experimental test. Eight highly trained athletes were enrolled for this study. The changes in ventilatory and metabolic responses were analyzed during and upon completion of physical 30 second exercise, taking place after two nights, in other words, after a reference night and after a night with reduced sleep. Partial sleep deprivation was obtained by delaying bedtime until 3 a.m. The 30 second Wingate test was performed between 9 a.m. and noon the following days, using a Monark ergometer (Model 814 F). The analyses of change scores disclosed that there were no main significant effects for measures of ventilation, lactates and pH(v) levels under the two experimental conditions. The peak power, the mean power output and the peak velocity recorded after partial sleep deprivation were not modified in comparison with the values obtained after the reference night. These findings suggest that acute sleep loss did not contribute to alterations in supramaximal exercise.

  16. Improved anaerobic digestion of a thermally pretreated mixture of physicochemical sludge; broiler excreta and sugar cane wastes (SCW): Effect on organic matter solubilization, biodegradability and bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Nava-Valente, Noemí; Alvarado-Lassman, Alejandro; Nativitas-Sandoval, Liliana S; Mendez-Contreras, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    Thermal pretreatment effect of a mixture of organic wastes (physicochemical sludge, excreta of broiler chickens and sugarcane wastes (SCW)) in the solubilization and biodegradability organic matter as well as bioenergy production by anaerobic digestion was evaluated. Two different mixtures of physicochemical sludge, excreta of broiler chickens and SCW (70%, 15%, 15% and 60%, 20%, 20% of VS, respectively) were treated at different temperatures (80 °C, 85 °C and 90 °C) and contact time (30, 60 and 90 min). Results indicate that, organic matter solubilization degree increased from 1.14 to 6.56%; subsequently, in the anaerobic digestion process, an increase of 50% in the volatile solids removal and 10% in biogas production was observed, while, retention time decreased from 23 up to 9 days. The results obtained were similar to pilot-scale. In both experimental scales it showed that the synergy produced by the simultaneous anaerobic digestion of different substrates could increase bioenergy production up to 1.3 L bio g(-1) VS removed and 0.82 L CH4 g(-1) VS removed. The treatment conditions presented in this study allow for large residue quantities to be treated and large bioenergy quantities to be produced (10% higher than during conventional treatment) without increasing the anaerobic digester volume.

  17. Effects of chlortetracycline and copper on tetracyclines and copper resistance genes and microbial community during swine manure anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Chen, Meixue; Feng, Feng; Zhang, Junya; Sui, Qianwen; Tong, Juan; Wei, Yuansong; Wei, Dongbin

    2017-08-01

    As antibiotic and heavy metals are over used in the livestock industry, animal manure is a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Anaerobic digestion has been reported to have the potential to reduce ARGs. However, few studies investigated whether reduction of ARGs would be affected by different external pressures including antibiotics and heavy metals during anaerobic digestion. The purpose of this study was thus to investigate effects of both chlortetracycline (CTC) and Cu on reduction of ARGs, heavy metal resistance genes (HMRGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) during the swine manure anaerobic digestion. The results showed that the predominant ARGs (tetO, tetW, tetX, tetL) could be effectively reduced (approximately 1.00 log copies/g TS) through mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Microbial community evolution was the main driver. It was interesting that Treponema might indicate the termination of anaerobic digestion and compete with ARGs host bacteria. Addition of CTC, Cu and CTC+Cu affected microbial community change and hindered removal of ARGs, especially, CTC+Cu seriously affected Treponema and ARGs during anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of some aliphatic carboxylic acids in anaerobic digestion process waters by ion-exclusion chromatography with conductimetric detection on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kazuaki; Takayama, Yohichi; Ikedo, Mikaru; Mori, Masanobu; Taoda, Hiroshi; Xu, Qun; Hu, Wenzhi; Sunahara, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Tsuneo; Sato, Shinji; Hirokawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2004-06-11

    The determination of seven aliphatic carboxylic acids, formic, acetic, propionic, isobutyric, n-butyric, isovaleric and n-valeric acids in anaerobic digestion process waters was examined using ion-exclusion chromatography with conductimetric detection. The analysis of these biologically important carboxylic acids is necessary as a measure for evaluating and controlling the process. The ion-exclusion chromatography system employed consisted of polymethacrylate-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin columns (TSKgel OApak-A or TSKgel Super IC-A/C). weakly acidic eluent (benzoic acid), and conductimetric detection. Particle size and cation-exchange capacity were 5 microm and 0.1 meq./ml for TSKgel OApak-A and 3 microm and 0.2 meq./ml for TSKgel Super IC-A/C, respectively. A dilute eluent (1.0-2.0 mM) of benzoic acid was effective for the high resolution and highly conductimetric detection of the carboxylic acids. The good separation of isobutyric and n-butyric acids was performed using the TSKgel Super IC-A/C column (150 mm x 6.0 mm i.d. x 2). The simple and good chromatograms were obtained by the optimized ion-exclusion chromatography conditions for real samples from mesophilic anaerobic digestors, thus the aliphatic carboxylic acids were successfully determined without any interferences.

  19. Evaluation of methane generation and process stability from anaerobic co-digestion of sugar beet by-product and cow manure.

    PubMed

    Aboudi, Kaoutar; Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos José; Romero-García, Luis Isidoro

    2016-05-01

    The effect of mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of dried pellets of exhausted sugar beet cossettes (ESBC-DP) and cow manure (CM) on the enhancement of methane generation and process stability were studied with the aim to select the best substrate mixture ratio. A series of batch experiments was conducted using the following five mixture ratios of ESBC-DP:CM: 0:100; 25:75; 50:50; 75:25 and 100:0. Best results were obtained from mixture ratios with ESBC-DP proportions in the range of 25-50%. Mixture ratio of 50:50 showed a specific methane production (SMP) increase of 81.4% and 25.5%, respectively, in comparison with mono-digestion of ESBC-DP and CM. Evolution of the indirect parameter named acidogenic substrate as carbon (ASC) could be used to provide more insight about the process stability of anaerobic digestion. ASC accumulation was observed in reactors with higher ESBC-DP proportions leading to a delay in VFAs consumption and conversion into methane.

  20. Effect of ammoniacal nitrogen on one-stage and two-stage anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    PubMed

    Ariunbaatar, Javkhlan; Scotto Di Perta, Ester; Panico, Antonio; Frunzo, Luigi; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L; Pirozzi, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    This research compares the operation of one-stage and two-stage anaerobic continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) systems fed semi-continuously with food waste. The main purpose was to investigate the effects of ammoniacal nitrogen on the anaerobic digestion process. The two-stage system gave more reliable operation compared to one-stage due to: (i) a better pH self-adjusting capacity; (ii) a higher resistance to organic loading shocks; and (iii) a higher conversion rate of organic substrate to biomethane. Also a small amount of biohydrogen was detected from the first stage of the two-stage reactor making this system attractive for biohythane production. As the digestate contains ammoniacal nitrogen, re-circulating it provided the necessary alkalinity in the systems, thus preventing an eventual failure by volatile fatty acids (VFA) accumulation. However, re-circulation also resulted in an ammonium accumulation, yielding a lower biomethane production. Based on the batch experimental results the 50% inhibitory concentration of total ammoniacal nitrogen on the methanogenic activities was calculated as 3.8 g/L, corresponding to 146 mg/L free ammonia for the inoculum used for this research. The two-stage system was affected by the inhibition more than the one-stage system, as it requires less alkalinity and the physically separated methanogens are more sensitive to inhibitory factors, such as ammonium and propionic acid.

  1. Effect of ensiling and silage additives on biogas production and microbial community dynamics during anaerobic digestion of switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoling; Liu, Jinhuan; Liu, Jingjing; Yang, Fuyu; Zhu, Wanbin; Yuan, Xufeng; Hu, Yuegao; Cui, Zongjun; Wang, Xiaofen

    2017-10-01

    Silage processing has a crucial positive impact on the methane yield of anaerobic treated substrates. Changes in the characteristics of switchgrass after ensiling with different additives and their effects on methane production and microbial community changes during anaerobic digestion were investigated. After ensiling (CK), methane yield was increased by 33.59% relative to that of fresh switchgrass (FS). In comparison with the CK treatment, methane production was improved by 17.41%, 13.08% and 8.72% in response to ensiling with LBr+X, LBr and X, respectively. A modified Gompertz model predicted that the optimum treatment was LBr+X, with a potential cumulative methane yield of 178.31mL/g total solids (TS) and a maximum biogas production rate of 44.39mL/g TS·d. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the predominant bacteria in FS and silage switchgrass; however, the switchgrass treated with LBr+X was rich in Synergistetes, which was crucial for methane production. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. The Effects of Desiccation on Methanogens Under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, C.; Kral, T. A.

    2010-04-01

    Survival of methanogens following desiccation depends on whether they are maintained under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Cells maintained in a desiccated state in the presence of oxygen did not survive as well as those maintained anaerobically.

  3. Effect of process parameters on greenhouse gas generation by wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Yerushalmi, L; Shahabadi, M Bani; Haghighat, F

    2011-05-01

    The effect of key process parameters on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission by wastewater treatment plants was evaluated, and the governing parameters that exhibited major effects on the overall on- and off-site GHG emissions were identified. This evaluation used aerobic, anaerobic, and hybrid anaerobic/aerobic treatment systems with food processing industry wastewater. The operating temperature of anaerobic sludge digester was identified to have the highest effect on GHG generation in the aerobic treatment system. The total GHG emissions of 2694 kg CO2e/d were increased by 72.5% with the increase of anaerobic sludge digester temperature from 20 to 40 degrees C. The operating temperature of the anaerobic reactor was the dominant controlling parameter in the anaerobic and hybrid treatment systems. Raising the anaerobic reactor's temperature from 25 to 40 degrees C increased the total GHG emissions from 5822 and 6617 kg CO2e/d by 105.6 and 96.5% in the anaerobic and hybrid treatment systems, respectively.

  4. Effect of inosine supplementation on aerobic and anaerobic cycling performance.

    PubMed

    Starling, R D; Trappe, T A; Short, K R; Sheffield-Moore, M; Jozsi, A C; Fink, W J; Costill, D L

    1996-09-01

    Ten competitive male cyclists completed a Wingate Bike Test (WIN), a 30-min self-paced cycling performance bout (END), and a constant load, supramaximal cycling spring (SPN) to fatigue following 5 d of oral supplementation (5,000 mg.day-1) with inosine and placebo. Blood samples were obtained prior to and following both supplementation periods, and following each cycling test. Uric acid concentration was higher (P < 0.05) following supplementation with inosine versus placebo, but 2,3-DPG concentration was not changed. The data from WIN demonstrate that there were no significant differences in peak power (8.5 +/- 0.3 vs 8.4 +/- 0.3 W.kg body mass-1), end power (7.0 +/- 0.3 vs 6.9 +/- 0.2 W.kg body mass-1), fatigue index (18 +/- 2 vs 18 +/- 2%), total work completed (0.45 +/- 0.02 vs 0.45 +/- 0.02 kJ.kg body mass-1.30-s-1), and post-test lactate (12.2 +/- 0.5 vs 12.9 +/- 0.6 mmol.l-1) between the inosine and placebo trials, respectively. No difference was present in the total amount of work completed (6.1 +/- 0.3 vs 6.0 +/- 0.3 kJ.kg body mass-1) or post-test lactate (8.4 +/- 1.0 vs 9.9 +/- 1.3 mmol.l-1) during END between the inosine and placebo trials, respectively. Time to fatigue was longer (P < 0.05) during SPN for the placebo (109.7 +/- 5.6 s) versus the inosine (99.7 +/- 6.9 s) trial, but post-test lactate (14.8 +/- 0.7 vs 14.6 +/- 0.8 mmol.l-1) was not different between the treatments, respectively. These findings demonstrate that prolonged inosine supplementation does not appear to improve aerobic performance and short-term power production during cycling and may actually have an ergolytic effect under some test conditions.

  5. Increasing biogas production from sewage sludge anaerobic co-digestion process by adding crude glycerol from biodiesel industry.

    PubMed

    Nartker, Steven; Ammerman, Michelle; Aurandt, Jennifer; Stogsdil, Michael; Hayden, Olivia; Antle, Chad

    2014-12-01

    In an effort to convert waste streams to energy in a green process, glycerol from biodiesel manufacturing has been used to increase the gas production and methane content of biogas within a mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion process using primary sewage sludge. Glycerol was systematically added to the primary digester from 0% to 60% of the organic loading rate (OLR). The optimum glycerol loading range was from 25% to 60% OLR. This resulted in an 82-280% improvement in specific gas production. Following the feeding schedule described, the digesters remained balanced and healthy until inhibition was achieved at 70% glycerol OLR. This suggests that high glycerol loadings are possible if slow additions are upheld in order to allow the bacterial community to adjust properly. Waste water treatment plant operators with anaerobic digesters can use the data to increase loadings and boost biogas production to enhance energy conversion. This process provides a safe, environmentally friendly method to convert a typical waste stream to an energy stream of biogas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A hybrid cascade control scheme for the VFA and COD regulation in two-stage anaerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Acosta, H O; Campos-Rodríguez, A; González-Álvarez, V; García-Sandoval, J P; Snell-Castro, R; Latrille, E

    2016-10-01

    A hybrid (continuous-discrete) cascade control is proposed to regulate both, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations in two-stage (acidogenic-methanogenic) anaerobic digestion (TSAD) processes. The outer loop is a discrete controller that regulates the COD concentration of the methanogenic bioreactor by using a daily off-line measurement and that modifies the set-point tracked by inner loop, which manipulates the dilution rate to regulate the VFA concentration of the acidogenic bioreactor, estimated by continuous on-line conductivity measurements, avoiding acidification. The experimental validation was conducted in a TSAD process for the treatment of tequila vinasses during 110days. Results showed that the proposed cascade control scheme was able to achieve the VFA and COD regulation by using conventional measurements under different set-point values in spite of adverse common scenarios in full-scale anaerobic digestion processes. Microbial composition analysis showed that the controller also favors the abundance and diversity toward methane production.

  7. Bacterial communities and syntrophic associations involved in anaerobic oxidation of methane process of the Sonora Margin cold seeps, Guaymas Basin.

    PubMed

    Vigneron, Adrien; Cruaud, Perrine; Pignet, Patricia; Caprais, Jean-Claude; Gayet, Nicolas; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne; Godfroy, Anne; Toffin, Laurent

    2014-09-01

    The Sonora Margin cold seeps present on the seafloor a patchiness pattern of white microbial mats surrounded by polychaete and gastropod beds. These surface assemblages are fuelled by abundant organic inputs sedimenting from the water column and upward-flowing seep fluids. Elevated microbial density was observed in the underlying sediments. A previous study on the same samples identified anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) as the potential dominant archaeal process in these Sonora Margin sediments, probably catalysed by three clades of archaeal anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME-1, ANME-2 and ANME-3) associated with bacterial syntrophs. In this study, molecular surveys and microscopic observations investigating the diversity of Bacteria involved in AOM process, as well as the environmental parameters affecting the composition and the morphologies of AOM consortia in the Sonora Margin sediments were carried out. Two groups of Bacteria were identified within the AOM consortia, the Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus SEEP SRB-1a group and a Desulfobulbus-related group. These bacteria showed different niche distributions, association specificities and consortia architectures, depending on sediment surface communities, geochemical parameters and ANME-associated phylogeny. Therefore, the syntrophic AOM process appears to depend on sulphate-reducing bacteria with different ecological niches and/or metabolisms, in a biofilm-like organic matrix. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A laboratory investigation of interactions between denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) and anammox processes in anoxic environments.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shihu; Zeng, Raymond J; Haroon, Mohamed F; Keller, Jurg; Lant, Paul A; Tyson, Gene W; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-03-03

    This study investigates interactions between recently identified denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) processes in controlled anoxic laboratory reactors. Two reactors were seeded with the same inocula containing DAMO organisms Candidatus Methanoperedens nitroreducens and Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera, and anammox organism Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis. Both were fed with ammonium and methane, but one was also fed with nitrate and the other with nitrite, providing anoxic environments with different electron acceptors. After steady state reached in several months, the DAMO process became solely/primarily responsible for nitrate reduction while the anammox process became solely responsible for nitrite reduction in both reactors. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that the nitrate-driven DAMO organism M. nitroreducens dominated both the nitrate-fed (~70%) and the nitrite-fed (~26%) reactors, while the nitrite-driven DAMO organism M. oxyfera disappeared in both communities. The elimination of M. oxyfera from both reactors was likely the results of this organism being outcompeted by anammox bacteria for nitrite. K. stuttgartiensis was detected at relatively low levels (1-3%) in both reactors.

  9. Development of downflow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor as post treatment of existing combined anaerobic tank treating natural rubber processing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Watari, Takahiro; Cuong Mai, Trung; Tanikawa, Daisuke; Hirakata, Yuga; Hatamoto, Masashi; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Fukuda, Masao; Nguyen, Ngoc Bich; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Conventional aerated tank technology is widely applied for post treatment of natural rubber processing wastewater in Southeast Asia; however, a long hydraulic retention time (HRT) is required and the effluent standards are exceeded. In this study, a downflow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor was installed as post treatment of anaerobic tank effluent in a natural rubber factory in South Vietnam and the process performance was evaluated. The DHS reactor demonstrated removal efficiencies of 64.2 ± 7.5% and 55.3 ± 19.2% for total chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen, respectively, with an organic loading rate of 0.97 ± 0.03 kg-COD m(-3) day(-1) and a nitrogen loading rate of 0.57 ± 0.21 kg-N m(-3) day(-1). 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis of the sludge retained in the DHS also corresponded to the result of reactor performance, and both nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria were detected in the sponge carrier. In addition, anammox bacteria was found in the retained sludge. The DHS reactor reduced the HRT of 30 days to 4.8 h compared with the existing algal tank. This result indicates that the DHS reactor could be an appropriate post treatment for the existing anaerobic tank for natural rubber processing wastewater treatment.

  10. Effect of oxygen on the anaerobic methanotroph 'Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera': kinetic and transcriptional analysis.

    PubMed

    Luesken, Francisca A; Wu, Ming L; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Keltjens, Jan T; Stunnenberg, Henk; Francoijs, Kees-Jan; Strous, Marc; Jetten, Mike S M

    2012-04-01

    'Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera' is a denitrifying methanotroph that performs nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation through a newly discovered intra-aerobic pathway. In this study, we investigated the response of a M. oxyfera enrichment culture to oxygen. Addition of either 2% or 8% oxygen resulted in an instant decrease of methane and nitrite conversion rates. Oxygen exposure also led to a deviation in the nitrite to methane oxidation stoichiometry. Oxygen-uptake and inhibition studies with cell-free extracts displayed a change from cytochrome c to quinol as electron donor after exposure to oxygen. The change in global gene expression was monitored by deep sequencing of cDNA using Illumina technology. After 24 h of oxygen exposure, transcription levels of 1109 (out of 2303) genes changed significantly when compared with the anoxic period. Most of the genes encoding enzymes of the methane oxidation pathway were constitutively expressed. Genes from the denitrification pathway, with exception of one of the putative nitric oxide reductases, norZ2, were severely downregulated. The majority of known genes involved in the vital cellular functions, such as nucleic acid and protein biosynthesis and cell division processes, were downregulated. The alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, ahpC, and genes involved in the synthesis/repair of the iron-sulfur clusters were among the few upregulated genes. Further, transcription of the pmoCAB genes of aerobic methanotrophs present in the non-M. oxyfera community were triggered by the presence of oxygen. Our results show that oxygen-exposed cells of M. oxyfera were under oxidative stress and that in spite of its oxygenic capacity, exposure to microoxic conditions has an overall detrimental effect. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Effect of natural zeolite on methane production for anaerobic digestion of ammonium rich organic sludge.

    PubMed

    Tada, Chika; Yang, Yingnan; Hanaoka, Toshiaki; Sonoda, Akinari; Ooi, Kenta; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2005-03-01

    The effect of an inorganic additive on the methane production from NH(4+)-rich organic sludge during anaerobic digestion was investigated using different kinds of inorganic adsorbent zeolites (mordenite, clinoptilolite, zeolite 3A, zeolite 4A), clay mineral (vermiculite), and manganese oxides (hollandite, birnessite). The additions of inorganic materials resulted in significant NH4+ removals from the natural organic sludge ([NH4+]=1, 150 mg N/l), except for the H-type zeolite 3A and birnessite. However, an enhanced methane production was only achieved using natural mordenite. Natural mordenite also enhanced the methane production from the sludge with a markedly high NH4+ concentration (4500 mg N/l) during anaerobic digestion. Chemical analyses of the sludge after the digestion showed considerable increases in the Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations in the presence of natural mordenite, but not with synthetic zeolite 3A. The effect of Ca2+ or Mg2+ addition on the methane production was studied using Na(+)-exchanges mordenite and Ca2+ or Mg(2+)-enriched sludge. The simultaneous addition of Ca2+ ions and Na(+)-exchanged mordenite enhanced the methane production; the amount of produced methane was about three times greater than that using only the Na(+)-exchanged mordenite. In addition, comparing the methane production by the addition of natural mordenite or Ca2+ ions, the methane production with natural mordenite was about 1.7 times higher than that with only Ca2+ ions. The addition of 5% and 10% natural mordenite were suitable condition for obtaining a high methane production. These results indicated that the Ca2+ ions, which are released from natural mordenite by a Ca2+/NH4+ exchange, enhanced the methane production of the organic waste at a high NH4+ concentration. Natural mordenite has a synergistic effect on the Ca2+ supply as well on the NH4+ removal during anaerobic digestion, which is effective for the mitigation of NH4+ inhibition against methane production.

  12. Role of oxidants in enhancing dewaterability of anaerobically digested sludge through Fe (II) activated oxidation processes: hydrogen peroxide versus persulfate

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kang; Zhou, Xu; Liu, Yiqi; Gong, Yanyan; Zhou, Beibei; Wang, Dongbo; Wang, Qilin

    2016-01-01

    Improving dewaterability of sludge is important for the disposal of sludge in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This study, for the first time, investigated the Fe(II) activated oxidization processes in improving anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) dewaterability. The combination of Fe(II) (0–100 mg/g total solids (TS)) and persulfate (0–1,000 mg/g TS) under neutral pH as well as the combination of Fe(II) (0–100 mg/g TS) and hydrogen peroxide (HP) (0–1,000 mg/g TS) under pH 3.0 were used to examine and compare their effect on the ADS dewaterability enhancement. The highest ADS dewaterability enhancement was attained at 25 mg Fe(II)/g TS and 50 mg HP/g TS, when the CST (CST: the capillary suction time, a sludge dewaterability indicator) was reduced by 95%. In contrast, the highest CST reduction in Fe(II)-persulfate conditioning was 90%, which was obtained at 50 mg Fe(II)/g TS and 250 mg persulfate/g TS. The results showed that Fe(II)-HP conditioning was comparable with Fe(II)-persulfate conditioning in terms of highest CST reduction. Economic analysis suggested that the Fe(II)-HP conditioning was more promising for improving ADS dewaterability compared with Fe(II)-persulfate conditioning, with the saving being up to $65,000 per year in a WWTP with a population equivalent of 100,000. PMID:27109500

  13. Role of oxidants in enhancing dewaterability of anaerobically digested sludge through Fe (II) activated oxidation processes: hydrogen peroxide versus persulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kang; Zhou, Xu; Liu, Yiqi; Gong, Yanyan; Zhou, Beibei; Wang, Dongbo; Wang, Qilin

    2016-04-01

    Improving dewaterability of sludge is important for the disposal of sludge in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This study, for the first time, investigated the Fe(II) activated oxidization processes in improving anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) dewaterability. The combination of Fe(II) (0-100 mg/g total solids (TS)) and persulfate (0-1,000 mg/g TS) under neutral pH as well as the combination of Fe(II) (0-100 mg/g TS) and hydrogen peroxide (HP) (0-1,000 mg/g TS) under pH 3.0 were used to examine and compare their effect on the ADS dewaterability enhancement. The highest ADS dewaterability enhancement was attained at 25 mg Fe(II)/g TS and 50 mg HP/g TS, when the CST (CST: the capillary suction time, a sludge dewaterability indicator) was reduced by 95%. In contrast, the highest CST reduction in Fe(II)-persulfate conditioning was 90%, which was obtained at 50 mg Fe(II)/g TS and 250 mg persulfate/g TS. The results showed that Fe(II)-HP conditioning was comparable with Fe(II)-persulfate conditioning in terms of highest CST reduction. Economic analysis suggested that the Fe(II)-HP conditioning was more promising for improving ADS dewaterability compared with Fe(II)-persulfate conditioning, with the saving being up to $65,000 per year in a WWTP with a population equivalent of 100,000.

  14. Effect of chlorate, molybdate, and shikimic acid on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in aerobic and anaerobic cultures.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Christy E; Beier, Ross C; Hume, Michael E; Horrocks, Shane M; Casey, Thomas A; Caton, Joel S; Nisbet, David J; Smith, David J; Krueger, Nathan A; Anderson, Robin C

    2010-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine factors that affect sensitivity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to sodium chlorate (5mM). In our first experiment, cultures grown without chlorate grew more rapidly than those with chlorate. An extended lag before logarithmic growth was observed in anaerobic but not aerobic cultures containing chlorate. Chlorate inhibition of growth during aerobic culture began later than that observed in anaerobic cultures but persisted once inhibition was apparent. Conversely, anaerobic cultures appeared to adapt to chlorate after approximately 10h of incubation, exhibiting rapid compensatory growth. In anaerobic chlorate-containing cultures, 20% of total viable counts were resistant to chlorate by 6h and had propagated to 100% resistance (>10(9)CFU mL(-1)) by 24h. In the aerobic chlorate-containing cultures, 12.9% of colonies had detectable resistance to chlorate by 6h, but only 1% retained detectable resistance at 24h, likely because these cultures had opportunity to respire on oxygen and were thus not enriched via the selective pressure of chlorate. In another study, treatment with shikimic acid (0.34 mM), molybdate (1mM) or their combination had little effect on aerobic or anaerobic growth of Salmonella in the absence of added chlorate. As observed in our earlier study, chlorate resistance was not detected in any cultures without added chlorate. Chlorate resistant Salmonella were recovered at equivalent numbers regardless of treatment after 8h of aerobic or anaerobic culture with added chlorate; however, by 24h incubation chlorate sensitivity was completely restored to aerobic but not anaerobic cultures treated with shikimic acid or molybdate but not their combination. Results indicate that anaerobic adaptation of S. Typhimurium to sodium chlorate during pure culture is likely due to the selective propagation of low numbers of cells exhibiting spontaneous resistance to chlorate and this resistance is not reversible by

  15. Report: anaerobic digestion of a sulphate-rich high-strength landfill leachate: the effect of differential dosing with FeCl3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengjian; Banks, Charles J

    2006-06-01

    The effect of different dose concentrations of FeCl3 on the performance of a mesophilic anaerobic digester treating a highly alkaline, high-strength and sulphate-rich landfill leachate was tested. The results indicated that sulphate reduction was the predominant reaction and methanogenic processes were entirely inhibited in the reactor without FeCl3 addition. Adding FeCl3 into the reactor restored some methanogenic activity and also improved the rates of sulphate reduction. A combination of sulphate reduction and methanogenic activity resulted in up to 75% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and 85% sulphate removal. Sulphate reduction remained the principle mechanism by which COD removal took place with a methane yield of only between 0.14 and 0.18 m3 CH4 kg(-1) COD removed being achieved. The process was, however, stable and offered advantages for the further treatment or conveyance of the anaerobically treated leachate.

  16. Modelling phosphorus (P), sulfur (S) and iron (Fe) interactions for dynamic simulations of anaerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Solon, Kimberly; Kazadi Mbamba, Christian; Tait, Stephan; Gernaey, Krist V; Jeppsson, Ulf; Batstone, Damien J

    2016-05-15

    This paper proposes a series of extensions to functionally upgrade the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) to allow for plant-wide phosphorus (P) simulation. The close interplay between the P, sulfur (S) and iron (Fe) cycles requires a substantial (and unavoidable) increase in model complexity due to the involved three-phase physico-chemical and biological transformations. The ADM1 version, implemented in the plant-wide context provided by the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2), is used as the basic platform (A0). Three different model extensions (A1, A2, A3) are implemented, simulated and evaluated. The first extension (A1) considers P transformations by accounting for the kinetic decay of polyphosphates (XPP) and potential uptake of volatile fatty acids (VFA) to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (XPHA) by phosphorus accumulating organisms (XPAO). Two variant extensions (A2,1/A2,2) describe biological production of sulfides (SIS) by means of sulfate reducing bacteria (XSRB) utilising hydrogen only (autolithotrophically) or hydrogen plus organic acids (heterorganotrophically) as electron sources, respectively. These two approaches also consider a potential hydrogen sulfide ( [Formula: see text] inhibition effect and stripping to the gas phase ( [Formula: see text] ). The third extension (A3) accounts for chemical iron (III) ( [Formula: see text] ) reduction to iron (II) ( [Formula: see text] ) using hydrogen ( [Formula: see text] ) and sulfides (SIS) as electron donors. A set of pre/post interfaces between the Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) and ADM1 are furthermore proposed in order to allow for plant-wide (model-based) analysis and study of the interactions between the water and sludge lines. Simulation (A1 - A3) results show that the ratio between soluble/particulate P compounds strongly depends on the pH and cationic load, which determines the capacity to form (or not) precipitation products. Implementations A1 and A2,1/A2,2 lead to a reduction in

  17. Effects of different recovery interventions on anaerobic performances following preseason soccer training.

    PubMed

    Tessitore, Antonio; Meeusen, Romain; Cortis, Cristina; Capranica, Laura

    2007-08-01

    In the preseason soccer training, morning and afternoon training sessions often are scheduled daily. The high frequency of training sessions could place heavy strain on biological systems, and it is necessary to apply proper recovery strategies for improving the players' capability to regain an adequate working state for subsequent training units. However, the effect of recovery interventions following soccer training units is debatable, due to a lack of studies performed in field situations. The aim of this study was to examine, during a 21-day preseason soccer training, the most effective recovery intervention (i.e., passive, dry-aerobic exercises, water-aerobic exercises, electrostimulation) on anaerobic performances (i.e., squat jump, countermovement jump, bounce jumping, and 10-m sprint) and subjective ratings (i.e., perceived exertion and muscle pain), with the conditions before the intervention controlled and standardized. Twelve young (age: 18.1 +/- 1.2 years) elite soccer players participated. Data were collected on 4 occasions 2 days apart and at the same time of the day. Activity and dietary intake were replicated on each occasion. After baseline measurements, participants performed a standardized training during which their heart rates and ratings of perceived exertion were recorded. This was followed by a 20-minute recovery intervention. After a 5-hour rest, athletes' ratings of muscle pain were recorded prior to a second test session. There were no significant differences in exercise intensities and baseline anaerobic performances. Significantly (p < 0.01) better performances were observed in the afternoon. Although no main effect of recovery intervention was observed on anaerobic performances, dry-aerobic exercises (0.6 +/- 0.9) and electrostimulation (0.6 +/- 1.2) were more beneficial (p < 0.01) than water-aerobic exercises (2.1 +/- 1.1) and passive rest (2.1 +/- 1.7) for reducing muscle pain, which could affect the player's working ability.

  18. Microbial dynamics in anaerobic digestion reactors for treating organic urban residues during the start-up process.

    PubMed

    Alcántara-Hernández, Rocio J; Taş, Neslihan; Carlos-Pinedo, Sandra; Durán-Moreno, Alfonso; Falcón, Luisa I

    2017-03-13

    Anaerobic digestion of organic residues offers economic benefits via biogas production, still methane (CH4 ) yield relies on the development of a robust microbial consortia for adequate substrate degradation, among other factors. In this study, we monitor biogas production and changes in the microbial community composition in two semi-continuous stirred tank reactors during the setting process under mesophilic conditions (35°C) using a 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing method. Reactors were initially inoculated with anaerobic granular sludge from a brewery wastewater treatment plant, and gradually fed with organic urban residues (4.0 kgVS m(-3) d(-1) ). The inocula and biomass samples showed changes related to adaptations of the community to urban organic wastes including a higher relative proportion of Clostridiales, with Ruminococcus spp. and Syntrophomonas spp. as recurrent species. Candidatus Cloacamonas spp. (Spirochaetes) also increased from ~2.2% in the inoculum to >10% in the reactor biomass. The new community consolidated the cellulose degradation and the propionate and amino acids fermentation processes. Acetoclastic methanogens were more abundant in the reactor, where Methanosaeta spp. was found as a key player. This study demonstrates a successful use of brewery treatment plant granular sludge to obtain a robust consortium for methane production from urban organic solid waste in Mexico. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficient model calibration method based on phase experiments for anaerobic-anoxic/nitrifying (A2N) two-sludge process.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hongliang; Chen, Wenliang; Dai, Zheqin; Li, Xiang; Lu, Xiwu

    2017-06-30

    A systematic calibration and validation procedure for the complex mechanistic modeling of anaerobic-anoxic/nitrifying (A2N) two-sludge system is needed. An efficient method based on phase experiments, sensitivity analysis, and genetic algorithm is proposed here for model calibration. Phase experiments (anaerobic phosphorus release, aerobic nitrification, and anoxic denitrifying phosphate accumulation) in an A2N sequencing batch reactor (SBR) were performed to reflect the process conditions accurately and improve the model calibration efficiency. The calibrated model was further validated using 30 batch experiments and 3-month dynamic continuous flow (CF) experiments for A2N-SBR and CF-A2N process, respectively. Several statistical criteria were conducted to evaluate the accuracy of model predications, including the average relative deviation (ARD), mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), and Janus coefficient. Visual comparisons and statistical analyses indicated that the calibrated model could provide accurate predictions for the effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP), with only one iteration.

  20. Support material dictates the attached biomass characteristics during the immobilization process in anaerobic continuous-flow packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kerčmar, Jasmina; Pintar, Albin

    2017-06-10

    Hydrogen is considered to be an ideal energy alternative to replace environmentally burdensome fossil fuels. For its long-term production the immobilized biofilm system is the most promising and to choose the right support material the most challenging. In this respect, the anaerobic up-flow bioreactors packed with four most used support materials (polyethylene, polyurethane, activated carbon and expanded clay) were tested to investigate the crucial bacteria sensitive period-the immobilization process. Seven-day-operation was necessary and sufficient to reach metabolic and microbial stability regardless of support material used. The support material had an influence on the microbial metabolic activity as well as on quantity and quality characteristics of the immobilized microbial community, being polyethylene and expanded clay more appropriate as supports among the materials evaluated; this could be attributed to pH alteration. The obtained results suggest that the support material dictates the outcome of the immobilization process in the anaerobic continuous-flow bioreactor. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Anaerobic-fed and sequencing-batch treatment of sugar-beet processing wastes: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Alkaya, Emrah; Demirer, Göksel N

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a batch-fed continuously mixed anaerobic reactor (FCMR) with an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), in terms of waste stabilization and methane production treating sugar-beet processing wastewater and beet-pulp simultaneously. A reactor was operated as FCMR, which then was operated as an ASBR by changing operational conditions after the steady-state was reached. Although the hydraulic retention time value of the ASBR configuration was lower (8 days) than that of the FCMR (15 days) and the corresponding organic loading rate (OLR) was higher (0.71 to 1.33 g COD/L x d), increased biomass retention enabled a significant increase in biomethanation for the ASBR configuration. So, methane production yield of 255 +/- 11 mL/g COD-added was increased to 337 +/- 15 mL/g COD-added (32.2% increase in methane yield) when the configuration was changed from FCMR to ASBR. The experimental results indicated that the ASBR configuration, which was applied to sugar-beet processing wastes for the first time, was superior to the FCMR configuration.

  2. Oxygen Consumption by Anaerobic Saccharomyces cerevisiae under Enological Conditions: Effect on Fermentation Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Eric; Beauvoit, Bertrand; Blondin, Bruno; Salmon, Jean-Michel

    2003-01-01

    The anaerobic growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae normally requires the addition of molecular oxygen, which is used to synthesize sterols and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs). A single oxygen pulse can stimulate enological fermentation, but the biochemical pathways involved in this phenomenon remain to be elucidated. We showed that the addition of oxygen (0.3 to 1.5 mg/g [dry mass] of yeast) to a lipid-depleted medium mainly resulted in the synthesis of the sterols and UFAs required for cell growth. However, the addition of oxygen during the stationary phase in a medium containing excess ergosterol and oleic acid increased the specific fermentation rate, increased cell viability, and shortened the fermentation period. Neither the respiratory chain nor de novo protein synthesis was required for these medium- and long-term effects. As de novo lipid synthesis may be involved in ethanol tolerance, we studied the effect of oxygen addition on sterol and UFA auxotrophs (erg1 and ole1 mutants, respectively). Both mutants exhibited normal anaerobic fermentation kinetics. However, only the ole1 mutant strain responded to the oxygen pulse during the stationary phase, suggesting that de novo sterol synthesis is required for the oxygen-induced increase of the specific fermentation rate. In conclusion, the sterol pathway appears to contribute significantly to the oxygen consumption capacities of cells under anaerobic conditions. Nevertheless, we demonstrated the existence of alternative oxygen consumption pathways that are neither linked to the respiratory chain nor linked to heme, sterol, or UFA synthesis. These pathways dissipate the oxygen added during the stationary phase, without affecting the fermentation kinetics. PMID:12513985

  3. Effects of dietary Acid load on exercise metabolism and anaerobic exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Caciano, Susan L; Inman, Cynthia L; Gockel-Blessing, Elizabeth E; Weiss, Edward P

    2015-06-01

    Dietary acid load, quantified as the potential renal acid load (PRAL) of the diet, affects systemic pH and acid-base regulation. In a previous cross-sectional study, we reported that a low dietary PRAL (i.e. alkaline promoting diet) is associated with higher respiratory exchange ratio (RER) values during maximal exercise. The purpose of the present study was to confirm the previous findings with a short-term dietary intervention study. Additionally, we sought to determine if changes in PRAL affects submaximal exercise RER (as a reflection of substrate utilization) and anaerobic exercise performance. Subjects underwent a graded treadmill exercise test (GXT) to exhaustion and an anaerobic exercise performance test on two occasions, once after following a low-PRAL diet and on a separate occasion, after a high-PRAL diet. The diets were continued as long as needed to achieve an alkaline or acid fasted morning urine pH, respectively, with all being 4-9 days in duration. RER was measured during the GXT with indirect calorimetry. The anaerobic performance test was a running time-to-exhaustion test lasting 1-4 min. Maximal exercise RER was lower in the low-PRAL trial compared to the high-PRAL trial (1.10 ± 0.02 vs. 1.20 ± 0.05, p = 0.037). The low-PRAL diet also resulted in a 21% greater time to exhaustion during anaerobic exercise (2.56 ± 0.36 vs. 2.11 ± 0.31 sec, p = 0.044) and a strong tendency for lower RER values during submaximal exercise at 70% VO2max (0.88 ± 0.02 vs. 0.96 ± 0.04, p = 0.060). Contrary to our expectations, a short-term low-PRAL (alkaline promoting) diet resulted in lower RER values during maximal-intensity exercise. However, the low-PRAL diet also increased anaerobic exercise time to exhaustion and appears to have shifted submaximal exercise substrate utilization to favor lipid oxidation and spare carbohydrate, both of which would be considered favorable effects in the context of exercise performance. Key pointsShort-term (4-9 days) changes in

  4. Integrated extraction and anaerobic digestion process for recovery of nutraceuticals and biogas from pomegranate marcs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pomegranate marc (PM), a by-product from pomegranate juice processing, has not been effectively utilized. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the yields and properties of antioxidants (henceforth referring to total phenolics in terms of tannic acid equivalent) and oil extracted from v...

  5. Combined effect of erythromycin, tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole on performance of anaerobic sequencing batch reactors.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Sevcan; Ince, Bahar; Cetecioglu, Zeynep; Arikan, Osman; Ozbayram, E Gozde; Shahi, Aiyoub; Ince, Orhan

    2015-06-01

    The combined effects of erythromycin-tetracycline-sulfamethoxazole (ETS) and sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline (ST) antibiotics on the performance of anaerobic sequencing batch reactors were studied. A control reactor was fed with wastewater that was free of antibiotics, while two additional reactors were fed with ETS and ST. The way in which the ETS and ST mixtures impact COD removal, VFA production, antibiotic degradation, biogas production and composition were investigated. The effects of the ETS mixtures were different from the ST mixtures, erythromycin can have an antagonistic effect on sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline. The anaerobic pre-treatment of these antibiotics can represent a suitable alternative to the use of chemical treatments for concentrations at 10 mg/L of S and 1 mg/L of T; 2 mg/L of E, 2 mg/L of T and 20 mg/L of S for the ST and ETS reactors respectively, which corresponds to min 70% COD removal efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of the antibiotics ampicillin, florfenicol, sulfamethazine, and tylosin on biogas production and their degradation efficiency during anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Shannon M; Ullman, Jeffrey L; Teel, Amy L; Watts, Richard J; Frear, Craig

    2013-12-01

    The impacts of four common animal husbandry antibiotics (ampicillin, florfenicol, sulfamethazine, and tylosin) on anaerobic digestion (AD) treatment efficiency and the potential for antibiotic degradation during digestion were evaluated. Sulfamethazine and ampicillin exhibited no impact on total biogas production up to 280 and 350 mg/L, respectively, although ampicillin inhibited biogas production rates during early stages of AD. Tylosin reduced biogas production by 10-38% between 130 and 913 mg/L. Florfenicol reduced biogas by ≈ 5%, 40% and 75% at 6.4, 36 and 210 mg/L, respectively. These antibiotic concentrations are higher than commonly seen for mixed feedlot manure, so impacts on full scale AD should be minimal. Antibiotic degradation products were found, confirming AD effectively degraded ampicillin, florfenicol, and tylosin, although some products were persistent throughout the process. Contamination of AD solid and liquid effluents with sulfamethazine and antibiotic transformation products from florfenicol and tylosin could present an environmental concern. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of solid poultry slaughterhouse waste: effect of hydraulic retention time and loading.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Esa A; Rintala, Jukka A

    2002-07-01

    We studied the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and loading on anaerobic digestion of poultry slaughterhouse wastes, using semi-continuously fed, laboratory-scale digesters at 31 degrees C. The effect on process performance was highly significant: Anaerobic digestion appeared feasible with a loading of up to 0.8 kg volatile solids (VS)/m3 d and an HRT of 50-100 days. The specific methane yield was high, from 0.52 to 0.55 m3/kg VS(added). On the other hand, at a higher loading, in the range from 1.0 to 2.1 kg VS/m3 d, and a shorter HRT, in the range from 25 to 13 days, the process appeared inhibited and/or overloaded, as indicated by the accumulation of volatile fatty acids and long-chain fatty acids and the decline in the methane yield. However, the inhibition was reversible. The nitrogen in the feed, ca. 7.8% of total solids (TS), was organic nitrogen with little ammonia present, whereas in the digested material ammonia accounted for 52-67% (up to 3.8 g/l) of total nitrogen. The TS and VS removals amounted to 76% and 64%, respectively. Our results show that on a continuous basis under the studied conditions and with a loading of up to 0.8 kg VS/m3 d metric ton (wet weight) of the studied waste mixture could yield up to 140 m3 of methane.

  8. [Factors of effecting hydrogen production from anaerobic fermentation of excess sewage sludge].

    PubMed

    Cai, Mu-lin; Liu, Jun-xin

    2005-03-01

    Large amounts of sewage sludge is produced from the treatment of wastewater by biological processes, which is usually treated by anaerobic digestion to produce methane gas. Acetogenesis and hydrogen are an intermediate phase during the anaerobic digestion. Batch tests of fermentative hydrogen production under different initial pH (3.0 - 12.5) were compared using the raw sludge and alkaline pretreated sludge. The influences of the characteristics and concentration of sludge were also examined thereafter. Results show that the optimal initial pH for biohydrogen production from sewage sludge was around 11.0. Under this optimal condition, the biohydrogen yield of raw sludge was 8.1 mL/g, and it would reach to 16.9 mL/g when the sludge was pretreated by alkali. Furthermore, there is no methane generation during the biohydrogen fermentation of the alkaline pretreatment sludge in 4 days and the hydrogen consumption is also slowed down. In addition, a low VSS/SS rate will reduce the hydrogen yield, while the concentrations of sludge have no obvious compact on it.

  9. Assessment of Two Solid Anaerobic Digestate Soil Amendments for Effects on Soil Quality and Biosolarization Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bayo, Jesús D; Achmon, Yigal; Harrold, Duff R; McCurry, Dlinka G; Hernandez, Katie; Dahlquist-Willard, Ruth M; Stapleton, James J; VanderGheynst, Jean S; Simmons, Christopher W

    2017-05-03

    Anaerobic digestion is an organic waste bioconversion process that produces biofuel and digestates. Digestates have potential to be applied as soil amendment to improve properties for crop production including phytonutrient content and pest load. Our objective was to assess the impact of solid anaerobic digestates on weed seed inactivation and soil quality upon soil biosolarization (a pest control technique that combines solar heating and amendment-induced microbial activity). Two solid digestates from thermophilic (TD) and mesophilic (MD) digesters were tested. The solarized TD-amended samples presented significantly higher mortality of Brassica nigra (71%, P = 0.032) than its equivalent incubated at room temperature. However, biosolarization with digestate amendment led to decreased weed seed mortality in certain treatments. The plant-available water, total C, and extractable P and K were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the incubated amended soils. The results confirm the potential of digestates as beneficial soil amendments. Further studies are needed to elucidate the impacts of digestate stability on biosolarization efficacy and soil properties.

  10. How Specific Microbial Communities Benefit the Oil Industry: Anaerobic Microbial Processes and the Prospect for Methane Production from Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gieg, Lisa

    In strict anaerobic environments, oxygen is essentially non-existent. However, anaerobic microorganisms may thrive in such environments by metabolising organic or inorganic energy and/or carbon sources while respiring alternate electron acceptors such as nitrate, metals, or sulphate. Methanogenesis is the key electron accepting process in environments characterised by the absence of any electron acceptors other than CO2. Geological evidence has shown that most of the Earth's petroleum resources have been biodegraded over millennia, the extents to which likely depended on nutrient and water availability, temperature, and the requisite microorganisms (Röling et al., 2003; Head et al., 2003; Hallmann et al., 2008). Gases of biological origin including methane are believed to be primary byproducts of microbial oil metabolism in petroliferous deposits where oil quality has diminished due to the preferential consumption of valuable 'light' hydrocarbons (Head et al., 2003; Milkov and Dzou, 2007; Jones et al., 2008). While this phenomenon has enormous economic implications for recovering high-value light oil, it also sets the precedent for a potential alternate energy recovery strategy - that is, recovering energy as methane gas that is biologically produced as the result of methanogenic oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs that are at their economic limits.

  11. Anaerobic digestion of nitrogen rich poultry manure: Impact of thermophilic biogas process on metal release and microbial resistances.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Reshma; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Krakat, Niclas

    2017-02-01

    Poultry manure is a nitrogen rich fertilizer, which is usually recycled and spread on agricultural fields. Due to its high nutrient content, chicken manure is considered to be one of the most valuable animal wastes as organic fertilizer. However, when chicken litter is applied in its native form, concerns are raised as such fertilizers also include high amounts of antibiotic resistant pathogenic Bacteria and heavy metals. We studied the impact of an anaerobic thermophilic digestion process on poultry manure. Particularly, microbial antibiotic resistance profiles, mobile genetic elements promoting the resistance dissemination in the environment as well as the presence of heavy metals were focused in this study. The initiated heat treatment fostered a community shift from pathogenic to less pathogenic bacterial groups. Phenotypic and molecular studies demonstrated a clear reduction of multiple resistant pathogens and self-transmissible plasmids in the heat treated manure. That treatment also induced a higher release of metals and macroelements. Especially, Zn and Cu exceeded toxic thresholds. Although the concentrations of a few metals reached toxic levels after the anaerobic thermophilic treatment, the quality of poultry manure as organic fertilizer may raise significantly due to the elimination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) and self-transmissible plasmids.

  12. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles during Anaerobic Digestion of Wastewater and Post-Treatment Processing of Sewage Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica; Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Turney, Terence W.; Naidu, Ravi; Miller, Bradley W.; Scheckel, Kirk G.

    2013-01-14

    The rapid development and commercialization of nanomaterials will inevitably result in the release of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment. As NPs often exhibit physical and chemical properties significantly different from those of their molecular or macrosize analogs, concern has been growing regarding their fate and toxicity in environmental compartments. The wastewater-sewage sludge pathway has been identified as a key release pathway leading to environmental exposure to NPs. In this study, we investigated the chemical transformation of two ZnO-NPs and one hydrophobic ZnO-NP commercial formulation (used in personal care products), during anaerobic digestion of wastewater. Changes in Zn speciation as a result of postprocessing of the sewage sludge, mimicking composting/stockpiling, were also assessed. The results indicated that 'native' Zn and Zn added either as a soluble salt or as NPs was rapidly converted to sulfides in all treatments. The hydrophobicity of the commercial formulation retarded the conversion of ZnO-NP. However, at the end of the anaerobic digestion process and after postprocessing of the sewage sludge (which caused a significant change in Zn speciation), the speciation of Zn was similar across all treatments. This indicates that, at least for the material tested, the risk assessment of ZnO-NP through this exposure pathway can rely on the significant knowledge already available in regard to other 'conventional' forms of Zn present in sewage sludge.

  13. Importance of "weak-base" poplar wastes to process performance and methane yield in solid-state anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yiqing; Chen, Shulin; Kafle, Gopi Krishna

    2017-05-15

    Failure of methane yield is common for anaerobic digestion (AD) of "weak-acid/acid" wastes alone. In order to verify the importance of pH of materials on the process performance and the methane yield, the "weak-base" wastes-poplar wastes (PW) were used as substrate of solid-state AD (SS-AD). The results show that PW could be used for efficient methane yield after NaOH treatment, the total methane yield was 81.1 L/kg volatile solids (VS). PW also could be used for anaerobic co-digestion with high-pH cattle slurry (CM). For the group with NaOH pretreatment, time used for reaching stable state was 2 days earlier than that of the group without NaOH pretreatment. The maximal methane yield of 98.2 L/kg VS was obtained on conditions of 1:1 of PW-to-CM (P/C) ratio and NaOH pretreatment, which was 21.1% (p < 0.05) higher than that of PW. The maximal reductions of total solids (TS), VS, cellulose and hemicellulose were 51.3%, 57.5%, 46.0% and 47.0%, respectively, which were associated with the maximal methane yield. The results indicate that PW could be alone used for efficient SS-AD for methane yield after NaOH treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Application and kinetic evaluation of upflow anaerobic biofilm reactor for nitrogen removal from wastewater by Anammox process

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The lab-scale upflow anaerobic biofilm reactor was successfully operated for the treatment of synthetic wastewater with high nitrogen load by Anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process. During the entire period of operation, the reactor temperature was kept at 35±1°C. The operational strategy consisted of both increasing the ammonium and nitrite concentrations from 60 to 700mgN/L and from 80 to 920 mgN/L, respectively and decreasing the hydraulic retention time from 24 to 6 h, at each step. The highest achieved removal efficiency of ammonium and nitrite were 91 and 93%, respectively. Consequently, due to their acceptable performance for nitrogen removal in previous researches, modified Stover-Kincannon and Grau second-order models were used in this study. According to the experiment results, the model validity testing showed that the Stover-Kincannon model was a little more appropriate for the description of nitrogen removal in the reactor, even though both models gave high correlation coefficients (R2=0.999). PMID:23414202

  15. Effect of different livestock dungs as inoculum on food waste anaerobic digestion and its kinetics.

    PubMed

    Dhamodharan, Kondusamy; Kumar, Vikas; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different livestock inoculums on the anaerobic digestion of food waste (FW). Five different livestock dungs i.e., poultry dung (PD), goat dung (GD), cow dung (CD), piggery dung (PGD) and rhinoceros dung (RD) were utilized as inoculums and their effects were valued in various food to microorganism (F/M) ratios in batch reactors. Different livestock dungs achieved higher methane production and volatile solids (VS) reduction in different F/M ratios such as PD, GD, CD, PGD and RD achieved at F/M ratio maintained at 1.5, 2, 2, 1.5 and 1.5, respectively. The results indicated that CD and PGD inoculum were more suitable for the anaerobic digestion of FW than other livestock dungs. Reactors inoculated with CD achieved higher methane production (227mLg(-1)VS degraded) and volatile solids degradation (54.58%) at F/M ratio maintained at 2.

  16. Effect of load carriage on performance of an explosive, anaerobic military task.

    PubMed

    Treloar, Alison K Laing; Billing, Daniel C

    2011-09-01

    This study examined the effects of load carriage on performance of an explosive, anaerobic military task. A task-specific assessment requiring five 30-m timed sprints was developed to address this question. Seventeen soldiers (female = 5, male = 12) volunteered to undergo the test under two experimental conditions: unloaded (combat uniform and boots) and loaded (unloaded plus 21.6 kg fighting load, comprising webbing, weapon, helmet, and combat body armor). When loaded, there was a significant increase in the mean 30-m sprint time compared to unloaded (8.2 +/- 1.4 seconds vs. 6.2 +/- 0.8 seconds; p < 0.01). Of the total increase in mean sprint time, 51.7% occurred within the first 5 m. Female sprint times were affected to a larger extent than male (36% vs. 29%, respectively) as a result of the increased load. Fighting load significantly affected soldier mobility when conducting explosive, anaerobic military tasks, particularly among females, and specific physical conditioning should be considered to minimize this effect.

  17. Effects of Acute Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Anaerobic Performance in Trained Female Cyclists.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Jordan M; Smith, Keyona; Moyen, Nicole E; Binns, Ashley; Gray, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal beta-alanine (BA) supplementation can improve exercise performance in males through increases in carnosine; however, females experience greater relative increases in carnosine compared to males. This potentially allows females to benefit from acute BA doses; however, effects of an acute BA dose on performance in females remain unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate how an acute dose of 1.6 g BA affects anaerobic performance in female cyclists. Twelve females (age=26.6±1.3 y) volunteered to participate in this randomized, double-blind study. All participants completed two supplement trials: 1) Placebo=34 g dextrose and 2) BA=1.6 g BA + 34 g dextrose. Thirty-minutes after supplementation, participants performed three repeated Wingate cycling tests with 2 min of active rest after each. Fatigue index, mean power, and peak power were measured during each Wingate. Lactate, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at rest, immediately after each Wingate, and after each active rest period. RPE significantly decreased (p<0.001) immediately following Wingates 1 and 2 and after each 2-min rest period for the BA trials; however, no differences were observed immediately after Wingate 3 (p>0.05). No significant supplementation effect was observed for any performance or physiological variable (p>0.05 for all variables). Findings suggest that an acute dose of BA (1.6 g) decreases RPE during anaerobic power activities in trained female cyclists.

  18. Effect of aluminium and sulphate on anaerobic digestion of sludge from wastewater enhanced primary treatment.

    PubMed

    Cabirol, N; Barragán, E J; Durán, A; Noyola, A

    2003-01-01

    The combined and individual effects of aluminium and sulphate at concentrations of 1,000 mg/l as Al(OH)3, and 150 mgSO4(2-)/L as K2SO4, respectively, on the anaerobic digestion of sludge from enhanced primary treatment (EPT) were evaluated in 1 L capacity semi continuous reactors. It was found that at 59 days, aluminium inhibits the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of methanogenic and acetogenic bacteria resulting in a 50% to 72% decrease. Sulphate also inhibits (48% to 65%) the SMA of the same type of bacteria. Methanogenic and acetogenic bacteria were able to adapt, to a different extent, to the assayed concentrations of aluminium and sulphate. However, the combination of aluminium and sulphate resulted in a higher inhibition, especially of the hydrogenophilic methanogenic bacteria. Indeed, this effect remained during the time of the experiment, maintaining an inhibition of 44% at 114 days. Feeding with EPT sludge led to a bigger decrease in SMA of each bacterial group, with respect to the other treatments with time. It is concluded that the acidification of anaerobic reactors fed with EPT sludge is due, among other causes, to the concurrent presence of aluminium and sulphate.

  19. Improve bio-activity of anaerobic sludge by low energy ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yichun; Li, Xin; Du, Maoan; Liu, Zuwen; Luo, Hui; Zhang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    This research focused on ultrasound-enhanced bio-activity of anaerobic sludge. Low energy ultrasound irradiation can increase the bio-activity of anaerobic sludge. Ultrasonic parameter, characteristics of anaerobic sludge and experimental conditions are important parameters which affect the enhancement effect on anaerobic sludge. In order to assess the effects of characteristics of anaerobic sludge and experimental conditions on ultrasonic irradiation of anaerobic sludge, experiments with different characteristics of anaerobic sludge were carried out and analyzed with the content of coenzyme F420 and dehydrogenase activity (DHA). The results showed that anaerobic sludge bio-activity was impacted by the initial temperature, initial chemical oxygen demand (COD), sludge concentration, and stirring during the ultrasonic process. Optimal performance was achieved when sound frequency, power density, and ultrasonic irradiation period was 20 kHz, 0.1 W/mL, and 10 min, respectively, under which the wastewater COD removal efficiency was increased by 12.9 percentage points. The results indicated that low temperature could affect the anaerobic sludge irradiation effect, while intermittent stirring could enhance the bio-activity of anaerobic sludge irradiation effect and low substrate concentration improved anaerobic sludge activity by ultrasound.

  20. Gas production in anaerobic dark-fermentation processes from agriculture solid waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriwuryandari, L.; Priantoro, E. A.; Sintawardani, N.

    2017-03-01

    Approximately, Bandung produces agricultural solid waste of 1549 ton/day. This wastes consist of wet-organic matter and can be used for bio-gas production. The research aimed to apply the available agricultural solid waste for bio-hydrogen. Biogas production was done by a serial of batches anaerobic fermentation using mix-culture bacteria as the active microorganism. Fermentation was carried out inside a 30 L bioreactor at room temperature. The analyzed parameters were of pH, total gas, temperature, and COD. Result showed that from 3 kg/day of organic wastes, various total gases of O2, CH4, H2, CO2, and CnHn,O2 was produced.

  1. Model to couple anaerobic process kinetics with biological growth equilibrium thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Perry L; Bae, Jaeho

    2011-08-15

    Monod kinetics indicates a substrate concentration limit (S(min)) at biological growth equilibrium where growth is just balanced by decay. A relationship between S(min) and the Gibbs free energy available at growth equilibrium (ΔG(E)) was introduced into the Monod model and applied directly to chemostat cultures. Results from four anaerobic mixed-culture chemostat studies yielded ΔG(E) of -17.7 ± 2.2 kJ/mol acetate converted to methane. ΔG(E) for propionate syntrophs in propionate-fed cultures was -8.0 ± 3.1 kJ/mol propionate, compared with that of -3.0 ± 0.9 kJ/mol H(2) for the hydrogenotrophs present. With ethanol present, however, ΔG(E) for the hydrogenotrophs became more favorable, -6.1 ± 1.6 kJ/mol H(2), while ΔG(E) for propionate became positive even though propionate was consumed, suggesting an alternative interspecies electron transport route. The results suggest that S(min), normally considered a function of an organism's intrinsic rate characteristics, is also a function of solution characteristics, and this is likely the case for the substrate affinity coefficient, K, as well. A comparison between ΔG(E) and S(min) and reported threshold thermodynamic and concentration limits, leads to the conclusion that ΔG(E) and S(min) represent lower and upper bounds, respectively, on such values. This study indicates that knowledge gained from pure-culture studies applies well to more complex natural anaerobic systems.

  2. The anaerobic degradation of gaseous, nonmethane alkanes — From in situ processes to microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Musat, Florin

    2015-01-01

    The short chain, gaseous alkanes ethane, propane, n- and iso-butane are released in significant amounts into the atmosphere, where they contribute to tropospheric chemistry and ozone formation. Biodegradation of gaseous alkanes by aerobic microorganisms, mostly bacteria and fungi isolated from terrestrial environments, has been known for several decades. The first indications for short chain alkane anaerobic degradation were provided by geochemical studies of deep-sea environments around hydrocarbon seeps, and included the uncoupling of the sulfate-reduction and anaerobic oxidation of methane rates, the consumption of gaseous alkanes in anoxic sediments, or the enrichment in 13C of gases in interstitial water vs. the source gas. Microorganisms able to degrade gaseous alkanes were recently obtained from deep-sea and terrestrial sediments around hydrocarbon seeps. Up to date, only sulfate-reducing pure or enriched cultures with ethane, propane and n-butane have been reported. The only pure culture presently available, strain BuS5, is affiliated to the Desulfosarcina–Desulfococcus cluster of the Deltaproteobacteria. Other phylotypes involved in gaseous alkane degradation have been identified based on stable-isotope labeling and whole-cell hybridization. Under anoxic conditions, propane and n-butane are activated similar to the higher alkanes, by homolytic cleavage of the C—H bond of a subterminal carbon atom, and addition of the ensuing radical to fumarate, yielding methylalkylsuccinates. An additional mechanism of activation at the terminal carbon atoms was demonstrated for propane, which could in principle be employed also for the activation of ethane. PMID:25904994

  3. Temperature Adaptations in the Terminal Processes of Anaerobic Decomposition of Yellowstone National Park and Icelandic Hot Spring Microbial Mats

    PubMed Central

    Sandbeck, Kenneth A.; Ward, David M.

    1982-01-01

    The optimum temperatures for methanogenesis in microbial mats of four neutral to alkaline, low-sulfate hot springs in Yellowstone National Park were between 50 and 60°C, which was 13 to 23°C lower than the upper temperature for mat development. Significant methanogenesis at 65°C was only observed in one of the springs. Methane production in samples collected at a 51 or 62°C site in Octopus Spring was increased by incubation at higher temperatures and was maximal at 70°C. Strains of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum were isolated from 50, 55, 60, and 65°C sites in Octopus Spring at the temperatures of the collection sites. The optimum temperature for growth and methanogenesis of each isolate was 65°C. Similar results were found for the potential rate of sulfate reduction in an Icelandic hot spring microbial mat in which sulfate reduction dominated methane production as a terminal process in anaerobic decomposition. The potential rate of sulfate reduction along the thermal gradient of the mat was greatest at 50°C, but incubation at 60°C of the samples obtained at 50°C increased the rate. Adaptation to different mat temperatures, common among various microorganisms and processes in the mats, did not appear to occur in the processes and microorganisms which terminate the anaerobic food chain. Other factors must explain why the maximal rates of these processes are restricted to moderate temperatures of the mat ecosystem. PMID:16346109

  4. Anaerobic Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... doses of antibiotics taken by mouth for months. Bacteroides and Prevotella infections. Bacterial organisms from species called Bacteroides and Prevotella are anaerobic. They are common organisms ...

  5. Effect of organic loading rate during anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Hiya; Kumar, Pradeep; Kumar, Sunil; Mukherjee, Somnath; Vaidya, Atul N

    2016-10-01

    The effect of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and volatile solids (VS) on subsequent methane (CH4) production during anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was studied in a laboratory-scale digester. The experiment was performed in 2L anaerobic digester under different experimental conditions using different input mass co-digested with inoculum and organic loading rate (OLR) for 27days at 38±2°C. Three digesters (digesters 1, 2 and 3) were operated at initial loading of 5.1, 10.4 and 15.2g/L CODS per batch which were reduced to 77.9% and 84.2%, respectively. Cumulative biogas productions were 9.3, 10.7 and 17.7L in which CH4 yields were 84.3, 101.0 and 168.4mL/gVS removal in digesters 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The observed COD removal was found to be influenced on variation in CH4 production. Co-efficient of determination (R(2)) was 0.67 and 0.74 in digesters 1 and 2, respectively.

  6. Effect of induced hypercapnia on anaerobic metabolic rate of anoxic musk turtles.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D C; Wasser, J S; Silver, R B

    1988-06-01

    To evaluate the possible effect of induced hypercapnia on anaerobic metabolic rate during anoxia, musk turtles (Sternotherus odoratus) were submerged in N2-equilibrated water at 10 degrees C for 3 days either with (anoxic hypercapnic) or without (anoxic normocapnic) elevated aquatic PCO2 (30-40 Torr). Control animals had access to air at 10 degrees C. Plasma [lactate] was significantly higher (P less than 0.01) in the normocapnic [59.4 +/- 7.4 (SD) mM; n = 22] than in the hypercapnic (47.4 +/- 8.5 mM; n = 19) anoxic turtles, although the hypercapnic turtles had lower blood pH (P less than 0.05). Plasma ion concentrations (Na, K, Cl, Ca, and Mg), however, were no different in the two groups, although all values other than Na were different from control. In some of the animals, [lactate] and [glycogen] (per g wet wt) of skeletal muscle, heart, and liver were measured in addition to blood acid-base values and lactate. Tissue lactates, although significantly elevated from control, and glycogens, although (with the exception of skeletal muscle) significantly reduced from control, were no different in the two anoxic groups. We suggest that these tissue data are more valid indicators of anaerobic metabolic rate than is plasma lactate and therefore conclude that induced hypercapnia does not significantly depress anaerobiosis in musk turtles at 10 degrees C.

  7. Effect of chemo-mechanical disintegration on sludge anaerobic digestion for enhanced biogas production.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, S; Pray, S Saji; Yogalakshmi, K N; Kumar, S Adish; Yeom, Ick-Tae; Banu, J Rajesh

    2016-02-01

    The effect of combined surfactant-dispersion pretreatment on dairy waste activated sludge (WAS) reduction in anaerobic digesters was investigated. The experiments were performed with surfactant, Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in the range of 0.01 to 0.1 g/g suspended solids (SS) and disperser with rpm of 5000-25,000. The COD (chemical oxygen demand) solubilization, suspended solids reduction, and biogas generation increased for an energy input of 7377 kJ/kg total solids (TS) (12,000 rpm, 0.04 g/g SS, and 30 min) and were found to be 38, 32, and 75 %, higher than that of control. The pretreated sludge improved the performance of semicontinuous anaerobic digesters of 4 L working volume operated at four different SRTs (sludge retention time). SRT of 15 days was found to be appropriate showing 49 and 51 % reduction in SS and volatile solids (VS), respectively. The methane yield of the pretreated sample was observed to be 50 mL/g VS removed which was observed to be comparatively higher than the control (12 mL/g VS removed) at optimal SRT of 15 days. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to be reported and not yet been documented in literature.

  8. Effects of lactone, ketone, and phenolic compounds on methane production and metabolic intermediates during anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Wikandari, Rachma; Sari, Noor Kartika; A'yun, Qurrotul; Millati, Ria; Cahyanto, Muhammad Nur; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2015-02-01

    Fruit waste is a potential feedstock for biogas production. However, the presence of fruit flavors that have antimicrobial activity is a challenge for biogas production. Lactones, ketones, and phenolic compounds are among the several groups of fruit flavors that are present in many fruits. This work aimed to investigate the effects of two lactones, i.e., γ-hexalactone and γ-decalactone; two ketones, i.e., furaneol and mesifurane; and two phenolic compounds, i.e., quercetin and epicatechin on anaerobic digestion with a focus on methane production, biogas composition, and metabolic intermediates. Anaerobic digestion was performed in a batch glass digester incubated at 55 °C for 30 days. The flavor compounds were added at concentrations of 0.05, 0.5, and 5 g/L. The results show that the addition of γ-decalactone, quercetin, and epicathechin in the range of 0.5-5 g/L reduced the methane production by 50 % (MIC50). Methane content was reduced by 90 % with the addition of 5 g/L of γ-decalactone, quercetin, and epicathechin. Accumulation of acetic acid, together with an increase in carbon dioxide production, was observed. On the contrary, γ-hexalactone, furaneol, and mesifurane increased the methane production by 83-132 % at a concentration of 5 g/L.

  9. Effects of different quinoid redox mediators on the anaerobic reduction of azo dyes by bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rau, Jorg; Knackmuss, Hans-Joachim; Stolz, Andreas

    2002-04-01

    The addition of quinoid redox mediators to anaerobically incubated cultures of various taxonomically different bacterial species resulted in significantly increased reduction rates for the azo dye amaranth. From different quinones tested, generally anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (AQS) and lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) caused the highest increase in the azoreductase activities. The effects of AQS and lawsone were studied in greater detail with Sphingomonas xenophaga BN6 and Escherichia coli K12. Both strains reduced the quinones under anaerobic conditions with significantly different relative activities. The chemically reduced forms of AQS, lawsone, and different other quinones were assayed for their ability to decolorize amaranth, and a good correlation between the redox potentials of the quinones and the reduction rates of the azo dyes was observed. The addition of AQS or lawsone also increased the ability of unacclimated sewage sludge to reduce azo dyes. Chemically pure lawsone could be replaced by the powdered leaves of the henna plant which contain significant amounts of lawsone.

  10. The control of H2S in biogas using iron ores as in situ desulfurizers during anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiying; Jiang, Xia; Li, Xi; Jiang, Wenju

    2016-09-01

    In this study, five kinds of iron ores, limonite, hematite, manganese ore, magnetite and lava rock, were used as the in situ desulfurizers in the anaerobic digestion reactors to investigate their effects on controlling H2S in biogas. The results show that the addition of the five iron ores could significantly control the content of H2S in biogas, with the best performance for limonite. As limonite dosages increase (10-60 g/L), the contents of H2S in biogas were evidently decreased in the digesters with different initial sulfate concentrations (0-1000 mg/L). After the anaerobic digestion, the removed sulfur was mostly deposited on the surface of limonite. A possible mechanism of H2S control in biogas by limonite was proposed preliminarily, including adsorption, FeS precipitation, and Fe (III) oxidation. The results demonstrated that limonite was a promising in situ desulfurizer for controlling H2S in biogas with low cost and high efficiency.

  11. The effect of lactic acid on anaerobic carbon or nitrogen limited chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Thomsson, Elisabeth; Larsson, Christer

    2006-07-01

    Weak organic acids are well-known metabolic effectors in yeast and other micro-organisms. High concentrations of lactic acid due to infection of lactic acid bacteria often occurs in combination with growth under nutrient-limiting conditions in industrial yeast fermentations. The effects of lactic acid on growth and product formation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied, with cells growing under carbon- or nitrogen-limiting conditions in anaerobic chemostat cultures (D=0.1 h(-1)) at pH values 3.25 and 5. It was shown that lactic acid in industrially relevant concentrations had a rather limited effect on the metabolism of S. cerevisiae. However, there was an effect on the energetic status of the cells, i.e. lactic acid addition provoked a reduction in the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content of the cells. The decrease in ATP was not accompanied by a significant increase in the adenosine monophosphate levels.

  12. Treatment of food processing wastewater in a full-scale jet biogas internal loop anaerobic fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chaohai; Zhang, Tao; Feng, Chunhua; Wu, Haizhen; Deng, Zhiyi; Wu, Chaofei; Lu, Bin

    2011-04-01

    A full-scale jet biogas internal loop anaerobic fluidized bed (JBILAFB) reactor, which requires low energy input and allows enhanced mass transfer, was constructed for the treatment of food processing wastewater. This reactor has an active volume of 798 m(3) and can treat 33.3 m(3) wastewater per hour. After pre-treating the raw wastewater by settling, oil separating and coagulation-air floating processes, the reactor was operated with a relatively shorter start-up time (55 days). Samples for the influent and effluent of the JBILAFB reactor were taken and analyzed daily for the whole process including both the start-up and stable running periods. When the volumetric COD loading fluctuated in the range of 1.6-5.6 kg COD m(-3) day(-1), the COD removal efficiency, the volatile fatty acid(VFA)/alkalinity ratio, the maximum biogas production and the content of CH(4) in total biogas of the reactor were found to be 80.1 ± 5%, 0.2-0.5, 348.5 m(3 )day(-1) and 94.5 ± 2.5%, respectively. Furthermore, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) results showed that anaerobic granular sludge and microorganism particles with biofilm coexisted in the reactor, and that the bacteria mainly in bacilli and cocci were observed as predominant species. All the data demonstrated that the enhanced mass transfer for gas, liquid and solid phases was achieved, and that the formation of microorganism granules and the removal of inhibitors increased the stability of the system.

  13. Microbial community structure in a thermophilic aerobic digester used as a sludge pretreatment process for the mesophilic anaerobic digestion and the enhancement of methane production.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Min; Park, Sang Kyu; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Park, Jong Moon

    2013-10-01

    An effective two-stage sewage sludge digestion process, consisting of thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) followed by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD), was developed for efficient sludge reduction and methane production. Using TAD as a biological pretreatment, the total volatile suspended solid reduction (VSSR) and methane production rate (MPR) in the MAD reactor were significantly improved. According to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, the results indicated that the dominant bacteria species such as Ureibacillus thermophiles and Bacterium thermus in TAD were major routes for enhancing soluble organic matter. TAD pretreatment using a relatively short SRT of 1 day showed highly increased soluble organic products and positively affected an increment of bacteria populations which performed interrelated microbial metabolisms with methanogenic species in the MAD; consequently, a quantitative real-time PCR indicated greatly increased Methanosarcinales (acetate-utilizing methanogens) in the MAD, resulting in enhanced methane production.

  14. Anaerobic thermophiles.

    PubMed

    Canganella, Francesco; Wiegel, Juergen

    2014-02-26

    The term "extremophile" was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of "extreme" environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally "hot environments" on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong to the Archaea has definitely

  15. Anaerobic Thermophiles

    PubMed Central

    Canganella, Francesco; Wiegel, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    The term “extremophile” was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of “extreme” environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally “hot environments” on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong to the Archaea has

  16. Carbon Dioxide Effects on Ethanol Production, Pyruvate Decarboxylase, and Alcohol Dehydrogenase Activities in Anaerobic Sweet Potato Roots 1

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ling A.; Hammett, Larry K.; Pharr, David M.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of varied anaerobic atmospheres on the metabolism of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.) roots was studied. The internal gas atmospheres of storage roots changed rapidly when the roots were submerged under water. O2 and N2 gases disappeared quickly and were replaced by CO2. There were no appreciable differences in gas composition among the four cultivars that were studied. Under different anaerobic conditions, ethanol concentration in the roots was highest in a CO2 environment, followed by submergence and a N2 environment in all the cultivars except one. A positive relationship was found between ethanol production and pyruvate decarboxylase activity from both 100% CO2-treated and 100% N2-treated roots. CO2 atmospheres also resulted in higher pyruvate decarboxylase activity than did N2 atmospheres. Concentrations of CO2 were higher within anaerobic roots than those in the ambient anaerobic atmosphere. The level of pyruvate decarboxylase and ethanol in anaerobic roots was proportional to the ambient CO2 concentration. The measurable activity of pyruvate decarboxylase that was present in the roots was about 100 times less than that of alcohol dehydrogenase. Considering these observations, it is suggested that the rate-limiting enzyme for ethanol biosynthesis in sweet potato storage roots under anoxia is likely to be pyruvate decarboxylase rather than alcohol dehydrogenase. PMID:16662798