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Sample records for analogue calcipotriol enhances

  1. Topical vitamin D analogue calcipotriol reduces skin fibrosis in experimental scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Usategui, Alicia; Criado, Gabriel; Del Rey, Manuel J; Faré, Regina; Pablos, José L

    2014-10-01

    Vitamin D analogues can reduce TGF-β pro-fibrotic signaling in dermal fibroblasts, but they may also induce a potentially pro-fibrotic thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)-dependent Th2 cytokine local response. We have analyzed the net effect of topical vitamin D analogue calcipotriol (CPT) on the cytokine profile and the development of fibrosis in experimental model of bleomycin-induced fibrosis. Mice were simultaneously treated with topical CPT or vehicle cream and skin fibrosis was measured by collagen deposition, Masson's trichrome staining and hydroxyproline content. Cytokine and TSLP gene expression was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. We showed that in bleomycin injected skin, CPT administration significantly enhanced TSLP and IL-13 gene expression, but did not modify the expression of other cytokines. Skin fibrosis and hydroxyproline content were significantly reduced in CPT compared to vehicle-treated mice. In normal skin, topical administration of CPT lacked a direct pro-fibrotic effect. Our results demonstrate that topical CPT superinduces the expression of the TSLP/IL-13 Th2 axis in fibrotic skin, but it has a net anti-fibrotic effect. These data support the therapeutic use of topical vitamin D analogues for skin fibrosis.

  2. Distinctive downmodulation of plasmacytoid dendritic cell functions by vitamin D3 analogue calcipotriol.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takahiro; Tatsuno, Kazuki; Ito, Taisuke; Sakabe, Jun-Ichi; Funakoshi, Atsuko; Tokura, Yoshiki

    2016-10-01

    In relation to Th17 cell actions, interferon (IFN)-α production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Vitamin D3 analogues are widely used in the treatment of psoriasis, however, their actions on pDCs are not well understood. To investigate the effects of Vitamin D3 analogue calcipotriol (CAL) on pDCs, focusing on the cytokine production and chemotactic activity. We compared in mice the effects of CAL, cyclosporine A (CyA), and triamcinolone acetonide (TA) on the cytokine production by pDCs (IFN-α), conventional DCs (TNF-α), and γd T cells (IL-17A). pDCs isolated from mouse spleen cells were stimulated with CpG-ODN in the presence or absence of each drug for 48h. Purified splenic conventional DCs (cDCs) and lymph node γδ T cells were stimulated with CpG-ODN or with anti-CD3/CD28 antibody, respectively. IFN-α, TNF-α and IL-17A in the 48-h culture supernatants were quantified by ELISA. We also studied the ability of CAL to inhibit the chemotaxis of freshly isolated pDCs toward chemerin and VEGF-A, representative chemoattractants of pDCs, by a real-time monitoring method, EZ-Taxiscan. To assess the effect of CAL on pDC accumulation in vivo, we painted CAL ointment to the mouse skin inflamed by topical application of imiquimod cream (IMQ) for 4 consecutive days. In the skin samples, we enumerated 440c(+) pDCs by immunohistochemistry and evaluated the mRNA expression of cytokines by real-time PCR. CAL significantly inhibited CpG-enhanced pDC IFN-α production at a comparable level to T cell IL-17A production, whereas its effect on cDC TNF-α production was minimal. Accordingly, CAL suppressed the CpG-augmented expression of TLR9 and MyD88. On the contrary, CyA strongly suppressed the production of TNF-α and IL-17A, but not IFN-α. TA inhibited the production of all the cytokines tested. The effect of CAL on the chemotactic activity of pDCs was also evaluated, demonstrating a significant downmodulation by exposure

  3. Smoothing the mosaic subclinical melanoderma by calcipotriol.

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Paquet, P; Quatresooz, P; Piérard, G E

    2007-05-01

    The observation of photo-exposed skin under ultraviolet light reveals a mosaic pattern of varying intensity in epidermal melanization. Several patterns of mosaic subclinical melanoderma (MSM) have been described using a specially designed CCD camera and the ultraviolet light-enhanced visualization (ULEV) method. Vitamin D(3) and its analogues influence the biology of keratinocytes and melanocytes. To assess the effect of calcipotriol on MSM. This randomized split-face study was conducted in 27 men to compare the effect of once daily applications of 5% calcipotriol cream or a moisturizing cream on the heterogeneity of facial MSM. Computerized image analysis of video images was used at 1-month intervals before and during a 2-month treatment, as well as during a 3-month follow-up. At both sites, the average melanin content of the epidermis showed no significant change over time. However, the mottled appearance was smoothened at the calcipotriol site, whereas it was increased at the site receiving the moisturizer. The decreased heterogeneity in MSM after calcipotriol applications suggests a control of the epidermal melanocyte unit by the vitamin D(3) derivative.

  4. Crystal structures of the vitamin D nuclear receptor liganded with the vitamin D side chain analogues calcipotriol and seocalcitol, receptor agonists of clinical importance. Insights into a structural basis for the switching of calcipotriol to a receptor antagonist by further side chain modification.

    PubMed

    Tocchini-Valentini, Giuseppe; Rochel, Natacha; Wurtz, Jean-Marie; Moras, Dino

    2004-04-08

    The plethora of actions of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) in various systems suggested wide clinical applications of vitamin D nuclear receptor (VDR) ligands in treatments of inflammation, dermatological indication, osteoporosis, cancers, and autoimmune diseases. More than 3000 vitamin D analogues have been synthesized in order to reduce the calcemic side effects while maintaining the transactivation potency of these ligands. Here, we report the crystal structures of VDR ligand binding domain bound to two vitamin D agonists of therapeutical interest, calcipotriol and seocalcitol, which are characterized by their side chain modifications. These structures show the conservation of the VDR structure and the adaptation of the side chain anchored by hydroxyl moieties. The structure of VDR-calcipotriol helps us to understand the structural basis for for the switching of calcipotriol to a receptor antagonist by further side chain modification. The VDR-seocalcitol structure, in comparison with the structure of VDR-KH1060, a superagonist ligand closely related to seocalcitol, shows adaptation of the D ring and position of C-21 in order to adapt its more rigid side chain.

  5. Calcipotriol/Betamethasone Dipropionate Foam: A Review in Plaque Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Esther S; Frampton, James E

    2016-10-01

    Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate foam (Enstilar(®)) is a once-daily synthetic vitamin D3 analogue and synthetic corticosteroid fixed-dose combination foam formulation that is indicated for the topical treatment of plaque psoriasis in adults. In randomized, multicentre trials, treatment with calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate foam for 4 weeks resulted in greater proportions of patients achieving treatment success [of the body (i.e. trunk and/or limbs), as assessed by a physician] compared with 4 weeks' treatment with the foam vehicle, individual components as foam, or calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate fixed-dose combination as an ointment, or 8 weeks' treatment with the fixed-dose combination as a topical suspension. Treatment with calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate foam resulted in significantly lower modified psoriasis area and severity index scores and, where assessed, greater improvements from baseline to week 4 in itch-related sleep loss and health-related quality of life than its comparators; results were mixed for patient-assessed improvements in itch. Overall, adverse events were mostly mild or moderate in severity, and the most commonly reported treatment-related adverse events were application-site events. Notably, there were no reports of clinically relevant effects on calcium homeostasis or the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate foam is a useful new option for patients with plaque psoriasis.

  6. Targeting of liposome-associated calcipotriol to the skin: effect of liposomal membrane fluidity and skin barrier integrity.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Nina Østergaard; Jorgensen, Lene; Hansen, Jens; Vermehren, Charlotte; Frokjaer, Sven; Foged, Camilla

    2011-09-20

    Many dermal diseases like psoriasis are characterized by major changes in skin barrier function, which challenge the reproducible delivery of drugs into specific layers of diseased skin. The purpose of this study was to elucidate how liposomal bilayer fluidity and barrier integrity affected the delivery of liposome-associated calcipotriol to the skin. Calcipotriol-containing gel state and liquid state dipalmitoylphosphatidyl-choline:dilauroylphosphatidylcholine liposomes were prepared by extrusion. Using Langmuir monolayers, calcipotriol was shown to affect the packing of the lipid membrane. The penetration of radioactively labeled lipid and calcipotriol into pig skin was examined using the Franz diffusion cell model, and tape stripping was applied to impose an impaired barrier. Distorting the skin barrier resulted in an enhanced penetration of lipid from both gel and liquid state liposomes. In addition, increased penetration of lipid from liquid state liposomes was observed compared to gel state liposomes into barrier-impaired skin. For barrier-impaired skin, an elevated calcipotriol-to-lipid ratio was found in the receptor fluid for both liposome compositions indicating that calcipotriol is released from the vesicles. This suggests that the liposome-mediated delivery of calcipotriol to the epidermis of diseased skin is affected by the fluidity of the liposomal membrane. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Calcipotriol delivery into the skin as emulgel for effective permeation

    PubMed Central

    Naga Sravan Kumar Varma, V.; Maheshwari, P.V.; Navya, M.; Reddy, Sharath Chandra; Shivakumar, H.G.; Gowda, D.V.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to formulate and evaluate an emulgel containing calcipotriol for treatment of psoriasis. Emulgels have emerged as a promising drug delivery system for the delivery of hydrophobic drugs. Isopropyl alcohol and polyethylene glycol have been employed as permeation enhancers. Formulation chart is made with seven formulations, evaluated for physical parameters, drug content, viscosity, thixotropy, spreadability, extrudability, mucoadhesion, diffusion studies, skin irritation test along with short term stability studies. Carbopolis is reported to have a direct influence on appearance and viscosity of final formulation. The photomicroscopic evaluations showed the presence of spherical globules in size range of 10–15 μm. Rheograms revealed that all the formulations exhibited pseudoplastic flow. Optimized formulation (F6) had shown 86.42 ± 2.0% drug release at the end of 8 h study. The release rate through dialysis membrane and rat skin is higher when compared to commercial calcipotriol ointment. Hence it is concluded that calcipotriol can be delivered topically with enhanced penetration properties when formulated as emulgel. PMID:25561873

  8. Calcipotriol delivery into the skin as emulgel for effective permeation.

    PubMed

    Naga Sravan Kumar Varma, V; Maheshwari, P V; Navya, M; Reddy, Sharath Chandra; Shivakumar, H G; Gowda, D V

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this work is to formulate and evaluate an emulgel containing calcipotriol for treatment of psoriasis. Emulgels have emerged as a promising drug delivery system for the delivery of hydrophobic drugs. Isopropyl alcohol and polyethylene glycol have been employed as permeation enhancers. Formulation chart is made with seven formulations, evaluated for physical parameters, drug content, viscosity, thixotropy, spreadability, extrudability, mucoadhesion, diffusion studies, skin irritation test along with short term stability studies. Carbopolis is reported to have a direct influence on appearance and viscosity of final formulation. The photomicroscopic evaluations showed the presence of spherical globules in size range of 10-15 μm. Rheograms revealed that all the formulations exhibited pseudoplastic flow. Optimized formulation (F6) had shown 86.42 ± 2.0% drug release at the end of 8 h study. The release rate through dialysis membrane and rat skin is higher when compared to commercial calcipotriol ointment. Hence it is concluded that calcipotriol can be delivered topically with enhanced penetration properties when formulated as emulgel.

  9. Calcium effects and systemic exposure of vitamin D3 analogues after topical treatment of active vitamin D3-containing ointments in rats.

    PubMed

    Hosomi, Atsushi; Hirabe, Maho; Tokuda, Takuya; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Amano, Toru; Okamoto, Tadao

    2016-10-05

    Topical agents containing vitamin D3 (VD3) analogues such as calcipotriol, maxacalcitol and tacalcitol and the combination of calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate (betamethasone) are prescribed for patients with psoriasis. However, they are known to occasionally cause hypercalcemia, and the frequency of hypercalcemia is suggested to vary according to the VD3 analogue used. In this study, to address the reason for these differences, the calcemic effects of maxacalcitol-, calcipotriol- and calcipotriol/betamethasone-containing ointments in rats were evaluated. The serum calcium levels in rats treated with ointments containing maxacalcitol, but not calcipotriol or calcipotriol/betamethasone, were significantly elevated, which is consistent with clinical observations. The serum concentration of VD3 analogue in rats treated with ointments containing calcipotriol and calcipotriol/betamethasone was lower than that in rats treated with maxacalcitol-containing ointment. Thus, the calcemic effects appear to be associated with the systemic exposure of VD3 analogues in rats. To understand the mechanism underlying the different systemic exposures of VD3 analogues, skin permeation and metabolic stability of VD3 analogues were evaluated. The cumulative amount of calcipotriol permeated through rat skin was significantly lower than that of maxacalcitol. On the other hand, the metabolic clearance of calcipotriol in rat hepatocytes was higher than that of maxacalcitol. Similar results were obtained using human skin and human hepatocytes. The current study demonstrates that the lower calcemic effects of calcipotriol- and calcipotriol/betamethasone-containing ointments are caused by the low systemic exposure of calcipotriol according to low skin permeability and rapid hepatic elimination after topical application. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy and safety of topical calcipotriol in management of alopecia areata: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Narang, Tarun; Daroach, Manju; Kumaran, M Sendhil

    2017-01-30

    Reports have highlighted serum vitamin D deficiency and reduced 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) receptors(VDR) expression on hair follicles of alopecia areata(AA) patients. Very few studies have demonstrated efficacy of topical calcipotriol (vitamin D analogue) in AA. We intended to study the efficacy of calcipotriol lotion 0.005% in AA and correlate its outcome with serum vitamin D levels. We conducted a prospective study, in which 22 patients with AA were treated with calcipotriol lotion 0.005% twice daily for 3 months. Clinico-epidemiological parameters including severity of AA and SALT score were calculated at baseline and at 12 weeks. Hair regrowth was assessed monthly at 4, 8, 12 weeks. Serum vitamin D levels were measured at baseline. After 12 weeks of treatment, hair regrowth was observed in 13 (59.1%) patients. Mean period for onset of disease stabilization and hair regrowth was 4 weeks and 4.21± 2.13 weeks, respectively. Among these 13 patients, SALT50 and SALT100 was observed in 6(46.2%) and 2(9%) patients, respectively. Response to treatment was better in patients with lower vitamin D levels (p < .009). Topical calcipotriol can be an alternative treatment in AA and it could prove to be more useful in patients who are vitamin D deficient.

  11. Calcipotriol-betamethasone ointment versus calcipotriol ointment in the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Duweb, G; Alhaddar, J; Elsherif, B; Eljehawi, N; Makhlouf, H

    2005-01-01

    Of 17 patients (10 men and 7 women) with psoriasis vulgaris, aged between 12 and 59 years, included in this study, 4 patients were excluded (3 because of a treatment follow-up irregularity and 1 due to severe irritation). Thirteen patients completed the 6-week treatment course where each patient was instructed to apply calcipotriol-betamethasone ointment on the right side and calcipotriol ointment on the left side. The treatment effect was assessed according to the psoriasis area severity index (PASI) changes, and complete blood count and serum calcium was done prior to and at the end of the treatment. Results showed that both sides had improved by 92.3%, with a marked reduction in the mean PASI (from 11.5 to 2.2); a better reduction was observed in the right side during the second and third visits. A marked improvement to complete clearance was seen in 84.6% in calcipotriol-betamethasone side and 76.9% in calcipotriol alone. Mild irritation was reported in the left side in 15.4% which was tolerated with the continuation of treatment application. No telangiectasia or atrophy was observed on the right side. In conclusion, calcipotriol-betamethasone may be recommended in the early weeks of the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris, and it is helpful in psoriasis patients with irritation to calcipotriol alone.

  12. Enhanced vasoconstrictor potency of the fixed combination calcipotriol plus betamethasone dipropionate in an innovative aerosol foam formulation vs. other corticosteroid psoriasis treatments.

    PubMed

    Queille-Roussel, C; Bang, B; Clonier, F; Lacour, J-P

    2016-11-01

    An aerosol foam formulation of fixed combination calcipotriol 50 μg/g (Cal) and betamethasone 0.5 mg/g (as dipropionate; BD) has been developed for psoriasis vulgaris treatment. To compare Cal/BD aerosol foam pharmacodynamic activity with Cal/BD ointment and with other topical corticosteroids of different potencies by assessing vasoconstrictor potential. A Phase I, single-centre, investigator-blinded, vehicle-controlled, intra-individual comparison vasoconstriction study. Healthy volunteers received a single application on selected sites of: Cal/BD aerosol foam, clobetasol propionate 0.5 mg/g cream (CP; very potent), Cal/BD ointment (potent), fluocinolone acetonide 0.25 mg/g ointment (FA; moderately potent), BD aerosol foam and aerosol foam vehicle. A seventh untreated site acted as a negative control. Skin blanching was assessed by visual (primary response criterion) and colorimetric a* and L* measurements (secondary criteria), and was analysed over time (6-32 h post-application). Thirty-five healthy volunteers were included. All active treatments led to significantly greater skin blanching than control. By visual assessment, skin blanching with Cal/BD aerosol foam was significantly less compared with CP cream [mean AUC0-32 2560 vs. 3831; mean difference = -1272; 95% confidence interval (CI): -1598, -945; P < 0.001], similar to BD aerosol foam (mean AUC0-32 2560 vs. 2595; mean difference = -35; 95% CI: -362, 292; P = 0.83) and significantly greater than Cal/BD ointment (mean AUC0-32 2560 vs. 2008; mean difference = 552; 95% CI: 225, 878; P = 0.001) and FA ointment (mean AUC0-32 2560 vs. 1981; mean difference = 578; 95% CI: 251, 905; P < 0.001). Colorimetric assessments a* and L* also indicated significantly reduced skin blanching with Cal/BD aerosol foam compared with CP cream. No adverse events (AEs) were reported. Cal/BD aerosol foam can be considered a more potent formulation than Cal/BD ointment and the moderately potent FA ointment, but less potent than the

  13. Consensus on the use of the fixed combination calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate in the treatment of plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Girolomoni, G; Vena, G A; Ayala, F; Cannavò, S P; De Pità, O; Chimenti, S; Peserico, A

    2012-12-01

    Calcipotriol, a vitamin D analogue, and betamethasone dipropionate, a high potency corticosteroid, are complementary agents for the topical treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. Robust evidence on the efficacy and safety of their fixed combination has been provided by randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trials involving more than 7000 patients with the ointment formulation in psoriasis of the body and more than 4000 patients with the gel formulation in scalp psoriasis. These trials have shown that the fixed combination ointment is more effective and better tolerated, not only than placebo, but also than calcipotriol and tacalcitol monotherapies. In addition, it has proved, in most instances, to be more effective than betamethasone and at least as well tolerated. The same applies to the gel for scalp and body psoriasis. Safety studies have excluded that repeated courses of treatment with the fixed combination for up to one year produce systemic effects. Studies have also shown that the fixed combination treatment improves quality of life to a significantly greater extent than calcipotriol, with the once daily regimen most appreciated by patients, in both active disease and recurrency. Because of the extensive evidence, American and European guidelines recommend the calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate fixed combination as first line topical treatment for mild to moderate plaque psoriasis of the body and scalp.

  14. Calcipotriol inhibits α-synuclein aggregation in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells by a Calbindin-D28k-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Rcom-H'cheo-Gauthier, Alexandre N; Meedeniya, Adrian C B; Pountney, Dean L

    2017-04-01

    Many neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the formation of microscopically visible intracellular protein aggregates. α-Synuclein is the key aggregating protein in Parkinson's disease which is characterized by neuronal cytoplasmic Lewy body inclusions. Previous studies have shown relative sparing of neurons in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies that are positive for the vitamin D-dependent calcium-buffering protein, calbindin-D28k, and that α-synuclein aggregates are excluded from calbindin-D28k-positive neurons. Recent cell culture studies have shown that α-synuclein aggregation can be induced by raised intracellular-free Ca(II) and demonstrated that raised intracellular calcium and oxidative stress can act synergistically to promote α-synuclein aggregation. We hypothesized that calcipotriol, a potent vitamin D analogue used pharmaceutically, may be able to suppress calcium-dependent α-synuclein aggregation by inducing calbindin-D28k expression. Immunofluorescence and western blot analysis showed that calcipotriol potently induced calbindin-D28k in a dose-dependent manner in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Calcipotriol significantly decreased the frequency of α-synuclein aggregate positive cells subjected to treatments that cause raised intracellular-free Ca(II) (potassium depolarization, KCl/H2 O2 combined treatment, and rotenone) in a dose-dependent manner and increased viability. Suppression of calbindin-D28k expression in calcipotriol-treated cells using calbindin-D28k-specific siRNA showed significantly higher α-synuclein aggregation levels, indicating that calcipotriol-mediated blocking of calcium-dependent α-synuclein aggregation was dependent on the induction of calbindin-D28k expression. These data indicate that targeting raised intraneuronal-free Ca(II) in the brain by promoting the expression of calbindin-D28k at the transcriptional level using calcipotriol could prevent α-synuclein aggregate formation and ameliorate

  15. Combination of calcipotriol and methotrexate in nanostructured lipid carriers for topical delivery

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yin-Ku; Huang, Zih-Rou; Zhuo, Rou-Zi; Fang, Jia-You

    2010-01-01

    The combination of calcipotriol with methotrexate can strengthen the topical therapy for psoriasis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) loaded with lipophilic calcipotriol and hydrophilic methotrexate as topical therapy. NLCs composed of Precirol ATO 5 with various amounts of squalene as the liquid lipid were prepared. The particle size, surface charge, molecular environment, drug permeation, and skin irritation of the carriers were assessed. Hyperproliferative skin was also used as a permeation barrier in this study. It was found that variations in the Precirol®/squalene ratio had profound effects on the physicochemical characteristics of the NLCs. The range of particle size of the NLC preparations was 270 to 320 nm, with vehicles containing a higher Precirol amount exhibiting a larger diameter. NLCs with a higher Precirol/squalene ratio also showed greater polarity in their molecular environment. Calcipotriol-loaded NLC systems provided drug fluxes of 0.62 to 1.08 μg/cm2/h, which were slightly higher or comparable to the 30% ethanol vehicle (control, 0.72 μg/cm2/h). The methotrexate amount permeating the skin was 2.4 to 4.4-times greater using NLCs compared to that with the control. Dual drug-loaded NLCs exhibited reduced skin permeation of calcipotriol but not methotrexate. The in vivo topical delivery examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed a good correlation with the in vitro results. These two drugs with extremely different polarities can successfully be combined in NLCs. Results suggest that NLCs may have the potential to serve as delivery carriers for antipsoriatic drugs because of enhanced drug permeation and limited skin irritation. PMID:20309398

  16. Fixed combination calcipotriol plus betamethasone dipropionate aerosol foam in the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris: rationale for development and clinical profile.

    PubMed

    Paul, Carle; Bang, Bo; Lebwohl, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory disorder with a significant negative impact on quality of life. Most patients with mild-to-moderate psoriasis manage their disease with topical therapies; the most commonly used formulations contain corticosteroids and/or vitamin D3 analogues. However, adherence to topical treatment remains a significant issue as the daily treatment regimen can be cumbersome and time consuming and many patients do not obtain complete/almost complete clearance. Areas covered: Published pre-clinical and clinical data evaluating calcipotriol 50 µg/g (Cal) and betamethasone 0.5 mg/g as dipropionate (BD) aerosol foam in patients with psoriasis. Expert opinion: Cal/BD aerosol foam, a once-daily, alcohol-free, paraffin-based vehicle with emollient properties, was developed to increase the therapeutic options available to patients. Cal/BD aerosol foam is rapidly effective for treating psoriasis and the greater efficacy compared with the ointment and gel formulations is consistent and clinically relevant. This enhanced efficacy is due to improved skin penetration of the active ingredients following the formation of a stable supersaturated solution on the skin. Studies have shown increasing patient satisfaction with Cal/BD aerosol foam. It is hoped that this optimized formulation of Cal/BD will improve adherence and help to address the unmet medical needs of patients with mild-to-moderate psoriasis.

  17. The hair root pattern after calcipotriol treatment for scalp psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, A L; van Baar, H M; van Gasselt, M W; van de Kerkhof, P C

    1995-09-01

    Scalp psoriasis is associated with hair loss and an increased telogen/anagen ratio. Topical treatment of scalp psoriasis (with corticosteroids, dithranol or tar) results in decreased scaling, induration and erythema of the plaques. Calcipotriol is effective in the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. However, the potent growth-inhibiting potential of this compound might theoretically induce hair loss. A study was designed to find out to what extent calcipotriol treatment modulates the percentage of anagen and telogen hair during treatment of scalp psoriasis. A group of 26 patients participated in a placebo-controlled dose-finding study on the efficacy of calcipotriol in scalp psoriasis. Hair plucks before and after treatment were taken. The telogen/anagen ratio remained unaffected during 6 weeks of calcipotriol treatment. No correlation was demonstrated between efficacy of treatment and quantification of telogen/anagen ratio. It can be concluded that the growth-inhibiting potential of calcipotriol is not reflected in the in vivo hair growth pattern during calcipotriol treatment.

  18. A comparison of the effects of topical treatment of calcipotriol, camptothecin, clobetasol and tazarotene on an imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like mouse model.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jun; Dou, Wei; Zhao, Yi; Hu, Jinhong

    2014-02-01

    The interleukin-23/interleukin 17A (IL-23/IL-17A) cytokine axis plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. In this study, we report the effects of topical calcipotriol, camptothecin, clobetasol and tazarotene on the treatment of imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like inflammation, the development of which is dependent on the IL-23/IL-17A axis. IMQ-induced epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation in the BALB/c mouse ear were significantly inhibited following clobetasol treatment but not calcipotriol, camptothecin or tazarotene treatments. Real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that the mRNA levels of IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in ear skin were significantly decreased by clobetasol. In addition, we observed that calcipotriol, camptothecin and tazarotene failed to show any inhibitory effects on the IL-23/IL-17A/IL-22 axis. We also found that clobetasol treatment inhibited the proliferation of γδ T cells and C-C chemokine receptor type 6 (CCR6) expression induced by IMQ. Calcipotriol, camptothecin and tazarotene not only failed to inhibit this proliferation but also enhanced retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γ (RORγ) expression in IMQ-induced psoriasis-like inflammation. In conclusion, we suggest that clobetasol induces the relief of IMQ-induced psoriasis-like inflammation in a mouse model but that calcipotriol, camptothecin and tazarotene cannot. Therefore, we suggest that more in-depth studies on pharmacological effects of tazarotene, camptothecin and calcipotriol should be carried out.

  19. Topical calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate for psoriasis vulgaris: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ru; Jiang, Shibin; Wu, Yan; Gao, Xing-Hua; Chen, Hong-Duo

    2016-01-01

    Topical calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate ointment/gel has been commonly used for the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. However, the efficacy of this combination needs to be consolidated. We aimed to assess the effects and safety profile of calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate for the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris, using evidence based approach. Randomized controlled trials on the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris with calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate were identified by searching PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and the Cochrane Library. The primary outcome measure was the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score. Ten randomized controlled trials involving 6590 participants were included. The methodologies of the studies were generally of moderate to high quality. These trials used topical calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate for 4 or 8 weeks, and were compared with topical calcipotriol or betamethasone. The results showed that calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate was more effective than controls. A four-week treatment with calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate did not show any significant difference between the once-daily or twice-daily regimen. The adverse events of calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate were tolerable and acceptable. The reports included in this review are heterogenous and have limitations. Topical application of calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate once daily is an efficacious treatment for psoriasis vulgaris and is associated with few side effects.

  20. Calcipotriol counteracts betamethasone-induced decrease in extracellular matrix components related to skin atrophy.

    PubMed

    Norsgaard, Hanne; Kurdykowski, Sandrine; Descargues, Pascal; Gonzalez, Tatiana; Marstrand, Troels; Dünstl, Georg; Røpke, Mads

    2014-10-01

    The calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate fixed-combination gel is widely used for topical treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. It has been hypothesized that calcipotriol counteracts glucocorticoid-induced skin atrophy which is associated with changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM). To elucidate the combined effects of calcipotriol and betamethasone on key ECM components, a comparative study to the respective mono-treatments was carried out. The effect on collagen I synthesis, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) secretion, and hyaluronic acid (HA) production was investigated in primary human fibroblast and keratinocyte cultures as well as in a human skin explant model. We show that calcipotriol counteracts betamethasone-induced suppression of collagen I synthesis. Similarly, calcipotriol and betamethasone have opposing effects on MMP expression in both fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Moreover, calcipotriol is able to restore betamethasone-impaired HA synthesis in keratinocytes and prevent betamethasone-induced epidermal thinning in minipigs upon treatment with the calcipotriol/betamethasone gel. In summary, our results show for the first time in primary human skin cultures that calcipotriol reduces early signs of betamethasone-induced skin atrophy by modulation of key ECM components. These results indicate that the calcipotriol component of the fixed-combination gel counteracts the atrophogenic effects of betamethasone on the skin.

  1. Antifreeze glycopeptide analogues: microwave-enhanced synthesis and functional studies.

    PubMed

    Heggemann, Carolin; Budke, Carsten; Schomburg, Benjamin; Majer, Zsuzsa; Wissbrock, Marco; Koop, Thomas; Sewald, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    Antifreeze glycoproteins enable life at temperatures below the freezing point of physiological solutions. They usually consist of the repetitive tripeptide unit (-Ala-Ala-Thr-) with the disaccharide alpha-D-galactosyl-(1-3)-beta-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine attached to each hydroxyl group of threonine. Monoglycosylated analogues have been synthesized from the corresponding monoglycosylated threonine building block by microwave-assisted solid phase peptide synthesis. This method allows the preparation of analogues containing sequence variations which are not accessible by other synthetic methods. As antifreeze glycoproteins consist of numerous isoforms they are difficult to obtain in pure form from natural sources. The synthetic peptides have been structurally analyzed by CD and NMR spectroscopy in proton exchange experiments revealing a structure as flexible as reported for the native peptides. Microphysical recrystallization tests show an ice structuring influence and ice growth inhibition depending on the concentration, chain length and sequence of the peptides.

  2. An extraordinary transmission analogue for enhancing microwave antenna performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushpakaran, Sarin V.; Purushothaman, Jayakrishnan M.; Chandroth, Aanandan; Pezholil, Mohanan; Kesavath, Vasudevan

    2015-10-01

    The theory of diffraction limit proposed by H.A Bethe limits the total power transfer through a subwavelength hole. Researchers all over the world have gone through different techniques for boosting the transmission through subwavelength holes resulting in the Extraordinary Transmission (EOT) behavior. We examine computationally and experimentally the concept of EOT nature in the microwave range for enhancing radiation performance of a stacked dipole antenna working in the S band. It is shown that the front to back ratio of the antenna is considerably enhanced without affecting the impedance matching performance of the design. The computational analysis based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method reveals that the excitation of Fabry-Perot resonant modes on the slots is responsible for performance enhancement.

  3. An extraordinary transmission analogue for enhancing microwave antenna performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pushpakaran, Sarin V.; Purushothaman, Jayakrishnan M.; Chandroth, Aanandan; Pezholil, Mohanan; Kesavath, Vasudevan

    2015-10-15

    The theory of diffraction limit proposed by H.A Bethe limits the total power transfer through a subwavelength hole. Researchers all over the world have gone through different techniques for boosting the transmission through subwavelength holes resulting in the Extraordinary Transmission (EOT) behavior. We examine computationally and experimentally the concept of EOT nature in the microwave range for enhancing radiation performance of a stacked dipole antenna working in the S band. It is shown that the front to back ratio of the antenna is considerably enhanced without affecting the impedance matching performance of the design. The computational analysis based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method reveals that the excitation of Fabry-Perot resonant modes on the slots is responsible for performance enhancement.

  4. Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate in the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Vakirlis, Efstratios; Kastanis, Athanasios; Ioannides, Demetrios

    2008-01-01

    Psoriasis is one of the most common skin diseases. The mainstay of treatment for the vast majority of patients is topical therapy. A rising first-line treatment modality for psoriasis vulgaris is the two-compound ointment containing calcipotriol 50 μg/g plus betamethasone dipropionate 0.5 mg/g (Dovobet®, Daivobet®, Taclonex®), which combines a vitamin D analog and a corticosteroid. This innovative formulation preserves the activity and bioavailability of the two components and many clinical studies have demonstrated that it has a greater efficacy, tolerability, and a rapid onset of action compared with its individual ingredients or tacalcitol. PMID:18728704

  5. Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate ointment in mild-to-moderate paediatric psoriasis: long-term daily clinical practice data in a prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    van Geel, M J; Mul, K; Oostveen, A M; van de Kerkhof, P C M; de Jong, E M G J; Seyger, M M B

    2014-08-01

    Psoriasis in children has a significant negative impact on the quality of life (QoL) and effective treatment can improve this. The two-compound ointment calcipotriol 50 μg g(-1) and betamethasone dipropionate 0·5 mg g(-1) is an effective treatment option for moderate-to-severe psoriasis in adults. To study prospectively the effectiveness and safety of calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate ointment in paediatric patients with mild-to-moderate plaque psoriasis in daily clinical practice and to investigate the influence on QoL. Data were obtained from a prospective, longitudinal paediatric psoriasis registry, called Child-CAPTURE. Severity was assessed using the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) and body surface area (BSA). The Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) was used to assess QoL and visual analogue scores (VAS) for pain and itch were collected. For safety data the number of (serious) adverse events was recorded. Seventy-three patients (mean age 10·8 years, range 3-18) were treated for a median time of 35·0 weeks (range 1·0-176·0). At week 12, mean PASI decreased 15·4% (from 5·2 to 4·4), BSA barely changed, and median CDLQI decreased significantly from 5·5 to 4·0. VAS scores for pain and itch declined. At week 24, mean PASI decreased to 4·3 (17·3%). No related serious adverse events were observed. In this daily clinical practice study in paediatric psoriasis, calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate ointment initially improved mild-to-moderate psoriasis and then maintained its effect. In addition, it improved QoL, with few adverse events. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Calcipotriol and betamethasone dipropionate exert additive inhibitory effects on the cytokine expression of inflammatory dendritic cell-Th17 cell axis in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Lovato, Paola; Norsgaard, Hanne; Tokura, Yoshiki; Røpke, Mads A

    2016-03-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris is characterised by epidermal hyper-proliferation and infiltration of immune cells including dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells. The inflammation is driven by a complex interplay between immune and skin cells involving interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-23 and TNF-α as key drivers. The calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate two-compound fixed combination product is widely used for topical treatment of psoriasis. However, the mechanism behind its high efficacy has not been elucidated in detail. Here, we investigated and compared the immune modulatory effects of betamethasone, calcipotriol and the combination in ex vivo cultures of psoriatic skin and in vitro cultures of primary human cells that recapitulate key cellular activities of psoriatic inflammation. The immune modulatory effect of the treatments on psoriatic skin and on in vitro differentiated Th1/Th17 cells, Tc1/Tc17 cells, monocyte-derived inflammatory dendritic cells and primary keratinocytes was assessed by a panel of inflammatory and phenotypic related transcription factors and cytokines. The expression was evaluated by both gene and protein analysis. Compared to vehicle control or mono-treatments, the effect of calcipotriol/betamethasone combination was significantly better in inhibiting the secretion of IL-17A and TNF-α in psoriatic skin. Additionally, the two components showed additive inhibitory effects on secretion of IL-23 and TNF-α by DCs, of IL-17A and TNF-α by both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and reduced inflammatory responses in Th17-stimulated keratinocytes. Furthermore, calcipotriol was found to enhance IL-10 secretion in psoriatic skin and in human T cells, to induce secretion of type 2 cytokines by T cells and, lastly, to significantly modulate the differentiation of DCs and T cells. In summary, we demonstrate a unique and supplementary immune modulatory effect of calcipotriol/betamethasone combination on TNF-α and IL-23/Th17 immune axis, supporting the superior clinical

  7. Calcipotriol plus betamethasone dipropionate gel compared with calcipotriol scalp solution in the treatment of scalp psoriasis: a randomized, controlled trial investigating efficacy and safety in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Yang, Qinping; Yang, Haizhen; Wang, Gang; Zheng, Min; Hao, Fei; Gu, Jun; Sun, Qiuning; Cui, Pangen; Ge, Mengliang; Li, Ruoyu; Gao, Tianwen; Facy, Patrice; Kurvits, Merle; Xu, Zhenyi; Xu, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate combination in a non-alcoholic, lipophilic gel formulation (two-compound gel) has previously been demonstrated as a safe and effective treatment for scalp psoriasis in Caucasian, Hispanic/Latino, and Black/African American populations. The purpose of this randomized, investigator-blinded, active-controlled, 4-week study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the two-compound gel in Chinese subjects with scalp psoriasis. Subjects were randomized in a 1 : 1 ratio to four weeks of treatment with either the two-compound gel once daily or calcipotriol scalp solution twice daily. Subjects were evaluated after one, two, and four weeks of treatment. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of subjects who achieved "controlled disease" defined as "clear" or "minimal" disease according to investigator's global assessment of disease severity at week 4. The proportion of subjects who achieved "controlled disease" at week 4 was statistically significantly higher in the two-compound gel group (87.5%) than in the calcipotriol solution group (50.8%), (P < 0.0001). Greater and more rapid improvements with the two-compound gel were also observed in clinical signs (redness, thickness, and scaliness) and itching. The two-compound gel was associated with fewer adverse drug reactions than calcipotriol scalp solution (18.6% vs. 33.1%) (P = 0.011). The calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate gel applied once daily was significantly more effective and better tolerated than calcipotriol scalp solution applied twice daily in the treatment of scalp psoriasis over four weeks in Chinese subjects. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. Rationally designed cyclic analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone: enhanced enzymatic stability and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Laimou, Despina; Katsila, Theodora; Matsoukas, John; Schally, Andrew; Gkountelias, Kostas; Liapakis, George; Tamvakopoulos, Constantin; Tselios, Theodore

    2012-12-01

    This article describes the rational design, synthesis and pharmacological properties of amide-linked cyclic analogues of Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH) with substitutions at positions 1 (Pro), 6 (D-Leu/D-Trp), 9 (Aze) and 10 (BABA/Acp). These LHRH analogues fulfil the conformational requirements that are known in the literature (bend in the 5-8 segment) to be essential for receptor recognition and activation. Although, they are characterised by an overall low binding affinity to the LHRH-I receptor, the cyclic analogues that were studied and especially the cyclo(1-10)[Pro(1), D-Leu(6), BABA(10)] LHRH, exhibit a profoundly enhanced in vitro and in vivo stability and improved pharmacokinetics in comparison with their linear counterpart and leuprolide. Upon receptor binding, cyclo(1-10)[Pro(1), D-Leu(6), BABA(10)] LHRH causes testosterone release in C57/B16 mice (in vivo efficacy) that is comparable to that of leuprolide. Testosterone release is an acutely dose dependent effect that is blocked by the LHRH-I receptor antagonist, cetrorelix. The pharmacokinetic advantages and efficacy of cyclo(1-10)[Pro(1), D-Leu(6), BABA(10)] LHRH render this analogue a promising platform for future rational drug design studies towards the development of non-peptide LHRH mimetics.

  9. Randomized trial of calcipotriol combined with 5-fluorouracil for skin cancer precursor immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Trevor J; Tabacchi, Mary; Eliane, Jean-Pierre; Tuchayi, Sara Moradi; Manivasagam, Sindhu; Mirzaalian, Hengameh; Turkoz, Ahu; Kopan, Raphael; Schaffer, Andras; Saavedra, Arturo P; Wallendorf, Michael; Cornelius, Lynn A; Demehri, Shadmehr

    2017-01-03

    Actinic keratosis is a precursor to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Long treatment durations and severe side effects have limited the efficacy of current actinic keratosis treatments. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an epithelium-derived cytokine that induces a robust antitumor immunity in barrier-defective skin. Here, we investigated the efficacy of calcipotriol, a topical TSLP inducer, in combination with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as an immunotherapy for actinic keratosis. The mechanism of calcipotriol action against skin carcinogenesis was examined in genetically engineered mouse models. The efficacy and safety of 0.005% calcipotriol ointment combined with 5% 5-FU cream were compared with Vaseline plus 5-FU for the field treatment of actinic keratosis in a randomized, double-blind clinical trial involving 131 participants. The assigned treatment was self-applied to the entirety of the qualified anatomical sites (face, scalp, and upper extremities) twice daily for 4 consecutive days. The percentage of reduction in the number of actinic keratoses (primary outcome), local skin reactions, and immune activation parameters were assessed. Calcipotriol suppressed skin cancer development in mice in a TSLP-dependent manner. Four-day application of calcipotriol plus 5-FU versus Vaseline plus 5-FU led to an 87.8% versus 26.3% mean reduction in the number of actinic keratoses in participants (P < 0.0001). Importantly, calcipotriol plus 5-FU treatment induced TSLP, HLA class II, and natural killer cell group 2D (NKG2D) ligand expression in the lesional keratinocytes associated with a marked CD4+ T cell infiltration, which peaked on days 10-11 after treatment, without pain, crusting, or ulceration. Our findings demonstrate the synergistic effects of calcipotriol and 5-FU treatment in optimally activating a CD4+ T cell-mediated immunity against actinic keratoses and, potentially, cancers of the skin and other organs. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02019355. Not applicable

  10. Randomized trial of calcipotriol combined with 5-fluorouracil for skin cancer precursor immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Trevor J.; Tabacchi, Mary; Eliane, Jean-Pierre; Tuchayi, Sara Moradi; Manivasagam, Sindhu; Mirzaalian, Hengameh; Turkoz, Ahu; Kopan, Raphael; Schaffer, Andras; Saavedra, Arturo P.; Wallendorf, Michael; Cornelius, Lynn A.; Demehri, Shadmehr

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Actinic keratosis is a precursor to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Long treatment durations and severe side effects have limited the efficacy of current actinic keratosis treatments. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an epithelium-derived cytokine that induces a robust antitumor immunity in barrier-defective skin. Here, we investigated the efficacy of calcipotriol, a topical TSLP inducer, in combination with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as an immunotherapy for actinic keratosis. METHODS. The mechanism of calcipotriol action against skin carcinogenesis was examined in genetically engineered mouse models. The efficacy and safety of 0.005% calcipotriol ointment combined with 5% 5-FU cream were compared with Vaseline plus 5-FU for the field treatment of actinic keratosis in a randomized, double-blind clinical trial involving 131 participants. The assigned treatment was self-applied to the entirety of the qualified anatomical sites (face, scalp, and upper extremities) twice daily for 4 consecutive days. The percentage of reduction in the number of actinic keratoses (primary outcome), local skin reactions, and immune activation parameters were assessed. RESULTS. Calcipotriol suppressed skin cancer development in mice in a TSLP-dependent manner. Four-day application of calcipotriol plus 5-FU versus Vaseline plus 5-FU led to an 87.8% versus 26.3% mean reduction in the number of actinic keratoses in participants (P < 0.0001). Importantly, calcipotriol plus 5-FU treatment induced TSLP, HLA class II, and natural killer cell group 2D (NKG2D) ligand expression in the lesional keratinocytes associated with a marked CD4+ T cell infiltration, which peaked on days 10–11 after treatment, without pain, crusting, or ulceration. CONCLUSION. Our findings demonstrate the synergistic effects of calcipotriol and 5-FU treatment in optimally activating a CD4+ T cell–mediated immunity against actinic keratoses and, potentially, cancers of the skin and other organs. TRIAL

  11. SAMHD1 enhances nucleoside-analogue efficacy against HIV-1 in myeloid cells

    PubMed Central

    Ordonez, Paula; Kunzelmann, Simone; Groom, Harriet C. T.; Yap, Melvyn W.; Weising, Simon; Meier, Chris; Bishop, Kate N.; Taylor, Ian A.; Stoye, Jonathan P.

    2017-01-01

    SAMHD1 is an intracellular enzyme that specifically degrades deoxynucleoside triphosphates into component nucleoside and inorganic triphosphate. In myeloid-derived dendritic cells and macrophages as well as resting T-cells, SAMHD1 blocks HIV-1 infection through this dNTP triphosphohydrolase activity by reducing the cellular dNTP pool to a level that cannot support productive reverse transcription. We now show that, in addition to this direct effect on virus replication, manipulating cellular SAMHD1 activity can significantly enhance or decrease the anti-HIV-1 efficacy of nucleotide analogue reverse transcription inhibitors presumably as a result of modulating dNTP pools that compete for recruitment by viral polymerases. Further, a variety of other nucleotide-based analogues, not normally considered antiretrovirals, such as the anti-herpes drugs Aciclovir and Ganciclovir and the anti-cancer drug Clofarabine are now revealed as potent anti-HIV-1 agents, under conditions of low dNTPs. This in turn suggests novel uses for nucleotide analogues to inhibit HIV-1 in differentiated cells low in dNTPs. PMID:28220857

  12. Mitochondria-Targeted Analogues of Metformin Exhibit Enhanced Antiproliferative and Radiosensitizing Effects in Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gang; Zielonka, Jacek; Ouari, Olivier; Lopez, Marcos; McAllister, Donna; Boyle, Kathleen; Barrios, Christy S; Weber, James J; Johnson, Bryon D; Hardy, Micael; Dwinell, Michael B; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman

    2016-07-01

    Metformin (Met) is an approved antidiabetic drug currently being explored for repurposing in cancer treatment based on recent evidence of its apparent chemopreventive properties. Met is weakly cationic and targets the mitochondria to induce cytotoxic effects in tumor cells, albeit not very effectively. We hypothesized that increasing its mitochondria-targeting potential by attaching a positively charged lipophilic substituent would enhance the antitumor activity of Met. In pursuit of this question, we synthesized a set of mitochondria-targeted Met analogues (Mito-Mets) with varying alkyl chain lengths containing a triphenylphosphonium cation (TPP(+)). In particular, the analogue Mito-Met10, synthesized by attaching TPP(+) to Met via a 10-carbon aliphatic side chain, was nearly 1,000 times more efficacious than Met at inhibiting cell proliferation in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Notably, in PDAC cells, Mito-Met10 potently inhibited mitochondrial complex I, stimulating superoxide and AMPK activation, but had no effect in nontransformed control cells. Moreover, Mito-Met10 potently triggered G1 cell-cycle phase arrest in PDAC cells, enhanced their radiosensitivity, and more potently abrogated PDAC growth in preclinical mouse models, compared with Met. Collectively, our findings show how improving the mitochondrial targeting of Met enhances its anticancer activities, including aggressive cancers like PDAC in great need of more effective therapeutic options. Cancer Res; 76(13); 3904-15. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Nanoemulsion loaded gel for topical co-delivery of clobitasol propionate and calcipotriol in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Katiyar, Sameer S; Kushwah, Varun; Jain, Sanyog

    2017-05-01

    Current work reports the development and optimization of clobitasol propionate (CP) and calcipotriol (CT) loaded nanoemulsion based gel for topical treatment of psoriasis. Components of nanoemulsion viz., oil and surfactant/co-surfactant were selected depending upon solubility and emulsification potential respectively. The optimized ratio of 5:3:2 of Capmul MCM C8 EP, Cremophor RH 40 and Labrafil 1944 CS was selected. Carbopol 980 was used as gelling agent to achieve final drug concentration of 0.05% w/w and 0.005% w/w respectively for CP and CT. HaCaT cell lines showed higher uptake of drug from nanoemulsion in correlation with the enhancement in penetration of both drugs in stratum corneum (SC) and viable layer from nanoemulsion and gel as compared to free drugs. Imiquimod induced psoriatic BALB/c mice revealed significantly higher anti-psoriatic activity of nanoemulsion gel as compared to free drugs and marketed formulation. The developed formulation showed negligible skin irritation despite increased penetration into the skin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Systematized epidermal nevus with epidermolytic hyperkeratosis improving with topical calcipotriol/betametasone dipropionate combination ointment.

    PubMed

    Koh, Mark Jean-Aan; Lee, Joyce Siong-See; Chong, Wei-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a 5-year-old boy who presented with systematized epidermal nevus with evidence of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis on skin biopsy. He was otherwise well, with normal growth and development and no evidence of other organ system involvement. He had experienced only mild improvement with potent topical corticosteroids. He reported more-marked improvement after 2 months of topical calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate combination ointment once a day to the lesions. Extensive epidermal nevi can lead to severe cosmetic disfigurement. We recommend a trial of topical calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate ointment for patients with extensive epidermal nevus not amenable to surgical treatment. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Chinese medicine combined with calcipotriol betamethasone and calcipotriol ointment for Psoriasis vulgaris (CMCBCOP): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ze-Huai; Xuan, Mei-Ling; Yan, Yu-Hong; Li, Xiao-Yan; Yao, Dan-Ni; Li, Geng; Guo, Xin-Feng; Ou, Ai-Hua; Lu, Chuan-Jian

    2014-07-22

    Psoriasis causes worldwide concern because of its high-prevalence, as well as its harmful, and incurable characteristics. Topical therapy is a conventional treatment for psoriasis vulgaris. Chinese medicine (CM) has been commonly used in an integrative way for psoriasis patients for many years. Some CM therapies have shown therapeutic effects for psoriasis vulgaris (PV), including relieving symptoms and improving quality of life, and may reduce the relapse rate. However, explicit evidence has not yet been obtained. The purpose of the present trial is to examine the efficacy and safety of the YXBCM01 granule, a compound Chinese herbal medicine, with a combination of topical therapy for PV patients. Using an add-on design, the trial is to evaluate whether the YXBCM01 granule combined topical therapy is more effective than topical therapy alone for the treatment of PV. The study design is a double-blind, parallel, randomized controlled trial comparing the YXBCM01 granule (5.5 g twice daily) to a placebo. The duration of treatment is 12 weeks. A total of 600 participants will be randomly allocated into two groups, YXBCM01 granule group and placebo group, from 11 general or dermatological hospitals in China. Topical use of calcipotriol betamethasone for the first 4 weeks and calcipotriol ointment for the remaining 8 weeks will be the same standard therapy for the two groups. Patients will be enrolled if they have a clinical diagnosis of PV, a psoriasis area severe index (PASI) of more than 10 or body surface area (BSA) of more than 10%, but PASI of less than 30 and BSA of less than 30%, are aged between 18 and 65-years-old, and provide signed informed consent. The primary outcome, relapse rate, is based on PASI assessed blindly during the treatment. Secondary outcomes include: (i) relapse time interval, (ii) time to onset, (iii) rebound rate, (iv) PASI score, (v) cumulative consumption of medicine, (vi) the dermatology quality life index (DLQI), and (vii) the

  16. Chinese medicine combined with calcipotriol betamethasone and calcipotriol ointment for Psoriasis vulgaris (CMCBCOP): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Psoriasis causes worldwide concern because of its high-prevalence, as well as its harmful, and incurable characteristics. Topical therapy is a conventional treatment for psoriasis vulgaris. Chinese medicine (CM) has been commonly used in an integrative way for psoriasis patients for many years. Some CM therapies have shown therapeutic effects for psoriasis vulgaris (PV), including relieving symptoms and improving quality of life, and may reduce the relapse rate. However, explicit evidence has not yet been obtained. The purpose of the present trial is to examine the efficacy and safety of the YXBCM01 granule, a compound Chinese herbal medicine, with a combination of topical therapy for PV patients. Methods/Design Using an add-on design, the trial is to evaluate whether the YXBCM01 granule combined topical therapy is more effective than topical therapy alone for the treatment of PV. The study design is a double-blind, parallel, randomized controlled trial comparing the YXBCM01 granule (5.5 g twice daily) to a placebo. The duration of treatment is 12 weeks. A total of 600 participants will be randomly allocated into two groups, YXBCM01 granule group and placebo group, from 11 general or dermatological hospitals in China. Topical use of calcipotriol betamethasone for the first 4 weeks and calcipotriol ointment for the remaining 8 weeks will be the same standard therapy for the two groups. Patients will be enrolled if they have a clinical diagnosis of PV, a psoriasis area severe index (PASI) of more than 10 or body surface area (BSA) of more than 10%, but PASI of less than 30 and BSA of less than 30%, are aged between 18 and 65-years-old, and provide signed informed consent. The primary outcome, relapse rate, is based on PASI assessed blindly during the treatment. Secondary outcomes include: (i) relapse time interval, (ii) time to onset, (iii) rebound rate, (iv) PASI score, (v) cumulative consumption of medicine, (vi) the dermatology quality life index

  17. Towards a smart Holter system with high performance analogue front-end and enhanced digital processing.

    PubMed

    Du, Leilei; Yan, Yan; Wu, Wenxian; Mei, Qiujun; Luo, Yu; Li, Yang; Wang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Multiple-lead dynamic ECG recorders (Holter) play an important role in the earlier detection of various cardiovascular diseases. In this paper, we present the first several steps towards a 12-lead Holter system with high-performance AFE (Analogue Front-End) and enhanced digital processing. The system incorporates an analogue front-end chip (ADS1298 from TI), which has not yet been widely used in most commercial Holter products. A highly-efficient data management module was designated to handle the data exchange between the ADS1298 and the microprocessor (STM32L151 from ST electronics). Furthermore, the system employs a Field Programmable Gate Array (Spartan-3E from Xilinx) module, on which a dedicated real-time 227-step FIR filter was executed to improve the overall filtering performance, since the ADS1298 has no high-pass filtering capability and only allows limited low-pass filtering. The Spartan-3E FPGA is also capable of offering further on-board computational ability for a smarter Holter. The results indicate that all functional blocks work as intended. In the future, we will conduct clinical trials and compare our system with other state-of-the-arts.

  18. Calcitriol and its analogues enhance the antiproliferative activity of gefitinib in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Segovia-Mendoza, Mariana; Díaz, Lorenza; González-González, María Elena; Martínez-Reza, Isela; García-Quiroz, Janice; Prado-Garcia, Heriberto; Ibarra-Sánchez, María J; Esparza-López, José; Larrea, Fernando; García-Becerra, Rocío

    2015-04-01

    Coexpression of EGFR and HER2 has been associated with poor disease outcome, high rates of metastasis and resistance to conventional treatments in breast cancer. Gefitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, reduces both cell proliferation and tumor growth of breast cancer cells expressing EGFR and/or HER2. On the other hand, calcitriol and some of its synthetic analogs are important antineoplastic agents in different breast cancer subtypes. Herein, we evaluated the effects of the combined treatment of gefitinib with calcitriol or its analogs on cell proliferation in breast cancer cells. The presence of EGFR, HER2 and vitamin D receptor were evaluated by Western blot in two established breast cancer cell lines: SUM-229PE, SKBR3 and a primary breast cancer-derived cell line. The antiproliferative effects of gefitinib alone or in combination with calcitriol and its analogs, calcipotriol and EB1089, were assessed by growth assay using a DNA content-based method. Inhibitory concentrations on cell proliferation were calculated by non-linear regression analysis using sigmoidal fitting of dose-response curves. Pharmacological effects of the drug combinations were calculated by the Chou-Talalay method. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 MAPK was evaluated by Western blot. Gene expression of EGFR, HER2 and BIM was assessed by real time PCR. BIM protein levels were analyzed in cells by flow cytometry. The effects of the drugs alone or combinated on cell cycle phases were determined using propidium iodide. Apoptosis was evaluated by detection of subG1 peak and determination of active caspase 3 by flow cytometry. Gefitinib, calcitriol, calcipotriol and EB1089 inhibited cell proliferation in a dose dependent manner. The combinations of gefitinib with calcitriol or its analogs were more effective to inhibit cell growth than each compound alone in all breast cancer cells studied. The gene expression of EGFR and HER2 was downregulated and not affected, respectively, by the combined treatment

  19. Enhancement of wound healing by shikonin analogue 93/637 in normal and impaired healing.

    PubMed

    Mani, H; Sidhu, G S; Singh, A K; Gaddipati, J; Banaudha, K K; Raj, K; Maheshwari, R K

    2004-01-01

    Wound healing is a complicated biological process, which involves interactions of multiple cell types, various growth factors, their mediators and the extracellular matrix proteins. In this study, we evaluated the effects of shikonin analogue 93/637 (SA), derived from the plant Arnebia nobilis, on normal and hydrocortisone-induced impaired healing in full thickness cutaneous punch wounds in rats. SA (0.1%) was applied topically daily as an ointment in polyethylene glycol base on wounds. SA treatment significantly accelerated healing of wounds, as measured by wound contraction compared to controls in hydrocortisone-impaired animals. SA treatment promoted formation of granulation tissue including cell migration and neovascularization, collagenization and reepithelialization. The expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was higher as revealed by immunohistochemistry in treated wounds compared to controls. However, the expression of transforming growth factor-beta(1) was not affected by SA treatment. Since bFGF is known to accelerate wound healing, the increased expression of bFGF by SA may be partly responsible for the enhancement of wound healing. These studies suggest that SA could be further studied for clinical use to enhance wound healing.

  20. Slow-onset, long-duration, alkyl analogues of methylphenidate with enhanced selectivity for the dopamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Froimowitz, Mark; Gu, Yonghong; Dakin, Les A; Nagafuji, Pamela M; Kelley, Charles J; Parrish, Damon; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Janowsky, Aaron

    2007-01-25

    Methylphenidate analogues, in which the carbomethoxy has been replaced by an alkyl group and with different phenyl substituents, have been synthesized and tested in monoamine transporter assays. As predicted from a pharmacophore model, most of the RR/SS diastereomers showed high potency as dopamine reuptake inhibitors. Analogues with a 4-chlorophenyl group and an unbranched initial alkyl atom had consistently enhanced selectivity for the dopamine transporter. The most potent compounds were those with a three- or four-carbon chain. The "inactive" RS/SR diastereomers showed substantial activity when the phenyl substituent was 3,4-dichloro. On a locomotor assay, one compound was found to have a slow onset and a long duration of action. The activity of these compounds provides additional evidence for a conformational/superposition model of methylphenidate with cocaine-like structures. A ketone analogue, obtained by hydrogenating a previously described vinylogous amide, had activity similar to that of methylphenidate.

  1. Quality factor enhancement for resonant MEMS applying an analogue feedback circuit driven by a lock-in amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucera, Martin; Hofbauer, Franz; Manzaneque, Tomás.; Ruiz, Victor; Sánchez-Rojas, José Luis; Bittner, Achim; Schmid, Ulrich

    2013-05-01

    In this study, an analogue Q-control circuit is presented, based on a digital feedback loop. In this approach, a self-actuated and self-sensing piezoelectric microstructure is used in combination with a lock-in amplifier to extract the Q-control feedback signal amplitude which is proportional to the piezoelectric current. In the next step, the DC-value supported by the lock-in amplifier is multiplied with a sine signal on a custom-designed analogue circuit board containing an analogue amplifier IC. This generated analogue feedback signal allows to drive a complete analogue feedback loop enabling faster response of the Q-control and further faster measurements can be performed. Using this Q-factor enhancement technique, the Q-factor was increased from 397 to about 5357 in air without driving the used Q-control approach to its limits. These promising results will push further activities in measuring the viscosity of liquids in the future.

  2. Efficacy of adding topical simvastatin to topical calcipotriol on improvement of cutaneous plaque psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Iraji, Fariba; Tajmirriahi, Nabet; Siadat, Amir Hossein; Momeni, Iman; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psoriasis is a common dermatologic disorder, with fluctuating response to treatment. Considering the proven immunomodulatory effects of oral simvastatin in psoriasis, this trial study was enrolled to determine whether the topical form has also antipsoriatic effects. Vitamin D analogs known to be effective and are considered the first line of therapy in mild to moderate cases. In this study, the efficacy of topical calcipotriol 0.005% ointment (as a standard method of treatment for psoriasis) versus combination of calcipotriol plus topical simvastatin is compared in the treatment of psoriasis. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects with symmetric psoriasis who had body surface involvement up to 20% were divided randomly into 2 groups. Group A were treated with calcipotriol 0.005% ointment twice daily and Group B with calcipotriol 0.005% ointment twice daily and simvastatin 3% ointment twice daily for 12 weeks. The results were evaluated by a Blind Dermatologist using psoriasis area severity index (PASI) score at baseline, 4th, 8th and 12th week of treatment. In a similar way, a subjective assessment performed by patients based on photo-evaluation at the end of the study. Results: Despite a continuous reduction in PASI score in both groups, according to both physician (P = 0.603) and patient (P = 0.243) assessment topical simvastatin was not statistically more effective than conventional treatment of psoriasis at the end of the study. Conclusion: This study indicates that topical simvastatin is not associated with significant impacts in the treatment of psoriasis as compared to oral form. This study indicates that psoriasis is a systemic disorder with variable skin manifestations. PMID:24592364

  3. The Effect of Calcipotriol on the Expression of Human β Defensin-2 and LL-37 in Cultured Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Beom Joon; Rho, Yong Kwan; Lee, Hye In; Jeong, Mi Sook; Li, Kapsok; Seo, Seong Jun; Kim, Myeung Nam; Hong, Chang Kwun

    2009-01-01

    Background. Vitamin D has been reported to regulate innate immunity by controlling the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Objective. We investigated the effect of calcipotriol on the expression of AMPs in human cultured keratinocytes. Methods. Keratinocytes were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), TNF-α, Calcipotriol and irradiated with UVB, cultured, and harvested. To assess the expression of human beta defensin-2 and LL-37 in the control group, not exposed to any stimulants, the experimental group was treated with LPS, TNF-α, or UVB, and another group was treated again with calcipotriol; reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining were performed. Results. In the experimental group treated with LPS, UVB irradiation, and TNF-α, the expression of β-defensin and LL-37 was increased more than in the control group and then decreased in the experimental group treated with calcipotriol. Conclusions. Calcipotriol suppressed HBD-2 and LL-37, which were stimulated by UVB, LPS, and TNF-α. PMID:20182640

  4. Treatment of nail psoriasis with Pulse Dye Laser plus calcipotriol betametasona gel vs. Nd:YAG plus calcipotriol betamethasone gel: An intrapatient left-to-right controlled study.

    PubMed

    Arango-Duque, L C; Roncero-Riesco, M; Usero Bárcena, T; Palacios Álvarez, I; Fernández López, E

    2017-03-01

    Treatment of nail psoriasis remains a challenging and often disappointing situation. To compare the efficacy, adverse reactions and tolerability of treatment of nail psoriasis with PDL vs. Nd:YAG, in association with betametasona calcipotriol gel. An open, prospective intrapatient left-to-right study was designed. The right hand of each patient received treatment with PDL and the left hand with Nd:YAG. Betamethasone calcipotriol gel was applied once a day during the first week after each laser session. A total of four sessions were administered. The clinical efficacy was evaluated according to the NAPSI score. All patients showed improvement in nail bed and nail matrix psoriasis. The global NAPSI mean declined in 15.46 (p<0.000). There was neither statistical difference between the reduction in nail bed and matrix NAPSI nor in the treatment with PDL vs. Nd:YAG. The administration of Nd:YAG was more painful. No serious adverse effects were documented. No random assignment and the small number of patients. PDL and Nd:YAG have proven to be an effective treatment for nail psoriasis with no serious adverse effect. No statistically significant difference was found between the two treatments. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  5. Antibody mediated fluorescence enhancement of nucleoside analogue 1,3-diaza-2-oxophenoxazine (tC°).

    PubMed

    Sellrie, Frank; Lenz, Christine; Andersson, Anika; Wilhelmsson, L Marcus; Schenk, Jörg A

    2014-06-01

    We report on the generation and analytical application of the monoclonal antibody G93-ED2 raised against the tricyclic fluorescent nucleoside analogue 1,3-diaza-2-oxophenoxazine (tC°). G93-ED2 is specifically binding this deoxycytidine analogue and was found to raise its fluorescence intensity by a factor of 5. This unique feature makes it a valuable tool in fluorescence dependent immunoassays. G93-ED2 was successfully applied in a homogeneous fluorescence quenching immunoassay (DNA-Q) for the sequence specific determination of DNA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ameliorative potential of linagliptin and/or calcipotriol on bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis: In vivo and in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kabel, Ahmed M; Abd Elmaaboud, Maaly A; Atef, Aliaa; Baali, Mohammed H

    2017-03-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a serious medical problem that may significantly compromise respiratory functions. The aim of this work was to study the effect of linagliptin and/or calcipotriol on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis and to explore the possible mechanisms underlying this effect. One hundred and twenty male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 6 equal groups as follows: control group; bleomycin group; bleomycin+carboxymethylcellulose group; bleomycin+linagliptin group; bleomycin+calcipotriol group and bleomycin+linagliptin+calcipotriol group. Lung weight/body weight index, lung tissue hydroxyproline, collagen, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor-like 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) were measured. Also, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed for total and differential leucocytic count, lactate dehydrogenase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1). Vascular response to potassium chloride, phenylephrine and carbachol as well as tracheal response to carbachol were measured. Also, lung tissue was subjected to histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. Administration of linagliptin and/or calcipotriol induced significant decrease in the lung weight/body weight index, total leucocytic count, BALF lactate dehydrogenase activity, IL-10, TNF-α and TGF-β1 associated with significant decrease in lung tissue MDA, Nrf2, HO-1, TLR4, hydroxyproline and collagen content with significant increase in tissue GPx and CAT and improvement of the pulmonary architecture, vascular and tracheal response compared to bleomycin group. These effects were significant in linagliptin/calcipotriol combination group compared to the use of each of these drugs alone. In conclusion, linagliptin/calcipotriol combination may represent an effective therapeutic modality for amelioration of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

  7. Mutation of a conserved residue enhances the sensitivity of analogue-sensitised kinases to generate a novel approach to the study of mitosis in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Tay, Ye-Dee; Patel, Avinash; Kaemena, Daniel F; Hagan, Iain M

    2013-11-01

    The chemical genetic strategy in which mutational enlargement of the ATP-binding site sensitises of a protein kinase to bulky ATP analogues has proved to be an elegant tool for the generation of conditional analogue-sensitive kinase alleles in a variety of model organisms. Here, we describe a novel substitution mutation in the kinase domain that can enhance the sensitivity of analogue-sensitive kinases. Substitution of a methionine residue to phenylalanine in the +2 position after HRDLKxxN motif of the subdomain VIb within the kinase domain markedly increased the sensitivities of the analogue-sensitive kinases to ATP analogues in three out of five S. pombe kinases (i.e. Plo1, Orb5 and Wee1) that harbor this conserved methionine residue. Kinome alignment established that a methionine residue is found at this site in 5-9% of kinases in key model organisms, suggesting that a broader application of this structural modification may enhance ATP analogue sensitivity of analogue-sensitive kinases in future studies. We also show that the enhanced sensitivity of the wee1.as8 allele in a cdc25.22 background can be exploited to generate highly synchronised mitotic and S phase progression at 36°C. Proof-of-principle experiments show how this novel synchronisation technique will prove of great use in the interrogation of the mitotic or S-phase functions through temperature sensitivity mutation of molecules of interest in fission yeast.

  8. [Dmt(1)]DALDA analogues with enhanced μ opioid agonist potency and with a mixed μ/κ opioid activity profile.

    PubMed

    Bai, Longxiang; Li, Ziyuan; Chen, Jiajia; Chung, Nga N; Wilkes, Brian C; Li, Tingyou; Schiller, Peter W

    2014-04-01

    Analogues of [Dmt(1)]DALDA (H-Dmt-d-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2; Dmt=2',6'-dimethyltyrosine), a potent μ opioid agonist peptide with mitochondria-targeted antioxidant activity, were prepared by replacing Phe(3) with various 2',6'-dialkylated Phe analogues, including 2',6'-dimethylphenylalanine (Dmp), 2',4',6'-trimethylphenylalanine (Tmp), 2'-isopropyl-6'-methylphenylalanine (Imp) and 2'-ethyl-6'-methylphenylalanine (Emp), or with the bulky amino acids 3'-(1-naphthyl)alanine (1-Nal), 3'-(2-naphthyl)alanine (2-Nal) or Trp. Several compounds showed significantly increased μ agonist potency, retained μ receptor selectivity and are of interest as drug candidates for neuropathic pain treatment. Surprisingly, the Dmp(3)-, Imp(3)-, Emp(3)- and 1-Nal(3)-containing analogues showed much increased κ receptor binding affinity and had mixed μ/κ properties. In these cases, molecular dynamics studies indicated conformational preorganization of the unbound peptide ligands due to rotational restriction around the C(β)C(γ) bond of the Xxx(3) residue, in correlation with the observed κ receptor binding enhancement. Compounds with a mixed μ/κ opioid activity profile are known to have therapeutic potential for treatment of cocaine abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Vitamin D3 Analogues with Low Vitamin D Receptor Binding Affinity Regulate Chondrocyte Proliferation, Proteoglycan Synthesis, and Protein Kinase C Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-28

    osteocalcin, a biochemical marker of bone formative cells, with oral administration of 1,25-(OH)2 D3 (Bollerslev et al., 1991). Psoriasis is a...b). 1,25-(OH)2 D3 has been utilized in the treatment of psoriasis related to its inhibition of epidermal proliferation and promotion of epidermal...analogues have been developed and evaluated for the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. Compared to 1,25-(OH) 2D3 , calcipotriol, the most extensively

  10. [TIC4]endomorphins, analogues of endomorphins, have significantly enhanced vasorelaxant effects in rat aorta rings.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian-Yu; Chen, Qiang; Feng, Yun; Lin, Xin; Wang, Rui

    2005-05-01

    [Tic(4)]EM1 and [Tic(4)]EM2, new endomorphins (EMs) analogues, caused relaxation of rat aorta rings precontracted with phenylphrine in a concentration-dependent manner and were 240- to 370-fold more potent than EMs. This effect was inhibited by endothelium removal or by incubation with NO synthase inhibitor L-NNA or opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. The results demonstrate that [Tic(4)]EMs have NO- and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxant effects which are mediated by the opioid receptor.

  11. A novel long-acting glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide analogue: enhanced efficacy in normal and diabetic rodents

    PubMed Central

    Tatarkiewicz, K; Hargrove, D M; Jodka, C M; Gedulin, B R; Smith, P A; Hoyt, J A; Lwin, A; Collins, L; Mamedova, L; Levy, O E; D’Souza, L; Janssen, S; Srivastava, V; Ghosh, S S; Parkes, D G

    2014-01-01

    Aim Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) is an incretin hormone that is released from intestinal K cells in response to nutrient ingestion. We aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of the novel N- and C-terminally modified GIP analogue AC163794. Methods AC163794 was synthesized by solid-phase peptide synthesis. Design involved the substitution of the C-terminus tail region of the dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV)-resistant GIP analogue [d-Ala2]GIP(1–42) with the unique nine amino acid tail region of exenatide. The functional activity and binding of AC163794 to the GIP receptor were evaluated in RIN-m5F β-cells. In vitro metabolic stability was tested in human plasma and kidney membrane preparations. Acute insulinotropic effects were investigated in isolated mouse islets and during an intravenous glucose tolerance test in normal and diabetic Zucker fatty diabetic (ZDF) rats. The biological actions of AC163794 were comprehensively assessed in normal, ob/ob and high-fat-fed streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Acute glucoregulatory effects of AC163794 were tested in diet-induced obese mice treated subchronically with AC3174, the exendatide analogue [Leu14] exenatide. Human GIP or [d-Ala2]GIP(1–42) were used for comparison. Results AC163794 exhibited nanomolar functional GIP receptor potency in vitro similar to GIP and [d-Ala2]GIP(1–42). AC163794 was metabolically more stable in vitro and displayed longer duration of insulinotropic action in vivo versus GIP and [d-Ala2]GIP(1–42). In diabetic mice, AC163794 improved HbA1c through enhanced insulinotropic action, partial restoration of pancreatic insulin content and improved insulin sensitivity with no adverse effects on fat storage and metabolism. AC163794 provided additional baseline glucose-lowering when injected to mice treated with AC3174. Conclusions These studies support the potential use of a novel GIP analogue AC163794 for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23859463

  12. Dogfish glucagon analogues counter hyperglycaemia and enhance both insulin secretion and action in diet-induced obese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    O'Harte, F P M; Ng, M T; Lynch, A M; Conlon, J M; Flatt, P R

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the antidiabetic actions of three dogfish glucagon peptide analogues [known glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon receptor co-agonists] after chronic administration in diet-induced high-fat-diet-fed diabetic mice. National Institutes of Health Swiss mice were pre-conditioned to a high-fat diet (45% fat) for 100 days, and control mice were fed a normal diet (10% fat). Normal diet control and high-fat-fed control mice received twice-daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) saline injections, while the high-fat-fed treatment groups (n = 8) received twice-daily injections of exendin-4(1-39), [S2a]dogfish glucagon, [S2a]dogfish glucagon exendin-4(31-39) or [S2a]dogfish glucagon-Lys(30) -γ-glutamyl-PAL (25 nmol/kg body weight) for 51 days. After dogfish glucagon analogue treatment, there was a rapid and sustained decrease in non-fasting blood glucose and an associated insulinotropic effect (analysis of variance, p < .05 to <.001) compared with saline-treated high-fat-fed controls. All peptide treatments significantly improved i.p. and oral glucose tolerance with concomitant increased insulin secretion compared with saline-treated high-fat-fed controls (p <.05 to <.001). After chronic treatment, no receptor desensitization was observed but insulin sensitivity was enhanced for all peptide-treated groups (p < .01 to <.001) except [S2a]dogfish glucagon. Both exendin-4 and [S2a]dogfish glucagon exendin-4(31-39) significantly reduced plasma triglyceride concentrations compared with those found in lean controls (p = .0105 and p = .0048, respectively). Pancreatic insulin content was not affected by peptide treatments but [S2a]dogfish glucagon and [S2a]dogfish glucagon exendin-4(31-39) decreased pancreatic glucagon by 28%-34% (p = .0221 and p = .0075, respectively). The percentage of β-cell area within islets was increased by exendin-4 and peptide analogue treatment groups compared with high-fat-fed controls and the β-cell area decreased

  13. Juvenile Hormone Analogues, Methoprene and Fenoxycarb Dose-Dependently Enhance Certain Enzyme Activities in the Silkworm Bombyx Mori (L)

    PubMed Central

    Mamatha, Devi M.; Kanji, Vijaya K.; Cohly, Hari H.P.; Rao, M. Rajeswara

    2008-01-01

    Use of Juvenile Hormone Analogues (JHA) in sericulture practices has been shown to boost good cocoon yield; their effect has been determined to be dose-dependent. We studied the impact of low doses of JHA compounds such as methoprene and fenoxycarb on selected key enzymatic activities of the silkworm Bombyx mori. Methoprene and fenoxycarb at doses of 1.0 μg and 3.0fg/larvae/48 hours showed enhancement of the 5th instar B. mori larval muscle and silkgland protease, aspartate aminotransaminase (AAT) and alanine aminotransaminase (ALAT), adenosine triphosphate synthase (ATPase) and cytochrome-c-oxidase (CCO) activity levels, indicating an upsurge in the overall oxidative metabolism of the B.mori larval tissues. PMID:18678927

  14. Juvenile Hormone Analogues, methoprene and fenoxycarb dose-dependently enhance certain enzyme activities in the silkworm Bombyx mori (L).

    PubMed

    Mamatha, Devi M; Kanji, Vijaya K; Cohly, Hari H P; Rao, M Rajeswara

    2008-06-01

    Use of Juvenile Hormone Analogues (JHA) in sericulture practices has been shown to boost good cocoon yield; their effect has been determined to be dose-dependent. We studied the impact of low doses of JHA compounds such as methoprene and fenoxycarb on selected key enzymatic activities of the silkworm Bombyx mori. Methoprene and fenoxycarb at doses of 1.0 microg and 3.0 fg/larvae/48 hours showed enhancement of the 5th instar B. mori larval muscle and silkgland protease, aspartate aminotransaminase (AAT) and alanine aminotransaminase (ALAT), adenosine triphosphate synthase (ATPase) and cytochrome-c-oxidase (CCO) activity levels, indicating an upsurge in the overall oxidative metabolism of the B.mori larval tissues.

  15. Surface-enhanced Raman difference between bombesin and its modified analogues on the colloidal and electrochemically roughen silver surfaces.

    PubMed

    Podstawka, Edyta; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2008-10-01

    In this article, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of bombesin (BN) and its six modified analogues ([D-Phe(12)]BN, [Tyr(4)]BN, [Tyr(4),D-Phe(12)]BN, [D-Phe(12),Leu(14)]BN, [Leu(13)-(R)-Leu(14)]BN, and [Lys(3)]BN) on a colloidal silver surface are reported and compared with SERS spectra of these species immobilized onto an ellectrochemically roughen silver electrode. Changes in enhancement and wavenumber of proper bands upon adsorption on different silver surfaces are consistent with BN and its analogues adsorption primarily through Trp(8). Slightly different adsorption states of these molecules are observed depending upon natural amino acids substitution. For example, the indole ring in all the peptides interacts with silver nanoparticles in a edge-on orientation. It is additionally coordinated to the silver through the N(1)--H bond for all the peptides, except [Phe(12)]BN. This is in contrary to the results obtained for the silver roughen electrode that show direct but not strong N(1)--H/Ag interaction for all peptides except [D-Phe(12),Leu(14)]BN and [Leu(13)-(R)-Leu(14)]BN. For BN only C==O is not involved in the chemical coordination with the colloidal surface. [Lys(3)]BN and BN also adsorb with the C--N bond of NH(2) group normal and horizontal, respectively, to the colloidal surface, whereas C--NH(2) in other peptides is tilted to this surface. Also, the Trp(8) --CH(2)-- moiety of only [Tyr(4)]BN, [Lys(3)]BN, and [Tyr(4),D-Phe(12)]BN coordinates to Ag, whereas the Phe(12) ring of [Phe(12)]BN, [Tyr(4),D-Phe(12)]BN, and [D-Phe(12),Leu(14)]BN assists in the peptides binding only on the colloidal silver.

  16. The effects of calcipotriol on the dendritic morphology of human melanocytes under oxidative stress and a possible mechanism: is it a mitochondrial protector?

    PubMed

    Gong, Qingli; Li, Xue; Sun, Jie; Ding, Gaozhong; Zhou, Meihua; Zhao, Wene; Lu, Yan

    2015-02-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary disorder of unknown etiology that is clinically characterized by the development of white macules in the skin related to the selective loss of melanocytes in those areas. Evidence shows that mitochondria might be a unifying target of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cytokine production, catecholamine release and/or alteration of Ca(2+) metabolism that leads to melanocyte loss. To assess the protective effect of calcipotriol on mitochondria of human melanocytes by investigating their dendritic morphology under oxidative stress. Human melanocytes were treated with 0.05% H2O2 as well as various concentrations of calcipotriol, after which the retraction velocity of melanocyte dendrites was assessed. Detection of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was performed as were the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Ultrastructural changes of mitochondria in melanocytes were observed by transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the expression of Beclin1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), dynamin related protein 1 (Drp1), mitofusin 1 (Mfn1) and mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), which are related to autophagy and mitochondrial dynamics, were analyzed by Western blot. Calcipotriol reduced the retraction velocity of melanocyte dendrites. In addition, calcipotriol, from 20nM to 80nM, decreased the level of MDA, increased the activity of SOD, suppressed the reduction of MMP and recovered Ca(2+) homeostasis by reducing [Ca(2+)]i in a concentration-dependent manner. Observation by transmission electron microscopy suggested that calcipotriol might reduce the injury of mitochondria in melanocytes under oxidative stress. Furthermore, the expression of Beclin1, LC3-II/LC3-I, Mfn2 and Drp1 was higher in the calcipotriol-treated melanocytes than in the control or H2O2-treated melanocytes. The level of Mfn1 was almost unchanged, but was higher at a concentration of

  17. Dimethoxycurcumin, a metabolically stable analogue of curcumin enhances the radiosensitivity of cancer cells: Possible involvement of ROS and thioredoxin reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Jayakumar, Sundarraj; Patwardhan, R.S.; Pal, Debojyoti; Sharma, Deepak; Sandur, Santosh K.

    2016-09-09

    Dimethoxycurcumin (DIMC), a structural analogue of curcumin, has been shown to have more stability, bioavailability, and effectiveness than its parent molecule curcumin. In this paper the radiosensitizing effect of DIMC has been investigated in A549 lung cancer cells. As compared to its parent molecule curcumin, DIMC showed a very potent radiosensitizing effect as seen by clonogenic survival assay. DIMC in combination with radiation significantly increased the apoptosis and mitotic death in A549 cells. This combinatorial treatment also lead to effective elimination of cancer stem cells. Further, there was a significant increase in cellular ROS, decrease in GSH to GSSG ratio and also significant slowdown in DNA repair when DIMC was combined with radiation. In silico docking studies and in vitro studies showed inhibition of thioredoxin reductase enzyme by DIMC. Overexpression of thioredoxin lead to the abrogation of radiosensitizing effect of DIMC underscoring the role of thioredoxin reductase in radiosensitization. Our results clearly demonstrate that DIMC can synergistically enhance the cancer cell killing when combined with radiation by targeting thioredoxin system. - Highlights: • DIMC enhances radiosensitivity of cancer cells by inducing cell death. • DIMC with radiation disrupted the cellular redox and targeted cancer stem cells. • DNA repair is hampered when cells are treated with DIMC. • DIMC inhibited thioredoxin reductase in cancer cells.

  18. Treatment of plaque-type psoriasis with the 308 nm excimer laser in combination with dithranol or calcipotriol.

    PubMed

    Rogalski, Christina; Grunewald, Sonja; Schetschorke, Mario; Bodendorf, Marc Oliver; Kauer, Friederike; Simon, Jan Christoph; Paasch, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    The combination of excimer laser and topical treatment has not been studied in clinical trials. This within-patient comparison study evaluates the response rates of plaque-type psoriasis after treatment with topical only (dithranol or calcipotriol), laser only, and combination therapy with topical medication and laser. A total of 61 patients with psoriatic plaques located at symmetric body areas (PASI ≥ 6) were screened, 59 were enrolled, 54 completed treatment and 45 completed the 6 months follow-up. Treatments with the excimer laser were performed twice weekly until resolution or a maximum of 15 treatments. Each ointment was applied on one of the test lesions, which had to be at least 10 cm apart from each other. Efficacy was rated with a modified PASI score. At the end of the treatment phase only one patient in both topical therapy regimens met the criteria of partial clearance (modified PASI ≤ 2). The combined therapies resulted in 23 cases of partial clearance in both treatment arms. Four areas treated with calcipotriol, respectively six areas treated with dithranol resulted in total clearance at the end of the treatment phase. The average reduction of modified PASI scores was higher in combination than in topical treatment alone (49.8% calcipotriol + excimer versus 22.9% calcipotriol, 49.7% dithranol + excimer versus 26.8% dithranol). After six months there was a total clearance of 30.5% dithranol + excimer. Treatment of plaque-type psoriasis with laser in combination with topical treatment is a safe and effective therapy. The best long-term results can be obtained by the application of dithranol and excimer laser.

  19. Comparison of tazarotene 0.1% gel plus petrolatum once daily versus calcipotriol 0.005% ointment twice daily in the treatment of plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Tzung, Tien-Yi; Wu, Jen-Chin; Hsu, Nei-Jen; Chen, Ya-Hui; Ger, Luo-Ping

    2005-01-01

    Tazarotene and calcipotriol are both effective in the treatment of psoriasis. An investigator-blind, bilateral comparison of 44 lesion pairs in 19 patients was conducted to evaluate the efficacy, side effects and duration of therapeutic effects of once-daily tazarotene 0.1% gel plus petrolatum with twice-daily calcipotriol 0.005% ointment in plaque psoriasis. It consisted of a 12-week treatment phase, followed by a 4-week post-treatment observation phase. At the end of the treatment phase, tazarotene-petrolatum was as effective as calcipotriol in both objective and subjective overall efficacy assessment. Calcipotriol had a significantly greater effect in reducing erythema than tazarotene-petrolatum at weeks 2-8. At week 16, tazarotene-petrolatum demonstrated a significantly better maintenance effect in all parameters. Local irritation was noted only in tazarotene-petrolatum-treated lesions. Once-daily tazarotene 0.1% gel plus petrolatum was as effective as twice-daily calcipotriol 0.005% ointment in the treatment of plaque psoriasis, but had a better maintenance effect after the cessation of therapy.

  20. Oxaliplatin Analogues with Carboxy Derivatives of Boldine with Enhanced Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mellado, Marco; Jara, Carlos; Astudillo, David; Villena, Joan; Reveco, Patricio G.; Thomet, Franz A.

    2015-01-01

    A new oxaliplatin analog [Pt(dach)(L5)] (1) was synthesized and characterized as a continuation of a study of the previously reported [Pt(dach)(L6)] (2), where dach = (1R,2R)-diaminocyclohexane, L5 = 3-carboxyboldine, and L6 = 3-carboxypredicentrine. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited a substantially enhanced antioxidant activity compared to oxaliplatin (130 and 30 times for 1 and 13 and 4 times for 2 using the DPPH and FRAP assays, resp.). In addition, 1 and 2 exhibited cytotoxic activity in the same range as oxaliplatin toward the two human tumor cell lines (MCF-7 and HT-29) studied and two to four times lower activity in the human colon nontumor cell line (CCD-841). Preadministration of L5 or L6 to the colon tumor (HT-29) and the colon nontumor (CCD-841) cell lines prior to oxaliplatin addition increased the viability of the nontumor cell line to a greater extent than that of the tumor cell line. PMID:25814916

  1. Oxaliplatin analogues with carboxy derivatives of boldine with enhanced antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Mellado, Marco; Jara, Carlos; Astudillo, David; Villena, Joan; Reveco, Patricio G; Thomet, Franz A

    2015-01-01

    A new oxaliplatin analog [Pt(dach)(L5)] (1) was synthesized and characterized as a continuation of a study of the previously reported [Pt(dach)(L6)] (2), where dach = (1R,2R)-diaminocyclohexane, L5 = 3-carboxyboldine, and L6 = 3-carboxypredicentrine. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited a substantially enhanced antioxidant activity compared to oxaliplatin (130 and 30 times for 1 and 13 and 4 times for 2 using the DPPH and FRAP assays, resp.). In addition, 1 and 2 exhibited cytotoxic activity in the same range as oxaliplatin toward the two human tumor cell lines (MCF-7 and HT-29) studied and two to four times lower activity in the human colon nontumor cell line (CCD-841). Preadministration of L5 or L6 to the colon tumor (HT-29) and the colon nontumor (CCD-841) cell lines prior to oxaliplatin addition increased the viability of the nontumor cell line to a greater extent than that of the tumor cell line.

  2. Analogue Gravity.

    PubMed

    Barceló, Carlos; Liberati, Stefano; Visser, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Analogue gravity is a research programme which investigates analogues of general relativistic gravitational fields within other physical systems, typically but not exclusively condensed matter systems, with the aim of gaining new insights into their corresponding problems. Analogue models of (and for) gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing) and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity).

  3. Differential antitumor effects of vitamin D analogues on colorectal carcinoma in culture.

    PubMed

    Wierzbicka, J M; Binek, A; Ahrends, T; Nowacka, J D; Szydłowska, A; Turczyk, Ł; Wąsiewicz, T; Wierzbicki, P M; Sądej, R; Tuckey, R C; Slominski, A T; Chybicki, J; Adrych, K; Kmieć, Z; Żmijewski, M A

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an emerging global problem with the rapid increase in its incidence being associated with an unhealthy lifestyle. Epidemiological studies have shown that decreased levels of vitamin D3 significantly increases the risk of CRC. Furthermore, negative effects of vitamin D3 deficiency can be compensated by appropriate supplementation. Vitamin D3 was shown to inhibit growth and induce differentiation of cancer cells, however, excessive vitamin D3 intake leads to hypercalcemia. Thus, development of efficient vitamin D3 analogues with limited impact on calcium homeostasis is an important scientific and clinically relevant task. The aims of the present study were to compare the antiproliferative potential of classic vitamin D3 metabolites (1α,25(OH)2D3 and 25(OH)D3) with selected low calcemic analogues (calcipotriol and 20(OH)D3) on CRC cell lines and to investigate the expression of vitamin D-related genes in CRC cell lines and clinical samples. Vitamin D3 analogues exerted anti-proliferative effects on all CRC cell lines tested. Calcipotriol proved to be as potent as 1α,25(OH)2D3 and had more efficacy than 20-hydroxyvitamin D3. In addition, the analogs tested effectively inhibited the formation of colonies in Matrigel. The expression of genes involved in 1α,25(OH)2D3 signaling and metabolism varied in cell lines analysed, which explains in part their different sensitivities to the various analogues. In CRC biopsies, there was decreased VDR expression in tumor samples in comparison to the surgical margin and healthy colon samples (p<0.01). The present study indicates that vitamin D3 analogues which have low calcemic activity, such as calcipotriol or 20(OH)D3, are very promising candidates for CRC therapy. Moreover, expression profiling of vitamin D-related genes is likely to be a powerful tool in the planning of anticancer therapy. Decreased levels of VDR and increased CYP24A1 expression in clinical samples underline the importance of

  4. Differential antitumor effects of vitamin D analogues on colorectal carcinoma in culture

    PubMed Central

    WIERZBICKA, J.M.; BINEK, A.; AHRENDS, T.; KA, J.D. NOWAC; SZYDŁOWSKA, A.; TURCZYK, Ł.; WĄSIEWICZ, T.; WIERZBICKI, P.M.; SĄDEJ, R.; TUCKEY, R.C.; SLOMINSKI, A.T.; CHYBICKI, J.; ADRYCH, K.; KMIEĆ, Z.; ŻMIJEWSKI, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an emerging global problem with the rapid increase in its incidence being associated with an unhealthy lifestyle. Epidemiological studies have shown that decreased levels of vitamin D3 significantly increases the risk of CRC. Furthermore, negative effects of vitamin D3 deficiency can be compensated by appropriate supplementation. Vitamin D3 was shown to inhibit growth and induce differentiation of cancer cells, however, excessive vitamin D3 intake leads to hypercalcemia. Thus, development of efficient vitamin D3 analogues with limited impact on calcium homeostasis is an important scientific and clinically relevant task. The aims of the present study were to compare the antiproliferative potential of classic vitamin D3 metabolites (1α,25(OH)2D3 and 25(OH)D3) with selected low calcemic analogues (calcipotriol and 20(OH)D3) on CRC cell lines and to investigate the expression of vitamin D-related genes in CRC cell lines and clinical samples. Vitamin D3 analogues exerted anti-proliferative effects on all CRC cell lines tested. Calcipotriol proved to be as potent as 1α,25(OH)2D3 and had more efficacy than 20-hydroxyvitamin D3. In addition, the analogs tested effectively inhibited the formation of colonies in Matrigel. The expression of genes involved in 1α,25(OH)2D3 signaling and metabolism varied in cell lines analysed, which explains in part their different sensitivities to the various analogues. In CRC biopsies, there was decreased VDR expression in tumor samples in comparison to the surgical margin and healthy colon samples (P<0.01). The present study indicates that vitamin D3 analogues which have low calcemic activity, such as calcipotriol or 20(OH)D3, are very promising candidates for CRC therapy. Moreover, expression profiling of vitamin D-related genes is likely to be a powerful tool in the planning of anticancer therapy. Decreased levels of VDR and increased CYP24A1 expression in clinical samples underline the importance of

  5. A non-calcemic sulfone version of the vitamin D(3) analogue seocalcitol (EB 1089): chemical synthesis, biological evaluation and potency enhancement of the anticancer drug adriamycin.

    PubMed

    Posner, G H; Crawford, K R; Peleg, S; Welsh, J E; Romu, S; Gewirtz, D A; Gupta, M S; Dolan, P; Kensler, T W

    2001-09-01

    Novel side-chain diene sulfones 5, analogues of the natural hormone 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (calcitriol, 1), were designed to incorporate some of the therapeutically most favorable structural features of the Leo Pharmaceutical Company's drug candidate diene EB 1089 (seocalcitol, 4) and of the Hopkins' non-calcemic side-chain sulfone analogues 2 and 3. Synthesis of diene sulfones 5 features selective Swern oxidation of a primary silyl ether in the presence of a secondary silyl ether (9-->10) and Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons aldehyde addition by a 1-phosphonyl-3-sulfonyl stabilized carbanion regiospecifically at the 1-position to form E,E-diene sulfone 11. Sulfone diene analogue 5a with natural 1alpha,3beta-diol functionality, but not its diastereomer 5b with unnatural A-ring stereochemistry, is antiproliferative in vitro toward murine keratinocytes and malignant melanoma cells, as well as toward MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Combining diene sulfone 5a with the currently used anticancer drug adriamycin (ADR) caused a noteworthy 3-fold enhancement of ADR antiproliferative potency in MCF-7 cells. Sulfone diene analogue 5a is weakly active transcriptionally in MCF-7 and ROS 17/2.8 cells, binds poorly but measurably to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), and desirably is non-calcemic in vivo at a daily dose (7 days) of 10 microg/kg of rat body weight.

  6. Nitroglycerin enhances the propagation of cortical spreading depression: comparative studies with sumatriptan and novel kynurenic acid analogues

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Levente; Szita, Bence; Kocsis, Kitti; Vécsei, László; Toldi, József

    2017-01-01

    Background The complex pathophysiology of migraine is not yet clearly understood; therefore, experimental models are essential for the investigation of the processes related to migraine headache, which include cortical spreading depression (CSD) and NO donor-induced neurovascular changes. Data on the assessment of drug efficacy in these models are often limited, which prompted us to investigate a novel combined migraine model in which an effective pharmacon could be more easily identified. Materials and methods In vivo electrophysiological experiments were performed to investigate the effect of nitroglycerin (NTG) on CSD induced by KCl application. In addition, sumatriptan and newly synthesized neuroactive substances (analogues of the neuromodulator kynurenic acid [KYNA]) were also tested. Results The basic parameters of CSDs were unchanged following NTG administration; however, propagation failure was decreased compared to the controls. Sumatriptan decreased the number of CSDs, whereas propagation failure was as minimal as in the NTG group. On the other hand, both of the KYNA analogues restored the ratio of propagation to the control level. Discussion The ratio of propagation appeared to be the indicator of the effect of NTG. This is the first study providing direct evidence that NTG influences CSD; furthermore, we observed different effects of sumatriptan and KYNA analogues. Sumatriptan changed the generation of CSDs, whereas the analogues acted on the propagation of the waves. Our experimental design overlaps with a large spectrum of processes present in migraine pathophysiology, and it can be a useful experimental model for drug screening. PMID:28053504

  7. Wheat germ poly(A) binding protein enhances the binding affinity of eukaryotic initiation factor 4F and (iso)4F for cap analogues.

    PubMed

    Wei, C C; Balasta, M L; Ren, J; Goss, D J

    1998-02-17

    Most eukaryotic mRNAs contain a 5' cap (m7GppX) and a 3' poly(A) tail to increase synergistically the translational efficiency. Recently, the poly(A) binding protein (PABP) and cap-binding protein, eIF-4F, were found to interact [Le et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 16247-16255; Tarun and Sachs (1996) EMBO J. 15, 7168-7177]. These data suggest that PABP may exert its effect on translational efficiency either by increasing the formation of initiation factor-mRNA complex or by enhancing ribosome recycling. To investigate the functional consequences of these interactions, the fluorescent cap analogue, ant-m7GTP, which is an environmentally sensitive fluorescent probe [Ren and Goss (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 3629-3634] was used to investigate the cap-binding affinity. Our data show that the binding of eIF-(iso)4F or eIF-4F to cap analogue enhanced their binding affinity toward PABP approximately 40-fold. Similarly, the eIF-4F/PABP or eIF-(iso)4F/PABP complexes show a 40-fold enhancement of cap analogue binding as compared to eIF-4F or eIF-(iso)4F alone. At least part of the enhancement of the translational initiation by PABP can be accounted for by direct changes in cap-binding affinity. The interactions of these components also suggest a mechanism whereby the poly(A) tail is brought into close proximity with m7G cap. This effect was examined by fluorescence energy transfer, and it was determined that the PABP/eIF-4F complex could bind both poly(A) and 5' cap simultaneously.

  8. Portulaca oleracea L. aids calcipotriol in reversing keratinocyte differentiation and skin barrier dysfunction in psoriasis through inhibition of the nuclear factor κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hengguang; Li, Shuang; Luo, Fuling; Tan, Qian; Li, Hui; Zhou, Weikang

    2015-02-01

    Psoriasis affects 2-4% of the population worldwide and its treatment is currently far from satisfactory. Calcipotriol and Portulaca oleracea have been reported to exhibit the capacity to inhibit inflammation in psoriatic patients and improve their clinical condition. However, the efficacy of a combination regimen of these two components remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore the therapeutic efficacy of P. oleracea extract combined with calcipotriol on plaque psoriasis and its potential mechanism. Eleven patients with plaque psoriasis were treated with humectant containing the active ingredients of P. oleracea extract, with or without 0.005% calcipotriol ointment in a right-left bilateral lesion self-control study. Differences were evaluated by investigation of the clinical efficacy, adverse effects, skin barrier function, histological structure, expression and proliferation of keratinocytes, differentiation markers (cytokeratin 10, filaggrin and loricrin), inflammatory factors [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-8], as well as the status of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway. The combination of P. oleracea and calcipotriol was revealed to decrease adverse effects, reduce transepidermal water loss, potently reverse keratinocyte differentiation dysfunction, and inhibit the expression of TNF-α and IL-8 and the phosphorylation of the NF-κB inhibitor IκBα. This treatment is therefore anticipated to be suitable for use as a novel adjuvant therapy for psoriatic patients.

  9. Portulaca oleracea L. aids calcipotriol in reversing keratinocyte differentiation and skin barrier dysfunction in psoriasis through inhibition of the nuclear factor κB signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, HENGGUANG; LI, SHUANG; LUO, FULING; TAN, QIAN; LI, HUI; ZHOU, WEIKANG

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis affects 2–4% of the population worldwide and its treatment is currently far from satisfactory. Calcipotriol and Portulaca oleracea have been reported to exhibit the capacity to inhibit inflammation in psoriatic patients and improve their clinical condition. However, the efficacy of a combination regimen of these two components remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore the therapeutic efficacy of P. oleracea extract combined with calcipotriol on plaque psoriasis and its potential mechanism. Eleven patients with plaque psoriasis were treated with humectant containing the active ingredients of P. oleracea extract, with or without 0.005% calcipotriol ointment in a right-left bilateral lesion self-control study. Differences were evaluated by investigation of the clinical efficacy, adverse effects, skin barrier function, histological structure, expression and proliferation of keratinocytes, differentiation markers (cytokeratin 10, filaggrin and loricrin), inflammatory factors [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-8], as well as the status of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway. The combination of P. oleracea and calcipotriol was revealed to decrease adverse effects, reduce transepidermal water loss, potently reverse keratinocyte differentiation dysfunction, and inhibit the expression of TNF-α and IL-8 and the phosphorylation of the NF-κB inhibitor IκBα. This treatment is therefore anticipated to be suitable for use as a novel adjuvant therapy for psoriatic patients. PMID:25574190

  10. Synthesis, Properties and Applications of Diazotrifluropropanoyl-Containing Photoactive Analogues of Farnesyl Diphosphate Containing Modified Linkages for Enhanced Stability

    PubMed Central

    Hovlid, Marisa L.; Edelstein, Rebecca L.; Henry, Olivier; Ochocki, Joshua; DeGraw, Amanda; Lenevich, Stepan; Talbot, Trista; Young, Victor G.; Hruza, Alan W.; Lopez-Gallego, Fernando; Labello, Nicholas P.; Strickland, Corey L.; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia; Distefano, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    Photoactive analogues of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) are useful probes in studies of enzymes that employ this molecule as a substrate. Here, we describe the preparation and properties of two new FPP analogues that contain diazotrifluoropropionyl photophores linked to geranyl diphosphate via amide or ester linkages. The amide-linked analogue (3) was synthesized in 32P-labeled form from geraniol in 7 steps. Experiments with Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein farnesyltransferase (ScPFTase) showed that 3 is an alternative substrate for the enzyme. Photolysis experiments with [32P]3 demonstrate that this compound labels the β-subunits of both farnesyl- and geranylgeranyltransferase (types 1 and 2). However, the amide-linked probe 3 undergoes a rearrangement to a photochemically unreactive isomeric triazolone upon long term storage making it inconvenient to use. To address this stability issue, the ester-linked analogue 4 was prepared in 6 steps from geraniol. Computational analysis and X-ray crystallographic studies suggest that 4 binds to PFTase in a similar fashion as FPP. Compound 4 is also an alternative substrate for PFTase and a 32P-labeled form selectively photocrosslinks the β-subunit of ScPFTase as well as E. coli farnesyldiphosphate synthase and a germacrene-producing sesquiterpene synthase from Nostoc sp. strain PCC7120 (a cyanobacterial source). Finally, nearly exclusive labeling of ScPFTase in crude E. coli extract was observed, suggesting that [32P]4 manifests significant selectivity and should hence be useful for identifying novel FPP utilizing enzymes in crude protein preparations. PMID:19954434

  11. Topical treatment for scalp psoriasis: Comparison of patient preference, quality of life and efficacy for non-alcoholic mometasone emulsion versus calcipotriol/betamethasone gel in daily clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Gual, Adrià; Pau-Charles, Ignasi; Molin, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate patients' assessment of therapy, efficacy, quality of life and treatment adherence in patients with scalp psoriasis treated with non-alcoholic mometasone emulsion or calcipotriol/betamethasone gel. Prospective, open-label, multicentre, non-interventional study. Patients with non-severe scalp psoriasis were treated with mometasone emulsion or calcipotriol/betamethasone gel. Evaluations included patient's global assessment of treatment, physician's global assessment of disease severity, quality of life (Dermatology Life Quality Index), physician's subjective evaluation of therapy, treatment adherence and adverse events. Ninety-five patients treated with mometasone emulsion and 88 treated with calcipotriol/betamethasone gel were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Patients' global assessment of treatment favoured mometasone emulsion over calcipotriol/betamethasone gel (p = 0.008), with treatment rated as good/very good by 91% versus 82.5%. Patients were less likely to report irritation of fingers' skin with mometasone than with calcipotriol/betamethasone (p = 0.0015). Severity of scalp psoriasis and quality of life improved in both groups. Adherence to treatment was similar in both groups. Physicians' perception of efficacy, tolerability and compliance was better for mometasone emulsion. Non-alcoholic mometasone emulsion achieved greater acceptability to patients and physicians than calcipotriol/betamethasone gel for the treatment of scalp psoriasis. Both topical treatments were similarly effective in terms of disease severity and quality of life.

  12. Pooled safety analysis of calcipotriol plus betamethasone dipropionate gel for the treatment of psoriasis on the body and scalp.

    PubMed

    Kragballe, K; van de Kerkhof, P

    2014-05-01

    The fixed combination calcipotriol plus betamethasone dipropionate gel is a first-line treatment for psoriasis vulgaris. The objective was to perform a large-scale assessment of tolerability of fixed combination gel (Cal/BD). Analysis was performed on pooled 8-week safety data from nine clinical trials evaluating once-daily Cal/BD treatment of scalp (n = 6) and body (n = 3) psoriasis. Pharmacovigilance data were also assessed. Patients were treated with Cal/BD [n = 1953 (scalp), n = 824 (body)], betamethasone dipropionate gel (BD; n = 1214, n = 562), calcipotriol gel (Cal; n = 979, n = 175), gel vehicle (VEH; n = 173, n = 226), calcipotriol scalp solution [n = 104 (scalp only)] and tacalcitol ointment [TAC; n = 184 (body only)]. Most adverse events (AEs) were mild-moderate severity. The proportion of scalp psoriasis patients with ≥1 AE was lowest with Cal/BD (35% versus 38-57%). A similar proportion was found with Cal/BD for body psoriasis (32%), however, lower proportions were reported with BD (24%) and Cal (29%). The most common AEs with Cal/BD included nasopharyngitis, pruritus and upper respiratory tract infection (2-5% of patients). Overall, only 5% of patients treated with Cal/BD reported ≥1 lesional/perilesional AEs: the lowest incidence versus scalp comparators (6-19%) and second lowest to BD (3%) for body psoriasis. Similarly, Cal/BD treatment resulted in the lowest incidence of ≥1 adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in scalp psoriasis patients (8% versus 9-27%) and second lowest to BD (6% versus 4%) for body psoriasis. Overall, incidence of serious AEs (SAEs) was low (0-1%). Data received postmarketing through spontaneous reporting revealed that SAEs reported more than once with Cal/BD treatment were psoriasis (n = 5); and alopecia, erythrodermic psoriasis, pruritus, skin atrophy and urticaria (n = 2 each). In this large subset of patients treated with Cal/BD, incidence of AEs and ADRs is consistently low. This analysis

  13. Enhancing excited state intramolecular proton transfer in 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole and its nitrogen-substituted analogues by β-cyclodextrin: the effect of nitrogen substitution.

    PubMed

    Chipem, Francis A S; Behera, Santosh Kumar; Krishnamoorthy, G

    2013-05-23

    Excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) in nitrogen-substituted analogues of 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole (HPBI), 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (HPIP-b), and 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)-3H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine (HPIP-c) have been investigated in a β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) nanocavity and compared with that of HPBI. The stoichiometry and the binding constants of the complexes were determined by tautomer emissions. Both pKa and NMR experiments were employed to determine the orientation of the molecules inside of the β-CD cavity. Huge enhancement in the tautomer emission of HPIP-b and HPIP-c compared to that of HPBI in β-CD suggests that not only is the ESIPT favored inside of the cavity, but also, the environment reduces the nonradiative decay through the formation of an intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) state. Unlike HPBI, the tautomer emission to normal emission ratio of HPIP-b increases from 0.9 to 2.6, and that of HPIP-c increases from 4.9 to 7.4 in 15 mM β-CD. The effect of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) on complexation was also investigated for all three guest molecules. In DMSO, HPBI is present in neutral form, but the nitrogen-substituted analogues are present in both neutral and monoanionic forms. However, in DMSO upon encapsulation by β-CD, all three molecules are present in both neutral and monoanionic forms in the nanocavity. The monoanion is stabilized more inside of the β-CD cavity. The studies revealed that the ESIPT of nitrogen-substituted analogues is more susceptible to the environment than HPBI, and therefore, they are more promising probes.

  14. A Remarkable Series of Vinblastine Analogues Displaying Enhanced Activity and an Unprecedented Tubulin Binding Steric Tolerance: C20' Urea Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Leggans, Erick K.; Duncan, Katharine K.; Barker, Timothy J.; Schleicher, Kristin D.; Boger, Dale L.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic series of previously inaccessible key C20' urea and thiourea derivatives of vinblastine were prepared from 20'-aminovinblastine that was made accessible through a unique Fe(III)/NaBH4-mediated alkene functionalization reaction of anhydrovinblastine. Their examination defined key structural features of the urea-based analogues that contribute to their properties and provided derivatives that match or exceed the potency of vinblastine by as much as 10-fold in cell-based functional assays, which is directly related to their relative tubulin binding affinity. In contrast to expectations based on apparent steric constraints of the tubulin binding site surrounding the vinblastine C20' center depicted in an x-ray co-crystal structure, remarkably large C20' urea derivatives are accommodated. PMID:23244701

  15. Pro Free Will Priming Enhances “Risk-Taking” Behavior in the Iowa Gambling Task, but Not in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task: Two Independent Priming Studies

    PubMed Central

    Schrag, Yann; Tremea, Alessandro; Lagger, Cyril; Ohana, Noé; Mohr, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Studies indicated that people behave less responsibly after exposure to information containing deterministic statements as compared to free will statements or neutral statements. Thus, deterministic primes should lead to enhanced risk-taking behavior. We tested this prediction in two studies with healthy participants. In experiment 1, we tested 144 students (24 men) in the laboratory using the Iowa Gambling Task. In experiment 2, we tested 274 participants (104 men) online using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task. In the Iowa Gambling Task, the free will priming condition resulted in more risky decisions than both the deterministic and neutral priming conditions. We observed no priming effects on risk-taking behavior in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task. To explain these unpredicted findings, we consider the somatic marker hypothesis, a gain frequency approach as well as attention to gains and / or inattention to losses. In addition, we highlight the necessity to consider both pro free will and deterministic priming conditions in future studies. Importantly, our and previous results indicate that the effects of pro free will and deterministic priming do not oppose each other on a frequently assumed continuum. PMID:27018854

  16. Solubility enhancement and in vitro evaluation of PEG-b-PLA micelles as nanocarrier of semi-synthetic andrographolide analogue for cholangiocarcinoma chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Puntawee, Sujittra; Theerasilp, Man; Reabroi, Somrudee; Saeeng, Rungnapha; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Chairoungdua, Arthit; Nasongkla, Norased

    2016-01-01

    Semi-synthetic andrographolide analogue (19-triphenylmethyl ether andrographolide, AG 050) is a C-19 substituted andrographolide which is the major constituent from Andrographis Paniculata Nees (Acanthaceae). The analogue has previously been reported to be highly cytotoxic against several cancer cell lines. Nevertheless, its poor water solubility limits clinical applications of this compound. To improve the aqueous solubility and bioavailability of AG 050 by protonation and encapsulation in poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(d,l-lactide) (PEG-b-PLA) polymeric micelles. PEG-b-PLA micelle was employed as a nanocarrier for AG 050. The physicochemical properties and in vitro cytotoxicity against cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) (KKU-M213) cell line were done in this study. Hydrochloride salt of AG 050 (AG 050-P) greatly enhanced the solubility of this compound (15-fold). PEG-b-PLA was able to encapsulate AG 050-P in hydrophobic core with a significant increase in the amount of AG 050-P in aqueous solution (280-fold). Film sonication method provided greater results in drug-loading study as compared to micelles via solvent evaporation. In addition, the encapsulated AG 050-P exhibited sustained release pattern and excellent cytotoxicity activity against KKU-M213 with IC50 of 3.33 µM. Nanoencapsulation of AG 050-P implicated its potential development for clinical use in CCA treatment.

  17. An Open Label Prospective Randomized Trial to Compare the Efficacy of Coal Tar-Salicylic Acid Ointment Versus Calcipotriol/Betamethasone Dipropionate Ointment in the Treatment of Limited Chronic Plaque Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Khandpur, Sujay; Sahni, Kanika

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic plaque psoriasis is a common papulosquamous skin disorder, for which a number of topical agents are being used including coal tar, topical steroids and more recently topical calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate. There is no study comparing purified coal tar preparation with calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate ointment in limited chronic plaque psoriasis. Aims and Objectives: A prospective randomized open label controlled trial to compare the efficacy and safety of topical application of coal tar-salicylic acid ointment with calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate ointment applied once at night for 12 weeks for the treatment of limited chronic plaque psoriasis. Materials and Methods: A total of 62 patients of limited chronic plaque psoriasis (body surface area <10%) were randomized into two treatment groups: Group A received topical application of 6% coal tar with 3% salicylic acid ointment and Group B received calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, once at night for 12 weeks. Results were assessed based on psoriasis area severity index (PASI) scores and patient global assessment (PGA) at each visit. Results: Mean PASI was significantly lower at week 2 (P = 0.01) and week 4 follow-up (P = 0.05) and the mean reduction in PASI was significantly higher at week 2 (P = 0.02) with calcipotriol/betamethasone than coal tar-salicylic acid, but this difference was not sustained at subsequent follow-up visits. Similarly, PGA scores at weeks 2 and 4 were significantly lower with calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate ointment (P = 0.003 and P = 0.007 respectively). There was no significant difference in any parameter during subsequent follow-up visits or at the end of the treatment phase (12 weeks). Conclusion: Topical nightly application of calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate ointment leads to an initial, more rapid reduction in disease severity, but the overall outcome parameters are comparable in the two treatment groups. PMID:25484388

  18. Improvement of health-related quality of life and adherence to treatment with calcipotriol-betamethasone dipropionate gel in patients with psoriasis vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Kontochristopoulos, George; Kouris, Anargyros; Chantzaras, Athanasios; Petridis, Athanasios; Yfantopoulos, John

    2016-04-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic, recurrent, immune-mediated disorder of the skin and joints. It can have a significant negative impact on the physical, emotional and psychosocial wellbeing of affected patients. To measure improvement in health-related QoL (HRQoL) in Greek patients with psoriasis vulgaris after a month of treatment with calcipotriol-betamethasone dipropionate gel; and evaluate adherence to treatment parameters. The study included 394 psoriasis vulgaris patients from 16 private dermatological practices in Greece, all treated with calcipotriol-betamethasone dipropionate gel. They were evaluated at the first visit and after 4 weeks. Moreover, they completed the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), while other data such as disease severity, subjective symptoms and adherence, were collected. At week 4, the DLQI median was reduced by 3.5 points from the baseline (p<0.001; baseline and week 4 median: 4.5 and 1.0 respectively). Pruritus and sleep disorders also improved (p<0.001). Furthermore, 90.1% of the subjects fully adhered to treatment, with a 97.1% mean level of compliance. The convincing clinical results, with a distinct improvement in HRQoL, plus the high level of adherence due to its advantageous physical properties, make the calcipotriol-betamethasone dipropionate gel formulation an important, effective and well-tolerated topical therapy to treat psoriasis.

  19. Syringolin B-inspired proteasome inhibitor analogue TIR-203 exhibits enhanced biological activity in multiple myeloma and neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Opoku-Ansah, John; Ibarra-Rivera, Tannya R; Pirrung, Michael C; Bachmann, André S

    2012-01-01

    The bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (Pss) is a pathogen of many plant species and causes, for example, brown spot disease in bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris). Pss excretes the syringolins, natural product molecules that act as a virulence factors and inhibit the proteasome of the host plants. Proteasome inhibitors belong to an important class of anticancer agents and bortezomib (Velcade(®)) has been Food and Drug Administration-approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) and mantle cell lymphoma. Syringolins represent a new class of proteasome inhibitors and the present work was undertaken to design a potent syringolin-inspired analogue (TIR-203) for anticancer drug development. TIR-203 was tested against human MM and neuroblastoma (NB) cells. Cancer cells were treated with TIR-203 at various concentrations (0-10 µM) and the cell viability was measured using the MTS assay. To determine the effects on proteasomal activities, the cell culture-based proteasome inhibition assay was used. Syringolin A (SylA) and bortezomib were included as controls. TIR-203 inhibited the cell proliferation of MM and NB cells in a dose-dependent manner at significantly lower concentrations than SylA. In MM cells, TIR-203 effectively inhibited the chymotrypsin-like (CT-L), caspase-like (C-L), and trypsin-like (T-L) activities of the proteasome. In NB cells, TIR-203 inhibited the CT-L and C-L activities, but not the T-L activity. The newly designed proteasome inhibitor TIR-203 is more potent than the natural product SylA and strongly inhibits the cell viability and proteasomal activity of MM and NB cells.

  20. Mathematically-Engineered Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1alpha Stem Cell Cytokine Analogue Enhances Mechanical Properties of Infarcted Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Jr, John W. MacArthur; Trubelja, Alen; Shudo, Yasuhiro; Hsiao, Philip; Fairman, Alex; Yang, Elaine; Hiesinger, William; Atluri, Pavan; Woo, Y Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background The biomechanical response to a myocardial infarction consists of ventricular remodeling that leads to dilation, loss of contractile function, abnormal stress patterns and ultimately heart failure. We hypothesized that intramyocardial injection of our previously designed pro-angiogenic chemokine, an engineered stromal cell derived factor 1alpha analogue(ESA), improves mechanical properties of the heart post-infarction. Methods Male rats (n=54) underwent either sham surgery (n=17) with no coronary artery ligation or ligation of the LAD (n=37). Rats in the MI group were then randomized to receive either saline (0.1cc, n=18) or ESA (6μg/kg, n=19) injected into the myocardium at 4 predetermined spots around the borderzone. Echocardiograms were performed preoperatively and before the terminal surgery. After 4 weeks the hearts were explanted and longitudinally sectioned. Uniaxial tensile testing was completed using an Instron 5543 Microtester. Optical strain was evaluated utilizing custom image acquisition software, Digi-Velpo, and analyzed in MATLAB. Results Compared to the saline control group at 4 weeks, the ESA injected hearts had higher ejection fractions (71.8% ± 9.0 vs. 55.3% ± 12.6, p= 0.0004) smaller end-diastolic left ventricular internal dimensions (0.686cm ± 0.110 vs. 0.763cm ± 0.160, p= 0.04), higher cardiac output (36ml/min ± 11.6 vs. 26.9ml/min ± 7.3, p= 0.05) and the tensile modulus was lower(251kPa ± 56 vs. 301kPa ± 81, p= 0.04). The tensile modulus for the sham group was 195kPa ± 56, indicating ESA injection results in a less stiff ventricle. Conclusions Direct injection of ESA alters the biomechanical response to MI, improving the mechanical properties in the post-infarct heart. PMID:23244259

  1. The Potent Humanin Analogue (HNG) Protects Germ Cells and Leucocytes While Enhancing Chemotherapy-Induced Suppression of Cancer Metastases in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Lue, YanHe; Swerdloff, Ronald; Wan, Junxiang; Xiao, Jialin; French, Samuel; Atienza, Vince; Canela, Victor; Bruhn, Kevin W; Stone, Brian; Jia, Yue; Cohen, Pinchas; Wang, Christina

    2015-12-01

    Humanin is a peptide that is cytoprotective against stresses in many cell types. We investigated whether a potent humanin analogue S14G-humanin (HNG) would protect against chemotherapy-induced damage to normal cells without interfering with the chemotherapy-induced suppression of cancer cells. Young adult male mice were inoculated iv with murine melanoma cells. After 1 week, cancer-bearing mice were randomized to receive either: no treatment, daily ip injection of HNG, a single ip injection of cyclophosphamide (CP), or CP+HNG and killed at the end of 3 weeks. HNG rescued the CP-induced suppression of leucocytes and protected germ cell from CP-induced apoptosis. Lung metastases were suppressed by HNG or CP alone, and further suppressed by CP+HNG treatment. Plasma IGF-1 levels were suppressed by HNG with or without CP treatment. To investigate whether HNG maintains its protective effects on spermatogonial stem cells, sperm output, and peripheral leucocytes after repeated doses of CP, normal adult male mice received: no treatment, daily sc injection of HNG, 6 ip injections of CP at 5-day intervals, and the same regimens of CP+HNG and killed at the end of 4 weeks of treatment. Cauda epididymal sperm counts were elevated by HNG and suppressed by CP. HNG rescued the CP-induced suppression of spermatogonial stem cells, sperm count and peripheral leucocytes. We conclude that HNG 1) protects CP-induced loss of male germ cells and leucocytes, 2) enhances CP-induced suppression of cancer metastases, and 3) acts as a caloric-restriction mimetic by suppressing IGF-1 levels. Our findings suggest that humanin analogues may be promising adjuvants to chemotherapy.

  2. The Potent Humanin Analogue (HNG) Protects Germ Cells and Leucocytes While Enhancing Chemotherapy-Induced Suppression of Cancer Metastases in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lue, YanHe; Swerdloff, Ronald; Wan, Junxiang; Xiao, Jialin; French, Samuel; Atienza, Vince; Canela, Victor; Bruhn, Kevin W.; Stone, Brian; Jia, Yue; Cohen, Pinchas

    2015-01-01

    Humanin is a peptide that is cytoprotective against stresses in many cell types. We investigated whether a potent humanin analogue S14G-humanin (HNG) would protect against chemotherapy-induced damage to normal cells without interfering with the chemotherapy-induced suppression of cancer cells. Young adult male mice were inoculated iv with murine melanoma cells. After 1 week, cancer-bearing mice were randomized to receive either: no treatment, daily ip injection of HNG, a single ip injection of cyclophosphamide (CP), or CP+HNG and killed at the end of 3 weeks. HNG rescued the CP-induced suppression of leucocytes and protected germ cell from CP-induced apoptosis. Lung metastases were suppressed by HNG or CP alone, and further suppressed by CP+HNG treatment. Plasma IGF-1 levels were suppressed by HNG with or without CP treatment. To investigate whether HNG maintains its protective effects on spermatogonial stem cells, sperm output, and peripheral leucocytes after repeated doses of CP, normal adult male mice received: no treatment, daily sc injection of HNG, 6 ip injections of CP at 5-day intervals, and the same regimens of CP+HNG and killed at the end of 4 weeks of treatment. Cauda epididymal sperm counts were elevated by HNG and suppressed by CP. HNG rescued the CP-induced suppression of spermatogonial stem cells, sperm count and peripheral leucocytes. We conclude that HNG 1) protects CP-induced loss of male germ cells and leucocytes, 2) enhances CP-induced suppression of cancer metastases, and 3) acts as a caloric-restriction mimetic by suppressing IGF-1 levels. Our findings suggest that humanin analogues may be promising adjuvants to chemotherapy. PMID:26384090

  3. Efficient syntheses of a series of trehalose dimycolate (TDM)/trehalose dicorynomycolate (TDCM) analogues and their interleukin-6 level enhancement activity in mice sera.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Mugio; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Barbier-Chassefière, Véronique; Petit, Emmanuel; Azuma, Ichiro; Papy-Garcia, Dulce

    2007-03-02

    We found an IL-6 level-enhancing compound during our synthetic study of trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (1, TDM, formerly called cord factor) analogues. TDM is a glycolipid distributed in the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and shows significant antitumor activity based on an immunoadjuvant activity. However, due to its significant toxicity, TDM is not yet applicable for practical use. In 1993, Datta and Takayama reported the purification of trehalose-6,6'-dicorynomycolate (2c, TDCM) from Corynebacterium spp. We have previously reported the synthesis of four diastereomeric TDCMs and showed that the synthetic (2R,3R,2'R,3'R)-TDCM (2c, hereafter abbreviated RRRR-TDCM-C14) is identical to natural TDCM; we also demonstrated that 2c and SSSS-TDCM-C14 (3c) showed significant antitumor activity as well as inhibitory activity in experimental lung metastasis based on the immunoadjuvant activity. Furthermore, we found that the significant lethal toxicity in mice by TDM (1) was no longer observed with the shorter-chain analogues of TDCMs. Therefore, we have elucidated that the 2,3-antistereochemistry (RR or SS) of the fatty acid residue is promising for biological activities. The chain length of the fatty acid residue should also be important for the biological activity, and thus, we designed a general synthetic procedure for trehalose diesters with 2,3-antistereochemistry and a series of chain lengths by using Noyori's asymmetric reduction of beta,beta-ketoesters followed by antiselective alkylation according to Frater to give beta,beta-hydroxy alcohols as the key steps. Thus, we prepared trehalose diesters (TDCM) 2a-d, 3a-d, and 4a-d as well as monoesters (TMCM) 5a-d and 6a-d. Immunological activities of TDCMs and TMCMs were evaluated by determining IL-6 level enhancement in mouse serum, and we found that RRRR-TDCM-C14 (2c) and RRSS-TDCM-C14 (4c) showed significant IL-6 level enhancement activities.

  4. Fluorescence enhancement of fluorescent unnatural streptavidin by binding of a biotin analogue with spacer tail and its application to biotin sensing.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xianwei; Shinohara, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    We designed a novel molecular biosensing system for the detection of biotin, an important vitamin by the combination of fluorescent unnatural streptavidin with a commercialized biotin-(AC5)2-hydrazide. A fluorescent unnatural amino acid, BODIPY-FL-aminophenylalanine (BFLAF), was position-specifically incorporated into Trp120 of streptavidin by four-base codon method. Fluorescence of the Trp120BFLAF mutant streptavidin was enhanced by the addition of biotin-(AC5)2-hydrazide with the concentration dependent, whereas fluorescence enhancement was not observed at all by the addition of natural biotin. It was considered that the spacer tail of biotin-(AC5)2-hydrazide may disturb the fluorescence quenching of the Trp120BFLAF by Trp79 and Trp108 of the neighbor subunit. Therefore, biotin sensing was carried out by the competitive binding reaction of biotin-(AC5)2-hydrazide and natural biotin to the fluorescent mutant streptavidin. The fluorescence intensity decreased by increasing free biotin concentration. The result suggested that molecular biosensor for small ligand could be successfully designed by the pair of fluorescent mutant binding protein and ligand analogue.

  5. Germananes: Germanium Graphane Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberger, Joshua

    2014-03-01

    Graphene's success has shown that it is not only possible to create stable, single-atom thick sheets from a crystalline solid, but that these materials have fundamentally different properties than the parent material. Our interest focuses on the synthesis and properties of Group IV graphane analogues. We have synthesized for the first time, mm-scale crystals of a hydrogen-terminated germanium multilayered graphane analogue (germanane, GeH) from the topochemical deintercalation of CaGe2. This layered van der Waals solid is analogous to multilayered graphane. The surface layer of GeH only slowly oxidizes in air over the span of five months, while the underlying layers are resilient to oxidation. We demonstrate that it is possible to covalently terminate the external surface with organic substituents to tune the electronic structure, and enhance the stability. These materials represent a new class of covalently terminated graphane analogues having great potential for a wide range of optoelectronic and sensing applications, especially since theory predicts a direct band gap of 1.53 eV and an electron mobility of 18,000 cm2/Vs which is five times higher than that of bulk Ge.

  6. Epinephrine analogues.

    PubMed

    Sneader, W

    2001-11-01

    Tyramine was the first epinephrine analogue to be introduced into medicine, in the early 1900s. It was followed by ephedrine and pseudoephedrine in the 1920s and by the amfetamines a decade later. The popularity of the amfetamines grew throughout the 1930s and 1940s; after that, there was a slowly dawning realization that they were being widely abused. Isoprenaline, introduced in the 1950s, was soon recognized as superior to epinephrine when used as an inhaler by asthmatics, and it remained the drug of choice for the relief of bronchospasm until around 1970. Orciprenaline, which featured an orcinol system, had a long duration of action and was active by mouth; Boehringer marketed it both as an inhaler and as a syrup for the prophylaxis of bronchospasm. The greatly superior bronchodilators salbutamol and terbutaline, launched in 1968 and 1970, respectively, incorporate further variation on the molecular theme that had led to the development of orciprenaline. (c) 2001 Prous Science. All rights reserved.

  7. Design, synthesis and nootropic activity of new analogues of sunifiram and sapunifiram, two potent cognition-enhancers.

    PubMed

    Martini, Elisabetta; Salvicchi, Alberto; Ghelardini, Carla; Manetti, Dina; Dei, Silvia; Guandalini, Luca; Martelli, Cecilia; Melchiorre, Michele; Cellai, Cristina; Scapecchi, Serena; Teodori, Elisabetta; Romanelli, Maria Novella

    2009-11-01

    A series of amides and sulfonamides, structurally related to DM235 (sunifiram) and MN19 (sapunifiram), derived by ring expansion or contraction, or by inversion of the exocyclic amide function, have been synthesized and tested for cognition-enhancing activity in the mouse passive-avoidance test. Some of the compounds display good antiamnesic and procognitive activity, with higher potency than piracetam, and with a potency similar to the parent compounds.

  8. A humic substance analogue AQDS stimulates Geobacter sp. abundance and enhances pentachlorophenol transformation in a paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Manjia; Tong, Hui; Liu, Chengshuai; Chen, Dandan; Li, Fangbai; Qiao, Jiangtao

    2016-10-01

    Soil humic substances can be used as redox mediators in accelerating the biotransformation of organic pollutants, and humus-respiring bacteria are widely distributed in soils. However, the impact of humic substances on the soil microbial community during the biotransformation of organic pollutants is expected to be crucial while remains to be unclear. In this study, the biostimulation of indigenous microbial communities and the consequent effects on anaerobic transformation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by a model humic substance, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), were systematically investigated in a paddy soil. The addition of AQDS was observed to increase the production of HCl-extractable Fe(II) and enhance the PCP transformation rates consequently. The pseudo-first-order rate constants of the PCP transformation showed a positive exponential relationship with the AQDS dosage. The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) results indicated the substantial effect of added AQDS on soil microbial community. The enhanced abundance of Geobacter sp. was disclosed to be most critical for accelerated PCP transformation when with AQDS, in which Geobacter sp. functioned for promoting the generation of active Fe(II) and consequently enhancing the PCP transformation rates. The transformation rates of PCP were exponentially correlated with the abundance of Geobacter sp. positively. The findings are expected to improve the understanding of diversity and ubiquity of microorganisms in humic substances-rich soils for accelerating the transformations of soil chlorinated pollutants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Glu-Trp-ONa or its acylated analogue (R-Glu-Trp-ONa) administration enhances the wound healing in the model of chronic skin wounds in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Shevtsov, Maxim A; Smagina, Larisa V; Kudriavtceva, Tatiana A; Petlenko, Sergey V; Voronkina, Irina V

    2015-01-01

    The management of chronic skin wounds represents a major therapeutic challenge. The synthesized dipeptide (Glu-Trp-ONa) and its acylated analogue (R-Glu-Trp-ONa) were assessed in the model of nonhealing dermal wounds in rabbits in relation to their healing properties in wound closure. Following wound modeling, the rabbits received a course of intraperitoneal injections of Glu-Trp-ONa or R-Glu-Trp-ONa. Phosphate-buffered saline and Solcoseryl® were applied as negative and positive control agents, respectively. An injection of Glu-Trp-ONa and R-Glu-Trp-ONa decreased the period of wound healing in animals in comparison to the control and Solcoseryl-treated groups. Acylation of Glu-Trp-ONa proved to be beneficial as related to the healing properties of the dipeptide. Subsequent zymography analyses showed that the applied peptides decreased the proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-9, MMP-8, and MMP-2 in the early inflammatory phase and reversely increased the activity of MMP-9, MMP-8, and MMP-1 in the remodeling phase. Histological analyses of the wound sections (hematoxylin-eosin, Mallory's staining) confirmed the enhanced formation of granulation tissue and re-epithelialization in the experimental groups. By administering the peptides, wound closures increased significantly through the modulation of the MMPs' activity, indicating their role in wound healing.

  10. Enhanced energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans with high BMI scores by the ingestion of novel and non-pungent capsaicin analogues (capsinoids).

    PubMed

    Inoue, Naohiko; Matsunaga, Yoshiko; Satoh, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Michio

    2007-02-01

    The biochemical and physiological indices were monitored in 44 subjects after 4-week capsinoids (capsaicin analogues with low pungency) intake. The subjects were randomly assigned to 3 groups: CSNs3 (3 mg/kg of capsinoids), CSNs10 (10 mg/kg of capsinoids) and the control (placebo). Measurements were performed in the morning on overnight-fasted subjects. The oxygen consumption (VO(2)), resting energy expenditure (REE) and fat oxidation increased slightly compared to pre-administration values without any adverse effects, although the increase was not significant. The increase in fat oxidation was positively and significantly correlated with the body mass index (BMI). A meta-analysis was therefore conducted on a subgroup consisting of subjects with BMI >or= 25 (n=28). As a result, not only VO(2) increased significantly (p<0.05) in the CSNs10 group, but also REE in the CSNs10 group and fat oxidation in the CSNs3 and CSNs10 groups tended to increase (p<0.1). Consequently, a capsinoids intake would be able to enhance the energy expenditure and fat burning in humans, particularly those with high BMI.

  11. Glu-Trp-ONa or its acylated analogue (R-Glu-Trp-ONa) administration enhances the wound healing in the model of chronic skin wounds in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Shevtsov, Maxim A; Smagina, Larisa V; Kudriavtceva, Tatiana A; Petlenko, Sergey V; Voronkina, Irina V

    2015-01-01

    The management of chronic skin wounds represents a major therapeutic challenge. The synthesized dipeptide (Glu-Trp-ONa) and its acylated analogue (R-Glu-Trp-ONa) were assessed in the model of nonhealing dermal wounds in rabbits in relation to their healing properties in wound closure. Following wound modeling, the rabbits received a course of intraperitoneal injections of Glu-Trp-ONa or R-Glu-Trp-ONa. Phosphate-buffered saline and Solcoseryl® were applied as negative and positive control agents, respectively. An injection of Glu-Trp-ONa and R-Glu-Trp-ONa decreased the period of wound healing in animals in comparison to the control and Solcoseryl-treated groups. Acylation of Glu-Trp-ONa proved to be beneficial as related to the healing properties of the dipeptide. Subsequent zymography analyses showed that the applied peptides decreased the proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-9, MMP-8, and MMP-2 in the early inflammatory phase and reversely increased the activity of MMP-9, MMP-8, and MMP-1 in the remodeling phase. Histological analyses of the wound sections (hematoxylin–eosin, Mallory’s staining) confirmed the enhanced formation of granulation tissue and re-epithelialization in the experimental groups. By administering the peptides, wound closures increased significantly through the modulation of the MMPs’ activity, indicating their role in wound healing. PMID:25848208

  12. Expert recommendations: the use of the fixed combination calcipotriol and betamethasone dipropionate gel for the topical treatment of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Daudén, E; Bewley, A; Lambert, J; Girolomoni, G; Cambazard, F; Reich, K

    2014-05-01

    Treatment non-adherence is a general challenge and a complex problem. It is a key factor that impacts the 'real-life' effectiveness of topical treatments for chronic disorders, such as psoriasis. Here, we provide our expert opinion on the real-life effectiveness of topical psoriasis treatment, using the fixed combination gel (Daivobet(®) gel; calcipotriol plus betamethasone dipropionate) as a case study. The fixed combination gel is a first-line topical treatment for mild-to-moderate psoriasis, developed to be the gold-standard therapy for psoriasis patients. This fixed combination gel is an effective and well-tolerated topical psoriasis treatment that the majority of our patients prefer to the ointment formulation. We assessed our real-life experience and considered any gaps between daily practice and clinical trials data. We recommend a multifaceted approach to improve real-life effectiveness and bridge the gap between investigational trials and treatment reality and propose the following recommendations: (1) educate primary healthcare providers on how to effectively manage topical psoriasis treatment and the patients who use the treatment; (2) educate the patient on why treatment needs to be maintained, even when symptoms improve; and (3) provide a supportive environment that will not allow the patient to feel abandoned. A patient-centric approach may improve adherence, which will lead to patients receiving more effective treatment for psoriasis. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  13. Fine Tuning of MOF-505 Analogues To Reduce Low-Pressure Methane Uptake and Enhance Methane Working Capacity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingxing; Zhou, Wei; Pham, Tony; Forrest, Katherine A; Liu, Wenlong; He, Yabing; Wu, Hui; Yildirim, Taner; Chen, Banglin; Space, Brian; Pan, Yi; Zaworotko, Michael J; Bai, Junfeng

    2017-09-11

    We present a crystal engineering strategy to fine tune the pore chemistry and CH4 -storage performance of a family of isomorphic MOFs based upon PCN-14. These MOFs exhibit similar pore size, pore surface, and surface area (around 3000 m(2)  g(-1) ) and were prepared with the goal to enhance CH4 working capacity. [Cu2 (L2)(H2 O)2 ]n (NJU-Bai 41: NJU-Bai for Nanjing University Bai's group), [Cu2 (L3)(H2 O)2 ]n (NJU-Bai 42), and [Cu2 (L4)(DMF)2 ]n (NJU-Bai 43) were prepared and we observed that the CH4 volumetric working capacity and volumetric uptake values are influenced by subtle changes in structure and chemistry. In particular, the CH4 working capacity of NJU-Bai 43 reaches 198 cm(3) (STP: 273.15 K, 1 atm) cm(-3) at 298 K and 65 bar, which is amongst the highest reported for MOFs under these conditions and is much higher than the corresponding value for PCN-14 (157 cm(3) (STP) cm(-3) ). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Sustained-Release Delivery of Prostacyclin Analogue Enhances Bone Marrow-Cell Recruitment and Yields Functional Benefits for Acute Myocardial Infarction in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Imanishi, Yukiko; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Fukushima, Satsuki; Ishimaru, Kazuhiko; Sougawa, Nagako; Saito, Atsuhiro; Sakai, Yoshiki; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2013-01-01

    Background A prostacyclin analogue, ONO-1301, is reported to upregulate beneficial proteins, including stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1). We hypothesized that the sustained-release delivery of ONO-1301 would enhance SDF-1 expression in the acute myocardial infarction (MI) heart and induce bone marrow cells (BMCs) to home to the myocardium, leading to improved cardiac function in mice. Methods and Results ONO-1301 significantly upregulated SDF-1 secretion by fibroblasts. BMC migration was greater to ONO-1301-stimulated than unstimulated conditioned medium. This increase was diminished by treating the BMCs with a CXCR4-neutralizing antibody or CXCR4 antagonist (AMD3100). Atelocollagen sheets containing a sustained-release form of ONO-1301 (n = 33) or ONO-1301-free vehicle (n = 48) were implanted on the left ventricular (LV) anterior wall immediately after permanent left-anterior descending artery occlusion in C57BL6/N mice (male, 8-weeks-old). The SDF-1 expression in the infarct border zone was significantly elevated for 1 month in the ONO-1301-treated group. BMC accumulation in the infarcted hearts, detected by in vivo imaging after intravenous injection of labeled BMCs, was enhanced in the ONO-1301-treated hearts. This increase was inhibited by AMD3100. The accumulated BMCs differentiated into capillary structures. The survival rates and cardiac function were significantly improved in the ONO-1301-treated group (fractional area change 23±1%; n = 22) compared to the vehicle group (19±1%; n = 20; P = 0.004). LV anterior wall thinning, expansion of infarction, and fibrosis were lower in the ONO-1301-treated group. Conclusions Sustained-release delivery of ONO-1301 promoted BMC recruitment to the acute MI heart via SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling and restored cardiac performance, suggesting a novel mechanism for ONO-1301-mediated acute-MI heart repair. PMID:23894446

  15. Bisdemethylcurcumin and Structurally Related Hispolon Analogues of Curcumin Exhibit Enhanced Prooxidant, Anti-Proliferative and Anti-inflammatory Activities in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ravindran, Jayaraj; Subbaraju, Gottumukkala V.; Ramani, Modukuri V.; Sung, Bokyung; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2010-01-01

    Curcumin, a component of turmeric (Curcuma longa), exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Curcumin (diferuloylemethane) contains two hydroxyl, two methoxy and two phenyl groups but how these groups contribute to its activity is poorly understood. We synthesized analogues that varied in inclusion of these groups and compared their activity. We found that bisdemethylcurcumin (BDC) was more potent than curcumin as an anti-inflammatory agent as indicated by suppression of TNF-induced NF-κB activation, more potent as an anti-proliferative agent, and more potent in inducing ROS. Hispolon, which lacks one aromatic unit in relation to curcumin, also exhibited enhanced anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities. When synthetic curcumin (Cur-S) was compared with bisdemethylcurcumin (BDC), hispolon, hispolon methyl ether (HME), dehydroxy hispolon (DH), hydroxy hispolon (HH), methoxy hispolon methyl ether (MHME), and methoxy hispolon (MH), we found that following order of anti-inflammatory activity: BDC=Hispolon>HME> HH>Cur-S>MHME>MH>DH; for anti-proliferative Hispolon> BDC>MHME> Cur-S>MH>HME=HH>DH; and for prooxidant BDC>Cur-S=MHME>HH>MH+HME>DH (254-1414 mean fluorescence intensity). Thus dehydroxyhispolon was least potent for all three activities. Overall the results indicates that the substitution of a hydroxyl group for a methoxy group at the meta positions of the phenyl rings in curcumin significantly enhanced the anti-inflammatory activity, and the removal of phenyl ring at the 7th position of the heptadiene back bone and addition of hydroxyl group significantly increased the anti-proliferative activity of curcumin. PMID:20138025

  16. Safety and efficacy of calcipotriol plus betamethasone dipropionate gel in the treatment of scalp psoriasis in adolescents 12–17 years of age*

    PubMed Central

    Gooderham, M; Debarre, J-M; Keddy-Grant, J; Xu, Z; Kurvits, M; Goodfield, M

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Plaque psoriasis has a relatively high prevalence in adolescence, resulting in a significant impact on quality of life, including social interactions. Objectives The primary objective was to assess the safety of once-daily application of fixed-combination calcipotriol plus betamethasone dipropionate gel in adolescent scalp psoriasis. Assessment of efficacy was a secondary objective. Methods This phase II, multicentre, single-arm, open-label, 8-week trial included patients aged 12–17 years with moderate-to-very severe scalp psoriasis according to Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) (≥ 10% of the scalp area affected). Results Seventy-eight patients received treatment. Twenty-seven patients (35%) reported a total of 64 adverse events (AEs); most were mild (33/64) or moderate (22/64) in severity and there were no serious AEs. No cases of hypercalcaemia were reported, and the mean changes from baseline to end of treatment in albumin-corrected serum calcium (0·00 mmol L−1), 24-h urinary calcium excretion (−0·03 mmol per 24 h) and urinary calcium-to-creatinine ratio (−0·12 mmol g−1) were not considered clinically relevant. At the end of treatment 66 patients (85%) were clear or almost clear according to IGA. There was an 80% improvement in mean Total Sign Score from baseline to end of treatment. In total, at the end of treatment, 87% of patients rated their scalp psoriasis as clear or very mild, and 75 (96%) had no or mild pruritus compared with 14 (18%) at baseline. Conclusions Once-daily calcipotriol plus betamethasone dipropionate gel is well tolerated and efficacious for scalp psoriasis in adolescents. What's already known about this topic? Calcipotriol plus betamethasone dipropionate gel is a well-tolerated and efficacious treatment for scalp and body psoriasis in adults. Psoriasis can present during childhood or adolescence and may negatively impact quality of life. What does this study add? Calcipotriol plus

  17. Topical hydrocortisone, clobetasol propionate, and calcipotriol do not increase photocarcinogenesis induced by simulated solar irradiation in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Lerche, Catharina M; Philipsen, Peter A; Poulsen, Thomas; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2010-11-01

    Topical corticosteroids such as hydrocortisone-17-butyrate (HCB) and clobetasol-17-propionate (CP) and vitamin D(3) derivatives such as calcipotriol (CAL) are widely used to treat psoriasis. The immunosuppressive effects of corticosteroids make their topical use a concern for skin carcinogenicity. Few studies have assessed the effect of topical corticosteroids and topical vitamin D(3) derivatives on photocarcinogenesis induced by ultraviolet radiation. We investigated whether HCB, CP, or CAL can accelerate photocarcinogenesis using simulated solar radiation (SSR). HCB, CP, or CAL was applied topically to the backs of hairless, female, C3.Cg/TifBomTac-immunocompetent mice in 16 groups of 25 mice each. The drugs were applied three times weekly followed by 0, 2, 4, or 6 standard erythema doses (SED) of SSR for 365 days or until death. No change was observed in the time required for tumor development in mice treated with HCB and 2 SED (HCB-2SED) and HCB-6SED. However, the time required for tumor development increased with HCB-4SED treatment. Treatment with CP-2SED did not change the time to onset of the first and second tumor, but all other CP treatments in combination with SSR increased the time. CAL-2SED decreased the time to onset of the first tumor but not of the second and third tumor. CAL-4SED and CAL-6 SED did not change or increased the time to tumor development. Our data indicated that topical administration of HCB and CAL did not alter the photocarcinogenesis of SSR and that topical CP administration had a photoprotective effect. Thus, HCB, CP, and CAL do not increase photocarcinogenesis induced by SSR.

  18. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Diastereomeric and Geometric Analogs of Calcipotriol, PRI-2202 and PRI-2205, Against Human HL-60 Leukemia and MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Milczarek, Magdalena; Chodyński, Michał; Filip-Psurska, Beata; Martowicz, Agnieszka; Krupa, Małgorzata; Krajewski, Krzysztof; Kutner, Andrzej; Wietrzyk, Joanna

    2013-10-31

    Diastereomeric and geometric analogs of calcipotriol, PRI-2202 and PRI-2205, were synthesized as advanced intermediates from vitamin D C-22 benzothiazoyl sulfones and side-chain aldehydes using our convergent strategy. Calcitriol, calcipotriol (PRI-2201) and tacalcitol (PRI-2191) were used as the reference compounds. Among a series of tested analogs the diastereomeric analog PRI-2202 showed the strongest antiproliferative activity on the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, whereas the geometric analog PRI-2205 was the weakest. Both analogs were less potent in antiproliferative activity against HL-60 cells compared to the reference compounds. The ability to potentiate antiproliferative effect of cisplatin or doxorubicin against HL-60 cells or that of tamoxifen against the MCF-7 cell line was observed at higher doses of PRI-2202 or PRI-2205 than those of the reference compounds. The proapoptotic activity of tamoxifen, expressed as the diminished mitochondrial membrane potential, as well as the increased phosphatidylserine expression, was partially attenuated by calcitriol, PRI-2191, PRI-2201 and PRI-2205. The treatment of the MCF-7 cells with tamoxifen alone resulted in an increase in VDR expression. Moreover, a further increase in VDR expression was observed when the analogs PRI-2201 or PRI-2205, but not PRI-2191, were used in combination with tamoxifen. This observation could partially explain the potentiation of the antiproliferative effect of tamoxifen by vitamin D analogs.

  19. Use of a psoriasis plaque test in the development of a gel formulation of calcipotriol and betamethasone dipropionate for scalp psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Queille-Roussel, Catherine; Hoffmann, Vibeke; Enevold, Anders; Ganslandt, Cecilia

    2013-08-01

    The efficacy and safety of calcipotriol plus betamethasone dipropionate ointment in the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris has consistently been demonstrated in several clinical trials. For treatment of scalp psoriasis, more convenient formulations are required. Therefore, new lipophilic alcohol-free gel formulations containing calcipotriol (50 µg/g) and betamethasone (0.5 mg/g; as dipropionate) (two-compound gels) for treatment of scalp psoriasis were developed. To identify the optimal gel formulation by evaluating the antipsoriatic effect in a psoriasis plaque test model. The use of a psoriasis plaque test enables investigation of the antipsoriatic effect of several formulations and compounds in a limited number of patients, and is a useful method for predicting treatment efficacy in psoriasis vulgaris. Five different gel vehicles were investigated in two plaque test studies. The optimised two-compound gels showed superior antipsoriatic effect over marketed betamethasone dipropionate solution. The results suggest that use of the psoriasis plaque test early in the development process can improve the development of topical formulations for dermatological use and can be a beneficial tool for selecting the most promising formulations for further clinical studies in psoriasis vulgaris.

  20. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Diastereomeric and Geometric Analogs of Calcipotriol, PRI-2202 and PRI-2205, Against Human HL-60 Leukemia and MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Milczarek, Magdalena; Chodyński, Michał; Filip-Psurska, Beata; Martowicz, Agnieszka; Krupa, Małgorzata; Krajewski, Krzysztof; Kutner, Andrzej; Wietrzyk, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Diastereomeric and geometric analogs of calcipotriol, PRI-2202 and PRI-2205, were synthesized as advanced intermediates from vitamin D C-22 benzothiazoyl sulfones and side-chain aldehydes using our convergent strategy. Calcitriol, calcipotriol (PRI-2201) and tacalcitol (PRI-2191) were used as the reference compounds. Among a series of tested analogs the diastereomeric analog PRI-2202 showed the strongest antiproliferative activity on the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, whereas the geometric analog PRI-2205 was the weakest. Both analogs were less potent in antiproliferative activity against HL-60 cells compared to the reference compounds. The ability to potentiate antiproliferative effect of cisplatin or doxorubicin against HL-60 cells or that of tamoxifen against the MCF-7 cell line was observed at higher doses of PRI-2202 or PRI-2205 than those of the reference compounds. The proapoptotic activity of tamoxifen, expressed as the diminished mitochondrial membrane potential, as well as the increased phosphatidylserine expression, was partially attenuated by calcitriol, PRI-2191, PRI-2201 and PRI-2205. The treatment of the MCF-7 cells with tamoxifen alone resulted in an increase in VDR expression. Moreover, a further increase in VDR expression was observed when the analogs PRI-2201 or PRI-2205, but not PRI-2191, were used in combination with tamoxifen. This observation could partially explain the potentiation of the antiproliferative effect of tamoxifen by vitamin D analogs. PMID:24202449

  1. Epidermal overexpression of interleukin-19 and -20 mRNA in psoriatic skin disappears after short-term treatment with cyclosporine a or calcipotriol.

    PubMed

    Rømer, John; Hasselager, Erik; Nørby, Peder Lisby; Steiniche, Torben; Thorn Clausen, Jes; Kragballe, Knud

    2003-12-01

    Interleukin-19, 20, and 24 are new members of the IL-10 family binding and signaling through the IL-20R1/IL-20R2 heterodimer, while IL-20 and 24 also bind to the IL-20R2/IL-22R1 heterodimer. Using in situ hybridization we have studied mRNA expression of IL-19, 20, and 24 and their related receptor chains in skin from psoriatic patients before and during short-term treatment with either oral cyclosporine A or topical calcipotriol. In untreated lesions IL-19 and IL-20 mRNA was expressed focally in epidermis above the dermal papillae, whereas IL-24 was expressed in mononuclear cells in the dermal infiltrate. The expression of IL-19 and 20 mRNA was confined to the basal and suprabasal keratinocytes. No expression of IL-19 and 20 mRNA could be detected in uninvolved psoriatic skin. Treatment with cyclosporine A and calcipotriol resulted in disappearance of the IL-19 and 20 mRNA. Expression of mRNA for the receptor chains IL-20R1 and IL-20R2 was found throughout the psoriatic epidermal layer, whereas IL-22R1 mRNA was predominantly expressed in the superficial part of the psoriatic epidermis. These findings show that IL-19 and IL-20 are synthesized by a distinct population of keratinocytes. It remains to be clarified whether IL-19 and IL-20 are implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  2. B-Ring-Aryl Substituted Luotonin A Analogues with a New Binding Mode to the Topoisomerase 1-DNA Complex Show Enhanced Cytotoxic Activity

    PubMed Central

    González-Ruiz, Víctor; Pascua, Irene; Fernández-Marcelo, Tamara; Ribelles, Pascual; Bianchini, Giulia; Sridharan, Vellaisamy; Iniesta, Pilar; Ramos, M. Teresa; Olives, Ana I.; Martín, M. Antonia; Menéndez, J. Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Topoisomerase 1 inhibition is an important strategy in targeted cancer chemotherapy. The drugs currently in use acting on this enzyme belong to the family of the camptothecins, and suffer severe limitations because of their low stability, which is associated with the hydrolysis of the δ-lactone moiety in their E ring. Luotonin A is a natural camptothecin analogue that lacks this functional group and therefore shows a much-improved stability, but at the cost of a lower activity. Therefore, the development of luotonin A analogues with an increased potency is important for progress in this area. In the present paper, a small library of luotonin A analogues modified at their A and B rings was generated by cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate-catalyzed Friedländer reactions. All analogues showed an activity similar or higher than the natural luotonin A in terms of topoisomerase 1 inhibition and some compounds had an activity comparable to that of camptothecin. Furthermore, most compounds showed a better activity than luotonin A in cell cytotoxicity assays. In order to rationalize these results, the first docking studies of luotonin-topoisomerase 1-DNA ternary complexes were undertaken. Most compounds bound in a manner similar to luotonin A and to standard topoisomerase poisons such as topotecan but, interestingly, the two most promising analogues, bearing a 3,5-dimethylphenyl substituent at ring B, docked in a different orientation. This binding mode allows the hydrophobic moiety to be shielded from the aqueous environment by being buried between the deoxyribose belonging to the G(+1) guanine and Arg364 in the scissile strand and the surface of the protein and a hydrogen bond between the D-ring carbonyl and the basic amino acid. The discovery of this new binding mode and its associated higher inhibitory potency is a significant advance in the design of new topoisomerase 1 inhibitors. PMID:24830682

  3. Efficacy of an innovative aerosol foam formulation of fixed combination calcipotriol plus betamethasone dipropionate in patients with psoriasis vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Queille-Roussel, Catherine; Olesen, Martin; Villumsen, John; Lacour, Jean-Philippe

    2015-04-01

    The antipsoriatic effect of an innovative aerosol foam formulation of fixed combination calcipotriol 50 μg/g (as hydrate; Cal) and betamethasone 0.5 mg/g (as dipropionate; BD) was explored in order to compare the effect with that of the first-line treatment Cal/BD ointment. This was a Phase IIa, single-centre, investigator-blinded, exploratory study, with intra-individual comparison using a modified psoriasis plaque test. Patients were treated once daily (6 days/week) for 4 weeks with Cal/BD foam, Cal/BD ointment, BD foam and Cal/BD foam vehicle, randomized to four plaque test sites (5 cm(2) each). The primary efficacy endpoint was change in total clinical score (TCS; sum of erythema, scaling and lesional thickness). Secondary endpoints included ultrasonographic changes in total skin thickness and echo-poor band thickness, and adverse events. Twenty-four patients, median age 52.5 years (range 21-75), completed this study. At week 4, test sites treated with Cal/BD foam had a significantly greater decrease in mean (±SD) TCS (-6.00 ± 1.27) versus those treated with Cal/BD ointment (-5.25 ± 1.78; difference -0.75; 95 % CI -1.46 to -0.04; p = 0.038), BD foam (-4.96 ± 1.85; difference -1.04; 95 % CI -1.75 to -0.33; p = 0.005) or foam vehicle (-1.88 ± 1.12; difference -4.13; 95 % CI -4.83 to -3.42; p < 0.001). Total skin thickness and echo-poor band thickness of Cal/BD foam-treated sites were reduced to a greater extent than those treated with comparators. Eleven patients reported 17 adverse events, the most frequent being headache (five patients). There were no lesional/perilesional adverse events or adverse drug-related events. Cal/BD foam demonstrated a significant improvement in antipsoriatic effect over Cal/BD ointment, BD foam and foam vehicle alone.

  4. Oral granulated Chinese herbal medicine (YXBCM01) plus topical calcipotriol for psoriasis vulgaris: study protocol for a double-blind, randomized placebo controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Parker, Shefton; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Zhang, Claire Shuiqing; Goodman, Greg; Wen, Zehuai; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changlie

    2014-12-19

    Probably related to immune dysfunction, psoriasis vulgaris is a chronic, painful, disfiguring and disabling dermatological disease, carrying an increased risk of serious comorbidities. Current conventional therapies can be costly, show risks of side effects and have limited efficacy, with relapse common on treatment cessation. Chinese herbal medicine is effective in treating psoriasis vulgaris. However, any benefit of adding Chinese herbal medicine to conventional treatments when treating psoriasis vulgaris is yet to be determined. This is a pilot randomized, placebo controlled, double-blinded trial. The pilot is primarily to determine the feasibility of undertaking a full size randomized trial. Thirty participants with psoriasis vulgaris and Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) scores ≥ 7 and ≤ 12 will be included. Participants will be randomized (in a 1:1 ratio) to receive oral granulated Chinese herbal medicine YXBCM01 plus topical calcipotriol 0.005% or oral YXBCM01 placebo plus topical calcipotriol 0.005% treatment for 12 weeks, with a 12-week follow-up phase. The Chinese herbal medicine or placebo will be administered orally as dissolvable granules. The primary outcome measure will be PASI change (%) from baseline to the end of treatment phase. Secondary outcomes will include safety, key psoriasis-related cytokine changes (for example, IL12, IL17 and IL 23) during the entire trial and symptom relapse rates at the end of the follow-up phase. The study will evaluate the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial investigating combined conventional and Chinese herbal medicine therapy for psoriasis vulgaris. The ingredients of YXBCM01 were selected based on literature, the expert opinion on herbal medicine and pre-clinical evidence, for instance Chinese herbal medicine possesses anti-inflammatory or antiproliferative properties. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12614000493640.

  5. Safety and efficacy of calcipotriol plus betamethasone dipropionate gel in the treatment of scalp psoriasis in adolescents 12-17 years of age.

    PubMed

    Gooderham, M; Debarre, J-M; Keddy-Grant, J; Xu, Z; Kurvits, M; Goodfield, M

    2014-12-01

    Plaque psoriasis has a relatively high prevalence in adolescence, resulting in a significant impact on quality of life, including social interactions. The primary objective was to assess the safety of once-daily application of fixed-combination calcipotriol plus betamethasone dipropionate gel in adolescent scalp psoriasis. Assessment of efficacy was a secondary objective. This phase II, multicentre, single-arm, open-label, 8-week trial included patients aged 12-17 years with moderate-to-very severe scalp psoriasis according to Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) (≥ 10% of the scalp area affected). Seventy-eight patients received treatment. Twenty-seven patients (35%) reported a total of 64 adverse events (AEs); most were mild (33/64) or moderate (22/64) in severity and there were no serious AEs. No cases of hypercalcaemia were reported, and the mean changes from baseline to end of treatment in albumin-corrected serum calcium (0·00 mmol L(-1)), 24-h urinary calcium excretion (-0·03 mmol per 24 h) and urinary calcium-to-creatinine ratio (-0·12 mmol g(-1)) were not considered clinically relevant. At the end of treatment 66 patients (85%) were clear or almost clear according to IGA. There was an 80% improvement in mean Total Sign Score from baseline to end of treatment. In total, at the end of treatment, 87% of patients rated their scalp psoriasis as clear or very mild, and 75 (96%) had no or mild pruritus compared with 14 (18%) at baseline. Once-daily calcipotriol plus betamethasone dipropionate gel is well tolerated and efficacious for scalp psoriasis in adolescents. © 2014 The Authors. British Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Survey of Analogue Spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Matt

    Analogue spacetimes (and more boldly, analogue models both of and for gravity), have attracted significant and increasing attention over the last decade and a half. Perhaps the most straightforward physical example, which serves as a template for most of the others, is Bill Unruh's model for a dumb hole,(mute black hole, acoustic black hole), wherein sound is dragged along by a moving fluid—and can even be trapped behind an acoustic horizon. This and related analogue models for curved spacetimes are useful in many ways: analogue spacetimes provide general relativists with extremely concrete physical models to help focus their thinking, and conversely the techniques of curved spacetime can sometimes help improve our understanding of condensed matter and/or optical systems by providing an unexpected and countervailing viewpoint. In this chapter, I shall provide a few simple examples of analogue spacetimes as general background for the rest of the contributions.

  7. Efficacy and maintenance strategies of two-compound formulation calcipotriol and betamethasone dipropionate gel (Xamiol® gel) in the treatment of scalp psoriasis: results from a study in 885 patients.

    PubMed

    Saraceno, Rosita; Camplone, Germana; D'Agostino, Magda; De Simone, Clara; Di Cesare, Antonella; Filosa, Giorgio; Frascione, Pasquale; Gabellini, Massimo; Lunghi, Franco; Mazzotta, Annamaria; Peris, Ketty; Scotto Di Luzio, Genoveffa; Calvieri, Stefano; Simonacci, Marco; Chimenti, Sergio

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies showed the efficacy of a formulation containing calcipotriol and betamethasone dipropionate for the treatment of psoriasis. To investigate maintenance strategies of a formulation containing calcipotriol (50 µg/g) and betamethasone dipropionate (0.5 mg/g) for the treatment of scalp psoriasis. Nine-hundred and four patients were screened and randomised on a 1:1 basis in two groups: maintenance of two applications per week (group A) versus on-demand therapy (group B). Clinical evaluation was performed at weeks 0, 2, 4, 8 and 12. Eight-hundred and eighty-five patients were randomised: 441 in group A and 444 in group B. From week 2, both groups showed a significant clinical improvement compared with baseline; at weeks 8 and 12, group A demonstrated a higher clinical response compared with group B (p < 0.05). This difference was statistically significant (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.37, 0.60). The maintenance of twice-weekly application versus on-demand treatment of calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate gel is more effective and is associated with a lower rate of relapse.

  8. Tetrahydroindazoles as Interleukin-2 Inducible T-Cell Kinase Inhibitors. Part II. Second-Generation Analogues with Enhanced Potency, Selectivity, and Pharmacodynamic Modulation in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Burch, Jason D; Barrett, Kathy; Chen, Yuan; DeVoss, Jason; Eigenbrot, Charles; Goldsmith, Richard; Ismaili, M Hicham A; Lau, Kevin; Lin, Zhonghua; Ortwine, Daniel F; Zarrin, Ali A; McEwan, Paul A; Barker, John J; Ellebrandt, Claire; Kordt, Daniel; Stein, Daniel B; Wang, Xiaolu; Chen, Yong; Hu, Baihua; Xu, Xiaofeng; Yuen, Po-Wai; Zhang, Yamin; Pei, Zhonghua

    2015-05-14

    The medicinal chemistry community has directed considerable efforts toward the discovery of selective inhibitors of interleukin-2 inducible T-cell kinase (ITK), given its role in T-cell signaling downstream of the T-cell receptor (TCR) and the implications of this target for inflammatory disorders such as asthma. We have previously disclosed a structure- and property-guided lead optimization effort which resulted in the discovery of a new series of tetrahydroindazole-containing selective ITK inhibitors. Herein we disclose further optimization of this series that resulted in further potency improvements, reduced off-target receptor binding liabilities, and reduced cytotoxicity. Specifically, we have identified a correlation between the basicity of solubilizing elements in the ITK inhibitors and off-target antiproliferative effects, which was exploited to reduce cytotoxicity while maintaining kinase selectivity. Optimized analogues were shown to reduce IL-2 and IL-13 production in vivo following oral or intraperitoneal dosing in mice.

  9. Curcumin and its analogues (PGV-0 and PGV-1) enhance sensitivity of resistant MCF-7 cells to doxorubicin through inhibition of HER2 and NF-kB activation.

    PubMed

    Meiyanto, Edy; Putri, Dyaningtyas Dewi Pamungkas; Susidarti, Ratna Asmah; Murwanti, Retno; Sardjiman; Fitriasari, Aditya; Husnaa, Ulfatul; Purnomo, Hari; Kawaichi, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Chemoresistance of breast cancer to doxorubicin is mediated mainly through activation of NF-kB and over expression of HER2. Curcumin and its analogues (PGV-0 and PGV-1) exert cytotoxic effects on T47D breast cancer cells. Suppression of NF-kB activation is suggested to contribute to this activity. The present study aimed to explore the effects of curcumin, PGV-0, and PGV-1 singly and in combination with doxorubicin on MCF-7/Dox cells featuring over-expression of HER2. In MTT assays, curcumin, PGV-0, and PGV-1 showed cytotoxicity effects against MCF-7/Dox with IC50 values of 80 μM, 21 μM, and 82 μM respectively. These compounds increased MCF-7/Dox sensitivity to doxorubicin. Cell cycle distribution analysis exhibited that the combination of curcumin and its analogues with Dox increased sub G-1 cell populations. Curcumin and PGV-1 but not PGV-0 decreased localization of p65 into the nucleus induced by Dox, indicating that activation of NF- kB was inhibited. Molecular docking of curcumin, PGV-0, and PGV-1 demonstrated high affinity to HER2 at ATP binding site. This interaction were directly comparable with those of ATP and lapatinib. These findings suggested that curcumin, PGV-0 and PGV-1 enhance the Dox cytotoxicity to MCF-7 cells through inhibition of HER2 activity and NF-kB activation.

  10. QW-1624F2-2, a synthetic analogue of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, enhances the response to other deltanoids and suppresses the invasiveness of human metastatic breast tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Sujatha; Beckman, Matthew J; Bajwa, Amandeep; Wei, Jeffrey; Smith, Kathleen M; Posner, Gary H; Gewirtz, David A

    2006-11-01

    The enzyme 24-hydroxylase, also known as CYP24, metabolizes 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)] and is an established marker of vitamin D activity. Our studies evaluated the influence of a low-calcemic 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) analogue, QW-1624F2-2 (QW), on the regulation of CYP24 expression in MKL-4 cells, a metastatic mammary tumor cell model. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and its analogue, EB 1089, stimulated CYP24 induction at both protein and transcript levels. In contrast, QW failed to produce a sustained stimulation of CYP24, due, in large part, to a reduction in the stability of the CYP24 message. QW enhanced the capacity of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and EB 1089 to inhibit tumor cell proliferation by approximately 2-fold. QW also blocked the sustained induction of CYP24 expression by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and EB 1089, increased the potency of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and EB 1089, and inhibited breast tumor cell proliferation and invasion.

  11. Conformationally constrained analogues of L-prolyl-l-leucylglycinamide

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    The tripeptide, L-prolyl-L-leucylglycinamide (PLG), has been shown to modulate the pharmacological response of the neurotransmitter, dopamine, in the central nervous system. Many physical studies have suggested that PLG can exist in a type II ..beta..-bend conformation. In this study several types of conformationally constrained analogues capable of mimicking different types of conformations of PLG have been designed to answer two questions: (1) Is the type II ..beta..-bend the bioactive conformation of PLG. (2) Does the Leu-Gly amide bond of PLG need to be in a cis or trans configuration in order for it to bind to its receptor. The analogues of PLG that have been synthesized include the following: (1) Lactam analogues, (2) Cyclic peptides, (3) Olefinic analogue, and (4) Tetazole analogues. The analogues synthesized were tested in a (/sup 3/H)-ADTN binding assay to determine their ability to enhance the binding of this dopamine agonist to dopamine receptors.

  12. Sorafenib analogue SC-60 induces apoptosis through the SHP-1/STAT3 pathway and enhances docetaxel cytotoxicity in triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Yu; Su, Jung-Chen; Huang, Tzu-Ting; Chu, Pei-Yi; Huang, Chun-Teng; Wang, Wan-Lun; Lee, Chia-Han; Lau, Ka-Yi; Tsai, Wen-Chun; Yang, Hsiu-Ping; Shiau, Chung-Wai; Tseng, Ling-Ming; Chen, Kuen-Feng

    2017-03-01

    Recurrent triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) needs new therapeutic targets. Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) can act as a tumor suppressor by dephosphorylating oncogenic kinases. One major target of SHP-1 is STAT3, which is highly activated in TNBC. In this study, we tested a sorafenib analogue SC-60, which lacks angiokinase inhibition activity, but acts as a SHP-1 agonist, in TNBC cells. SC-60 inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis by dephosphorylating STAT3 in both a dose- and time-dependent manner in TNBC cells (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, and HCC1937). By contrast, ectopic expression of STAT3 rescued the anticancer effect induced by SC-60. SC-60 also increased the SHP-1 activity, but this effect was inhibited when the N-SH2 domain (DN1) was deleted or with SHP-1 point mutation (D61A), implying that SHP-1 is the major target of SC-60 in TNBC. The use of SC-60 in combination with docetaxel synergized the anticancer effect induced by SC-60 through the SHP-1/STAT3 pathway in TNBC cells. Importantly, SC-60 also displayed a significant antitumor effect in an MDA-MB-468 xenograft model by modulating the SHP-1/STAT3 axis, indicating the anticancer potential of SC-60 in TNBC treatment. Targeting SHP-1/p-STAT3 and the potential combination of SHP-1 agonist with chemotherapeutic docetaxel is a feasible therapeutic strategy for TNBC. © 2017 The Authors. Published by FEBS Press and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. GABAA Receptor Modulation by Etomidate Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Pejo, Ervin; Santer, Peter; Wang, Lei; Dershwitz, Philip; Husain, S. Shaukat; Raines, Douglas E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Etomidate is a highly potent anesthetic agent that is believed to produce hypnosis by enhancing γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor function. We characterized the GABAA receptor and hypnotic potencies of etomidate analogues. We then used computational techniques to build statistical and graphical models that relate the potencies of these etomidate analogues to their structures in order to identify the specific molecular determinants of potency. Methods GABAA receptor potencies were defined with voltage-clamp electrophysiology using α1β3γ2 receptors harboring a channel mutation (α1(L264T)) that enhances anesthetic sensitivity (n = 36 – 60 measurements per concentration-response curve). The hypnotic potencies of etomidate analogues were defined using a loss of righting reflexes assay in Sprague Dawley rats (n = 9 – 21 measurements per dose-response curve). Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships were determined in silico using comparative molecular field analysis. Results The GABAA receptor and hypnotic potencies of etomidate and the etomidate analogues ranged by 91-fold and 53-fold, respectively. These potency measurements were significantly correlated (r2 = 0.72), but neither measurement correlated with drug hydrophobicity (r2 = 0.019 and 0.005, respectively). Statistically significant and predictive comparative molecular field analysis models were generated and a pharmacophore model was built that revealed both the structural elements in etomidate analogues associated with high potency and the interactions that these elements make with the etomidate binding site. Conclusion There are multiple specific structural elements in etomidate and etomidate analogues that mediate GABAA receptor modulation. Modifying any one element can alter receptor potency by an order of magnitude or more. PMID:26691905

  14. Natural Analogue Synthesis Report

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. Simmons

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to present analogue studies and literature reviews designed to provide qualitative and quantitative information to test and provide added confidence in process models abstracted for performance assessment (PA) and model predictions pertinent to PA. This report provides updates to studies presented in the ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' (CRWMS M and O 2000 [151945], Section 13) and new examples gleaned from the literature, along with results of quantitative studies conducted specifically for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The intent of the natural analogue studies was to collect corroborative evidence from analogues to demonstrate additional understanding of processes expected to occur during postclosure at a potential Yucca Mountain repository. The report focuses on key processes by providing observations and analyses of natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) systems to improve understanding and confidence in the operation of these processes under conditions similar to those that could occur in a nuclear waste repository. The process models include those that represent both engineered and natural barrier processes. A second purpose of this report is to document the various applications of natural analogues to geologic repository programs, focusing primarily on the way analogues have been used by the YMP. This report is limited to providing support for PA in a confirmatory manner and to providing corroborative inputs for process modeling activities. Section 1.7 discusses additional limitations of this report. Key topics for this report are analogues to emplacement drift degradation, waste form degradation, waste package degradation, degradation of other materials proposed for the engineered barrier, seepage into drifts, radionuclide flow and transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ), analogues to coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes, saturated zone (SZ) transport, impact of radionuclide

  15. Addition of vasopressin synthetic analogue [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP to standard chemotherapy enhances tumour growth inhibition and impairs metastatic spread in aggressive breast tumour models.

    PubMed

    Garona, Juan; Pifano, Marina; Pastrian, Maria B; Gomez, Daniel E; Ripoll, Giselle V; Alonso, Daniel F

    2016-08-01

    [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP is a novel 2nd generation vasopressin analogue with robust antitumour activity against metastatic breast cancer. We recently reported that, by acting on vasopressin V2r membrane receptor present in tumour cells and microvascular endothelium, [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP inhibits angiogenesis and metastatic progression of the disease without overt toxicity. Despite chemotherapy remaining as a primary therapeutic option for aggressive breast cancer, its use is limited by low selectivity and associated adverse effects. In this regard, we evaluated potential combinational benefits by adding [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP to standard-of-care chemotherapy. In vitro, combination of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP with sub-IC50 concentrations of paclitaxel or carmustine resulted in a cooperative inhibition of breast cancer cell growth in comparison to single-agent therapy. In vivo antitumour efficacy of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP addition to chemotherapy was first evaluated using the triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model. Tumour-bearing mice were treated with i.v. injections of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP (0.3 μg/kg, thrice weekly) in combination with weekly cycles of paclitaxel (10 mg/kg i.p.). After 6 weeks of treatment, combination regimen resulted in greater tumour growth inhibition compared to monotherapy. [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP addition was also associated with reduction of local aggressiveness, and impairment of tumour invasion and infiltration of the skin. Benefits of combined therapy were confirmed in the hormone-independent and metastatic F3II breast cancer model by combining [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP with carmustine (25 mg/kg i.p.). Interestingly, [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP plus cytotoxic agents severely impaired colony forming ability of tumour cells and inhibited breast cancer metastasis to lung. The present study shows that [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP may complement conventional chemotherapy by modulating metastatic progression and early stages of microtumour establishment, and thus supports further preclinical testing of

  16. A randomized, double-blind, negatively controlled pilot study to determine whether the use of emollients or calcipotriol alters the sensitivity of the skin to ultraviolet radiation during phototherapy with narrowband ultraviolet B.

    PubMed

    Skellett, A; Swift, L; Tan, E; Garioch, J

    2011-02-01

    There is contradictory evidence suggesting that emollients increase, decrease or have no effect on minimal erythema dose (MED) or minimal phototoxic dose values prior to phototherapy. Few studies have looked at the in vivo use of emollients or calcipotriol prior to narrowband ultraviolet (UV) B (NB-UVB) treatment. To investigate whether emollients or calcipotriol alter MED readings of skin on the back of healthy subjects prior to NB-UVB irradiation. Topical agents were applied to the backs of 20 healthy volunteers for 30 min prior to MED testing. These agents were aqueous cream, 50:50 white soft paraffin and liquid paraffin, Diprobase(®) (Schering-Plough, Welwyn Garden City, U.K.), Epaderm(®) (Medlock, Oldham, U.K.) and calcipotriol ointment and cream. A control MED strip was used with no topical agent applied prior to testing. MED readings were recoded as integer steps between 1 and 9 (one is lowest MED dose for skin type; eight is highest; nine is no response, i.e. a higher MED). The median MED was between step 5 and 6 for all treatments and control. There was no significant difference at the 5% level between control and each topical agent. The study was powered to detect a median difference of approximately 0·4-0·6 steps. This has important implications at a practical level when advising patients not to apply creams prior to treatment with NB-UVB. Studies where agents are applied immediately prior to phototherapy have been more likely to show that emollients block transmission of UV radiation. If they are applied at least 30 min prior to treatment, they have no effect. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. Real-life effectiveness of once-daily calcipotriol and betamethasone dipropionate gel vs. ointment formulations in psoriasis vulgaris: 4- and 12-week interim results from the PRO-long study.

    PubMed

    Lambert, J; Hol, C W; Vink, J

    2014-12-01

    Psoriasis is most often treated using topical therapies such as the once-daily fixed combination of calcipotriol and betamethasone dipropionate, which is available as a gel and an ointment. To date, there have been no direct comparisons of patient perspectives on the two formulations. To describe and compare patients' perspectives on calcipotriol and betamethasone gel and ointment formulations, including real-life effectiveness, adherence behaviour, treatment satisfaction and health-related quality of life (QoL), during long-term psoriasis vulgaris management, according to interim findings from the PRO-long study. PRO-long is a multicentre, prospective, observational, 52-week cohort study in patients prescribed fixed-combination calcipotriol (50 μg/g) and betamethasone (0.5 mg/g; as dipropionate) gel or ointment for long-term psoriasis management. Difference in effectiveness at 4 and 12 weeks was assessed by comparing the proportion of patients with controlled (mild or very mild) disease, according to the Patient's Global Assessment. Additional patient questionnaires were used to assess adherence behaviour, treatment satisfaction (nine-item Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication) and health-related QoL (Skindex-29). A total of 156 patients were included in the analysis. In single items of the adherence behaviour and treatment satisfaction questionnaires, patients preferred the gel over the ointment as convenient, easy to use and fast to apply. Post hoc analysis demonstrated significant differences between gel and ointment for convenience and application time. More patients had controlled disease at week 12 with gel (71.9%) vs. ointment (65.7%); however, the difference was not statistically significant (primary end point; P = 0.40). This interim analysis supports fixed-combination calcipotriol and betamethasone gel as more convenient, easier to use and faster to apply than the ointment formulation in real-life conditions according to patients with

  18. Tren-based analogues of bacillibactin: structure and stability.

    PubMed

    Dertz, Emily A; Xu, Jide; Raymond, Kenneth N

    2006-07-10

    Synthetic analogues were designed to highlight the effect of the glycine moiety of bacillibactin on the overall stability of the ferric complex as compared to synthetic analogues of enterobactin. Insertion of a variety of amino acids to catecholamide analogues based on a Tren (tris(2-aminoethyl)amine) backbone increased the overall acidity of the ligands, causing an enhancement of the stability of the resulting ferric complex as compared to TRENCAM. Solution thermodynamic behavior of these siderophores and their synthetic analogues was investigated through potentiometric and spectrophotometric titrations. X-ray crystallography, circular dichroism, and molecular modeling were used to determine the chirality and geometry of the ferric complexes of bacillibactin and its analogues. In contrast to the Tren scaffold, addition of a glycine to the catechol chelating arms causes an inversion of the trilactone backbone, resulting in opposite chiralities of the two siderophores and a destabilization of the ferric complex of bacillibactin compared to ferric enterobactin.

  19. Aspartame and Its Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlova, L. A.; Komarova, T. V.; Davidovich, Yurii A.; Rogozhin, S. V.

    1981-04-01

    The results of studies on the biochemistry of the sweet taste are briefly reviewed. The methods of synthesis of "aspartame" — a sweet dipeptide — are considered, its structural analogues are described, and quantitative estimates are made of the degree of sweetness relative to sucrose. Attention is concentrated mainly on problems of the relation between the structure of the substance and its taste in the series of aspartyl derivatives. The bibliography includes 118 references.

  20. Quantum analogue computing.

    PubMed

    Kendon, Vivien M; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J

    2010-08-13

    We briefly review what a quantum computer is, what it promises to do for us and why it is so hard to build one. Among the first applications anticipated to bear fruit is the quantum simulation of quantum systems. While most quantum computation is an extension of classical digital computation, quantum simulation differs fundamentally in how the data are encoded in the quantum computer. To perform a quantum simulation, the Hilbert space of the system to be simulated is mapped directly onto the Hilbert space of the (logical) qubits in the quantum computer. This type of direct correspondence is how data are encoded in a classical analogue computer. There is no binary encoding, and increasing precision becomes exponentially costly: an extra bit of precision doubles the size of the computer. This has important consequences for both the precision and error-correction requirements of quantum simulation, and significant open questions remain about its practicality. It also means that the quantum version of analogue computers, continuous-variable quantum computers, becomes an equally efficient architecture for quantum simulation. Lessons from past use of classical analogue computers can help us to build better quantum simulators in future.

  1. Calcipotriol and betamethasone dipropionate in the treatment of mild-to-moderate psoriasis: a cost-effectiveness analysis of the ointment versus gel formulation.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Giorgio L; Di Matteo, Sergio; Bruno, Giacomo; Girolomoni, Giampiero; Vena, Gino Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a major impact on the quality of life of affected individuals. Topical therapy has an important role in the treatment of psoriasis. Poor treatment outcomes from topical therapy regimens likely result from poor adherence and ineffective use of medication. A cost-minimization analysis was performed with the purpose of assessing the use of a gel containing calcipotriol and betamethasone dipropionate (Dovobet(®) gel) versus the ointment formulation (Dovobet ointment) in the treatment of psoriasis. The analysis was carried out using a Markov model with a one-year time horizon in a hypothetical cohort of patients with a Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score < 10. The model simulates different therapy adherence scenarios for the two different formulations. The Dovobet gel strategy allows a 5% reduction in the number of patients who could potentially be treated with more expensive therapies (biologics and conventional systemic drugs) in comparison with the Dovobet ointment strategy, with a consequent impact on costs for the National Healthcare Service. The total annual cost of Dovobet gel is about €407.00 per patient, ie, 19% less that the total cost of about €500.00 of the Dovobet ointment strategy. The base case results were then examined by sensitivity analysis and budget impact analysis to correlate the various scenarios of Dovobet gel use with cost savings to the National Healthcare Service. The Dovobet gel strategy seems more acceptable to patients, shows better overall adherence, and appears to be favorable from the pharmacoeconomic point of view than the ointment formulation for treatment of patients with mild-to-moderate psoriasis.

  2. Inclusion Complex of Novel Curcumin Analogue CDF and β-Cyclodextrin (1:2) and Its Enhanced In Vivo Anticancer Activity Against Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dandawate, Prasad R.; Vyas, Alok; Ahmad, Aamir; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Deshpande, Jyoti; Swamy, K. Venkateswara; Jamadar, Abeda; Dumhe-Klaire, Anne Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Several formulations have been proposed to improve the systemic delivery of novel cancer therapeutic compounds, including cyclodextrin derivatives. We aimed to synthesize and characterize of CDF-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex (1:2) (CDFCD). Methods The compound was characterized by Fourier transform infrared, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction studies, H1 & C13 NMR studies and scanning electron microscopic analysis. Its activity was tested against multiple cancer cell lines, and in vivo bioavailability was checked. Results CDF-β-cyclodextrin was found to lower IC50 value by half when tested against multiple cancer cell lines. It preferentially accumulated in the pancreas, where levels of CDF-β-cyclodextrin in mice were 10 times higher than in serum, following intravenous administration of an aqueous CDF-β-cyclodextrin preparation. Conclusions Novel curcumin analog CDF preferentially accumulates in the pancreas, leading to its potent anticancer activity against pancreatic cancer cells. Synthesis of such CDF-β-cyclodextrin self-assembly is an effective strategy to enhance its bioavailability and tissue distribution, warranting further evaluation for CDF delivery in clinical settings for treatment of human malignancies. PMID:22322899

  3. Nanoconjugation of PSMA-targeting ligands enhances perinuclear localization and improves efficacy of delivered alpha-particle emitters against tumor endothelial analogues

    PubMed Central

    Sempkowski, Michelle; Banerjee, Sangeeta Ray; Pomper, Martin G.; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Morgenstern, Alfred; Sofou, Stavroula

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect on killing efficacy of the intracellular trafficking patterns of alpha-particle emitters by using different radionuclide carriers in the setting of targeted antivascular alpha-radiotherapy. Nanocarriers (lipid vesicles) targeted to the prostate-specific-membrane-antigen (PSMA), which is unique to human neovasculature for a variety of solid tumors, were loaded with the alpha-particle generator actinium-225 and were compared to a PSMA-targeted radiolabeled antibody. Actinium-225 emits a total of four alpha-particles per decay, providing highly lethal and localized irradiation of targeted cells with minimal exposure to surrounding healthy tissues. Lipid vesicles were derivatized with two types of PSMA-targeting ligands: a fully human PSMA antibody (mAb), and a urea-based, low-molecular-weight agent. Target selectivity and extent of internalization were evaluated on monolayers of human endothelial cells (HUVEC) induced to express PSMA in static incubation conditions and in a flow field. Both types of radiolabeled PSMA-targeted vesicles exhibit similar killing efficacy, which is greater than the efficacy of the radiolabeled control mAb when compared on the basis of delivered radioactivity per cell. Fluorescence confocal microscopy demonstrates that targeted vesicles localize closer to the nucleus, unlike antibodies which localize near the plasma membrane. In addition, targeted vesicles cause larger numbers of DNA double strand breaks per nucleus of treated cells compared to the radiolabeled mAb. These findings demonstrate that radionuclide carriers, such as PSMA-targeted lipid-nanocarriers, which localize close to the nucleus increase the probability of alpha-particle trajectories crossing the nuclei, and, therefore, enhance the killing efficacy of alpha-particle emitters. PMID:26586724

  4. Nanoconjugation of PSMA-Targeting Ligands Enhances Perinuclear Localization and Improves Efficacy of Delivered Alpha-Particle Emitters against Tumor Endothelial Analogues.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Charles; Bandekar, Amey; Sempkowski, Michelle; Banerjee, Sangeeta Ray; Pomper, Martin G; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Morgenstern, Alfred; Sofou, Stavroula

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect on killing efficacy of the intracellular trafficking patterns of α-particle emitters by using different radionuclide carriers in the setting of targeted antivascular α-radiotherapy. Nanocarriers (lipid vesicles) targeted to the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), which is unique to human neovasculature for a variety of solid tumors, were loaded with the α-particle generator actinium-225 and were compared with a PSMA-targeted radiolabeled antibody. Actinium-225 emits a total of four α-particles per decay, providing highly lethal and localized irradiation of targeted cells with minimal exposure to surrounding healthy tissues. Lipid vesicles were derivatized with two types of PSMA-targeting ligands: a fully human PSMA antibody (mAb) and a urea-based, low-molecular-weight agent. Target selectivity and extent of internalization were evaluated on monolayers of human endothelial cells (HUVEC) induced to express PSMA in static incubation conditions and in a flow field. Both types of radiolabeled PSMA-targeted vesicles exhibit similar killing efficacy, which is greater than the efficacy of the radiolabeled control mAb when compared on the basis of delivered radioactivity per cell. Fluorescence confocal microscopy demonstrates that targeted vesicles localize closer to the nucleus, unlike antibodies which localize near the plasma membrane. In addition, targeted vesicles cause larger numbers of dsDNAs per nucleus of treated cells compared with the radiolabeled mAb. These findings demonstrate that radionuclide carriers, such as PSMA-targeted lipid-nanocarriers, which localize close to the nucleus, increase the probability of α-particle trajectories crossing the nuclei, and, therefore, enhance the killing efficacy of α-particle emitters. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Adjuvant properties of a simplified C32 monomycolyl glycerol analogue.

    PubMed

    Bhowruth, Veemal; Minnikin, David E; Agger, Else Marie; Andersen, Peter; Bramwell, Vincent W; Perrie, Yvonne; Besra, Gurdyal S

    2009-04-01

    A simplified C(32) monomycolyl glycerol (MMG) analogue demonstrated enhanced immunostimulatory activity in a dioctadecyl ammonium bromide (DDA)/Ag85B-ESAT-6 formulation. Elevated levels of IFN-gamma and IL-6 were produced in spleen cells from mice immunised with a C(32) MMG analogue comparable activity to the potent Th1 adjuvant, trehalose 6,6'-di-behenate (TDB).

  6. Analogue-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analogue Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Martin

    1997-01-01

    Discusses circuits for three-bit and four-bit analogue digital converters and digital analogue converters. These circuits feature slow operating speeds that enable the circuitry to be used to demonstrate the mode of operation using oscilloscopes and signal generators. (DDR)

  7. Design of multi-epitope, analogue-based cancer vaccines.

    PubMed

    Fikes, John D; Sette, Alessandro

    2003-09-01

    The current objective of our cancer programme is to develop an effective vaccine based on rationally designed T cell epitope analogues, for use in the adjuvant setting for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and colon cancer. Analogue epitopes, enhanced for either human leukocyte antigen (HLA) binding or T cell receptor (TCR) signalling, have been shown to be more effective at breaking immunological tolerance than cognate wild-type epitopes. Although encouraging early-phase clinical data has been obtained by others using a limited number of HLA-A2-restricted epitope analogues, the clinical benefits and immune correlates for vaccines comprised of multiple epitope analogues restricted by multiple HLA supertypes remains to be investigated. Clinical studies are currently being conducted on EP-2101, a prototype vaccine that delivers multiple HLA-A2-restricted analogue epitopes. In parallel, fixed anchor and heteroclitic analogues restricted by three other commonly expressed HLA supertypes are being identified. These analogues will be incorporated into future vaccines including optimised minigenes (epigenes) and tested in preclinical and clinical studies addressing various different cancer indications.

  8. Enhanced radiosensitization by the cationic liposome-encapsulated thymidine analogue BrdU through the increased intracellular BrdU-uptake on human melanoma as compared to anionic or nonionic liposomal or free BrdU.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shinya; Kimura, Masatsugu; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2014-11-01

    The synthetic thymidine analogue, 5-bromo-2'-deoxy-uridine (BrdU) was encapsulated in cationic liposome composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and stearylamine (molar ratio = 1/1/0.2; diameter = 120 nm), and the radiosensitization of cationic liposomal BrdU was assessed on human melanoma cells HMV-II, with comparing to anionic or nonionic liposomal BrdU and free-BrdU. HMV-II cells were pretreated by cationic liposomal BrdU or free-BrdU and then exposed to X-ray, followed by WST-8 assay to examine cell proliferation. The radiation-induced change of nuclei was defined with Hoechst33342 staining. The rates of thymidine replacement by BrdU and DNA double-strand breaks on HMV-II cells were determined with an anti-BrdU antibody and anti-53BP1 antibody, respectively. On 7th day after X-ray irradiation at 3 Gy, cell proliferation was suppressed more markedly in the administration of cationic liposomal BrdU than free-BrdU at equivalent BrdU doses. Giant polykaryocytes were observed in cationic liposomal BrdU-treated HMV-II cells. Radiosensitization was enhanced dose-dependently along with BrdU doses of 0.1-0.8 μM in the order: cationic liposomal BrdU > anionic liposomal BrdU > nonionic liposomal BrdU (see symbol) free-BrdU. Similarly, the cationic liposomal BrdU augmented the rate of thymidine-moiety replacement by BrdU and DNA double-strand breaks more appreciably than free-BrdU. Therefore, the cationic liposome-encapsulation of BrdU would be one of favorable drug deliveries for facilitating the X-ray therapy against cancer.

  9. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Todd M; Parekh, Vishwas

    2016-09-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor that shares the same histologic appearance and ETV6 gene (12p13) rearrangement as secretory carcinoma of the breast. Prior to its recognition, MASC cases were commonly labeled acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. Despite distinctive histologic features, MASC may be difficult to distinguish from other salivary gland tumors, in particular zymogen-poor acinic cell carcinoma and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. Although characteristic morphologic and immunohistochemical features form the basis of a diagnosis of MASC, the presence of an ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion is confirmatory. Given its recent recognition the true prognostic import of MASC is not yet clearly defined.

  10. New nucleotide analogues with enhanced signal properties.

    PubMed

    Cherkasov, Dmitry; Biet, Thorsten; Bäuml, Englbert; Traut, Walther; Lohoff, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We describe synthesis and testing of a novel type of dye-modified nucleotides which we call macromolecular nucleotides (m-Nucs). Macromolecular nucleotides comprise a nucleotide moiety, a macromolecular linear linker, and a large macromolecular ligand carrying multiple fluorescent dyes. With incorporation of the nucleotide moiety into the growing nucleic acid strand during enzymatic synthesis, the macromolecular ligand together with the coupled dyes is bound to the nucleic acid. By the use of this new class of modified nucleotides, signals from multiple dye molecules can be obtained after a single enzymatic incorporation event. The modified nucleotides are considered especially useful in the fields of nanobiotechnology, where signal stability and intensity is a limiting factor.

  11. Efficacy and Safety of Calcipotriol Plus Betamethasone Dipropionate Aerosol Foam Compared with Betamethasone 17-Valerate-Medicated Plaster for the Treatment of Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Queille-Roussel, Catherine; Rosen, Monika; Clonier, Fabrice; Nørremark, Kasper; Lacour, Jean-Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Fixed combination calcipotriol as hydrate (Cal) 50 µg/g plus betamethasone as dipropionate (BD) 0.5 mg/g aerosol foam is an alcohol-free treatment for psoriasis. Betamethasone 17-valerate 2.25 mg (BV)-medicated plasters are recommended for treating psoriasis plaques localized in difficult-to-treat (DTT; elbow, knee, anterior face of the tibia) areas. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of Cal/BD foam with BV-medicated plaster in patients with plaque psoriasis. In this phase IIa, randomized, single-center, investigator-blinded, 4-week study, both Cal/BD foam and BV-medicated plaster were applied once daily to six test sites (three for each treatment). The primary efficacy endpoint was absolute change in total clinical score (TCS; sum of erythema, scaling, and infiltration); secondary endpoints were changes from baseline in each individual clinical score, ultrasonographic changes (total skin and echo-poor band thickness), and safety; and post hoc analysis was change from baseline in TCS on DTT areas. Thirty-five patients were included. Least-squares mean change in TCS from baseline was significantly greater for Cal/BD foam (-5.8) than BV-medicated plaster (-3.7; difference -2.2; 95% confidence interval -2.6 to -1.8; p < 0.001); greater changes for Cal/BD foam were observed from day 8 for each clinical sign. Absolute total skin and echo-poor band thickness change was significantly greater for Cal/BD foam than for BV-medicated plaster (both p < 0.001). Post hoc analyses showed that Cal/BD foam was significantly more effective than BV-medicated plaster on DTT areas after 4 weeks (p < 0.001), and both treatments were well tolerated. Cal/BD foam demonstrated superior efficacy versus BV-medicated plasters, including on DTT areas, in patients with plaque psoriasis. NCT02518048.

  12. Balance of Treg versus T-effector cells during systemic treatment with adalimumab and topical treatment with calcipotriol-betamethasone dipropionate ointment.

    PubMed

    Keijsers, Romy R M C; Joosten, Irma; Hendriks, Anke G M; Koenen, Hans J P M; van Erp, Piet E J; van de Kerkhof, Peter C M

    2015-01-01

    Diminished suppressive capacity of regulatory T cells (Treg) has been demonstrated in blood and in lesional skin of psoriatic patients. Treatment with anti-TNFα restored the number and function of circulating Treg in psoriasis. We aimed to study Treg in the skin of psoriatic patients undergoing topical treatment with calcipotriol-betamethasone dipropionate (CBD) ointment (n = 12) or systemic treatment with anti-TNFα agent adalimumab (n = 10). Skin biopsies were collected from patients with chronic plaque psoriasis who responded to the above-mentioned treatments with a SUM-score improvement of at least 50% (at the end of treatment). Biopsies were processed for immunohistochemistry. As Treg function is associated with a numerical balance between Treg and effector T cells, Foxp3/CD4 ratios were calculated. It appeared that both treatments cause a significant decrease in the presence of Foxp3+ cells. However, in patients that were treated with CBD ointment, we observed lower Foxp3/CD4 ratios after 8 weeks of treatment compared to baseline (t = 0: 0.41 ± 0.08; t = 8: 0.22 ± 0.04, P = 0.033), whereas in patients who were treated with adalimumab we observed an increase of the Foxp3/CD4 ratios after 1.5 and 16 weeks of treatment compared to baseline (t = 0: 0.25 ± 0.04; t = 1.5: 0.32 ± 0.06; t = 16: 0.49 ± 0.10, P = 0.15). Based on Foxp3/CD4 ratios, we can conclude that adalimumab treated skin differs from CBD treated skin with regard to the anti-inflammatory/inflammatory balance. We suggest that, in contrast to CBD ointment, adalimumab favours local Treg function in the skin. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Calcipotriol plus betamethasone dipropionate aerosol foam provides superior efficacy vs. gel in patients with psoriasis vulgaris: randomized, controlled PSO-ABLE study.

    PubMed

    Paul, C; Stein Gold, L; Cambazard, F; Kalb, R E; Lowson, D; Bang, B; Griffiths, C E M

    2017-01-01

    Fixed combination calcipotriol 50 μg/g (Cal) plus betamethasone 0.5 mg/g (BD) foam has been developed as a new treatment option for patients with psoriasis. The randomized, parallel-group, investigator-blinded Phase III, 12-week PSO-ABLE study compared the efficacy and safety of Cal/BD foam with Cal/BD gel. Patients aged ≥18 years with mild-to-severe psoriasis were randomized 4:4:1:1 to once-daily Cal/BD foam, Cal/BD gel, foam vehicle or gel vehicle (NCT02132936). The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients who were clear/almost clear with a ≥ 2 grade improvement according to the physician's global assessment of disease severity (i.e. treatment success) at week 4 for Cal/BD foam vs. week 8 for Cal/BD gel. Secondary efficacy endpoints included: proportion of patients achieving at least a 75% reduction in modified psoriasis area and severity index (mPASI75), and time to treatment success (TTTS). Safety was monitored throughout. A total of 463 patients were randomized: Cal/BD foam (n = 185), Cal/BD gel (n = 188), foam vehicle (n = 47), gel vehicle (n = 43); overall completion rate was 90%. Cal/BD foam achieved higher treatment success rates (38% vs. 22%; P < 0.001) and mPASI75 (52% vs. 35%; P < 0.001) by week 4 than Cal/BD gel by week 8. Median TTTS with Cal/BD foam was 6 weeks; this could not be determined for Cal/BD gel as 50% treatment success was not achieved (P < 0.001). Adverse drug reactions were reported in 14 (7.6%) Cal/BD aerosol foam patients and 7 (3.7%) Cal/BD gel patients; all were single events except for itch with Cal/BD aerosol foam (n = 5; 2.7%) and worsening psoriasis with Cal/BD gel (n = 3; 1.6%). Cal/BD aerosol foam showed significantly greater efficacy after 4 weeks, than 8 weeks of treatment with Cal/BD gel, with similar tolerability. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  14. NASA/ESMD Analogue Mission Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation exploring Earth and its analogues is shown. The topics include: 1) ESMD Goals for the Use of Earth Analogues; 2) Stakeholders Summary; 3) Issues with Current Analogue Situation; 4) Current state of Analogues; 5) External Implementation Plan (Second Step); 6) Recent Progress in Utilizing Analogues; 7) Website Layout Example-Home Page; 8) Website Layout Example-Analogue Site; 9) Website Layout Example-Analogue Mission; 10) Objectives of ARDIG Analog Initiatives; 11) Future Plans; 12) Example: Cold-Trap Sample Return; 13) Example: Site Characterization Matrix; 14) Integrated Analogue Studies-Prerequisites for Human Exploration; and 15) Rating Scale Definitions.

  15. Monochromatic excimer light versus combination of topical steroid with vitamin D3 analogue in the treatment of nonsegmental vitiligo: a randomized blinded comparative study.

    PubMed

    Abdel Latif, Azmy Ahmed; Ibrahim, Shady Mahmoud Attia

    2015-01-01

    Vitiligo is a difficult disease to treat, socially stigmatizing its patients. Monochromatic excimer light (MEL) was developed for use in dermatology and adapted for the treatment of vitiligo. Comparing the efficacy of MEL versus topical combination therapy of vitamin D3 analogue and steroid in the treatment of nonsegmental vitiligo. Forty-four patients with localized and stable nonsegmental vitiligo participated in the present study. In each patient, two lesions were selected and divided randomly into two groups, group A was treated with daily topical combination of calcipotriol and betamethasone and group B was treated with biweekly sessions of MEL for 3 months. Efficacy based on repigmentation percentages were blindly evaluated by two independent physicians and patient's satisfaction. There was significant improvement in both treatment modalities at the end of the study, but without significant differences in both groups. There was a significant difference between both groups regarding the onset of repigmentation (p-value < 0.05), whereas group B showed early sign of repigmentation in first 4 weeks of treatment in 16 patients versus 7 patients in group A. Both treatment modalities offered encouraging results and both are promising lines for the treatment of vitiligo.

  16. Analogue peptides for the immunotherapy of human acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Susanne; Mead, Andrew; Malinovskis, Aleksandrs; Hardwick, Nicola R; Guinn, Barbara-Ann

    2015-11-01

    The use of peptide vaccines, enhanced by adjuvants, has shown some efficacy in clinical trials. However, responses are often short-lived and rarely induce notable memory responses. The reason is that self-antigens have already been presented to the immune system as the tumor develops, leading to tolerance or some degree of host tumor cell destruction. To try to break tolerance against self-antigens, one of the methods employed has been to modify peptides at the anchor residues to enhance their ability to bind major histocompatibility complex molecules, extending their exposure to the T-cell receptor. These modified or analogue peptides have been investigated as stimulators of the immune system in patients with different cancers with variable but sometimes notable success. In this review we describe the background and recent developments in the use of analogue peptides for the immunotherapy of acute myeloid leukemia describing knowledge useful for the application of analogue peptide treatments for other malignancies.

  17. Fluorescent analogues of methotrexate: characterization and interaction with dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A A; Kempton, R J; Anstead, G M; Freisheim, J H

    1983-01-18

    The dansylated derivatives of lysine and ornithine analogues of methotrexate exhibit fluorescence properties characteristic of the dansyl moiety with an excitation at 328 nm and an emission maximum at 580 nm in aqueous media. As in the case of dansyl amino acids, the fluorescence emission is dependent upon the polarity of the medium. In solvents of low dielectric constant there is an enhancement of the dansyl fluorescence intensity as well as a shift to shorter wavelengths. The dansylated analogues show a reduction in the quantum yields as compared to N epsilon-dansyl-L-lysine and 5-(N,N-dimethylamino)-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid. The absorption spectra of the two dansyl analogues are similar to the spectra of the parent basic amino acid precursors but with reduced molar extinction values. The two fluorescent analogues of methotrexate were found to be potent inhibitors of purified dihydrofolate reductases from Lactobacillus casei and from chicken liver. The binding of these fluorescent analogues to either dihydrofolate reductase resulted in 10-15-nm blue shift of the ligand emission maxima and a 2-5-fold enhancement of the emission. These fluorescent properties of the bound ligands indicate a possible interaction of the dansyl moiety with a region on the enzyme molecule which is more hydrophobic relative to the surrounding solvent.

  18. PTH analogues and osteoporotic fractures.

    PubMed

    Verhaar, Harald J J; Lems, Willem F

    2010-09-01

    At present there are two parathyroid hormone (PTH) analogues (PTH 1 - 34 and PTH 1 - 84) registered for the treatment of established osteoporosis in postmenopausal women (PTH 1 - 34 and PTH 1 - 84) and in men (PTH 1 - 34 only) who are at increased risk of having a fracture. The efficacy and safety of PTH 1 - 34 and PTH 1 - 84 in the management of osteoporosis is evaluated by reviewing published literature and presentations from scientific meetings through to 2010. This review focuses on data on fracture risk reduction and safety endpoints of PTH analogues. The adverse reactions reported most are nausea, pain in the extremities, headache and dizziness. Exogenous PTH analogues, given as daily subcutaneous injections, stimulate bone formation, increase bone mass and bone strength, and improve calcium balance. In postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, PTH analogues reduced the risk of vertebral (PTH 1 - 34 and PTH 1 - 84) and non-vertebral fractures (only PTH 1 - 34). In men and women with glucocorticosteroid-induced osteoporosis, PTH 1 - 34 reduced the risk of vertebral fractures. In general, PTH analogues are well tolerated with an acceptable safety profile: they can be used for the prevention and treatment of fractures in postmenopausal women with severe, established osteoporosis.

  19. 2-Substitution of adenine nucleotide analogues containing a bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane ring system locked in a northern conformation: enhanced potency as P2Y1 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak Sung; Ohno, Michihiro; Xu, Bin; Kim, Hea Ok; Choi, Yongseok; Ji, Xiao D; Maddileti, Savitri; Marquez, Victor E; Harden, T Kendall; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2003-11-06

    Preference for the northern (N) ring conformation of the ribose moiety of adenine nucleotide 3',5'-bisphosphate antagonists of P2Y(1) receptors was established by using a ring-constrained methanocarba (a bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane) ring as a ribose substitute (Nandanan et al. J. Med. Chem. 2000, 43, 829-842). We have now combined the ring-constrained (N)-methanocarba modification with other functionalities at the 2-position of the adenine moiety. A new synthetic route to this series of bisphosphate derivatives was introduced, consisting of phosphorylation of the pseudoribose moiety prior to coupling with the adenine base. The activity of the newly synthesized analogues was determined by measuring antagonism of 2-methylthio-ADP-stimulated phospholipase C (PLC) activity in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells expressing the recombinant human P2Y(1) receptor and by using the radiolabeled antagonist [(3)H]2-chloro-N(6)-methyl-(N)-methanocarba-2'-deoxyadenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate 5 in a newly developed binding assay in Sf9 cell membranes. Within the series of 2-halo analogues, the most potent molecule at the hP2Y(1) receptor was an (N)-methanocarba N(6)-methyl-2-iodo analogue 12, which displayed a K(i) value in competition for binding of [(3)H]5 of 0.79 nM and a K(B) value of 1.74 nM for inhibition of PLC. Thus, 12 is the most potent antagonist selective for the P2Y(1) receptor yet reported. The 2-iodo group was substituted with trimethyltin, thus providing a parallel synthetic route for the introduction of an iodo group in this high-affinity antagonist. The (N)-methanocarba-2-methylthio, 2-methylseleno, 2-hexyl, 2-(1-hexenyl), and 2-(1-hexynyl) analogues bound less well, exhibiting micromolar affinity at P2Y(1) receptors. An enzymatic method of synthesis of the 3',5'-bisphosphate from the corresponding 3'-monophosphate, suitable for the preparation of a radiophosphorylated analogue, was explored.

  20. Pressor effects of tryptamine analogues.

    PubMed Central

    Bosin, T R; Hixson, E J; Maickel, R P

    1976-01-01

    1. Methylation of tryptamine in the 1-position had little effect on the potency of the drug as a pressor agent in the intact anaesthetized rat. 2. In contrast, substitution of a benzo[b]thiophene ring system for the indole ring decreased the pressor activity. 3. Pretreatment of the animals with reserpine reduced the pressor effect of tryptamine and its benzo[b]thiophene analogue while increasing the effect of the 1-methylindole analogue. 4. Pretreatment with phenoxybenzamine reduced the pressor effect of all three compounds. PMID:1252662

  1. Fetal bovine serum influences the stability and bioactivity of resveratrol analogues: A polyphenol-protein interaction approach.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fen; Xie, Yixi; Cao, Hui; Yang, Hua; Chen, Xiaoqing; Xiao, Jianbo

    2017-03-15

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is a universal growth supplement of cell and tissue culture media. Herein, the influences of FBS on the stability and antioxidant activity of 21 resveratrol analogues were investigated using a polyphenol-protein interaction approach. The structure-stability relationships of resveratrol analogues in FBS showed a clear decrease in the stability of hydroxylated resveratrol analogues in the order: resorcinol-type>pyrogallol-type>catechol-type. The glycosylation and methoxylation of resveratrol analogues enhanced their stability. A linear relationship between the stability of resveratrol analogues in FBS and the affinity of resveratrol analogues-FBS interaction was found. The oxidation process is not the only factor governing the stability of resveratrol analogues in FBS. These results facilitated the insightful investigation of the role of polyphenol-protein interactions in serum, thereby providing some fundamental clues for future clinical research and pharmacological studies on natural small molecules.

  2. Self-Powered Analogue Smart Skin.

    PubMed

    Shi, Mayue; Zhang, Jinxin; Chen, Haotian; Han, Mengdi; Shankaregowda, Smitha A; Su, Zongming; Meng, Bo; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Haixia

    2016-04-26

    The progress of smart skin technology presents unprecedented opportunities for artificial intelligence. Resolution enhancement and energy conservation are critical to improve the perception and standby time of robots. Here, we present a self-powered analogue smart skin for detecting contact location and velocity of the object, based on a single-electrode contact electrification effect and planar electrostatic induction. Using an analogue localizing method, the resolution of this two-dimensional smart skin can be achieved at 1.9 mm with only four terminals, which notably decreases the terminal number of smart skins. The sensitivity of this smart skin is remarkable, which can even perceive the perturbation of a honey bee. Meanwhile, benefiting from the triboelectric mechanism, extra power supply is unnecessary for this smart skin. Therefore, it solves the problems of batteries and connecting wires for smart skins. With microstructured poly(dimethylsiloxane) films and silver nanowire electrodes, it can be covered on the skin with transparency, flexibility, and high sensitivity.

  3. Efficacy of a fixed combination of calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate topical gel in adult patients with mild to moderate psoriasis: blinded interim analysis of a phase IV, multicenter, randomized, controlled, prospective study.

    PubMed

    Reich, K; Zschocke, I; Bachelez, H; de Jong, E M G J; Gisondi, P; Puig, L; Warren, R B; Mrowietz, U

    2015-06-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic, inflammatory skin disease with the majority of individuals having limited disease, treated with topical medication. However, special attributes of topical treatments like galenic/cosmetic properties or an inconvenient treatment schedule may result in low preference for topical treatments. Hence, there is strong medical need for a topical medication, which is highly efficacious, easy-to-use and preferred by both physicians and patients. Blinded interim analysis with the purpose to assess efficacy of (both from the physician's and patient's perspective) and the patients' preference with a highly efficacious and easy-to-use fixed combination of calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate topical gel after 8 weeks of once daily treatment in a large patient population. In this phase IV, international, multicentre, randomized, controlled, prospective, parallel group study, adult patients with active, mild to moderate psoriasis despite previous topical psoriasis treatment, i.e. unsuccessful in the 8 weeks preceding study participation, are followed over 64 weeks. During the first 8 weeks the patients apply their medication once a day followed by a 56-weeks maintenance period according to SmPC. Blinded interim analysis of all patients included demographics, Physician's Global Assessment, the novel Patient's self Global Assessment (PsGA) and Patient Preference Questionnaire (PPQ). 1795 patients were analysed. At week 8, 36.5% of the physicians rated the patients' psoriasis as clear/almost clear. Similarly, based on the patients' self-assessment, 34.2% had a clear/almost clear score of PsGA in week 8. Analysis of the PPQ showed that the vast majority of the patients judged their 8-week treatment to be preferable compared with their previous treatments. Results of this blinded interim analysis indicate that the fixed combination of calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate gel is highly efficacious and preferred by the majority of analysed patients

  4. Neuronal Analogues of Conditioning Paradigms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-24

    Although the mechanisms of interneuronal communication have been well established, the changes underlying most forms of learning have thus far eluded...stimulating electrodes on one of the connectives was adjusted so as to produce a small excitatory postsynaptic potential ( EPSP ) in the impaled cell...two stimuli would constitute a neuronal analogue of conditioning by producing an increased EPSP in response to the test stimulus alone. If so, then

  5. Desferrithiocin Analogue Uranium Decorporation Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Raymond J.; Wiegand, Jan; Singh, Shailendra

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Previous systematic structure-activity studies of the desferrithiocin (DFT) platform have allowed the design and synthesis of analogues and derivatives of DFT that retain the exceptional iron-clearing activity of the parent, while eliminating its adverse effects. We hypothesized that a similar approach could be adopted to identify DFT-related analogues that could effectively decorporate uranium. Materials and Methods The decorporation properties of nine DFT-related analogues were determined in a bile duct-cannulated rat model. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) served as a positive control. Selected ligands also underwent multiple and delayed dosing regimens. Uranium excretion in urine and bile or stool was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS); tissue levels of uranium were also assessed. Results The two best clinical candidates are (S)-4,5-dihydro-2-[2-hydroxy-4-(3,6,9-trioxadecyloxy)phenyl]-4-methyl-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid [(S)-4'-(HO)-DADFT-PE (9)], with a 57% reduction in kidney uranium levels on oral (p.o.) administration and (S)-4,5-dihydro-2-[2-hydroxy-3-(3,6,9-trioxadecyloxy)phenyl]-4-methyl-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid [(S)-3'-(HO)-DADFT-PE (10)], with a 62% renal reduction on p.o. administration. The majority of the metal excretion promoted by these analogues is in the bile, thus further reducing kidney actinide exposure. Conclusions While 9 administered p.o. or subcutaneously (s.c.) immediately post-metal is an effective decorporation agent, withholding the dose (s.c.) until 4 h reduced the activity of the compound. Conversion of 9 to its isopropyl ester may circumvent this issue. PMID:19399680

  6. Substrate analogues for isoprenoid enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Stremler, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    Diphosphonate analogues of geranyl diphosphate, resistant to degradation by phosphatases, were found to be alternate substrates for the reaction with farnesyl diphosphate synthetase isolated from avian liver. The difluoromethane analogue was shown to be the better alternate substrate, in agreement with solvolysis results which indicate that the electronegativity of the difluoromethylene unit more closely approximates that of the normal bridging oxygen. The usefulness of the C/sub 10/ difluoro analogue, for detecting low levels of isoprenoid enzymes in the presence of high levels of phosphatase activity, was demonstrated with a cell-free preparation from lemon peel. A series of C/sub 5/ through C/sub 15/ homoallylic and allylic diphosphonates, as well as two 5'-nucleotide diphosphonates, was prepared in high overall yield using the activation-displacement sequence. Radiolabeled samples of several of the allylic diphosphonates were prepared with tritium located at C1. A series of geraniols, stereospecifically deuterated at C1, was prepared. The enantiomeric purities and absolute configurations were determined by derivatization as the mandelate esters for analysis by /sup 1/H NMR. The stereochemistry of the activation-displacement sequence was examined using C1-deuterated substrates.

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of heterocyclic analogues of bromoxynil.

    PubMed

    Cutulle, Matthew A; Armel, Gregory R; Brosnan, James T; Best, Michael D; Kopsell, Dean A; Bruce, Barry D; Bostic, Heidi E; Layton, Donovan S

    2014-01-15

    to have a different weed control spectrum compared to bromoxynil. A pyridine analogue of bromoxynil synthesized in this research controlled several weed species greater than bromoxynil itself, potentially due to enhanced binding within the PSII binding pocket. Future research should compare this analogue to bromoxynil using optimized formulations at higher application rates.

  8. Vitamin D analogues: Potential use in cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Michael J; Murray, Alyson; Synnott, Naoise C; O'Donovan, Norma; Crown, John

    2017-04-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the thyroid-steroid family of nuclear transcription factors. Following binding of the active form of vitamin D, i.e., 1,25(OH)2D3 (also known as calcitriol) and interaction with co-activators and co-repressors, VDR regulates the expression of several different genes. Although relatively little work has been carried out on VDR in human cancers, several epidemiological studies suggest that low circulating levels of vitamin D are associated with both an increased risk of developing specific cancer types and poor outcome in patients with specific diagnosed cancers. These associations apply especially in colorectal and breast cancer. Consistent with these findings, calcitriol as well as several of its synthetic analogues have been shown to inhibit tumor cell growth in vitro and in diverse animal model systems. Indeed, some of these vitamin D analogues with low calcemic inducing activity (e.g., EB1089, inecalcitol, paricalcitol) have progressed to clinical trials in patients with cancer. Preliminary results from these trials suggest that these vitamin D analogues have minimal toxicity, but clear evidence of efficacy remains to be shown. Although evidence of efficacy for mono-treatment with vitamin D analogues is currently lacking, several studies have reported that supplementation with calcitriol or the presence of high endogenous circulating levels of vitamin D enhances response to standard therapies.

  9. Choline Analogues in Malaria Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Peyrottes, Suzanne; Caldarelli, Sergio; Wein, Sharon; Périgaud, Christian; Pellet, Alain; Vial, Henri

    2012-01-01

    Emerging resistance against well-established anti-malaria drugs warrants the introduction of new therapeutic agents with original mechanisms of action. Inhibition of membrane-based phospholipid biosynthesis, which is crucial for the parasite, has thus been proposed as a novel and promising therapeutic strategy. This review compiles literature concerning the design and study of choline analogues and related cation derivatives as potential anti-malarials. It covers advances achieved over the last two decades and describes: the concept validation, the design and selection of a clinical candidate (Albitiazolium), back-up derivatives while also providing insight into the development of prodrug approaches. PMID:22607139

  10. Ecstasy analogues found in cacti.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Jan G; El-Seedi, Hesham R; Stephanson, Nikolai; Beck, Olof; Shulgin, Alexander T

    2008-06-01

    Human interest in psychoactive phenethylamines is known from the use of mescaline-containing cacti and designer drugs such as Ecstasy. From the alkaloid composition of cacti we hypothesized that substances resembling Ecstasy might occur naturally. In this article we show that lophophine, homopiperonylamine and lobivine are new minor constituents of two cactus species, Lophophora williamsii (peyote) and Trichocereus pachanoi (San Pedro). This is the first report of putatively psychoactive phenethylamines besides mescaline in these cacti. A search for further biosynthetic analogues may provide new insights into the structure-activity relationships of mescaline. An intriguing question is whether the new natural compounds can be called "designer drugs."

  11. FUNCTION GENERATOR FOR ANALOGUE COMPUTERS

    DOEpatents

    Skramstad, H.K.; Wright, J.H.; Taback, L.

    1961-12-12

    An improved analogue computer is designed which can be used to determine the final ground position of radioactive fallout particles in an atomic cloud. The computer determines the fallout pattern on the basis of known wind velocity and direction at various altitudes, and intensity of radioactivity in the mushroom cloud as a function of particle size and initial height in the cloud. The output is then displayed on a cathode-ray tube so that the average or total luminance of the tube screen at any point represents the intensity of radioactive fallout at the geographical location represented by that point. (AEC)

  12. Template polymerization of nucleotide analogues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orgel, L. E.

    1991-01-01

    Recent work on the template-directed reactions of the natural D-nucleotides has made it clear that l-nucleotides and nucleotide-like derivatives of other sugars would strongly inhibit the formation of long oligonucleotides. Consequently, attention is focusing on molecules simpler than nucleotides that might have acted as monomers of an information transfer system. We have begun a general exploration of the template directed reactions of diverse peptide analogues. I will present work by Dr. Taifeng Wu on oxidative oligomerization of phosphorothioates and of Dr. Mary Tohidi on the cyclic polymerization of nucleoside and related cyclic pyrophosphates.

  13. Systematic investigation of ion suppression and enhancement effects of fourteen stable-isotope-labeled internal standards by their native analogues using atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization and electrospray ionization and the relevance for multi-analyte liquid chromatographic/mass spectrometric procedures.

    PubMed

    Remane, Daniela; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2010-04-15

    In clinical and forensic toxicology, multi-analyte procedures are very useful to quantify drugs and poisons of different classes in one run. For liquid chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS/MS) multi-analyte procedures, often only a limited number of stable-isotope-labeled internal standards (SIL-ISs) are available. If an SIL-IS is used for quantification of other analytes, it must be excluded that the co-eluting native analyte influences its ionization. Therefore, the effect of ion suppression and enhancement of fourteen SIL-ISs caused by their native analogues has been studied. It could be shown that the native analyte concentration influenced the extent of ion suppression and enhancement effects leading to more suppression with increasing analyte concentration especially when electrospray ionization (ESI) was used. Using atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI), methanolic solution showed mainly enhancement effects, whereas no ion suppression and enhancement effect, with one exception, occurred when plasma extracts were used under these conditions. Such differences were not observed using ESI. With ESI, eleven SIL-ISs showed relevant suppression effects, but only one analyte showed suppression effects when APCI was used. The presented study showed that ion suppression and enhancement tests using matrix-based samples of different sources are essential for the selection of ISs, particularly if used for several analytes to avoid incorrect quantification. In conclusion, only SIL-ISs should be selected for which no suppression and enhancement effects can be observed. If not enough ISs are free of ionization interferences, a different ionization technique should be considered.

  14. The Valles natural analogue project

    SciTech Connect

    Stockman, H.; Krumhansl, J.; Ho, C.; McConnell, V.

    1994-12-01

    The contact between an obsidian flow and a steep-walled tuff canyon was examined as an analogue for a highlevel waste repository. The analogue site is located in the Valles Caldera in New Mexico, where a massive obsidian flow filled a paleocanyon in the Battleship Rock tuff. The obsidian flow provided a heat source, analogous to waste panels or an igneous intrusion in a repository, and caused evaporation and migration of water. The tuff and obsidian samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and mineralogy by INAA, XRF, X-ray diffraction; and scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe. Samples were also analyzed for D/H and {sup 39}Ar/{sup 4O} isotopic composition. Overall,the effects of the heating event seem to have been slight and limited to the tuff nearest the contact. There is some evidence of devitrification and migration of volatiles in the tuff within 10 meters of the contact, but variations in major and trace element chemistry are small and difficult to distinguish from the natural (pre-heating) variability of the rocks.

  15. Heteroatom-Containing Porphyrin Analogues.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Tamal; Shetti, Vijayendra S; Sharma, Ritambhara; Ravikanth, Mangalampalli

    2017-02-22

    The heteroatom-containing porphyrin analogues or core-modified porphyrins that resulted from the replacement of one or two pyrrole rings with other five-membered heterocycles such as furan, thiophene, selenophene, tellurophene, indene, phosphole, and silole are highly promising macrocycles and exhibit quite different physicochemical properties compared to regular azaporphyrins. The properties of heteroporphyrins depend on the nature and number of different heterocycle(s) present in place of pyrrole ring(s). The heteroporphyrins provide unique and unprecedented coordination environments for metals. Unlike regular porphyrins, the monoheteroporphyrins are known to stabilize metals in unusual oxidation states such as Cu and Ni in +1 oxidation states. The diheteroporphyrins, which are neutral macrocycles without ionizable protons, also showed interesting coordination chemistry. Thus, significant progress has been made in last few decades on core-modified porphyrins in terms of their synthesis, their use in building multiporphyrin arrays for light-harvesting applications, their use as ligands to form interesting metal complexes, and also their use for several other studies. The synthetic methods available in the literature allow one to prepare mono- and diheteroporphyrins and their functionalized derivatives, which were used extensively to prepare several covalent and noncovalent heteroporphyrin-based multiporphyrin arrays. The methods are also developed to synthesize different hetero analogues of porphyrin derivatives such as heterocorroles, heterochlorins, heterocarbaporphyrinoids, heteroatom-substituted confused porphyrins, and so on. This Review summarizes the key developments that have occurred in heteroporphyrin chemistry over the last four decades.

  16. Cysteine analogues potentiate glucose-induced insulin release in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ammon, H.P.; Hehl, K.H.; Enz, G.; Setiadi-Ranti, A.; Verspohl, E.J.

    1986-12-01

    In rat pancreatic islets, cysteine analogues, including glutathione, acetylcysteine, cysteamine, D-penicillamine, L-cysteine ethyl ester, and cysteine-potentiated glucose (11.1 mM) induced insulin secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. Their maximal effects were similar and occurred at approximately 0.05, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.0 mM, respectively. At substimulatory glucose levels (2.8 mM), insulin release was not affected by these compounds. In contrast, thiol compounds, structurally different from cysteine and its analogues, such as mesna, tiopronin, meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), dimercaprol (BAL), beta-thio-D-glucose, as well as those cysteine analogues that lack a free-thiol group, including L-cystine, cystamine, D-penicillamine disulfide, S-carbocysteine, and S-carbamoyl-L-cysteine, did not enhance insulin release at stimulatory glucose levels (11.1 mM); cystine (5 mM) was inhibitory. These in vitro data indicate that among the thiols tested here, only cysteine and its analogues potentiate glucose-induced insulin secretion, whereas thiols that are structurally not related to cysteine do not. This suggests that a cysteine moiety in the molecule is necessary for the insulinotropic effect. For their synergistic action to glucose, the availability of a sulfhydryl group is also a prerequisite. The maximal synergistic action is similar for all cysteine analogues tested, whereas the potency of action is different, suggesting similarity in the mechanism of action but differences in the affinity to the secretory system.

  17. Integration of inherent and induced chirality into subphthalocyanine analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Luyang; Qi, Dongdong; Wang, Kang; Wang, Tianyu; Han, Bing; Tang, Zhiyong; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2016-06-01

    Conventional conjugated systems are characteristic of only either inherent or induced chirality because of synthetic challenge in combination of chiral segment into the main chromophore. In this work, chiral binaphthyl segment is directly fused into the central chromophore of a subphthalocyanine skeleton, resulting in a novel type of chiral subphthalocyanine analogue (R/S)-1 of integrated inherent and induced chirality. Impressively, an obviously enhanced optical activity is discerned for (R/S)-1 molecules, and corresponding enhancement mechanism is elucidated in detail. The synthesis strategy based on rational molecular design will open the door towards fabrication of chiral materials with giant optical activity, which will have great potential in chiroptical devices.

  18. Retro-1 Analogues Differentially Affect Oligonucleotide Delivery and Toxin Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing; Ming, Xin; Abdelkafi, Hajer; Pons, Valerie; Michau, Aurelien; Gillet, Daniel; Cintrat, Jean-Christophe; Barbier, Julien; Juliano, Rudy

    2016-11-21

    Retro-1 is a small molecule that displays two important biological activities: First, it blocks the actions of certain toxins by altering their intracellular trafficking. Second, it enhances the activity of oligonucleotides by releasing them from entrapment in endosomes. This raises the question of whether the two actions involve the same cellular target. Herein we report the effects of several Retro-1 analogues on both toxins and oligonucleotides. We found analogues that affect toxins but not oligonucleotides and vice-versa, while Retro-1 is the only compound that affects both. This indicates that the molecular target(s) involved in the two processes are distinct. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. AaeAP1 and AaeAP2: novel antimicrobial peptides from the venom of the scorpion, Androctonus aeneas: structural characterisation, molecular cloning of biosynthetic precursor-encoding cDNAs and engineering of analogues with enhanced antimicrobial and anticancer activities.

    PubMed

    Du, Qiang; Hou, Xiaojuan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yingqi; Xi, Xinping; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Mei; Duan, Jinao; Wei, Minjie; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2015-01-23

    The main functions of the abundant polypeptide toxins present in scorpion venoms are the debilitation of arthropod prey or defence against predators. These effects are achieved mainly through the blocking of an array of ion channel types within the membranes of excitable cells. However, while these ion channel-blocking toxins are tightly-folded by multiple disulphide bridges between cysteine residues, there are additional groups of peptides in the venoms that are devoid of cysteine residues. These non-disulphide bridged peptides are the subject of much research interest, and among these are peptides that exhibit antimicrobial activity. Here, we describe two novel non-disulphide-bridged antimicrobial peptides that are present in the venom of the North African scorpion, Androctonus aeneas. The cDNAs encoding the biosynthetic precursors of both peptides were cloned from a venom-derived cDNA library using 3'- and 5'-RACE strategies. Both translated precursors contained open-reading frames of 74 amino acid residues, each encoding one copy of a putative novel nonadecapeptide, whose primary structures were FLFSLIPSVIAGLVSAIRN and FLFSLIPSAIAGLVSAIRN, respectively. Both peptides were C-terminally amidated. Synthetic versions of each natural peptide displayed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities, but were devoid of antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines. However, synthetic analogues of each peptide, engineered for enhanced cationicity and amphipathicity, exhibited increases in antimicrobial potency and acquired antiproliferative activity against a range of human cancer cell lines. These data clearly illustrate the potential that natural peptide templates provide towards the design of synthetic analogues for therapeutic exploitation.

  20. AaeAP1 and AaeAP2: Novel Antimicrobial Peptides from the Venom of the Scorpion, Androctonus aeneas: Structural Characterisation, Molecular Cloning of Biosynthetic Precursor-Encoding cDNAs and Engineering of Analogues with Enhanced Antimicrobial and Anticancer Activities

    PubMed Central

    Du, Qiang; Hou, Xiaojuan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yingqi; Xi, Xinping; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Mei; Duan, Jinao; Wei, Minjie; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The main functions of the abundant polypeptide toxins present in scorpion venoms are the debilitation of arthropod prey or defence against predators. These effects are achieved mainly through the blocking of an array of ion channel types within the membranes of excitable cells. However, while these ion channel-blocking toxins are tightly-folded by multiple disulphide bridges between cysteine residues, there are additional groups of peptides in the venoms that are devoid of cysteine residues. These non-disulphide bridged peptides are the subject of much research interest, and among these are peptides that exhibit antimicrobial activity. Here, we describe two novel non-disulphide-bridged antimicrobial peptides that are present in the venom of the North African scorpion, Androctonus aeneas. The cDNAs encoding the biosynthetic precursors of both peptides were cloned from a venom-derived cDNA library using 3'- and 5'-RACE strategies. Both translated precursors contained open-reading frames of 74 amino acid residues, each encoding one copy of a putative novel nonadecapeptide, whose primary structures were FLFSLIPSVIAGLVSAIRN and FLFSLIPSAIAGLVSAIRN, respectively. Both peptides were C-terminally amidated. Synthetic versions of each natural peptide displayed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities, but were devoid of antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines. However, synthetic analogues of each peptide, engineered for enhanced cationicity and amphipathicity, exhibited increases in antimicrobial potency and acquired antiproliferative activity against a range of human cancer cell lines. These data clearly illustrate the potential that natural peptide templates provide towards the design of synthetic analogues for therapeutic exploitation. PMID:25626077

  1. A Topical Treatment Optimization Programme (TTOP) improves clinical outcome for calcipotriol/betamethasone gel in psoriasis: results of a 64-week multinational randomized phase IV study in 1790 patients (PSO-TOP).

    PubMed

    Reich, K; Zschocke, I; Bachelez, H; de Jong, E M G J; Gisondi, P; Puig, L; Warren, R B; Ortland, C; Mrowietz, U

    2017-07-01

    Around two-thirds of patients with psoriasis do not adhere to topical treatment. The Topical Treatment Optimization Programme (TTOP), a five-element tool, includes guidance for the conversation between dermatologists/nurses and patients, patient information material, telephone/e-mail helpdesks and treatment reminders. It has been developed by patients and dermatologists to help increase adherence to treatment in psoriasis. To compare TTOP with standard of care ('non-TTOP') within a large European investigator-initiated study, PSO-TOP (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01587755). Patients with mild-to-moderate psoriasis received calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate gel as standardized study medication and were randomized 1 : 1 to either TTOP or non-TTOP management. Study medication was applied once daily for 8 weeks followed by 'as needed' application for an additional 56 weeks. Response was defined as a Physician's Global Assessment (PGA) of 'clear' or 'almost clear'. In 1790 patients (full analysis set), response rates after 8 weeks (primary objective) were significantly higher for TTOP (36·3%) than for non-TTOP (31·3%, P = 0·0267). Better clinical outcome was accompanied by higher rates of patients feeling well informed about their skin condition, treatment and other factors related to adherence, but the Dermatology Life Quality Index was not statistically different. TTOP patients regarded the structured one-to-one conversations with their dermatologist/nurse as the most important element of TTOP. Patients randomized to the TTOP intervention had a better clinical response than patients receiving standard of care. Improved communication between the healthcare provider and patient might be an important element in increasing adherence to topical therapy in psoriasis. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. CO2 Capture with Enzyme Synthetic Analogue

    SciTech Connect

    Cordatos, Harry

    2010-11-08

    Overview of an ongoing, 2 year research project partially funded by APRA-E to create a novel, synthetic analogue of carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it into a membrane for removal of CO2 from flue gas in coal power plants. Mechanism background, preliminary feasibility study results, molecular modeling of analogue-CO2 interaction, and program timeline are provided.

  3. Macrolactam analogues of macrolide natural products.

    PubMed

    Hügel, Helmut M; Smith, Andrew T; Rizzacasa, Mark A

    2016-12-07

    The chemical modification of macrolide natural products into aza- or lactam analogues is a strategy employed to improve their metabolic stability and biological activity. The methods for the synthesis of several lactam analogues of macrolide natural products are highlighted and aspects of their biological properties presented.

  4. Fully analogue photonic reservoir computer.

    PubMed

    Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Akrout, Akram; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2016-03-03

    Introduced a decade ago, reservoir computing is an efficient approach for signal processing. State of the art capabilities have already been demonstrated with both computer simulations and physical implementations. If photonic reservoir computing appears to be promising a solution for ultrafast nontrivial computing, all the implementations presented up to now require digital pre or post processing, which prevents them from exploiting their full potential, in particular in terms of processing speed. We address here the possibility to get rid simultaneously of both digital pre and post processing. The standalone fully analogue reservoir computer resulting from our endeavour is compared to previous experiments and only exhibits rather limited degradation of performances. Our experiment constitutes a proof of concept for standalone physical reservoir computers.

  5. Fully analogue photonic reservoir computer

    PubMed Central

    Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Akrout, Akram; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Introduced a decade ago, reservoir computing is an efficient approach for signal processing. State of the art capabilities have already been demonstrated with both computer simulations and physical implementations. If photonic reservoir computing appears to be promising a solution for ultrafast nontrivial computing, all the implementations presented up to now require digital pre or post processing, which prevents them from exploiting their full potential, in particular in terms of processing speed. We address here the possibility to get rid simultaneously of both digital pre and post processing. The standalone fully analogue reservoir computer resulting from our endeavour is compared to previous experiments and only exhibits rather limited degradation of performances. Our experiment constitutes a proof of concept for standalone physical reservoir computers. PMID:26935166

  6. Continuous analogues of matrix factorizations

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Alex; Trefethen, Lloyd N.

    2015-01-01

    Analogues of singular value decomposition (SVD), QR, LU and Cholesky factorizations are presented for problems in which the usual discrete matrix is replaced by a ‘quasimatrix’, continuous in one dimension, or a ‘cmatrix’, continuous in both dimensions. Two challenges arise: the generalization of the notions of triangular structure and row and column pivoting to continuous variables (required in all cases except the SVD, and far from obvious), and the convergence of the infinite series that define the cmatrix factorizations. Our generalizations of triangularity and pivoting are based on a new notion of a ‘triangular quasimatrix’. Concerning convergence of the series, we prove theorems asserting convergence provided the functions involved are sufficiently smooth. PMID:25568618

  7. The future of somatostatin analogue therapy.

    PubMed

    Stewart, P M; James, R A

    1999-10-01

    Since its discovery almost 30 years ago, the mode of action and therapeutic applications of somatostatin have been defined. In particular the cloning and characterization of somatostatin receptor subtypes has facilitated the development of high affinity analogues. In the context of pituitary disease, long-acting somatostatin analogues (octreotide, lanreotide) have been used to treat a variety of pituitary tumours but are most efficacious for the treatment of GH and TSH-secreting adenomas. In patients with acromegaly, depot preparations of these analogues are administered intramuscularly every 10-28 days and provide consistent suppression of GH levels to < 5 mU/l in approximately 50-65% of all cases. Even more specific somatostatin receptor analogues are under development. Finally, radiolabelled somatostatin analogue scintigraphy and, in larger doses, therapy, are now established tools in the evaluation and treatment of neuroendocrine tumours.

  8. Antinociceptive activity of glycosidic enkephalin analogues.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, R E; Rodríguez, F D; Sacristán, M P; Torres, J L; Reig, F; García Antón, J M; Valencia, G

    1990-01-01

    The antinociceptive activity of two new enkephalin analogues: N1.5-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)[D-Met2, Pro5]enkephalinamide and N1.5-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)[D-Met2, Pro5]enkephalinamide was assessed using the tail immersion and paw pressure behavioural tests. Both enkephalin analogues appear to be more active than morphine when injected either into the fourth ventricle or intrathecally; the galactose analogue is more than 5000 times more active than morphine when injected into the fourth ventricle. The analgesic effects produced by the analogues are partially reversed by SC naloxone (0.1 mg/kg) and totally reversed when the dose of naloxone used was 1 mg/kg, suggesting that the analogues act upon more than one type of opiate receptor (mu/delta).

  9. Identification of a new tadalafil analogue in commercial dietary supplements: isopropylnortadalafil.

    PubMed

    Park, Han Na; Lee, Ji Hyun; Park, Sung-Kwan; Lee, Jongkook; Baek, Sun Young

    2017-02-01

    A new tadalafil analogue was found in a commercial dietary supplement for enhancing sexual performance. The compound was detected by a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The analogue was isolated using semi-preparative HPLC, and its accurate mass was established by two LC-high-resolution-mass spectrometers (LC-HRMS). The structure was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The accurate mass of the compound corresponded to a molecular formula of C24H23N3O4. The compound was identified as a structural analogue of tadalafil in which the N-methyl group of tadalafil was replaced with an N-isopropyl group. We have named the new analogue isopropylnortadalafil and it is first reported herein.

  10. Synthesis and Structure Revision of Dimeric Tadalafil Analogue Adulterants in Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Mandava, Suresh; Ganganna, Bogonda; Hwang, Jungjoong; Jang, Younchang; Hwang, Jiho; Samala, Mallesham; Kim, Ki-Bbeum; Park, Haeil; Lee, Ji Hyun; Baek, Sun Young; Lee, Jongkook

    2017-01-01

    A number of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors approved by authorities have been used successfully in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. These medicines must be prescribed carefully due to their adverse effects, but they and their analogues are being illegally added to dietary supplements. These illegal dietary supplements pose a significant risk to public health. Several dimeric tadalafil analogues have been synthesized for use as reference standards in the inspection of functional foods that are mainly advertised as sexual enhancement products. During the course of this synthesis, 1-[bis(dimethylamino)methylene]-1H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-b]pyridinium 3-oxid hexafluorophosphate (HATU) was proven to be the reagent of choice for amide coupling to produce these dimeric tadalafil analogues. Moreover, the trans-isomer structures tentatively assigned for the isolated dimeric tadalafil analogues (bisprehomotadalafil and bisprecyclopentyltadalafil) found in dietary supplements are now revised to cis-isomer structures.

  11. Synthesis and antioxidant activity of peptide-based ebselen analogues.

    PubMed

    Satheeshkumar, Kandhan; Mugesh, Govindasamy

    2011-04-18

    A series of di- and tripeptide-based ebselen analogues has been synthesized. The compounds were characterized by (1)H, (13)C, and (77)Se NMR spectroscopy and mass spectral techniques. The glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-like antioxidant activity has been studied by using H(2)O(2) , tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBuOOH), and cumene hydroperoxide (Cum-OOH) as substrates, and glutathione (GSH) as a cosubstrate. Although all the peptide-based compounds have a selenazole ring similar to that of ebselen, the GPx activity of these compounds highly depends on the nature of the peptide moiety attached to the nitrogen atom of the selenazole ring. It was observed that the introduction of a phenylalanine (Phe) amino acid residue in the N-terminal reduces the activity in all three peroxide systems. On the other hand, the introduction of aliphatic amino acid residues such as valine (Val) significantly enhances the GPx activity of the ebselen analogues. The difference in the catalytic activity of dipeptide-based ebselen derivatives can be ascribed mainly to the change in the reactivity of these compounds toward GSH and peroxide. Although the presence of the Val-Ala-CO(2) Me moiety facilitates the formation of a catalytically active selenol species, the reaction of ebselen analogues that has a Phe-Ile-CO(2) Me residue with GSH does not generate the corresponding selenol. To understand the antioxidant activity of the peptide-based ebselen analogues in the absence of GSH, these compounds were studied for their ability to inhibit peroxynitrite (PN)-mediated nitration of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123. In contrast to the GPx activity, the PN-scavenging activity of the Phe-based peptide analogues was found to be comparable to that of the Val-based compounds. However, the introduction of an additional Phe residue to the ebselen analogue that had a Val-Ala dipeptide significantly reduced the potency of the parent compound in PN-mediated nitration.

  12. Plant Volatile Analogues Strengthen Attractiveness to Insect

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yufeng; Yu, Hao; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Pickett, John A.; Wu, Kongming

    2014-01-01

    Green leaf bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) is one of the major pests in agriculture. Management of A. lucorum was largely achieved by using pesticides. However, the increasing population of A. lucorum since growing Bt cotton widely and the increased awareness of ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety makes their population-control very challenging. Therefore this study was conducted to explore a novel ecological approach, synthetic plant volatile analogues, to manage the pest. Here, plant volatile analogues were first designed and synthesized by combining the bioactive components of β-ionone and benzaldehyde. The stabilities of β-ionone, benzaldehyde and analogue 3 g were tested. The electroantennogram (EAG) responses of A. lucorum adult antennae to the analogues were recorded. And the behavior assay and filed experiment were also conducted. In this study, thirteen analogues were acquired. The analogue 3 g was demonstrated to be more stable than β-ionone and benzaldehyde in the environment. Many of the analogues elicited EAG responses, and the EAG response values to 3 g remained unchanged during seven-day period. 3 g was also demonstrated to be attractive to A. lucorum adults in the laboratory behavior experiment and in the field. Its attractiveness persisted longer than β-ionone and benzaldehyde. This indicated that 3 g can strengthen attractiveness to insect and has potential as an attractant. Our results suggest that synthetic plant volatile analogues can strengthen attractiveness to insect. This is the first published study about synthetic plant volatile analogues that have the potential to be used in pest control. Our results will support a new ecological approach to pest control and it will be helpful to ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety. PMID:24911460

  13. Noble gas encapsulation: clathrate hydrates and their HF doped analogues.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Sukanta; Chattaraj, Pratim Kumar

    2014-09-07

    The significance of clathrate hydrates lies in their ability to encapsulate a vast range of inert gases. Although the natural abundance of a few noble gases (Kr and Xe) is poor their hydrates are generally abundant. It has already been reported that HF doping enhances the stability of hydrogen hydrates and methane hydrates, which prompted us to perform a model study on helium, neon and argon hydrates with their HF doped analogues. For this purpose 5(12), 5(12)6(8) and their HF doped analogues are taken as the model clathrate hydrates, which are among the building blocks of sI, sII and sH types of clathrate hydrate crystals. We use the dispersion corrected and gradient corrected hybrid density functional theory for the calculation of thermodynamic parameters as well as conceptual density functional theory based reactivity descriptors. The method of the ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulation is used through atom centered density matrix propagation (ADMP) techniques to envisage the structural behaviour of different noble gas hydrates on a 500 fs timescale. Electron density analysis is carried out to understand the nature of Ng-OH2, Ng-FH and Ng-Ng interactions. The current results noticeably demonstrate that the noble gas (He, Ne, and Ar) encapsulation ability of 5(12), 5(12)6(8) and their HF doped analogues is thermodynamically favourable.

  14. Stereochemical Assignment of Strigolactone Analogues Confirms Their Selective Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Artuso, Emma; Ghibaudi, Elena; Lace, Beatrice; Marabello, Domenica; Vinciguerra, Daniele; Lombardi, Chiara; Koltai, Hinanit; Kapulnik, Yoram; Novero, Mara; Occhiato, Ernesto G; Scarpi, Dina; Parisotto, Stefano; Deagostino, Annamaria; Venturello, Paolo; Mayzlish-Gati, Einav; Bier, Ariel; Prandi, Cristina

    2015-11-25

    Strigolactones (SLs) are new plant hormones with various developmental functions. They are also soil signaling chemicals that are required for establishing beneficial mycorrhizal plant/fungus symbiosis. In addition, SLs play an essential role in inducing seed germination in root-parasitic weeds, which are one of the seven most serious biological threats to food security. There are around 20 natural SLs that are produced by plants in very low quantities. Therefore, most of the knowledge on SL signal transduction and associated molecular events is based on the application of synthetic analogues. Stereochemistry plays a crucial role in the structure-activity relationship of SLs, as compounds with an unnatural D-ring configuration may induce biological effects that are unrelated to SLs. We have synthesized a series of strigolactone analogues, whose absolute configuration has been elucidated and related with their biological activity, thus confirming the high specificity of the response. Analogues bearing the R-configured butenolide moiety showed enhanced biological activity, which highlights the importance of this stereochemical motif.

  15. Space analogue studies in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugg, D.; Shepanek, M.

    1999-01-01

    Medical research has been carried out on the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) for 50 years. As an extension of this program collaborative Australian/United States research on immunology, microbiology, psychology and remote medicine has produced important data and insight on how humans adapt to the stress of extreme isolation, confinement and the harsh environment of Antarctica. An outstanding analogue for the isolation and confinement of space missions (especially planetary outposts), ANARE has been used as an international research platform by Australia and the United States since 1993. Collaborative research has demonstrated a lowered responsiveness of the immune system under the isolation and confinement of Antarctic winter-over; a reduction of almost 50% in T cell proliferation to mitogen phytohaemogglutinin, as well as changes in latent herpesvirus states and the expansion of the polyclonal latent Epstein-Barr virus infected B cell populations. Although no clinically significant disease has been found to result from these immune changes, research is currently assessing the effects of psychological factors on the immune system. This and associated research performed to date and its relevance to both organisations is discussed, and comment made on possible extensions to the program in both medical and other fields.

  16. Space analogue studies in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Lugg, D; Shepanek, M

    1999-01-01

    Medical research has been carried out on the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) for 50 years. As an extension of this program collaborative Australian/United States research on immunology, microbiology, psychology and remote medicine has produced important data and insight on how humans adapt to the stress of extreme isolation, confinement and the harsh environment of Antarctica. An outstanding analogue for the isolation and confinement of space missions (especially planetary outposts), ANARE has been used as an international research platform by Australia and the United States since 1993. Collaborative research has demonstrated a lowered responsiveness of the immune system under the isolation and confinement of Antarctic winter-over; a reduction of almost 50% in T cell proliferation to mitogen phytohaemogglutinin, as well as changes in latent herpesvirus states and the expansion of the polyclonal latent Epstein-Barr virus infected B cell populations. Although no clinically significant disease has been found to result from these immune changes, research is currently assessing the effects of psychological factors on the immune system. This and associated research performed to date and its relevance to both organisations is discussed, and comment made on possible extensions to the program in both medical and other fields.

  17. Space analogue studies in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugg, D.; Shepanek, M.

    1999-01-01

    Medical research has been carried out on the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) for 50 years. As an extension of this program collaborative Australian/United States research on immunology, microbiology, psychology and remote medicine has produced important data and insight on how humans adapt to the stress of extreme isolation, confinement and the harsh environment of Antarctica. An outstanding analogue for the isolation and confinement of space missions (especially planetary outposts), ANARE has been used as an international research platform by Australia and the United States since 1993. Collaborative research has demonstrated a lowered responsiveness of the immune system under the isolation and confinement of Antarctic winter-over; a reduction of almost 50% in T cell proliferation to mitogen phytohaemogglutinin, as well as changes in latent herpesvirus states and the expansion of the polyclonal latent Epstein-Barr virus infected B cell populations. Although no clinically significant disease has been found to result from these immune changes, research is currently assessing the effects of psychological factors on the immune system. This and associated research performed to date and its relevance to both organisations is discussed, and comment made on possible extensions to the program in both medical and other fields.

  18. Condensed matter analogues of cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibble, Tom; Srivastava, Ajit

    2013-10-01

    It is always exciting when developments in one branch of physics turn out to have relevance in a quite different branch. It would be hard to find two branches farther apart in terms of energy scales than early-universe cosmology and low-temperature condensed matter physics. Nevertheless ideas about the formation of topological defects during rapid phase transitions that originated in the context of the very early universe have proved remarkably fruitful when applied to a variety of condensed matter systems. The mathematical frameworks for describing these systems can be very similar. This interconnection has led to a deeper understanding of the phenomena in condensed matter systems utilizing ideas from cosmology. At the same time, one can view these condensed matter analogues as providing, at least in a limited sense, experimental access to the phenomena of the early universe for which no direct probe is possible. As this special issue well illustrates, this remains a dynamic and exciting field. The basic idea is that when a system goes through a rapid symmetry-breaking phase transition from a symmetric phase into one with spontaneously broken symmetry, the order parameter may make different choices in different regions, creating domains that when they meet can trap defects. The scale of those domains, and hence the density of defects, is constrained by the rate at which the system goes through the transition and the speed with which order parameter information propagates. This is what has come to be known as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The resultant scaling laws have now been tested in a considerable variety of different systems. The earliest experiments illustrating the analogy between cosmology and condensed matter were in liquid crystals, in particular on the isotropic-to-nematic transition, primarily because it is very easy to induce the phase transition (typically at room temperature) and to image precisely what is going on. This field remains one of the

  19. Space analogue studies in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugg, D.; Shepanek, M.

    1999-09-01

    Medical research has been carried out on the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) for 50 years. As an extension of this program collaborative Australian/United States research on immunology, microbiology, psychology and remote medicine has produced important data and insight on how humans adapt to the stress of extreme isolation, confinement and the harsh environment of Antarctica. An outstanding analogue for the isolation and confinement of space missions (especially planetary outposts), ANARE has been used as an international research platform by Australia and the United States since 1993. Collaborative research has demonstrated a lowered responsiveness of the immune system under the isolation and confinement of Antarctic winter-over; a reduction of almost 50% in T cell proliferation to mltogen phytohaemogglutinin, as well as changes in latent herpesvirus states and the expansion of the polyclonal latent Epstein-Barr virus infected B cell populations. Although no clinically significant disease has been found to result from these immune changes, research is currently assessing the effects of psychological factors on the immune system. This and associated research performed to date and its relevance to both organisations is discussed, and comment made on possible extensions to the program in both medical and other fields.

  20. Using fuzzy sets for data interpretation in natural analogue studies

    SciTech Connect

    De Lemos, F.L.; Sullivan, T.; Hellmuth, K.H.

    2008-07-01

    Natural analogue studies can play a key role in deep geological radioactive disposal systems safety assessment. These studies can help develop a better understanding of complex natural processes and, therefore, provide valuable means of confidence building in the safety assessment. In evaluation of natural analogues, there are, however, several sources of uncertainties that stem from factors such as complexity; lack of data; and ignorance. Often, analysts have to simplify the mathematical models in order to cope with the various sources of complexity and this ads uncertainty to the model results. The uncertainties reflected in model predictions must be addressed to understand their impact on safety assessment and therefore, the utility of natural analogues. Fuzzy sets can be used to represent the information regarding the natural processes and their mutual connections. With this methodology we are able to quantify and propagate the epistemic uncertainties in both processes and, thereby, assign degrees of truth to the similarities between them. An example calculation with literature data is provided. In conclusion: Fuzzy sets are an effective way of quantifying semi-quantitative information such as natural analogues data. Epistemic uncertainty that stems from complexity and lack of knowledge regarding natural processes are represented by the degrees of membership. It also facilitates the propagation of this uncertainty throughout the performance assessment by the extension principle. This principle allows calculation with fuzzy numbers, where fuzzy input results in fuzzy output. This may be one of the main applications of fuzzy sets theory to radioactive waste disposal facility performance assessment. Through the translation of natural data into fuzzy numbers, the effect of parameters in important processes in one site can be quantified and compared to processes in other sites with different conditions. The approach presented in this paper can be extended to

  1. OptZyme: Computational Enzyme Redesign Using Transition State Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Grisewood, Matthew J.; Gifford, Nathanael P.; Pantazes, Robert J.; Li, Ye; Cirino, Patrick C.; Janik, Michael J.; Maranas, Costas D.

    2013-01-01

    OptZyme is a new computational procedure for designing improved enzymatic activity (i.e., kcat or kcat/KM) with a novel substrate. The key concept is to use transition state analogue compounds, which are known for many reactions, as proxies for the typically unknown transition state structures. Mutations that minimize the interaction energy of the enzyme with its transition state analogue, rather than with its substrate, are identified that lower the transition state formation energy barrier. Using Escherichia coli β-glucuronidase as a benchmark system, we confirm that KM correlates (R2 = 0.960) with the computed interaction energy between the enzyme and the para-nitrophenyl- β, D-glucuronide substrate, kcat/KM correlates (R2 = 0.864) with the interaction energy of the transition state analogue, 1,5-glucarolactone, and kcat correlates (R2 = 0.854) with a weighted combination of interaction energies with the substrate and transition state analogue. OptZyme is subsequently used to identify mutants with improved KM, kcat, and kcat/KM for a new substrate, para-nitrophenyl- β, D-galactoside. Differences between the three libraries reveal structural differences that underpin improving KM, kcat, or kcat/KM. Mutants predicted to enhance the activity for para-nitrophenyl- β, D-galactoside directly or indirectly create hydrogen bonds with the altered sugar ring conformation or its substituents, namely H162S, L361G, W549R, and N550S. PMID:24116038

  2. Analogue gravity models from conformal rescaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossenfelder, Sabine; Zingg, Tobias

    2017-08-01

    Analogue gravity is based on a mathematical identity between quantum field theory in curved space-time and the propagation of perturbations in certain condensed matter systems. But not every curved space-time can be simulated in such a way. For analogue gravity to work, one needs not only a condensed matter system that generates the desired metric tensor, but this system then also has to obey its own equations of motion. However, the relation to the metric tensor usually overdetermines the equations of the underlying condensed matter system, such that they in general cannot be fulfilled. In this case the desired metric does not have an analogue. Here, we show that the class of metrics that have an analogue is larger than previously thought. The reason is that the analogue metric is only defined up to a choice of parametrization of the perturbation in the underlying condensed matter system. In this way, the class of analogue gravity models can be vastly expanded.

  3. Experiential acceptance and trait-mindfulness as predictors of analogue post-traumatic stress.

    PubMed

    Boelen, Paul A; Lenferink, Lonneke I M

    2017-07-14

    Experiential acceptance and trait-mindfulness are associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after traumatic events. This study was a preliminary attempt to examine (1) associations of experiential acceptance and trait-mindfulness with post-traumatic stress (PTS) associated with negative, but not necessarily traumatizing, life events ('analogue' PTS), (2) the role of these variables in the context of neuroticism as well as worry and rumination - two other regulatory strategies associated with PTS, and (3) the impact of pre-trauma tendencies towards experiential acceptance and mindfulness on analogue PTS. Data were obtained from two distinct student samples. A first sample provided cross-sectional data. In a second sample, indices of acceptance, mindfulness, neuroticism, worry, and rumination were tapped at inclusion into the study, and analogue PTS and confrontation with stressful life events were subsequently assessed 1 year later. In the cross-sectional sample, higher acceptance and mindfulness were associated with lower analogue PTS, even when controlling for neuroticism, worry, and rumination. In the prospective sample, pre-trauma mindfulness (but not experiential acceptance, neuroticism, worry, and rumination) assessed at baseline predicted levels of analogue PTS 1 year later. Findings suggest that experiential acceptance and trait-mindfulness are incrementally related to PTS beyond neuroticism, worry, and rumination and that pre-trauma trait-mindfulness may be a resilience factor protecting against severe PTS. We examined associations of experiential acceptance and trait-mindfulness with post-traumatic stress (PTS) associated with negative life events ('analogue' PTS). Experiential acceptance and trait-mindfulness were associated with concurrent analogue PTS, over and above neuroticism, worry, and rumination. Pre-trauma trait-mindfulness (but not pre-trauma experiential acceptance) significantly predicted analogue PTS in prospective analyses

  4. Betamethasone valerate dressing is non-inferior to calcipotriol-betamethasone dipropionate ointment in the treatment of patients with mild-to-moderate chronic plaque psoriasis: results of a randomized assessor-blinded multicentre trial.

    PubMed

    Ortonne, J-P; Esposito, M; Chimenti, S; Kapińska-Mrowiecka, M; Grodzińska, A; Naldi, L; Frangione, V

    2014-09-01

    A ready-to-use betamethasone valerate 0.1% (BMV) dressing was found to be superior to placebo dressing and a reference 0.1% BMV cream in the treatment of patients with chronic plaque psoriasis (CPP). This multicentre, prospective, randomized, investigator-blinded, controlled, non-inferiority trial compared the efficacy and safety of the BMV dressing to the calcipotriol-betamethasone dipropionate (CBD) ointment during a 4-week treatment of patients with mild to moderate CPP. The primary efficacy endpoint was the 4-item psoriasis total severity score (TSS-4) at week 4, and the associated non-inferiority margin was 1 point. Secondary outcome measures included the psoriasis global assessment (PGA) score and patients' quality of life (QoL). Safety was assessed through adverse events (AE) reporting in each treatment group. Of 325 screened patients, 324 were randomized to BMV (N = 165) or CBD (N = 159), and were considered evaluable for the safety and intention-to-treat (ITT) efficacy analyses. Per protocol (PP) populations included 133 and 131 patients in the BMV and CBD groups respectively. The mean adjusted TSS-4 significantly decreased through the study from baseline in both groups. The PP (primary) analysis of week 4 data revealed a -0.288 (95% CI: -0.610 to 0.034) not significant between-group difference in adjusted means, demonstrating non-inferiority of BMV to CBD. Non-inferiority was also demonstrated in the ITT analysis. The PGA and other secondary outcomes were significantly improved from baseline in both groups at week 4. The QoL score was slightly better in the CBD group at week 4, but no difference was observed at follow-up. No safety or tolerability concerns were observed in either group. BMV dressing is non-inferior to CBD ointment in patients with mild to moderate CPP. Both treatments significantly improve patients' psoriasis and QoL. © 2013 Laboratoires Genevrier/IBSA Institut Biochimique SA (Switzerland). Journal of the European Academy of

  5. Real-life effectiveness of once-daily calcipotriol and betamethasone dipropionate gel vs. ointment formulations in psoriasis vulgaris: final analysis of the 52-week PRO-long study.

    PubMed

    Lambert, J; Hol, C W; Vink, J

    2015-12-01

    Topical therapies are the mainstay of treatment for psoriasis vulgaris. The fixed combination of calcipotriol (Cal) 50 μg/g plus betamethasone 0.5 mg/g (as dipropionate; BD) is a first-line topical treatment and available as a gel or ointment. The use of these fixed combination products was compared in PRO-long, a long-term noninterventional study, for which interim results (4 and 12 weeks) have previously been reported. To describe and compare patients' perspectives on the fixed combination gel and ointment formulations; to include efficacy, adherence behaviour, treatment satisfaction and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) aspects during long-term real-life psoriasis management. PRO-long was a multicentre, prospective, observational, 52-week study of patients prescribed fixed combination Cal/BD gel or ointment in clinical practice. For final analysis the following were assessed at weeks 24, 36 and 52: differences in the proportion of patients with 'mild'/'very mild' disease according to patient's global assessment of disease severity, adherence behaviour, treatment satisfaction (nine-item treatment satisfaction questionnaire for medication) and HRQoL (Skindex-29). Patients (n = 328) were prescribed once-daily Cal/BD gel (n = 152) or ointment (n = 176). At week 52, a higher proportion of patients reported that the severity of their psoriasis was 'mild'/'very mild' vs. baseline (gel: 60.2 vs. 47.1%; ointment: 58.8 vs. 42.4%), with greater treatment satisfaction reported in patients using gel vs. those using ointment. A higher proportion of patients found the gel 'easy' to use compared with the ointment (66.7 vs. 45.2%). Daily application of treatment took ≤ 5 min for 86.1% of patients using gel and 71.0% of patients using ointment. This real-life study has demonstrated similar effectiveness between the Cal/BD formulations. However, over a 52-week treatment period, patients reported greater treatment satisfaction with the gel, which was considered easier to

  6. Somatostatin Analogues for Receptor Targeted Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kaščáková, Slávka; Hofland, Leo J.; De Bruijn, Henriette S.; Ye, Yunpeng; Achilefu, Samuel; van der Wansem, Katy; van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, Angelique; van Koetsveld, Peter M.; Brugts, Michael P.; van der Lelij, Aart-Jan; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; ten Hagen, Timo L. M.; Robinson, Dominic J.; van Hagen, Martin P.

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an established treatment modality, used mainly for anticancer therapy that relies on the interaction of photosensitizer, light and oxygen. For the treatment of pathologies in certain anatomical sites, improved targeting of the photosensitizer is necessary to prevent damage to healthy tissue. We report on a novel dual approach of targeted PDT (vascular and cellular targeting) utilizing the expression of neuropeptide somatostatin receptor (sst2) on tumor and neovascular-endothelial cells. We synthesized two conjugates containing the somatostatin analogue [Tyr3]-octreotate and Chlorin e6 (Ce6): Ce6-K3-[Tyr3]-octreotate (1) and Ce6-[Tyr3]-octreotate-K3-[Tyr3]-octreotate (2). Investigation of the uptake and photodynamic activity of conjugates in-vitro in human erythroleukemic K562 cells showed that conjugation of [Tyr3]-octreotate with Ce6 in conjugate 1 enhances uptake (by a factor 2) in cells over-expressing sst2 compared to wild-type cells. Co-treatment with excess free Octreotide abrogated the phototoxicity of conjugate 1 indicative of a specific sst2-mediated effect. In contrast conjugate 2 showed no receptor-mediated effect due to its high hydrophobicity. When compared with un-conjugated Ce6, the PDT activity of conjugate 1 was lower. However, it showed higher photostability which may compensate for its lower phototoxicity. Intra-vital fluorescence pharmacokinetic studies of conjugate 1 in rat skin-fold observation chambers transplanted with sst2+ AR42J acinar pancreas tumors showed significantly different uptake profiles compared to free Ce6. Co-treatment with free Octreotide significantly reduced conjugate uptake in tumor tissue (by a factor 4) as well as in the chamber neo-vasculature. These results show that conjugate 1 might have potential as an in-vivo sst2 targeting photosensitizer conjugate. PMID:25111655

  7. Planetary habitability: lessons learned from terrestrial analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Louisa J.; Dartnell, Lewis R.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial analogue studies underpin almost all planetary missions and their use is essential in the exploration of our Solar system and in assessing the habitability of other worlds. Their value relies on the similarity of the analogue to its target, either in terms of their mineralogical or geochemical context, or current physical or chemical environmental conditions. Such analogue sites offer critical ground-truthing for astrobiological studies on the habitability of different environmental parameter sets, the biological mechanisms for survival in extreme environments and the preservation potential and detectability of biosignatures. The 33 analogue sites discussed in this review have been selected on the basis of their congruence to particular extraterrestrial locations. Terrestrial field sites that have been used most often in the literature, as well as some lesser known ones which require greater study, are incorporated to inform on the astrobiological potential of Venus, Mars, Europa, Enceladus and Titan. For example, the possibility of an aerial habitable zone on Venus has been hypothesized based on studies of life at high-altitudes in the terrestrial atmosphere. We also demonstrate why many different terrestrial analogue sites are required to satisfactorily assess the habitability of the changing environmental conditions throughout Martian history, and recommend particular sites for different epochs or potential niches. Finally, habitable zones within the aqueous environments of the icy moons of Europa and Enceladus and potentially in the hydrocarbon lakes of Titan are discussed and suitable analogue sites proposed. It is clear from this review that a number of terrestrial analogue sites can be applied to multiple planetary bodies, thereby increasing their value for astrobiological exploration. For each analogue site considered here, we summarize the pertinent physiochemical environmental features they offer and critically assess the fidelity with which

  8. Glucagonlike Peptide 2 Analogue Teduglutide

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Lakshmi S.; Basson, Marc D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Short bowel syndrome occurs when a shortened intestine cannot absorb sufficient nutrients or fluids. Teduglutide is a recombinant analogue of human glucagonlike peptide 2 that reduces dependence on parenteral nutrition in patients with short bowel syndrome by promoting enterocytic proliferation, increasing the absorptive surface area. However, enterocyte function depends not only on the number of cells that are present but also on differentiated features that facilitate nutrient absorption and digestion. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that teduglutide impairs human intestinal epithelial differentiation. DESIGN AND SETTING We investigated the effects of teduglutide in the modulation of proliferation and differentiation in human Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells at a basic science laboratory. This was an in vitro study using Caco-2 cells, a human-derived intestinal epithelial cell line commonly used to model enterocytic biology. EXPOSURE Cells were exposed to teduglutide or vehicle control. MAINOUTCOMESAND MEASURES We analyzed the cell cycle by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation or propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry and measured cell proliferation by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay. We used quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction to assay the expression of the enterocytic differentiation markers villin, sucrase-isomaltase, glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), as well as that of the putative differentiation signals schlafen 12 (SLFN12) and caudal-related homeobox intestine-specific transcription factor (Cdx2). Villin promoter activity was measured by a luciferase-based assay. RESULTS The MTS assay demonstrated that teduglutide increased cell numbers by a mean (SD) of 10% (2%) over untreated controls at a maximal 500nM (n = 6, P < .05). Teduglutide increased bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells vs untreated controls by a mean (SD

  9. Design, multicomponent synthesis, and bioactivities of novel neonicotinoid analogues with 1,4-dihydropyridine scaffold.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenwen; Yang, Xiaobao; Chen, Weidong; Xu, Xiaoyong; Li, Lu; Zhai, Hongbin; Li, Zhong

    2010-03-10

    Novel neonicotinoid analogues bearing a 1,4-dihydropridine scaffold were designed and synthesized by multicomponent reactions (MCRs) to enhance pi-pi stacking. The synthesized compounds were identified by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, high-resolution mass spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Bioassay tests showed that some of them exhibited high insecticidal activities against pea aphid ( Aphis craccivora ).

  10. Reduced peptide bond pseudopeptide analogues of neurotensin.

    PubMed

    Doulut, S; Rodriguez, M; Lugrin, D; Vecchini, F; Kitabgi, P; Aumelas, A; Martinez, J

    1992-01-01

    Pseudopeptide analogues of the C-terminal hexapeptide of neurotensin (H-Arg-Arg-Pro-Tyr-Ile-Leu-OH) were obtained by replacing each peptide bond by the reduced peptide bond CH2NH. The resulting analogues were then examined for their ability to inhibit binding of labeled neurotensin to new-born mouse brain membranes and for stimulation of guinea pig ileum contraction. Replacement of the Ile12-Leu13, Tyr11-Ile12, Pro10-Tyr11 and Lys9-Pro10 peptide bonds resulted in about 2000-, 3400-, 200- and 3400-fold losses, respectively, in binding affinity and 400-, 750-, 250- and 300-fold losses, respectively, in biological activity. Replacement of both Arg8 and Arg9 by lysine led to an analogue exhibiting the same pharmacological profile as the C-terminal hexapeptide of neurotensin. Interestingly, replacement of the Lys8-Lys9 peptide bond by the CH2NH bond produced an analogue exhibiting the same affinity for neurotensin receptors, but 10 times more potent in stimulating guinea pig ileum contraction. N-terminal protected analogues (by the Boc group) showed decreased potency as compared with their amino-free corresponding compounds.

  11. Analogue Downscaling of Seasonal Rainfall Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, A. N.; Timbal, B.; Hendon, H.

    2010-12-01

    We have taken an existing statistical downscaling model (SDM), based on meteorological analogues that was developed for downscaling climate change projections (Timbal et al 2009), and applied it in the seasonal forecasting context to produce downscaled rainfall hindcasts from a coupled model seasonal forecast system (POAMA). Downscaling of POAMA forecasts is required to provide seasonal climate information at local scales of interest. Analogue downscaling is a simple technique to generate rainfall forecasts appropriate to the local scale by conditioning on the large scale predicted GCM circulation and the local topography and climate. Analogue methods are flexible and have been shown to produce good results when downscaling 20th century South Eastern Australian rainfall output from climate models. A set of re-forecasts for three month rainfall at 170 observing stations in the South Murray Darling region of Australia were generated using predictors from the POAMA re-forecasts as input for the analogue SDM. The predictors were optimised over a number of different GCMS in previous climate change downscaling studies. Downscaling with the analogue SDM results in predicted rainfall with realistic variance while maintaining the modest predictive skill of the dynamical model. Evaluation of the consistency between the large scale mean of downscaled and direct GCM output precipitation is encouraging.

  12. On the mechanical analogue of DNA.

    PubMed

    Yakushevich, Ludmila

    2017-03-01

    The creation of mechanical analogues of biological systems is known as a useful instrument that helps to understand better the dynamical mechanisms of the functioning of living organisms. Mechanical analogues of biomolecules are usually constructed for imitation of their internal mobility, which is one of the most important properties of the molecules. Among the different types of internal motions, angular oscillations of nitrous bases are of special interest because they make a substantial contribution to the base pairs opening that in turn is an important element of the process of the DNA-protein recognition. In this paper, we investigate the possibility to construct a mechanical analogue for imitation of angular oscillations of nitrous bases in inhomogeneous DNA. It is shown that the analogue has the form of a mechanical chain of non-identical pendulums that oscillate in the gravitational field of the Earth and coupled by identical springs. The masses and lengths of pendulums, as well as the distances between neighboring pendulums and the rigidity of springs are calculated. To illustrate the approach, we present the result of construction of the mechanical analogue of the fragment of the sequence of bacteriophage T7D.

  13. Integration of inherent and induced chirality into subphthalocyanine analogue

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Luyang; Qi, Dongdong; Wang, Kang; Wang, Tianyu; Han, Bing; Tang, Zhiyong; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2016-01-01

    Conventional conjugated systems are characteristic of only either inherent or induced chirality because of synthetic challenge in combination of chiral segment into the main chromophore. In this work, chiral binaphthyl segment is directly fused into the central chromophore of a subphthalocyanine skeleton, resulting in a novel type of chiral subphthalocyanine analogue (R/S)-1 of integrated inherent and induced chirality. Impressively, an obviously enhanced optical activity is discerned for (R/S)-1 molecules, and corresponding enhancement mechanism is elucidated in detail. The synthesis strategy based on rational molecular design will open the door towards fabrication of chiral materials with giant optical activity, which will have great potential in chiroptical devices. PMID:27294871

  14. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of bambuterol analogues as novel inhibitors of butyrylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Tian, Yiguang; Wang, Shanping; Pistolozzi, Marco; Jin, Ya; Zhou, Ting; Roy, Gaurab; Xu, Ling; Tan, Wen

    2017-01-27

    An increase activity of butyrylcholinesterase is believed to contribute to Alzheimer's disease. Bambuterol is a known potent inhibitor of butyrylcholinesterase, but it has undesired cardiac effects and less lipophilicity. Thirteen bambuterol analogues were synthesized using 1-(3, 5-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanone as a starting material. In-vitro cholinesterase assay established that the majority of the compounds are specific butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors. Out of the 13 compounds, two bambuterol derivatives, BD-6 and BD-11 exhibited similar efficacies in inhibiting butyrylcholinesterase with fewer effects on heart and enhanced possibilities of permeating through the blood-brain barrier as compared to bambuterol. These bambuterol analogues may provide better alternatives for treatments of Alzheimer's disease.

  15. Genetic engineering to produce polyketide analogues.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Christopher D; Rodriguez, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Polyketides are pharmaceutically important and structurally diverse natural products. Creating analogues for drug development can be done with chemistry, but this is generally restricted to a few accessible functional groups. Analogues can also be made by genetic engineering, which is particularly effective for polyketides synthesized by a modular polyketide synthase (PKS). Such a PKS displays colinearity, which means that the structural features along the polyketide chain are determined by the catalytic specificities in corresponding modules along a molecular assembly line. The assembly line can be genetically engineered through addition, deletion, or mutation of catalytic domains or the reorganization of whole modules. Chemically synthesized precursors also can be fed to engineered assembly lines to further expand the repertoire of analogues. These various methods are discussed with an aim of providing a guide to the strategies most likely to succeed in a given circumstance. Recent information that could be relevant to future polyketide engineering projects is also discussed.

  16. Synthesis and anticancer evaluation of spermatinamine analogues.

    PubMed

    Moosa, Basem A; Sagar, Sunil; Li, Song; Esau, Luke; Kaur, Mandeep; Khashab, Niveen M

    2016-03-15

    Spermatinamine was isolated from an Australian marine sponge, Pseudoceratina sp. as an inhibitor of isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase (Icmt), an attractive and novel anticancer target. Herein, we report the synthesis of spermatinamine analogues and their cytotoxic evaluation against three human cancer cell lines, that is, cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and prostate carcinoma (DU145). Analogues 12, 14 and 15 were found to be the most potent against one or more cell lines with the IC50 values in the range of 5-10 μM. The obtained results suggested that longer polyamine linker along with aromatic oxime substitution provided the most potent analogue compounds against cancer cell lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antimalarial Properties of Simplified Kalihinol Analogues.

    PubMed

    Daub, Mary Elisabeth; Prudhomme, Jacques; Ben Mamoun, Choukri; Le Roch, Karine G; Vanderwal, Christopher D

    2017-03-09

    Several kalihinol natural products, members of the broader isocyanoterpene family of antimalarial agents, are potent inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum, the agent of the most severe form of human malaria. Our previous total synthesis of kalihinol B provided a blueprint to generate many analogues within this family, some as complex as the natural product and some much simplified and easier to access. Each analogue was tested for blood-stage antimalarial activity using both drug-sensitive and -resistant P. falciparum strains. Many considerably simpler analogues of the kalihinols retained potent activity, as did a compound with a different decalin scaffold made in only three steps from sclareolide. Finally, one representative compound showed reasonable stability toward microsomal metabolism, suggesting that the isonitrile functional group that is critical for activity is not an inherent liability in these compounds.

  18. Insulin analogues: action profiles beyond glycaemic control.

    PubMed

    Eckardt, Kristin; Eckel, Jürgen

    2008-02-01

    A variety of studies have documented significant improvements in the treatment of type 1 and 2 diabetes after the introduction of artificial insulins. This review gives an overview of insulin analogues which are currently approved for therapeutical use. Clinical data regarding the efficiency to control blood glucose level as well as improving HbA1c level in comparison to conventional insulin preparations in type 1 and 2 diabetic patients are summarized. Furthermore, special features of insulin analogues regarding their signalling properties are discussed with focus on the proliferative effects of insulin glargine as well as some recent data of insulin detemir.

  19. Classical Simulated Annealing Using Quantum Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Cour, Brian R.; Troupe, James E.; Mark, Hans M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we consider the use of certain classical analogues to quantum tunneling behavior to improve the performance of simulated annealing on a discrete spin system of the general Ising form. Specifically, we consider the use of multiple simultaneous spin flips at each annealing step as an analogue to quantum spin coherence as well as modifications of the Boltzmann acceptance probability to mimic quantum tunneling. We find that the use of multiple spin flips can indeed be advantageous under certain annealing schedules, but only for long anneal times.

  20. Systematic Evaluation of the Metabolic to Mitogenic Potency Ratio for B10-Substituted Insulin Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Glendorf, Tine; Knudsen, Louise; Stidsen, Carsten E.; Hansen, Bo F.; Hegelund, Anne Charlotte; Sørensen, Anders R.; Nishimura, Erica; Kjeldsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background Insulin analogues comprising acidic amino acid substitutions at position B10 have previously been shown to display increased mitogenic potencies compared to human insulin and the underlying molecular mechanisms have been subject to much scrutiny and debate. However, B10 is still an attractive position for amino acid substitutions given its important role in hexamer formation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between the receptor binding properties as well as the metabolic and mitogenic potencies of a series of insulin analogues with different amino acid substitutions at position B10 and to identify a B10-substituted insulin analogue without an increased mitogenic to metabolic potency ratio. Methodology/Principal Findings A panel of ten singly-substituted B10 insulin analogues with different amino acid side chain characteristics were prepared and insulin receptor (both isoforms) and IGF-I receptor binding affinities using purified receptors, insulin receptor dissociation rates using BHK cells over-expressing the human insulin receptor, metabolic potencies by lipogenesis in isolated rat adipocytes, and mitogenic potencies using two different cell types predominantly expressing either the insulin or the IGF-I receptor were systematically investigated. Only analogues B10D and B10E with significantly increased insulin and IGF-I receptor affinities as well as decreased insulin receptor dissociation rates displayed enhanced mitogenic potencies in both cell types employed. For the remaining analogues with less pronounced changes in receptor affinities and insulin receptor dissociation rates, no apparent correlation between insulin receptor occupancy time and mitogenicity was observed. Conclusions/Significance Several B10-substituted insulin analogues devoid of disproportionate increases in mitogenic compared to metabolic potencies were identified. In the present study, receptor binding affinity rather than insulin receptor off

  1. Synthesis and Evaluation of a Library of Fluorescent Dipeptidomimetic Analogues as Substrates for Modified Bacterial Ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Sandipan Roy; Chauhan, Pradeep S; Dedkova, Larisa M; Bai, Xiaoguang; Chen, Shengxi; Talukder, Poulami; Hecht, Sidney M

    2016-05-03

    Described herein are the synthesis and photophysical characterization of a library of aryl-substituted oxazole- and thiazole-based dipeptidomimetic analogues, and their incorporation into position 66 of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in lieu of the natural fluorophore. These fluorescent analogues resemble the fluorophore formed naturally by GFP. As anticipated, the photophysical properties of the analogues varied as a function of the substituents at the para position of the phenyl ring. The fluorescence emission wavelength maxima of compounds in the library varied from ∼365 nm (near-UV region) to ∼490 nm (visible region). The compounds also exhibited a large range of quantum yields (0.01-0.92). The analogues were used to activate a suppressor tRNACUA and were incorporated into position 66 of GFP using an in vitro protein biosynthesizing system that employed engineered ribosomes selected for their ability to incorporate dipeptides. Four analogues with interesting photophysical properties and reasonable suppression yields were chosen, and the fluorescent proteins (FPs) containing these fluorophores were prepared on a larger scale for more detailed study. When the FPs were compared with the respective aminoacyl-tRNAs and the actual dipeptide analogues, the FPs exhibited significantly enhanced fluorescence intensities at the same concentrations. Part of this was shown to be due to the presence of the fluorophores as an intrinsic element of the protein backbone. There were also characteristic shifts in the emission maxima, indicating the environmental sensitivity of these probes. Acridon-2-ylalanine and oxazole 1a were incorporated into positions 39 and 66 of GFP, respectively, and were shown to form an efficient Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) pair, demonstrating that the analogues can be used as FRET probes.

  2. Reactions of trimethylphosphine analogues of auranofin with bovine serum albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Isab, A.A.; Shaw, C.F. III; Hoeschele, J.D.; Locke, J.

    1988-10-05

    The reactions of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with (trimethylphosphine)(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-1-thio-..beta..-D-glucopyranosato-S)gold(I), Me/sub 3/PAuSAtg, and its chloro analogue, Me/sub 3/PAuCl, were studied to develop insights into the role of the phosphine ligand in the serum chemistry of the related antiarthritic drug auranofin (triethylphosphine)(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-1-thio-..beta..-D-glucopyranosato-S)gold(I). /sup 31/P NMR spectroscopy, protein modification, and gel-exclusion chromatography methods were employed. Comparison of the reactions of the methyl derivatives to the previously reported reactions of auranofin and Et/sub 3/PAuCl with BSA demonstrated that similar chemical species are formed but revealed three major differences. Despite these differences, the results for the methyl analogues provide important confirmation for previously developed chemical models of auranofin reactions in serum. Me/sub 3/PO was not observed in reaction mixtures lacking tetraacetylthioglucose (AtgSH); this result affirms the role of AtgSH, displaced by the reaction of Me/sub 3/PAuSAtg at Cys-34, in the generation of the phosphine oxide (an important metabolite in vivo). The weak binding sites on albumin react with Me/sub 3/PAuCl, but not Me/sub 3/PAuSAtg, demonstrating the importance of the strength and reactivity of the anionic ligand-gold bond on the reactions of auranofin analogues. The gold binding capacity of albumin is enhanced after Me/sub 3/PO is formed, consistent with reductive cleavage of albumin disulfide bonds by trimethylphosphine. 24 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  3. Membrane-Targeting DCAP Analogues with Broad-Spectrum Antibiotic Activity against Pathogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Katherine A; Heinrich, Victoria A; Hershfield, Jeremy R; Demons, Samandra T; Weibel, Douglas B

    2015-04-09

    We performed a structure-activity relationship study of 2-((3-(3,6-dichloro-9H-carbazol-9-yl)-2-hydroxypropyl)amino)-2-(hydroxymethyl)propane-1,3-diol (DCAP), which is an antibacterial agent that disrupts the membrane potential and permeability of bacteria. The stereochemistry of DCAP had no effect on the biological activity of DCAP. The aromaticity and electronegativity of the chlorine-substituted carbazole was required for activity, suggesting that its planar and dipolar characteristics orient DCAP in membranes. Increasing the hydrophobicity of the tail region of DCAP enhanced its antibiotic activity. Two DCAP analogues displayed promising antibacterial activity against the BSL-3 pathogens Bacillus anthracis and Francisella tularensis. Codosing DCAP analogues with ampicillin or kanamycin increased their potency. These studies demonstrate that DCAP and its analogues may be a promising scaffold for developing chemotherapeutic agents that bind to bacterial membranes and kill strains of slow-growing or dormant bacteria that cause persistent infections.

  4. The Structure-Activity Relationship of Glycosaminoglycans and Their Analogues with β-Amyloid Peptide.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiang; Jin, Lan

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a serious neurodegenerative disorder. β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) aggregation is believed to be the major cause of the disease. The process of Aβ aggregation can be enhanced by sulfated glycosaminoglycans. However, cell experiments have shown that sulfated glycosaminoglycan oligosaccharides or analogues may have significant neuroprotective properties and could inhibit the aggregation by competitive inhibition. The length and species of oligosaccharides or analogues can inhibit the toxicity of Aβ by inducing conformational changes of proteins in different manners. This review presents the conformational changes of Aβ in the presence of glycosaminoglycan, glycosaminoglycan oligosaccharides and analogues. The review might be helpful to comprehend the mechanism of β-amyloid fibrillations and the aggregation process.

  5. Isolation and structural elucidation of a new sildenafil analogue from a functional coffee.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Low, Min-Yong; Ge, Xiaowei; Bloodworth, Bosco C; Koh, Hwee-Ling

    2013-05-01

    A sildenafil analogue was detected in a functional coffee sample labelled to have male sexual performance enhancement effects. This analogue was isolated and purified by flash chromatography and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Its structure was elucidated using high-resolution mass spectrometry; electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry; and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. Compared with sildenafil, instead of an N-methylpiperazinyl moiety, ring opening of the piperazine ring with the loss of a carbon atom resulted in a substituted benzenesulfonamide. The chemical name of this analogue is N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-4-ethoxy-3-(1-methyl-7-oxo-3-propyl-6,7-dihydro-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidin-5-yl)benzenesulfonamide. It is named descarbonsildenafil because it has one less carbon atom when compared with sildenafil.

  6. Induction of apoptosis in cholangiocarcinoma by an andrographolide analogue is mediated through topoisomerase II alpha inhibition.

    PubMed

    Nateewattana, Jintapat; Dutta, Suman; Reabroi, Somrudee; Saeeng, Rungnapha; Kasemsook, Sakkasem; Chairoungdua, Arthit; Weerachayaphorn, Jittima; Wongkham, Sopit; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee

    2014-01-15

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), the common primary malignant tumor of bile duct epithelial cells, is unresponsive to most chemotherapeutic drugs. Diagnosis with CCA has a poor prognosis, and therefore urgently requires effective therapeutic agents. In the present study we investigated anti-cancer effects of andrographolide analogue 3A.1 (19-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-8, 17-epoxy andrographolide) and its mechanism in human CCA cell line KKU-M213 derived from a Thai CCA patient. By 24h after exposure, the analogue 3A.1 exhibited a potent cytotoxic effect on KKU-M213 cells with an inhibition concentration 50 (IC50) of approximately 8.0µM. Analogue 3A.1 suppressed DNA topoisomerase II α (Topo II α) protein expression, arrested the cell cycle at sub G0/G1 phase, induced cleavage of DNA repair protein poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases-1 (PARP-1), and enhanced expression of tumor suppressor protein p53 and pro-apoptotic protein Bax. In addition, analogue 3A.1 induced caspase 3 activity and inhibited cyclin D1, CDK6, and COX-2 protein expression. These results suggest that andrographolide analogue 3A.1, a novel topo II inhibitor, has significant potential to be developed as a new anticancer agent for the treatment of CCA.

  7. Iron isotopes in an Archean ocean analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busigny, Vincent; Planavsky, Noah J.; Jézéquel, Didier; Crowe, Sean; Louvat, Pascale; Moureau, Julien; Viollier, Eric; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2014-05-01

    Iron isotopes have been extensively used to trace the history of microbial metabolisms and the redox evolution of the oceans. Archean sedimentary rocks display greater variability in iron isotope ratios and more markedly negative values than those deposited in the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic. This increased variability has been linked to changes in either water column iron cycling or the extent of benthic microbial iron reduction through time. We tested these contrasting scenarios through a detailed study of anoxic and ferruginous Lac Pavin (France), which can serve as a modern analogue of the Archean ocean. A depth-profile in the water column of Lac Pavin shows a remarkable increase in dissolved Fe concentration (0.1-1200 μM) and δ56Fe values (-2.14‰ to +0.31‰) across the oxic-anoxic boundary to the lake bottom. The largest Fe isotope variability is found at the redox boundary and is related to partial oxidation of dissolved ferrous iron, leaving the residual Fe enriched in light isotopes. The analysis of four sediment cores collected along a lateral profile (one in the oxic layer, one at the redox boundary, one in the anoxic zone, and one at the bottom of the lake) indicates that bulk sediments, porewaters, and reactive Fe mostly have δ56Fe values near 0.0 ± 0.2‰, similar to detrital iron. In contrast, pyrite δ56Fe values in sub-chemocline cores (60, 65, and 92 m) are highly variable and show significant deviations from the detrital iron isotope composition (δ56Fepyrite between -1.51‰ and +0.09‰; average -0.93‰). Importantly, the pyrite δ56Fe values mirror the δ56Fe of dissolved iron at the redox boundary—where near quantitative sulfate and sulfide drawdown occurs—suggesting limited iron isotope fractionation during iron sulfide formation. This finding has important implications for the Archean environment. Specifically, this work suggests that in a ferruginous system, most of the Fe isotope variability observed in sedimentary pyrites can

  8. Dumb holes: analogues for black holes.

    PubMed

    Unruh, W G

    2008-08-28

    The use of sonic analogues to black and white holes, called dumb or deaf holes, to understand the particle production by black holes is reviewed. The results suggest that the black hole particle production is a low-frequency and low-wavenumber process.

  9. Differential Client Attractiveness in a Counseling Analogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Carl S.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Investigated variations in conceptual complexity level of counselor and client on counselor attraction to the client. Counselor trainees rated attractiveness of clients following two counseling analogue tasks in which the client was depicted as exhibiting high or low conceptual level. More complex clients are more attractive across both levels.…

  10. CO2 Capture with Enzyme Synthetic Analogue

    SciTech Connect

    Cordatos, Harry

    2010-03-01

    Project overview provides background on carbonic anhydrase transport mechanism for CO2 in the human body and proposed approach for ARPA-E project to create a synthetic enzyme analogue and utilize it in a membrane for CO2 capture from flue gas.

  11. Solanapyrone analogues from a Hawaiian fungicolous fungus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four new solanayrone analogues (solanapyrones J-M; 1-4) have been isolated from an unidentified fungicolous fungus collected in Hawaii. The structures and relative configurations of these compounds were determined by analysis of ID NMR, 2D NMR, and MS data. Solanapyrone J(1) showed antifungal acti...

  12. Analoguing Creativity & Culture: A Method for Metaphors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Timothy N.

    Adding to the benefits of using metaphors as tools, "analoguing" (a method of analysis that focuses on metaphors for meanings in use and meanings of metaphors in use) helps avoid excessive categorization and separation by looking for unities and patterns in phenomena rather than for divisions. Six months of observation of patterns of…

  13. [Dmt(1)]DALDA analogues modified with tyrosine analogues at position 1.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yunxin; Lu, Dandan; Chen, Zhen; Ding, Yi; Chung, Nga N; Li, Tingyou; Schiller, Peter W

    2016-08-01

    Analogues of [Dmt(1)]DALDA (H-Dmt-d-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2; Dmt=2',6'-dimethyltyrosine), a potent μ opioid agonist peptide with mitochondria-targeted antioxidant activity were prepared by replacing Dmt with various 2',6'-dialkylated Tyr analogues, including 2',4',6'-trimethyltyrosine (Tmt), 2'-ethyl-6'-methyltyrosine (Emt), 2'-isopropyl-6'-methyltyrosine (Imt) and 2',6'-diethyltyrosine (Det). All compounds were selective μ opioid agonists and the Tmt(1)-, Emt(1) and Det(1)-analogues showed subnanomolar μ opioid receptor binding affinities. The Tmt(1)- and Emt(1)-analogues showed improved antioxidant activity compared to the Dmt(1)-parent peptide in the DPPH radical-scavenging capacity assay, and thus are of interest as drug candidates for neuropathic pain treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel lunar bed rest analogue.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Peter R; Rice, Andrea J; Licata, Angelo A; Kuklis, Matthew M; Novotny, Sara C; Genc, Kerim O; Englehaupt, Ricki K; Hanson, Andrea M

    2013-11-01

    Humans will eventually return to the Moon and thus there is a need for a ground-based analogue to enable the study of physiological adaptations to lunar gravity. An important unanswered question is whether or not living on the lunar surface will provide adequate loading of the musculoskeletal system to prevent or attenuate the bone loss that is seen in microgravity. Previous simulations have involved tilting subjects to an approximately 9.5 degrees angle to achieve a lunar gravity component parallel to the long-axis of the body. However, subjects in these earlier simulations were not weight-bearing, and thus these protocols did not provide an analogue for load on the musculoskeletal system. We present a novel analogue which includes the capability to simulate standing and sitting in a lunar loading environment. A bed oriented at a 9.5 degrees angle was mounted on six linear bearings and was free to travel with one degree of freedom along rails. This allowed approximately 1/6 body weight loading of the feet during standing. "Lunar" sitting was also successfully simulated. A feasibility study demonstrated that the analogue was tolerated by subjects for 6 d of continuous bed rest and that the reaction forces at the feet during periods of standing were a reasonable simulation of lunar standing. During the 6 d, mean change in the volume of the quadriceps muscles was -1.6% +/- 1.7%. The proposed analogue would appear to be an acceptable simulation of lunar gravity and deserves further exploration in studies of longer duration.

  15. Analogue VLSI for probabilistic networks and spike-time computation.

    PubMed

    Murray, A

    2001-02-01

    The history and some of the methods of analogue neural VLSI are described. The strengths of analogue techniques are described, along with residual problems to be solved. The nature of hardware-friendly and hardware-appropriate algorithms is reviewed and suggestions are offered as to where analogue neural VLSI's future lies.

  16. Tryptophan analogues. 1. Synthesis and antihypertensive activity of positional isomers.

    PubMed

    Safdy, M E; Kurchacova, E; Schut, R N; Vidrio, H; Hong, E

    1982-06-01

    A series of tryptophan analogues having the carboxyl function at the beta-position was synthesized and tested for antihypertensive activity. The 5-methoxy analogue 46 exhibited antihypertensive activity in the rat via the oral route and was much more potent than the normal tryptophan analogue. The methyl ester was found to be a critical structural feature for activity.

  17. Synthesis and cytotoxicity properties of amiodarone analogues.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Laurent; Spirli, Carlo; Fiorotto, Romina; Pettenazzo, Andrea; Duner, Elena; Baritussio, Aldo; Follath, Ferenc; Ha, Huy Riem

    2007-06-01

    Amiodarone (AMI) is a potent antiarrhythmic agent; however, its clinical use is limited due to numerous side effects. In order to investigate the structure--cytotoxicity relationship, AMI analogues were synthesized, and then, using rabbit alveolar macrophages, were tested for viability and for the ability to interfere with the degradation of surfactant protein A (SP-A) and with the accumulation of an acidotropic dye. Our data revealed that modification of the diethylamino-beta-ethoxy group of the AMI molecule may affect viability, the ability to degrade SP-A and vacuolation differently. In particular, PIPAM (2d), an analogue with a piperidyl moiety, acts toward the cells in a similar manner to AMI, but is less toxic. Thus, it would be possible to reduce the cytotoxicity of AMI by modifying its chemical structure.

  18. Optimization of propafenone analogues as antimalarial leads.

    PubMed

    Lowes, David J; Guiguemde, W Armand; Connelly, Michele C; Zhu, Fangyi; Sigal, Martina S; Clark, Julie A; Lemoff, Andrew S; Derisi, Joseph L; Wilson, Emily B; Guy, R Kiplin

    2011-11-10

    Propafenone, a class Ic antiarrythmic drug, inhibits growth of cultured Plasmodium falciparum. While the drug's potency is significant, further development of propafenone as an antimalarial would require divorcing the antimalarial and cardiac activities as well as improving the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug. A small array of propafenone analogues was designed and synthesized to address the cardiac ion channel and PK liabilities. Testing of this array revealed potent inhibitors of the 3D7 (drug sensitive) and K1 (drug resistant) strains of P. falciparum that possessed significantly reduced ion channel effects and improved metabolic stability. Propafenone analogues are unusual among antimalarial leads in that they are more potent against the multidrug resistant K1 strain of P. falciparum compared to the 3D7 strain.

  19. Antitumoral cyclic peptide analogues of chlamydocin.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, E; Fauchere, J L; Atassi, G; Viallefont, P; Lazaro, R

    1993-01-01

    A series of cyclic tetrapeptides bearing the bioactive alkylating group on an epsilon-amino-lysyl function have been examined for their antitumoral activity on L1210 and P388 murine leukemia cell lines. One analogue belonging to the chlamydocin family and bearing a beta-chloroethylnitrosourea group was found to be potent at inhibiting L1210 cell proliferation and had a higher therapeutic index than the reference compound bis-beta-chloroethylnitrosourea (BCNU) on the in vivo P388-induced leukemia model.

  20. The Brookhaven electron analogue, 1953--1957

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, M.

    1991-12-18

    The following topics are discussed on the Brookhaven electron analogue: L.J. Haworth and E.L. VanHorn letters; Original G.K. Green outline for report; General description; Parameter list; Mechanical Assembly; Alignment; Degaussing; Vacuum System; Injection System; The pulsed inflector; RF System; Ferrite Cavity; Pick-up electrodes and preamplifiers; Radio Frequency power amplifier; Lens supply; Controls and Power; and RF acceleration summary.

  1. The Brookhaven electron analogue, 1953--1957

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, M.

    1991-12-18

    The following topics are discussed on the Brookhaven electron analogue: L.J. Haworth and E.L. VanHorn letters; Original G.K. Green outline for report; General description; Parameter list; Mechanical Assembly; Alignment; Degaussing; Vacuum System; Injection System; The pulsed inflector; RF System; Ferrite Cavity; Pick-up electrodes and preamplifiers; Radio Frequency power amplifier; Lens supply; Controls and Power; and RF acceleration summary.

  2. Benchmarking analogue models of brittle thrust wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreurs, Guido; Buiter, Susanne J. H.; Boutelier, Jennifer; Burberry, Caroline; Callot, Jean-Paul; Cavozzi, Cristian; Cerca, Mariano; Chen, Jian-Hong; Cristallini, Ernesto; Cruden, Alexander R.; Cruz, Leonardo; Daniel, Jean-Marc; Da Poian, Gabriela; Garcia, Victor H.; Gomes, Caroline J. S.; Grall, Céline; Guillot, Yannick; Guzmán, Cecilia; Hidayah, Triyani Nur; Hilley, George; Klinkmüller, Matthias; Koyi, Hemin A.; Lu, Chia-Yu; Maillot, Bertrand; Meriaux, Catherine; Nilfouroushan, Faramarz; Pan, Chang-Chih; Pillot, Daniel; Portillo, Rodrigo; Rosenau, Matthias; Schellart, Wouter P.; Schlische, Roy W.; Take, Andy; Vendeville, Bruno; Vergnaud, Marine; Vettori, Matteo; Wang, Shih-Hsien; Withjack, Martha O.; Yagupsky, Daniel; Yamada, Yasuhiro

    2016-11-01

    We performed a quantitative comparison of brittle thrust wedge experiments to evaluate the variability among analogue models and to appraise the reproducibility and limits of model interpretation. Fifteen analogue modeling laboratories participated in this benchmark initiative. Each laboratory received a shipment of the same type of quartz and corundum sand and all laboratories adhered to a stringent model building protocol and used the same type of foil to cover base and sidewalls of the sandbox. Sieve structure, sifting height, filling rate, and details on off-scraping of excess sand followed prescribed procedures. Our analogue benchmark shows that even for simple plane-strain experiments with prescribed stringent model construction techniques, quantitative model results show variability, most notably for surface slope, thrust spacing and number of forward and backthrusts. One of the sources of the variability in model results is related to slight variations in how sand is deposited in the sandbox. Small changes in sifting height, sifting rate, and scraping will result in slightly heterogeneous material bulk densities, which will affect the mechanical properties of the sand, and will result in lateral and vertical differences in peak and boundary friction angles, as well as cohesion values once the model is constructed. Initial variations in basal friction are inferred to play the most important role in causing model variability. Our comparison shows that the human factor plays a decisive role, and even when one modeler repeats the same experiment, quantitative model results still show variability. Our observations highlight the limits of up-scaling quantitative analogue model results to nature or for making comparisons with numerical models. The frictional behavior of sand is highly sensitive to small variations in material state or experimental set-up, and hence, it will remain difficult to scale quantitative results such as number of thrusts, thrust spacing

  3. Synthesis of constrained analogues of tryptophan

    PubMed Central

    Negrato, Marco; Abbiati, Giorgio; Dell’Acqua, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Summary A Lewis acid-catalysed diastereoselective [4 + 2] cycloaddition of vinylindoles and methyl 2-acetamidoacrylate, leading to methyl 3-acetamido-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazole-3-carboxylate derivatives, is described. Treatment of the obtained cycloadducts under hydrolytic conditions results in the preparation of a small library of compounds bearing the free amino acid function at C-3 and pertaining to the class of constrained tryptophan analogues. PMID:26664620

  4. Polyamine analogues targeting epigenetic gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Marton, Laurence J; Woster, Patrick M; Casero, Robert A

    2009-11-04

    Over the past three decades the metabolism and functions of the polyamines have been actively pursued as targets for antineoplastic therapy. Interactions between cationic polyamines and negatively charged nucleic acids play a pivotal role in DNA stabilization and RNA processing that may affect gene expression, translation and protein activity. Our growing understanding of the unique roles that the polyamines play in chromatin regulation, and the discovery of novel proteins homologous with specific regulatory enzymes in polyamine metabolism, have led to our interest in exploring chromatin remodelling enzymes as potential therapeutic targets for specific polyamine analogues. One of our initial efforts focused on utilizing the strong affinity that the polyamines have for chromatin to create a backbone structure, which could be combined with active-site-directed inhibitor moieties of HDACs (histone deacetylases). Specific PAHAs (polyaminohydroxamic acids) and PABAs (polyaminobenzamides) polyamine analogues have demonstrated potent inhibition of the HDACs, re-expression of p21 and significant inhibition of tumour growth. A second means of targeting the chromatin-remodelling enzymes with polyamine analogues was facilitated by the recent identification of flavin-dependent LSD1 (lysine-specific demethylase 1). The existence of this enzyme demonstrated that histone lysine methylation is a dynamic process similar to other histone post-translational modifications. LSD1 specifically catalyses demethylation of mono- and di-methyl Lys4 of histone 3, key positive chromatin marks associated with transcriptional activation. Structural and catalytic similarities between LSD1 and polyamine oxidases facilitated the identification of biguanide, bisguanidine and oligoamine polyamine analogues that are potent inhibitors of LSD1. Cellular inhibition of LSD1 by these unique compounds led to the re-activation of multiple epigenetically silenced genes important in tumorigenesis. The use of

  5. Blood Loss Estimation Using Gauze Visual Analogue

    PubMed Central

    Ali Algadiem, Emran; Aleisa, Abdulmohsen Ali; Alsubaie, Huda Ibrahim; Buhlaiqah, Noora Radhi; Algadeeb, Jihad Bagir; Alsneini, Hussain Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimating intraoperative blood loss can be a difficult task, especially when blood is mostly absorbed by gauze. In this study, we have provided an improved method for estimating blood absorbed by gauze. Objectives To develop a guide to estimate blood absorbed by surgical gauze. Materials and Methods A clinical experiment was conducted using aspirated blood and common surgical gauze to create a realistic amount of absorbed blood in the gauze. Different percentages of staining were photographed to create an analogue for the amount of blood absorbed by the gauze. Results A visual analogue scale was created to aid the estimation of blood absorbed by the gauze. The absorptive capacity of different gauze sizes was determined when the gauze was dripping with blood. The amount of reduction in absorption was also determined when the gauze was wetted with normal saline before use. Conclusions The use of a visual analogue may increase the accuracy of blood loss estimation and decrease the consequences related to over or underestimation of blood loss. PMID:27626017

  6. Thymidine analogues for tracking DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Brenton L; Walker, Tom; Norazit, Anwar; Meedeniya, Adrian C B

    2011-09-15

    Replicating cells undergo DNA synthesis in the highly regulated, S-phase of the cell cycle. Analogues of the pyrimidine deoxynucleoside thymidine may be inserted into replicating DNA, effectively tagging dividing cells allowing their characterisation. Tritiated thymidine, targeted using autoradiography was technically demanding and superseded by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and related halogenated analogues, detected using antibodies. Their detection required the denaturation of DNA, often constraining the outcome of investigations. Despite these limitations BrdU alone has been used to target newly synthesised DNA in over 20,000 reviewed biomedical studies. A recent breakthrough in "tagging DNA synthesis" is the thymidine analogue 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU). The alkyne group in EdU is readily detected using a fluorescent azide probe and copper catalysis using 'Huisgen's reaction' (1,3-dipolar cycloaddition or 'click chemistry'). This rapid, two-step biolabelling approach allows the tagging and imaging of DNA within cells whilst preserving the structural and molecular integrity of the cells. The bio-orthogonal detection of EdU allows its application in more experimental assays than previously possible with other "unnatural bases". These include physiological, anatomical and molecular biological experimentation in multiple fields including, stem cell research, cancer biology, and parasitology. The full potential of EdU and related molecules in biomedical research remains to be explored.

  7. Synthesis of a dA-dT base pair analogue and its effects on DNA-ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Lan, T; McLaughlin, L W

    2001-08-01

    Two nucleoside derivatives containing the base analogues 3-deazaadenine and 3-methyl-2-pyridone have been prepared as analogues of dA and dT, respectively. After conversion into the appropriately protected phosphoramidites, DNA sequences were prepared with site-specifically placed analogues. When present in a duplex DNA sequence, the analogues result in the deletion of one or both of the hydrogen bonding functional groups (the N3-nitrogen of dA and the O2-carbonyl of dT) present in the minor groove. Binding by two ligands, 4',6-diamidine-2-phenyl indole (DAPI) and Hoechst 33258 in the minor groove has been probed using a variety of DNA sequences. These sequences contain a d(GAATTC)2 core with analogue nucleosides substituted for one or more of the dA and dT residues. DAPI bound strongly to any sequence that contained both O2-carbonyls of the central two dT residues. The presence of a dc3A residue did in some cases enhance binding. With one of the central O2-carbonyls deleted, the binding was noticeably reduced, and with both absent, no significant binding could be detected. Similar although less dramatic results were observed with Hoechst 33258 binding to analogue sequences.

  8. A microenvironment-sensitive fluorescent pyrimidine ribonucleoside analogue: synthesis, enzymatic incorporation, and fluorescence detection of a DNA abasic site.

    PubMed

    Tanpure, Arun A; Srivatsan, Seergazhi G

    2011-11-04

    Base-modified fluorescent ribonucleoside-analogue probes are valuable tools in monitoring RNA structure and function because they closely resemble the structure of natural nucleobases. Especially, 2-aminopurine, a highly environment-sensitive adenosine analogue, is the most extensively utilized fluorescent nucleoside analogue. However, only a few isosteric pyrimidine ribonucleoside analogues that are suitable for probing the structure and recognition properties of RNA molecules are available. Herein, we describe the synthesis and photophysical characterization of a small series of base-modified pyrimidine ribonucleoside analogues derived from tagging indole, N-methylindole, and benzofuran onto the 5-position of uracil. One of the analogues, based on a 5-(benzofuran-2-yl)pyrimidine core, shows emission in the visible region with a reasonable quantum yield and, importantly, displays excellent solvatochromism. The corresponding triphosphate substrate is effectively incorporated into oligoribonucleotides by T7 RNA polymerase to produce fluorescent oligoribonucleotide constructs. Steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic studies with fluorescent oligoribonucleotide constructs demonstrate that the fluorescent ribonucleoside photophysically responds to subtle changes in its environment brought about by the interaction of the chromophore with neighboring bases. In particular, the emissive ribonucleoside, if incorporated into an oligoribonucleotide, positively reports the presence of a DNA abasic site with an appreciable enhancement in fluorescence intensity. The straightforward synthesis, amicability to enzymatic incorporation, and sensitivity to changes in the microenvironment highlight the potential of the benzofuran-conjugated pyrimidine ribonucleoside as an efficient fluorescent probe to investigate nucleic acid structure, dynamics, and recognition events.

  9. Synthesis and biological assay of erlotinib analogues and BSA-conjugated erlotinib analogue.

    PubMed

    Boobalan, Ramalingam; Liu, Kuang-Kai; Chao, Jui-I; Chen, Chinpiao

    2017-04-15

    A series of erlotinib analogues that have structural modification at 6,7-alkoxyl positions is efficiently synthesized. The in vitro anti-tumor activity of synthesized compounds is studied in two non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines (A549 and H1975). Among the synthesized compounds, the iodo compound 6 (ETN-6) exhibits higher anti-cancer activity compared to erlotinib. An efficient method is developed for the conjugation of erlotinib analogue-4, alcohol compound, with protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), via succinic acid linker. The in vitro anti-tumor activity of the protein attached erlotinib analogue, 8 (ETN-4-Suc-BSA), showed stronger inhibitory activity in both A549 and H1975 NSCLC cell lines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cyclic Biphalin Analogues Incorporating a Xylene Bridge: Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Profile.

    PubMed

    Stefanucci, Azzurra; Carotenuto, Alfonso; Macedonio, Giorgia; Novellino, Ettore; Pieretti, Stefano; Marzoli, Francesca; Szűcs, Edina; Erdei, Anna I; Zádor, Ferenc; Benyhe, Sándor; Mollica, Adriano

    2017-08-10

    In this work we enhanced the ring lipophilicity of biphalin introducing a xylene moiety, thus obtaining three cyclic regioisomers. Novel compounds have similar in vitro activity as the parent compound, but one of these (6a) shows a remarkable increase of in vivo antinociceptive effect. Nociception tests have disclosed its significant high potency and the more prolonged effect in eliciting analgesia, higher than that of biphalin and of the disulfide-bridge-containing analogue (7).

  11. In vitro activity and selectivity of glucosidic SP(6-11) analogues.

    PubMed

    Haro, I; Ruiz, P; Valencia, G; García-Antón, J M; Reig, F; Rodriguez, R E

    1989-11-01

    The relative potencies of a series of substance P (6-11) analogues have been determined for spasmogenic activity in the guinea pig ileum in vitro and for potentiation of electrically evoked contractions in the rat vas deferens in vitro. ED50 values were determined for the new analogues. Substance P and its methyl ester were used as standard agonists. Substitution of Gly9 by Pro on [Glu6]SP(6-11) increased four times the activity on the NK-1 receptor. The glycosilation of [Glu6]SP(6-11) by the incorporation of a beta-D-glucopyranosyl amide residue on the gamma-carboxyl group of Glu6 reduced both the activity and selectivity. The simultaneous substitution of Gly9 by Pro and the incorporation of a monosaccharide moiety on the gamma-carboxyl of Glu6 on [Glu6]SP(6-11) yielded an analogue with 60-fold enhanced selectivity relative to substance P for the NK-1 receptor. These results may indicate that the critical factor providing potency to SP(6-11) analogues is mostly related to conformational rather than hydrophilicity aspects of the molecular structure.

  12. Analogue modulation of back-propagating action potentials enables dendritic hybrid signalling

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, János; Szabadics, János

    2016-01-01

    We report that back-propagating action potentials (bAPs) are not simply digital feedback signals in dendrites but also carry analogue information about the overall state of neurons. Analogue information about the somatic membrane potential within a physiological range (from −78 to −64 mV) is retained by bAPs of dentate gyrus granule cells as different repolarization speeds in proximal dendrites and as different peak amplitudes in distal regions. These location-dependent waveform changes are reflected by local calcium influx, leading to proximal enhancement and distal attenuation during somatic hyperpolarization. The functional link between these retention and readout mechanisms of the analogue content of bAPs critically depends on high-voltage-activated, inactivating calcium channels. The hybrid bAP and calcium mechanisms report the phase of physiological somatic voltage fluctuations and modulate long-term synaptic plasticity in distal dendrites. Thus, bAPs are hybrid signals that relay somatic analogue information, which is detected by the dendrites in a location-dependent manner. PMID:27703164

  13. Analogue modulation of back-propagating action potentials enables dendritic hybrid signalling.

    PubMed

    Brunner, János; Szabadics, János

    2016-10-05

    We report that back-propagating action potentials (bAPs) are not simply digital feedback signals in dendrites but also carry analogue information about the overall state of neurons. Analogue information about the somatic membrane potential within a physiological range (from -78 to -64 mV) is retained by bAPs of dentate gyrus granule cells as different repolarization speeds in proximal dendrites and as different peak amplitudes in distal regions. These location-dependent waveform changes are reflected by local calcium influx, leading to proximal enhancement and distal attenuation during somatic hyperpolarization. The functional link between these retention and readout mechanisms of the analogue content of bAPs critically depends on high-voltage-activated, inactivating calcium channels. The hybrid bAP and calcium mechanisms report the phase of physiological somatic voltage fluctuations and modulate long-term synaptic plasticity in distal dendrites. Thus, bAPs are hybrid signals that relay somatic analogue information, which is detected by the dendrites in a location-dependent manner.

  14. A novel nucleic acid analogue shows strong angiogenic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukamoto, Ikuko; Sakakibara, Norikazu; Maruyama, Tokumi; Igarashi, Junsuke; Kosaka, Hiroaki; Kubota, Yasuo; Tokuda, Masaaki; Ashino, Hiromi; Hattori, Kenichi; Tanaka, Shinji; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Konishi, Ryoji

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A, m.w. 284) showed angiogenic potency. {yields} It stimulated the tube formation, proliferation and migration of HUVEC in vitro. {yields} 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced the activation of ERK1/2 and MEK in HUVEC. {yields} Angiogenic potency in vivo was confirmed in CAM assay and rabbit cornea assay. {yields} A synthesized small angiogenic agent would have great clinical therapeutic value. -- Abstract: A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A) significantly stimulated tube formation of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). Its maximum potency at 100 {mu}M was stronger than that of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a positive control. At this concentration, 2Cl-C.OXT-A moderately stimulated proliferation as well as migration of HUVEC. To gain mechanistic insights how 2Cl-C.OXT-A promotes angiogenic responses in HUVEC, we performed immunoblot analyses using phospho-specific antibodies as probes. 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced robust phosphorylation/activation of MAP kinase ERK1/2 and an upstream MAP kinase kinase MEK. Conversely, a MEK inhibitor PD98059 abolished ERK1/2 activation and tube formation both enhanced by 2Cl-C.OXT-A. In contrast, MAP kinase responses elicited by 2Cl-C.OXT-A were not inhibited by SU5416, a specific inhibitor of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. Collectively these results suggest that 2Cl-C.OXT-A-induces angiogenic responses in HUVEC mediated by a MAP kinase cascade comprising MEK and ERK1/2, but independently of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. In vivo assay using chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and rabbit cornea also suggested the angiogenic potency of 2Cl-C.OXT-A.

  15. Cardiac specific effects of thyroid hormone analogues.

    PubMed

    Danzi, S; Klein, I

    2011-10-01

    There is significant interest in development of thyroid hormone analogues to harness specific properties as therapeutic agents for a variety of clinical indications including obesity, hypercholesterolemia, heart failure, and thyrotoxicosis. To date, most analogues have been designed to target liver specific effects, which can promote weight loss and lipid lowering through either tissue specific uptake or thyroid hormone receptor (TR) β isoform selectivity at the same time minimizing the unwanted cardiac and bone effects. We have developed a molecular biomarker assay to study the induction of the transcription of the cardiac specific α-myosin heavy chain (MHC) gene as a more sensitive and specific measure of thyroid hormone action on cardiac myocytes. We tested 5 TRβ and 1 TRα selective agonists as well as 2 putative TR antagonists in our α-MHC hnRNA assay. Using reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction, we measured the induction of the α-MHC primary transcript in response to administration of drug. The TRα and only 2 of the TRβ agonists were highly active, when compared to the effect of T3, at the level of the cardiac myocyte. In addition, our data suggests that the reason that the antagonist NH-3 is not able to block the T3-mediated induction of α-MHC is that it does not get transported into the cardiac myocyte. Our data suggest that this assay will be useful in preclinical studies of the potential cardiac specific effects of thyroid hormone analogues and that predictions of function based on structure are not necessarily accurate or complete. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Polyamine analogues bind human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, R; N'soukpoé-Kossi, C N; Thomas, T J; Thomas, T; Carpentier, R; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2007-10-01

    Polyamine analogues show antitumor activity in experimental models, and their ability to alter activity of cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents in breast cancer is well documented. Association of polyamines with nucleic acids and protein is included in their mechanism of action. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction of human serum albumin (HSA) with several polyamine analogues, such as 1,11-diamino-4,8-diazaundecane (333), 3,7,11,15-tetrazaheptadecane.4HCl (BE-333), and 3,7,11,15,19-pentazahenicosane.5HCl (BE-3333), in aqueous solution at physiological conditions using a constant protein concentration and various polyamine contents (microM to mM). FTIR, UV-visible, and CD spectroscopic methods were used to determine the polyamine binding mode and the effects of polyamine complexation on protein stability and secondary structure. Structural analysis showed that polyamines bind nonspecifically (H-bonding) via polypeptide polar groups with binding constants of K333 = 9.30 x 10(3) M(-1), KBE-333 = 5.63 x 10(2) M(-1), and KBE-3333 = 3.66 x 10(2) M(-1). The protein secondary structure showed major alterations with a reduction of alpha-helix from 55% (free protein) to 43-50% and an increase of beta-sheet from 17% (free protein) to 29-36% in the 333, BE-333, and BE-3333 complexes, indicating partial protein unfolding upon polyamine interaction. HSA structure was less perturbed by polyamine analogues compared to those of the biogenic polyamines.

  17. The Lehmer Matrix and Its Recursive Analogue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number . 1. REPORT DATE 2010 2. REPORT...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Lehmer matrix and its recursive analogue 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  18. New synthetic approaches towards analogues of bedaquiline.

    PubMed

    Priebbenow, Daniel L; Barbaro, Lisa; Baell, Jonathan B

    2016-10-12

    Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is of growing global concern and threatens to undermine increasing efforts to control the worldwide spread of tuberculosis (TB). Bedaquiline has recently emerged as a new drug developed to specifically treat MDR-TB. Despite being highly effective as a result of its unique mode of action, bedaquiline has been associated with significant toxicities and as such, safety concerns are limiting its clinical use. In order to access pharmaceutical agents that exhibit an improved safety profile for the treatment of MDR-TB, new synthetic pathways to facilitate the preparation of bedaquiline and analogues thereof have been discovered.

  19. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission natural analogue research program

    SciTech Connect

    Kovach, L.A.; Ott, W.R.

    1995-09-01

    This article describes the natural analogue research program of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC). It contains information on the regulatory context and organizational structure of the high-level radioactive waste research program plan. It also includes information on the conditions and processes constraining selection of natural analogues, describes initiatives of the US NRC, and describes the role of analogues in the licensing process.

  20. CO2 Removal using a Synthetic Analogue of Carbonic Anhydrase

    SciTech Connect

    Cordatos, Harry

    2010-09-14

    Project attempts to develop a synthetic analogue for carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it in a membrane for separation of CO2 from coal power plant flue gas. Conference poster presents result of first 9 months of project progress including concept, basic system architecture and membrane properties target, results of molecular modeling for analogue - CO2 interaction, and next steps of testing analogue resistance to flue gas contaminants.

  1. Screening of synthetic PDE-5 inhibitors and their analogues as adulterants: analytical techniques and challenges.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dhavalkumar Narendrabhai; Li, Lin; Kee, Chee-Leong; Ge, Xiaowei; Low, Min-Yong; Koh, Hwee-Ling

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) enzyme inhibitors for the treatment of erectile dysfunction has led to the increase in prevalence of illicit sexual performance enhancement products. PDE-5 inhibitors, namely sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil, and their unapproved designer analogues are being increasingly used as adulterants in the herbal products and health supplements marketed for sexual performance enhancement. To date, more than 50 unapproved analogues of prescription PDE-5 inhibitors were found as adulterants in the literature. To avoid detection of such adulteration by standard screening protocols, the perpetrators of such illegal products are investing time and resources to synthesize exotic analogues and devise novel means for adulteration. A comprehensive review of conventional and advance analytical techniques to detect and characterize the adulterants is presented. The rapid identification and structural elucidation of unknown analogues as adulterants is greatly enhanced by the wide myriad of analytical techniques employed, including high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry (LC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, vibrational spectroscopy, liquid chromatography-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (LC-FT-ICR-MS), liquid chromatograph-hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer with information dependent acquisition, ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-TOF-MS), ion mobility spectroscopy (IMS) and immunoassay methods. The many challenges in detecting and characterizing such adulterants, and the need for concerted effort to curb adulteration in order to safe guard public safety and interest are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis of a cyanopeptide-analogue with trypsin activating properties.

    PubMed

    Radau, G; Rauh, D

    2000-04-17

    An efficient synthesis of a peptidic analogue of cyanobacterial metabolites with proposed serine protease inhibitory activity has been developed. Surprisingly, one trypsin activating compound was obtained.

  3. Enzymatic synthesis of lipid II and analogues.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lin-Ya; Huang, Shih-Hsien; Chang, Ya-Chih; Cheng, Wei-Chieh; Cheng, Ting-Jen R; Wong, Chi-Huey

    2014-07-28

    The emergence of antibiotic resistance has prompted active research in the development of antibiotics with new modes of action. Among all essential bacterial proteins, transglycosylase polymerizes lipid II into peptidoglycan and is one of the most favorable targets because of its vital role in peptidoglycan synthesis. Described in this study is a practical enzymatic method for the synthesis of lipid II, coupled with cofactor regeneration, to give the product in a 50-70% yield. This development depends on two key steps: the overexpression of MraY for the synthesis of lipid I and the use of undecaprenol kinase for the preparation of polyprenol phosphates. This method was further applied to the synthesis of lipid II analogues. It was found that MraY and undecaprenol kinase can accept a wide range of lipids containing various lengths and configurations. The activity of lipid II analogues for bacterial transglycolase was also evaluated. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Long-term predictions using natural analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct validation of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems (e.g., {open_quotes}natural analogues{close_quotes}) provide perhaps the only means of partial {open_quotes}validation,{close_quotes} as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (nm to km) and temporal (10{sup 3}-10{sup 8} years) scales and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may affect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the {open_quotes}validation{close_quotes} of performance assessments.

  5. Four Generations of Transition State Analogues for Human Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, M.; Shi, W; Rinaldo-Mathis, A; Tyler, P; Evans, G; Almo, S; Schramm, V

    2010-01-01

    Inhibition of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) stops growth of activated T-cells and the formation of 6-oxypurine bases, making it a target for leukemia, autoimmune disorders, and gout. Four generations of ribocation transition-state mimics bound to PNP are structurally characterized. Immucillin-H (K*{sub i} = 58 pM, first-generation) contains an iminoribitol cation with four asymmetric carbons. DADMe-Immucillin-H (K*{sub i} = 9 pM, second-generation), uses a methylene-bridged dihydroxypyrrolidine cation with two asymmetric centers. DATMe-Immucillin-H (K*{sub i} = 9 pM, third-generation) contains an open-chain amino alcohol cation with two asymmetric carbons. SerMe-ImmH (K*{sub i} = 5 pM, fourth-generation) uses achiral dihydroxyaminoalcohol seramide as the ribocation mimic. Crystal structures of PNPs establish features of tight binding to be; (1) ion-pair formation between bound phosphate (or its mimic) and inhibitor cation, (2) leaving-group interactions to N1, O6, and N7 of 9-deazahypoxanthine, (3) interaction between phosphate and inhibitor hydroxyl groups, and (4) His257 interacting with the 5{prime}-hydroxyl group. The first generation analogue is an imperfect fit to the catalytic site with a long ion pair distance between the iminoribitol and bound phosphate and weaker interactions to the leaving group. Increasing the ribocation to leaving-group distance in the second- to fourth-generation analogues provides powerful binding interactions and a facile synthetic route to powerful inhibitors. Despite chemical diversity in the four generations of transition-state analogues, the catalytic site geometry is almost the same for all analogues. Multiple solutions in transition-state analogue design are available to convert the energy of catalytic rate enhancement to binding energy in human PNP.

  6. Fracture toughness and fatigue crack propagation rate of short fiber reinforced epoxy composites for analogue cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Chong, Alexander C M; Miller, Forrest; Buxton, McKee; Friis, Elizabeth A

    2007-08-01

    Third-generation mechanical analogue bone models and synthetic analogue cortical bone materials manufactured by Pacific Research Laboratories, Inc. (PRL) are popular tools for use in mechanical testing of various orthopedic implants and biomaterials. A major issue with these models is that the current third-generation epoxy-short fiberglass based composite used as the cortical bone substitute is prone to crack formation and failure in fatigue or repeated quasistatic loading of the model. The purpose of the present study was to compare the tensile and fracture mechanics properties of the current baseline (established PRL "third-generation" E-glass-fiber-epoxy) composite analogue for cortical bone to a new composite material formulation proposed for use as an enhanced fourth-generation cortical bone analogue material. Standard tensile, plane strain fracture toughness, and fatigue crack propagation rate tests were performed on both the third- and fourth-generation composite material formulations using standard ASTM test techniques. Injection molding techniques were used to create random fiber orientation in all test specimens. Standard dog-bone style tensile specimens were tested to obtain ultimate tensile strength and stiffness. Compact tension fracture toughness specimens were utilized to determine plane strain fracture toughness values. Reduced thickness compact tension specimens were also used to determine fatigue crack propagation rate behavior for the two material groups. Literature values for the same parameters for human cortical bone were compared to results from the third- and fourth-generation cortical analogue bone materials. Tensile properties of the fourth-generation material were closer to that of average human cortical bone than the third-generation material. Fracture toughness was significantly increased by 48% in the fourth-generation composite as compared to the third-generation analogue bone. The threshold stress intensity to propagate the crack

  7. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone and Its Analogues: Significance for MSCs-Mediated Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Quanwei; Ma, Qunchao; Chen, Huiqiang; Wang, Jian'an

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for regenerative medicine because of their multipotency, immune-privilege, and paracrine properties including the potential to promote angiogenesis. Accumulating evidence suggests that the inherent properties of cytoprotection and tissue repair by native MSCs can be enhanced by various preconditioning stimuli implemented prior to cell transplantation. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), a stimulator in extrahypothalamus systems including tumors, has attracted great attentions in recent years because GHRH and its agonists could promote angiogenesis in various tissues. GHRH and its agonists are proangiogenic in responsive tissues including tumors, and GHRH antagonists have been tested as antitumor agents through their ability to suppress angiogenesis and cell growth. GHRH-R is expressed by MSCs and evolving work from our laboratory indicates that treatment of MSCs with GHRH agonists prior to cell transplantation markedly enhanced the angiogenic potential and tissue reparative properties of MSCs through a STAT3 signaling pathway. In this review we summarized the possible effects of GHRH analogues on cell growth and development, as well as on the proangiogenic properties of MSCs. We also discussed the relationship between GHRH analogues and MSC-mediated angiogenesis. The analyses provide new insights into molecular pathways of MSCs-based therapies and their augmentation by GHRH analogues. PMID:27774107

  8. Stabilised 111In-labelled DTPA- and DOTA-conjugated neurotensin analogues for imaging and therapy of exocrine pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    de Visser, M; Janssen, P J J M; Srinivasan, A; Reubi, J C; Waser, B; Erion, J L; Schmidt, M A; Krenning, E P; de Jong, M

    2003-08-01

    Neurotensin (NT) receptors are overexpressed in exocrine pancreatic cancer and Ewing's sarcoma. The potential utility of native NT in cancer diagnosis and therapy is, however, limited by its rapid degradation in vivo. Therefore, NT analogues were synthesised with modified lysine and arginine derivatives to enhance stability and coupled either to DTPA, to enable high specific activity labelling with indium-111 for imaging, or to DOTA, to enable high specific activity labelling with beta-emitting radionuclides, such as lutetium-177 and yttrium-90. Based on serum stability (4 h incubation at 37 degrees C in human serum) and receptor binding affinity, the five most promising analogues were selected and further evaluated in in vitro internalisation studies in human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT29 cells, which overexpress NT receptors. All five NT analogues bound with high affinity to NT receptors on human exocrine pancreatic tumour sections. The analogues could be labelled with (111)In to a high specific activity. The (111)In-labelled compounds were found to be very stable in serum. Incubation of HT29 cells with the (111)In-labelled analogues at 37 degrees C showed rapid receptor-mediated uptake and internalisation. The most promising analogue, peptide 2530 [DTPA-(Pip)Gly-Pro-(PipAm)Gly-Arg-Pro-Tyr-tBuGly-Leu-OH] was further tested in vivo in a biodistribution study using HT29 tumour-bearing nude mice. The results of this study showed low percentages of injected dose per gram tissue of this (111)In-labelled 2530 analogue in receptor-negative organs like blood, spleen, pancreas, liver, muscle and femur. Good uptake was found in the receptor-positive HT29 tumour and high uptake was present in the kidneys. Co-injection of excess unlabelled NT significantly reduced tumour uptake, showing that tumour uptake is a receptor-mediated process. With their enhanced stability, maintained high receptor affinity and rapid receptor-mediated internalisation, the (111)In-labelled DTPA

  9. Vitamin D(3) enhances ATRA-mediated neurosteroid biosynthesis in human glioma GI-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Yagishita, Toshiaki; Kushida, Akira; Tamura, Hiroomi

    2012-09-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that vitamin D (VD) is an important modulator of brain development and function. To investigate whether VD modulates neurosteroid biosynthesis in neural cells, we investigated the effect of VD(3) on steroidogenic gene expression in human glioma GI-1 cells. We found that VD(3) enhanced CYP11A1 and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene expression. The induction of CYP11A1 gene expression by VD(3) was dose- and incubation time-dependent. Calcipotriol, a VD(3) receptor (VDR) agonist, also induced CYP11A1 gene expression in GI-1 cells, indicating that VDR is involved in this induction. The induction of progesterone (PROG) de novo synthesis was observed along with the induction of steroidogenic genes by VD(3). Furthermore, VD(3) enhanced all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced CYP11A1 gene expression and PROG production. This suggests cooperative regulation of steroidogenic gene expression by the two fat-soluble vitamins, A and D. In addition, a mixed culture of neuronal IMR-32 cells and GI-1 cells treated with ATRA and VD(3) resulted in the induction of PROG-responsive gene expression in the IMR-32 cells. This result shows a paracrine action of PROG that is induced in and released by the GI-1 cells. The relationship between neurological dysfunction associated with VD deficiency and neurosteroid induction by VD is discussed.

  10. Synthesis, photophysical properties and incorporation of a highly emissive and environment-sensitive uridine analogue based on the Lucifer chromophore.

    PubMed

    Tanpure, Arun A; Srivatsan, Seergazhi G

    2014-06-16

    The majority of fluorescent nucleoside analogues used in nucleic acid studies have excitation maxima in the UV region and show very low fluorescence within oligonucleotides (ONs); hence, they cannot be utilised with certain fluorescence methods and for cell-based analysis. Here, we describe the synthesis, photophysical properties and incorporation of a highly emissive and environment-sensitive uridine analogue, derived by attaching a Lucifer chromophore (1,8-naphthalimide core) at the 5-position of uracil. The emissive nucleoside displays excitation and emission maxima in the visible region and exhibits high quantum yield. Importantly, when incorporated into ON duplexes it retains appreciable fluorescence efficiency and is sensitive to the neighbouring base environment. Notably, the nucleoside signals the presence of purine repeats in ON duplexes with an enhancement in fluorescence intensity, a property rarely displayed by other nucleoside analogues. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Space Analogue Environments: Are the Populations Comparable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandal, G. M.

    Background: Much of our present understanding about psychology in space is based on studies of groups operating in so-called analogue environments where personnel are exposed to many of the same stressors as those experienced by astronauts in space. One possible problem with extrapolating results is that personnel operating in various hazardous and confined environments might differ in characteristics influencing coping, interaction, and performance. The object of this study was to compare the psychological similarity of these populations in order to get a better understanding of whether this extrapolation is justifiable. The samples investigated include polar crossings (N= 22), personnel on Antarctic research stations (N= 183), several military occupations (N= 187), and participants in space simulation studies (N=20). Methods: Personnel in each of these environments were assessed using the Personality Characteristic Inventory (PCI) and Utrecht Coping List (UCL). The PCI is a multidimensional trait assessment battery that measures various aspects of achievement orientation and social competence. The UCL is a questionnaire designed to assess habitual coping strategies when encountering stressful or demanding situations. Results: Only minor differences in use of habitual coping strategies were evident across the different samples. In relation to personality scores, the military subjects and participants in space simulation studies indicated higher competitiveness and negative instrumentality compared to both the personnel on Antarctic research stations and participants in polar expedition. Among the personnel on Antarctic research stations, significant gender differences were found with women scoring lower on competitiveness, negative instrumentality and impatience/irritability. Compared to the other samples, the participants in polar expeditions were found to be more homogeneous in personality and no significant gender differences were evident on the traits that

  12. Slip dynamics in an analogue faultzone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolf, Michael; Rosenau, Matthias; Oncken, Onno

    2017-04-01

    Elastic stress in the lithosphere releases through slip along pre-existing planes of weakness (fault zones). Slip events may occur on many spatial and temporal scales. They range from short-term localised seismic slip (earthquakes) to aseismic slip transients and long-term distributed slip in cataclastic or ductile shear zones. The interplay of seismic and aseismic fault slip is poorly understood, potentially complex and very costly to model numerically. Therefore, we designed an analogue experiment using a rate-and-state frictional material (fused glass beads), that shows unstable (seismic) and stable (aseismic) slip. This is embedded in an elastic material (ballistic gelatin) that models upper crustal elastic rebound. In the analogue model presented here, we examine the influence of multiple parameters on the slip dynamics and overall statistics of ruptures within a glass bead shear zone. We use a customised rotary shear apparatus (Schulze ring-shear tester) to monitor shear stress during shear. The apparatus allows a direct control of shear rate and normal stress. Its transparent lid enables concurrent monitoring of the frictional contact surface. Digital image correlation is used to measure on-fault deformation. Because of the rate-and-state frictional properties of glass beads (a-b = -0.0138), the used setup produces regular stick-slip events under certain normal loading and strain rate conditions. Preliminary analysis shows the following: The events feature statistics similar to natural slip systems, i.e. a magnitude distribution similar to single faults. Estimated moment magnitudes of the laboratory earthquakes range from MW = -7 to -6. A Gutenberg-Richter like decay up to a certain corner magnitude followed by a characteristic peak is observable. With decreasing loading rate the recurrence time and size of events increase exponentially with exponents similar to natural events. Rupture dynamics are characterised by a transition from two-dimensional crack

  13. A nonlinear dynamic analogue model of substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimas, A. J.; Baker, D. N.; Roberts, D. A.; Fairfield, D. H.; Büchner, J.

    Linear prediction filter studies have shown that the magnetospheric response to energy transfer from the solar wind contains both directly driven and unloading components. These studies have also shown that the magnetospheric response is significantly nonlinear and, thus, the linear prediction filtering technique and other correlative techniques which assume a linear magnetospheric response cannot give a complete deacription of that response. Here, the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction is discussed within the framework of deterministic nonlinear dynamics. An earlier dripping faucet mechanical analogue to the magnetosphere is first reviewed and then the plasma physical counterpart to the mechanical model is constructed. A Faraday loop in the magnetotail is considered and the relationship of electric potentials on the loop to changes in the magnetic flux threading the loop is developed. This approach leads to a model of geomagnetic activity which is similar to the earlier mechanical model but described in terms of the geometry and plasma contents of the magnetotail. This Faraday loop response model contains analogues to both the directly driven and the storage-release magnetospheric responses and it includes, in a fundamental way, the inherent nonlinearity of the solar wind-magnetosphere system. It can be chancterized as a nonlinear, damped harmonic oscillator that is driven by the loading-unloading substorm cycle. The model is able to explain many of the features of the linear prediction filter results. In particular, at low geomagnetic activity levels the model exbibits the "regular dripping" response which provides an explanation for the unloading component at 1 hour lag in the linear prediction filters. Further, the model suggests that the disappearance of the unloading component in the linear prediction filters at high geomagnetic activity levels is due to a chaotic transition beyond which the loading-unloading mechanism becomes aperiodic. The model predicts

  14. Anti-inflammatory constituents of the red alga Gracilaria verrucosa and their synthetic analogues.

    PubMed

    Dang, Hung The; Lee, Hye Ja; Yoo, Eun Sook; Shinde, Pramod B; Lee, Yoon Mi; Hong, Jongki; Kim, Dong Kyoo; Jung, Jee H

    2008-02-01

    A chemical study on the anti-inflammatory components of the red alga Gracilaria verrucosa led to the isolation of new 11-deoxyprostaglandins ( 1- 4), a ceramide ( 5), and a C 16 keto fatty acid ( 6), along with known oxygenated fatty acids ( 7- 14). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and MS data. The absolute configurations of compounds 1- 5 were determined by Mosher's method. The anti-inflammatory activity of the isolated compounds ( 1- 14) was evaluated by determining their inhibitory effects on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators (NO, IL-6, and TNF-alpha) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. Compounds 9 and 10 exhibited the most potent activity. In the evaluation of these two compounds and derivatized analogues ( 15- 40), the anti-inflammatory activity was enhanced in some synthetic analogues. These enone fatty acids were investigated as potential anti-inflammatory leads for the first time.

  15. A metasurface-based prism analogue for terahertz rainbow spectrum manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shen; Li, Chao; Li, Shichao; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Fang, Guangyou

    2017-06-01

    Optical prisms can spread compound light spatially into a rainbow and have widespread applications in spectroscopy and imaging. Limited by the natural materials as well as technologies, there has been no natural counterpart of the optical prism that works in the Terahertz (THz) band so far. In this letter, a THz prism analogue based on metasurfaces working in the transmission diffraction mechanism is first proposed to generate the THz rainbow spectrum. The physics of different modes excited by the interaction between the incident wave and the metasurface is investigated in theory and simulation. A coherent enhancement method was developed to improve the mode competition of the rainbow spectrum over other unwanted leaky modes to guarantee the high transfer efficiency of the wavelength dependent transmission diffraction. The experimental results show that the prism analogue can spread the incident spectrum from 0.15 to 0.22 THz in an angular scope of about 30.8° with comparatively high transferring efficiency.

  16. Pressurized brines in continental Antarctica as a possible analogue of Mars.

    PubMed

    Forte, Emanuele; Dalle Fratte, Michele; Azzaro, Maurizio; Guglielmin, Mauro

    2016-09-12

    Interest in brines in extreme and cold environments has recently increased after they have been found on Mars. Those brines can be potential new subsurface habitats for peculiar ecosystems. In the McMurdo Dry Valleys of the Antarctic, the best analogue for Mars conditions, only a few cases of brines have been identified in some perennially frozen lakes and in one case in an underground aquifer. Here, we present the occurrence of pressurized brines in a shallow perennially ice-covered lake south of 70°S in an ice-free area of Victoria Land, Antarctica. For the first time, we also imaged, by means of ground penetrating radar data, the existence of a pingo-like-feature (PLF) formed by the extrusion of brines, which has also been confirmed by borehole evidence. Those brines are fed by an underground talik external to the lake basin, enhancing the possibility of unexploited ecosystems that could find an analogue in Martian environments.

  17. Pressurized brines in continental Antarctica as a possible analogue of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, Emanuele; Dalle Fratte, Michele; Azzaro, Maurizio; Guglielmin, Mauro

    2016-09-01

    Interest in brines in extreme and cold environments has recently increased after they have been found on Mars. Those brines can be potential new subsurface habitats for peculiar ecosystems. In the McMurdo Dry Valleys of the Antarctic, the best analogue for Mars conditions, only a few cases of brines have been identified in some perennially frozen lakes and in one case in an underground aquifer. Here, we present the occurrence of pressurized brines in a shallow perennially ice-covered lake south of 70°S in an ice-free area of Victoria Land, Antarctica. For the first time, we also imaged, by means of ground penetrating radar data, the existence of a pingo-like-feature (PLF) formed by the extrusion of brines, which has also been confirmed by borehole evidence. Those brines are fed by an underground talik external to the lake basin, enhancing the possibility of unexploited ecosystems that could find an analogue in Martian environments.

  18. Isolation and characterization of a tadalafil analogue, N-cyclopentyl nortadalafil in health supplement.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yimin; Kee, Chee-Leong; Ge, Xiaowei; Low, Min-Yong; Koh, Hwee-Ling

    2016-01-25

    A tadalafil analogue was detected for the first time during the screening of a health supplement for undeclared sexual enhancement drugs. The compound had been isolated and purified by preparative high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Its chemical structure was elucidated using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The compound had a protonated molecular ion at m/z 444 with a chemical formula of C26H25N3O4. The data obtained from the MS analysis of the compound suggested that the N-methyl group on the piperazinedione moiety of tadalafil was substituted with a -C5H9 group. Analysis using NMR was performed and the -C5H9 group was characterized as a cyclopentyl moiety. The analogue was named N-cyclopentyl nortadalafil.

  19. Synthesis and anti-bacterial properties of mono-carbonyl analogues of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Liang, Guang; Yang, Shulin; Jiang, Lijuan; Zhao, Yu; Shao, Lili; Xiao, Jian; Ye, Faqing; Li, Yueru; Li, Xiaokun

    2008-02-01

    The synthesis of three series of curcumin analogues with mono-carbonyl is described. Their in vitro anti-bacterial activities against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were tested and the effect of substituents on the aryl ring and the space structure of the linking strain were discussed. It was observed that part of the derivatives displayed significant activity when compared with curcumin and most of them exhibited activity against the ampicillin-resisted Enterobacter cloacae. Compounds A12, B09, B13, B14 and C09 show remarkable antibacterial activity in vitro. The result showed that heterocycle or long-chain substituents may enhance the activity of curcumin analogues.

  20. Non-vanillyl resiniferatoxin analogues as potent and metabolically stable transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 agonists

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyun-Kyung; Choi, Sun; Lee, Yoonji; Kang, Dong Wook; Ryu, HyungChul; Maeng, Han-Joo; Chung, Suk-Jae; Pavlyukovets, Vladimir A.; Pearce, Larry V.; Toth, Attila; Tran, Richard; Wang, Yun; Morgan, Matthew A.; Blumberg, Peter M.; Lee, Jeewoo

    2009-01-01

    A series of non-vanillyl resiniferatoxin analogues, having 4-methylsulfonylaminophenyl and fluorophenyl moieties as vanillyl surrogates, have been investigated as ligands for rat TRPV1 heterologously expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Although lacking the metabolically problematic 4-hydroxy substituent on the A-region phenyl ring, the compounds retained substantial agonist potency. Indeed, the 3-methoxy-4-methylsulfonylaminophenyl analog (1) was modestly (2.5-fold) more potent than RTX, with an EC50 = 0.106 nM. Further, it resembled RTX in its kinetics and pattern of stimulation of the levels of intracellular calcium in individual cells, as revealed by imaging. Compound 1 displayed modestly enhanced in vitro stability in rat liver microsomes and in plasma, suggesting that it might be a pharmacokinetically more favorable surrogate of resiniferatoxin. Molecular modeling analyses with selected analogues provide evidence that the conformational differences could affect their binding affinities, especially for the ester versus amide at the B-region. PMID:19135377

  1. Design and Synthesis of Novel Arctigenin Analogues for the Amelioration of Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Analogues of the natural product (−)-arctigenin, an activator of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase, were prepared in order to evaluate their effects on 2-deoxyglucose uptake in L6 myotubes and possible use in ameliorating metabolic disorders. Racemic arctigenin 2a was found to display a similar uptake enhancement as does (−)-arctigenin. As a result, the SAR study was conducted utilizing racemic compounds. The structure–activity relationship study led to the discovery of key substitution patterns on the lactone motif that govern 2-deoxyglucose uptake activities. The results show that replacement of the para-hydroxyl group of the C-2 benzyl moiety of arctigenin by Cl has a pronounced effect on uptake activity. Specifically, analogue 2p, which contains the p-Cl substituent, stimulates glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation in L6 myotubes. PMID:25941553

  2. Design and synthesis of novel arctigenin analogues for the amelioration of metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Duan, Shudong; Huang, Suling; Gong, Jian; Shen, Yu; Zeng, Limin; Feng, Ying; Ren, Wenming; Leng, Ying; Hu, Youhong

    2015-04-09

    Analogues of the natural product (-)-arctigenin, an activator of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase, were prepared in order to evaluate their effects on 2-deoxyglucose uptake in L6 myotubes and possible use in ameliorating metabolic disorders. Racemic arctigenin 2a was found to display a similar uptake enhancement as does (-)-arctigenin. As a result, the SAR study was conducted utilizing racemic compounds. The structure-activity relationship study led to the discovery of key substitution patterns on the lactone motif that govern 2-deoxyglucose uptake activities. The results show that replacement of the para-hydroxyl group of the C-2 benzyl moiety of arctigenin by Cl has a pronounced effect on uptake activity. Specifically, analogue 2p, which contains the p-Cl substituent, stimulates glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation in L6 myotubes.

  3. Synthesis and biological evaluation of nitric oxide-donating analogues of sulindac for prostate cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Nortcliffe, Andrew; Ekstrom, Alexander G; Black, James R; Ross, James A; Habib, Fouad K; Botting, Nigel P; O'Hagan, David

    2014-01-15

    A series of analogues of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) sulindac 1 were synthesised tethered to nitric oxide (NO) donating functional groups. Sulindac shows antiproliterative effects against immortal PC3 cell lines. It was previously demonstrated that the effect can be enhanced when tethered to NO releasing groups such as nitrate esters, furoxans and sydnonimines. To explore this approach further, a total of fifty-six sulindac-NO analogues were prepared and they were evaluated as NO-releasing cytotoxic agents against prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines. Compounds 1k and 1n exhibited significant cytotoxic with IC50 values of 6.1±4.1 and 12.1±3.2μM, respectively, coupled with observed nitric oxide release. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analogue Divider by Averaging a Triangular Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvam, Krishnagiri Chinnathambi

    2017-03-01

    A new analogue divider circuit by averaging a triangular wave using operational amplifiers is explained in this paper. The triangle wave averaging analog divider using operational amplifiers is explained here. The reference triangular waveform is shifted from zero voltage level up towards positive power supply voltage level. Its positive portion is obtained by a positive rectifier and its average value is obtained by a low pass filter. The same triangular waveform is shifted from zero voltage level to down towards negative power supply voltage level. Its negative portion is obtained by a negative rectifier and its average value is obtained by another low pass filter. Both the averaged voltages are combined in a summing amplifier and the summed voltage is given to an op-amp as negative input. This op-amp is configured to work in a negative closed environment. The op-amp output is the divider output.

  5. Derivatisable Cyanobactin Analogues: A Semisynthetic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Oueis, Emilia; Adamson, Catherine; Mann, Greg; Ludewig, Hannes; Redpath, Philip; Migaud, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many natural cyclic peptides have potent and potentially useful biological activities. Their use as therapeutic starting points is often limited by the quantities available, the lack of known biological targets and the practical limits on diversification to fine‐tune their properties. We report the use of enzymes from the cyanobactin family to heterocyclise and macrocyclise chemically synthesised substrates so as to allow larger‐scale syntheses and better control over derivatisation. We have made cyclic peptides containing orthogonal reactive groups, azide or dehydroalanine, that allow chemical diversification, including the use of fluorescent labels that can help in target identification. We show that the enzymes are compatible and efficient with such unnatural substrates. The combination of chemical synthesis and enzymatic transformation could help renew interest in investigating natural cyclic peptides with biological activity, as well as their unnatural analogues, as therapeutics. PMID:26507241

  6. A simple analogue of lung mechanics.

    PubMed

    Sherman, T F

    1993-12-01

    A model of the chest and lungs can be easily constructed from a bottle of water, a balloon, a syringe, a rubber stopper, glass and rubber tubing, and clamps. The model is a more exact analogue of the body than the classic apparatus of Hering in two respects: 1) the pleurae and intrapleural fluid are represented by water rather than air, and 2) the subatmospheric "intrapleural" pressure is created by the elasticity of the "lung" (balloon) rather than by a vacuum pump. With this model, students can readily see how the lung is inflated and deflated by movements of the "diaphragm and chest" (syringe plunger) and how intrapleural pressures change as this is accomplished.

  7. Naturalness in an emergent analogue spacetime.

    PubMed

    Liberati, Stefano; Visser, Matt; Weinfurtner, Silke

    2006-04-21

    Effective field theories (EFTs) have been widely used as a framework in order to place constraints on the Planck suppressed Lorentz violations predicted by various models of quantum gravity. There are, however, technical problems in the EFT framework when it comes to ensuring that small Lorentz violations remain small--this is the essence of the "naturalness" problem. Herein we present an "emergent" spacetime model, based on the "analogue gravity" program, by investigating a specific condensed-matter system. Specifically, we consider the class of two-component BECs subject to laser-induced transitions between the components, and we show that this model is an example for Lorentz invariance violation due to ultraviolet physics. Furthermore, our model explicitly avoids the naturalness problem, and makes specific suggestions regarding how to construct a physically reasonable quantum gravity phenomenology.

  8. Analogue Divider by Averaging a Triangular Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvam, Krishnagiri Chinnathambi

    2017-08-01

    A new analogue divider circuit by averaging a triangular wave using operational amplifiers is explained in this paper. The triangle wave averaging analog divider using operational amplifiers is explained here. The reference triangular waveform is shifted from zero voltage level up towards positive power supply voltage level. Its positive portion is obtained by a positive rectifier and its average value is obtained by a low pass filter. The same triangular waveform is shifted from zero voltage level to down towards negative power supply voltage level. Its negative portion is obtained by a negative rectifier and its average value is obtained by another low pass filter. Both the averaged voltages are combined in a summing amplifier and the summed voltage is given to an op-amp as negative input. This op-amp is configured to work in a negative closed environment. The op-amp output is the divider output.

  9. A hypnotic analogue of clinical confabulation.

    PubMed

    Cox, Rochelle E; Barnier, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    Confabulation-fabricated or distorted memories about oneself-occurs in many disorders, but there is no reliable technique for investigating it in the laboratory. The authors used hypnosis to model clinical confabulation by giving subjects a suggestion for either (a) amnesia for everything that had happened since they started university, (b) amnesia for university plus an instruction to fill in memory gaps, or (c) confusion about the temporal order of university events. They then indexed different types of memory on a confabulation battery. The amnesia suggestion produced the most confabulation, especially for personal semantic information. Notably, subjects confabulated by making temporal confusions. The authors discuss the theoretical implications of this first attempt to model clinical confabulation and the potential utility of such analogues.

  10. Jupiter analogues and planets of active stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kürster, M.; Zechmeister, M.; Endl, M.; Lo Curto, G.; Hartman, H.; Nilsson, H.; Henning, T.; Hatzes, A. P.; Cochran, W. D.

    2013-04-01

    Combined results are now available from a 15 year long search for Jupiter analogues around solar-type stars using the ESO CAT + CES, ESO 3.6 m + CES, and ESO 3.6 m + HARPS instruments. They comprise planet (co-)discoveries (ι Hor and HR 506) and confirmations (three planets in HR 3259) as well as non-confirmations of planets (HR 4523 and ɛ Eri) announced elsewhere. A long-term trend in ɛ Ind found by our survey is probably attributable to a Jovian planet with a period >30 yr, but we cannot fully exclude stellar activity effects as the cause. A 3.8 year periodic variation in HR 8323 can be attributed to stellar activity.

  11. Ribosome-Mediated Incorporation of Dipeptides and Dipeptide Analogues into Proteins in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Maini, Rumit; Dedkova, Larisa M; Paul, Rakesh; Madathil, Manikandadas M; Chowdhury, Sandipan Roy; Chen, Shengxi; Hecht, Sidney M

    2015-09-09

    Plasmids containing 23S rRNA randomized at positions 2057-2063 and 2502-2507 were introduced into Escherichia coli, affording a library of clones which produced modified ribosomes in addition to the pre-existing wild-type ribosomes. These clones were screened with a derivative of puromycin, a natural product which acts as an analogue of the 3'-end of aminoacyl-tRNA and terminates protein synthesis by accepting the growing polypeptide chain, thereby killing bacterial cells. The puromycin derivative in this study contained the dipeptide p-methoxyphenylalanylglycine, implying the ability of the modified ribosomes in clones sensitive to this puromycin analogue to recognize dipeptides. Several clones inhibited by the puromycin derivative were used to make S-30 preparations, and some of these were shown to support the incorporation of dipeptides into proteins. The four incorporated species included two dipeptides (Gly-Phe (2) and Phe-Gly (3)), as well as a thiolated dipeptide analogue (4) and a fluorescent oxazole (5) having amine and carboxyl groups approximately the same distance apart as in a normal dipeptide. A protein containing both thiolated dipeptide 4 and a 7-methoxycoumarin fluorophore was found to undergo fluorescence quenching. Introduction of the oxazole fluorophore 5 into dihydrofolate reductase or green fluorescent protein resulted in quite strong enhancement of its fluorescence emission, and the basis for this enhancement was studied. The aggregate results demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating dipeptides as a single ribosomal event, and illustrate the lack of recognition of the central peptide bond in the dipeptide, potentially enabling the incorporation of a broad variety of structural analogues.

  12. Terrestrial Analogues for Lunar Impact Melt Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neish, C. D.; Hamilton, C. W.; Hughes, S. S.; Nawotniak, S. Kobs; Garry, W. B.; Skok, J. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Schaefer, E.; Carter, L. M.; Bandfield, J. L.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Lunar impact melt deposits have unique physical properties. They have among the highest observed radar returns at S-Band (12.6 cm wavelength), implying that they are rough at the decimeter scale. However, they are also observed in high-resolution optical imagery to be quite smooth at the meter scale. These characteristics distinguish them from well-studied terrestrial analogues, such as Hawaiian pahoehoe and ?a ?a lava flows. The morphology of impact melt deposits can be related to their emplacement conditions, so understanding the origin of these unique surface properties will help to inform us as to the circumstances under which they were formed. In this work, we seek to find a terrestrial analogue for well-preserved lunar impact melt flows by examining fresh lava flows on Earth. We compare the radar return and high-resolution topographic variations of impact melt flows to terrestrial lava flows with a range of surface textures. The lava flows examined in this work range from smooth Hawaiian pahoehoe to transitional basaltic flows at Craters of the Moon (COTM) National Monument and Preserve in Idaho to rubbly and spiny pahoehoe-like flows at the recent eruption at Holuhraun in Iceland. The physical properties of lunar impact melt flows appear to differ from those of all the terrestrial lava flows studied in this work. This may be due to (a) differences in post-emplacement modification processes or (b) fundamental differences in the surface texture of the melt flows due to the melts' unique emplacement and/or cooling environment. Information about the surface properties of lunar impact melt deposits will be critical for future landed missions that wish to sample these materials.

  13. Current european regulatory perspectives on insulin analogues

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Insulin analogues are increasingly considered as an alternative to human insulin in the therapy of diabetes mellitus. Insulin analogues (IAs) are chemically different from human insulin and may have different pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic properties. The significance of the modifications of the insulin molecule for the safety profile of IAs must be considered. This review describes the regulatory procedure and the expectations for the scientific content of European marketing authorization applications for innovative IAs submitted to the European Medicines Agency. Particular consideration is given to a potential cancer hazard. Specific regulatory guidance on how to address a possible carcinogenic or tumor promoting effect of innovative IAs in non-clinical studies is available. After marketing authorization, the factual access of patients to the new product will be determined to great extent by health technology assessment bodies, reimbursement decisions and the price. Whereas the marketing authorization is a European decision, pricing and reimbursement are national or regional responsibilities. The assessment of benefit and risk by the European Medicines Agency is expected to influence future decisions on price and reimbursement on a national or regional level. Collaborations between regulatory agencies and health technology assessment bodies have been initiated on European and national level to facilitate the use of the European Medicines Agency's benefit risk assessment as basis on which to build the subsequent health technology assessment. The option for combined or joint scientific advice procedures with regulators and health technology assessment bodies on European level or on a national level in several European Member States may help applicants to optimize their development program and dossier preparation in regard of both European marketing authorization application and reimbursement decisions. PMID:21736748

  14. Terrestrial analogues for lunar impact melt flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neish, C. D.; Hamilton, C. W.; Hughes, S. S.; Nawotniak, S. Kobs; Garry, W. B.; Skok, J. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Schaefer, E.; Carter, L. M.; Bandfield, J. L.; Osinski, G. R.; Lim, D.; Heldmann, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Lunar impact melt deposits have unique physical properties. They have among the highest observed radar returns at S-Band (12.6 cm wavelength), implying that they are rough at the decimeter scale. However, they are also observed in high-resolution optical imagery to be quite smooth at the meter scale. These characteristics distinguish them from well-studied terrestrial analogues, such as Hawaiian pāhoehoe and ´a´ā lava flows. The morphology of impact melt deposits can be related to their emplacement conditions, so understanding the origin of these unique surface properties will help to inform us as to the circumstances under which they were formed. In this work, we seek to find a terrestrial analogue for well-preserved lunar impact melt flows by examining fresh lava flows on Earth. We compare the radar return and high-resolution topographic variations of impact melt flows to terrestrial lava flows with a range of surface textures. The lava flows examined in this work range from smooth Hawaiian pāhoehoe to transitional basaltic flows at Craters of the Moon (COTM) National Monument and Preserve in Idaho to rubbly and spiny pāhoehoe-like flows at the recent eruption at Holuhraun in Iceland. The physical properties of lunar impact melt flows appear to differ from those of all the terrestrial lava flows studied in this work. This may be due to (a) differences in post-emplacement modification processes or (b) fundamental differences in the surface texture of the melt flows due to the melts' unique emplacement and/or cooling environment. Information about the surface properties of lunar impact melt deposits will be critical for future landed missions that wish to sample these materials.

  15. Natural analogues of nuclear waste glass corrosion.

    SciTech Connect

    Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Ebert, W.L.; Luo, J.S.

    1999-01-06

    This report reviews and summarizes studies performed to characterize the products and processes involved in the corrosion of natural glasses. Studies are also reviewed and evaluated on how well the corrosion of natural glasses in natural environments serves as an analogue for the corrosion of high-level radioactive waste glasses in an engineered geologic disposal system. A wide range of natural and experimental corrosion studies has been performed on three major groups of natural glasses: tektite, obsidian, and basalt. Studies of the corrosion of natural glass attempt to characterize both the nature of alteration products and the reaction kinetics. Information available on natural glass was then compared to corresponding information on the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses, specifically to resolve two key questions: (1) whether one or more natural glasses behave similarly to nuclear waste glasses in laboratory tests, and (2) how these similarities can be used to support projections of the long-term corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The corrosion behavior of basaltic glasses was most similar to that of nuclear waste glasses, but the corrosion of tektite and obsidian glasses involves certain processes that also occur during the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The reactions and processes that control basalt glass dissolution are similar to those that are important in nuclear waste glass dissolution. The key reaction of the overall corrosion mechanism is network hydrolysis, which eventually breaks down the glass network structure that remains after the initial ion-exchange and diffusion processes. This review also highlights some unresolved issues related to the application of an analogue approach to predicting long-term behavior of nuclear waste glass corrosion, such as discrepancies between experimental and field-based estimates of kinetic parameters for basaltic glasses.

  16. Terrestrial Analogues for Lunar Impact Melt Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neish, C. D.; Hamilton, C. W.; Hughes, S. S.; Nawotniak, S. Kobs; Garry, W. B.; Skok, J. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Schaefer, E.; Carter, L. M.; Bandfield, J. L.; Osinski, G. R.; Lim, D.; Heldmann, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Lunar impact melt deposits have unique physical properties. They have among the highest observed radar returns at S-Band (12.6 cm wavelength), implying that they are rough at the decimeter scale. However, they are also observed in high-resolution optical imagery to be quite smooth at the meter scale. These characteristics distinguish them from well-studied terrestrial analogues, such as Hawaiian pahoehoe and ?a ?a lava flows. The morphology of impact melt deposits can be related to their emplacement conditions, so understanding the origin of these unique surface properties will help to inform us as to the circumstances under which they were formed. In this work, we seek to find a terrestrial analogue for well-preserved lunar impact melt flows by examining fresh lava flows on Earth. We compare the radar return and high-resolution topographic variations of impact melt flows to terrestrial lava flows with a range of surface textures. The lava flows examined in this work range from smooth Hawaiian pahoehoe to transitional basaltic flows at Craters of the Moon (COTM) National Monument and Preserve in Idaho to rubbly and spiny pahoehoe-like flows at the recent eruption at Holuhraun in Iceland. The physical properties of lunar impact melt flows appear to differ from those of all the terrestrial lava flows studied in this work. This may be due to (a) differences in post-emplacement modification processes or (b) fundamental differences in the surface texture of the melt flows due to the melts' unique emplacement and/or cooling environment. Information about the surface properties of lunar impact melt deposits will be critical for future landed missions that wish to sample these materials.

  17. Induction of abortion by different prostaglandin analogues.

    PubMed

    Bygdeman, M; Wiqvist, N

    1974-01-01

    The clinical advantages and disadvantages of intra amniotic administration of PGF2alpha in comparison with hypertonic saline has recently been summarized by the Prostaglandin Task Force within the World Health Organization Expanded program. The investigation comprised approximately 1,500 patients treated randomly with the two methods. The main advantage of the PG method was a significantly shorter induction-abortion interval and a lesser risk for serious complications and the significant disadvantage a slight increase in the mean frequency of minor complaints in terms of diarrhoea and vomiting. With PGF2alpha it seems difficult to obtain a "one shot" method to terminate second trimester pregnancy even with the intra-amniotic route of administration. The 15-methyl analogues seem more promising in this respect. The uterine response following administration of this compound is characterized by a more gradual initiation of uterine stimulation and a sustained effect, One intraamniotic injection of 2.5 mg 15-methyl-PGF2alpha induced abortion in nearly 100% of the cases and the incidence of side effects was low. Promising results with this compound have also been obtained following a single extra-amniotic instillation or by repeated intramuscular injections. Vaginal administration of 15-methyl PGF2alpha or its methyl ester can also be used for termination of pregnancy. Recently orally active PG analogues have become available for clinical testing. One of these compounds, 16,16-dimethyl-PGE2 may in some cases stimulate uterine contractility sufficiently to induce a second trimester abortion following repeated oral administration.

  18. Analogues of uracil nucleosides with intrinsic fluorescence (NIF-analogues): synthesis and photophysical properties.

    PubMed

    Segal, Meirav; Fischer, Bilha

    2012-02-28

    Uridine cannot be utilized as fluorescent probe due to its extremely low quantum yield. For improving the uracil fluorescence characteristics we extended the natural chromophore at the C5 position by coupling substituted aromatic rings directly or via an alkenyl or alkynyl linker to create fluorophores. Extension of the uracil base was achieved by treating 5-I-uridine with the appropriate boronic acid under the Suzuki coupling conditions. Analogues containing an alkynyl linker were obtained from 5-I-uridine and the suitable boronic acid in a Sonogashira coupling reaction. The uracil fluorescent analogues proposed here were designed to satisfy the following requirements: a minimal chemical modification at a position not involved in base-pairing, resulting in relatively long absorption and emission wavelengths and high quantum yield. 5-((4-Methoxy-phenyl)-trans-vinyl)-2'-deoxy-uridine, 6b, was found to be a promising fluorescent probe. Probe 6b exhibits a quantum yield that is 3000-fold larger than that of the natural chromophore (Φ 0.12), maximum emission (478 nm) which is 170 nm red shifted as compared to uridine, and a Stokes shift of 143 nm. In addition, since probe 6b adopts the anti conformation and S sugar puckering favored by B-DNA, it makes a promising nucleoside analogue to be incorporated in an oligonucleotide probe for detection of genetic material.

  19. Scaling issues for analogue circuits using Double Gate SOI transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Tao Chuan; Armstrong, G. Alastair

    2007-02-01

    This work presents a systematic analysis on the impact of source-drain engineering using gate "non-overlapped" on the RF performance of nano-scaled fully depleted Double Gate SOI transistors, when used in the design of a typical two stage Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA). It is evident that for a gate length less than 40 nm, the incorporation of optimal source-drain engineering requiring a spacer length, which may exceed the length of the gate, is particularly beneficial in analogue applications. Lengthening the spacer reduces gate capacitance in the weak/moderate inversion region more than transconductance, improving cut-off frequency fT. This improvement is particularly significant in a circuit application where an optimal spacer of 1.5 times the gate length is proposed. This gate under-lapped concept with extended spacer can also significantly enhance DC gain of the OTA, by increasing the Early Voltage, while maximising the transconductance to current ratio in the weak to moderate inversion, close to threshold voltage. With optimally designed devices, the sensitivity of OTA circuit performance to doping profile is shown to be relatively low.

  20. Novel incretin analogues improve autophagy and protect from mitochondrial stress induced by rotenone in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Jalewa, Jaishree; Sharma, Mohit Kumar; Hölscher, Christian

    2016-10-01

    Currently, there is no viable treatment available for Parkinson's disease (PD) that stops or reverses disease progression. Interestingly, studies testing the glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetic Exendin-4 have shown neuroprotective/neurorestorative properties in pre-clinical tests and in a pilot clinical study of PD. Incretin analogues were originally developed to treat type 2 diabetes and several are currently on the market. In this study, we tested novel incretin analogues on the dopaminergic SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells against a toxic mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, Rotenone. Here, we investigate for the first time the effects of six different incretin receptor agonists - Liraglutide, D-Ser2-Oxyntomodulin, a GLP-1/GIP Dual receptor agonist, dAla(2)-GIP-GluPal, Val(8)GLP-1-GluPal and exendin-4. Post-treatment with doses of 1, 10 or 100 nM of incretin analogues for 12 h increased the survival of SH-SY5Y cells treated with 1 μM Rotenone for 12 h. Furthermore, we studied the post-treatment effect of 100 nM incretin analogues against 1 μM Rotenone stress on apoptosis, mitochondrial stress and autophagy markers. We found significant protective effects of the analogues against Rotenone stress on cell survival and on mitochondrial and autophagy-associated markers. The novel GLP-1/GIP Dual receptor agonist was superior and effective at a tenfold lower concentration compared to the other analogues. Using the Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002, we further show that the neuroprotective effects are partially PI3K-independent. Our data suggest that the neuroprotective properties exhibited by incretin analogues against Rotenone stress involve enhanced autophagy, increased Akt-mediated cell survival and amelioration of mitochondrial dysfunction. These mechanisms can explain the neuroprotective effects of incretin analogues reported in clinical trials. GLP-1, GIP and dual incretin receptor agonists showed protective effects in SH-SY5Y cells

  1. LAPS-FSH: a new and effective long-acting follicle-stimulating hormone analogue for the treatment of infertility.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sunyoung; Park, Youngjin; Kim, YoungHoon; Kim, Yu Yon; Choi, Hyun-Ji; Son, Woo-Chan; Kwon, SeChang

    2014-10-01

    Although several long-acting follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) therapies have been developed to enhance the ovarian response, a disadvantage of FSH therapy is its relatively short half-life, which requires women to receive one to two injections per day for almost 2 weeks. In the present study, we developed a novel FSH analogue by conjugating recombinant human FSH (rhFSH) and the constant region of the human immunoglobulin G4 fragment via non-peptidyl linkers. The efficacy of the FSH analogue was evaluated in vitro by cAMP level assessments, pharmacokinetic studies and a determination of ovarian weight and by comparing these findings with the results from other FSH analogues. In addition, the total number of antral and Graafian follicles was determined after 7 days of treatment with control, 6µgkg(-1) follitropin β, 6, 12 or 42µgkg(-1) corifollitropin α or 3, 6 or 12µgkg(-1) long acting protein/peptide discovery-follicle-stimulating hormone (LAPS-FSH). As a result, the animals treated with 12µgkg(-1) LAPS-FSH produced additional and larger healthy follicles. These data demonstrate that LAPS-FSH promotes growth and inhibits atresia of the ovarian follicle compared with other available drugs, suggesting that our new drug enhances the efficacy and duration of treatment. It is expected that our new FSH analogue will result in a higher chance of pregnancy in patients who are unresponsive to other drugs.

  2. Three thiamine analogues differently alter thiamine transport and metabolism in nervous tissue: an in vivo kinetic study using rats.

    PubMed

    Rindi, G; Patrini, C; Nauti, A; Bellazzi, R; Magni, P

    2003-12-01

    Thiamine (T) analogues pyrithiamine, oxythiamine or amprolium in amounts 10-1000 times higher than labelled T, were i.p. injected into rats together with 14C-T (30 microg; 46.25 KBq). The radioactivity associated with T and its phosphoesters in the plasma and cerebral cortex, brainstem, cerebellum, and sciatic nerve were determined at time intervals from 0.25 to 240 h from injection. The experimental data obtained were processed with a mathematical compartmental model that calculated the fractional rate constants. These are the amount of content in a given compartment that is replaced in 1 h and expressed in per hour. The results showed that all three analogues inhibited thiamine entry from plasma. Instead, oxythiamine enhanced T phosphorylation to T pyrophosphate (TPP); amprolium and oxythiamine enhanced TPP dephosphorylation to monophosphate (TMP); pyrithiamine reduced TPP dephosphorylation and TMP formation, while none of the analogues modified TMP dephosphorylation to T. In conclusion, in living rats, the action of T analogues was much more complex than could be expected from their structure and action in vitro.

  3. Functionalized Congener Approach to Muscarinic Antagonists: Analogues of Pirenzepine

    PubMed Central

    Karton, Yishai; Bradbury, Barton J.; Baumgold, Jesse; Paek, Robert; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    The M1-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine (5,11-dihydro-11-[(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)acetyl]-6H-pyrido[2,3-b] [1,4]benzodiazepin-6-one) was derivatized to explore points of attachment of functionalized side chains for the synthesis of receptor probes and ligands for affinity chromatography. The analogues prepared were evaluated in competitive binding assays versus [3H]-N-methylscopolamine at four muscarinic receptor subtypes (m1AChR-m4AChR) in membranes from rat heart tissue and transfected A9L cells. 9-(Hydroxymethyl)pirenzepine, 8-(methylthio)pirenzepine, and a series of 8-aminosulfonyl derivatives were synthesized. Several 5-substituted analogues of pirenzepine also were prepared. An alternate series of analogues substituted on the 4-position of the piperazine ring was prepared by reaction of 4-desmethylpirenzepine with various electrophiles. An N-chloroethyl analogue of pirenzepine was shown to form a reactive aziridine species in aqueous buffer yet failed to affinity label muscarinic receptors. Within a series of aminoalkyl analogues, the affinity increased as the length of the alkyl chain increased. Shorter chain analogues were generally much less potent than pirenzepine, and longer analogues (7–10 carbons) were roughly as potent as pirenzepine at m1 receptors, but were nonselective. Depending on the methylene chain length, acylation or alkyl substitution of the terminal amine also influenced the affinity at muscarinic receptors. PMID:2066986

  4. Analogues of erectile dysfunction drugs: an under-recognised threat.

    PubMed

    Poon, W T; Lam, Y H; Lai, C K; Chan, Albert Y W; Mak, Tony W L

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the problem of drug analogue adulteration in male erectile dysfunction health products. Survey of over-the-counter male erectile dysfunction health products available in convenience stores and pharmacies in Hong Kong. Tertiary referral centre for clinical toxicology analysis in Hong Kong. The pattern and extent of adulteration of male erectile dysfunction health products with sildenafil, tadalafil, and vardenafil as well as their structurally modified analogues. Of 26 products studied, one (4%) was found to contain undeclared sildenafil, while 14 (54%) contained drug analogues of different kinds. The latter included acetildenafil, hydroxyacetildenafil, hydroxyhomosildenafil, and piperidenafil. The first three were analogues of sildenafil and the last was an analogue of vardenafil. One young patient presented with ataxia after taking an acetildenafil-containing product. The positive rate of concealed drug analogues in male erectile dysfunction health products is alarmingly high. Such analogues are difficult to detect by ordinary laboratory methods, and might be used in an attempt to evade regulatory inspection. Without going through the stringent drug testing process, the adverse effects of these chemicals remain largely unknown and unpredictable. Effective surveillance system and control measures are needed urgently. The medical profession and the public should be alerted to this under-recognised threat.

  5. Promising Strategy To Improve Charge Separation in Organic Photovoltaics: Installing Permanent Dipoles in PCBM Analogues.

    PubMed

    de Gier, Hilde D; Jahani, Fatemeh; Broer, Ria; Hummelen, Jan C; Havenith, Remco W A

    2016-07-14

    A multidisciplinary approach involving organic synthesis and theoretical chemistry was applied to investigate a promising strategy to improve charge separation in organic photovoltaics: installing permanent dipoles in fullerene derivatives. First, a PCBM analogue with a permanent dipole in the side chain (PCBDN) and its reference analogue without a permanent dipole (PCBBz) were successfully synthesized and characterized. Second, a multiscale modeling approach was applied to investigate if a PCBDN environment around a central donor-acceptor complex indeed facilitates charge separation. Alignment of the embedding dipoles in response to charges present on the central donor-acceptor complex enhances charge separation. The good correspondence between experimentally and theoretically determined electronic and optical properties of PCBDN, PCBBz, and PCBM indicates that the theoretical analysis of the embedding effects of these molecules gives a reliable expectation for their influence on the charge separation process at a microscopic scale in a real device. This work suggests the following strategies to improve charge separation in organic photovoltaics: installing permanent dipoles in PCBM analogues and tuning the concentration of these molecules in an organic donor/acceptor blend.

  6. Starting a European Space Agency Sample Analogue Collection for Robotic Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C. L.; Mavris, C.; Michalski, J. R.; Rumsey, M. S.; Russell, S. S.; Jones, C.; Schroeven-Deceuninck, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Natural History Museum is working closely with the European Space Agency (ESA) and the UK Space Agency to develop a European collection of analogue materials with appropriate physical/mechanical and chemical (mineralogical) properties which can support the development and verification of both spacecraft and scientific systems for potential science and exploration missions to Phobos/Deimos, Mars, C-type asteroids and the Moon. As an ESA Collection it will be housed at the ESA Centre based at Harwell, UK. The "ESA Sample Analogues Collection" will be composed of both natural and artificial materials chosen to (as closely as possible) replicate the surfaces and near-surfaces of different Solar System target bodies of exploration interest. The analogue samples will be fully characterised in terms of both their physical/mechanical properties (compressive strength, bulk density, grain shape, grain size, cohesion and angle of internal friction) and their chemical/mineralogical properties (texture, modal mineralogy, bulk chemical composition - major, minor and trace elements and individual mineralogical compositions). The Collection will be fully curated to international standards including implementation of a user-friendly database and will be available for use by engineers and scientists across the UK and Europe. Enhancement of the initial Collection will be possible through collaborations with other ESA and UK Space Agency supported activities, such as the acquisition of new samples during field trials.

  7. Starting a European Space Agency Sample Analogue Collection for Robotic Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood Lollar, B.; Sutcliffe, C. N.; Ballentine, C. J.; Onstott, T. C.; Lau, C. Y. M.; Magnabosco, C.; Slater, G.; Moser, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Natural History Museum is working closely with the European Space Agency (ESA) and the UK Space Agency to develop a European collection of analogue materials with appropriate physical/mechanical and chemical (mineralogical) properties which can support the development and verification of both spacecraft and scientific systems for potential science and exploration missions to Phobos/Deimos, Mars, C-type asteroids and the Moon. As an ESA Collection it will be housed at the ESA Centre based at Harwell, UK. The "ESA Sample Analogues Collection" will be composed of both natural and artificial materials chosen to (as closely as possible) replicate the surfaces and near-surfaces of different Solar System target bodies of exploration interest. The analogue samples will be fully characterised in terms of both their physical/mechanical properties (compressive strength, bulk density, grain shape, grain size, cohesion and angle of internal friction) and their chemical/mineralogical properties (texture, modal mineralogy, bulk chemical composition - major, minor and trace elements and individual mineralogical compositions). The Collection will be fully curated to international standards including implementation of a user-friendly database and will be available for use by engineers and scientists across the UK and Europe. Enhancement of the initial Collection will be possible through collaborations with other ESA and UK Space Agency supported activities, such as the acquisition of new samples during field trials.

  8. Membrane-Targeting DCAP Analogues with Broad-Spectrum Antibiotic Activity against Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We performed a structure–activity relationship study of 2-((3-(3,6-dichloro-9H-carbazol-9-yl)-2-hydroxypropyl)amino)-2-(hydroxymethyl)propane-1,3-diol (DCAP), which is an antibacterial agent that disrupts the membrane potential and permeability of bacteria. The stereochemistry of DCAP had no effect on the biological activity of DCAP. The aromaticity and electronegativity of the chlorine-substituted carbazole was required for activity, suggesting that its planar and dipolar characteristics orient DCAP in membranes. Increasing the hydrophobicity of the tail region of DCAP enhanced its antibiotic activity. Two DCAP analogues displayed promising antibacterial activity against the BSL-3 pathogens Bacillus anthracis and Francisella tularensis. Codosing DCAP analogues with ampicillin or kanamycin increased their potency. These studies demonstrate that DCAP and its analogues may be a promising scaffold for developing chemotherapeutic agents that bind to bacterial membranes and kill strains of slow-growing or dormant bacteria that cause persistent infections. PMID:25941556

  9. Synthesis of pacidamycin analogues via an Ugi-multicomponent reaction.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kazuya; Sakagami, Masahiro; Feng, Fei; Takahashi, Fumiyo; Uotani, Kouichi; Togame, Hiroko; Takemoto, Hiroshi; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Matsuda, Akira

    2012-07-15

    The second-generation synthesis of 3'-hydroxypacidamycin D (2) has been accomplished via an Ugi-four component reaction at a late stage of the synthesis. This approach provided ready access to a range of analogues including diastereomers of the diaminobutylic acid residue and hybrid-type analogues of mureidomycins. Biological evaluations of these analogues indicated that the stereochemistry at the diaminobutylic acid residue has a crucial impact on both the MraY biochemical inhibition and whole-cell antibacterial activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mars on Earth: soil analogues for future Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlow, Jeffrey J.; Martins, Zita; Sephton, Mark A.

    2008-04-01

    Preparations for missions to Mars are a major concern for scientists. Predicting how equipment and experiments will perform on the planet is difficult because tests are restricted to Earth. Mars soil analogues are being used to solve this problem. These terrestrial materials are chemically and physically similar to martian soils and, because they contain unusual minerals and trace amounts of organic matter, are scientifically interesting in their own right. However, no current analogue is appropriate for all necessary tests. Here we describe Mars soil analogues, identify limitations and suggest the need for new Mars simulants.

  11. Synthesis of chalcone analogues with increased antileishmanial activity.

    PubMed

    Boeck, Paula; Bandeira Falcão, Camila Alves; Leal, Paulo César; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Filho, Valdir Cechinel; Torres-Santos, Eduardo Caio; Rossi-Bergmann, Bartira

    2006-03-01

    Eighteen analogues of an active natural chalcone were synthesized using xanthoxyline and some derivatives, and these analogues were tested for selective activity against both promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis in vitro. Three analogues (10, 12, and 19) containing nitro, fluorine or bromine groups, respectively, displayed increased selective activity against the parasites as compared with the natural chalcone. The nitrosylated chalcone 10 was also tested intralesionally in infected mice and was found to be as effective as Pentostan reference drug at a dose 100 times higher than that of the chalcone in controlling both the lesion growth and the parasite burden.

  12. A chemoselective and continuous synthesis of m-sulfamoylbenzamide analogues

    PubMed Central

    Verlee, Arno; Heugebaert, Thomas; van der Meer, Tom; Kerchev, Pavel I; Van Breusegem, Frank

    2017-01-01

    For the synthesis of m-sulfamoylbenzamide analogues, small molecules which are known for their bioactivity, a chemoselective procedure has been developed starting from m-(chlorosulfonyl)benzoyl chloride. Although a chemoselective process in batch was already reported, a continuous-flow process reveals an increased selectivity at higher temperatures and without catalysts. In total, 15 analogues were synthesized, using similar conditions, with yields ranging between 65 and 99%. This is the first automated and chemoselective synthesis of m-sulfamoylbenzamide analogues. PMID:28326139

  13. Molecular dynamics of sialic acid analogues complex with cholera toxin and DFT optimization of ethylene glycol-mediated zinc nanocluster conjugation.

    PubMed

    Sharmila, D Jeya Sundara; Jino Blessy, J

    2017-01-01

    Cholera is an infectious disease caused by cholera toxin (CT) protein of bacterium Vibrio cholerae. A sequence of sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid, NeuNAc or Neu5Ac) analogues modified in its C-5 position is modelled using molecular modelling techniques and docked against the CT followed by molecular dynamics simulations. Docking results suggest better binding affinity of NeuNAc analogue towards the binding site of CT. The NeuNAc analogues interact with the active site residues GLU:11, TYR:12, HIS:13, GLY:33, LYS:34, GLU:51, GLN:56, HIE:57, ILE:58, GLN:61, TRP:88, ASN:90 and LYS:91 through intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Analogues N-glycolyl-NeuNAc, N-Pentanoyl-NeuNAc and N-Propanoyl-NeuNAc show the least XPGscore (docking score) of -9.90, -9.16, and -8.91, respectively, and glide energy of -45.99, -42.14 and -41.66 kcal/mol, respectively. Stable nature of CT-N-glycolyl-NeuNAc, CT-N-Pentanoyl-NeuNAc and CT-N-Propanoyl-NeuNAc complexes was verified through molecular dynamics simulations, each for 40 ns using the software Desmond. All the nine NeuNAc analogues show better score for drug-like properties, so could be considered as suitable candidates for drug development for cholera infection. To improve the enhanced binding mode of NeuNAc analogues towards CT, the nine NeuNAc analogues are conjugated with Zn nanoclusters through ethylene glycol (EG) as carriers. The NeuNAc analogues conjugated with EG-Zn nanoclusters show better binding energy towards CT than the unconjugated nine NeuNAc analogues. The electronic structural optimization of EG-Zn nanoclusters was carried out for optimizing their performance as better delivery vehicles for NeuNAc analogues through density functional theory calculations. These sialic acid analogues may be considered as novel leads for the design of drug against cholera and the EG-Zn nanocluster may be a suitable carrier for sialic acid analogues.

  14. Fluorescent polyene ceramide analogues as membrane probes.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Ingrid; Artetxe, Ibai; Abad, José Luis; Alonso, Alicia; Busto, Jon V; Fajarí, Lluís; Montes, L Ruth; Sot, Jesús; Delgado, Antonio; Goñi, Félix M

    2015-03-03

    Three ceramide analogues have been synthesized, with sphingosine-like chains containing five conjugated double bonds. Pentaene I has an N-palmitoyl acyl chain, while the other two pentaenes contain also a doxyl radical, respectively, at C5 (Penta5dox) and at C16 (Penta16dox) positions of the N-acyl chain. Pentaene I maximum excitation and emission wavelengths in a phospholipid bilayer are 353 and 478 nm, respectively. Pentaene I does not segregate from the other lipids in the way natural ceramide does, but rather mixes with them in a selective way according to the lipid phases involved. Fluorescence confocal microscopy studies show that when lipid domains in different physical states coexist, Pentaene I emission is higher in gel than in fluid domains, and in liquid-ordered than in liquid-disordered areas. Electron paramagnetic resonance of the pentaene doxyl probes confirms that these molecules are sensitive to the physical state of the bilayer. Calorimetric and fluorescence quenching experiments suggest that the lipids under study orient themselves in lipid bilayers with their polar moieties located at the lipid-water interface. The doxyl radical in the N-acyl chain quenches the fluorescence of the pentaene group when in close proximity. Because of this property, Penta16dox can detect gel-fluid transitions in phospholipids. The availability of probes for lipids in the gel phase is important in view of novel evidence for the existence of gel microdomains in cell membranes.

  15. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma mimicking salivary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lindsay; Chiosea, Simion I

    2013-12-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor characterized by ETV6 translocation. It appears that prior studies have identified MASC by reviewing salivary gland carcinomas, such as acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. To address the possibility of MASC mimicking benign salivary neoplasms we reviewed 12 salivary gland (cyst)adenomas diagnosed prior to the discovery of MASC. One encapsulated (cyst)adenoma of the parotid gland demonstrated features of MASC. The diagnosis was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization with an ETV6 break-apart probe. An unusual complex pattern of ETV6 rearrangement with duplication of the telomeric/distal ETV6 probe was identified. This case illustrates that MASC may mimic salivary (cyst)adenomas. To more accurately assess true clinical and morphologic spectrum of MASC, future studies may have to include review of salivary (cyst)adenomas. The differential diagnosis of MASC may have to be expanded to include cases resembling salivary (cyst)adenomas.

  16. X-rays from Green Pea analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brorby, M.; Kaaret, P.

    2017-09-01

    X-ray observations of two metal-deficient luminous compact galaxies (LCG; SHOC 486 and SDSS J084220.94+115000.2) with properties similar to the so-called Green Pea galaxies were obtained using the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Green Pea galaxies are relatively small, compact (a few kpc across) galaxies that get their green colour from strong [O iii] λ5007 Å emission, an indicator of intense, recent star formation. These two galaxies were predicted to have the highest observed count rates, using the X-ray luminosity-star formation rate (LX-SFR) relation for X-ray binaries, from a statistically complete sample drawn from optical criteria. We determine the X-ray luminosity relative to SFR and metallicity for these two galaxies. Neither exhibits any evidence of active galactic nuclei, and we suspect that the X-ray emission originates from unresolved populations of high-mass X-ray binaries. We discuss the LX-SFR-metallicity plane for star-forming galaxies and show that the two LCGs are consistent with the prediction of this relation. This is the first detection of Green Pea analogues in X-rays.

  17. Actions of Thyroid Hormone Analogues on Chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Glinsky, Gennadi V.

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular domain of plasma membrane integrin αvβ3 contains a receptor for thyroid hormone (L-thyroxine, T4; 3,5,3′-triiodo-L-thyronine, T3); this receptor also binds tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), a derivative of T4. Tetrac inhibits the binding of T4 and T3 to the integrin. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a chemokine relevant to inflammatory processes in the CNS that are microglia-dependent but also important to normal brain development. Expression of the CX3CL1 gene is downregulated by tetrac, suggesting that T4 and T3 may stimulate fractalkine expression. Independently of its specific receptor (CX3CR1), fractalkine binds to αvβ3 at a site proximal to the thyroid hormone-tetrac receptor and changes the physical state of the integrin. Tetrac also affects expression of the genes for other CNS-relevant chemokines, including CCL20, CCL26, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL10. The chemokine products of these genes are important to vascularity of the brain, particularly of the choroid plexus, to inflammatory processes in the CNS and, in certain cases, to neuroprotection. Thyroid hormones are known to contribute to regulation of each of these CNS functions. We propose that actions of thyroid hormone and hormone analogues on chemokine gene expression contribute to regulation of inflammatory processes in brain and of brain blood vessel formation and maintenance. PMID:27493972

  18. Isomer-shift analogue in neutron resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, A.; Pabst, D.; Pikelner, L. B.; Seidel, K.

    1981-06-01

    For the first time, the recently predicted chemical shift of neutron resonances, to be regarded as an analogue to the Mössbauer isomer shift, has been experimentally observed studying the 6.67 eV resonance of 238U. The experimental shifts were determined by a chi-square fitting technique from the time-of-flight transmission spectra of metallic uranium and four uranium compounds measured at the Dubna IBR-30 pulsed reactor. A computational method has been applied to estimate, and compensate for, the influence of the crystal-lattice vibrations on the experimental values thus obtained. The electron density differences at the nucleus have been calculated for the various sample pairs using available data on chemical X-ray shifts in uranium compounds, on Mössbauer isomer shifts in isovalent neptunium compounds and on free-ion electron densities. The resonance shift results lead to the conclusion that the mean-square charge radius of 238U diminishes by 1.7 -0.8+1.2 fm 2 upon capturing the resonance neutron.

  19. A Non-Verbal Analogue to the Verbal Transformation Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lass, Norman J.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of non-speech auditory stimuli in eliciting transformations analogous to those reported for speech stimuli to determine if a non-verbal analogue to the verbal transformation effect exists. (DD)

  20. Trustworthiness and Influence: A Reexamination in an Extended Counseling Analogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothmeier, Rosemarie C.; Dixon, David N.

    1980-01-01

    The study demonstrated that: (1) interviewer trustworthiness can be manipulated in an analogue interview setting; and (2) interviewer trustworthiness is related to interpersonal influence in the interview setting. Findings follow a pattern of outcomes predicted by cognitive dissonance theory. (Author)

  1. Generalised insulin oedema after intensification of treatment with insulin analogues.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Luigi; Thoelke, Mark

    2013-02-20

    We report a case of generalised insulin oedema after intensification of treatment with genetically modified insulin. This is the first case of generalised oedema in response to treatment with insulin analogues in a patient not insulin naive.

  2. From BPA to its analogues: Is it a safe journey?

    PubMed

    Usman, Afia; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-09-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the most abundant synthetic chemicals in the world due to its uses in plastics. Its widespread exposure vis-a-vis low dose effects led to a reduction in its safety dose and imposition of ban on its use in infant feeding bottles. This restriction paved the way for the gradual market entry of its analogues. However, their structural similarity to BPA has put them under surveillance for endocrine disrupting potential. The application of these analogues is increasing and so are the studies reporting their toxicity. This review highlights the reasons which led to the ban of BPA and also reports the exposure and toxicological data available on its analogues. Hence, this compilation is expected to answer in a better way whether the replacement of BPA by these analogues is safer or more harmful?

  3. Effect of glutamate analogues on brain tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Campbell, G L; Bartel, R; Freidman, H S; Bigner, D D

    1985-10-01

    Glutamate analogues have been used in many different experimental approaches in neurobiology. A small number of these analogues have been classified as gliotoxic. We have examined the effect of seven glutamate analogues (five gliotoxic and two neurotoxic) on the growth and viability of four human glioma cell lines, one human medulloblastoma cell line, and one human sarcoma cell line. Aminoadipic acid and homocysteic acid predominantly affected the growth of two glioma cell lines in the presence of 4 mM glutamine. Phosphonobutyric acid predominantly affected the other two glioma cell lines and the medulloblastoma cell line in the presence of 4 mM glutamine. In medium containing no glutamine, all three analogues had marked effects on all the cell lines except the sarcoma cell line. These effects were dose dependent. We postulate that these results can in part be explained on the basis of metabolic compartmentalization.

  4. Sulphur Spring: Busy Intersection and Possible Martian Analogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nankivell, A.; Andre, N.; Thomas-Keprta, K.; Allen, C.; McKay, D.

    2000-01-01

    Life in extreme environments exhibiting conditions similar to early Earth and Mars, such as Sulphur Spring, may harbor microbiota serving as both relics from the past as well as present day Martian analogues.

  5. Sulphur Spring: Busy Intersection and Possible Martian Analogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nankivell, A.; Andre, N.; Thomas-Keprta, K.; Allen, C.; McKay, D.

    2000-01-01

    Life in extreme environments exhibiting conditions similar to early Earth and Mars, such as Sulphur Spring, may harbor microbiota serving as both relics from the past as well as present day Martian analogues.

  6. Weather and event generators based on analogues of atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiou, Pascal

    2015-04-01

    Analogues of atmospheric circulation have had numerous applications on weather prediction, climate reconstructions and detection/attribution analyses. A stochastic weather generator based on circulation analogues was recently proposed by Yiou (2014) to simulate sequences of European temperatures. One of the features of this weather generator is that it preserves the spatial and temporal structures of the climate variables to be simulated. This method is flexible enough to be combined efficiently with a storm detection algorithm in order to generate large catalogues of high impact extra-tropical storms that hit Europe. I will present the gist of the method of circulation analogues and some performances. Two promising applications for weather generators based on this method (ensemble climate prediction and extra-tropical storms) will be tested. References Yiou, P.: AnaWEGE: a weather generator based on analogues of atmospheric circulation, Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 531-543, doi:10.5194/gmd-7-531-2014, 2014.

  7. Cell-cycle analyses using thymidine analogues in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Anda, Silje; Boye, Erik; Grallert, Beata

    2014-01-01

    Thymidine analogues are powerful tools when studying DNA synthesis including DNA replication, repair and recombination. However, these analogues have been reported to have severe effects on cell-cycle progression and growth, the very processes being investigated in most of these studies. Here, we have analyzed the effects of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) and 5-Chloro-2'-deoxyuridine (CldU) using fission yeast cells and optimized the labelling procedure. We find that both analogues affect the cell cycle, but that the effects can be mitigated by using the appropriate analogue, short pulses of labelling and low concentrations. In addition, we report sequential labelling of two consecutive S phases using EdU and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Furthermore, we show that detection of replicative DNA synthesis is much more sensitive than DNA-measurements by flow cytometry.

  8. Analogues for Wild2: Carbonaceous Chondrites Shot into Aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, L. J.; Bridges, J. C.; MacArthur, J. L.; Wickham-Eade, J. E.; Price, M. C.; Burchell, M. J.; Butterworth, A. L.; Baker, S. H.

    2016-08-01

    Comet Wild2 particles show similarities to carbonaceous chondrites. We compare Wild2 grains to analogue shots of CV3 and CR2 powders in aerogel tracks, using the same techniques, to make accurate comparisons.

  9. Semisynthesis of salviandulin E analogues and their antitrypanosomal activity.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Yutaka; Fujiwara, Koji; Yamazaki, Akira; Sugawara, Naoko; Yano, Reiko; Fukaya, Haruhiko; Hitotsuyanagi, Yukio; Takeya, Koichi; Ishiyama, Aki; Iwatsuki, Masato; Otoguro, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Haruki; Ōmura, Satoshi

    2014-01-15

    A series of analogues of salviandulin E, a rearranged neoclerodane diterpene originally isolated from Salvia leucantha (Lamiaceae), were prepared and their in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei was evaluated with currently used therapeutic drugs as positive controls. One of the 19 compounds prepared and assayed in the present study, butanoyl 3,4-dihydrosalviandulin E analogue was found to be a possible candidate for an antitrypanosomal drug with fairly strong antitrypanosomal activity and lower cytotoxicity.

  10. Carbacaprazamycins: Chemically Stable Analogues of the Caprazamycin Nucleoside Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Mayumi; Hsuan, Lee Shang; Kato, Yuta; Matsuda, Akira

    2015-04-10

    Carbacaprazamycins, which are chemically stable analogues of caprazamycins, were designed and synthesized. These analogues were active against drug-resistant bacterial pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and their activities were comparable to those of the parent caprazamycins. The effect of treatment with carbacaprazamycin on morphological changes in S. aureus indicated that the mode of action was completely different from those of existing peptidoglycan inhibitors.

  11. Analogue and digital linear modulation techniques for mobile satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmarsh, W. J.; Bateman, A.; Mcgeehan, J. P.

    1990-01-01

    The choice of modulation format for a mobile satellite service is complex. The subjective performance is summarized of candidate schemes and voice coder technologies. It is shown that good performance can be achieved with both analogue and digital voice systems, although the analogue system gives superior performance in fading. The results highlight the need for flexibility in the choice of signaling format. Linear transceiver technology capable of using many forms of narrowband modulation is described.

  12. Amphiphilic Tobramycin Analogues as Antibacterial and Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Sanjib K.; Fosso, Marina Y.; Green, Keith D.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the in vitro antifungal activities, cytotoxicities, and membrane-disruptive actions of amphiphilic tobramycin (TOB) analogues. The antifungal activities were established by determination of MIC values and in time-kill studies. Cytotoxicity was evaluated in mammalian cell lines. The fungal membrane-disruptive action of these analogues was studied by using the membrane-impermeable dye propidium iodide. TOB analogues bearing a linear alkyl chain at their 6″-position in a thioether linkage exhibited chain length-dependent antifungal activities. Analogues with C12 and C14 chains showed promising antifungal activities against tested fungal strains, with MIC values ranging from 1.95 to 62.5 mg/liter and 1.95 to 7.8 mg/liter, respectively. However, C4, C6, and C8 TOB analogues and TOB itself exhibited little to no antifungal activity. Fifty percent inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) for the most potent TOB analogues (C12 and C14) against A549 and Beas 2B cells were 4- to 64-fold and 32- to 64-fold higher, respectively, than their antifungal MIC values against various fungi. Unlike conventional aminoglycoside antibiotics, TOB analogues with alkyl chain lengths of C12 and C14 appear to inhibit fungi by inducing apoptosis and disrupting the fungal membrane as a novel mechanism of action. Amphiphilic TOB analogues showed broad-spectrum antifungal activities with minimal mammalian cell cytotoxicity. This study provides novel lead compounds for the development of antifungal drugs. PMID:26033722

  13. Catalytic antioxidants: regenerable tellurium analogues of vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay P; Poon, Jia-fei; Engman, Lars

    2013-12-20

    In an effort to improve the chain-breaking capacity of the natural antioxidants, an octyltelluro group was introduced next to the phenolic moiety in β- and δ-tocopherol. The new vitamin E analogues quenched peroxyl radicals more efficiently than α-tocopherol and were readily regenerable by aqueous N-acetylcysteine in a simple membrane model composed of a stirring chlorobenzene/water two-phase system. The novel tocopherol analogues could also mimic the action of the glutathione peroxidase enzymes.

  14. 5,7-Disubstituted analogues of the mixed topoisomerase I/II poison N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide (DACA): DNA binding and patterns of cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Spicer, J A; Finlay, G J; Baguley, B C; Velea, L; Graves, D E; Denny, W A

    1999-02-01

    DACA is a DNA-intercalating agent and dual topoisomerase (topo) I/II inhibitor currently in clinical trial as an anticancer drug. Substitutions in the acridine ring of DACA have significant effects on biological activity, with 5-substituted analogues being more potent but relatively less active against cell lines that underexpress topo II, and the converse for 7-substituted analogues. A small series of 5,7-disubstituted analogues was therefore prepared and evaluated. The compounds were prepared by CDI-assisted coupling of the appropriate acridine acids. When these contained no or only one halogen atom, they could be prepared by Al/Hg amalgam reduction of the corresponding acridine acids. However, this method could not be used to prepare dihalogen-substituted acridine acids due to substantial dehalogenation, and these intermediates were synthesized via cyclization of the appropriate aldehydes to give the acridines directly. These compounds showed enhanced DNA binding compared with the parent DACA, indicating that the known favourable influence of 5-substituents on DNA binding is retained. Cell line studies showed that the 5,7-disubstituted compounds retained both the broad-spectrum effectiveness of the 7-monosubstituted analogues and the higher cytotoxic potency of the 5-monosubstituted analogues. The 7-chloro-5-methyl and 5-chloro-7-methyl analogues showed comparable in vivo antitumour activity to DACA in the subcutaneous colon 38 model, but were substantially more potent (optimal doses of 60 mg/kg compared with 200 mg/kg for DACA).

  15. Molecular Biodynamers: Dynamic Covalent Analogues of Biopolymers

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Conspectus Constitutional dynamic chemistry (CDC) features the use of reversible linkages at both molecular and supramolecular levels, including reversible covalent bonds (dynamic covalent chemistry, DCC) and noncovalent interactions (dynamic noncovalent chemistry, DNCC). Due to its inherent reversibility and stimuli-responsiveness, CDC has been widely utilized as a powerful tool for the screening of bioactive compounds, the exploitation of receptors or substrates driven by molecular recognition, and the fabrication of constitutionally dynamic materials. Implementation of CDC in biopolymer science leads to the generation of constitutionally dynamic analogues of biopolymers, biodynamers, at the molecular level (molecular biodynamers) through DCC or at the supramolecular level (supramolecular biodynamers) via DNCC. Therefore, biodynamers are prepared by reversible covalent polymerization or noncovalent polyassociation of biorelevant monomers. In particular, molecular biodynamers, biodynamers of the covalent type whose monomeric units are connected by reversible covalent bonds, are generated by reversible polymerization of bio-based monomers and can be seen as a combination of biopolymers with DCC. Owing to the reversible covalent bonds used in DCC, molecular biodynamers can undergo continuous and spontaneous constitutional modifications via incorporation/decorporation and exchange of biorelevant monomers in response to internal or external stimuli. As a result, they behave as adaptive materials with novel properties, such as self-healing, stimuli-responsiveness, and tunable mechanical and optical character. More specifically, molecular biodynamers combine the biorelevant characters (e.g., biocompatibility, biodegradability, biofunctionality) of bioactive monomers with the dynamic features of reversible covalent bonds (e.g., changeable, tunable, controllable, self-healing, and stimuli-responsive capacities), to realize synergistic properties in one system. In addition

  16. Molecular Biodynamers: Dynamic Covalent Analogues of Biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Lehn, Jean-Marie; Hirsch, Anna K H

    2017-02-21

    Constitutional dynamic chemistry (CDC) features the use of reversible linkages at both molecular and supramolecular levels, including reversible covalent bonds (dynamic covalent chemistry, DCC) and noncovalent interactions (dynamic noncovalent chemistry, DNCC). Due to its inherent reversibility and stimuli-responsiveness, CDC has been widely utilized as a powerful tool for the screening of bioactive compounds, the exploitation of receptors or substrates driven by molecular recognition, and the fabrication of constitutionally dynamic materials. Implementation of CDC in biopolymer science leads to the generation of constitutionally dynamic analogues of biopolymers, biodynamers, at the molecular level (molecular biodynamers) through DCC or at the supramolecular level (supramolecular biodynamers) via DNCC. Therefore, biodynamers are prepared by reversible covalent polymerization or noncovalent polyassociation of biorelevant monomers. In particular, molecular biodynamers, biodynamers of the covalent type whose monomeric units are connected by reversible covalent bonds, are generated by reversible polymerization of bio-based monomers and can be seen as a combination of biopolymers with DCC. Owing to the reversible covalent bonds used in DCC, molecular biodynamers can undergo continuous and spontaneous constitutional modifications via incorporation/decorporation and exchange of biorelevant monomers in response to internal or external stimuli. As a result, they behave as adaptive materials with novel properties, such as self-healing, stimuli-responsiveness, and tunable mechanical and optical character. More specifically, molecular biodynamers combine the biorelevant characters (e.g., biocompatibility, biodegradability, biofunctionality) of bioactive monomers with the dynamic features of reversible covalent bonds (e.g., changeable, tunable, controllable, self-healing, and stimuli-responsive capacities), to realize synergistic properties in one system. In addition, molecular

  17. Cladribine Analogues via O6-(Benzotriazolyl) Derivatives of Guanine Nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Satishkumar, Sakilam; Vuram, Prasanna K.; Relangi, Siva Subrahmanyam; Gurram, Venkateshwarlu; Zhou, Hong; Kreitman, Robert J.; Montemayor, Michelle M. Martínez; Yang, Lijia; Kaliyaperumal, Muralidharan; Sharma, Somesh; Pottabathini, Narender; Lakshman, Mahesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Cladribine, 2-chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine, is a highly efficacious clinically used nucleoside for the treatment of hairy cell leukemia. It is also being evaluated against other lymphoid malignancies and has been a molecule of interest for well over half a century. In continuation of our interest on the amide bond-activation in purine nucleosides via the use of (benzotriazol-1yl-oxy)tris(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate, we have evaluated the use of O6-(benzotriazol-1-yl)-2′-deoxyguanosine as a potential precursor to cladribine and its analogues. These compounds, after appropriate deprotection, were assessed for their biological activities and the data are presented herein. Against hairy cell leukemia (HCL), T-cell lymphoma (TCL), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cladribine was the most active against all. The bromo analogue of cladribine showed comparable activity to the ribose analogue of cladribine against HCL, but was more active against TCL and CLL. The bromo ribo analogue of cladribine possessed activity, but was least active among the C6-NH2-containing compounds. Substitution with alkyl groups at the exocyclic amino group appears detrimental to activity, and only the C6 piperidinyl cladribine analogue demonstrated any activity. Against adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells, only cladribine and its ribose analogue were most active. PMID:26556315

  18. Analogue gravitational phenomena in Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finazzi, Stefano

    2012-08-01

    Analogue gravity is based on the simple observation that perturbations propagating in several physical systems can be described by a quantum field theory in a curved spacetime. While phenomena like Hawking radiation are hardly detectable in astrophysical black holes, these effects may be experimentally tested in analogue systems. In this Thesis, focusing on Bose-Einstein condensates, we present our recent results about analogue models of gravity from three main perspectives: as laboratory tests of quantum field theory in curved spacetime, for the techniques that they provide to address various issues in general relativity, and as toy models of quantum gravity. The robustness of Hawking-like particle creation is investigated in flows with a single black hole horizon. Furthermore, we find that condensates with two (white and black) horizons develop a dynamical instability known in general relativity as black hole laser effect. Using techniques borrowed from analogue gravity, we also show that warp drives, which are general relativistic spacetimes allowing faster-than-light travel, are unstable. Finally, the cosmological constant issue is investigated from an analogue gravity perspective and relativistic Bose-Einstein condensates are proposed as new analogue systems with novel interesting properties.

  19. The relevance of analogue studies for understanding obsessions and compulsions.

    PubMed

    Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Fabricant, Laura E; Taylor, Steven; Deacon, Brett J; McKay, Dean; Storch, Eric A

    2014-04-01

    Analogue samples are often used to study obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms and related phenomena. This approach is based on the hypothesis that results derived from such samples are relevant to understanding OC symptoms in individuals with a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Two decades ago, Gibbs (1996) reviewed the available literature and found initial support for this hypothesis. Since then there have been many important advances addressing this issue. The purpose of the present review was to synthesize various lines of research examining the assumptions of using analogue samples to draw inferences about people with OCD. We reviewed research on the prevalence of OC symptoms in non-clinical populations, the dimensional (vs. categorical) nature of these symptoms, phenomenology, etiology, and studies on developmental and maintenance factors in clinical and analogue samples. We also considered the relevance of analogue samples in OCD treatment research. The available evidence suggests research with analogue samples is highly relevant for understanding OC symptoms. Guidelines for the appropriate use of analogue designs and samples are suggested.

  20. Cladribine Analogues via O⁶-(Benzotriazolyl) Derivatives of Guanine Nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Satishkumar, Sakilam; Vuram, Prasanna K; Relangi, Siva Subrahmanyam; Gurram, Venkateshwarlu; Zhou, Hong; Kreitman, Robert J; Montemayor, Michelle M Martínez; Yang, Lijia; Kaliyaperumal, Muralidharan; Sharma, Somesh; Pottabathini, Narender; Lakshman, Mahesh K

    2015-10-09

    Cladribine, 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine, is a highly efficacious, clinically used nucleoside for the treatment of hairy cell leukemia. It is also being evaluated against other lymphoid malignancies and has been a molecule of interest for well over half a century. In continuation of our interest in the amide bond-activation in purine nucleosides via the use of (benzotriazol-1yl-oxy)tris(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate, we have evaluated the use of O⁶-(benzotriazol-1-yl)-2'-deoxyguanosine as a potential precursor to cladribine and its analogues. These compounds, after appropriate deprotection, were assessed for their biological activities, and the data are presented herein. Against hairy cell leukemia (HCL), T-cell lymphoma (TCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), cladribine was the most active against all. The bromo analogue of cladribine showed comparable activity to the ribose analogue of cladribine against HCL, but was more active against TCL and CLL. The bromo ribose analogue of cladribine showed activity, but was the least active among the C6-NH₂-containing compounds. Substitution with alkyl groups at the exocyclic amino group appears detrimental to activity, and only the C6 piperidinyl cladribine analogue demonstrated any activity. Against adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells, cladribine and its ribose analogue were most active.

  1. Prostaglandin analogues in the treatment of glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Lindén, C; Alm, A

    1999-05-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) analogues are a new class of ocular hypotensive drugs that have been developed for the treatment of open angle glaucoma. Two of these drugs, latanoprost and unoprostone, are presently commercially available. Latanoprost was introduced in 1996 in the US and Europe. Presently it enjoys the most widespread use and is the most well documented drug of this group. It reduces the intraocular pressure (IOP) by a mechanism of action different from other drugs; namely by increasing the uveoscleral outflow. The aqueous inflow is not affected. The optimal dose regimen is one drop of 50 microg/ml once daily, which reduces the IOP by approximately 30% in patients with glaucoma. A more pronounced ocular hypotensive effect is demonstrated when latanoprost is combined with other glaucoma therapies, including beta-blockers, adrenergic and cholinergic agonists or carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Latanoprost is well tolerated. The drug reaches a plasma concentration below that needed for stimulation of the FP-receptor, which may explain its favourable systemic tolerability profile. The major ocular adverse effect is increased iris pigmentation, which is due to increased synthesis of melanin in the melanocytes of the iris stroma. It is most frequently seen in green-brown eyes and it is probably permanent. A low frequency of cystoid macular oedema has also been reported, predominantly in predisposed eyes. Unoprostone was launched in Japan in 1994, but there is little experience with this drug outside the Japanese market and the documentation is more limited. Its main mechanism of action is on outflow, but this is not yet fully elucidated. The recommended dosage regimen is 1 drop of 1.2 mg/ml twice daily. No comparative studies in humans between the 2 drugs have yet been published.

  2. Habitability & Astrobiology Research in Mars Terrestrial Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    We performed a series of field research campaigns (ILEWG EuroMoonMars) in the extreme Utah desert relevant to Mars environments, and in order to help in the interpretation of Mars missions measurements from orbit (MEX, MRO) or from the surface (MER, MSL), or Moon geochemistry (SMART-1, LRO). We shall give an update on the sample analysis in the context of habitability and astrobiology. Methods & Results: In the frame of ILEWG EuroMoonMars campaigns (2009 to 2013) we deployed at Mars Desert Research station, near Hanksville Utah, a suite of instruments and techniques [A, 1, 2, 9-11] including sample collection, context imaging from remote to local and microscale, drilling, spectrometers and life sensors. We analyzed how geological and geochemical evolution affected local parameters (mineralogy, organics content, environment variations) and the habitability and signature of organics and biota. Among the important findings are the diversity in the composition of soil samples even when collected in close proximity, the low abundances of detectable PAHs and amino acids and the presence of biota of all three domains of life with significant heterogeneity. An extraordinary variety of putative extremophiles was observed [3,4,9]. A dominant factor seems to be soil porosity and lower clay-sized particle content [6-8]. A protocol was developed for sterile sampling, contamination issues, and the diagnostics of biodiversity via PCR and DGGE analysis in soils and rocks samples [10, 11]. We compare the 2009 campaign results [1-9] to new measurements from 2010-2013 campaigns [10-12] relevant to: comparison between remote sensing and in-situ measurements; the study of minerals; the detection of organics and signs of life. Keywords: field analogue research, astrobiology, habitability, life detection, Earth-Moon-Mars, organics References [A] Foing, Stoker & Ehrenfreund (Editors, 2011) "Astrobiology field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments", Special Issue of International

  3. Isolation and characterization of propoxyphenyl linked sildenafil and thiosildenafil analogues in health supplements.

    PubMed

    Kee, Chee-Leong; Ge, Xiaowei; Koh, Hwee-Ling; Low, Min-Yong

    2012-11-01

    Two new phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE-5) which consist of one sildenafil analogue and one thiosildenafil analogue have been found in heath supplements. The structural properties of these analogues have been elucidated by NMR, high resolution MS, MS(2), UV and IR spectroscopy. The sildenafil analogue is very similar to aildenafil and the thiosildenafil analogue is similar to thioaildenafil, except the ethoxy group bonded to phenyl ring is replaced by a propoxy group. Hence, the sildenafil analogue is named as propoxyphenyl aildenafil or propoxyphenyl methisosildenafil and the thiosildenafil analogue as propoxyphenyl thioaildenafil or propoxyphenyl thiomethisosildenafil. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of α-substituted isonipecotic acid benzothiazole analogues as potent bacterial type II topoisomerase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Axford, Lorraine C; Agarwal, Piyush K; Anderson, Kelly H; Andrau, Laura N; Atherall, John; Barker, Stephanie; Bennett, James M; Blair, Michael; Collins, Ian; Czaplewski, Lloyd G; Davies, David T; Gannon, Carlie T; Kumar, Dushyant; Lancett, Paul; Logan, Alastair; Lunniss, Christopher J; Mitchell, Dale R; Offermann, Daniel A; Palmer, James T; Palmer, Nicholas; Pitt, Gary R W; Pommier, Stéphanie; Price, Daniel; Narasinga Rao, B; Saxena, Rashmi; Shukla, Tarun; Singh, Amit K; Singh, Mahipal; Srivastava, Anil; Steele, Christopher; Stokes, Neil R; Thomaides-Brears, Helena B; Tyndall, Edward M; Watson, David; Haydon, David J

    2013-12-15

    The discovery and optimisation of a new class of benzothiazole small molecules that inhibit bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV are described. Antibacterial properties have been demonstrated by activity against DNA gyrase ATPase and potent activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Haemophilus influenzae. Further refinements to the scaffold designed to enhance drug-likeness included analogues bearing an α-substituent to the carboxylic acid group, resulting in excellent solubility and favourable pharmacokinetic properties.

  5. Synthesis and biological evaluation of NAS-21 and NAS-91 analogues as potential inhibitors of the mycobacterial FAS-II dehydratase enzyme Rv0636.

    PubMed

    Bhowruth, Veemal; Brown, Alistair K; Besra, Gurdyal S

    2008-07-01

    The identification of potential new anti-tubercular chemotherapeutics is paramount due to the recent emergence of extensively drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (XDR-TB). Libraries of NAS-21 and NAS-91 analogues were synthesized and evaluated for their whole-cell activity against Mycobacterium bovis BCG. NAS-21 analogues 1 and 2 demonstrated enhanced whole-cell activity in comparison to the parental compound, and an M. bovis BCG strain overexpressing the dehydratase enzyme Rv0636 was resistant to these analogues. NAS-91 analogues with ortho-modifications gave enhanced whole-cell activity. However, extension with biphenyl modifications compromised the whole-cell activities of both NAS-21 and NAS-91 analogues. Interestingly, both libraries demonstrated in vitro activity against fatty acid synthase II (FAS-II) but not FAS-I in cell-free extracts. In in vitro assays of FAS-II inhibition, NAS-21 analogues 4 and 5 had IC(50) values of 28 and 19 mug ml(-1), respectively, for the control M. bovis strain, and the M. bovis BCG strain overexpressing Rv0636 showed a marked increase in resistance. In contrast, NAS-91 analogues demonstrated moderate in vitro activity, although increased resistance was again observed in FAS-II activity assays with the Rv0636-overexpressing strain. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and mycolic acid methyl ester (MAME) analysis of M. bovis BCG and the Rv0636-overexpressing strain revealed that the effect of the drug was relieved in the overexpressing strain, further implicating and potentially identifying Rv0636 as the target for these known FabZ dehydratase inhibitors. This study has identified candidates for further development as drug therapeutics against the mycobacterial FAS-II dehydratase enzyme.

  6. Intracellular accumulation of potent amiloride analogues by human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Simchowitz, L.; Woltersdorf, O.W. Jr.; Cragoe, E.J. Jr.

    1987-11-25

    The mechanism of uptake of a series of amiloride derivatives by human neutrophils was investigated using (/sup 14/C)amiloride and the /sup 14/C-labeled 5-(1-hexahydroazepinyl)-6-bromo analogue (BrMM) which is approximately 500-fold more potent than the parent compound at inhibiting Na+/H+ exchange. At an external concentration of 2 microM, the influx of BrMM at 37 degrees C was rapid, reaching a steady state by approximately 20 min. The rate of BrMM uptake (approximately 25 mumol/liter.min) was approximately 90-fold faster than for the same concentration of amiloride, a finding which correlates with differences in lipid partitioning of the two compounds. Uptake was unrelated to specific binding to Na+/H+ exchange transport sites: influx of either drug was nonsaturable whereas amiloride- and BrMM-mediated inhibition of Na+/H+ countertransport obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with apparent Ki values of approximately 75 and approximately 0.2 microM. Entry occurred exclusively via the neutral (uncharged) forms (pK'a 8.40-8.55). Influx was markedly pH-dependent: it was enhanced by extracellular alkalinization and reduced by acidification. Influx was, however, insensitive to large changes in membrane voltage, thereby implying the protonated (charged) species to be impermeant. About 75% of the total intracellular pool of amiloride, but only approximately 25% of BrMM, is contained within the lysosomes, an expected consequence of the partitioning and subsequent trapping of a weak base within this strongly acidic subcellular compartment. With BrMM, there was a relative approximately 60-fold enrichment in the internal/external water concentration ratio of the drug; the value for amiloride was much less, approximately 4. This disparity is consistent with substantial binding of BrMM to internal constituents, presumably to proteins and/or nucleic acids.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of insulin analogues for diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Chris G; Bennett, Heather A

    2009-02-17

    Insulin analogues may be associated with fewer episodes of hypoglycemia than conventional insulins. However, they are costly alternatives. We compared the cost-effectiveness of insulin analogues and conventional insulins used to treat type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults. We conducted a cost-effectiveness evaluation of insulin analogues versus conventional insulins using the Center for Outcomes Research Diabetes Model. We compared rapid-acting analogues (insulin aspart and insulin lispro) with regular human insulin, and long-acting analogues (insulin glargine and insulin detemir) with neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin. We derived clinical information for the comparisons from meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials. We obtained cost and utility estimates from published sources. We performed sensitivity analyses to test the robustness of our results. For type 1 diabetes, insulin aspart was more effective and less costly than regular human insulin. Insulin lispro was associated with an incremental cost of Can$28,996 per quality-adjusted life-year. The incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year was Can$87,932 for insulin glargine and Can$387,729 for insulin detemir, compared with neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin. For type 2 diabetes, insulin aspart was associated with an incremental cost of Can$22,488 per quality-adjusted life-year compared with regular human insulin. For insulin lispro, the incremental cost was Can$130,865. Compared with neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin, insulin detemir was less effective and more costly. Insulin glargine was associated with an incremental cost of Can$642,994 per quality-adjusted life-year. The model was sensitive to changes in the effect size of hemoglobin A(1c) and to decrements applied to utility scores when fear of hypoglycemia was included as a factor. The cost-effectiveness of insulin analogues depends on the type of insulin analogue and whether the patient receiving the treatment has type 1 or type 2

  8. Graphene-analogue carbon nitride: novel exfoliation synthesis and its application in photocatalysis and photoelectrochemical selective detection of trace amount of Cu2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hui; Yan, Jia; She, Xiaojie; Xu, Li; Xia, Jiexiang; Xu, Yuanguo; Song, Yanhua; Huang, Liying; Li, Huaming

    2014-01-01

    Graphene-analogue nanostructures defined as a new kind of promising materials with unique electronic, surface and optical properties have received much attention in the fields of catalysis, energy storage, sensing and electronic devices. Due to the distinctive structure characteristics of the graphene-analogue materials, they brought novel and amazing properties. Herein, graphene-analogue carbon nitride (GA-C3N4) was synthesized by high-yield, large-scale thermal exfoliation from the graphitic C3N4-based intercalation compound. Graphene-analogue carbon nitride exhibited 2D thin-layer structure with 6-9 atomic thickness, a high specific surface area of 30.1 m2 g-1, increased photocurrent responses and improved electron transport ability, which could give rise to enhancing the photocatalytic activity and stability. The graphene-analogue carbon nitride had a new features that could make it suitable as a sensor for Cu2+ determination. So GA-C3N4 is a new but promising candidate for heavy metal ions (Cu2+) determination in water environment. The photocatalytic mechanism and photoelectrochemical selective sensing of Cu2+ were also discussed.Graphene-analogue nanostructures defined as a new kind of promising materials with unique electronic, surface and optical properties have received much attention in the fields of catalysis, energy storage, sensing and electronic devices. Due to the distinctive structure characteristics of the graphene-analogue materials, they brought novel and amazing properties. Herein, graphene-analogue carbon nitride (GA-C3N4) was synthesized by high-yield, large-scale thermal exfoliation from the graphitic C3N4-based intercalation compound. Graphene-analogue carbon nitride exhibited 2D thin-layer structure with 6-9 atomic thickness, a high specific surface area of 30.1 m2 g-1, increased photocurrent responses and improved electron transport ability, which could give rise to enhancing the photocatalytic activity and stability. The graphene-analogue

  9. Reversal of methylcholanthrene-induced changes in mouse prostates in vitro by retinoic acid and its analogues.

    PubMed Central

    Lasnitzki, I.

    1976-01-01

    The influence of vitamin A-related compounds on hyperplasia and metaplasia induced by methylcholanthrene was studied in mouse prostate glands in organ culture. Methylcholanthrene was found to cause extensive hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia of the prostatic epithelium which persisted after withdrawal of the carcinogen. The retinoids included retinoic acid and 6 of its structural analogues synthesized in an attempt to enhance the anticarcinogenic action and reduce the toxicity of the parent compound. These where the cyclopentenyl analogus 7699, A2-retinoic acid, 13-cis-alpha-retinoic acid and 3 aromatic analogues. Administration of the compounds following the carcinogen reduced the extent and incidence of hyperplasia significantly and with the exception of one compound reversed the squamous metaplasia. Two of the aromatic analogues, one with a terminal ethylamide group (1430), and the other with a terminal ethylester group (9369), proved to be the most potent inhibitors, followed by compound 7699 and (9369), proved to be the most potent inhibitors, followed by compound 7699 and retinoic acid. A2-retinoic acid and 13-cis-alpha-retinoic acid showed the lowest activity. The inhibition of hyperplasia appeared to be mediated via a reduction of DNA synthesis. It seemed unrelated to either the biological growth-promoting activity of the compounds or their surface-active properties. It is tentatively suggested that vitamin A and its analogues may act as hormones. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:987794

  10. Inhibition by amiloride analogues of Na sup + -dependent hexose uptake in LLC-PK sub 1 /Cl sub 4 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.S.; Shaffer, C.; Cragoe, E.J. Jr. Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories, West Point, PA )

    1987-08-01

    Amiloride and four analogues of amiloride were shown to inhibit Na{sup +}-dependent, phlorizin-sensitive hexose uptake by a clone of pig kidney cells, LLC-PK{sub 1}/Cl{sub 4}. The analogues tested were: 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (EIPA), 5-(N-methyl-N-isobutyl)amiloride (MIBA), 3{prime},4{prime}-dichlorobenzamil, and phenamil. The transport substrate was the nonmetabolizable glucose analogue {alpha}-methyl-D-glucoside. Blockade of Na{sup +}-K{sup +} transport at the basolateral membranes or removal of divalent cations from the assay medium had little effect on the initial rate of hexose uptake, whereas MIBA remained an effective inhibitor under both conditions. The inhibitions by EIPA of Na{sup +}-H{sup +} exchange and hexose-dependent Na{sup +} uptake could be distinguished by appropriate choice of concentrations of the inhibitor. Hexose transport inhibition does not appear to be secondary to other known effects of the amilorides. Inhibition by all analogues is enhanced when they are tested in low (2 mM) Na{sup +} medium, where they show half-maximal inhibition in the range of 100-300 {mu}M. More detailed kinetic analysis of inhibition by EIPA shows it to be competitive with Na{sup +} with a K{sub i} of 73-107 {mu}M. It is concluded that the amilorides are acting directly on the hexose transporter.

  11. Inhibition of Human Cancer Cell Growth by Analogues of Antimycin A.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanmin; Chevalier, Arnaud; Khdour, Omar M; Soto, Larisa Morales; Hecht, Sidney M

    2017-06-08

    In a recent study, several new derivatives of antimycin A (AMA) were produced by means of a novel transacylation reaction, and these were shown to mediate selective toxicity toward cultured A549 human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cells, as compared with WI-38 normal human lung fibroblasts. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether the analogues all expressed their cytotoxicity by the same mechanism. This was done by studying the effects of the compounds in several types of cell lines. In comparison with 2-O-methylantimycin, which acts at the locus of Bcl-2, none of the new derivatives exhibited a difference in cytotoxicity toward cells expressing different levels of Bcl-2. In cell lines that over- or underexpress estrogen or Her2 receptors, AMA analogue 2 exhibited Her2 receptor dependency at low concentration. Three compounds (1, 4, and 6) exhibited concentration-dependent increases in reactive oxygen species, with 6 being especially potent. Compounds 5 and 6 diminished mitochondrial membrane potential more potently than AMA, and 1 also displayed enhanced activity relative to 2-4. Interestingly, only 1 and AMA displayed strong inhibition of the respiratory chain, as measured by monitoring NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) oxidase. Because four of the analogues have positively charged substituents, two of these (4 and 6) were studied to see whether the observed effects were due to much higher level of accumulation within the mitochondria. Their presence in the mitochondria was not dramatically enhanced. Neither of the two presently characterized mechanisms of cell killing by AMA can fully account for the observed results. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Tacrine and its analogues impair mitochondrial function and bioenergetics: a lipidomic analysis in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Melo, Tânia; Videira, Romeu A; André, Sónia; Maciel, Elisabete; Francisco, Carla S; Oliveira-Campos, Ana M; Rodrigues, Lígia M; Domingues, Maria R M; Peixoto, Francisco; Manuel Oliveira, M

    2012-03-01

    Tacrine is an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor used as a cognitive enhancer in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, its low therapeutic efficiency and a high incidence of side effects have limited its clinical use. In this study, the molecular mechanisms underlying the impact on brain activity of tacrine and two novel tacrine analogues (T1, T2) were approached by focusing on three aspects: (i) their effects on brain cholinesterase activity; (ii) perturbations on electron transport chain enzymes activities of non-synaptic brain mitochondria; and (iii) the role of mitochondrial lipidome changes induced by these compounds on mitochondrial bioenergetics. Brain effects were evaluated 18 h after the administration of a single dose (75.6 μmol/kg) of tacrine or tacrine analogues. The three compounds promoted a significant reduction in brain AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activities. Additionally, tacrine was shown to be more efficient in brain AChE inhibition than T2 tacrine analogue and less active than T1 tacrine analogue, whereas BuChE inhibition followed the order: T1 > T2 > tacrine. The studies using non-synaptic brain mitochondria show that all the compounds studied disturbed brain mitochondrial bioenergetics mainly via the inhibition of complex I activity. Furthermore, the activity of complex IV is also affected by tacrine and T1 treatments while FoF(1) -ATPase is only affected by tacrine. Therefore, the compounds' toxicity as regards brain mitochondria, which follows the order: tacrine > T1 > T2, does not correlate with their ability to inhibit brain cholinesterase enzymes. Lipidomics approaches show that phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is the most abundant phospholipids (PL) class in non-synaptic brain mitochondria and cardiolipin (CL) present the greatest diversity of molecular species. Tacrine induced significant perturbations in the mitochondrial PL profile, which were detected by means of changes in the relative abundance of

  13. Biological and structural characterization of new linear gomesin analogues with improved therapeutic indices.

    PubMed

    Fázio, Marcos A; Jouvensal, Laurence; Vovelle, Françoise; Bulet, Philippe; Miranda, M Terêsa M; Daffre, Sirlei; Miranda, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Gomesin (Gm) is a potent antimicrobial peptide isolated from the spider Acanthoscurria gomesiana. The two disulfide bridges Cys(2,15) and Cys(6,11) facilitate the folding of the molecule in a beta-hairpin structure, conferring on the peptide a high stability in human plasma. We report herein biological and structural features of new linear Gm analogues, obtained by combining the removal of both disulfide bridges and the incorporation of a D- or L-proline. Regarding their biological properties, two analogues, namely, [D-Thr(2,6,11,15), Pro(9)]-D-Gm and [Thr(2,6,11,15), D-Pro(9)]-Gm, are as potent as Gm against Candida albicans and only fourfold less against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In addition, at 100 microM they are approximately threefold less hemolytic than Gm. The best therapeutic indices were found for [D-Thr(2,6,11,15), Pro(9)]-D-Gm and for [(Des-pGlu(1), -Thr(2), -Arg(3)), Thr(6,11,15), D-Pro(9)]-Gm with a 32-fold increase of their activity against bacteria, and from 128- to 512-fold against yeast when compared with Gm. Regarding the stability, [D-Thr(2,6,11,15), Pro(9)]-D-Gm appeared to be the most resistant in human serum, along with [D-Thr(2,6,11,15), Pro(8)]-D-Gm and [Thr(2,6,11,15), D-Arg(4,16), D-Pro(9)]-Gm. When evaluating their conformation by CD spectroscopy in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), most linear analogues display beta-conformation characteristics. Moreover, considering its high therapeutic index and stability in serum, [D-Thr(2,6,11,15), Pro(9)]-D-Gm was further analyzed by NMR spectroscopy. (1)H NMR experiments in SDS micelles demonstrated that [D-Thr(2,6,11,15), Pro(9)]-D-Gm presents a conformation very similar to that of Gm. In our search for Gm analogues with enhanced potential for drug development, we demonstrated that designing cysteine-free analogues can improve the therapeutic index of Gm derivatives.

  14. Terrestrial research in Mars analogue environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, G.

    Fatty acids (FA) content was measured by GC-MS SIM technique in Sulfide ores of present day (Mid-Atlantic Ridge and others) and ancient (Ural Paleocene, Russia) black smokers; Early Proterozoic kerites of Volyn; Siberian, Canadian and Antarctic permafrosts and also in rocks of East-European platform Achaean crystalline basement. Analysis was shown presence those and only those fatty acids which are specific to microorganisms. FA with 12 up 19 of carbon atoms are thought to be a bacterial biomass sign. 3-Hydroxy fatty acids also found in samples and are strong specific markers of gram-negative bacteria. Cultivation yield living bacteria in some cases. The East-European platform Achaean crystalline basement rocks opened by Vorotilov Deep Well (VDW) drilled through Puchezh-Katunski impact structure were studied within depths 2575 - 2805 m. 34 microbial lipid markers were detected by GC-MS and 22 species were identified. Bacteria of g. Bacillus reached 6,8 % in subsurface communities. However, members of gg. Clostridium (37,1 - 33,2 %) and Rhodococcus (27,6 - 33,7 %) were absolute dominants within studied depth interval. Some lipid patterns of kerite samples could be assessed to definite genera or, in special cases, to species of contemporary microorganisms. For instance, 2-hydroxylauric acid is specific to Pseudomonas putida group or Acinetobacter spp., and hydroxymyristic together with hydroxypalmitic are specific to P.cepacea and cyanobacteria. 3-hydroxystearic acid was known as component of Acetobacter diazothrophycus and Gloebacter violaceous cyanobacterium. 10-hydroxystearic acid associated with Nocardia spp., which oxidizes oleic acid in organic substrates. 10-methylhexadecanoic (10Me16) acid together with 10Me14, 10Me15 and 10Me17 analogues are markers of actinomycetes. Significant part of Black Smokers organic matter is probably biogenic. Fatty acid features strongly assigns it to bacterial, microeucariotic and planta cells. Par example 3-hydroxy acids are

  15. Spectral analysis of lunar analogue samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offringa, Marloes; Foing, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Analyses of samples derived from terrestrial analogue sites are used to study lunar processes in their geological context (Foing, Stoker, Ehrenfreund, 2011). For this study samples from the volcanic region of the Eifel, Germany collected during field campaigns (Foing et al., 2010), are analyzed with a variety of spectrometers. The aim is to obtain a database of analyzed samples that could be used as a reference for future in situ measurements. Equipment used in the laboratory consists of a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, an X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer, a Raman laser spectrometer, as well as UV-VIS and NIR reflectance spectrometers. The Raman, UV-VIS and NIR are also used in combination with the EXoGeoLab mock-up lander during field campaigns (Foing, Stoker, Ehrenfreund, 2011). Calibration of the UV-VIS and NIR reflectance spectrometers is the main focus of this research in order to obtain the clearest spectra. The calibration of the UV-VIS and NIR reflectance spectrometers requires the use of a good light source as well as suitable optical fibers to create a signal that covers the widest range in wavelengths available. To eliminate noise towards the edges of this range, multiple measurements are averaged and data is processed by dividing the signal by reference spectra. Calibration of the devices by creating a new dark and reference spectra has to take place after every sample measurement. In this way we take into account changes that occur in the signal due to the eating of the devices during the measurements. Moreover, the integration time is adjusted to obtain a clear signal without leading to oversaturation in the reflectance spectrum. The typical integration times for the UV-VIS reflectance spectrometer vary between 1 - 18 s, depending on the amount of daylight during experiments. For the NIR reflectance spectrometer the integration time resulting in the best signals is approximately 150 ms in combination with a broad spectrum light

  16. A novel benzonitrile analogue inhibits rhinovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Céline; Querol-Audí, Jordi; Roche, Manon; Franco, David; Froeyen, Mathy; Guerra, Pablo; Terme, Thierry; Vanelle, Patrice; Verdaguer, Núria; Neyts, Johan; Leyssen, Pieter

    2014-10-01

    To study the characteristics and the mode of action of the anti-rhinovirus compound 4-[1-hydroxy-2-(4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrophenyl)ethyl]benzonitrile (LPCRW_0005). The antiviral activity of LPCRW_0005 was evaluated in a cytopathic effect reduction assay against a panel of human rhinovirus (HRV) strains. To unravel its precise molecular mechanism of action, a time-of-drug-addition study, resistance selection and thermostability assays were performed. The crystal structure of the HRV14/LPCRW_0005 complex was elucidated as well. LPCRW_0005 proved to be a selective inhibitor of the replication of HRV14 (EC(50) of 2 ± 1 μM). Time-of-drug-addition studies revealed that LPCRW_0005 interferes with the earliest stages of virus replication. Phenotypic drug-resistant virus variants were obtained (≥30-fold decrease in susceptibility to the inhibitory effect of LPCRW_0005), which carried either an A150T or A150V amino acid substitution in the VP1 capsid protein. The link between the mutant genotype and drug-resistant phenotype was confirmed by reverse genetics. Cross-resistance studies and thermostability assays revealed that LPCRW_0005 has a similar mechanism of action to the capsid binder pleconaril. Elucidation of the crystal structure of the HRV14/LPCRW_0005 complex revealed the existence of multiple hydrophobic and polar interactions between the VP1 pocket and LPCRW_0005. LPCRW_0005 is a novel inhibitor of HRV14 replication that acts as a capsid binder. The compound has a chemical structure that is markedly smaller than that of other capsid binders. Structural studies show that LPCRW_0005, in contrast to pleconaril, leaves the toe end of the pocket in VP1 empty. This suggests that extended analogues of LPCRW_0005 that fill the full cavity could be more potent inhibitors of rhinovirus replication. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  17. Engineering of Insulin Receptor Isoform-Selective Insulin Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Glendorf, Tine; Stidsen, Carsten E.; Norrman, Mathias; Nishimura, Erica; Sørensen, Anders R.; Kjeldsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background The insulin receptor (IR) exists in two isoforms, A and B, and the isoform expression pattern is tissue-specific. The C-terminus of the insulin B chain is important for receptor binding and has been shown to contact the IR just adjacent to the region where the A and B isoforms differ. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of the C-terminus of the B chain in IR isoform binding in order to explore the possibility of engineering tissue-specific/liver-specific insulin analogues. Methodology/Principal Findings Insulin analogue libraries were constructed by total amino acid scanning mutagenesis. The relative binding affinities for the A and B isoform of the IR were determined by competition assays using scintillation proximity assay technology. Structural information was obtained by X-ray crystallography. Introduction of B25A or B25N mutations resulted in analogues with a 2-fold preference for the B compared to the A isoform, whereas the opposite was observed with a B25Y substitution. An acidic amino acid residue at position B27 caused an additional 2-fold selective increase in affinity for the receptor B isoform for analogues bearing a B25N mutation. Furthermore, the combination of B25H with either B27D or B27E also resulted in B isoform-preferential analogues (2-fold preference) even though the corresponding single mutation analogues displayed no differences in relative isoform binding affinity. Conclusions/Significance We have discovered a new class of IR isoform-selective insulin analogues with 2–4-fold differences in relative binding affinities for either the A or the B isoform of the IR compared to human insulin. Our results demonstrate that a mutation at position B25 alone or in combination with a mutation at position B27 in the insulin molecule confers IR isoform selectivity. Isoform-preferential analogues may provide new opportunities for developing insulin analogues with improved clinical benefits. PMID:21625452

  18. Theoretical study on absorption and emission spectra of adenine analogues.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongxia; Song, Qixia; Yang, Yan; Li, Yan; Wang, Haijun

    2014-04-01

    Fluorescent nucleoside analogues have attracted much attention in studying the structure and dynamics of nucleic acids in recent years. In the present work, we use theoretical calculations to investigate the structural and optical properties of four adenine analogues (termed as A1, A2, A3, and A4), and also consider the effects of aqueous solution and base pairing. The results show that the fluorescent adenine analogues can pair with thymine to form stable H-bonded WC base pairs. The excited geometries of both adenine analogues and WC base pairs are similar to the ground geometries. The absorption and emission maxima of adenine analogues are greatly red shifted compared with nature adenine, the oscillator strengths of A1 and A2 are stronger than A3 and A4 in both absorption and emission spectra. The calculated low-energy peaks in the absorption spectra are in good agreement with the experimental data. In general, the aqueous solution and base pairing can slightly red-shift both the absorption and emission maxima, and can increase the oscillator strengths of absorption spectra, but significantly decrease the oscillator strengths of A3 in emission spectra.

  19. Probing human red cone opsin activity with retinal analogues.

    PubMed

    Kono, Masahiro; Crouch, Rosalie K

    2011-03-25

    Retinal analogues have been used to probe the chromophore binding pocket and function of the rod visual pigment rhodopsin. Despite the high homology between rod and cone visual pigment proteins, conclusions drawn from rhodopsin studies should not necessarily be extrapolated to cone visual pigment proteins. In this study, the effects of full-length and truncated retinal analogues on the human red cone opsin's ability to activate transducin, the G protein in visual transduction, were assessed. The result with beta-ionone (6) confirms that a covalent bond is not necessary to deactivate the red cone opsin. In addition, several small compounds were found able to deactivate this opsin. However, as the polyene chain is extended in a trans configuration beyond the 9-carbon position, the analogues became agonists up to all-trans-retinal (3). The 22-carbon analogue (2) appeared to be neither an agonist nor an inverse agonist. Although the all-trans-C17 (5) analogue was an agonist, the 9-cis-C17 (11) compound was an inverse agonist, a result that differs from that with rhodopsin. These results suggest that the red cone opsin has a more open structure in the chromophore binding region than rhodopsin and its activation or deactivation as a G-protein receptor may be less selective than rhodopsin.

  20. Bioluminescent properties of obelin and aequorin with novel coelenterazine analogues.

    PubMed

    Gealageas, Ronan; Malikova, Natalia P; Picaud, Sandrine; Borgdorff, Aren J; Burakova, Ludmila P; Brûlet, Philippe; Vysotski, Eugene S; Dodd, Robert H

    2014-04-01

    The main analytical use of Ca(2+)-regulated photoproteins from luminous coelenterates is for real-time non-invasive visualization of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) dynamics in cells and whole organisms. A limitation of this approach for in vivo deep tissue imaging is the fact that blue light emitted by the photoprotein is highly absorbed by tissue. Seven novel coelenterazine analogues were synthesized and their effects on the bioluminescent properties of recombinant obelin from Obelia longissima and aequorin from Aequorea victoria were evaluated. Only analogues having electron-donating groups (m-OCH3 and m-OH) on the C6 phenol moiety or an extended resonance system at the C8 position (1-naphthyl and α-styryl analogues) showed a significant red shift of light emission. Of these, only the α-styryl analogue displayed a sufficiently high light intensity to allow eventual tissue penetration. The possible suitability of this compound for in vivo assays was corroborated by studies with aequorin which allowed the monitoring of [Ca(2+)]i dynamics in cultured CHO cells and in hippocampal brain slices. Thus, the α-styryl coelenterazine analogue might be potentially useful for non-invasive, in vivo bioluminescence imaging in deep tissues of small animals.

  1. Analogue earthquakes and seismic cycles: experimental modelling across timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenau, Matthias; Corbi, Fabio; Dominguez, Stephane

    2017-05-01

    Earth deformation is a multi-scale process ranging from seconds (seismic deformation) to millions of years (tectonic deformation). Bridging short- and long-term deformation and developing seismotectonic models has been a challenge in experimental tectonics for more than a century. Since the formulation of Reid's elastic rebound theory 100 years ago, laboratory mechanical models combining frictional and elastic elements have been used to study the dynamics of earthquakes. In the last decade, with the advent of high-resolution monitoring techniques and new rock analogue materials, laboratory earthquake experiments have evolved from simple spring-slider models to scaled analogue models. This evolution was accomplished by advances in seismology and geodesy along with relatively frequent occurrences of large earthquakes in the past decade. This coincidence has significantly increased the quality and quantity of relevant observations in nature and triggered a new understanding of earthquake dynamics. We review here the developments in analogue earthquake modelling with a focus on those seismotectonic scale models that are directly comparable to observational data on short to long timescales. We lay out the basics of analogue modelling, namely scaling, materials and monitoring, as applied in seismotectonic modelling. An overview of applications highlights the contributions of analogue earthquake models in bridging timescales of observations including earthquake statistics, rupture dynamics, ground motion, and seismic-cycle deformation up to seismotectonic evolution.

  2. Properties, metabolisms, and applications of (L)-proline analogues.

    PubMed

    Bach, Thi Mai Hoa; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    Due to the unique role of L-proline in the folding and structure of protein, a variety of synthetic proline analogues have been developed. L-Proline analogues have been proven to be valuable reagents for studying cellular metabolism and the regulation of macromolecule synthesis in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In addition to these fundamental researches, they are useful compounds for industrial use. For instance, microorganisms that overproduce L-proline have been obtained by isolating mutants resistant to L-proline analogues. They are also promising candidates for tuning the biological, pharmaceutical, or physicochemical properties of naturally occurring or de novo designed peptides. Among L-proline analogues, L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (L-AZC) is a toxic non-proteinogenic amino acid originally found in lily of the valley plants and trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline (4-L-THOP) is the most abundant component of mammalian collagen. Many hydroxyprolines (HOPs), such as 4-L-THOP and cis-4-hydroxy-L-proline (4-L-CHOP), are useful chiral building blocks for the organic synthesis of pharmaceuticals. In addition, L-AZC and 4-L-CHOP, which are potent inhibitors of cell growth, have been tested for their antitumor activity in tissue culture and in vivo. In this review, we describe the recent discoveries regarding the physiological properties and microbial production and metabolism of L-proline analogues, particularly L-AZC and HOPs. Their applications in fundamental research and industrial use are also discussed.

  3. Review of Insulin and its Analogues in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Mane, Krishnappa; Chaluvaraju, KC; Niranjan, MS; Zaranappa, TR; Manjuthej, TR

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disorder where in human body does not produce or properly uses insulin, a hormone that is required to convert sugar, starches and other food into energy. Diabetes finally leads to more complications and to prevent these complications insulin and its analogues are used. After more than half a century of treating diabetics with animal insulin’s, recombinant DNA technologies and advanced protein chemistry made human insulin preparations available in the early 1980s. As the next step, over the last decade, insulin analogues were constructed by changing the structure of the native protein with the goal of improving the therapeutic properties of it, because the pharmacokinetic characteristics of rapid, intermediate and long-acting preparations of human insulin make it almost impossible to achieve sustained normoglycemia. The first clinically available insulin analogue, lispro, confirmed the hopes by showing that improved glycaemic control can be achieved without an increase in hypoglycaemic events. Two new insulin analogues, insulin glargine and insulin aspart, have recently been approved for clinical use in the United States and several other analogues are being intensively tested. PMID:24826038

  4. Effect of extrusion temperature and moisture content of corn flour on crystallinity and hardness of rice analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budi, Faleh Setia; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Budijanto, Slamet; Syah, Dahrul

    2015-12-01

    Rice analogues are food products made of broken rice and/or any other carbohydrate sources to have similar texture and shape as rice. They are usually made by hot extrusion processing. The hot extrusion process may change the crystallinity of starch and influence the characteristic of rice analogues. Therefore, this research aimed to study the effect of moisture content of incoming dough and temperature of extrusion process on the crystallinity and hardness of resulting rice analogues. The dough's were prepared by mixing of corn starch-flour with ratio 10/90 (w/w) and moisture content of 35%, 40% and 45% (w/w) and extrusion process were done at temperature of 70, 80, 90°C by using of twin screw extruder BEX-DS-2256 Berto. The analyses were done to determine the type of crystal, degree of crystallinity, and hardness of the resulting rice analogues. Our result showed that the enhancement of extrusion temperature from 70 - 90°C increased degree of crystallinity from 5.86 - 15.00% to 10.70 - 18.87% and hardness from 1.71 - 4.36 kg to 2.05 - 5.70 kg. The raising of dough moisture content from 35 - 45% decreased degree of crystallinity from 15.00 - 18.87% to 5.86 - 10.70% and hardness from 4.36 - 5.70 kg to 1.71 - 2.05 kg. The increase of degree of crystallinity correlated positively with the increase of hardness of rice analogues (r = 0.746, p = 0.05).

  5. Analogue modelling of syntectonic leucosomes in migmatitic schists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druguet, Elena; Carreras, Jordi

    2006-10-01

    Migmatites from the Cap de Creus tectonometamorphic belt display a wide variety of structures, from those formed when the leucosomes were melt-bearing, to those developed during solid-state deformation. The observed field structures have been modelled by means of analogue experiments. The materials used in the models are layered plasticine as a schist analogue, and chocolate as analogue of the crystallizing leucosome. A model for the development of syntectonic migmatites is proposed in which initial melt-bearing patches, preferentially formed within fertile pelitic layers, progressively evolve towards lens-shaped veins. Furthermore, heterogeneous deformation of anisotropic metasediments facilitates formation of extensional sites for further melt accumulation and transport. Melt crystallization implies a rapid increase in effective viscosity of leucosomes producing a reversal in competence contrast with respect to the enclosing schists. During the whole process, deformation localizes around crystallizing veins, giving rise to different and contrasting structures for melt-bearing and for solid-state stages.

  6. Synthesis, antiarrhythmic activity, and toxicological evaluation of mexiletine analogues.

    PubMed

    Roselli, Mariagrazia; Carocci, Alessia; Budriesi, Roberta; Micucci, Matteo; Toma, Maddalena; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Lovece, Angelo; Catalano, Alessia; Cavalluzzi, Maria Maddalena; Bruno, Claudio; De Palma, Annalisa; Contino, Marialessandra; Perrone, Maria Grazia; Colabufo, Nicola Antonio; Chiarini, Alberto; Franchini, Carlo; Ghelardini, Carla; Habtemariam, Solomon; Lentini, Giovanni

    2016-10-04

    Four mexiletine analogues have been tested for their antiarrhythmic, inotropic, and chronotropic effects on isolated guinea pig heart tissues and to assess calcium antagonist activity, in comparison with the parent compound mexiletine. All analogues showed from moderate to high antiarrhythmic activity. In particular, three of them (1b,c,e) were more active and potent than the reference drug, while exhibiting only modest or no negative inotropic and chronotropic effects and vasorelaxant activity, thus showing high selectivity of action. All compounds showed no cytotoxicity and 1b,c,d did not impair motor coordination. All in, these new analogues exhibit an interesting cardiovascular profile and deserve further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Design of novel CSA analogues as potential safeners and fungicides.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yang; Liu, Bin; Gou, Zhaopin; Li, Yao; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Yanqing; Yu, Shujing; Li, Yonghong; Sun, Dequn

    2015-02-15

    Study of safeners has been seldom reported in literature. In this work, a series of novel acylsulfamoylbenzamide analogues was designed and synthesized with newly developed safener cyprosulfamide (CSA) as the leading compound. The activity assay against the herbicide thiencarbazone-methyl (TCM) on maize revealed that fifteen compounds showed better protective effect than CSA on the fresh weight of aerial parts, twelve compounds exhibited better activity on the dry weight of aerial parts. Remarkably, two compounds (6Ih, 7II) had protective effect on the four aspects of TCM treated maize. Further antifungal assay showed their excellent activity against Physollospora piricola. The structure-activity relationships of CSA analogues as safeners and fungicides were discussed and it might be valuable for further molecular modification of new CSA analogues.

  8. New rubrolide analogues as inhibitors of photosynthesis light reactions.

    PubMed

    Varejão, Jodieh O S; Barbosa, Luiz C A; Ramos, Gabriela Álvarez; Varejão, Eduardo V V; King-Díaz, Beatriz; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas

    2015-04-01

    Natural products called rubrolides have been investigated as a model for the development of new herbicides that act on the photosynthesis apparatus. This study comprises a comprehensive analysis of the photosynthesis inhibitory ability of 27 new structurally diverse rubrolide analogues. In general, the results revealed that the compounds exhibited efficient inhibition of the photosynthetic process, but in some cases low water solubility may be a limiting factor. To elucidate their mode of action, the effects of the compounds on PSII and PSI, as well as their partial reaction on chloroplasts and the chlorophyll a fluorescence transients were measured. Our results showed that some of the most active rubrolide analogues act as a Hill reaction inhibitors at the QB level by interacting with the D1 protein at the reducing side of PSII. All of the active analogues follow Tice's rule of 5, which indicates that these compounds present physicochemical properties suitable for herbicides.

  9. A frame shifted disulfide bridged analogue of angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Boris; Kühn, Christian; Ehlert, Dennis K; Lindeberg, Gunnar; Lindman, Susanna; Karlén, Anders; Hallberg, Anders

    2003-03-20

    N-(2-Mercaptoethyl)glycine [NMGly] was incorporated into the 3 and 5 positions of angiotensin II and oxidized to give the corresponding cyclized disulfide c[NMGly(3,5)]Ang II. The binding affinity to the angiotensin II receptor (AT(1)) of this conformationally constrained analogue, which is related to the potent Ang II agonist c[Hcy(3,5)]Ang II, was examined. The analogue had no affinity to the AT(1) receptor. Theoretical conformational analysis was performed to compare the conformational characteristics of model compounds of c[Hcy(3,5)]Ang II and the frame shifted analogue c[NMGly(3,5)]Ang II in an attempt to explain the lack of affinity.

  10. Synthesis and antioxidant activity of a procyanidin B3 analogue.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Mirei; Nakanishi, Ikuo; Matsubayashi, Satoko; Imai, Kohei; Arai, Takuya; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichiro; Fukuhara, Kiyoshi

    2017-02-15

    Proanthocyanidin, an oligomer of catechin, is a natural antioxidant and a potent inhibitor of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1, which is involved in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis. We synthesized proanthocyanidin analogue 1, in which the geometry of one catechin molecule in procyanidin B3, a dimer of (+)-catechin, is constrained to be planar. The antioxidant activities of the compounds were evaluated in terms of their capacities to scavenge galvinoxyl radicals, and results demonstrate that while procyanidin was 3.8 times more potent than (+)-catechin, the radical scavenging activity of proanthocyanidin analogue 1 was further increased to 1.9 times that of procyanidin B3. This newly designed proanthocyanidin analogue 1 may be a promising lead compound for the treatment of arteriosclerosis and related cerebrovascular diseases.

  11. Migrastatin analogues target fascin to block tumour metastasis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Yang, Shengyu; Jakoncic, Jean; Zhang, J Jillian; Huang, Xin-Yun

    2010-04-15

    Tumour metastasis is the primary cause of death of cancer patients. Development of new therapeutics preventing tumour metastasis is urgently needed. Migrastatin is a natural product secreted by Streptomyces, and synthesized migrastatin analogues such as macroketone are potent inhibitors of metastatic tumour cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Here we show that these migrastatin analogues target the actin-bundling protein fascin to inhibit its activity. X-ray crystal structural studies reveal that migrastatin analogues bind to one of the actin-binding sites on fascin. Our data demonstrate that actin cytoskeletal proteins such as fascin can be explored as new molecular targets for cancer treatment, in a similar manner to the microtubule protein tubulin.

  12. Largazole Analogues Embodying Radical Changes in the Depsipeptide Ring: Development of a More Selective and Highly Potent Analogue.

    PubMed

    Almaliti, Jehad; Al-Hamashi, Ayad A; Negmeldin, Ahmed T; Hanigan, Christin L; Perera, Lalith; Pflum, Mary Kay H; Casero, Robert A; Tillekeratne, L M Viranga

    2016-12-08

    A number of analogues of the marine-derived histone deacetylase inhibitor largazole incorporating major structural changes in the depsipeptide ring were synthesized. Replacing the thiazole-thiazoline fragment of largazole with a bipyridine group gave analogue 7 with potent cell growth inhibitory activity and an activity profile similar to that of largazole, suggesting that conformational change accompanying switching hybridization from sp(3) to sp(2) at C-7 is well tolerated. Analogue 7 was more class I selective compared to largazole, with at least 464-fold selectivity for class I HDAC proteins over class II HDAC6 compared to a 22-fold selectivity observed with largazole. To our knowledge 7 represents the first example of a potent and highly cytotoxic largazole analogue not containing a thiazoline ring. The elimination of a chiral center derived from the unnatural amino acid R-α-methylcysteine makes the molecule more amenable to chemical synthesis, and coupled with its increased class I selectivity, 7 could serve as a new lead compound for developing selective largazole analogues.

  13. Stream food web response to a salmon carcass analogue addition in two central Idaho, U.S.A. streams

    PubMed Central

    KOHLER, ANDRE E; RUGENSKI, AMANDA; TAKI, DOUG

    2008-01-01

    suggest that SCA addition successfully increased periphyton and macroinvertebrate biomass with no detectable response in streamwater nutrient concentrations. Correspondingly, no change in nutrient limitation status was detected based on dissolved inorganic nitrogen to soluble reactive phosphorus ratios (DIN/SRP) and nutrient-diffusing substrata experiments. Salmon carcass analogues appear to increase freshwater productivity. Salmon carcass analogues represent a pathogen-free nutrient enhancement tool that mimics natural trophic transfer pathways, can be manufactured using recycled fish products, and is easily transported; however, salmon carcass analogues should not be viewed as a replacement for naturally spawning salmon and the important ecological processes they provide.

  14. Synthesis of daidzin analogues as potential agents for alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guang-Yao; Li, Dian-Jun; Keung, Wing Ming

    2003-09-01

    Daidzin, the active principle of an herbal remedy for 'alcohol addiction', has been shown to reduce alcohol consumption in all laboratory animals tested to date. Correlation studies using structural analogues of daidzin suggests that it acts by raising the monoamine oxidase (MAO)/mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2) activity ratio (J. Med. Chem. 2000, 43, 4169). Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies on the 7-O-substituted analogues of daidzin have revealed structural features important for ALDH-2 and MAO inhibition (J. Med. Chem. 2001, 44, 3320). We here evaluated effects of substitutions at 2, 5, 6, 8, 3' and 4' positions of daidzin on its potencies for ALDH-2 and MAO inhibition. Results show that analogues with 4'-substituents that are small, polar and with hydrogen bonding capacities are most potent ALDH-2 inhibitors, whereas those that are non-polar and with electron withdrawing capacities are potent MAO inhibitors. Analogues with a 5-OH group are less potent ALDH-2 inhibitors but are more potent MAO inhibitors. All the 2-, 6-, 8- and 3'-substituted analogues tested so far do not inhibit ALDH-2 and/or have decreased potencies for MAO inhibition. This, together with the results obtained from previous studies, suggests that a potent antidipsotropic analogue would be a 4',7-disubstituted isoflavone. The 4'-substituent should be small, polar, and with hydrogen bonding capacities such as, -OH and -NH(2); whereas the 7-substituent should be a straight-chain alkyl with a terminal polar function such as -(CH(2))(n)-OH with 2< or =n < or =6, -(CH(2))(n)-COOH with 5< or =n < or =10, or -(CH(2))(n)-NH(2) with n > or =4.

  15. No Spatial Analogue - Novel Climates and Disappearing Climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, E. M.; Dahinden, F.; Knutti, R.

    2016-12-01

    Will climate change bring my hometown the climate of my holiday resort? The concept of spatial climate analogues - the idea of identifying a location with a present-day climate similar to the one projected elsewhere - is potentially very powerful in communicating climate change. We use 35 CMIP5 models to test the suitability of the spatial analogue concept and rigorously quantify uncertainties induced by internal variability and structural and parametric model uncertainties.For individual seasons and individual meteorological variables such as temperature or precipitation good analogues can be found for many places across the world. However, we demonstrate that when accounting for annual cycles in both temperature and precipitation, it is impossible to find good analogues for many places across the world. For large land fractions, primarily in the tropics and subtropics, there are no present-day analogues that match the projected annual cycles of future temperature and precipitation. Consequently, these locations experience the emergence of novel climates. Likewise, a considerable fraction of today's climates, mainly found in the tropics, subtropics and polar north, is anticipated to disappear in the future. While the exact locations of novel and disappearing climates somewhat differ across models, the overall latitudinal gradients and the land fractions affected for a certain level of global warming are remarkably consistent across models. The novel and disappearing climates may have serious consequences for impacts that are sensitive to the whole annual cycle of temperature and precipitation. For individual seasons however, spatial analogues may still be a powerful tool for climate change communication if uncertainties are rigorously quantified and carefully communicated.

  16. The Object-analogue approach for probabilistic forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frediani, M. E.; Hopson, T. M.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Hacker, J.

    2015-12-01

    The object-analogue is a new method to estimate forecast uncertainty and to derive probabilistic predictions of gridded forecast fields over larger regions rather than point locations. The method has been developed for improving the forecast of 10-meter wind speed over the northeast US, and it can be extended to other forecast variables, vertical levels, and other regions. The object-analogue approach combines the analog post-processing technique (Hopson 2005; Hamill 2006; Delle Monache 2011) with the Method for Object-based Diagnostic Evaluation (MODE) for forecast verification (Davis et al 2006a, b). Originally, MODE is used to verify mainly precipitation forecasts using features of a forecast region represented by an object. The analog technique is used to reduce the NWP systematic and random errors of a gridded forecast field. In this study we use MODE-derived objects to characterize the wind fields forecasts into attributes such as object area, centroid location, and intensity percentiles, and apply the analogue concept to these objects. The object-analogue method uses a database of objects derived from reforecasts and their respective reanalysis. Given a real-time forecast field, it searches the database and selects the top-ranked objects with the most similar set of attributes using the MODE fuzzy logic algorithm for object matching. The attribute probabilities obtained with the set of selected object-analogues are used to derive a multi-layer probabilistic prediction. The attribute probabilities are combined into three uncertainty layers that address the main concerns of most applications: location, area, and magnitude. The multi-layer uncertainty can be weighted and combined or used independently in such that it provides a more accurate prediction, adjusted according to the application interest. In this study we present preliminary results of the object-analogue method. Using a database with one hundred storms we perform a leave-one-out cross-validation to

  17. Relationship between antimold activity and molecular structure of cinnamaldehyde analogues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Shujun; Kong, Xianchao

    2013-03-01

    A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling of the antimold activity of cinnamaldehyde analogues against of Aspergillus niger and Paecilomyces variotii was presented. The molecular descriptors of cinnamaldehyde analogues were calculated by the CODESSA program, and these descriptors were selected by best multi-linear regression method (BMLR). Satisfactory multilinear regression models of Aspergillus niger and Paecilomyces variotii were obtained with R(2)=0.9099 and 0.9444, respectively. The models were also satisfactorily validated using internal validation and leave one out validation. The QSAR models provide the guidance for further synthetic work. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Naturally occurring crystalline phases: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Haaker, R.F.; Ewing, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Naturally occurring mineral analogues to crystalline phases that are constituents of crystalline radioactive waste forms provide a basis for comparison by which the long-term stability of these phases may be estimated. The crystal structures and the crystal chemistry of the following natural analogues are presented: baddeleyite, hematite, nepheline; pollucite, scheelite;sodalite, spinel, apatite, monazite, uraninite, hollandite-priderite, perovskite, and zirconolite. For each phase in geochemistry, occurrence, alteration and radiation effects are described. A selected bibliography for each phase is included.

  19. Non-natural acetogenin analogues as potent Trypanosoma brucei inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Florence, Gordon J.; Fraser, Andrew L.; Gould, Eoin R.; King, Elizabeth F.; Menzies, Stefanie K.; Morris, Joanne C.; Tulloch, Lindsay B.; Smith, Terry K.

    2015-01-01

    A series of novel bis-tetrahydropyran 1,4-triazole analogues based on the acetogenin framework display low micromolar trypanocidal activities towards both bloodstream and insect forms of Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African sleeping sickness. A divergent synthetic strategy was adopted for the synthesis of the key tetrahydropyran intermediates to enable rapid access to diastereochemical variation either side of the 1,4-triazole core. The resulting diastereomeric analogues displayed varying degrees of trypanocidal activity and selectivity in structure activity relationship studies. PMID:25145275

  20. Rotating black hole solutions in relativistic analogue gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomelli, Luca; Liberati, Stefano

    2017-09-01

    Simulation and experimental realization of acoustic black holes in analogue gravity systems have lead to a novel understanding of relevant phenomena such as Hawking radiation or superradiance. We explore here the possibility of using relativistic systems for simulating rotating black hole solutions and possibly get an acoustic analogue of a Kerr black hole. In doing so, we demonstrate a precise relation between nonrelativistic and relativistic solutions and provide a new class of vortex solutions for relativistic systems. Such solutions might be used in the future as a test bed in numerical simulations as well as concrete experiments.

  1. On slow light as a black hole analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unruh, W. G.; Schützhold, R.

    2003-07-01

    Although slow light (electromagnetically induced transparency) would seem an ideal medium in which to institute a “dumb hole” (black hole analogue), it suffers from a number of problems. We show that the high phase velocity in the slow light regime ensures that the system cannot be used as an analogue displaying Hawking radiation. Even though an appropriately designed slow-light setup may simulate classical features of black holes—such as horizon, mode mixing, “Bogoliubov” coefficients, etc.—it does not reproduce the related quantum effects.

  2. Synthesis and antihistamine evaluations of novel loratadine analogues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Wang, Juan; Lin, Yan; Si-Ma, Li-Feng; Wang, Dong-hua; Chen, Li-Gong; Liu, Deng-Ke

    2011-08-01

    A series of loratadine analogues containing hydroxyl group and chiral center were synthesized. The effect of the synthesized compounds on the histamine-induced contractions of guinea-pig ileum muscles was studied. In addition, the in vivo asthma-relieving effect of the analogues in the histamine induced asthmatic reaction in guinea-pigs was determined. Most of the compounds exhibited definite H(1) antihistamine activity. The S-enantiomers, compounds 2, 4 and 8, are more potent than the R-enantiomers, compounds 1, 3 and 7. Compound 6 was the most active one among the eight synthesized compounds.

  3. Fluorescent diethylcarbamazine analogues: sites of accumulation in Brugia malayi.

    PubMed

    Junnila, Amy; Bohle, D Scott; Prichard, Roger; Perepichka, Inna; Spina, Carla

    2007-01-01

    New fluorescein and rhodamine B-labeled antifilarial drug DEC analogues for use in drug localization studies with confocal microscopy have been prepared by a high-yield three-step synthesis. The resulting beta-amine-substituted DEC analogue has a single ethyl substituent which is beta-aminated to accommodate the fluorophore of either fluorescein isothiocyananate or rhodamine B. Confocal microscopy is used to show that the drug accumulates in the adult filarial worms in the pharynx, esophagus, and near the nerve ring of all adults, as well as in the uteri and vulva and the testes of the females and males.

  4. MNDO Study of Boron-Nitrogen Analogues of Buckminsterfullerene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    C1 2B 2 4N 24 ) and (@B3 0 N3 0 ) are studied. The heats of formation of such 60-atom systems from benzene, naphthalene and their BN analogues...C!2B 2 4 N2 4 ) and @B 30 N3 0 ) are studied. The heats of formation of such 60-atom systems from benzene. naphthalene and their BN analogues are... heats of formation for benzene, naphthalene and borazine with experimental values. It is seen that the MNDO calculation overestimates all of these

  5. Rapid on-site detection of ephedrine and its analogues used as adulterants in slimming dietary supplements by TLC-SERS.

    PubMed

    Lv, Diya; Cao, Yan; Lou, Ziyang; Li, Shujin; Chen, Xiaofei; Chai, Yifeng; Lu, Feng

    2015-02-01

    Ephedrine and its analogues are in the list of prohibited substance in adulteration to botanical dietary supplements (BDS) for their uncontrollable stimulating side effects. However, they were always adulterated illegally in BDS to promote losing weight. In order to avoid detection, various kinds of ephedrine analogues were added rather than ephedrine itself. This has brought about great difficulties in authentication of BDS. In this study, we put forward for the first time a method which combined thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to directly identify trace adulterant. Ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, and norephedrine were mixed and used in this method to develop an analytical model. As a result, the four analogues were separated efficiently in TLC analysis, and trace-components and low-background SERS detection was realized. The limit of detection (LOD) of the four analogues was 0.01 mg/mL. Eight common Raman peaks (△υ = 620, 1003, 1030, 1159, 1181, 1205, 1454, 1603 cm(-1)) were extracted experimentally and statistically to characterize the common feature of ephedrine analogues. A TLC-SERS method coupled with common-peak model was adopted to examine nine practical samples, two of which were found to be adulterated with ephedrine analogues. Identification results were then confirmed by UPLC-QTOF/MS analysis. The proposed method was simple, rapid, and accurate and can also be employed to trace adulterant identification even when there are no available reference derivatives on-site or unknown types of ephedrine analogues are adulterated.

  6. Spectral characterization of Martian soil analogues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agresti, David G.

    1987-01-01

    As previously reported, reflectance spectra of iron oxide precipitated as ultrafine particles, unlike ordinary fine grained hematite, have significant similarities to reflectance spectra from the bright regions of Mars. These particles were characterized according to composition, magnetic properties, and particle size distribution. Mossbauer, magnetic susceptibility, and optical data were obtained for samples with a range of concentrations of iron oxide in silica gel of varying pore diameters. To analyze the Mossbauer spectra, a versatile fitting program was enhanced to provide user friendly screen input and theoretical models appropriate for the superparamagnetic spectra obtained.

  7. Photochemistry of nucleic acid bases and their thio- and aza-analogues in solution.

    PubMed

    Pollum, Marvin; Martínez-Fernández, Lara; Crespo-Hernández, Carlos E

    2015-01-01

    The steady-state and time-resolved photochemistry of the natural nucleic acid bases and their sulfur- and nitrogen-substituted analogues in solution is reviewed. Emphasis is given to the experimental studies performed over the last 3-5 years that showcase topical areas of scientific inquiry and those that require further scrutiny. Significant progress has been made toward mapping the radiative and nonradiative decay pathways of nucleic acid bases. There is a consensus that ultrafast internal conversion to the ground state is the primary relaxation pathway in the nucleic acid bases, whereas the mechanism of this relaxation and the level of participation of the (1)πσ*, (1) nπ*, and (3)ππ* states are still matters of debate. Although impressive research has been performed in recent years, the microscopic mechanism(s) by which the nucleic acid bases dissipate excess vibrational energy to their environment, and the role of the N-glycosidic group in this and in other nonradiative decay pathways, are still poorly understood. The simple replacement of a single atom in a nucleobase with a sulfur or nitrogen atom severely restricts access to the conical intersections responsible for the intrinsic internal conversion pathways to the ground state in the nucleic acid bases. It also enhances access to ultrafast and efficient inter-system crossing pathways that populate the triplet manifold in yields close to unity. Determining the coupled nuclear and electronic pathways responsible for the significantly different photochemistry in these nucleic acid base analogues serves as a convenient platform to examine the current state of knowledge regarding the photodynamic properties of the DNA and RNA bases from both experimental and computational perspectives. Further investigations should also aid in forecasting the prospective use of sulfur- and nitrogen-substituted base analogues in photochemotherapeutic applications.

  8. Effect of melatonin and analogues on corneal wound healing: involvement of Mt2 melatonin receptor.

    PubMed

    Crooke, Almudena; Guzman-Aranguez, Ana; Mediero, Aranzazu; Alarma-Estrany, Pilar; Carracedo, Gonzalo; Pelaez, Teresa; Peral, Assumpta; Pintor, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of melatonin and its analogues on rabbit corneal epithelial wound healing. New Zealand rabbits were anaesthetised and wounds were made by placing Whatman paper discs soaked in n-heptanol on the cornea. Melatonin and analogues (all 10 nmol) were instilled. Wound diameter was measured every 2 hours by means of fluorescein application with a Topcon SL-8Z slit lamp. Melatonin antagonists (all 10 nmol) were applied 2 hours before the application of the n-heptanol-soaked disc and then every 6 hours together with melatonin. To confirm the presence of MT2 receptors in corneal epithelial cells immunohistochemistry, Western blot and RT-PCR assays in native tissue and in rabbit corneal epithelial cells were performed. The tear components were extracted then processed by HPLC to quantify melatonin in tears. Migration assays revealed that melatonin and particularly the treatment with the MT2 agonist IIK7, accelerated the rate of healing (p < 0.001). The application of the non-selective melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole and the MT2 antagonist DH97 (but not prazosin), prevented the effect of melatonin on wound healing (both p < 0.001). Immunohistochemistry, Western blot and RT-PCR assays showed the presence of MT2 melatonin receptor in corneal epithelial cells. In addition, we have identified melatonin in tears and determined its daily variations. These data suggest that MT2 receptors are implicated in the effect of melatonin on corneal wound healing regulating migration rate. This suggests the potential use of melatonin and its analogues to enhance epithelial wound healing in ocular surface disease.

  9. Highly Stable, Amide-Bridged Autoinducing Peptide Analogues that Strongly Inhibit the AgrC Quorum Sensing Receptor in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Tal-Gan, Yftah; Ivancic, Monika; Cornilescu, Gabriel; Yang, Tian; Blackwell, Helen E

    2016-07-25

    Blocking quorum sensing (QS) pathways has attracted considerable interest as an approach to suppress virulence in bacterial pathogens. Toward this goal, we recently developed analogues of a native autoinducing peptide (AIP-III) signal that can inhibit AgrC-type QS receptors and attenuate virulence phenotypes in Staphylococcus aureus. Application of these compounds is limited, however, as they contain hydrolytically unstable thioester linkages and have only low aqueous solubilities. Herein, we report amide-linked AIP analogues with greatly enhanced hydrolytic stabilities and solubilities relative to our prior analogues, whilst maintaining strong potencies as AgrC receptor inhibitors in S. aureus. These compounds represent powerful tools for the study of QS. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Laboratory Analogues of Microdiamonds Present in Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colangeli, L.; Mennella, V.; Bussoletti, E.; Merluzzi, P.; Rotundi, A.; Stephens, J. R.

    1992-07-01

    The diamonds present in meteorites consist of tiny (average size 26 Angstrom) particles that have been examined in the laboratory (Lewis et al. 1987, 1989). Although various hypotheses about the formation have been formulated, many questions still remain (Anders et al. 1989). Detonation soots contain diamonds that appear similar to the meteoritic samples (Greiner et al. 1988). A systematic analysis of these "analogue" materials can help clarify both the actual nature and the origin of meteoritic diamonds. We analysed three diamond residues extracted by HClO4 oxidation from detonation soots: H1059, H1170, and #27 TNT/RDX (see Greiner et al. 1990 for details about production). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has allowed us to determine average sizes of the diamond grains, ~= 40-70 Angstrom, which are in agreement with previous results (Greiner et al. 1988). In addition, dark-field TEM micrographs show a large number of bright irregular spots corresponding to the diamond crystallites. About 1% by mass of each sample was embedded in KBr matrix (200 mg) to perform both Raman and infrared (2.5-20 micrometer) spectroscopy. Raman spectra show a dominant band around 1310 cm^-1, close to the Raman active mode of diamond. It is quite broad due to the small size of the grains. The infrared bands have been compared with those detected both in diamond samples, isolated from Murchison C2 and Allende C3V chondrites (Lewis et al. 1989), and in the organic residues of the Orgueil (Wdowiak et al. 1988) and the Murchison meteorites (Cronin and Pizzarello 1990). The bands can be attributed to functional groups present on the surface of the grains. The bands of #27 TNT/RDX and H1170 samples match in position the features of meteoritic diamonds at 2.94, 3.17, 3.42, 3.51, 4.27, 5.64, 6.10, 6.86, 7.13, 8.10, 8.53, and 9.02 micrometers, while most of them are lacking in the spectrum of H1059. Therefore, we tend to exclude the extraction method as the main cause of their presence

  11. Intracellular uptake and intraspheroidal distribution of hypericin and hydrophilic analogues using E-cadherin transfected T-24 human bladder cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crnolatac, Ivo; Huygens, Ann; de Witte, Peter A. M.

    2008-02-01

    Hypericin (HYP) is used after instillation as a diagnostic tool for the fluorescence detection of CIS in the human bladder. In this study the in vitro cellular accumulation and intraspheroidal distribution of HYP and three analogues (OH1, OH2, OH3) with gradually increasing hydrophilicity were studied. E-cadherin negative (T24-C1 -) and E-cadherin positive (T24-H3 ++) human bladder cancer cells were used. We report that in the presence of FBS all compounds were taken up by the monolayer cells to the same limited extent, whereas the overall intracellular accumulation was substantially higher when the incubation of the different dyes took place using cell medium not supplemented with FBS. The results of this study therefore confirm the competition between cellular uptake of HYP and analogues and binding to FBS constituents. Investigating the permeation of the compounds in spheroids, it was found that all HYP analogues diffused dramatically better through the three-dimensional cell layers than HYP itself. This enhanced ability of hydrophilic HYP analogues to permeate through the cell layers in the presence of FBS can be explained in terms of a preferred binding to HDL as compared to LDL. The results further show that all compounds, including LDL-binding HYP, substantially permeated better in T24-C1 - spheroids than in T24-H3 ++ spheroids. The data therefore support the hypothesis that a lowered cellular cohesion is the key to understand the selective uptake of hypericin and its analogues in malignant urothelial cells.

  12. Graphene-analogue carbon nitride: novel exfoliation synthesis and its application in photocatalysis and photoelectrochemical selective detection of trace amount of Cu²⁺.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Yan, Jia; She, Xiaojie; Xu, Li; Xia, Jiexiang; Xu, Yuanguo; Song, Yanhua; Huang, Liying; Li, Huaming

    2014-01-01

    Graphene-analogue nanostructures defined as a new kind of promising materials with unique electronic, surface and optical properties have received much attention in the fields of catalysis, energy storage, sensing and electronic devices. Due to the distinctive structure characteristics of the graphene-analogue materials, they brought novel and amazing properties. Herein, graphene-analogue carbon nitride (GA-C₃N₄) was synthesized by high-yield, large-scale thermal exfoliation from the graphitic C₃N₄-based intercalation compound. Graphene-analogue carbon nitride exhibited 2D thin-layer structure with 6-9 atomic thickness, a high specific surface area of 30.1 m(2) g(-1), increased photocurrent responses and improved electron transport ability, which could give rise to enhancing the photocatalytic activity and stability. The graphene-analogue carbon nitride had a new features that could make it suitable as a sensor for Cu(2+) determination. So GA-C₃N₄ is a new but promising candidate for heavy metal ions (Cu(2+)) determination in water environment. The photocatalytic mechanism and photoelectrochemical selective sensing of Cu(2+) were also discussed.

  13. Demonstration of flow localization in analogue partially molten system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, S.; Kumagai, I.; Kurita, K.

    2003-04-01

    Melt migration in partially molten medium is conceptually classified into two contrasting models; homogeneous permeable flow and localized channeled flow. The transition from permeable flow to localized one is promoted with advance of melting and deformation of the medium. Kelemen et al(1995) and Spiegelmanet al(2001) modeled this process taking into accounts of compaction and dissolution. But the physics behind this transition is not yet clarified well. Here we explore rheological aspect of this problem based analogue experiments using deformable soft gel as a solid phase and would like to argue the role of self-organization in the flow development. In this presentation we show two kinds of experimental results which are mutually related. One is a demonstration of development of the channeled flow in a so-called Rayleigh-Taylor Instability experiments. Dense viscous fluid(glycerol solution) is poured at the top of the matrix fluid;homogeneous mixture of soft transparent gel and visocous fluid( the viscosity is controlled by adding methyl-cellulose) having equal density. Liquid fraction is varied for this matrix fluid to see how the fraction controls the development. At the intermediate gel fraction(between70% to about 40%) the dense fluid at first migrates through the grain boundary as permeable flow. But local heterogeneity in the gel fraction induces relative movement of solid phase, which in turns enhances the localization of the flow and deformation. We measured the motion of fluid phase and solid phase separately by adoting PIV/PTV methods. Calculated relative motion describes how flow localization has developed. The deformation-induced compaction plays an important role. The second experimental result is rheology of the dense suspension of soft gel and viscous fluid. At the intermediate gel fraction, the rheology is sensitive to the mixture state. Deformation of bulk sample depends on the internal melt distribution and the melt distribution depends on the

  14. Reservoir Analogues: A Small Scale Polygonal Fault System Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, C.; Dix, J.

    2016-12-01

    Traditionally, one of the most common approaches for looking at geological structures of oil and gas reservoirs is through outcrop analogues. However outcrops are limited on detail based upon the level of their exposures. Enhanced high resolution imaging of continental shelves now enables more detailed imaging of comparable bedrock sections where they are exposed at or near the seabed. This work is focussed on such exposures of Polygonal fault systems (PFS) within the London Clay of the Outer Thames Estuary. Currently the majority of our information on PFS is from 3D seismic imaging. Modern conventional 3D seismics are capable of imaging features as small as decametres bins with metres of vertical resolution which while perfect for conventional PFS with faults within the networks extending for hundreds of metres to kilometres and throws of tens of metres there is the probability of missing smaller-scale faults within the network. An example these smaller faults in PFS networks has been identified in the Outer Thames Estuary, here the London Clay bedrock presents at the seafloor with a polygonal network in planform. By using 1m resolution bathymetry data in conjunction with a series of high resolution grid of 2D seismic lines over 1000 surface expressions of faults have been identified extending for 10s-100s of metres with what appears to be displacements of decimetres to metres with seismic lines covering a few cells of this network showing this. There are no preferred orientations for these faults and while these could represent extremely large scale thermal desiccation cracks, the presence of the London clay bedrock at the surface indicates that these are not the result of soil processes. Furthermore the London Clay is known to continue across the southern North Sea and outcrops in Belgium as the Ieper Clay, the same formation where PFS where first discovered. All this likely indicates that we have identified a smaller scale variation of PFS that have previously

  15. Missions to Mars: Characterisation of Mars analogue rocks for the International Space Analogue Rockstore (ISAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bost, Nicolas; Westall, Frances; Ramboz, Claire; Foucher, Frédéric; Pullan, Derek; Meunier, Alain; Petit, Sabine; Fleischer, Iris; Klingelhöfer, Göstar; Vago, Jorge L.

    2013-07-01

    Instruments for surface missions to extraterrestrial bodies should be cross-calibrated using a common suite of relevant materials. Such work is necessary to improve instrument performance and aids in the interpretation of in-situ measurements. At the CNRS campus in Orléans, the Observatoire des Sciences de l'Univers en région Centre (OSUC) has created a collection of well-characterised rocks and minerals for testing and calibrating instruments to be flown in space missions. The characteristics of the analogue materials are documented in an accompanying online database. In view of the recent and upcoming rover missions to Mars (NASA's 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) and ESA/Roscosmos' 2018 ExoMars), we are concentrating initially on materials of direct relevance to the red planet. The initial collection consists of 15 well-studied rock and mineral samples, including a variety of basalts (ultramafic, weathered, silicified, primitive), sediments (volcanic sands, chert, and a banded iron formation -BIF-), and the phyllosilicate nontronite (a clay). All the samples were characterised petrographically, petrologically, and geochemically using the types of analyses likely to be performed during in-situ missions, in particular ExoMars: hand specimen description; optical microscopy; mineralogical analysis by XRD, Raman and IR spectrometry; iron phase analysis by Mössbauer spectroscopy (MBS), elemental analysis by Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), microprobe, Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) and Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS); and reduced carbon analysis by Raman spectrometry.

  16. An Analysis of an Autoclitic Analogue in Pigeons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuroda, Toshikazu; Lattal, Kennon A.; García-Penagos, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Using a conditional discrimination procedure, pigeons were exposed to a nonverbal analogue of qualifying autoclitics such as "definitely" and "maybe." It has been suggested that these autoclitics are similar to tacts except that they are under the control of private discriminative stimuli. Instead of the conventional assumption…

  17. q-bosons and the q-analogue quantized field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Charles A.

    1995-01-01

    The q-analogue coherent states are used to identify physical signatures for the presence of a 1-analogue quantized radiation field in the q-CS classical limits where the absolute value of z is large. In this quantum-optics-like limit, the fractional uncertainties of most physical quantities (momentum, position, amplitude, phase) which characterize the quantum field are O(1). They only vanish as O(1/absolute value of z) when q = 1. However, for the number operator, N, and the N-Hamiltonian for a free q-boson gas, H(sub N) = h(omega)(N + 1/2), the fractional uncertainties do still approach zero. A signature for q-boson counting statistics is that (Delta N)(exp 2)/ (N) approaches 0 as the absolute value of z approaches infinity. Except for its O(1) fractional uncertainty, the q-generalization of the Hermitian phase operator of Pegg and Barnett, phi(sub q), still exhibits normal classical behavior. The standard number-phase uncertainty-relation, Delta(N) Delta phi(sub q) = 1/2, and the approximate commutation relation, (N, phi(sub q)) = i, still hold for the single-mode q-analogue quantized field. So, N and phi(sub q) are almost canonically conjugate operators in the q-CS classical limit. The q-analogue CS's minimize this uncertainty relation for moderate (absolute value of z)(exp 2).

  18. A Macroscopic Analogue of the Nuclear Pairing Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    A macroscopic system involving permanent magnets is used as an analogue to nucleons in a nucleus to illustrate the significance of the pairing interaction. This illustrates that the view of the total nuclear energy based only on the nucleon occupancy of the energy levels can yield erroneous results and it is only when the pairing interaction is…

  19. Trehalose Analogues: Latest Insights in Properties and Biocatalytic Production

    PubMed Central

    Walmagh, Maarten; Zhao, Renfei; Desmet, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Trehalose (α-d-glucopyranosyl α-d-glucopyranoside) is a non-reducing sugar with unique stabilizing properties due to its symmetrical, low energy structure consisting of two 1,1-anomerically bound glucose moieties. Many applications of this beneficial sugar have been reported in the novel food (nutricals), medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Trehalose analogues, like lactotrehalose (α-d-glucopyranosyl α-d-galactopyranoside) or galactotrehalose (α-d-galactopyranosyl α-d-galactopyranoside), offer similar benefits as trehalose, but show additional features such as prebiotic or low-calorie sweetener due to their resistance against hydrolysis during digestion. Unfortunately, large-scale chemical production processes for trehalose analogues are not readily available at the moment due to the lack of efficient synthesis methods. Most of the procedures reported in literature suffer from low yields, elevated costs and are far from environmentally friendly. “Greener” alternatives found in the biocatalysis field, including galactosidases, trehalose phosphorylases and TreT-type trehalose synthases are suggested as primary candidates for trehalose analogue production instead. Significant progress has been made in the last decade to turn these into highly efficient biocatalysts and to broaden the variety of useful donor and acceptor sugars. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the latest insights and future perspectives in trehalose analogue chemistry, applications and production pathways with emphasis on biocatalysis. PMID:26084050

  20. Synthesis of (+)-crocacin D and simplified bioactive analogues.

    PubMed

    Pasqua, Adele E; Ferrari, Frank D; Crawford, James J; Whittingham, William G; Marquez, Rodolfo

    2015-03-01

    The total synthesis of (+)-crocacin D has been achieved in 15 steps (9 isolated intermediates) and 14% overall yield from commercially available starting materials and using (+)-crocacin C as a key intermediate. A number of simplified analogues and their biological activities are also reported. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of Verbal Reinforcement with Information Feedback in Analogue Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michael R.

    1976-01-01

    Thirty Ss were assigned randomly to one of two experimental analogue psychotherapy groups and a control group. Two different psychotherapy techniques were used and were significantly effective in improving self-ratings of self-concept. However, these techniques were differentially effective in improving social skills as measured by behavioral…

  2. Fluorescence Studies Of A Cholesterol-Analogue Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drew, Jacinta; Szabo, Arthur G.; Morand, Peter

    1988-06-01

    A novel cholesterol-analogue probe1,2 with a diene-(2-naphthyl) fluorophore in the sidechain (Figure 1), hereafter referred to as DN-Chol, has had its steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence properties characterized in solvents and in various viscosity mineral oils.

  3. A new analogue of fatty alcohol from Tamarix hampeana L.

    PubMed

    Aykac, Ahmet; Akgül, Yurdanur

    2010-01-01

    New analogues of a long-chain secondary alcohol (1) and laserine (2) were isolated from the flowers of Tamarix hampeana L. The isolated compounds were identified using 1D and 2D NMR, LCMS/APCI, and chemical methods. Laserine was isolated for the first time from T. hampeana L.

  4. Cellular Cations Control Conformational Switching of Inositol Pyrophosphate Analogues.

    PubMed

    Hager, Anastasia; Wu, Mingxuan; Wang, Huanchen; Brown, Nathaniel W; Shears, Stephen B; Veiga, Nicolás; Fiedler, Dorothea

    2016-08-22

    The inositol pyrophosphate messengers (PP-InsPs) are emerging as an important class of cellular regulators. These molecules have been linked to numerous biological processes, including insulin secretion and cancer cell migration, but how they trigger such a wide range of cellular responses has remained unanswered in many cases. Here, we show that the PP-InsPs exhibit complex speciation behaviour and propose that a unique conformational switching mechanism could contribute to their multifunctional effects. We synthesised non-hydrolysable bisphosphonate analogues and crystallised the analogues in complex with mammalian PPIP5K2 kinase. Subsequently, the bisphosphonate analogues were used to investigate the protonation sequence, metal-coordination properties, and conformation in solution. Remarkably, the presence of potassium and magnesium ions enabled the analogues to adopt two different conformations near physiological pH. Understanding how the intrinsic chemical properties of the PP-InsPs can contribute to their complex signalling outputs will be essential to elucidate their regulatory functions.

  5. Facile Synthesis of Natural Alkoxynaphthalene Analogues from Plant Alkoxybenzenes.

    PubMed

    Tsyganov, Dmitry V; Krayushkin, Mikhail M; Konyushkin, Leonid D; Strelenko, Yuri A; Semenova, Marina N; Semenov, Victor V

    2016-04-22

    Analogues of the bioactive natural alkoxynaphthalene pycnanthulignene D were synthesized by an efficient method. The starting plant allylalkoxybenzenes (1) are easily available from the plant essential oils of sassafras, dill, and parsley. The target 1-arylalkoxynaphthalenes (5) exhibited antiproliferative activity in a phenotypic sea urchin embryo assay.

  6. The synthesis of insect juvenile hormones and their analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odinokov, Viktor N.; Kukovinets, Olga S.; Zainullin, R. A.; Tolstikov, Genrikh A.

    1992-07-01

    The methods of synthesis of insect juvenile hormones and their natural and synthetic analogues (juvenoids) are considered. Much attention is paid to juvenoids of the 2,4-dienoate class, including oxa and aza derivatives and cyclic and heterocyclic compounds, which display selective activity towards vairous forms of insect. The bibliography includes 263 references.

  7. Charged Analogues of Henning Knutsen Type Solutions in General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Y. K.; Kumar, Sachin; Pratibha

    2011-11-01

    In the present article, we have found charged analogues of Henning Knutsen's interior solutions which join smoothly to the Reissner-Nordstrom metric at the pressure free interface. The solutions are singularity free and analyzed numerically with respect to pressure, energy-density and charge-density in details. The solutions so obtained also present the generalization of A.L. Mehra's solutions.

  8. Interaction of tRNA with antitumor polyamine analogues.

    PubMed

    N'soukpoé-Kossi, C N; Ahmed Ouameur, A; Thomas, T; Thomas, T J; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2009-08-01

    We studied the interaction between tRNA and three polyamine analogues (1,11-diamino-4,8-diazaundecane.4HCl (333), 3,7,11,15-tetrazaheptadecane.4HCl (BE-333), and 3,7,11,15,19-pentazahenicosane.5HCl (BE-3333)) using FTIR, UV-visible, and CD spectroscopic methods. Spectroscopic evidence showed that polyamine analogues bound tRNA via guanine N7, adenine, uracil O2, and the backbone phosphate (PO2-) groups, while the most reactive sites for biogenic polyamines were guanine N7/O6, adenine N7, uracil O2, and sugar 2'-OH groups as well as the backbone phosphate group. The binding constants of polyamine analogue-tRNA recognition were lower than those of the biogenic polyamine-tRNA complexes, with K333 = 2.8 (+/-0.5) x 10(4), K(BE-333) = 3.7 (+/-0.7) x 10(4), K(BE-3333) = 4.0 (+/-0.9) x 10(4), K(spm) = 8.7 (+/-0.9) x 10(5), K(spd) = 6.1 (+/-0.7) x 10(5), and K(put) = 1.0 (+/-0.3) x 10(5) mol/L. tRNA remained in the A-family conformation; however, it aggregated at high polyamine analogue concentrations.

  9. A Laboratory Analogue for the Study of Peer Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Damon; Hirschman, Richard; Angelone, D. J.; Lilly, Roy S.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a laboratory analogue for the study of peer sexual harassment, and to examine person and situational factors associated with male on female peer sexual harassment. One hundred twenty-two male participants were given the opportunity to tell jokes to a female confederate from a joke list that included…

  10. [Oxazaphosphorinane drugs. New analogues, metabolic studies, and therapeutic approaches].

    PubMed

    Misiura, Konrad

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies on oxazaphosphorinane drugs, with the main focus on those carried out in Poland, are briefly reviewed. Research leading to the introduction of the new antitumor drug (S)-(-)-bromofosfamide are presented. The utility of phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance in studies of ifosfamide metabolism and an application of analogues of the final, active metabolite of this drug in gene therapy are shown.

  11. Cyclization of nucleotide analogues as an obstacle to polymerization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, A. R. Jr; Nord, L. D.; Orgel, L. E.; Robins, R. K.

    1988-01-01

    Cyclization of activated nucleotide analogues by intramolecular phosphodiester-bond formation is likely to compete very effectively with template-directed condensation except in the cases of ribo- and arabinonucleotides. This could have excluded derivatives of most sugars from growing polyribonucleotide chains and thus reduced chain-termination in prebiotic polynucleotide synthesis.

  12. An Analysis of an Autoclitic Analogue in Pigeons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuroda, Toshikazu; Lattal, Kennon A.; García-Penagos, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Using a conditional discrimination procedure, pigeons were exposed to a nonverbal analogue of qualifying autoclitics such as "definitely" and "maybe." It has been suggested that these autoclitics are similar to tacts except that they are under the control of private discriminative stimuli. Instead of the conventional assumption…

  13. Synthesis of a stable and orally bioavailable englerin analogue.

    PubMed

    Fash, David M; Peer, Cody J; Li, Zhenwu; Talisman, Ian J; Hayavi, Sima; Sulzmaier, Florian J; Ramos, Joe W; Sourbier, Carole; Neckers, Leonard; Figg, W Douglas; Beutler, John A; Chain, William J

    2016-06-01

    Synthesis of analogues of englerin A with a reduced propensity for hydrolysis of the glycolate moiety led to a compound which possessed the renal cancer cell selectivity of the parent and was orally bioavailable in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Trehalose Analogues: Latest Insights in Properties and Biocatalytic Production.

    PubMed

    Walmagh, Maarten; Zhao, Renfei; Desmet, Tom

    2015-06-15

    Trehalose (α-D-glucopyranosyl α-D-glucopyranoside) is a non-reducing sugar with unique stabilizing properties due to its symmetrical, low energy structure consisting of two 1,1-anomerically bound glucose moieties. Many applications of this beneficial sugar have been reported in the novel food (nutricals), medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Trehalose analogues, like lactotrehalose (α-D-glucopyranosyl α-D-galactopyranoside) or galactotrehalose (α-D-galactopyranosyl α-D-galactopyranoside), offer similar benefits as trehalose, but show additional features such as prebiotic or low-calorie sweetener due to their resistance against hydrolysis during digestion. Unfortunately, large-scale chemical production processes for trehalose analogues are not readily available at the moment due to the lack of efficient synthesis methods. Most of the procedures reported in literature suffer from low yields, elevated costs and are far from environmentally friendly. "Greener" alternatives found in the biocatalysis field, including galactosidases, trehalose phosphorylases and TreT-type trehalose synthases are suggested as primary candidates for trehalose analogue production instead. Significant progress has been made in the last decade to turn these into highly efficient biocatalysts and to broaden the variety of useful donor and acceptor sugars. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the latest insights and future perspectives in trehalose analogue chemistry, applications and production pathways with emphasis on biocatalysis.

  15. Shrinkage of uterine fibroids by preoperative LHRH analogue injection.

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, H. R.; Quinn, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    Six patients with large uterine fibroids were given a single subcutaneous implant of an LHRH analogue (goserelin 3.5 mg) prior to elective hysterectomy. Overall fibroid volume decreased by 30-47% within six weeks of implantation. All patients reported improvement in their symptoms of pressure and pain, and were rendered amenorrhoeic prior to surgery. PMID:1535743

  16. Synthesis of chlorins, bacteriochlorins and their tetraaza analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudkin, S. V.; Makarova, E. A.; Lukyanets, E. A.

    2016-07-01

    The currently known methods for the synthesis of hydrogenated derivatives of synthetic porphyrins — chlorins, bacteriochlorins, isobacteriochlorins and their tetraaza analogues — are considered. Reactions involving quasi-isolated double bonds including reduction, oxidative addition and cycloaddition are presented. Examples of direct synthesis of these macroheterocycles are given. The bibliography includes 168 references.

  17. Synthesis of peptide analogues using the multipin peptide synthesis method.

    PubMed

    Valerio, R M; Benstead, M; Bray, A M; Campbell, R A; Maeji, N J

    1991-08-15

    Modification of the multipin peptide synthesis method which allows the simultaneous synthesis of large numbers of different peptide analogues is described. Peptides were assembled on polyethylene pins derivatized with a 4-(beta-alanyloxymethyl)benzoate (beta-Ala-HMB) handle. For comparative purposes, peptides were also assembled on the diketopiperazine-forming handle N epsilon-(beta-alanyl)lysylprolyloxylactate. In model studies it was demonstrated that beta-Ala-HMB-linked peptides were cleaved from polyethylene pins with dilute sodium hydroxide or 4% methylamine/water to yield analogues with beta-Ala-free acid (beta-Ala-CO2H) and beta-Ala-methylamide (beta-Ala-CONHCH3), respectively. To assess the suitability of this approach for T-cell determinant analysis, analogues of a known T-cell determinant were synthesized with the various C-terminal endings. Peptides were characterized by amino acid analysis and fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry. HPLC of the crude cleaved peptides indicated that 22 of the 24 peptides were greater than 95% pure. These crude peptide solutions were nontoxic in sensitive cell culture assays without further purification. All three cleavage procedures gave comparable activities in T-cell proliferation assays. These results demonstrate the potential of the multipin peptide synthesis method for the production of large numbers of different peptide analogues.

  18. Synthesis of 4” manipulated Lewis X trisaccharide analogues

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    Summary Three analogues of the Lex trisaccharide antigen (β-D-Galp(1→4)[α-L-Fucp(1→3)]-D-GlcNAcp) in which the galactosyl residue is modified at O-4 as a methyloxy, deoxychloro or deoxyfluoro, were synthesized. We first report the preparation of the modified 4-OMe, 4-Cl and 4-F trichloroacetimidate galactosyl donors and then report their use in the glycosylation of an N-acetylglucosamine glycosyl acceptor. Thus, we observed that the reactivity of these donors towards the BF3·OEt2-promoted glycosylation at O-4 of the N-acetylglucosamine glycosyl acceptors followed the ranking 4-F > 4-OAc ≈ 4-OMe > 4-Cl. The resulting disaccharides were deprotected at O-3 of the glucosamine residue and fucosylated, giving access to the desired protected Lex analogues. One-step global deprotection (Na/NH3) of the protected 4”-methoxy analogue, and two-step deprotections (removal of a p-methoxybenzyl with DDQ, then Zemplén deacylation) of the 4”-deoxychloro and 4”-deoxyfluoro protected Lex analogues gave the desired compounds in good yields. PMID:23019441

  19. Thymidine analogues to assess microperfusion in human tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, Hilde L.; Ljungkvist, Anna S.; Rijken, Paul F.; Sprong, Debbie; Bussink, Jan; Kogel, Albert J. van der; Haustermans, Karin M.; Begg, Adrian C. . E-mail: a.begg@nki.nl

    2005-07-15

    Purpose: To validate the use of the thymidine analogues as local perfusion markers in human tumors (no labeling indicates no perfusion) by comparison with the well-characterized perfusion marker Hoechst 33342. Methods and Materials: Human tumor xenografts from gliomas and head-and-neck cancers were injected with iododeoxyuridine (IdUrd) or bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) and the fluorescent dye Hoechst 33342. In frozen sections, each blood vessel was scored for the presence of IdUrd/BrdUrd labeling and Hoechst in surrounding cells. The percentage of analogue-negative vessels was compared with the fraction of Hoechst-negative vessels. Collocalization of the two markers was also scored. Results: We found considerable intertumor variation in the fraction of perfused vessels, measured by analogue labeling, both in the human tumor xenografts and in a series of tumor biopsies from head-and-neck cancer patients. There was a significant correlation between the Hoechst-negative and IdUrd/BrdUrd-negative vessels in the xenografts (r 85, p = 0.0004), despite some mismatches on a per-vessel basis. Conclusions: Thymidine analogues can be successfully used to rank tumors according to their fraction of perfused vessels. Whether this fraction correlates with the extent of acute hypoxia needs further confirmation.

  20. Non-robust numerical simulations of analogue extension experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naliboff, John; Buiter, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    Numerical and analogue models of lithospheric deformation provide significant insight into the tectonic processes that lead to specific structural and geophysical observations. As these two types of models contain distinct assumptions and tradeoffs, investigations drawing conclusions from both can reveal robust links between first-order processes and observations. Recent studies have focused on detailed comparisons between numerical and analogue experiments in both compressional and extensional tectonics, sometimes involving multiple lithospheric deformation codes and analogue setups. While such comparisons often show good agreement on first-order deformation styles, results frequently diverge on second-order structures, such as shear zone dip angles or spacing, and in certain cases even on first-order structures. Here, we present finite-element experiments that are designed to directly reproduce analogue "sandbox" extension experiments at the cm-scale. We use material properties and boundary conditions that are directly taken from analogue experiments and use a Drucker-Prager failure model to simulate shear zone formation in sand. We find that our numerical experiments are highly sensitive to numerous numerical parameters. For example, changes to the numerical resolution, velocity convergence parameters and elemental viscosity averaging commonly produce significant changes in first- and second-order structures accommodating deformation. The sensitivity of the numerical simulations to small parameter changes likely reflects a number of factors, including, but not limited to, high angles of internal friction assigned to sand, complex, unknown interactions between the brittle sand (used as an upper crust equivalent) and viscous silicone (lower crust), highly non-linear strain weakening processes and poor constraints on the cohesion of sand. Our numerical-analogue comparison is hampered by (a) an incomplete knowledge of the fine details of sand failure and sand

  1. Transition States and transition state analogue interactions with enzymes.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Vern L

    2015-04-21

    Enzymatic transition states have lifetimes of a few femtoseconds (fs). Computational analysis of enzyme motions leading to transition state formation suggests that local catalytic site motions on the fs time scale provide the mechanism to locate transition states. An experimental test of protein fs motion and its relation to transition state formation can be provided by isotopically heavy proteins. Heavy enzymes have predictable mass-altered bond vibration states without altered electrostatic properties, according to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. On-enzyme chemistry is slowed in most heavy proteins, consistent with altered protein bond frequencies slowing the search for the transition state. In other heavy enzymes, structural changes involved in reactant binding and release are also influenced. Slow protein motions associated with substrate binding and catalytic site preorganization are essential to allow the subsequent fs motions to locate the transition state and to facilitate the efficient release of products. In the catalytically competent geometry, local groups move in stochastic atomic motion on the fs time scale, within transition state-accessible conformations created by slower protein motions. The fs time scale for the transition state motions does not permit thermodynamic equilibrium between the transition state and stable enzyme states. Isotopically heavy enzymes provide a diagnostic tool for fast coupled protein motions to transition state formation and mass-dependent conformational changes. The binding of transition state analogue inhibitors is the opposite in catalytic time scale to formation of the transition state but is related by similar geometries of the enzyme-transition state and enzyme-inhibitor interactions. While enzymatic transition states have lifetimes as short as 10(-15) s, transition state analogues can bind tightly to enzymes with release rates greater than 10(3) s. Tight-binding transition state analogues stabilize the rare but

  2. Highly Fluorescent Green Fluorescent Protein Chromophore Analogues Made by Decorating the Imidazolone Ring.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Sara; Martínez-López, David; Morón, María; Sucunza, David; Sampedro, Diego; Domingo, Alberto; Salgado, Antonio; Vaquero, Juan J

    2015-12-14

    The synthesis and photophysical behavior of an unexplored family of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like chromophore analogues is reported. The compound (Z)-4-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-1-propyl-2-(propylamino)-1H-imidazol-5(4 H)-one (p-HBDNI, 2 a) exhibits significantly enhanced fluorescence properties relative to the parent compound (Z)-5-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-2,3-dimethyl-3,5-dihydro-4H-imidazol-4-one (p-HBDI, 1). p-HBDNI was considered as a model system and the photophysical properties of other novel 2-amino-3,5-dihydro-4H-imidazol-4-one derivatives were evaluated. Time-dependent DFT calculations were carried out to rationalize the results. The analogue AIDNI (2 c), in which the 4-hydroxybenzyl group of p-HBDNI was replaced by an azaindole group, showed improved photophysical properties and potential for cell staining. The uptake and intracellular distribution of 2 c in living cells was investigated by confocal microscopy imaging.

  3. Extracellular vesicles and their synthetic analogues in aging and age-associated brain diseases

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. A.; Leonardi, T.; Huang, B.; Iraci, N.; Vega, B.; Pluchino, S.

    2015-01-01

    Multicellular organisms rely upon diverse and complex intercellular communications networks for a myriad of physiological processes. Disruption of these processes is implicated in the onset and propagation of disease and disorder, including the mechanisms of senescence at both cellular and organismal levels. In recent years, secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been identified as a particularly novel vector by which cell-to-cell communications are enacted. EVs actively and specifically traffic bioactive proteins, nucleic acids, and metabolites between cells at local and systemic levels, modulating cellular responses in a bidirectional manner under both homeostatic and pathological conditions. EVs are being implicated not only in the generic aging process, but also as vehicles of pathology in a number of age-related diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and disease. Thus, circulating EVs—or specific EV cargoes—are being utilised as putative biomarkers of disease. On the other hand, EVs, as targeted intercellular shuttles of multipotent bioactive payloads, have demonstrated promising therapeutic properties, which can potentially be modulated and enhanced through cellular engineering. Furthermore, there is considerable interest in employing nanomedicinal approaches to mimic the putative therapeutic properties of EVs by employing synthetic analogues for targeted drug delivery. Herein we describe what is known about the origin and nature of EVs and subsequently review their putative roles in biology and medicine (including the use of synthetic EV analogues), with a particular focus on their role in aging and age-related brain diseases. PMID:24973266

  4. Maltose Neopentyl Glycol-3 (MNG-3) Analogues for Membrane Protein Study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyung Ho; Husri, Mohd; Amin, Anowarul; Gotfryd, Kamil; Lee, Ho Jin; Go, Juyeon; Kim, Jin Woong; Loland, Claus J.; Guan, Lan; Byrne, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    Detergents are typically used to both extract membrane proteins (MPs) from the lipid bilayer and maintain them in solution. However, MPs encapsulated in detergent micelles are often prone to denaturation and aggregation. Thus, development of novel agents with enhanced stabilization characteristics is necessary to advance MP research. Maltose neopentyl glycol-3 (MNG-3) has contributed to >10 crystal structures including G-protein coupled receptors. Here we prepared MNG-3 analogues and characterised their properties using selected MPs. Most MNGs behaved superior to a conventional detergent, n–dodecyl–β–D–maltopyranoside (DDM), in terms of membrane protein stabilization efficacy. Interestingly, optimal stabilization was achieved with different MNG-3 analogues depending on the target MP. The origin for such detergent specificity could be explained by a novel concept: compatibility between detergent hydrophobicity and MP tendency to denature and aggregate. This set of MNGs represents viable alternatives to currently available detergents for handling MPs, and can be also used as tools to estimate MP sensitivity to denaturation and aggregation. PMID:25813698

  5. Transition state analogues in structures of ricin and saporin ribosome-inactivating proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Meng-Chiao; Sturm, Matthew B.; Almo, Steven C.; Schramm, Vern L.

    2010-01-12

    Ricin A-chain (RTA) and saporin-L1 (SAP) catalyze adenosine depurination of 28S rRNA to inhibit protein synthesis and cause cell death. We present the crystal structures of RTA and SAP in complex with transition state analogue inhibitors. These tight-binding inhibitors mimic the sarcin-ricin recognition loop of 28S rRNA and the dissociative ribocation transition state established for RTA catalysis. RTA and SAP share unique purine-binding geometry with quadruple {pi}-stacking interactions between adjacent adenine and guanine bases and 2 conserved tyrosines. An arginine at one end of the {pi}-stack provides cationic polarization and enhanced leaving group ability to the susceptible adenine. Common features of these ribosome-inactivating proteins include adenine leaving group activation, a remarkable lack of ribocation stabilization, and conserved glutamates as general bases for activation of the H{sub 2}O nucleophile. Catalytic forces originate primarily from leaving group activation evident in both RTA and SAP in complex with transition state analogues.

  6. Artificial surfactants based on analogues of SP-B and SP-C.

    PubMed

    Johansson, J; Curstedt, T; Robertson, B

    2001-01-01

    The hydrophobic proteins SP-B and SP-C are important components of natural surfactant preparations currently used in clinical practice, and physiologically active surfactants can be made from isolated SP-B and/or SP-C reconstituted with synthetic lipids. Efforts have been made to produce these polypeptides, or analogues with similarfunction, by organic synthesis or expression in heterologous systems. It is important to obtain proper folding of the synthetic peptides, as required for optimal interaction with the surfactant lipids. Another issue is to avoid loss of SP-C activity due to alpha-helix to beta-sheet transition. This latter problem can be circumvented by replacing the polyvaline stretch of SP-C with a polyleucine stretch containing a few lysines. Palmitoylation of cysteines or serines at positions 5 and 6 also seems important for the properties of SP-C. SP-B, which is too big a molecule to be easily produced by organic synthesis. apparently can be replaced in an artificial surfactant by a peptide capable of cross-linking phospholipid bilayers. The development of synthetic analogues of the surfacant proteins might make it possible to tailor artificial surfactants for specific therapeutic missions, for instance by enhancing resistance to inactivation by meconium, plasma proteins, or oxygen radicals or maximizing bacteriostatic effects.

  7. Parallel synthesis and biological evaluation of 837 analogues of procaspase-activating compound 1 (PAC-1).

    PubMed

    Hsu, Danny C; Roth, Howard S; West, Diana C; Botham, Rachel C; Novotny, Chris J; Schmid, Steven C; Hergenrother, Paul J

    2012-01-09

    Procaspase-Activating Compound 1 (PAC-1) is an ortho-hydroxy N-acyl hydrazone that enhances the enzymatic activity of procaspase-3 in vitro and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. An analogue of PAC-1, called S-PAC-1, was evaluated in a veterinary clinical trial in pet dogs with lymphoma and found to have considerable potential as an anticancer agent. With the goal of identifying more potent compounds in this promising class of experimental therapeutics, a combinatorial library based on PAC-1 was created, and the compounds were evaluated for their ability to induce death of cancer cells in culture. For library construction, 31 hydrazides were condensed in parallel with 27 aldehydes to create 837 PAC-1 analogues, with an average purity of 91%. The compounds were evaluated for their ability to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, and through this work, six compounds were discovered to be substantially more potent than PAC-1 and S-PAC-1. These six hits were further evaluated for their ability to relieve zinc-mediated inhibition of procaspase-3 in vitro. In general, the newly identified hit compounds are two- to four-fold more potent than PAC-1 and S-PAC-1 in cell culture, and thus have promise as experimental therapeutics for treatment of the many cancers that have elevated expression levels of procaspase-3.

  8. Graphene-analogue BN-modified microspherical BiOI photocatalysts driven by visible light.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Jiang, Zhifeng; Zhu, Chengzhang; Qian, Kun; Wu, Ziyang; Xie, Jimin

    2016-02-14

    Novel hierarchical microspherical BiOI photocatalysts modified by graphene-analogue BN were prepared by a facile one-pot solvo-thermal method. Rhodamine B, methylene blue and 4-chlorophenol were used as target pollutants to evaluate the photocatalytic performance of the BN/BiOI composites under visible light irradiation. The experimental results indicated that the BN/BiOI composites exhibited a significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with pure BiOI and P25 TiO2. The optimum photocatalytic activity was achieved when the BN content was 0.5 wt%. The improved photodegradation efficiency was mainly attributed to the extended light absorption range, larger specific surface area and increased separation rate of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The radical trapping experiments demonstrated that h(+) and ˙O2(-) radicals were the dominant active species, whereas the ˙OH radicals could be neglected. A possible photocatalytic mechanism is proposed. The strategy presented here provides an ideal platform for the design of other graphene-analogue BN-modified microspherical composite photocatalysts for broad applications in the field of photocatalysis.

  9. Therapeutics of Diabetes Mellitus: Focus on Insulin Analogues and Insulin Pumps

    PubMed Central

    Valla, Vasiliki

    2010-01-01

    Aim. Inadequately controlled diabetes accounts for chronic complications and increases mortality. Its therapeutic management aims in normal HbA1C, prandial and postprandial glucose levels. This review discusses diabetes management focusing on the latest insulin analogues, alternative insulin delivery systems and the artificial pancreas. Results. Intensive insulin therapy with multiple daily injections (MDI) allows better imitation of the physiological rhythm of insulin secretion. Longer-acting, basal insulin analogues provide concomitant improvements in safety, efficacy and variability of glycaemic control, followed by low risks of hypoglycaemia. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) provides long-term glycaemic control especially in type 1 diabetic patients, while reducing hypoglycaemic episodes and glycaemic variability. Continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems provide information on postprandial glucose excursions and nocturnal hypo- and/or hyperglycemias. This information enhances treatment options, provides a useful tool for self-monitoring and allows safer achievement of treatment targets. In the absence of a cure-like pancreas or islets transplants, artificial “closed-loop” systems mimicking the pancreatic activity have been also developed. Conclusions. Individualized treatment plans for insulin initiation and administration mode are critical in achieving target glycaemic levels. Progress in these fields is expected to facilitate and improve the quality of life of diabetic patients. PMID:20589066

  10. Extracellular vesicles and their synthetic analogues in aging and age-associated brain diseases.

    PubMed

    Smith, J A; Leonardi, T; Huang, B; Iraci, N; Vega, B; Pluchino, S

    2015-04-01

    Multicellular organisms rely upon diverse and complex intercellular communications networks for a myriad of physiological processes. Disruption of these processes is implicated in the onset and propagation of disease and disorder, including the mechanisms of senescence at both cellular and organismal levels. In recent years, secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been identified as a particularly novel vector by which cell-to-cell communications are enacted. EVs actively and specifically traffic bioactive proteins, nucleic acids, and metabolites between cells at local and systemic levels, modulating cellular responses in a bidirectional manner under both homeostatic and pathological conditions. EVs are being implicated not only in the generic aging process, but also as vehicles of pathology in a number of age-related diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and disease. Thus, circulating EVs-or specific EV cargoes-are being utilised as putative biomarkers of disease. On the other hand, EVs, as targeted intercellular shuttles of multipotent bioactive payloads, have demonstrated promising therapeutic properties, which can potentially be modulated and enhanced through cellular engineering. Furthermore, there is considerable interest in employing nanomedicinal approaches to mimic the putative therapeutic properties of EVs by employing synthetic analogues for targeted drug delivery. Herein we describe what is known about the origin and nature of EVs and subsequently review their putative roles in biology and medicine (including the use of synthetic EV analogues), with a particular focus on their role in aging and age-related brain diseases.

  11. Targeting glucose consumption and autophagy in myeloma with the novel nucleoside analogue 8-aminoadenosine.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Mala; McBrayer, Samuel K; Qian, Jun; Raikoff, Kiril; Avram, Michael J; Singhal, Seema; Gandhi, Varsha; Schumacker, Paul T; Krett, Nancy L; Rosen, Steven T

    2009-09-25

    Multiple myeloma, an incurable plasma cell malignancy, is characterized by altered cellular metabolism and resistance to apoptosis. Recent connections between glucose metabolism and resistance to apoptosis provide a compelling rationale for targeting metabolic changes in cancer. In this study, we have examined the ability of the purine analogue 8-aminoadenosine to acutely reduce glucose consumption by regulating localization and expression of key glucose transporters. Myeloma cells counteracted the metabolic stress by activating autophagy. Co-treatment with inhibitors of autophagy results in marked enhancement of cell death. Glucose consumption by drug-resistant myeloma cells was unaffected by 8-aminoadenosine, and accordingly, no activation of autophagy was observed. However, these cells can be sensitized to 8-aminoadenosine under glucose-limiting conditions. The prosurvival autophagic response of myeloma to nutrient deprivation or to nucleoside analogue treatment has not been described previously. This study establishes the potential of metabolic targeting as a broader means to kill and sensitize myeloma and identifies a compound that can achieve this goal.

  12. Pressurized brines in continental Antarctica as a possible analogue of Mars

    PubMed Central

    Forte, Emanuele; Dalle Fratte, Michele; Azzaro, Maurizio; Guglielmin, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Interest in brines in extreme and cold environments has recently increased after they have been found on Mars. Those brines can be potential new subsurface habitats for peculiar ecosystems. In the McMurdo Dry Valleys of the Antarctic, the best analogue for Mars conditions, only a few cases of brines have been identified in some perennially frozen lakes and in one case in an underground aquifer. Here, we present the occurrence of pressurized brines in a shallow perennially ice-covered lake south of 70°S in an ice-free area of Victoria Land, Antarctica. For the first time, we also imaged, by means of ground penetrating radar data, the existence of a pingo-like-feature (PLF) formed by the extrusion of brines, which has also been confirmed by borehole evidence. Those brines are fed by an underground talik external to the lake basin, enhancing the possibility of unexploited ecosystems that could find an analogue in Martian environments. PMID:27616183

  13. Interaction of a novel fluorescent GTP analogue with the small G-protein K-Ras.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Seigo; Masuhara, Kaori; Umeki, Nobuhisa; Sako, Yasushi; Maruta, Shinsaku

    2016-01-01

    A novel fluorescent guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) analogue, 2'(3')-O-{6-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-l,3-diazol-4-yl)amino) hexanoic}-GTP (NBD-GTP), was synthesized and utilized to monitor the effect of mutations in the functional region of mouse K-Ras. The effects of the G12S, A59T and G12S/A59T mutations on GTPase activity, nucleotide exchange rates were compared with normal Ras. Mutation at A59T resulted in reduction of the GTPase activity by 0.6-fold and enhancement of the nucleotide exchange rate by 2-fold compared with normal Ras. On the other hand, mutation at G12S only slightly affected the nucleotide exchange rate and did not affect the GTPase activity. We also used NBD-GTP to study the effect of these mutations on the interaction between Ras and SOS1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor. The mutation at A59T abolished the interaction with SOS1. The results suggest that the fluorescent GTP analogue, NBD-GTP, is applicable to the kinetic studies for small G-proteins.

  14. Structural Basis for Recognition of Guanosine by a Synthetic Tricyclic Cytosine Analogue: Guanidinium G-Clamp

    SciTech Connect

    Wilds, C.J.; Maier, M.A.; Manoharan, M.; Egli, M.

    2010-03-08

    An oligonucleotide analogue containing a novel heterocyclic analogue, the guanidinium G-clamp, was designed to allow formation of five H-bonds to guanosine. The guanidinium group was introduced postsynthetically by treatment of the deprotected oligonucleotide containing a free amino group with a solution of 1H-pyrazole-1-carboxamidine and purified by a combination of size-exclusion chromatography and reversed-phase HPLC. A single incorporation of this modification into an oligodeoxynucleotide sequence was found to increase duplex stability by 13{sup o} and 16{sup o} per modification to RNA and DNA, respectively. Crystals of a self-complementary decamer sequence containing this modification were grown and diffracted to 1-{angstrom} resolution. The structure was solved by molecular replacement and revealed that the modification forms additional H-bonds to O(6) and N(7) of guanosine through the amino and imino N-atoms, respectively. The origins of enhanced duplex stability are also attributed to increased stacking interactions mediated by the phenoxazine moiety of the G-clamp and formation of H-bond networks between the positively charged guanidinium group, H{sub 2}O molecules, and negatively charged O-atoms from phosphates on the adjacent strand.

  15. Maltose neopentyl glycol-3 (MNG-3) analogues for membrane protein study.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung Ho; Husri, Mohd; Amin, Anowarul; Gotfryd, Kamil; Lee, Ho Jin; Go, Juyeon; Kim, Jin Woong; Loland, Claus J; Guan, Lan; Byrne, Bernadette; Chae, Pil Seok

    2015-05-07

    Detergents are typically used to both extract membrane proteins (MPs) from the lipid bilayers and maintain them in solution. However, MPs encapsulated in detergent micelles are often prone to denaturation and aggregation. Thus, the development of novel agents with enhanced stabilization characteristics is necessary to advance MP research. Maltose neopentyl glycol-3 (MNG-3) has contributed to >10 crystal structures including G-protein coupled receptors. Here, we prepared MNG-3 analogues and characterised their properties using selected MPs. Most MNGs were superior to a conventional detergent, n-dodecyl-β-D-maltopyranoside (DDM), in terms of membrane protein stabilization efficacy. Interestingly, optimal stabilization was achieved with different MNG-3 analogues depending on the target MP. The origin for such detergent specificity could be explained by a novel concept: compatibility between detergent hydrophobicity and MP tendency to denature and aggregate. This set of MNGs represents viable alternatives to currently available detergents for handling MPs, and can be also used as tools to estimate MP sensitivity to denaturation and aggregation.

  16. Analogue modelling of caprock failure and sediment mobilisation due to pore fluid overpressure in shallow reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warsitzka, Michael; Kukowski, Nina; May, Franz

    2017-04-01

    Injection of CO2 in geological formations may cause excess pore fluid pressure by enhancing the fluid volume in the reservoir rock and by buoyancy-driven flow. If sediments in the reservoir and the caprock are undercompacted, pore fluid overpressure can lead to hydro-fractures in the caprock and fluidisation of sediments. Eventually, these processes trigger the formation of pipe structures, gas chimneys, gas domes or sand injections. Generally, such structures serve as high permeable pathways for fluid migration through a low-permeable seal layer and have to be considered in risk assessment or modelling of caprock integrity of CO2 storage sites. We applied scaled analogue experiments to characterise and quantify mechanisms determining the onset and migration of hydro-fractures in a low-permeable, cohesive caprock and fluidisation of unconsolidated sediments of the reservoir layer. The caprock is simulated by different types of cohesive powder. The reservoir layer consists of granulates with small particle density. Air injected through the base of the experiment and additionally through a single needle valve reaching into the analogue material is applied to generate fluid pressure within the materials. With this procedure, regional fluid pressure increase or a point-like local fluid pressure increase (e.g. injection well), respectively, can be simulated. The deformation in the analogue materials is analysed with a particle tracking imaging velocimetry technique. Pressure sensors at the base of the experiment and in the needle valve record the air pressure during an experimental run. The structural evolution observed in the experiments reveal that the cohesive cap rock first forms a dome-like anticline. Extensional fractures occur at the hinges of the anticline. A further increase of fluid pressure causes a migration of this fractures towards the surface, which is followed by intrusion of reservoir material into the fractures and the collapse of the anticline. The

  17. Biological evaluation of a novel sorafenib analogue, t-CUPM.

    PubMed

    Wecksler, Aaron T; Hwang, Sung Hee; Liu, Jun-Yan; Wettersten, Hiromi I; Morisseau, Christophe; Wu, Jian; Weiss, Robert H; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-01-01

    Sorafenib (Nexavar®) is currently the only FDA-approved small molecule targeted therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. The use of structural analogues and derivatives of sorafenib has enabled the elucidation of critical targets and mechanism(s) of cell death for human cancer lines. We previously performed a structure-activity relationship study on a series of sorafenib analogues designed to investigate the inhibition overlap between the major targets of sorafenib Raf-1 kinase and VEGFR-2, and an enzyme shown to be a potent off-target of sorafenib, soluble epoxide hydrolase. In the current work, we present the biological data on our lead sorafenib analogue, t-CUPM, demonstrating that this analogue retains cytotoxicity similar to sorafenib in various human cancer cell lines and strongly inhibits growth in the NCI-60 cell line panel. Co-treatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK, failed to rescue the cell viability responses of both sorafenib and t-CUPM, and immunofluorescence microscopy shows similar mitochondrial depolarization and apoptosis-inducing factor release for both compounds. These data suggest that both compounds induce a similar mechanism of caspase-independent apoptosis in hepatoma cells. In addition, t-CUPM displays anti-proliferative effects comparable to sorafenib as seen by a halt in G0/G1 in cell cycle progression. The structural difference between sorafenib and t-CUPM significantly reduces inhibitory spectrum of kinases by this analogue, and pharmacokinetic characterization demonstrates a 20-fold better oral bioavailability of t-CUPM than sorafenib in mice. Thus, t-CUPM may have the potential to reduce the adverse events observed from the multikinase inhibitory properties and the large dosing regimens of sorafenib.

  18. Synthetic analogues of cyanobacterial alkaloid cylindrospermopsin and their toxicological activity.

    PubMed

    Cartmell, Christopher; Evans, Daniel M; Elwood, Jessica M L; Fituri, Hisham S; Murphy, Patrick J; Caspari, Thomas; Poniedziałek, Barbara; Rzymski, Piotr

    2017-10-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a naturally occurring alkaloid produced by a variety of cyanobacteria and known to induce oxidative stress-mediated toxicity in eukaryotic cells. Despite extensive research on the mechanism of CYN toxicity, an understanding of the structural features responsible for this toxicity and the mechanism by which it can enter the cell are still not clear. It was established that the presence of both the uracil and guanidine groups is essential in biological activity of CYN whilst not much is known in this regard on the role of tether that separates them and the attached hydroxyl group. Therefore, in the present study we have prepared three synthetic analogues possessing uracil and guanidine groups separated by a variable length tether (4-6 carbons) and containing a hydroxyl function in a position orientation to CYN, together with a tetracyclic analogue of CYN lacking the hydroxyl group at C-7. The toxicity of these compounds was then compared with CYN and guanidinoacetate (GAA; the primary substrate in CYN biosynthesis) in an in vitro model using human neutrophils isolated from healthy subjects. The lowest activity measured by means of reactive oxygen species generation, lipid peroxidation and cell death was observed for GAA and the tetracyclic analogue. The greatest toxicity was found in an analogue with a 6-carbon tether, but all three analogues and CYN caused rapid onset of redox imbalance. These results add to the general understanding of CYN toxicity and preliminary findings suggest that the -OH group at C-7 may be significant for the cellular transport of CYN and/or be involved in its toxic activity inside the cell, a hypothesis which requires further testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neurochemical binding profiles of novel indole and benzofuran MDMA analogues.

    PubMed

    Shimshoni, Jakob A; Winkler, Ilan; Golan, Ezekiel; Nutt, David

    2017-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in numerous clinical trials. In the present study, we have characterized the neurochemical binding profiles of three MDMA-benzofuran analogues (1-(benzofuran-5-yl)-propan-2-amine, 5-APB; 1-(benzofuran-6-yl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine, 6-MAPB; 1-(benzofuran-5-yl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine, 5-MAPB) and one MDMA-indole analogue (1-(1H-indol-5-yl)-2-methylamino-propan-1-ol, 5-IT). These compounds were screened as potential second-generation anti-PTSD drugs, against a battery of human and non-human receptors, transporters, and enzymes, and their potencies as 5-HT2 receptor agonist and monoamine uptake inhibitors determined. All MDMA analogues displayed high binding affinities for 5-HT2a,b,c and NEα2 receptors, as well as significant 5-HT, DA, and NE uptake inhibition. 5-APB revealed significant agonist activity at the 5-HT2a,b,c receptors, while 6-MAPB, 5-MAPB, and 5-IT exhibited significant agonist activity at the 5-HT2c receptor. There was a lack of correlation between the results of functional uptake and the monoamine transporter binding assay. MDMA analogues emerged as potent and selective monoamine oxidase A inhibitors. Based on 6-MAPB favorable pharmacological profile, it was further subjected to IC50 determination for monoamine transporters. Overall, all MDMA analogues displayed higher monoamine receptor/transporter binding affinities and agonist activity at the 5-HT2a,c receptors as compared to MDMA.

  20. Sulphamoylated 2-Methoxyestradiol Analogues Induce Apoptosis in Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Visagie, Michelle; Theron, Anne; Mqoco, Thandi; Vieira, Warren; Prudent, Renaud; Martinez, Anne; Lafanechère, Laurence; Joubert, Annie

    2013-01-01

    2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2) is a naturally occurring estradiol metabolite which possesses antiproliferative, antiangiogenic and antitumor properties. However, due to its limited biological accessibility, synthetic analogues have been synthesized and tested in attempt to develop drugs with improved oral bioavailability and efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative effects of three novel in silico-designed sulphamoylated 2ME2 analogues on the HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma cell line and estrogen receptor-negative breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells. A dose-dependent study (0.1–25 μM) was conducted with an exposure time of 24 hours. Results obtained from crystal violet staining indicated that 0.5 μM of all 3 compounds reduced the number of cells to 50%. Lactate dehydrogenase assay was used to assess cytotoxicity, while the mitotracker mitochondrial assay and caspase-6 and -8 activity assays were used to investigate the possible occurrence of apoptosis. Tubulin polymerization assays were conducted to evaluate the influence of these sulphamoylated 2ME2 analogues on tubulin dynamics. Double immunofluorescence microscopy using labeled antibodies specific to tyrosinate and detyrosinated tubulin was conducted to assess the effect of the 2ME2 analogues on tubulin dynamics. An insignificant increase in the level of lactate dehydrogenase release was observed in the compounds-treated cells. These sulphamoylated compounds caused a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release and caspase 3 activation indicating apoptosis induction by means of the intrinsic pathway in HeLa and MDA-MB-231 cells. Microtubule depolymerization was observed after exposure to these three sulphamoylated analogues. PMID:24039728

  1. Analogue Sites for Mars Missions - A report from two workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipkin, V.; Voytek, M. A.; Glamoclija, M.

    2014-12-01

    Fieldwork, at terrestrial sites that are analogous in some way to Mars, has a key role in defining questions addressed by Mars missions. For MSL, the question is whether its landing site was habitable, and for Mars 2020, the question is how do we search for and what are signs of life in ancient habitable environments. Implementing these investigations by means of a rover mission on a distant planetary surface has challenges due to a limited set of tools and period of operations. Using this context of planetary missions is important in shaping how analog research can be used to advance planetary science. Following a successful 2010 AGU fall meeting session entitled "Analogue Sites for Mars Missions", two community workshops were held at The Woodlands, TX March 2011 and the Carnegie Institute of Washington in July 2013. These activities represent an ongoing dialogue with the analogue and mission communities. The AGU session solicited presentations of current analogue research relevant to MSL, at which time the landing site selection process was still considering four final sites. The 2011 Woodlands workshop solicited details on representative science questions and analogue sites by means of an abstract template. The output from The Woodlands workshop was an initial metric to assess the utility of analogue sites against specific science questions, as well as recommendations for future activities. The 2013 Carnegie workshop, followed up on some of the recommendations from 2011. Both on-line interactive dialogue and in person discussions targeted broad topics, including 'the advantages and problems of using a great terrestrial analog for field testing', and 'knowing what we currently do about Mars, what would be the best place on the planet to collect the first suite of samples to be returned to Earth? What would be appropriate analog sites on Earth?'. The results and recommendations from both workshops are summarized to publicize and stimulate this ongoing discussion.

  2. Comparison of Strupp and Jenkins' Audiovisual Psychotherapy Analogues and Real Psychotherapy Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushner, Kenneth; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Therapists participated in two analogue interviews and audiotape-recorded two real initial intake sessions. Audiotapes of the therapists' verbal responses in the real and analogue interviews were rated along four process dimensions. Results indicated that the analogues were poor predictors of real therapy behavior. (Author)

  3. Muraymycins, novel peptidoglycan biosynthesis inhibitors: synthesis and SAR of their analogues.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Ayako; Norton, Emily; Petersen, Peter J; Rasmussen, Beth A; Singh, Guy; Yang, Youjin; Mansour, Tarek S; Ho, Douglas M

    2003-10-06

    A series of Muraymycin analogues was synthesized. These analogues showed excellent antimicrobial activity against gram-positive organisms. These analogues also showed excellent inhibitory activity against the target peptidoglycan biosynthesis enzyme MraY, the cell membrane associated transglycosylase responsible for the formation of Lipid II.

  4. Lobelane analogues as novel ligands for the vesicular monoamine transporter-2.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guangrong; Dwoskin, Linda P; Deaciuc, Agripina G; Zhu, Jun; Jones, Marlon D; Crooks, Peter A

    2005-06-02

    A series of lobelane analogues has been synthesized and their structure-activity relationships at the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) have been evaluated. The most potent analogues in this series were the cis-2,6-piperidino analogues, 25b, 27b, 28b, and 30b, with K(i) values ranging from 430 to 580 nM.

  5. Optimizing Anti-Inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Effects of Corticosteroid and Vitamin D Analogue Fixed-Dose Combination Therapy.

    PubMed

    Segaert, Siegfried; Shear, Neil H; Chiricozzi, Andrea; Thaçi, Diamant; Carrascosa, Jose-Manuel; Young, Helen; Descamps, Vincent

    2017-08-07

    Fixed-dose combination topical therapy with corticosteroid and vitamin D analog provides effective treatment and possible long-term management of psoriasis. The anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of corticosteroids and vitamin D analogs in treating psoriasis are well investigated; their complementary effects lead to the disruption of the inflammatory feedback loop underlying psoriasis pathogenesis. Recent preclinical data showed that combination therapy is more effective than monotherapies of the active ingredients in preventing activation of resting pro-inflammatory cells, inducing immunomodulation, reducing inflammatory responses by regulating T cell production, and normalizing keratinocytes. The increased understanding of the mechanism of action of fixed-dose combination therapy from preclinical studies is supported by several clinical studies. As the efficacy of topical therapy is correlated with the skin penetration of the active ingredients, new drug delivery systems have been developed. The fixed-dose combination Cal/BD aerosol foam creates a modified supersaturated formulation when applied to the skin, which is maintained for at least 26 h in the laboratory setting. Clinical studies have demonstrated superior efficacy of fixed-dose combination calcipotriol (Cal) 50 µg/g and betamethasone dipropionate (BD) 0.5 mg/g aerosol foam compared with monotherapies of the active ingredients. Furthermore, Cal/BD aerosol foam has shown significantly improved efficacy compared with more traditional formulations, such as Cal/BD ointment and gel, in other studies. Calcipotriol also mitigates risks associated with betamethasone dipropionate and vice versa, resulting in the favorable safety profile observed with fixed-dose combination treatment. Recent data also suggest that fixed-dose combination treatment could provide long-term management of psoriasis, although further clinical investigations are needed. Overall, these data support the value of fixed

  6. An analogue conceptual rainfall-runoff model for educational purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrnegger, Mathew; Riedl, Michael; Schulz, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    Conceptual rainfall-runoff models, in which runoff processes are modelled with a series of connected linear and non-linear reservoirs, remain widely applied tools in science and practice. Additionally, the concept is appreciated in teaching due to its somewhat simplicity in explaining and exploring hydrological processes of catchments. However, when a series of reservoirs are used, the model system becomes highly parametrized and complex and the traceability of the model results becomes more difficult to explain to an audience not accustomed to numerical modelling. Since normally the simulations are performed with a not visible digital code, the results are also not easily comprehensible. This contribution therefore presents a liquid analogue model, in which a conceptual rainfall-runoff model is reproduced by a physical model. This consists of different acrylic glass containers representing different storage components within a catchment, e.g. soil water or groundwater storage. The containers are equipped and connected with pipes, in which water movement represents different flow processes, e.g. surface runoff, percolation or base flow. Water from a storage container is pumped to the upper part of the model and represents effective rainfall input. The water then flows by gravity through the different pipes and storages. Valves are used for controlling the flows within the analogue model, comparable to the parameterization procedure in numerical models. Additionally, an inexpensive microcontroller-based board and sensors are used to measure storage water levels, with online visualization of the states as time series data, building a bridge between the analogue and digital world. The ability to physically witness the different flows and water levels in the storages makes the analogue model attractive to the audience. Hands-on experiments can be performed with students, in which different scenarios or catchment types can be simulated, not only with the analogue but

  7. Design and synthesis of lupeol analogues and their glucose uptake stimulatory effect in L6 skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Faheem; Maurya, Chandan Kumar; Dev, Kapil; Arha, Deepti; Rai, Amit Kumar; Tamrakar, Akhilesh Kumar; Maurya, Rakesh

    2014-06-15

    Structure modifications of lupeol at the isopropylene moiety have been described via allylic oxidation using selenium dioxide. The antidiabetic efficacy of lupeol analogues were evaluated in vitro as glucose uptake stimulatory effect in L6 skeletal muscle cells. From all tested compounds, 2, 3, 4b and 6b showed significant stimulation of glucose uptake with respective percent stimulation of 173.1 (p <0.001), 114.1 (p <0.001), 98.3 (p <0.001) and 107.3 (p <0.001) at 10μM concentration. Stimulation of glucose uptake by these compounds is associated with enhanced translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and activation of IRS-1/PI3-K/AKT-dependent signaling pathway in L6 cells. Structure-activity relationship analysis of these analogues demonstrated that the integrity of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl and acetyl moieties were important in the retention of glucose uptake stimulatory effect. It is therefore proposed that naturally occurring lupeol and their analogues might reduce blood glucose, at least in part, through stimulating glucose utilization by skeletal muscles.

  8. Mars methane analogue mission: Mission simulation and rover operations at Jeffrey Mine and Norbestos Mine Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qadi, A.; Cloutis, E.; Samson, C.; Whyte, L.; Ellery, A.; Bell, J. F.; Berard, G.; Boivin, A.; Haddad, E.; Lavoie, J.; Jamroz, W.; Kruzelecky, R.; Mack, A.; Mann, P.; Olsen, K.; Perrot, M.; Popa, D.; Rhind, T.; Sharma, R.; Stromberg, J.; Strong, K.; Tremblay, A.; Wilhelm, R.; Wing, B.; Wong, B.

    2015-05-01

    The Canadian Space Agency (CSA), through its Analogue Missions program, supported a microrover-based analogue mission designed to simulate a Mars rover mission geared toward identifying and characterizing methane emissions on Mars. The analogue mission included two, progressively more complex, deployments in open-pit asbestos mines where methane can be generated from the weathering of olivine into serpentine: the Jeffrey mine deployment (June 2011) and the Norbestos mine deployment (June 2012). At the Jeffrey Mine, testing was conducted over 4 days using a modified off-the-shelf Pioneer rover and scientific instruments including Raman spectrometer, Picarro methane detector, hyperspectral point spectrometer and electromagnetic induction sounder for testing rock and gas samples. At the Norbestos Mine, we used the research Kapvik microrover which features enhanced autonomous navigation capabilities and a wider array of scientific instruments. This paper describes the rover operations in terms of planning, deployment, communication and equipment setup, rover path parameters and instrument performance. Overall, the deployments suggest that a search strategy of “follow the methane” is not practical given the mechanisms of methane dispersion. Rather, identification of features related to methane sources based on image tone/color and texture from panoramic imagery is more profitable.

  9. Evaluation of antitumor activity and development of solid lipid nanoparticles of metronidazole analogue.

    PubMed

    Lages, Eduardo Burgarelli; de Freitas, Maria Betânia; Gonçalves, Isadora Marques Brum; Alves, Ricardo José; Vianna-Soares, Cristina Duarte; Ferreira, Lucas Antônio Miranda; de Oliveira, Mônica Cristina; de Oliveira, Renata Barbosa

    2013-11-01

    Nitroheterocyclic compounds have received considerable interest as hypoxia-selective cytotoxins (HSC) for cancer treatment. In the present study, we investigated antitumor activity of an iodide analogue of metronidazole, 1-(2-iodoethyl)-2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole (MTZ-I), using Swiss mice bearing solid Ehrlich tumor. MTZ-I showed potent anti-cancer activity at a dose of 40 mg/kg. MTZ-I loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) were developed as an alternative colloidal carrier system to enhance tumor drug uptake. SLN were characterized for particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential and entrapment efficiency. In addition, the influence of presence of the cationic lipid stearylamine (STE) on stability of formulation was assessed. The results of DSC study showed that MTZ-I exhibited interaction with STE.

  10. Three-Dimensional Printing of Tissue/Organ Analogues Containing Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Hun; Jang, Jinah; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2017-01-01

    The technical advances of three-dimensional (3D) printing in the field of tissue engineering have enabled the creation of 3D living tissue/organ analogues. Diverse 3D tissue/organ printing techniques with computer-aided systems have been developed and used to dispose living cells together with biomaterials and supporting biochemicals as pre-designed 3D tissue/organ models. Furthermore, recent advances in bio-inks, which are printable hydrogels with living cell encapsulation, have greatly enhanced the versatility of 3D tissue/organ printing. Here, we introduce 3D tissue/organ printing techniques and biomaterials that have been developed and widely used thus far. We also review a variety of applications in an attempt to repair or replace the damaged or defective tissue/organ, and develop the in vitro tissue/organ models. The potential challenges are finally discussed from the technical perspective of 3D tissue/organ printing.

  11. Curcumin and its analogues: a potential natural compound against HIV infection and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Tyagi, Amit K

    2015-11-01

    No safe and effective cure currently exists for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, antiretroviral therapy can prolong the lives of HIV patients and lowers the secondary infections. Natural compounds, which are considered to be pleiotropic molecules, could be useful against HIV. Curcumin, a yellow pigment present in the spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), can be used for the treatment of several diseases including HIV-AIDS because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and antibacterial nature. In this review we have summarized that how curcumin and its analogues inhibit the infection and replication of viral genes and prevent multiplicity of HIV. They are inhibitors of HIV protease and integrase. Curcumin also inhibits Tat transactivation of the HIV1-LTR genome, inflammatory molecules (interleukins, TNF-α, NF-κB, COX-2) and HIV associated various kinases including tyrosine kinase, PAK1, MAPK, PKC, cdk and others. In addition, curcumin enhances the effect of conventional therapeutic drugs and minimizes their side effects.

  12. Design and Synthesis of Norendoxifen Analogues with Dual Aromatase Inhibitory and Estrogen Receptor Modulatory Activities

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Wei; Liu, Jinzhong; Skaar, Todd C.; Flockhart, David A.; Cushman, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Both selective estrogen receptor modulators and aromatase inhibitors are widely used for the treatment of breast cancer. Compounds with both aromatase inhibitory and estrogen receptor modulatory activities could have special advantages for treatment of breast cancer. Our previous efforts led to the discovery of norendoxifen as the first compound with dual aromatase inhibitory and estrogen receptor binding activities. To optimize its efficacy and aromatase selectivity versus other cytochrome P450 enzymes, a series of structurally related norendoxifen analogues were designed and synthesized. The most potent compound, 4'-hydroxynorendoxifen (10), displayed elevated inhibitory potency against aromatase and enhanced affinity for estrogen receptors when compared to norendoxifen. The selectivity of 10 for aromatase versus other cytochrome P450 enzymes was also superior to norendoxifen. 4'-Hydroxynorendoxifen is therefore an interesting lead for further development to obtain new anticancer agents of potential value for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:25751283

  13. Fluorescent Farnesyl Diphosphate Analogue: A Probe To Validate trans-Prenyltransferase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Teng, Kuo-Hsun; Hsu, Erh-Ting; Chang, Ying-Hsuan; Lin, Sheng-Wei; Liang, Po-Huang

    2016-08-09

    Some trans-prenyltransferases, such as long-chain C40 octaprenyl diphosphate synthase (OPPS), short-chain C15 farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS), and C20 geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS), are important drug targets. These enzymes catalyze chain elongation of FPP or geranyl diphosphate (GPP) through condensation reactions with isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP), forming designated numbers of trans-double bonds in the final products. To facilitate drug discovery, we report here a sensitive and reliable fluorescence-based assay for monitoring their activities in real time. MANT-O-GPP, a fluorescent analogue of FPP, was used as an alternative substrate and converted by the wild-type OPPS and the engineered FPPS and GGPPS into sufficiently long products with enhanced fluorescence intensities. This fluorescence probe was used to reveal the inhibitory mechanism of zoledronate, a bisphosphonate drug that targets human FPPS and possibly GGPPS.

  14. Photophysical and nonlinear optical studies of tetraakynyl zincphthalocyanine and its "clicked" analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bankole, Owolabi M.; Nyokong, Tebello

    2015-06-01

    We report here for the first time on the photophysical and nonlinear optical behavior of tetra-substituted alkynyl zinc phthalocyanine and its "clicked" analogue (4 and 5). The compounds exhibited high triplet quantum yields in dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO). Nonlinear optical (NLO) properties were also evaluated for the two compounds at 532 nm and 10 ns in DMSO. We observed two-photon absorption (2PA) and strong reverse saturable absorption (RSA) as the dominant mechanisms at nanosecond laser excitation. The presence of electron acceptor groups fused with triazole linkers in the peripheral positions of 4 provide excellent coexistent features, such as enhanced triplet quantum yields and lifetimes compared to 5. Large third-order susceptibility (2.09 × 10-11 and 3.53 × 10-9 esu) and hyperpolarizability (1.09 × 10-30 and 9.13 × 10-29 esu) were estimated for complexs 4 and 5, respectively.

  15. The analogue method for precipitation prediction: finding better analogue situations at a sub-daily time step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Pascal; Obled, Charles; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2017-07-01

    Analogue methods (AMs) predict local weather variables (predictands) such as precipitation by means of a statistical relationship with predictors at a synoptic scale. The analogy is generally assessed on gradients of geopotential heights first to sample days with a similar atmospheric circulation. Other predictors such as moisture variables can also be added in a successive level of analogy. The search for candidate situations similar to a given target day is usually undertaken by comparing the state of the atmosphere at fixed hours of the day for both the target day and the candidate analogues. This is a consequence of using standard daily precipitation time series, which are available over longer periods than sub-daily data. However, it is unlikely for the best analogy to occur at the exact same hour for the target and candidate situations. A better analogue situation may be found with a time shift of several hours since a better fit can occur at different times of the day. In order to assess the potential for finding better analogues at a different hour, a moving time window (MTW) has been introduced. The MTW resulted in a better analogy in terms of the atmospheric circulation and showed improved values of the analogy criterion on the entire distribution of the extracted analogue dates. The improvement was found to increase with the analogue rank due to an accumulation of better analogues in the selection. A seasonal effect has also been identified, with larger improvements shown in winter than in summer. This may be attributed to stronger diurnal cycles in summer that favour predictors taken at the same hour for the target and analogue days. The impact of the MTW on the precipitation prediction skill has been assessed by means of a sub-daily precipitation series transformed into moving 24 h totals at 12, 6, and 3 h time steps. The prediction skill was improved by the MTW, as was the reliability of the prediction. Moreover, the improvements were greater for days

  16. Actions of antidiuretic hormone analogues on intact and nystatin-permeabilized frog skins.

    PubMed

    Jared, Silviya Rajakumari; Rao, J Prakasa; Subramani, Sathya

    2009-12-01

    The roles of two antidiuretic hormone analogues, namely arginine vasotocin (AVT) and lysine vasopressin (LVP), in solute transport across the ventral abdominal skin of frogs (Rana hexadactyla) were studied using voltage-clamp methods on intact and nystatin-permeabilized preparations. Arginine vasotocin (40 nm), the amphibian analogue of antidiuretic hormone, did not have any effect on the skin of Rana hexadactyla. However, LVP, the porcine antidiuretic hormone, increased the transepithelial potential difference (TEPD) and short-circuit current (SCC) significantly, without affecting the slope conductance. Lysine vasopressin had no action subsequent to addition of amiloride (100 microm) on the apical side or ouabain (10 microm) on the basolateral side. Lysine vasopressin increased slope conductance in the nystatin-permeablized skin while decreasing TEPD. Such a change was not seen in chloride-free solutions. To elucidate the mechanism of action of LVP on intact skin, experiments were done with forskolin and a V(2) receptor blocker. The effects of forskolin (10 microm) were different from those of LVP in that forskolin significantly increased SCC and conductance of the intact skin, while decreasing TEPD. The forskolin-induced increase in conductance was not abolished by amiloride. Use of the V(2) receptor blocker inhibited the effects of LVP. We conclude that AVT does not have an action on the skin of Rana hexadactyla. Lysine vasopressin enhances transepithelial sodium transport by increasing sodium-potassium pump activity, while not affecting the epithelial sodium channel conductance. Lysine vasopressin also enhances an inward-directed conductance on the basolateral membrane, probably a chloride conductance. The action of LVP on the intact frog skin is through the V(2) receptors; however, downstream signalling does not seem to be mediated by cAMP. Analysis of the electrophysiological model of frog skin with LVP allows us additionally to conclude that modulation of

  17. Solution conformations of nucleoside analogues exhibiting antiviral activity against human immunodeficiency virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, Sandra; Benevides, James M.; Thomas, George J.

    1991-01-01

    The molecular-conformational basis for HIV-1 antiviral activity of dideoxynucleoside analogues is unknown. A recent proposal by van Roey [1] that furanose sugar puckering in the C2' -endo family (namely C3' -exo) may account for the enhanced anti-HIV-1 activity of azidothymidine (AZT), dideoxythymidine (ddT) and dideoxycytidine (ddC) has been tested by conformational analysis of these and related agents, using laser Raman spectroscopy of their solutions and crystal structures. The results show that nucleoside analogues exhibiting anti-HIV-1 activity, including AZT, ddT and ddC, exist in solution with C3' -endo as the predominating sugar pucker. The C3' -endo solution conformations differ fundamentally from the C3' -exo conformations observed in the corresponding crystal structures. Accordingly, the crystal conformation cannot be responsible for enhanced recognition of these agents, either by nucleoside kinase or reverse transcriptase, as a mechanism to explain antiviral activity. The present findings suggest that C3' -endo sugear pucker, rather than C3' -exo pucker, or other puckers of the C2' -endo family, is more probably the required conformation for antivaral activity. The present work also shows that nucleoside phosphorylation does not, in general, change the preferred solution conformation of a nucleoside. Therefore, C3' -endo sugar pucker is likely to be the preferred conformation for both nucleoside kinase and reverse transcriptase recognition. In this study, the list of thymidine nucleoside conformation markers available from Raman spectra is extended and additional group frequency assignments for C3' -azido, C3' -deoxy and related nucleoside derivatives are provided.

  18. Design and synthesis of α-conotoxin GID analogues as selective α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Jayati; Yongye, Austin B; Chang, Yi-Pin; Gyanda, Reena; Medina-Franco, José L; Armishaw, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    The α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is an important target for currently approved smoking cessation therapeutics. However, the development of highly selective α4β2 nAChR antagonists remains a significant challenge. α-Conotoxin GID is an antagonist of α4β2 nAChRs, though it is significantly more potent toward the α3β2 and α7 subtypes. With the goal of obtaining further insights into α-conotoxin GID/nAChR interactions that could lead to the design of GID analogues with improved affinity for α4β2 nAChRs, we built a homology model of the GID/α4β2 complex using an X-ray co-crystal structure of an α-conotoxin/acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) complex. Several additional interactions that could potentially enhance the affinity of GID for α4β2 nAChRs were observed in our model, which led to the design and synthesis of 22 GID analogues. Seven analogues displayed inhibitory activity toward α4β2 nAChRs that was comparable to GID. Significantly, both GID[A10S] and GID[V13I] demonstrated moderately improved selectivity toward α4β2 over α3β2 when compared with GID, while GID[V18N] exhibited no measurable inhibitory activity for the α3β2 subtype, yet retained inhibitory activity for α4β2. In this regard, GID[V18N] is the most α4β2 nAChR selective α-conotoxin analogue identified to date. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Analogue Transformations in Physics and their Application to Acoustics

    PubMed Central

    García-Meca, C.; Carloni, S.; Barceló, C.; Jannes, G.; Sánchez-Dehesa, J.; Martínez, A.

    2013-01-01

    Transformation optics has shaped up a revolutionary electromagnetic design paradigm, enabling scientists to build astonishing devices such as invisibility cloaks. Unfortunately, the application of transformation techniques to other branches of physics is often constrained by the structure of the field equations. We develop here a complete transformation method using the idea of analogue spacetimes. The method is general and could be considered as a new paradigm for controlling waves in different branches of physics, from acoustics in quantum fluids to graphene electronics. As an application, we derive an “analogue transformation acoustics” formalism that naturally allows the use of transformations mixing space and time or involving moving fluids, both of which were impossible with the standard approach. To demonstrate the power of our method, we give explicit designs of a dynamic compressor, a spacetime cloak for acoustic waves and a carpet cloak for a moving aircraft. PMID:23774575

  20. A rationally designed CD4 analogue inhibits experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jameson, Bradford A.; McDonnell, James M.; Marini, Joseph C.; Korngold, Robert

    1994-04-01

    EXPERIMENTAL allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an acute inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that can be elicited in rodents and is the major animal model for the study of multiple sclerosis (MS)1,2. The pathogenesis of both EAE and MS directly involves the CD4+ helper T-cell subset3-5. Anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies inhibit the development of EAE in rodents6-9, and are currently being used in human clinical trials for MS. We report here that similar therapeutic effects can be achieved in mice using a small (rationally designed) synthetic analogue of the CD4 protein surface. It greatly inhibits both clinical incidence and severity of EAE with a single injection, but does so without depletion of the CD4+ subset and without the inherent immunogenicity of an antibody. Furthermore, this analogue is capable of exerting its effects on disease even after the onset of symptoms.

  1. New Immunosuppressive Sphingoid Base and Ceramide Analogues in Wild Cordyceps

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Jia-Ning; Han, Yuwei; Xu, Yingqiong; Kou, Junping; Wang, Jing-Rong; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive identification of sphingoid bases and ceramides in wild Cordyceps was performed by integrating a sequential chromatographic enrichment procedure and an UHPLC-ultrahigh definition-Q-TOF-MS based sphingolipidomic approach. A total of 43 sphingoid bases and 303 ceramides were identified from wild Cordyceps, including 12 new sphingoid base analogues and 159 new ceramide analogues based on high-resolution MS and MS/MS data, isotope distribution, matching with the comprehensive personal sphingolipid database, confirmation by sphingolipid standards and chromatographic retention time rule. The immunosuppressive bioassay results demonstrated that Cordyceps sphingoid base fraction exhibits more potent immunosuppressive activity than ceramide fraction, elucidating the immunosuppressive ingredients of wild Cordyceps. This study represented the most comprehensive identification of sphingoid bases and ceramides from a natural source. The findings of this study provided an insight into therapeutic application of wild Cordyceps. PMID:27966660

  2. Frequency-agile electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Quan; Su, Xiaoqiang; Ouyang, Chunmei; Xu, Ningning; Cao, Wei; Zhang, Yuping; Li, Quan; Hu, Cong; Gu, Jianqiang; Tian, Zhen; Azad, Abul K; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2016-10-01

    Recently reported active metamaterial analogues of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) are promising in developing novel optical components, such as active slow light devices. However, most of the previous works have focused on manipulating the EIT resonance strength at a fixed characteristic frequency and, therefore, realized on-to-off switching responses. To further extend the functionalities of the EIT effect, here we present a frequency tunable EIT analogue in the terahertz regime by integrating photoactive silicon into the metamaterial unit cell. A tuning range from 0.82 to 0.74 THz for the EIT resonance frequency is experimentally observed by optical pump-terahertz probe measurements, allowing a frequency tunable group delay of the terahertz pulses. This straightforward approach delivers frequency agility of the EIT resonance and may enable novel ultrafast tunable devices for integrated plasmonic circuits.

  3. Synthesis and antispasmodic activity evaluation of bis-(papaverine) analogues.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jaskiran; Ghosh, Narendra Nath; Chandra, Ramesh

    2004-03-01

    A new series of N-substituted bis-(tetrahydropapaverine) ring systems have been synthesised in expectation of better antispasmodic activity in comparison with papaverine. The synthesis of the targeted heterocycles is described along with a discussion of their structure activity relationship. The general synthetic methods of bis-(tetrahydropapaverine) analogues involve tetrahydropapaverine, various piperazines, diisocyanates and diisothiocyanates as starting materials. Pharmacological evaluation involves the in vitro antispasmodic activity on a freshly removed guinea pig ileum using a force displacement transducer amplifier connected to a physiograph. Among the analogues synthesized in the present study, N,N'-bis-[2-carbamoyl-1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolinyl]piperazine (22), was found to be the most potent muscle relaxant (IC(50): 0.31 microM).

  4. Optical analogue of relativistic Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, Truong X.; Longhi, Stefano; Biancalana, Fabio

    2014-01-15

    We study analytically and numerically an optical analogue of Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays in the presence of Kerr nonlinearity. Pseudo-relativistic soliton solutions of the coupled-mode equations describing dynamics in the array are analytically derived. We demonstrate that with the found soliton solutions, the coupled mode equations can be converted into the nonlinear relativistic 1D Dirac equation. This paves the way for using binary waveguide arrays as a classical simulator of quantum nonlinear effects arising from the Dirac equation, something that is thought to be impossible to achieve in conventional (i.e. linear) quantum field theory. -- Highlights: •An optical analogue of Dirac solitons in nonlinear binary waveguide arrays is suggested. •Analytical solutions to pseudo-relativistic solitons are presented. •A correspondence of optical coupled-mode equations with the nonlinear relativistic Dirac equation is established.

  5. New Immunosuppressive Sphingoid Base and Ceramide Analogues in Wild Cordyceps.

    PubMed

    Mi, Jia-Ning; Han, Yuwei; Xu, Yingqiong; Kou, Junping; Wang, Jing-Rong; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2016-12-14

    A comprehensive identification of sphingoid bases and ceramides in wild Cordyceps was performed by integrating a sequential chromatographic enrichment procedure and an UHPLC-ultrahigh definition-Q-TOF-MS based sphingolipidomic approach. A total of 43 sphingoid bases and 303 ceramides were identified from wild Cordyceps, including 12 new sphingoid base analogues and 159 new ceramide analogues based on high-resolution MS and MS/MS data, isotope distribution, matching with the comprehensive personal sphingolipid database, confirmation by sphingolipid standards and chromatographic retention time rule. The immunosuppressive bioassay results demonstrated that Cordyceps sphingoid base fraction exhibits more potent immunosuppressive activity than ceramide fraction, elucidating the immunosuppressive ingredients of wild Cordyceps. This study represented the most comprehensive identification of sphingoid bases and ceramides from a natural source. The findings of this study provided an insight into therapeutic application of wild Cordyceps.

  6. Geoscience in Support of a Mars Methane Analogue Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boivin, Alexandre

    The Mars Methane Analogue Mission, funded by the Canadian Space Agency through its Analogue Missions program, simulates a Mars rover mission whose purpose is to detect, analyse, and determine the source of methane emissions on the planet's surface. As part of this project, both an electromagnetic induction sounder (EMIS) and a high-resolution triangulation-based 3D laser scanner were tested in the field to demonstrate the benefit of including these instruments on future rover missions. EMIS data was inverted in order to derive information on the conductivity and magnetic susceptibility of the near subsurface. 3D laser scanner data was processed with fracture detection as a goal in order to simplify the search for areas of potential methane seepage. Both instruments were found to be very valuable for future rover missions of this type.

  7. Animal analogues for the study of dental and oral diseases.

    PubMed

    Levy, B M

    1980-01-01

    The usual laboratory animals, such as rats and hamsters, may not fit the criteria for an analogue of human periodontal disease, although they may be useful in the study of dental caries. Rats, hamsters, mice, guinea pigs and rabbits have been the animals of choice in studies relating nutritional deficiencies and excesses to the dental and oral tissues. Gerbils, dogs, cats, horses, cows and fowl are useful in the study of mineralized tissues of teeth and bones. Recently, primate analogues have been developed for the study of periodontal diseaes and dental caries, the two most important dental diseases afflicting man. The use of a wide variety of laboratory animals in basic dental research makes it timely to review some of the guidelines for the selection of specific animals for particular diseases.

  8. New selenium-75 labeled radiopharmaceuticals: selenonium analogues of dopamine

    SciTech Connect

    Sadek, S.A.; Basmadjian, G.P.; Hsu, P.M.; Rieger, J.A.

    1983-07-01

    Selenium-75 labeled selenonium analogues of dopamine, (2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl)dimethylselenonium iodide and its dihydroxy analogue, were prepared by reducing (/sup 75/Se)selenious acid with sodium borohydride at pH 6.0 and reacting the NaSeH produced with 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(p-toluenesulfonyloxy)ethane. Tissue distribution studies in rats given the /sup 75/Se-labeled selenonium agents intravenously demonstrated high initial heart uptake. Prolonged adrenal retention and high adrenal to blood ratio of compound 4 were observed. The high uptake and adrenal to blood ratio suggest the potential use of compound 4 as a radiopharmaceutical for the adrenal gland.

  9. Neutral Diboron Analogues of Archetypal Aromatic Species by Spontaneous Cycloaddition.

    PubMed

    Arrowsmith, Merle; Böhnke, Julian; Braunschweig, Holger; Celik, Mehmet Ali; Claes, Christina; Ewing, William C; Krummenacher, Ivo; Lubitz, Katharina; Schneider, Christoph

    2016-09-05

    Among the numerous routes organic chemists have developed to synthesize benzene derivatives and heteroaromatic compounds, transition-metal-catalyzed cycloaddition reactions are the most elegant. In contrast, cycloaddition reactions of heavier alkene and alkyne analogues, though limited in scope, proceed uncatalyzed. In this work we present the first spontaneous cycloaddition reactions of lighter alkene and alkyne analogues. Selective addition of unactivated alkynes to boron-boron multiple bonds under ambient conditions yielded diborocarbon equivalents of simple aromatic hydrocarbons, including the first neutral 6 π-aromatic diborabenzene compound, a 2 π-aromatic triplet biradical 1,3-diborete, and a phosphine-stabilized 2 π-homoaromatic 1,3-dihydro-1,3-diborete. DFT calculations suggest that all three compounds are aromatic and show frontier molecular orbitals matching those of the related aromatic hydrocarbons, C6 H6 and C4 H4 (2+) , and homoaromatic C4 H5 (+) .

  10. Analogue transformations in physics and their application to acoustics.

    PubMed

    García-Meca, C; Carloni, S; Barceló, C; Jannes, G; Sánchez-Dehesa, J; Martínez, A

    2013-01-01

    Transformation optics has shaped up a revolutionary electromagnetic design paradigm, enabling scientists to build astonishing devices such as invisibility cloaks. Unfortunately, the application of transformation techniques to other branches of physics is often constrained by the structure of the field equations. We develop here a complete transformation method using the idea of analogue spacetimes. The method is general and could be considered as a new paradigm for controlling waves in different branches of physics, from acoustics in quantum fluids to graphene electronics. As an application, we derive an "analogue transformation acoustics" formalism that naturally allows the use of transformations mixing space and time or involving moving fluids, both of which were impossible with the standard approach. To demonstrate the power of our method, we give explicit designs of a dynamic compressor, a spacetime cloak for acoustic waves and a carpet cloak for a moving aircraft.

  11. Noncommutative analogue Aharonov-Bohm effect and superresonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anacleto, M. A.; Brito, F. A.; Passos, E.

    2013-06-01

    We consider the idea of modeling a rotating acoustic black hole by an idealized draining bathtub vortex which is a planar circulating flow phenomenon with a sink at the origin. We find the acoustic metric for this phenomenon from a noncommutative Abelian Higgs model. As such the acoustic metric not only describes a rotating acoustic black hole but also inherits the noncommutative characteristic of the spacetime. We address the issues of superresonance and analogue Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect in this background. We mainly show that the scattering of planar waves by a draining bathtub vortex leads to a modified AB effect and due to spacetime noncommutativity, the phase shift persists even in the limit where the parameters associated with the circulation and draining vanish. Finally, we also find that the analogue AB effect and superresonance are competing phenomena at a noncommutative spacetime.

  12. Neurological Effects of Bisphenol A and its Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Inadera, Hidekuni

    2015-01-01

    The endocrine disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. The use of BPA-containing products in daily life makes exposure ubiquitous, and the potential human health risks of this chemical are a major public health concern. Although numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have been published on the effects of BPA on biological systems, there is controversy as to whether ordinary levels of exposure can have adverse effects in humans. However, the increasing incidence of developmental disorders is of concern, and accumulating evidence indicates that BPA has detrimental effects on neurological development. Other bisphenol analogues, used as substitutes for BPA, are also suspected of having a broad range of biological actions. The objective of this review is to summarize our current understanding of the neurobiological effects of BPA and its analogues, and to discuss preventive strategies from a public health perspective. PMID:26664253

  13. New homoisoflavonoid analogues protect cells by regulating autophagy.

    PubMed

    Gan, Li-She; Zeng, Lin-Wei; Li, Xiang-Rong; Zhou, Chang-Xin; Li, Jie

    2017-03-15

    As a special group of naturally occurring flavonoids, homoisoflavonoids have been discovered as active components of several traditional Chinese medicines for nourishing heart and mind. In this study, twenty homoisoflavonoid analogues, including different substitution groups on rings A and B, as well as heteroaromatic B ring, were synthesized and evaluated for their cardioprotective and neuroprotective activities. In a H2O2-induced H9c2 cardiomyocytes injury assay, nine homoisoflavonoid analogues showed promising activities in the same level as the positive control, diazoxide. Six cardioprotective compounds with representative structure diversities were then evaluated for their neuroprotective effects on MPP+ induced SH-SY5Y cell injury model. Furthermore, autophagy inducing monodansylcadaverine (MDC) fluorescence staining methods and molecular docking studies indicated the action mechanism of these compounds may involve autophagy regulating via class I PI3K signaling pathway.

  14. All-dielectric metasurface analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuanmu; Kravchenko, Ivan I; Briggs, Dayrl P; Valentine, Jason

    2014-12-16

    Metasurface analogues of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) have been a focus of the nanophotonics field in recent years, due to their ability to produce high-quality factor (Q-factor) resonances. Such resonances are expected to be useful for applications such as low-loss slow-light devices and highly sensitive optical sensors. However, ohmic losses limit the achievable Q-factors in conventional plasmonic EIT metasurfaces to values <~10, significantly hampering device performance. Here we experimentally demonstrate a classical analogue of EIT using all-dielectric silicon-based metasurfaces. Due to extremely low absorption loss and coherent interaction of neighbouring meta-atoms, a Q-factor of 483 is observed, leading to a refractive index sensor with a figure-of-merit of 103. Furthermore, we show that the dielectric metasurfaces can be engineered to confine the optical field in either the silicon resonator or the environment, allowing one to tailor light-matter interaction at the nanoscale.

  15. Antimalarial activity of abietane ferruginol analogues possessing a phthalimide group.

    PubMed

    González, Miguel A; Clark, Julie; Connelly, Michele; Rivas, Fatima

    2014-11-15

    The abietane-type diterpenoid (+)-ferruginol, a bioactive compound isolated from New Zealand's Miro tree (Podocarpus ferruginea), displays relevant pharmacological properties, including antimicrobial, cardioprotective, anti-oxidative, anti-plasmodial, leishmanicidal, anti-ulcerogenic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer. Herein, we demonstrate that ferruginol (1) and some phthalimide containing analogues 2-12 have potential antimalarial activity. The compounds were evaluated against malaria strains 3D7 and K1, and cytotoxicity was measured against a mammalian cell line panel. A promising lead, compound 3, showed potent activity with an EC50 = 86 nM (3D7 strain), 201 nM (K1 strain) and low cytotoxicity in mammalian cells (SI>290). Some structure-activity relationships have been identified for the antimalarial activity in these abietane analogues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Alligator rivers analogue project an OECD/NEA international project

    SciTech Connect

    Duerden, P.; Airey, P.; Pescatore, C.

    1994-12-31

    The Koongarra uranium deposit in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory of Australia was studied as a natural analogue of the far field behaviour of high level waste repositories following groundwater ingress. A number of mathematical modelling approaches were developed for processes as diverse as groundwater transport, host rock weathering, radionuclide sorption, evolution of the uranium dispersion fan and the distribution of uranium series nuclides between mineral assemblages in weathered host rock. Some of these models are relevant to performance assessment at the level of individual processes and subsystem performance. Through the project, new insights into the application of the natural analogue approach to the assessment of potential waste repository sites were obtained.

  17. Isobaric Analogue States Studied in Mirrored Fragmentation and Knockout Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, M.A.; Pritychenko, B.; Paterson,I.; Brown,J.R.; Taylor,M.J.; Digen,C.Aa.; Adrich,P.; Bazin,D.; Cook.J.M.; Gade,A.; Glasmacher,T.; McDaniel,S.; Ratkiewicz,A.; Siwek,K.; D.Weisshaar,D.; Pritychenko,B.; Lenzi,S.M.

    2010-05-21

    A Gamma-ray spectroscopic study of excited states of isobaric multiplets has been performed in recent years, with a view to gaining a quantitative understanding of energy differences between excited states in terms of a range of Coulomb and other isospin breaking phenomena. Recently, the experimental programme has been augmented by a study of isobaric analogue states of mirror nuclei populated in mirrored fragmentation reactions. In this presentation, recent results on the T = 3/2 analogue states in the T{sub z} = {+-} 3/2 mirror pair {sup 53}Ni/{sup 53}Mn will be summarised. In this work, further strong evidence is found for the need to include an anomalous isospin-breaking two-body matrix element for angular-momentum couplings of J = 2, in addition the expected Coulomb contribution, in order to account for the experimental data.

  18. Synthetic silvestrol analogues as potent and selective protein synthesis inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Nair, Somarajan J; Lescarbeau, André; Belani, Jitendra; Peluso, Stéphane; Conley, James; Tillotson, Bonnie; O'Hearn, Patrick; Smith, Sherri; Slocum, Kelly; West, Kip; Helble, Joseph; Douglas, Mark; Bahadoor, Adilah; Ali, Janid; McGovern, Karen; Fritz, Christian; Palombella, Vito J; Wylie, Andrew; Castro, Alfredo C; Tremblay, Martin R

    2012-10-25

    Misregulation of protein translation plays a critical role in human cancer pathogenesis at many levels. Silvestrol, a cyclopenta[b]benzofuran natural product, blocks translation at the initiation step by interfering with assembly of the eIF4F translation complex. Silvestrol has a complex chemical structure whose functional group requirements have not been systematically investigated. Moreover, silvestrol has limited development potential due to poor druglike properties. Herein, we sought to develop a practical synthesis of key intermediates of silvestrol and explore structure-activity relationships around the C6 position. The ability of silvestrol and analogues to selectively inhibit the translation of proteins with high requirement on the translation-initiation machinery (i.e., complex 5'-untranslated region UTR) relative to simple 5'UTR was determined by a cellular reporter assay. Simplified analogues of silvestrol such as compounds 74 and 76 were shown to have similar cytotoxic potency and better ADME characteristics relative to those of silvestrol.

  19. Production of ramoplanin analogues by genetic engineering of Actinoplanes sp.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hai-Xue; Chen, Zhou-Zhou; Shao, Lei; Li, Ji-An; Chen, Jun-Sheng; Zhu, Chun-Bao; Tang, Gong-Li; Chen, Dai-Jie

    2013-10-01

    Ramoplanins are lipopeptides effective against a wide range of Gram-positive pathogens. Ramoplanin A2 is in Phase III clinical trials. The structure-activity relationship of the unique 2Z,4E-fatty acid side-chain of ramoplanins indicates a significant contribution to the antimicrobial activities but ramoplanin derivatives with longer 2Z,4E-fatty acid side-chains are not easy to obtain by semi-synthetic approaches. To construct a strain that produces such analogues, an acyl-CoA ligase gene in a ramoplanin-producing Actinoplanes was inactivated and a heterologous gene from an enduracidin producer (Streptomyces fungicidicus) was introduced into the mutant. The resulting strain produced three ramoplanin analogues with longer alkyl chains, in which X1 was purified. The MIC value of X1 was ~0.12 μg/ml against Entrococcus sp. and was also active against vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 2 μg/ml).

  20. Synthesis of dehydroepiandrosterone analogues modified with phosphatidic acid moiety.

    PubMed

    Smuga, Damian A; Smuga, Małgorzata; Swizdor, Alina; Panek, Anna; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław

    2010-12-12

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its metabolite 7α-OH DHEA have many diverse physiological, biological and biochemical effects encompassing various cell types, tissues and organs. In in vitro studies, DHEA analogues have myriad biological actions, but in vivo, especially in oral administration, DHEA produces far more limited clinical effects. One of the possible solutions of this problem is conversion of DHEA to active analogues and/or its transformation into prodrug form. In this article, the studies on the conversion of DHEA and 7α-OH DHEA into their phosphatides by the phosphodiester approach are described. In this esterification, N,N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) was the most efficient coupling agent as well as p-toluenesulphonyl chloride (TsCl).

  1. Numerical and analogue modelling of the propagation and dissolution of CO2 into reservoir brines: implications for CO2 sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, K.; Bickle, M.; Neufeld, J. A.; Waterton, P.; Kampman, N.; Maskell, A.; Chapman, H.

    2013-12-01

    The release of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere is recognised as the principal cause of the current changes observed in the Earth's climate. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) within reservoirs is seen as a solution to combat these changes through long-term and secure geological storage of CO2. The viability of long-term storage however, is reliant on an accurate knowledge of CO2 trapping mechanisms, as well as an understanding of the effect of the injected supercritical CO2 on the reservoir formations themselves. One prospective stable trapping mechanism is the dissolution of CO2 into ambient reservoir brine. Developing a greater understanding of the flow of CO2 through reservoir rocks and the associated reactions between the host rock formation and the fluid is therefore of great importance to understanding whether a CO2 storage site will succeed. This study examines the enhanced rates of dissolution found during injection into a layered, heterogeneous formation through analogue experiments and numerical modelling. The analogue experiments are designed to approximate an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) setting and show that during fluid propagation, pore-scale viscous fingers grow and retreat. This will provide an increased surface area between the flow and the ambient reservoir fluid which is likely to enhance the dissolution of CO2 in reservoir brines. The numerical simulations provide a useful comparison with the analogue experiments and give constraints on the timescales and magnitude of CO2 dissolution and the resultant fluid-mineral reactions in a heterogeneous reservoir. The study begins to address whether the dissolution of carbonate or silicate minerals can provide the CO2 with a leakage pathway through corroded caprocks and fault seals, or help with pathway sealing.

  2. Synthesis of phosphonate and phostone analogues of ribose-1-phosphates

    PubMed Central

    Nasomjai, Pitak; Slawin, Alexandra M Z

    2009-01-01

    Summary The synthesis of phosphonate analogues of ribose-1-phosphate and 5-fluoro-5-deoxyribose-1-phosphate is described. Preparations of both the α- and β-phosphonate anomers are reported for the ribose and 5-fluoro-5-deoxyribose series and a synthesis of the corresponding cyclic phostones of each α-ribose is also reported. These compounds have been prepared as tools to probe the details of fluorometabolism in S. cattleya. PMID:19777136

  3. Pre-Clinical Testing of New Hydroxybutyrate Analogues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    the effects of DHB analogues to ascertain if they are longer-acting compounds than the parent compound. Although obtaining the first and only drug ...useful in the treatment of PD. Body of Work The goal of this study is to fully assess and compare the potency of compounds that are structurally...SARA 313: Carcinogenicity Classification (components present at 0.1% or more): none, unless listed below TSCA (US Toxic Substances Control Act

  4. Dimerization and DNA recognition rules of mithramycin and its analogues

    PubMed Central

    Weidenbach, Stevi; Hou, Caixia; Chen, Jhong-Min; Tsodikov, Oleg V.; Rohr, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The antineoplastic and antibiotic natural product mithramycin (MTM) is used against cancer-related hypercalcemia and, experimentally, against Ewing sarcoma and lung cancers. MTM exerts its cytotoxic effect by binding DNA as a divalent metal ion (Me2+)-coordinated dimer and disrupting the function of transcription factors. A precise molecular mechanism of action of MTM, needed to develop MTM analogues selective against desired transcription factors, is lacking. Although it is known that MTM binds G/C-rich DNA, the exact DNA recognition rules that would allow one to map MTM binding sites remain incompletely understood. Towards this goal, we quantitatively investigated dimerization of MTM and several of its analogues, MTM SDK (for Short side chain, DiKeto), MTM SA-Trp (for Short side chain and Acid), MTM SA-Ala, and a biosynthetic precursor premithramycin B (PreMTM B), and measured the binding affinities of these molecules to DNA oligomers of different sequences and structural forms at physiological salt concentrations. We show that MTM and its analogues form stable dimers even in the absence of DNA. All molecules, except for PreMTM B, can bind DNA with the following rank order of affinities (strong to weak): MTM = MTM SDK > MTM SA-Trp > MTM SA-Ala. An X(G/C)(G/C)X motif, where X is any base, is necessary and sufficient for MTM binding to DNA, without a strong dependence on DNA conformation. These recognition rules will aid in mapping MTM sites across different promoters towards development of MTM analogues as useful anticancer agents. PMID:26760230

  5. Bis(vinylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene analogues of BEDT-TTF

    PubMed Central

    Demirtas, İlknur; Ozturk, Turan

    2015-01-01

    Summary This review aims to give an overview of the current status of our research on the synthesis of π-electron donor bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene (BEDT-TTF, ET) analogues prepared from 1,8-diketones via a ring forming reaction. The new synthesized π-electron donors have vinyl moieties producing extended π-electron delocalization over the substituent phenyl rings at the peripheries. PMID:25977714

  6. Differential membrane fluidization by active and inactive cannabinoid analogues.

    PubMed

    Mavromoustakos, T; Papahatjis, D; Laggner, P

    2001-06-06

    The effects of the two cannabinomimetic drugs (-)-2-(6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-1-hydroxy-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyranyl-2-(hexyl)-1,3-dithiolane (AMG-3) and its pharmacologically less active 1-methoxy analogue (AMG-18) on the thermotropic and structural properties of dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine (DPPC) liposomes have been studied by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DSC data revealed that the incorporation of the drugs affect differently the thermotropic properties of DPPC. The presence of the more active drug distinctly broadened and attenuated both the pretransition and main phase transition of DPPC bilayers, while the inactive analogue had only minor effects. Small and wide angle X-ray diffraction data showed that the two cannabinoids have different effects on the lipid phase structures and on the hydrocarbon chain packing. The pharmacologically active analogue, AMG-3, was found to efficiently fluidize domains of the lipids in the L(beta)' gel phase, and to perturb the regular multibilayer lattice. In the liquid crystalline L(alpha) phase, AMG-3 was also found to cause irregularities in packing, suggesting that the drug induces local curvature. At the same concentration, the inactive AMG-18 had only minor structural effects on the lipids. At about 10-fold or higher concentrations, AMG-18 was found to produce similar but still less pronounced effects in comparison to those observed by AMG-3. The dose-dependent, different thermotropic and structural effects by the two cannabinoid analogues suggest that these may be related to their biological activity.

  7. (18)F-labelled metomidate analogues as adrenocortical imaging agents.

    PubMed

    Erlandsson, Maria; Karimi, Farhad; Lindhe, Orjan; Långström, Bengt

    2009-05-01

    Two- and one-step syntheses of (18)F-labelled analogues of metomidate, such as 2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl 1-[(1R)-1-phenylethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (1), 2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl 1-[(1R)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (2), 2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl 1-[(1R)-1-(4-bromophenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (3), 3-[(18)F]fluoropropyl 1-[(1R)-1-(4-bromophenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (4) and 3-[(18)F]fluoropropyl 1-[(1R)-1-phenylethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (5) are presented. Analogues 1-5 were prepared by a two-step reaction sequence that started with the synthesis of either 2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate or 3-[(18)F]fluoropropyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate. These were used as (18)F-alkylating agents in the second step, in which they reacted with the ammonium salt of a 1-[(1R)-1-phenylethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylic acid. One-step-labelling syntheses of 1, 2 and 5 were also explored. Analogues 1-4 were biologically validated by frozen-section autoradiography and organ distribution. Metabolite analysis was performed for 2 and 3. The radiochemical yield of the two-step synthesis was in the range of 10-29% and that of the one-step synthesis was 25-37%. Using microwave irradiation in the one-step synthesis of 1 and 2 increased the radiochemical yield to 46+/-3% and 79+/-30%, respectively. Both the frozen-section autoradiography and organ distribution results indicated that analogue 2 has a potential as an adrenocortical imaging agent, having the highest degree of specific adrenal binding and best ratio of adrenal to organ uptake among the compounds studied.

  8. Effect of lipophilicity on the pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled spiperone analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Moerlein, S.M.; Laufer, P.; Stocklin, G.

    1985-05-01

    Several radiolabeled analogues of the butyrophenone neuroleptic spiperone exhibit in vivo localization in D/sub 2/ receptor-rich areas of the brain. A series of N-alkylated spiperone analogues and the corresponding p-brominated compounds were synthesized to ascertain the optimum structure for labeling with /sup 18/F or /sup 75/Br. In vivo studies indicated that all analogues had D/sub 2/ receptor-binding affinity within the same order of magnitude (IC/sub 50/=2.6 nM for SP and 3.9 nM for BPSP), whereas the lipophilicity varied greatly (log P=2.7 for SP and 5.2 for BPSP). In vivo studies in the rat using the radiobrominated analogues were done using compounds labeled with n.c.a. /sup 77/Br via in-situ oxidation by dichloramine-T or H/sub 2/O/sub 2//CH/sub 3/COOH. Alkylation of BSP was found to decrease the striatum-to-cerebellum concentration at 6 hr from 8.2 for BSP to 5.2 for BPSP. Unexpectedly, the cerebral uptake did not increase with log P, the striatal concentration dropping from 390% MBC for BSP to 85% MBC for BPSP. This contrasts with previous results for SP and MSP, where the brain uptake increases slightly with log P. Increasing lipophilicity increases blood faster than brain concentrations, and it is concluded that whereas N-alkylation may be beneficial for /sup 18/F-labeld neuroleptics, non-alkylated spiperone is the optimum labeling substrate for /sup 75/Br.

  9. Novel ynamide structural analogues and their synthetic transformations

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ting; Hsung, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    This Highlight accounts for a recent phenomenon in which a series of novel ynamide structural analogues have emerged and caught the attention of the synthetic community. Preparations and reactions of these de novo ynamide variants are delineated here to demonstrate their accessibility as well as their reactivity. This Highlight should help reveal that these unique N-containing alkynes can become highly versatile building blocks in organic syntheses. PMID:26280027

  10. Synthesis of a platform to access bistramides and their analogues.

    PubMed

    Commandeur, Malgorzata; Commandeur, Claude; Cossy, Janine

    2011-11-18

    The platform C14-C40, which can be used to prepare bistramide C and 39-oxobistramide K, was synthesized in 19 steps with an overall yield of 6.2%. Furthermore, the chemoselective reduction of the ketone at C-39 was performed giving an easy access to bistramides A, B, D, K, and L. Finally, the versatility of the synthesis of the C14-C40 fragment can allow the preparation of a large variety of stereoisomers to produce bistramide analogues.

  11. Projected Future Climate Analogues and Climate "Velocities" in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, S. L.; Bartlein, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Future climate changes may have significant effects on many North American ecosystems. One way of assessing the potential impacts of future climate change is to use future climate analogues of present climate to evaluate the spatial extent and rates of future climate change. We used a set of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) future climate simulations (2006-2100) produced under representative concentration pathway scenario RCP8.5. We regridded these data to a 10-km equal-area grid of North America. Modern climate data (1961-1990 30-year mean) were interpolated to the same 10-km grid. The projected future climate data were analyzed using 10-year mean values of monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation and a set of derived annual bioclimatic variables (e.g., growing degree days) considered to be ecologically significant. Potential future climate analogues were calculated for each grid cell using Euclidean distances to identify similar climates occurring elsewhere in North America. We identify regions that are projected to retain climates similar to present in the future (e.g., parts of the southeastern United States) and regions where present climates are projected to become less common or to disappear in the future (e.g., high elevation sites in western North America). We also calculate the rates of change in locations of similar climates (i.e., climate analogue velocities) and compare our results with simulated paleoclimate velocities over the past 22 kyr (from TraCE-21ka transient climate simulations for 22 ka-present). We discuss the implications of these results for conservation and natural resource management in North America. We also describe a web application being developed to allow researchers, decision makers, and members of the public, to visualize, explore, and use the climate analogue data.

  12. Active postoperative acromegaly: sustained remission after discontinuation of somatostatin analogues

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas-Salas, Jersy

    2016-01-01

    Summary In patients with active acromegaly after pituitary surgery, somatostatin analogues are effective in controlling the disease and can even be curative in some cases. After treatment discontinuation, the likelihood of disease recurrence is high. However, a small subset of patients remains symptom-free after discontinuation, with normalized growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF1) levels. The characteristics of patients most likely to achieve sustained remission after treatment discontinuation are not well understood, although limited evidence suggests that sustained remission is more likely in patients with lower GH and IGF1 levels before treatment withdrawal, in those who respond well to low-dose treatment, in those without evidence of adenoma on an MRI scan and/or in patients who receive long-term treatment. In this report, we describe the case of a 56-year-old female patient treated with lanreotide Autogel for 11 years. Treatment was successfully discontinued, and the patient is currently disease-free on all relevant parameters (clinical, biochemical and tumour status). The successful outcome in this case adds to the small body of literature suggesting that some well-selected patients who receive long-term treatment with somatostatin analogues may achieve sustained remission. Learning points: The probability of disease recurrence is high after discontinuation of treatment with somatostatin analogues. Current data indicate that remission after treatment discontinuation may be more likely in patients with low GH and IGF1 levels before treatment withdrawal, in those who respond well to low-dose treatment, in those without evidence of adenoma on MRI, and/or in patients receiving prolonged treatment. This case report suggests that prolonged treatment with somatostatin analogues can be curative in carefully selected patients. PMID:27933171

  13. Dimerization and DNA recognition rules of mithramycin and its analogues.

    PubMed

    Weidenbach, Stevi; Hou, Caixia; Chen, Jhong-Min; Tsodikov, Oleg V; Rohr, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    The antineoplastic and antibiotic natural product mithramycin (MTM) is used against cancer-related hypercalcemia and, experimentally, against Ewing sarcoma and lung cancers. MTM exerts its cytotoxic effect by binding DNA as a divalent metal ion (Me(2+))-coordinated dimer and disrupting the function of transcription factors. A precise molecular mechanism of action of MTM, needed to develop MTM analogues selective against desired transcription factors, is lacking. Although it is known that MTM binds G/C-rich DNA, the exact DNA recognition rules that would allow one to map MTM binding sites remain incompletely understood. Towards this goal, we quantitatively investigated dimerization of MTM and several of its analogues, MTM SDK (for Short side chain, DiKeto), MTM SA-Trp (for Short side chain and Acid), MTM SA-Ala, and a biosynthetic precursor premithramycin B (PreMTM B), and measured the binding affinities of these molecules to DNA oligomers of different sequences and structural forms at physiological salt concentrations. We show that MTM and its analogues form stable dimers even in the absence of DNA. All molecules, except for PreMTM B, can bind DNA with the following rank order of affinities (strong to weak): MTM=MTM SDK>MTM SA-Trp>MTM SA-Ala. An X(G/C)(G/C)X motif, where X is any base, is necessary and sufficient for MTM binding to DNA, without a strong dependence on DNA conformation. These recognition rules will aid in mapping MTM sites across different promoters towards development of MTM analogues as useful anticancer agents. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Ungeremine and Its hemisynthesized analogues as bactericides against Flavobacterium columnare.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Kevin K; Avolio, Fabiana; Andolfi, Anna; Cimmino, Alessio; Evidente, Antonio

    2013-02-13

    The Gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium columnare is the cause of columnaris disease, which can occur in channel catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus ). In a previous study, the betaine-type alkaloid ungeremine, 1, obtained from Pancratium maritimum L. was found to have strong antibacterial activity against F. columnare. In this study, analogues of 1 were evaluated using a rapid bioassay for activity against F. columnare to determine if the analogues might provide greater antibacterial activity and to determine structure-activity relationships of the test compounds. Several ungeremine analogues were prepared by hydrochlorination of the alkaloid and by selenium dioxide oxidation of both lycorine, 7, and pseudolycorine, 8, which yielded the isomer of ungeremine, 3, and zefbetaine, 4, respectively. The treatment of lycorine with phosphorus oxychloride allowed the synthesis of an anhydrolycorine lactam, 5, showing, with respect to 1, the deoxygenation and oxygenation of C-2 and C-7 of the C and B rings, respectively. The results of the structure-activity relationship studies showed that the aromatization of the C ring and the oxidation to an azomethine group of C-7 of the B ring are structural features important for antibacterial activity. In addition, the position of the oxygenation of the C ring as well as the presence of the 1,3-dioxole ring joined to the A ring of the pyrrolo[de]phenanthridine skeleton also plays a significant role in imparting antibacterial activity. On the basis of 24-h 50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)) results, ungeremine hydrochloride, 2, was similar in toxicity to 1, whereas 5 had the lowest activity. Analogue 2 is soluble in water, which may provide the benefit for use as an effective feed additive or therapeutant compared to ungeremine.

  15. Evaluation of Anti-HIV-1 Mutagenic Nucleoside Analogues*

    PubMed Central

    Vivet-Boudou, Valérie; Isel, Catherine; El Safadi, Yazan; Smyth, Redmond P.; Laumond, Géraldine; Moog, Christiane; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Marquet, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Because of their high mutation rates, RNA viruses and retroviruses replicate close to the threshold of viability. Their existence as quasi-species has pioneered the concept of “lethal mutagenesis” that prompted us to synthesize pyrimidine nucleoside analogues with antiviral activity in cell culture consistent with an accumulation of deleterious mutations in the HIV-1 genome. However, testing all potentially mutagenic compounds in cell-based assays is tedious and costly. Here, we describe two simple in vitro biophysical/biochemical assays that allow prediction of the mutagenic potential of deoxyribonucleoside analogues. The first assay compares the thermal stabilities of matched and mismatched base pairs in DNA duplexes containing or not the nucleoside analogues as follows. A promising candidate should display a small destabilization of the matched base pair compared with the natural nucleoside and the smallest gap possible between the stabilities of the matched and mismatched base pairs. From this assay, we predicted that two of our compounds, 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxycytidine, should be mutagenic. The second in vitro reverse transcription assay assesses DNA synthesis opposite nucleoside analogues inserted into a template strand and subsequent extension of the newly synthesized base pairs. Once again, only 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxycytidine are predicted to be efficient mutagens. The predictive potential of our fast and easy first line screens was confirmed by detailed analysis of the mutation spectrum induced by the compounds in cell culture because only compounds 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxycytidine were found to increase the mutation frequency by 3.1- and 3.4-fold, respectively. PMID:25398876

  16. Synthetic neurotensin analogues are nontoxic analgesics for the rabbit cornea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Charles; Barbut, Denise; Heinemann, Murk H; Pasternak, Gavril; Rosenblatt, Mark I

    2014-05-13

    To characterize the analgesic potency and toxicity of topical synthetic neurotensin analogues, and localize neurotensin receptors in the cornea and trigeminal ganglion. Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometry was performed on the rabbit cornea to test the analgesic dose response and duration of effect for two synthetic neurotensin analogues: NT71 and NT72. Receptors for neurotensin were localized in the murine cornea and trigeminal ganglion using quantitative PCR (qPCR), Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. In vitro toxicity of NT71, NT72, and sodium channel blockers was evaluated using cytotoxicity, single-cell migration, and scratch closure assays performed on rabbit corneal epithelial cells. In vivo toxicity of these agents was assessed using a rabbit laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) model and histology. NT71 and NT72 induced potent analgesic effects on the rabbit cornea at concentrations between 1.0 and 2.5 mg/mL, lasting up to 180 minutes. A site-specific distribution of neurotensin receptors was observed in the murine cornea and trigeminal ganglion. NT71 and NT72 did not cause any significant in vitro or in vivo toxicity, in contrast to sodium channel blockers. Synthetic neurotensin analogues are potent analgesics that avoid the toxicities associated with established topical analgesic agents. Receptors for neurotensin are present in both the cornea and trigeminal ganglion. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  17. Transdermal delivery of a melanotropic peptide hormone analogue

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, B.V.; Hadley, M.E.; Kreutzfeld, K.; Dorr, R.T.; Hruby, V.J.; Al-Obeidi, F.; Don, S.

    1988-01-01

    We previously reported that topical application of (Nl3/sup 4/,D-Phe/sup 7/)alpha-MSH, a superpotent analogue of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone, to mice induces a darkening of follicular melanocytes throughout the skin. We now report that the melanotropin analogue can be delivered across mouse but not rat skin in an in vitro model system. Passage of the analogue from the topically applied vehicle (polyethylene glycol) across the skin into a subcutaneous receiving vessel was demonstrated by both bioassay as well as by radioimmunoassay. The bioassay data demonstrate that percutaneous absorption of the melanotropin did not result in loss of biological activity of the peptide. The differential penetration of the peptide across rodent skin reveals that one cannot predict percutaneous absorption of a substance across the stratum corneum from studies on a single species. The present results are the first to demonstrate, by direct quantitative measurements, that a bioactive peptide can be delivered across the vertebrate integument in vitro. These studies point out the potential of a topically applied melanotropin for tanning of the skin and possibly for treatment of certain hypopigmentary disorders.

  18. Do film soundtracks contain nonlinear analogues to influence emotion?

    PubMed

    Blumstein, Daniel T; Davitian, Richard; Kaye, Peter D

    2010-12-23

    A variety of vertebrates produce nonlinear vocalizations when they are under duress. By their very nature, vocalizations containing nonlinearities may sound harsh and are somewhat unpredictable; observations that are consistent with them being particularly evocative to those hearing them. We tested the hypothesis that humans capitalize on this seemingly widespread vertebrate response by creating nonlinear analogues in film soundtracks to evoke particular emotions. We used lists of highly regarded films to generate a set of highly ranked action/adventure, dramatic, horror and war films. We then scored the presence of a variety of nonlinear analogues in these film soundtracks. Dramatic films suppressed noise of all types, contained more abrupt frequency transitions and musical sidebands, and fewer noisy screams than expected. Horror films suppressed abrupt frequency transitions and musical sidebands, but had more non-musical sidebands, and noisy screams than expected. Adventure films had more male screams than expected. Together, our results suggest that film-makers manipulate sounds to create nonlinear analogues in order to manipulate our emotional responses.

  19. TREATMENT OF TYPE 2 DIABETES WITH BIPHASIC INSULIN ANALOGUES

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Ali A.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of patients with Type 2 diabetes require insulin therapy for treating hyperglycaemia. There are several regimens available for insulin initiation and maintenance. Insulin analogues have been developed to mimic normal physiology as closely as possible. Biphasic analogues can target both fasting and postprandial hyperglycaemia, with the added advantage of being premixed and thus convenient for the patient. A practical and feasible option is to initiate insulin with one or more biphasic preparations at mealtimes, thus providing both basal and prandial coverage. Individual titration of dose and frequency of daily injections with biphasic insulin preparations has the potential for improving glycaemic control with a high degree of patient acceptance. Drawbacks include a more rigid regimen, a relative lack of flexibility, and a somewhat higher degree of glycaemic variability and hypoglycaemia when compared to multiple daily basal-bolus injections. Awareness of the advantages and limitations of biphasic insulin analogues can assist clinicians in their appropriate use for the treatment of patients with Type 2 diabetes. PMID:27918600

  20. Simulated Milky Way analogues: implications for dark matter direct searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozorgnia, Nassim; Calore, Francesca; Schaller, Matthieu; Lovell, Mark; Bertone, Gianfranco; Frenk, Carlos S.; Crain, Robert A.; Navarro, Julio F.; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2016-05-01

    We study the implications of galaxy formation on dark matter direct detection using high resolution hydrodynamic simulations of Milky Way-like galaxies simulated within the EAGLE and APOSTLE projects. We identify Milky Way analogues that satisfy observational constraints on the Milky Way rotation curve and total stellar mass. We then extract the dark matter density and velocity distribution in the Solar neighbourhood for this set of Milky Way analogues, and use them to analyse the results of current direct detection experiments. For most Milky Way analogues, the event rates in direct detection experiments obtained from the best fit Maxwellian distribution (with peak speed of 223-289 km/s) are similar to those obtained directly from the simulations. As a consequence, the allowed regions and exclusion limits set by direct detection experiments in the dark matter mass and spin-independent cross section plane shift by a few GeV compared to the Standard Halo Model, at low dark matter masses. For each dark matter mass, the halo-to-halo variation of the local dark matter density results in an overall shift of the allowed regions and exclusion limits for the cross section. However, the compatibility of the possible hints for a dark matter signal from DAMA and CDMS-Si and null results from LUX and SuperCDMS is not improved.

  1. Contact zones and hydrothermal systems as analogues to repository conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Flexser, S.

    1984-10-01

    Radioactive waste isolation efforts in the US are currently focused on examining basalt, tuff, salt, and crystalline rock as candidate rock types to encompass waste repositories. As analogues to near-field conditions, the distributions of radio- and trace-elements have been examined across contacts between these rocks and dikes and stocks that have intruded them. The intensive study of the Stripa quartz monzonite has also offered the opportunity to observe the distribution of uranium and its daughters in groundwater and its relationship to U associated with fracture-filling and alteration minerals. Investigations of intrusive contact zones to date have included (1) a tertiary stock into Precambrian gneiss, (2) a stock into ash flow tuff, (3) a rhyodacite dike into Columbia River basalt, and (4) a kimberlite dike into salt. With respect to temperature and pressure, these contact zones may be considered "worst-case scenario" analogues. Results indicate that there has been no appreciable migration of radioelements from the more radioactive intrusives into the less radioactive country rocks, either in response to the intrusions or in the fracture-controlled hydrological systems that developed following emplacement. In many cases, the radioelements are locked up in accessory minerals, suggesting that artificial analogues to these would make ideal waste forms. Emphasis should now shift to examination of active hydrothermal systems, studying the distribution of key elements in water, fractures, and alteration minerals under pressure and temperature conditions most similar to those expected in the near-field environment of a repository. 14 refs.

  2. Do film soundtracks contain nonlinear analogues to influence emotion?

    PubMed Central

    Blumstein, Daniel T.; Davitian, Richard; Kaye, Peter D.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of vertebrates produce nonlinear vocalizations when they are under duress. By their very nature, vocalizations containing nonlinearities may sound harsh and are somewhat unpredictable; observations that are consistent with them being particularly evocative to those hearing them. We tested the hypothesis that humans capitalize on this seemingly widespread vertebrate response by creating nonlinear analogues in film soundtracks to evoke particular emotions. We used lists of highly regarded films to generate a set of highly ranked action/adventure, dramatic, horror and war films. We then scored the presence of a variety of nonlinear analogues in these film soundtracks. Dramatic films suppressed noise of all types, contained more abrupt frequency transitions and musical sidebands, and fewer noisy screams than expected. Horror films suppressed abrupt frequency transitions and musical sidebands, but had more non-musical sidebands, and noisy screams than expected. Adventure films had more male screams than expected. Together, our results suggest that film-makers manipulate sounds to create nonlinear analogues in order to manipulate our emotional responses. PMID:20504815

  3. Natural analogue studies as supplements to biomineralization research

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, M.B.

    1995-09-01

    Chemical reactions can alter the chemistry and crystal structure of solid objects over archeological or geological times, while preserving external physical shapes. The reactions resulting in these structures offer natural analogues to laboratory experiments in biomineralization and to biologically influenced alteration of nuclear waste packages, and thus, they offer the only available way of validating models that purport waste package behavior over archaeological or geological times. Potential uses of such analogues in the construction and validation of hypothetical mechanisms of microbiological corrosion and biomineralization are reviewed. Evidence from such analogues suggests that biofilms can control materials alteration in ways usually overlooked. The newly hypothesized mechanisms involve control by biofilms of the cation flow near the solid surface and offer plausible mechanisms for the formation of mixed-cation minerals under conditions that would lead to dealloying in abiotic experiments; they also account for the formation of unusual minerals [such as posnjakite, Cu{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 6{center_dot}}H{sub 2}O] and mineral morphologies unusual in corrosion [malachite, Cu{sub 2}CO{sub 3}(OH){sub 2}, rarely forms botryoidally under corrosion conditions and its occasional presence on archaeological objects that appear to have undergone microbiological corrosion may be related to biofilm phenomena].

  4. Mammalian folylpoly-. gamma. -glutamate synthetase. 3. Specificity for folate analogues

    SciTech Connect

    George, S.; Cichowicz, D.J.; Shane, B.

    1987-01-27

    A variety of folate analogues were synthesized to explore the specificity of the folate binding site of hog liver folypolyglutamate synthetase and the requirements for catalysis. Modifications of the internal and terminal glutamate moieties of folate cause large drops in on rates and/or affinity for the protein. The only exceptions are glutamine, homocysteate, and ornithine analogues, indicating a less stringent specificity around the delta-carbon of glutamate. It is proposed that initial folate binding to the enzyme involves low-affinity interactions at a pterin and a glutamate site and that the first glutamate bound is the internal residue adjacent to the benzoyl group. Processive movement of the polyglutamate chain through the glutamate site and a possible conformational change in the protein when the terminal residue is bound would result in tight binding and would position the ..gamma..-carboxyl of the terminal glutamate in the correct position for catalysis. The 4-amino substitution of folate increases the on rate for monoglutamate derivatives but severely impairs catalysis with diglutamate derivatives. Pteroylornithine derivatives are the first potent and specific inhibitors of folylpolyglutamate synthetase to be identified and may act as analogues of reaction intermediates. Other folate derivatives with tetrahedral chemistry replacing the peptide bond, such as pteroyl-..gamma..-glutamyl-(psi,CH/sub 2/-NH)-glutamate, retain affinity for the protein but are considerably less effective inhibitors than the ornithine derivatives. Enzyme activity was assayed using (/sup 14/C)glutamate.

  5. Analogue Investigations into Magma-Cryosphere Interactions on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, S.; Wilson, L.; Lane, S. J.; Airey, M. W.; Gilbert, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    Many landforms and morphological features thought to have resulted from magma-cryosphere interactions have been identified on Mars. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to investigate the physical and thermal changes that should occur in the subsurface during these interactions. This project aims to begin to address this by conducting a series of laboratory analogue experiments. We introduce a heat source into a block of analogue cryosphere material (a carefully-prepared mixture of solid grains and ice) and record the thermal development within the block using thermocouples. We use these measurements to interpret the physical activity within the block, such as when and where phase changes occur, what sequence of shapes the developing melt region takes, and the extent of convection of any fluid phase H20. Blocks are also dissected after each run and documented photographically to record any physical movement of grains. Results will be used to constrain variables within a heat flow model that we are developing. This model will then be applied to the interpretation of landforms on Mars to help determine what set of processes could have realistically occurred during their formation. A second series of experiments will investigate surface morphological changes on the cryosphere analogue blocks. Resultant morphologies will be recorded and compared with existing martian landforms to again provide insight into formation processes.

  6. Development of murine monoclonal antibodies to methamphetamine and methamphetamine analogues.

    PubMed

    Danger, Yannic; Gadjou, Caroline; Devys, Anne; Galons, Hervé; Blanchard, Dominique; Folléa, Gilles

    2006-02-20

    Methamphetamine and ecstasy are addictive drugs that cause major health problems in young people. Here we report on the development of high-affinity monoclonal antibodies to methamphetamine and its analogues, which may constitute powerful tools for antibody-based therapy. Six haptens, methamphetamine and ecstasy analogues, were synthesized, linked to a carrier protein and injected into mice. Several specific monoclonal antibodies were subsequently obtained following fusion of splenocytes from the immunized animals, with Sp2/O cells. Antibody specificity was fully investigated by competition ELISA, using a series of analogues, to identify specific amphetamine and/or ecstasy-specific antibodies. Antibody affinity was estimated to be in the range of 10(8) M(-1) with an enantiomeric hapten. Finally, two characteristic hybridoma clones (DAS-M243-6H5 and DAS-M278-4B12), secreting specific and potent mAbs were isolated. The development of drug-specific antibodies as in this study may provide promising therapeutic insight into how to neutralize methamphetamine in vivo during acute intoxication.

  7. Numerical simulation of an experimental analogue of a planetary magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Andy Sha; Li, Shule; Hartigan, Patrick; Graham, Peter; Fiksel, Gennady; Frank, Adam; Foster, John; Kuranz, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    Recent improvements to the Omega Laser Facility's magneto-inertial fusion electrical discharge system (MIFEDS) have made it possible to generate strong enough magnetic fields in the laboratory to begin to address the physics of magnetized astrophysical flows. Here, we adapt the MHD code AstroBEAR to create 2D numerical models of an experimental analogue of a planetary magnetosphere. We track the secular evolution of the magnetosphere analogue and we show that the magnetospheric components such as the magnetopause, magnetosheath, and bow shock, should all be observable in experimental optical band thermal bremsstrahlung emissivity maps, assuming equilibrium charge state distributions of the plasma. When the magnetosphere analogue nears the steady state, the mid-plane altitude of the magnetopause from the wire surface scales as the one-half power of the ratio of the magnetic pressure at the surface of the free wire to the ram pressure of an unobstructed wind; the mid-plane thickness of the magnetosheath is directly related to the radius of the magnetopause. This behavior conforms to Chapman and Ferraro's theory of planetary magnetospheres. Although the radial dependence of the magnetic field strength differs between the case of a current-carrying wire and a typical planetary object, the major morphological features that develop when a supersonic flow passes either system are identical. Hence, this experimental concept is an attractive one for studying the dynamics of planetary magnetospheres in a controlled environment.

  8. Spin Alignment in Analogues of The Local Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conidis, George J.

    2016-10-01

    Tidal torque theory and simulations of large scale structure predict spin vectors of massive galaxies should be coplanar with sheets in the cosmic web. Recently demonstrated, the giants (K s <= -22.5 mag) in the Local Volume beyond the Local Sheet have spin vectors directed close to the plane of the Local Supercluster, supporting the predictions of Tidal Torque Theory. However, the giants in the Local Sheet encircling the Local Group display a distinctly different arrangement, suggesting that the mass asymmetry of the Local Group or its progenitor torqued them from their primordial spin directions. To investigate the origin of the spin alignment of giants locally, analogues of the Local Sheet were identified in the SDSS DR9. Similar to the Local Sheet, analogues have an interacting pair of disk galaxies isolated from the remaining sheet members. Modified sheets in which there is no interacting pair of disk galaxies were identified as a control sample. Galaxies in face-on control sheets do not display axis ratios predominantly weighted toward low values, contrary to the expectation of tidal torque theory. For face-on and edge-on sheets, the distribution of axis ratios for galaxies in analogues is distinct from that in controls with a confidence of 97.6% & 96.9%, respectively. This corroborates the hypothesis that an interacting pair can affect spin directions of neighbouring galaxies.

  9. Design and synthesis of biotin analogues reversibly binding with streptavidin.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tomohiro; Aoki, Kiyoshi; Sugiyama, Akira; Doi, Hirofumi; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Shimizu, Yohei; Kanai, Motomu

    2015-04-01

    Two new biotin analogues, biotin carbonate 5 and biotin carbamate 6, have been synthesized. These molecules were designed to reversibly bind with streptavidin by replacing the hydrogen-bond donor NH group(s) of biotin's cyclic urea moiety with oxygen. Biotin carbonate 5 was synthesized from L-arabinose (7), which furnishes the desired stereochemistry at the 3,4-cis-dihydroxy groups, in 11% overall yield (over 10 steps). Synthesis of biotin carbamate 6 was accomplished from L-cysteine-derived chiral aldehyde 33 in 11% overall yield (over 7 steps). Surface plasmon resonance analysis of water-soluble biotin carbonate analogue 46 and biotin carbamate analogue 47 revealed that KD values of these compounds for binding to streptavidin were 6.7×10(-6)  M and 1.7×10(-10)  M, respectively. These values were remarkably greater than that of biotin (KD =10(-15)  M), and thus indicate the importance of the nitrogen atoms for the strong binding between biotin and streptavidin.

  10. The UVB1 Vitamin D analogue inhibits colorectal carcinoma progression.

    PubMed

    Ferronato, María Julia; Alonso, Eliana Noelia; Gandini, Norberto Ariel; Fermento, María Eugenia; Villegas, María Emilia; Quevedo, Mario Alfredo; Arévalo, Julián; López Romero, Alejandro; Rivadulla, Marcos Lois; Gómez, Generosa; Fall, Yagamare; Facchinetti, María Marta; Curino, Alejandro Carlos

    2016-10-01

    Vitamin D has been shown to display a wide variety of antitumour effects, but their therapeutic use is limited by its severe side effects. We have designed and synthesized a Gemini vitamin D analogue of calcitriol (UVB1) which has shown to display antineoplastic effects on different cancer cell lines without causing hypercalcemia. The aim of this work has been to investigate, by employing in silico, in vitro, and in vivo assays, whether UVB1 inhibits human colorectal carcinoma progression. We demonstrated that UVB1 induces apoptotic cell death and retards cellular migration and invasion of HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cells. Moreover, the analogue reduced the tumour volume in vivo, and modulated the expression of Bax, E-cadherin and nuclear β-catenin in tumour animal tissues without producing toxic effects. In silico analysis showed that UVB1 exhibits greater affinity for the ligand binding domain of vitamin D receptor than calcitriol, and that several characteristics in the three-dimensional conformation of VDR may influence the biological effects. These results demonstrate that the Gemini vitamin D analogue affects the growth of the colorectal cancer and suggest that UVB1 is a potential chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of this disease.

  11. An adenosine nucleoside analogue NITD008 inhibits EV71 proliferation.

    PubMed

    Shang, Luqing; Wang, Yaxin; Qing, Jie; Shu, Bo; Cao, Lin; Lou, Zhiyong; Gong, Peng; Sun, Yuna; Yin, Zheng

    2014-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), one of the major causative agents of Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease (HFMD), causes severe pandemics and hundreds of deaths in the Asia-Pacific region annually and is an enormous public health threat. However, effective therapeutic antiviral drugs against EV71 are rare. Nucleoside analogues have been successfully used in the clinic for the treatment of various viral infections. We evaluated a total of 27 nucleoside analogues and discovered that an adenosine nucleoside analogue NITD008, which has been reported to be an antiviral reagent that specifically inhibits flaviviruses, effectively suppressed the propagation of different strains of EV71 in RD, 293T and Vero cells with a relatively high selectivity index. Triphosphorylated NITD008 (ppp-NITD008) functions as a chain terminator to directly inhibit the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity of EV71, and it does not affect the EV71 VPg uridylylation process. A significant synergistic anti-EV71 effect of NITD008 with rupintrivir (AG7088) (a protease inhibitor) was documented, supporting the potential combination therapy of NITD008 with other inhibitors for the treatment of EV71 infections.

  12. Membrane-permeable Triphosphate Prodrugs of Nucleoside Analogues.

    PubMed

    Gollnest, Tristan; Dinis de Oliveira, Thiago; Rath, Anna; Hauber, Ilona; Schols, Dominique; Balzarini, Jan; Meier, Chris

    2016-04-18

    The metabolic conversion of nucleoside analogues into their triphosphates often proceeds insufficiently. Rate-limitations can be at the mono-, but also at the di- and triphosphorylation steps. We developed a nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) delivery system (TriPPPro-approach). In this approach, NTPs are masked by two bioreversible units at the γ-phosphate. Using a procedure involving H-phosphonate chemistry, a series of derivatives bearing approved, as well as potentially antivirally active, nucleoside analogues was synthesized. The enzyme-triggered delivery of NTPs was demonstrated by pig liver esterase, in human T-lymphocyte cell extracts and by a polymerase chain reaction using a prodrug of thymidine triphosphate. The TriPPPro-compounds of some HIV-inactive nucleoside analogues showed marked anti-HIV activity. For cellular uptake studies, a fluorescent TriPPPro-compound was prepared that delivered the triphosphorylated metabolite to intact CEM cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Bilateral Choroidal Metastases from Endobronchial Carcinoid Treated with Somatostatin Analogues

    PubMed Central

    De Bruyn, Deborah; Lamont, Jan; Vanderstraeten, Erik; Van Belle, Simon; Platteau, Elise; De Zaeytijd, Julie; Hoornaert, Kristien P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe a patient with bilateral multifocal choroidal metastases from an endobronchial carcinoid treated with a somatostatin analogue. Method: A 60-year-old woman presenting with photopsia in the left eye underwent an extensive ophthalmic examination, including fluorescein angiography, OCT and ultrasound. Results: Fundoscopy revealed a small retinal tear in the left eye, for which she received laser treatment. In addition, choroidal masses were detected in both eyes. Her medical history of a pneumectomy for a bronchial carcinoid six years earlier together with recent elevated chromogranin A blood levels prompted a diagnosis of choroidal metastases. Subsequently, a Gallium-68 DOTANOC positron emitting tomography/computer tomography scan revealed a spinal cord metastasis and mediastinal as well as mesenterial lymph node invasion. Systemic treatment with Sandostatin®, a somatostatin analogue was started. Up until two years after the initial presentation and treatment, these choroidal lesions remained stable without any signs of growth. Conclusion: Endobronchial carcinoid tumors have an indolent nature and long-term follow-up is recommended for early detection of metastases. Although treatment with somatostatin analogues rarely induces complete tumor regression, tumor stabilization and prevention of symptoms related to hormone secretion is achieved. This well-tolerated systemic treatment provides a worthy alternative treatment for choroidal metastasis compared to classic radiotherapy without any risk of radiation or laser-related visual loss. PMID:27843513

  14. THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    G. Saulnier and W. Statham

    2006-04-16

    The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following analogous characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site: (1) Analogous source--UO{sub 2} uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geology--(i.e. fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs); (3) Analogous climate--Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous setting--Volcanic tuffs overlie carbonate rocks; and (5) Analogous geochemistry--Oxidizing conditions Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table.

  15. Past and present of analogue modelling, and its future trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyi, Hemin

    2015-04-01