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Sample records for analogue microwave photonics

  1. A spectroscopic study of nicotine analogue 2-phenylpyrrolidine (PPD) using resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI), microwave, and 2D NMR techniques.

    PubMed

    Martin, Danielle E; Robertson, Evan G; MacLellan, Jonathan G; Godfrey, Peter D; Thompson, Christopher D; Morrison, Richard J S

    2009-02-25

    Conformational preferences of the nicotine analogue 2-phenylpyrrolidine (PPD) have been studied in both gaseous and solution phases. Theoretical calculations at the MP2 and B3LYP levels point to 5-6 stable conformers which differ in three degrees of conformational freedom; torsion between the two rings, inversion at the pyrrolidine (PY) amine, and PY ring puckering, characterized using the Cremer-Pople definition for pseudorotation. Only one conformer has a trans arrangement between the amino hydrogen and the phenyl substituent. It is 6-8 kJ mol(-1) more stable than the cis conformers, has a perpendicular ring arrangement, and puckers at the nitrogen atom--similar to structures reported for nicotine. Resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI) data, including hole burn spectra, indicate only one conformer is present in the free jet expansion, and band contour analysis suggests assignment to the trans conformer. Confirmation was provided by microwave spectroscopy. Fifty-seven lines measured in the 48-72 GHz region were assigned to 206 b-type transitions and fitted to yield rotational constants within 2 MHz of MP2 values predicted for the trans conformer. The solution-phase conformers of PPD were studied using 1D and 2D (1)H NMR spectroscopy and solvent-based theoretical calculations. In marked contrast to the gas phase, NMR data reveals only cis conformers present in solution. Calculations confirm increased stability for these conformers when placed in simulated chloroform or water environments. Solvent molecules are believed to disrupt a crucial N...H(ortho) stabilizing interaction present within the trans conformer.

  2. Fully analogue photonic reservoir computer.

    PubMed

    Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Akrout, Akram; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2016-03-03

    Introduced a decade ago, reservoir computing is an efficient approach for signal processing. State of the art capabilities have already been demonstrated with both computer simulations and physical implementations. If photonic reservoir computing appears to be promising a solution for ultrafast nontrivial computing, all the implementations presented up to now require digital pre or post processing, which prevents them from exploiting their full potential, in particular in terms of processing speed. We address here the possibility to get rid simultaneously of both digital pre and post processing. The standalone fully analogue reservoir computer resulting from our endeavour is compared to previous experiments and only exhibits rather limited degradation of performances. Our experiment constitutes a proof of concept for standalone physical reservoir computers.

  3. Fully analogue photonic reservoir computer

    PubMed Central

    Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Akrout, Akram; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Introduced a decade ago, reservoir computing is an efficient approach for signal processing. State of the art capabilities have already been demonstrated with both computer simulations and physical implementations. If photonic reservoir computing appears to be promising a solution for ultrafast nontrivial computing, all the implementations presented up to now require digital pre or post processing, which prevents them from exploiting their full potential, in particular in terms of processing speed. We address here the possibility to get rid simultaneously of both digital pre and post processing. The standalone fully analogue reservoir computer resulting from our endeavour is compared to previous experiments and only exhibits rather limited degradation of performances. Our experiment constitutes a proof of concept for standalone physical reservoir computers. PMID:26935166

  4. Silicon nitride microwave photonic circuits.

    PubMed

    Roeloffzen, Chris G H; Zhuang, Leimeng; Taddei, Caterina; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René G; van Dijk, Paulus W L; Oldenbeuving, Ruud M; Marpaung, David A I; Burla, Maurizio; Boller, Klaus-J

    2013-09-23

    We present an overview of several microwave photonic processing functionalities based on combinations of Mach-Zehnder and ring resonator filters using the high index contrast silicon nitride (TriPleX™) waveguide technology. All functionalities are built using the same basic building blocks, namely straight waveguides, phase tuning elements and directional couplers. We recall previously shown measurements on high spurious free dynamic range microwave photonic (MWP) link, ultra-wideband pulse generation, instantaneous frequency measurements, Hilbert transformers, microwave polarization networks and demonstrate new measurements and functionalities on a 16 channel optical beamforming network and modulation format transformer as well as an outlook on future microwave photonic platform integration, which will lead to a significantly reduced footprint and thereby enables the path to commercially viable MWP systems.

  5. Advanced components for microwave photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonjallaz, Pierre-Yves; Gunnarsson, Ola; Popov, Mikhail; Margulis, Walter; Petermann, Ingemar; Berlemont, David; Carlsson, Fredrik

    2003-04-01

    This persentation gives an overveiw of the field of microwave photonics with an emphasis on new fiber based devices which we belive have a real practical potential. Microwave photonics can be considered as the fruitful meeting point bewteen optics and microwave engineering, where optoelectronic devices and systems are used both for processing at microwave rates and for signal handling in microwave systems. The use of specialty fibers, glass poling and naturally fiber Bragg gratings opens new perspectives for the realization of low-cost devices with appropriate functionality. The application field for optical microwave transmission and processing spans from radar technology to cable TV and mobile communications systems. Over the last few years very much attention has been directed towards radio-over-fiber systems for the next-generation mobile communications infrastructure as well as hybrid fiber radio for picocell systems at 60 GHz or above. As a matter of fact, the higher the microwave frequencies, the greater are the similarities with the optical carrier and the more there is to be gained by processing the microwave signal in the optical domain. Other important application examples are beamforming networks for phased array antennas and subcarrier processing for routing in optical networks.

  6. Detecting itinerant single microwave photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyamoorthy, Sankar Raman; Stace, Thomas M.; Johansson, Göran

    2016-08-01

    Single-photon detectors are fundamental tools of investigation in quantum optics and play a central role in measurement theory and quantum informatics. Photodetectors based on different technologies exist at optical frequencies and much effort is currently being spent on pushing their efficiencies to meet the demands coming from the quantum computing and quantum communication proposals. In the microwave regime, however, a single-photon detector has remained elusive, although several theoretical proposals have been put forth. In this article, we review these recent proposals, especially focusing on non-destructive detectors of propagating microwave photons. These detection schemes using superconducting artificial atoms can reach detection efficiencies of 90% with the existing technologies and are ripe for experimental investigations.

  7. Harmonic distortion in microwave photonic filters.

    PubMed

    Rius, Manuel; Mora, José; Bolea, Mario; Capmany, José

    2012-04-09

    We present a theoretical and experimental analysis of nonlinear microwave photonic filters. Far from the conventional condition of low modulation index commonly used to neglect high-order terms, we have analyzed the harmonic distortion involved in microwave photonic structures with periodic and non-periodic frequency responses. We show that it is possible to design microwave photonic filters with reduced harmonic distortion and high linearity even under large signal operation.

  8. Photon Statistics of Propagating Thermal Microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, J.; Pogorzalek, S.; Deppe, F.; Fedorov, K. G.; Eder, P.; Fischer, M.; Wulschner, F.; Xie, E.; Marx, A.; Gross, R.

    2017-03-01

    In experiments with superconducting quantum circuits, characterizing the photon statistics of propagating microwave fields is a fundamental task. We quantify the n2+n photon number variance of thermal microwave photons emitted from a blackbody radiator for mean photon numbers, 0.05 ≲n ≲1.5 . We probe the fields using either correlation measurements or a transmon qubit coupled to a microwave resonator. Our experiments provide a precise quantitative characterization of weak microwave states and information on the noise emitted by a Josephson parametric amplifier.

  9. Reconfigurable Microwave Photonic Topological Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryachev, Maxim; Tobar, Michael E.

    2016-12-01

    Using full 3D finite-element simulation and underlining Hamiltonian models, we demonstrate reconfigurable photonic analogues of topological insulators on a regular lattice of tunable posts in a reentrant 3D lumped element-type system. The tunability allows a dynamical in situ change of media chirality and other properties via the alteration of the same parameter for all posts, and as a result, great flexibility in the choice of bulk-edge configurations. Additionally, one-way photon transport without an external magnetic field is demonstrated. The ideas are illustrated by using both full finite-element simulation as well as simplified harmonic oscillator models. Dynamical reconfigurability of the proposed systems paves the way to a class of systems that can be employed for random access, topological signal processing, and sensing.

  10. A monolithic integrated photonic microwave filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fandiño, Javier S.; Muñoz, Pascual; Doménech, David; Capmany, José

    2016-12-01

    Meeting the increasing demand for capacity in wireless networks requires the harnessing of higher regions in the radiofrequency spectrum, reducing cell size, as well as more compact, agile and power-efficient base stations that are capable of smoothly interfacing the radio and fibre segments. Fully functional microwave photonic chips are promising candidates in attempts to meet these goals. In recent years, many integrated microwave photonic chips have been reported in different technologies. To the best of our knowledge, none has monolithically integrated all the main active and passive optoelectronic components. Here, we report the first demonstration of a tunable microwave photonics filter that is monolithically integrated into an indium phosphide chip. The reconfigurable radiofrequency photonic filter includes all the necessary elements (for example, lasers, modulators and photodetectors), and its response can be tuned by means of control electric currents. This is an important step in demonstrating the feasibility of integrated and programmable microwave photonic processors.

  11. A monolithic integrated photonic microwave filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fandiño, Javier S.; Muñoz, Pascual; Doménech, David; Capmany, José

    2017-02-01

    Meeting the increasing demand for capacity in wireless networks requires the harnessing of higher regions in the radiofrequency spectrum, reducing cell size, as well as more compact, agile and power-efficient base stations that are capable of smoothly interfacing the radio and fibre segments. Fully functional microwave photonic chips are promising candidates in attempts to meet these goals. In recent years, many integrated microwave photonic chips have been reported in different technologies. To the best of our knowledge, none has monolithically integrated all the main active and passive optoelectronic components. Here, we report the first demonstration of a tunable microwave photonics filter that is monolithically integrated into an indium phosphide chip. The reconfigurable radiofrequency photonic filter includes all the necessary elements (for example, lasers, modulators and photodetectors), and its response can be tuned by means of control electric currents. This is an important step in demonstrating the feasibility of integrated and programmable microwave photonic processors.

  12. Wideband Electroabsorption Modulator for Microwave Photonics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    modulators (TWEAMs) for use in microwave transmission systems exceeding frequencies of 50 GHz. Potential monolithic integration of these modulators...exceeding frequencies of 50 GHz. Potential monolithic integration of these modulators with low noise lasers is promising for insertion into future...AFRL-SN-RS-TR-2004-281 Final Technical Report October 2004 WIDEBAND ELECTROABSORPTION MODULATOR FOR MICROWAVE PHOTONICS

  13. Microwave background constraints on mixing of photons with hidden photons

    SciTech Connect

    Mirizzi, Alessandro; Redondo, Javier; Sigl, Guenter E-mail: javier.redondo@desy.de

    2009-03-15

    Various extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of hidden photons kinetically mixing with the ordinary photon. This mixing leads to oscillations between photons and hidden photons, analogous to the observed oscillations between different neutrino flavors. In this context, we derive new bounds on the photon-hidden photon mixing parameters using the high precision cosmic microwave background spectral data collected by the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer instrument on board of the Cosmic Background Explorer. Requiring the distortions of the CMB induced by the photon-hidden photon mixing to be smaller than experimental upper limits, this leads to a bound on the mixing angle {chi}{sub 0} {approx}< 10{sup -7}-10{sup -5} for hidden photon masses between 10{sup -14} eV and 10{sup -7} eV. This low-mass and low-mixing region of the hidden photon parameter space was previously unconstrained.

  14. Generating single microwave photons in a circuit.

    PubMed

    Houck, A A; Schuster, D I; Gambetta, J M; Schreier, J A; Johnson, B R; Chow, J M; Frunzio, L; Majer, J; Devoret, M H; Girvin, S M; Schoelkopf, R J

    2007-09-20

    Microwaves have widespread use in classical communication technologies, from long-distance broadcasts to short-distance signals within a computer chip. Like all forms of light, microwaves, even those guided by the wires of an integrated circuit, consist of discrete photons. To enable quantum communication between distant parts of a quantum computer, the signals must also be quantum, consisting of single photons, for example. However, conventional sources can generate only classical light, not single photons. One way to realize a single-photon source is to collect the fluorescence of a single atom. Early experiments measured the quantum nature of continuous radiation, and further advances allowed triggered sources of photons on demand. To allow efficient photon collection, emitters are typically placed inside optical or microwave cavities, but these sources are difficult to employ for quantum communication on wires within an integrated circuit. Here we demonstrate an on-chip, on-demand single-photon source, where the microwave photons are injected into a wire with high efficiency and spectral purity. This is accomplished in a circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture, with a microwave transmission line cavity that enhances the spontaneous emission of a single superconducting qubit. When the qubit spontaneously emits, the generated photon acts as a flying qubit, transmitting the quantum information across a chip. We perform tomography of both the qubit and the emitted photons, clearly showing that both the quantum phase and amplitude are transferred during the emission. Both the average power and voltage of the photon source are characterized to verify performance of the system. This single-photon source is an important addition to a rapidly growing toolbox for quantum optics on a chip.

  15. Photon transfer in a system of coupled superconducting microwave resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Muirhead, C. M. Gunupudi, B.; Colclough, M. S.

    2016-08-28

    A novel scheme is proposed for the study of energy transfer in a pair of coupled thin film superconducting microwave resonators. We show that the transfer could be achieved by modulating the kinetic inductance and that this has a number of advantages over earlier theoretical and experimental schemes, which use modulation of capacitance by vibrating nanobars or membranes. We show that the proposed scheme lends itself to the study of the classical analogues of Rabi and Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg oscillations and Landau-Zener transitions using experimentally achievable parameters. We consider a number of ways in which energy transfer (photon shuttle) between the two resonators could be achieved experimentally.

  16. Photon transfer in a system of coupled superconducting microwave resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, C. M.; Gunupudi, B.; Colclough, M. S.

    2016-08-01

    A novel scheme is proposed for the study of energy transfer in a pair of coupled thin film superconducting microwave resonators. We show that the transfer could be achieved by modulating the kinetic inductance and that this has a number of advantages over earlier theoretical and experimental schemes, which use modulation of capacitance by vibrating nanobars or membranes. We show that the proposed scheme lends itself to the study of the classical analogues of Rabi and Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg oscillations and Landau-Zener transitions using experimentally achievable parameters. We consider a number of ways in which energy transfer (photon shuttle) between the two resonators could be achieved experimentally.

  17. Frequency Agile Microwave Photonic Notch Filter in a Photonic Chip

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-21

    frequency measurement (IFM) system was also explored. 4. Results and discussions: a. High extinction tunable notch filter in a chalcogenide chip [Optica...Microwave photonic filters based on SBS have shown excellent properties in terms of high resolution and extinction . Although efficiently generated in soft...sidebands’ spectra. d. High resolution microwave frequency measurement with on-chip SBS [Optica 3, 30 (2016)] The high extinction cancellation

  18. Nanomechanical coupling between microwave and optical photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochmann, Joerg; Vainsencher, Amit; Awschalom, David D.; Cleland, Andrew N.

    2013-11-01

    A variety of nanomechanical systems can now operate at the quantum limit, making quantum phenomena more accessible for applications and providing new opportunities for exploring the fundamentals of quantum physics. Such mechanical quantum devices offer compelling opportunities for quantum-enhanced sensing and quantum information. Furthermore, mechanical modes provide a versatile quantum bus for coupling hybrid quantum systems, supporting a quantum-coherent connection between different physical degrees of freedom. Here, we demonstrate a nanomechanical interface between optical photons and microwave electrical signals, using a piezoelectric optomechanical crystal. We achieve coherent signal transfer between itinerant microwave and optical fields by parametric electro-optical coupling using a localized phonon mode. We perform optical tomography of electrically injected mechanical states and observe coherent interactions between microwave, mechanical and optical modes, manifested as electromechanically induced optical transparency. Our on-chip approach merges integrated photonics with microwave nanomechanics and is fully compatible with superconducting quantum circuits, potentially enabling microwave-to-optical quantum state transfer, and photonic networks of superconducting quantum bits.

  19. Microwave photonic distributed sensing in harsh environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Baokai; Hua, Liwei; Zhu, Wenge; Song, Yang; Yuan, Lei; Li, Yanjun; Xiao, Hai

    2016-05-01

    We report a new distributed fiber optic sensing technique using optical carrier based microwave interferometry. The concept has been demonstrated using different types of optical fibers including singlemode fiber, multimode fiber, single crystal sapphire fiber and polymer fiber. Using the microwave-photonic technique, many fiber interferometers with the same or different optical path differences were interrogated and their locations could be unambiguously determined. The distributed sensing capability was demonstrated using cascaded low-finesse Fabry-Perot interferometers fabricated by fs laser micromachining. Spatially continuous, fully distributed temperature and strain measurements were used as examples to demonstrate the capability of the proposed concept.

  20. A tunable microwave plasma photonic crystal filter

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, B.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2015-10-26

    The integration of gaseous plasma elements into a microwave photonic crystal band gap cavity structure allows for active tuning of the device. An alumina rod array microwave photonic crystal waveguide resonator is simulated and characterized through finite difference time domain methods. A gaseous plasma element is integrated into the cavity structure and the effect of plasma density on the transmission properties of the structure is investigated. We show, through both simulations and experiments, that the permittivity of the plasma can be adjusted to shift the peak resonance to allow for both switching and tunability of transmission. The experimentally measured peak shifts in transmission are compared to those simulated and the electron density of the gaseous plasma element is calculated and compared to values determined from the measured discharge current density.

  1. Microwave Photonics: current challenges towards widespread application.

    PubMed

    Capmany, José; Li, Guifang; Lim, Christina; Yao, Jianping

    2013-09-23

    Microwave Photonics, a symbiotic field of research that brings together the worlds of optics and radio frequency is currently facing several challenges in its transition from a niche to a truly widespread technology essential to support the ever-increasing values for speed, bandwidth, processing capability and dynamic range that will be required in next generation hybrid access networks. We outline these challenges, which are the subject of the contributions to this focus issue.

  2. Antifreeze glycopeptide analogues: microwave-enhanced synthesis and functional studies.

    PubMed

    Heggemann, Carolin; Budke, Carsten; Schomburg, Benjamin; Majer, Zsuzsa; Wissbrock, Marco; Koop, Thomas; Sewald, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    Antifreeze glycoproteins enable life at temperatures below the freezing point of physiological solutions. They usually consist of the repetitive tripeptide unit (-Ala-Ala-Thr-) with the disaccharide alpha-D-galactosyl-(1-3)-beta-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine attached to each hydroxyl group of threonine. Monoglycosylated analogues have been synthesized from the corresponding monoglycosylated threonine building block by microwave-assisted solid phase peptide synthesis. This method allows the preparation of analogues containing sequence variations which are not accessible by other synthetic methods. As antifreeze glycoproteins consist of numerous isoforms they are difficult to obtain in pure form from natural sources. The synthetic peptides have been structurally analyzed by CD and NMR spectroscopy in proton exchange experiments revealing a structure as flexible as reported for the native peptides. Microphysical recrystallization tests show an ice structuring influence and ice growth inhibition depending on the concentration, chain length and sequence of the peptides.

  3. Microwave Photon Detector in Circuit QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Ripoll, Juan Jose; Romero, Guillermo; Solano, Enrique

    2009-03-01

    In this work we propose a design for a microwave photodetector based on elements from circuit QED such as the ones used in qubit designs. Our proposal consists on a microwave guide in which we embed circuital elements that can absorb photons and irreversibly change state. These incoherent absorption processes constitute the measurement itself. We first model this design using a general master equation for the propagating photons and the absorbing elements. We find that the detection efficiency for a single absorber is limited to 50%, and that this efficiency can be quickly increased by adding more elements with a moderate separation, obtaining 80% and 90% for two and three absorbers. Our abstract design has at least one possible implementation in which the absorbers are current biased Josephson junction. We demonstrate that the coupling between the guide and the junctions is strong enough, irrespectively of the microwave guide size, and derivate realistic parameters for high fidelity operation with current experiments. Patent pending No. 200802933, Oficina Espanola de Patentes y Marcas, 17/10/2008.

  4. Nonlinear Equalization of Microwave Photonic Links

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-31

    electrooptic modulators," in IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 2184-2197, Sep 1995. -110 -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40... IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 2642– 2649, Dec. 1994. [3] T. R. Clark and M. L. Dennis, “Coherent optical phase...modulation link,” IEEE Photon Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 16, pp. 1206–1208, Aug. 15, 2007. [4] M. Nazarathy, J. Berger, A. J. Ley, I.M. Levi, and Y. Kagan

  5. Toward Graphene-Based Microwave Photon Counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Kin

    2013-03-01

    Graphene is a material with remarkable electronic properties. However, the thermal properties of this two-dimensional Dirac Fermions, that determine the characteristics of photo detectors, plasmonic devices, and bolometers, are less explored. Here, we present our measurement of specific heat capacity, Wiedemann-Franz (WF), and electron-phonon (e-ph) thermal conductance from 0.3 to 100 K using the novel single layer graphene bolometer. These measurements suggest that graphene-based devices can generate substantial advances in the areas of ultra-sensitive bolometry, calorimetry, microwave, and terahertz single photon detection for applications in areas such as observational astronomy, quantum information and measurement. The physics of the e-ph coupling and the possible violation of Wiedemann-Franz Law near the charge neutrality point in single layer graphene will be discussed. This work is a collaboration with Emma Wollman, Harish Ravi, and K. C. Schwab of Caltech.

  6. A Microwave Photonic Interference Canceller: Architectures, Systems, and Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Matthew P.

    This thesis is a comprehensive portfolio of work on a Microwave Photonic Self-Interference Canceller (MPC), a specialized optical system designed to eliminate interference from radio-frequency (RF) receivers. The novelty and value of the microwave photonic system lies in its ability to operate over bandwidths and frequencies that are orders of magnitude larger than what is possible using existing RF technology. The work begins, in 2012, with a discrete fiber-optic microwave photonic canceller, which prior work had demonstrated as a proof-of-concept, and culminates, in 2017, with the first ever monolithically integrated microwave photonic canceller. With an eye towards practical implementation, the thesis establishes novelty through three major project thrusts. (Fig. 1): (1) Extensive RF and system analysis to develop a full understanding of how, and through what mechanisms, MPCs affect an RF receiver. The first investigations of how a microwave photonic canceller performs in an actual wireless environment and a digital radio are also presented. (2) New architectures to improve the performance and functionality of MPCs, based on the analysis performed in Thrust 1. A novel balanced microwave photonic canceller architecture is developed and experimentally demonstrated. The balanced architecture shows significant improvements in link gain, noise figure, and dynamic range. Its main advantage is its ability to suppress common-mode noise and reduce noise figure by increasing the optical power. (3) Monolithic integration of the microwave photonic canceller into a photonic integrated circuit. This thrust presents the progression of integrating individual discrete devices into their semiconductor equivalent, as well as a full functional and RF analysis of the first ever integrated microwave photonic canceller.

  7. Optomechanical transducer for microwave-to-optical photon conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochmann, J.; Vainsencher, A.; Awschalom, D. D.; Cleland, A. N.

    2013-03-01

    Mechanical resonators with highly confined optical and mechanical modes exhibit strong interaction between phonons and photons. At GHz mechanical frequencies and low temperature, nanomechanical resonators enter the quantum regime and can be interfaced with superconducting quantum circuits [2]. Here, we present the concept of a quantum transducer between microwave and optical photons. In our approach, the piezoelectric effect maps microwave quantum states to nanomechanical excitations which are up-converted to optical photons by optomechanical interaction. The exceptional properties of aluminum nitride allow the required photonic, nanomechanical and piezoelectric functionality to be integrated in one platform. Experimental progress towards this goal will be presented. This work is funded through DARPA/DSO.

  8. Photonics for microwave systems and ultra-wideband signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, W.

    2016-08-01

    The advantages of using the broadband and low-loss distribution attributes of photonics to enhance the signal processing and sensing capabilities of microwave systems are well known. In this paper, we review the progress made in the topical areas of true-time-delay beamsteering, photonic-assisted analog-to-digital conversion, RF-photonic filtering and link performances. We also provide an outlook on the emerging field of integrated microwave photonics (MWP) that promise to reduce the cost of MWP subsystems and components, while providing significantly improved form-factors for system insertion.

  9. Delay of a microwave pulse in a photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babitski, V. S.; Baryshevsky, V. G.; Gurinovich, A. A.; Gurnevich, E. A.; Molchanov, P. V.; Simonchik, L. V.; Usachonak, M. S.; Zuyeuski, R. F.

    2017-08-01

    Propagation of a nanosecond microwave pulse through a photonic crystal placed into an X-band waveguide is investigated. The nanosecond pulse is produced via shortening of the microsecond microwave pulse by the plasma electromagnetic band gap structure, which is formed in the waveguide by microwave breakdown ignited discharges inside three neon-filled glass tubes. Measured delay time for nanosecond microwave pulse propagation through the photonic crystal is about 23 ns that is in good agreement with the value obtained by numerical simulation. This time delay value corresponds to the group velocity of microwave pulses in the photonic crystal vgr ≈ 0.11c, where c is the speed of light in vacuum.

  10. Phase noise measurement of phase modulation microwave photonic links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Quanyi; Chen, Zhengyu; Xu, Zhiguo; Gao, Yingjie

    2015-10-01

    Microwave photonic links (MPLs) can provide many advantages over traditional coaxial and waveguide solutions due to its low loss, small size, lightweight, large bandwidth, superior stability and immunity to external interference. It has been considered in various applications such as: the transmission of radio frequency (RF) signal over optical carriers, video television transmission, radar and communication systems. Stability of phase of the microwave photonic links is a critical issue in several realistic applications. The delay line technique for phase noise measurement of phase modulation microwave photonic links is measured for the first time. Using this approach, the input signal noise and power supply noise can be effectively cancelled, and it does not require phase locking. The phase noise of a microwave photonic links with a 10 GHz sinusoidal signal is experimentally demonstrated.

  11. A photonic microwave source for optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Cada, Michael; Seregelyi, Joe; Paquet, Stephane; Mihailov, Stephen; Lu, Ping; Bélisle, Claude

    2005-09-01

    Wireless technology is a cost-effective means to bring broadband communications to both mobile users and home consumers; however, deploying next generation, multi-GHz wireless systems is currently too expensive. For these systems, photonic technologies can bring cost reduction as well as an increase in performance, mainly due to the ultra low-loss property of optical fibers. One approach to signal distribution is to capitalise on the vast fibre-optic distribution networks deployed within and between cities. A microwave carrier can be optically deployed from central offices to remote antenna sites using these optical links. This paper will discuss the generation of such a microwave carrier using a dual-wavelength, external-cavity laser (ECL). Two different dual-wavelength ECL's, constructed with fiber-Bragg-gratings (FBG's), have been investigated. One uses a semiconductor gain chip with a dual-FBG acting as an external reflector. The other uses two similar dual-FBG reflectors on each side of a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). In both cases the wavelength separation between the gratings is 0.25 nm. We will demonstrate that a dual-wavelength emission can be temporarily stabilized in the gain-chip ECL if a specific phase relation, between the external feedback from the FBG's and the residual feedback from the gain chip, is satisfied at both lasing wavelengths. The power of the RF beat signal generated by the dual-wavelength optical signal was typically 25 dB above the noise floor. The 3-dB linewidth of the RF signal was approximately 2 MHz and it can be tuned over a frequency range of 200 MHz. The physical mechanisms underlying the observed laser instability will be briefly discussed.

  12. High-power photodetector modules for microwave photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kejia; Xie, Xiaojun; Rouvalis, Efthymios; Fedderwitz, Sascha; Steffan, Andreas G.; Li, Qinglong; Yang, Zhanyu; Beling, Andreas; Campbell, Joe C.

    2015-03-01

    Recently, microwave photonic techniques have emerged to address the challenges that microwave systems face under high-frequency or wideband conditions. To a large extent, the performance of microwave photonic systems depends on the performance of individual optoelectronics devices, such as high power photodiodes. Here, we report a fullypackaged photodetector module based on InGaAs/InP modified uni-traveling carrier (MUTC) photodiode. The modules demonstrated a 3-dB bandwidth up to 50GHz and a record-high output power of 14.0 dBm at 50GHz.

  13. Photonic crystal nanocavity assisted rejection ratio tunable notch microwave photonic filter

    PubMed Central

    Long, Yun; Xia, Jinsong; Zhang, Yong; Dong, Jianji; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Driven by the increasing demand on handing microwave signals with compact device, low power consumption, high efficiency and high reliability, it is highly desired to generate, distribute, and process microwave signals using photonic integrated circuits. Silicon photonics offers a promising platform facilitating ultracompact microwave photonic signal processing assisted by silicon nanophotonic devices. In this paper, we propose, theoretically analyze and experimentally demonstrate a simple scheme to realize ultracompact rejection ratio tunable notch microwave photonic filter (MPF) based on a silicon photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavity with fixed extinction ratio. Using a conventional modulation scheme with only a single phase modulator (PM), the rejection ratio of the presented MPF can be tuned from about 10 dB to beyond 60 dB. Moreover, the central frequency tunable operation in the high rejection ratio region is also demonstrated in the experiment. PMID:28067332

  14. Photonic crystal nanocavity assisted rejection ratio tunable notch microwave photonic filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yun; Xia, Jinsong; Zhang, Yong; Dong, Jianji; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Driven by the increasing demand on handing microwave signals with compact device, low power consumption, high efficiency and high reliability, it is highly desired to generate, distribute, and process microwave signals using photonic integrated circuits. Silicon photonics offers a promising platform facilitating ultracompact microwave photonic signal processing assisted by silicon nanophotonic devices. In this paper, we propose, theoretically analyze and experimentally demonstrate a simple scheme to realize ultracompact rejection ratio tunable notch microwave photonic filter (MPF) based on a silicon photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavity with fixed extinction ratio. Using a conventional modulation scheme with only a single phase modulator (PM), the rejection ratio of the presented MPF can be tuned from about 10 dB to beyond 60 dB. Moreover, the central frequency tunable operation in the high rejection ratio region is also demonstrated in the experiment.

  15. Photonic crystal nanocavity assisted rejection ratio tunable notch microwave photonic filter.

    PubMed

    Long, Yun; Xia, Jinsong; Zhang, Yong; Dong, Jianji; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-09

    Driven by the increasing demand on handing microwave signals with compact device, low power consumption, high efficiency and high reliability, it is highly desired to generate, distribute, and process microwave signals using photonic integrated circuits. Silicon photonics offers a promising platform facilitating ultracompact microwave photonic signal processing assisted by silicon nanophotonic devices. In this paper, we propose, theoretically analyze and experimentally demonstrate a simple scheme to realize ultracompact rejection ratio tunable notch microwave photonic filter (MPF) based on a silicon photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavity with fixed extinction ratio. Using a conventional modulation scheme with only a single phase modulator (PM), the rejection ratio of the presented MPF can be tuned from about 10 dB to beyond 60 dB. Moreover, the central frequency tunable operation in the high rejection ratio region is also demonstrated in the experiment.

  16. Quantum efficiency of a double quantum dot microwave photon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Clement; Vavilov, Maxim

    Motivated by recent interest in implementing circuit quantum electrodynamics with semiconducting quantum dots, we study charge transfer through a double quantum dot (DQD) capacitively coupled to a superconducting cavity subject to a microwave field. We analyze the DQD current response using input-output theory and determine the optimal parameter regime for complete absorption of radiation and efficient conversion of microwave photons to electric current. For experimentally available DQD systems, we show that the cavity-coupled DQD operates as a photon-to-charge converter with quantum efficiencies up to 80% C.W. acknowledges support by the Intelligence Community Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Program.

  17. Spectral hole burning and its application in microwave photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putz, Stefan; Angerer, Andreas; Krimer, Dmitry O.; Glattauer, Ralph; Munro, William J.; Rotter, Stefan; Schmiedmayer, Jörg; Majer, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Spectral hole burning, used in inhomogeneously broadened emitters, is a well-established optical technique, with applications from spectroscopy to slow light and frequency combs. In microwave photonics, electron spin ensembles are candidates for use as quantum memories with potentially long storage times. Here, we demonstrate long-lived collective dark states by spectral hole burning in the microwave regime. The coherence time in our hybrid quantum system (nitrogen-vacancy centres strongly coupled to a superconducting microwave cavity) becomes longer than both the ensemble's free-induction decay and the bare cavity dissipation rate. The hybrid quantum system thus performs better than its individual subcomponents. This opens the way for long-lived quantum multimode memories, solid-state microwave frequency combs, spin squeezed states, optical-to-microwave quantum transducers and novel metamaterials. Beyond these, new cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments will be possible where spin-spin interactions and many-body phenomena are directly accessible.

  18. Microwave photon Fock state generation by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premaratne, Shavindra P.; Wellstood, F. C.; Palmer, B. S.

    2017-01-01

    The deterministic generation of non-classical states of light, including squeezed states, Fock states and Bell states, plays an important role in quantum information processing and exploration of the physics of quantum entanglement. Preparation of these non-classical states in resonators is non-trivial due to their inherent harmonicity. Here we use stimulated Raman adiabatic passage to generate microwave photon Fock states in a superconducting circuit quantum electrodynamics system comprised of a fixed-frequency transmon qubit in a three-dimensional microwave cavity at 20 mK. A two-photon process is employed to overcome a first order forbidden transition and the first, second and third Fock states are demonstrated. We also demonstrate how this all-microwave technique can be used to generate an arbitrary superposition of Fock states. Simulations of the system are in excellent agreement with the data and fidelities of 89%, 68% and 43% are inferred for the first three Fock states respectively.

  19. Stabilizing Microwave Frequency of a Photonic Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maleki, Lute; Yu, Nan; Tu, Meirong

    2006-01-01

    A scheme for stabilizing the frequency of a microwave signal is proposed that exploits the operational characteristics of a coupled optoelectronic oscillator (COEO) and related optoelectronic equipment. An essential element in the scheme is a fiber mode-locked laser (MLL), the optical frequency of which is locked to an atomic transition. In this scheme, the optical frequency stability of the mode-locked laser is transferred to that of the microwave in the same device. Relative to prior schemes for using wideband optical frequency comb to stabilize microwave signals, this scheme is simpler and lends itself more readily to implementation in relatively compact, rugged equipment. The anticipated development of small, low-power, lightweight, highly stable microwave oscillators based on this scheme would afford great benefits in communication, navigation, metrology, and fundamental sciences. COEOs of various designs, at various stages of development, in some cases called by different names, have been described in a number of prior NASA Tech Briefs articles. A COEO is an optoelectronic apparatus that generates both short (picosecond) optical pulses and a steady microwave signal having an ultrahigh degree of spectral purity. The term "coupled optoelectronic" in the full name of such an apparatus signifies that its optical and electronic oscillations are coupled to each other in a single device. The present frequency-stabilization scheme is best described indirectly by describing the laboratory apparatus used to demonstrate it. The apparatus (see figure) includes a COEO that generates a comb-like optical spectrum, the various frequency components of which interfere, producing short optical pulses. This spectrum is centered at a nominal wavelength of 1,560 nm. The spectrum separation of this comb is about 10 GHz, as determined primarily by the length of an optical loop and the bandpass filter in the microwave feedback loop. The optical loop serves as microwave resonator

  20. Wide-Band Microwave Receivers Using Photonic Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsko, Andrey; Maleki, Lute; Itchenko, Vladimir; Yu, Nan; Strekalov, Dmitry; Savchenkov, Anatoliy

    2008-01-01

    In wide-band microwave receivers of a type now undergoing development, the incoming microwave signals are electronically preamplified, then frequency-up-converted to optical signals that are processed photonically before being detected. This approach differs from the traditional approach, in which incoming microwave signals are processed by purely electronic means. As used here, wide-band microwave receivers refers especially to receivers capable of reception at any frequency throughout the range from about 90 to about 300 GHz. The advantage expected to be gained by following the up-conversion-and-photonic-processing approach is the ability to overcome the limitations of currently available detectors and tunable local oscillators in the frequency range of interest. In a receiver following this approach (see figure), a preamplified incoming microwave signal is up-converted by the method described in the preceeding article. The frequency up-converter exploits the nonlinearity of the electromagnetic response of a whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator made of LiNbO3. Up-conversion takes place by three-wave mixing in the resonator. The WGM resonator is designed and fabricated to function simultaneously as an electro-optical modulator and to exhibit resonance at the microwave and optical operating frequencies plus phase matching among the microwave and optical signals circulating in the resonator. The up-conversion is an efficient process, and the efficiency is enhanced by the combination of microwave and optical resonances. The up-converted signal is processed photonically by use of a tunable optical filter or local oscillator, and is then detected. Tunable optical filters can be made to be frequency agile and to exhibit high resonance quality factors (high Q values), thereby making it possible to utilize a variety of signal-processing modalities. Therefore, it is anticipated that when fully developed, receivers of this type will be compact and will be capable of both

  1. Tunable superconducting qudit mediated by microwave photons

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Sung Un; Bae, Myung-Ho; Kim, Nam; Kang, Kicheon

    2015-08-15

    We have investigated the time-domain characteristics of the Autler-Townes doublet in a superconducting circuit. The transition probabilities between the ground state and the Autler-Townes doublet states are shown to be controlled in a phase-coherent manner using a well-known microwave pulse pattern technique. The experimental results are well explained by a numerical simulation based on the Markovian master equation. Our result indicates that the Autler-Townes doublet states might be useful as a tunable qudit for implementation of quantum information processing, in particular as a multivalued quantum logic element.

  2. Counting near infrared photons with microwave kinetic inductance detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, W.; Liu, X.; Wang, Y.; Wei, Q.; Wei, L. F.; Hubmayr, J.; Fowler, J.; Ullom, J.; Vale, L.; Vissers, M. R.; Gao, J.

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate photon counting at 1550 nm wavelength using microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) made from TiN/Ti/TiN trilayer films with superconducting transition temperature T c ≈ 1.4 K. The detectors have a lumped-element design with a large interdigitated capacitor covered by aluminum and inductive photon absorbers whose volume ranges from 0.4 μm3 to 20 μm3. The energy resolution improves as the absorber volume is reduced. We achieved an energy resolution of 0.22 eV and resolved up to 7 photons per optical pulse, both greatly improved from previously reported results at 1550 nm wavelength using MKIDs. Further improvements are possible by optimizing the optical coupling to maximize photon absorption into the inductive absorber.

  3. A metallic photonic crystal high power microwave mode converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Qin, Fen; Xu, Sha; Shi, Meiyou

    2013-06-01

    A compact metallic photonic crystal mode converter that converts TEM to TE11 mode for a high power transmission system is presented. Metallic photonic crystal is partially filled along azimuthal direction in the device to divide a single coaxial transmission line into two different partitions with different phase propagation constants for phase-shifting. A three row structure is designed and simulated by commercial software cst microwave studio. Simulation results show that it has high conversion efficiency and the bandwidth is 4.1%. Far-field measurement experiment is carried out and get a typical TE11 mode pattern. The result confirms the validity of the design.

  4. Software-defined microwave photonic filter with high reconfigurable resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei; Yi, Lilin; Jaouën, Yves; Hu, Weisheng

    2016-10-01

    Microwave photonic filters (MPFs) are of great interest in radio frequency systems since they provide prominent flexibility on microwave signal processing. Although filter reconfigurability and tunability have been demonstrated repeatedly, it is still difficult to control the filter shape with very high precision. Thus the MPF application is basically limited to signal selection. Here we present a polarization-insensitive single-passband arbitrary-shaped MPF with ~GHz bandwidth based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in optical fibre. For the first time the filter shape, bandwidth and central frequency can all be precisely defined by software with ~MHz resolution. The unprecedented multi-dimensional filter flexibility offers new possibilities to process microwave signals directly in optical domain with high precision thus enhancing the MPF functionality. Nanosecond pulse shaping by implementing precisely defined filters is demonstrated to prove the filter superiority and practicability.

  5. Software-defined microwave photonic filter with high reconfigurable resolution.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Yi, Lilin; Jaouën, Yves; Hu, Weisheng

    2016-10-19

    Microwave photonic filters (MPFs) are of great interest in radio frequency systems since they provide prominent flexibility on microwave signal processing. Although filter reconfigurability and tunability have been demonstrated repeatedly, it is still difficult to control the filter shape with very high precision. Thus the MPF application is basically limited to signal selection. Here we present a polarization-insensitive single-passband arbitrary-shaped MPF with ~GHz bandwidth based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in optical fibre. For the first time the filter shape, bandwidth and central frequency can all be precisely defined by software with ~MHz resolution. The unprecedented multi-dimensional filter flexibility offers new possibilities to process microwave signals directly in optical domain with high precision thus enhancing the MPF functionality. Nanosecond pulse shaping by implementing precisely defined filters is demonstrated to prove the filter superiority and practicability.

  6. Software-defined microwave photonic filter with high reconfigurable resolution

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Yi, Lilin; Jaouën, Yves; Hu, Weisheng

    2016-01-01

    Microwave photonic filters (MPFs) are of great interest in radio frequency systems since they provide prominent flexibility on microwave signal processing. Although filter reconfigurability and tunability have been demonstrated repeatedly, it is still difficult to control the filter shape with very high precision. Thus the MPF application is basically limited to signal selection. Here we present a polarization-insensitive single-passband arbitrary-shaped MPF with ~GHz bandwidth based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in optical fibre. For the first time the filter shape, bandwidth and central frequency can all be precisely defined by software with ~MHz resolution. The unprecedented multi-dimensional filter flexibility offers new possibilities to process microwave signals directly in optical domain with high precision thus enhancing the MPF functionality. Nanosecond pulse shaping by implementing precisely defined filters is demonstrated to prove the filter superiority and practicability. PMID:27759062

  7. All-optical microwave photonic filter based on two-frequency optical source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Oleg G.; Sadeev, Tagir S.

    2011-04-01

    All-optical microwave filter has been a topic of interest for over two decades because of the many advantageous features such as large time-bandwidth product, wide tunability, high Q-factor, low loss, light weight, and immunity to electromagnetic interference offered by photonic devices. All-optical microwave photonic filter is a system used to implement microwave filtering in the optical domain, which can provide a large tunability and a high Q factor which are usually difficult to realize through conventional electronic methods. In addition, since the microwave signal is processed directly in the optical domain without additional optical-electrical and electrical-optical conversions, the photonic microwave filters are particularly suitable for applications such as optically controlled phased-array antennas, radio-over-fiber (RoF) systems, and other microwave-photonic links (MPLs). For these reasons, photonic microwave filters have attracted considerable interest for a few years.

  8. All-optical microwave photonic filter based on two-frequency optical source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Oleg G.; Sadeev, Tagir S.

    2010-12-01

    All-optical microwave filter has been a topic of interest for over two decades because of the many advantageous features such as large time-bandwidth product, wide tunability, high Q-factor, low loss, light weight, and immunity to electromagnetic interference offered by photonic devices. All-optical microwave photonic filter is a system used to implement microwave filtering in the optical domain, which can provide a large tunability and a high Q factor which are usually difficult to realize through conventional electronic methods. In addition, since the microwave signal is processed directly in the optical domain without additional optical-electrical and electrical-optical conversions, the photonic microwave filters are particularly suitable for applications such as optically controlled phased-array antennas, radio-over-fiber (RoF) systems, and other microwave-photonic links (MPLs). For these reasons, photonic microwave filters have attracted considerable interest for a few years.

  9. Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiaopeng; Bouchand, Romain; Nicolodi, Daniele; Giunta, Michele; Hänsel, Wolfgang; Lezius, Matthias; Joshi, Abhay; Datta, Shubhashish; Alexandre, Christophe; Lours, Michel; Tremblin, Pierre-Alain; Santarelli, Giorgio; Holzwarth, Ronald; Le Coq, Yann

    2017-01-01

    Photonic synthesis of radiofrequency (RF) waveforms revived the quest for unrivalled microwave purity because of its ability to convey the benefits of optics to the microwave world. In this work, we perform a high-fidelity transfer of frequency stability between an optical reference and a microwave signal via a low-noise fibre-based frequency comb and cutting-edge photodetection techniques. We demonstrate the generation of the purest microwave signal with a fractional frequency stability below 6.5 × 10-16 at 1 s and a timing noise floor below 41 zs Hz-1/2 (phase noise below -173 dBc Hz-1 for a 12 GHz carrier). This outperforms existing sources and promises a new era for state-of-the-art microwave generation. The characterization is achieved through a heterodyne cross-correlation scheme with the lowermost detection noise. This unprecedented level of purity can impact domains such as radar systems, telecommunications and time-frequency metrology. The measurement methods developed here can benefit the characterization of a broad range of signals.

  10. Frequency-stabilization of mode-locked laser-based photonic microwave oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Nan; Tu, Meirong; Salik, Ertan; Maleki, Lute

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we will describe our recent phase-noise measurements of photonic microwave oscillators. We will aslo discuss our investigation of the frequency stability link between the optical and microwave frequencies in the coupled oscillator.

  11. Entanglement concentration of microwave photons based on the Kerr effect in circuit QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Wang, Haibo

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, superconducting qubits have shown great potential in quantum computation. Hence, microwave photons become very interesting qubits for quantum information processing assisted by superconducting quantum computation. Here, we present a protocol for the entanglement concentration on microwave photons, resorting to the cross-Kerr effect in circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED). Two superconducting transmission line resonators (TLRs) coupled to superconducting molecule with the N -type level structure induce the effective cross-Kerr effect for realizing the quantum nondemolition (QND) measurement on microwave photons. With this device, we present a two-qubit polarization parity QND detector on the photon states of the superconducting TLRs, which can be used to concentrate the nonlocal nonmaximally entangled states of microwave photons assisted by several linear microwave elements efficiently. This protocol has a high efficiency and it may be useful for solid-state quantum information processing assisted by microwave photons.

  12. Photonic compressive sensing with a micro-ring-resonator-based microwave photonic filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Ding, Yunhong; Zhu, Zhijing; Chi, Hao; Zheng, Shilie; Zhang, Xianmin; Jin, Xiaofeng; Galili, Michael; Yu, Xianbin

    2016-08-01

    A novel approach to realize photonic compressive sensing (CS) with a multi-tap microwave photonic filter is proposed and demonstrated. The system takes both advantages of CS and photonics to capture wideband sparse signals with sub-Nyquist sampling rate. The low-pass filtering function required in the CS is realized in a photonic way by using a frequency comb and a dispersive element. The frequency comb is realized by shaping an amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source with an on-chip micro-ring resonator, which is beneficial to the integration of photonic CS. A proof-of-concept experiment for a two-tone signal acquisition with frequencies of 350 MHz and 1.25 GHz is experimentally demonstrated with a compression factor up to 16.

  13. Microwave Photonics Systems Based on Whispering-gallery-mode Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Coillet, Aurélien; Henriet, Rémi; Phan Huy, Kien; Jacquot, Maxime; Furfaro, Luca; Balakireva, Irina; Larger, Laurent; Chembo, Yanne K.

    2013-01-01

    Microwave photonics systems rely fundamentally on the interaction between microwave and optical signals. These systems are extremely promising for various areas of technology and applied science, such as aerospace and communication engineering, sensing, metrology, nonlinear photonics, and quantum optics. In this article, we present the principal techniques used in our lab to build microwave photonics systems based on ultra-high Q whispering gallery mode resonators. First detailed in this article is the protocol for resonator polishing, which is based on a grind-and-polish technique close to the ones used to polish optical components such as lenses or telescope mirrors. Then, a white light interferometric profilometer measures surface roughness, which is a key parameter to characterize the quality of the polishing. In order to launch light in the resonator, a tapered silica fiber with diameter in the micrometer range is used. To reach such small diameters, we adopt the "flame-brushing" technique, using simultaneously computer-controlled motors to pull the fiber apart, and a blowtorch to heat the fiber area to be tapered. The resonator and the tapered fiber are later approached to one another to visualize the resonance signal of the whispering gallery modes using a wavelength-scanning laser. By increasing the optical power in the resonator, nonlinear phenomena are triggered until the formation of a Kerr optical frequency comb is observed with a spectrum made of equidistant spectral lines. These Kerr comb spectra have exceptional characteristics that are suitable for several applications in science and technology. We consider the application related to ultra-stable microwave frequency synthesis and demonstrate the generation of a Kerr comb with GHz intermodal frequency. PMID:23963358

  14. Microwave photonics systems based on whispering-gallery-mode resonators.

    PubMed

    Coillet, Aurélien; Henriet, Rémi; Phan Huy, Kien; Jacquot, Maxime; Furfaro, Luca; Balakireva, Irina; Larger, Laurent; Chembo, Yanne K

    2013-08-05

    Microwave photonics systems rely fundamentally on the interaction between microwave and optical signals. These systems are extremely promising for various areas of technology and applied science, such as aerospace and communication engineering, sensing, metrology, nonlinear photonics, and quantum optics. In this article, we present the principal techniques used in our lab to build microwave photonics systems based on ultra-high Q whispering gallery mode resonators. First detailed in this article is the protocol for resonator polishing, which is based on a grind-and-polish technique close to the ones used to polish optical components such as lenses or telescope mirrors. Then, a white light interferometric profilometer measures surface roughness, which is a key parameter to characterize the quality of the polishing. In order to launch light in the resonator, a tapered silica fiber with diameter in the micrometer range is used. To reach such small diameters, we adopt the "flame-brushing" technique, using simultaneously computer-controlled motors to pull the fiber apart, and a blowtorch to heat the fiber area to be tapered. The resonator and the tapered fiber are later approached to one another to visualize the resonance signal of the whispering gallery modes using a wavelength-scanning laser. By increasing the optical power in the resonator, nonlinear phenomena are triggered until the formation of a Kerr optical frequency comb is observed with a spectrum made of equidistant spectral lines. These Kerr comb spectra have exceptional characteristics that are suitable for several applications in science and technology. We consider the application related to ultra-stable microwave frequency synthesis and demonstrate the generation of a Kerr comb with GHz intermodal frequency.

  15. Microwave photonic delay line signal processing.

    PubMed

    Diehl, John F; Singley, Joseph M; Sunderman, Christopher E; Urick, Vincent J

    2015-11-01

    This paper provides a path for the design of state-of-the-art fiber-optic delay lines for signal processing. The theoretical forms for various radio-frequency system performance metrics are derived for four modulation types: X- and Z-cut Mach-Zehnder modulators, a phase modulator with asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and a polarization modulator with control waveplate and polarizing beam splitter. Each modulation type is considered to cover the current and future needs for ideal system designs. System gain, compression point, and third-order output intercept point are derived from the transfer matrices for each modulation type. A discussion of optical amplifier placement and fiber-effect mitigation is offered. The paper concludes by detailing two high-performance delay lines, built for unique applications, that exhibit performance levels an order of magnitude better than commercial delay lines. This paper should serve as a guide to maximizing the performance of future systems and offer a look into current and future research being done to further improve photonics technologies.

  16. An extraordinary transmission analogue for enhancing microwave antenna performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushpakaran, Sarin V.; Purushothaman, Jayakrishnan M.; Chandroth, Aanandan; Pezholil, Mohanan; Kesavath, Vasudevan

    2015-10-01

    The theory of diffraction limit proposed by H.A Bethe limits the total power transfer through a subwavelength hole. Researchers all over the world have gone through different techniques for boosting the transmission through subwavelength holes resulting in the Extraordinary Transmission (EOT) behavior. We examine computationally and experimentally the concept of EOT nature in the microwave range for enhancing radiation performance of a stacked dipole antenna working in the S band. It is shown that the front to back ratio of the antenna is considerably enhanced without affecting the impedance matching performance of the design. The computational analysis based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method reveals that the excitation of Fabry-Perot resonant modes on the slots is responsible for performance enhancement.

  17. An extraordinary transmission analogue for enhancing microwave antenna performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pushpakaran, Sarin V.; Purushothaman, Jayakrishnan M.; Chandroth, Aanandan; Pezholil, Mohanan; Kesavath, Vasudevan

    2015-10-15

    The theory of diffraction limit proposed by H.A Bethe limits the total power transfer through a subwavelength hole. Researchers all over the world have gone through different techniques for boosting the transmission through subwavelength holes resulting in the Extraordinary Transmission (EOT) behavior. We examine computationally and experimentally the concept of EOT nature in the microwave range for enhancing radiation performance of a stacked dipole antenna working in the S band. It is shown that the front to back ratio of the antenna is considerably enhanced without affecting the impedance matching performance of the design. The computational analysis based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method reveals that the excitation of Fabry-Perot resonant modes on the slots is responsible for performance enhancement.

  18. Microwave photon Fock state generation by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage

    PubMed Central

    Premaratne, Shavindra P.; Wellstood, F. C.; Palmer, B. S.

    2017-01-01

    The deterministic generation of non-classical states of light, including squeezed states, Fock states and Bell states, plays an important role in quantum information processing and exploration of the physics of quantum entanglement. Preparation of these non-classical states in resonators is non-trivial due to their inherent harmonicity. Here we use stimulated Raman adiabatic passage to generate microwave photon Fock states in a superconducting circuit quantum electrodynamics system comprised of a fixed-frequency transmon qubit in a three-dimensional microwave cavity at 20 mK. A two-photon process is employed to overcome a first order forbidden transition and the first, second and third Fock states are demonstrated. We also demonstrate how this all-microwave technique can be used to generate an arbitrary superposition of Fock states. Simulations of the system are in excellent agreement with the data and fidelities of 89%, 68% and 43% are inferred for the first three Fock states respectively. PMID:28128205

  19. Microwave plasma formation within a 2D photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Stephen; Gregório, José; Hopwood, Jeffrey

    2017-05-01

    Experiments demonstrate that an electromagnetic wave incident on a photonic crystal (PhC) containing a single point-defect causes gas breakdown. After breakdown we report the formation of a stable microwave plasma within this free-space vacancy. We show that gas breakdown is possible in low-pressure argon (10 Torr) using as little as 1.4 W of microwave power if the frequency of the incident wave is equal to the resonance of the vacancy (8.614 GHz). During formation, the plasma-filled defect decreases the transmission of energy through the photonic crystal by approximately two orders of magnitude. Plasma formation time is measured to be as fast as 100 ns at relatively high power (9 W). Using the transmission of energy through the PhC as a diagnostic tool, we report that the electron density of the microwave plasma is 1016-1017 m-3 for argon pressures between 10 and 50 Torr. Finally, we consider the application of the self-initiated plasma within the PhC as a simple power limiter.

  20. Integrated waveguide Bragg gratings for microwave photonics signal processing.

    PubMed

    Burla, Maurizio; Cortés, Luis Romero; Li, Ming; Wang, Xu; Chrostowski, Lukas; Azaña, José

    2013-10-21

    Integrated Microwave photonics (IMWP) signal processing using Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs) has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years as an enabling technology for a number of functionalities not attainable by purely microwave solutions. In this context, integrated waveguide Bragg grating (WBG) devices constitute a particularly attractive approach thanks to their compactness and flexibility in producing arbitrarily defined amplitude and phase responses, by directly acting on coupling coefficient and perturbations of the grating profile. In this article, we review recent advances in the field of integrated WBGs applied to MWP, analyzing the advantages leveraged by an integrated realization. We provide a perspective on the exciting possibilities offered by the silicon photonics platform in the field of MWP, potentially enabling integration of highly-complex active and passive functionalities with high yield on a single chip, with a particular focus on the use of WBGs as basic building blocks for linear filtering operations. We demonstrate the versatility of WBG-based devices by proposing and experimentally demonstrating a novel, continuously-tunable, integrated true-time-delay (TTD) line based on a very simple dual phase-shifted WBG (DPS-WBG).

  1. The two-photon excitation cross section of 6MAP, a fluorescent adenine analogue.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Robert J; Hou, Zhanjia; Yang, Aiping; Hawkins, Mary E

    2005-03-03

    6MAP is a fluorescent analogue of adenine that undergoes Watson-Crick base pairing and base stacking in double-stranded DNA. The one-photon absorption spectrum of 6MAP is characterized by a maximum around 330 nm with moderate quantum yield fluorescence centered at about 420 nm. To take advantage of this probe for confocal and single-molecule microscopy, it would be advantageous to be able to excite the analogue via two photons. We report the first determination of the two-photon excitation cross section and spectrum for 6MAP from 614 to 700 nm. The power dependence of the fluorescence indicates that emission results from the absorption of two photons. The one-photon and two-photon emission line shapes are identical within experimental error. A study of the concentration dependence of the fluorescence yield for one-photon excitation shows no measurable quenching up to about 5 microM. The maximum in the two-photon excitation spectrum gives a two-photon cross section, delta(TPE), of 3.4 +/- 0.1 Goeppert-Mayer (G.M.) at 659 nm, which correlates well with the one-photon absorption maximum. This compares quite favorably with cross sections of various naturally fluorescent biological molecules such as flavins and nicotiamide. In addition, we have also obtained the two-photon-induced fluorescence emission spectrum of quinine sulfate. It is approximately the same as that for one-photon excitation, suggesting that two-photon excitation of quinine sulfate may be used for calibration purposes.

  2. Multiplexing Superconducting Qubit Circuit for Single Microwave Photon Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, R. E.; Senior, J.; Saira, O.-P.; Pekola, J. P.; de Graaf, S. E.; Lindström, T.; Pashkin, Yu A.

    2017-07-01

    We report on a device that integrates eight superconducting transmon qubits in λ /4 superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators fed from a common feedline. Using this multiplexing architecture, each resonator and qubit can be addressed individually, thus reducing the required hardware resources and allowing their individual characterisation by spectroscopic methods. The measured device parameters agree with the designed values, and the resonators and qubits exhibit excellent coherence properties and strong coupling, with the qubit relaxation rate dominated by the Purcell effect when brought in resonance with the resonator. Our analysis shows that the circuit is suitable for generation of single microwave photons on demand with an efficiency exceeding 80%.

  3. Multiplexing Superconducting Qubit Circuit for Single Microwave Photon Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, R. E.; Senior, J.; Saira, O.-P.; Pekola, J. P.; de Graaf, S. E.; Lindström, T.; Pashkin, Yu A.

    2017-10-01

    We report on a device that integrates eight superconducting transmon qubits in λ /4 superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators fed from a common feedline. Using this multiplexing architecture, each resonator and qubit can be addressed individually, thus reducing the required hardware resources and allowing their individual characterisation by spectroscopic methods. The measured device parameters agree with the designed values, and the resonators and qubits exhibit excellent coherence properties and strong coupling, with the qubit relaxation rate dominated by the Purcell effect when brought in resonance with the resonator. Our analysis shows that the circuit is suitable for generation of single microwave photons on demand with an efficiency exceeding 80%.

  4. VUV Photon Fluxes from Microwave Excited Microplasmas at Low Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Peng; Denning, Mark; Urdhal, Randall; Kushner, Mark J.

    2013-09-01

    Microplasmas in rare gases and rare gases mixtures can provide efficient and discretely tunable sources of VUV light. Microwave excited microplasma sources excited by a split-ring resonator antenna in rare gas mixtures operated in ceramic cavities with sub-mm dimensions have been developed as discretely tunable VUV sources for chemical analysis. Controlling wavelengths and the ratio of ion to VUV fluxes are important to achieving chemical selectivity. In this paper, we will discuss results from an investigation of scaling laws for the efficiency of VUV photon production in rare gas mixtures. The investigation was performed using a hydrodynamics model where the electron energy distribution and radiation transport are addressed by Monte Carlo simulations. Plasma density, VUV photon production and fluxes from the cavities will be discussed for mixtures of Ar, He, Xe, Kr, and as a function of power format (pulsing, cw), pressure and cavity sizes.

  5. All-fibre photonic signal generator for attosecond timing and ultralow-noise microwave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kwangyun; Kim, Jungwon

    2015-11-01

    High-impact frequency comb applications that are critically dependent on precise pulse timing (i.e., repetition rate) have recently emerged and include the synchronization of X-ray free-electron lasers, photonic analogue-to-digital conversion and photonic radar systems. These applications have used attosecond-level timing jitter of free-running mode-locked lasers on a fast time scale within ~100 μs. Maintaining attosecond-level absolute jitter over a significantly longer time scale can dramatically improve many high-precision comb applications. To date, ultrahigh quality-factor (Q) optical resonators have been used to achieve the highest-level repetition-rate stabilization of mode-locked lasers. However, ultrahigh-Q optical-resonator-based methods are often fragile, alignment sensitive and complex, which limits their widespread use. Here we demonstrate a fibre-delay line-based repetition-rate stabilization method that enables the all-fibre photonic generation of optical pulse trains with 980-as (20-fs) absolute r.m.s. timing jitter accumulated over 0.01 s (1 s). This simple approach is based on standard off-the-shelf fibre components and can therefore be readily used in various comb applications that require ultra-stable microwave frequency and attosecond optical timing.

  6. All-fibre photonic signal generator for attosecond timing and ultralow-noise microwave

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kwangyun; Kim, Jungwon

    2015-01-01

    High-impact frequency comb applications that are critically dependent on precise pulse timing (i.e., repetition rate) have recently emerged and include the synchronization of X-ray free-electron lasers, photonic analogue-to-digital conversion and photonic radar systems. These applications have used attosecond-level timing jitter of free-running mode-locked lasers on a fast time scale within ~100 μs. Maintaining attosecond-level absolute jitter over a significantly longer time scale can dramatically improve many high-precision comb applications. To date, ultrahigh quality-factor (Q) optical resonators have been used to achieve the highest-level repetition-rate stabilization of mode-locked lasers. However, ultrahigh-Q optical-resonator-based methods are often fragile, alignment sensitive and complex, which limits their widespread use. Here we demonstrate a fibre-delay line-based repetition-rate stabilization method that enables the all-fibre photonic generation of optical pulse trains with 980-as (20-fs) absolute r.m.s. timing jitter accumulated over 0.01 s (1 s). This simple approach is based on standard off-the-shelf fibre components and can therefore be readily used in various comb applications that require ultra-stable microwave frequency and attosecond optical timing. PMID:26531777

  7. All-fibre photonic signal generator for attosecond timing and ultralow-noise microwave.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwangyun; Kim, Jungwon

    2015-11-04

    High-impact frequency comb applications that are critically dependent on precise pulse timing (i.e., repetition rate) have recently emerged and include the synchronization of X-ray free-electron lasers, photonic analogue-to-digital conversion and photonic radar systems. These applications have used attosecond-level timing jitter of free-running mode-locked lasers on a fast time scale within ~100 μs. Maintaining attosecond-level absolute jitter over a significantly longer time scale can dramatically improve many high-precision comb applications. To date, ultrahigh quality-factor (Q) optical resonators have been used to achieve the highest-level repetition-rate stabilization of mode-locked lasers. However, ultrahigh-Q optical-resonator-based methods are often fragile, alignment sensitive and complex, which limits their widespread use. Here we demonstrate a fibre-delay line-based repetition-rate stabilization method that enables the all-fibre photonic generation of optical pulse trains with 980-as (20-fs) absolute r.m.s. timing jitter accumulated over 0.01 s (1 s). This simple approach is based on standard off-the-shelf fibre components and can therefore be readily used in various comb applications that require ultra-stable microwave frequency and attosecond optical timing.

  8. Nonclassical correlation between optical and microwave photons in a hybrid electro-optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hong; Chen, Xiang; Lin, Gongwei; Lin, Xiumin

    2016-10-01

    A scheme to correlate optical and microwave photons is proposed in a hybrid electro-optomechanical system, where mechanical resonator is coupled to both optical and microwave fields. Analytical and numerical simulation results show that the cross-correlation function between Stokes and anti-Stokes photons strongly violates the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, which confirms the nonclassical correlation between the optical and microwave photons. It is worth noting that the nonclassical photon pairs with vast different wavelengths, which may be useful for quantum communication, are generated under the experimentally accessible weak coupling limit rather than single-photon strong coupling regime. In addition, the protocol provides a possible route to combine the respective advantages of optical photons, microwave photons, and phonons in a hybrid electro-optomechanical system.

  9. Generating entangled quantum microwaves in a Josephson-photonics device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dambach, Simon; Kubala, Björn; Ankerhold, Joachim

    2017-02-01

    When connecting a voltage-biased Josephson junction in series to several microwave cavities, a Cooper-pair current across the junction gives rise to a continuous emission of strongly correlated photons into the cavity modes. Tuning the bias voltage to the resonance where a single Cooper pair provides the energy to create an additional photon in each of the cavities, we demonstrate the entangling nature of these creation processes by simple witnesses in terms of experimentally accessible observables. To characterize the entanglement properties of the such created quantum states of light to the fullest possible extent, we then proceed to more elaborate entanglement criteria based on the knowledge of the full density matrix and provide a detailed study of bi- and multipartite entanglement. In particular, we illustrate how due to the relatively simple design of these circuits changes of experimental parameters allow one to access a wide variety of entangled states differing, e.g., in the number of entangled parties or the dimension of state space. Such devices, besides their promising potential to act as a highly versatile source of entangled quantum microwaves, may thus represent an excellent natural testbed for classification and quantification schemes developed in quantum information theory.

  10. Preface to the special issue on "Integrated Microwave Photonic Signal Processing"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azaña, José; Yao, Jianping

    2016-08-01

    As Guest Editors, we are pleased to introduce this special issue on ;Integrated Microwave Photonic Signal Processing; published by the Elsevier journal Optics Communications. Microwave photonics is a field of growing importance from both scientific and practical application perspectives. The field of microwave photonics is devoted to the study, development and application of optics-based techniques and technologies aimed to the generation, processing, control, characterization and/or distribution of microwave signals, including signals well into the millimeter-wave frequency range. The use of photonic technologies for these microwave applications translates into a number of key advantages, such as the possibility of dealing with high-frequency, wide bandwidth signals with minimal losses and reduced electromagnetic interferences, and the potential for enhanced reconfigurability. The central purpose of this special issue is to provide an overview of the state of the art of generation, processing and characterization technologies for high-frequency microwave signals. It is now widely accepted that the practical success of microwave photonics at a large scale will essentially depend on the realization of high-performance microwave-photonic signal-processing engines in compact and integrated formats, preferably on a chip. Thus, the focus of the issue is on techniques implemented using integrated photonic technologies, with the goal of providing an update of the most recent advances toward realization of this vision.

  11. Photonic-assisted microwave signal multiplication and modulation using a silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator

    PubMed Central

    Long, Yun; Zhou, Linjie; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Photonic generation of microwave signal is obviously attractive for many prominent advantages, such as large bandwidth, low loss, and immunity to electromagnetic interference. Based on a single integrated silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator (MZM), we propose and experimentally demonstrate a simple and compact photonic scheme to enable frequency-multiplicated microwave signal. Using the fabricated integrated MZM, we also demonstrate the feasibility of microwave amplitude-shift keying (ASK) modulation based on integrated photonic approach. In proof-of-concept experiments, 2-GHz frequency-doubled microwave signal is generated using a 1-GHz driving signal. 750-MHz/1-GHz frequency-tripled/quadrupled microwave signals are obtained with a driving signal of 250 MHz. In addition, a 50-Mb/s binary amplitude coded 1-GHz microwave signal is also successfully generated. PMID:26832305

  12. Brillouin Amplification--A Powerful New Scheme for Microwave Photonic Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, S.; Maleki, L.

    1997-01-01

    We introduce the Brillouin selective sideband amplification technique and demonstrate many important applications of this technique in photonic microwave systems, including efficient phase modulation to amplitude modulation conversion, photonic frequency multiplication, photonic signal mixing with gain, and frequency multiplied signal up conversion.

  13. Nonreciprocal quantum-state conversion between microwave and optical photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Lin; Li, Zhen

    2017-07-01

    Optoelectromechanical quantum interfaces can be utilized to connect systems with distinctively different frequencies in hybrid quantum networks. Here we present a scheme of nonreciprocal quantum-state conversion between microwave and optical photons via an optoelectromechanical interface. By introducing an auxiliary cavity and manipulating the phase differences between the linearized light-matter couplings, unidirectional state transmission that is immune to mechanical noise can be achieved. This interface can function as an isolator, a circulator, and a two-way switch that routes the input state to a designated output channel. We show that under a generalized impedance matching condition the state conversion can prevent thermal fluctuations of the mechanical mode from propagating to the cavity outputs and reach high fidelity. The realization of this scheme is also discussed.

  14. Applications of Microwave Photonics in Radio Astronomy and Space Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Addario, Larry R.; Shillue, William P.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of narrow band vs wide band signals is given. Topics discussed included signal transmission, reference distribution and photonic antenna metrology. Examples of VLA, ALMA, ATA and DSN arrays are given. . Arrays of small antennas have become more cost-effective than large antennas for achieving large total aperture or gain, both for astronomy and for communication. It is concluded that emerging applications involving arrays of many antennas require low-cost optical communication of both wide bandwidth and narrow bandwidth; development of round-trip correction schemes enables timing precision; and free-space laser beams with microwave modulation allow structural metrology with approx 100 micrometer precision over distances of 200 meters.

  15. Applications of Microwave Photonics in Radio Astronomy and Space Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Addario, Larry R.; Shillue, William P.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of narrow band vs wide band signals is given. Topics discussed included signal transmission, reference distribution and photonic antenna metrology. Examples of VLA, ALMA, ATA and DSN arrays are given. . Arrays of small antennas have become more cost-effective than large antennas for achieving large total aperture or gain, both for astronomy and for communication. It is concluded that emerging applications involving arrays of many antennas require low-cost optical communication of both wide bandwidth and narrow bandwidth; development of round-trip correction schemes enables timing precision; and free-space laser beams with microwave modulation allow structural metrology with approx 100 micrometer precision over distances of 200 meters.

  16. Phase noise measurement of wideband microwave sources based on a microwave photonic frequency down-converter.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dengjian; Zhang, Fangzheng; Zhou, Pei; Pan, Shilong

    2015-04-01

    An approach for phase noise measurement of microwave signal sources based on a microwave photonic frequency down-converter is proposed. Using the same optical carrier, the microwave signal under test is applied to generate two +1st-order optical sidebands by two stages of electro-optical modulations. A time delay is introduced between the two sidebands through a span of fiber. By beating the two +1st-order sidebands at a photodetector, frequency down-conversion is implemented, and phase noise of the signal under test can be calculated thereafter. The system has a very large operation bandwidth thanks to the frequency conversion in the optical domain, and good phase noise measurement sensitivity can be achieved since the signal degradation caused by electrical amplifiers is avoided. An experiment is carried out. The phase noise measured by the proposed system agrees well with that measured by a commercial spectrum analyzer or provided by the datasheet. A large operation bandwidth of 5-40 GHz is demonstrated using the proposed system. Moreover, good phase noise floor is achieved (-123  dBc/Hz at 1 kHz and -137  dBc/Hz at 10 kHz at 10 GHz), which is nearly constant over the full measurement range.

  17. Single photon frequency conversion and channelization based on microwave piezo-optomechanical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Linran; Zou, Changlin; Poot, Menno; Cheng, Risheng; Tang, Hong

    Cavity optomechanics holds very promising potentials for quantum information processing, as it provides both a convenient method to manipulate photons and a platform to bridge different quantum system. Especially, the integration of microwave devices with cavity optomechanics draws great interest as such a hybrid platform can provide strong electrical actuation, ultra-sensitive optical readout, and parametric mechanical signal amplification simultaneously in a single device. This hybrid platform enables great functionalities in manipulating photons, and builds direct link between microwave photon and optical photon, which is important for future quantum network. Aluminum nitride (AlN) is ideal for such hybrid platform. Besides low optical and mechanical loss, AlN possesses strong piezoelectric effect, which gives rise to strong coupling between microwave cavities and mechanical resonators. We will present our recent progress in developing integrated AlN hybrid platform for photon manipulation, such as optical amplification and absorption, cascaded optical delay, single photon frequency shifting, etc.

  18. Photonic band gap structure for a ferroelectric photonic crystal at microwave frequencies.

    PubMed

    King, Tzu-Chyang; Chen, De-Xin; Lin, Wei-Cheng; Wu, Chien-Jang

    2015-10-10

    In this work, the photonic band gap (PBG) structure in a one-dimensional ferroelectric photonic crystal (PC) is theoretically investigated. We consider a PC, air/(AB)N/air, in which layer A is a dielectric of MgO and layer B is taken to be a ferroelectric of Ba0.55Sr0.45TiO3 (BSTO). With an extremely high value in the dielectric constant in BSTO, the calculated photonic band structure at microwave frequencies exhibits some interesting features that are significantly different from those in a usual dielectric-dielectric PC. First, the photonic transmission band consists of multiple and nearly discrete transmission peaks. Second, the calculated bandwidth of the PBG is nearly unchanged as the angle of incidence varies in the TE wave. The bandwidth will slightly reduce for the TM mode. Thus, a wide omnidirectional PBG can be obtained. Additionally, the effect of the thickness of the ferroelectric layer on the PBG is much more pronounced compared to the dielectric layer thickness. That is, the increase of ferroelectric thickness can significantly decrease the PBG bandwidth.

  19. Chromatic dispersion effect in a microwave photonic filter using superstructured fiber Bragg grating and dispersive fiber.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Bennion, Ian; Williams, John

    2005-08-22

    In this paper a microwave photonic filter using superstructured fiber Bragg grating and dispersive fiber is investigated. A theoretical model to describe the transfer function of the filter taking into consideration the spectral width of light source is established. Experiments are carried out to verify the theoretical analysis. Both theoretical and experimental results indicate that due to chromatic dispersion the source spectral width introduces an additional power penalty to the microwave photonic response of the filter.

  20. Reconfigurable microwave photonic filter with negative coefficient based on an optoelectronic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wen Hui; Li, Wei; Wang, Wen Ting; Liu, Jian Guo; Zhu, Ning Hua

    2014-06-01

    We report a reconfigurable multi-tap microwave photonic filter with negative coefficient based on an optoelectronic oscillator (OEO). The key novelty of this work is that a single polarization modulator (PolM) is used to build the OEO as well as to generate a multi-wavelength optical source. Thus, an external microwave source which is usually involved in the generation of multi-wavelength optical source by externally modulating a single tone optical beam is saved. In addition, the spectrum of the multi-wavelength optical source is reconfigurable in terms of the number of the optical components and the frequency interval between the adjacent components. The negative coefficient of the microwave photonic filter is achieved using a phase modulator (PM) and a dispersive element. The proposed approach is theoretically analyzed and experimentally verified. The generated fundamental microwave signal has a frequency of 9.95 GHz and a phase noise of -118 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset. By adjusting the optical power inside the OEO loop and the polarization controller (PC) outside the OEO loop, the tap number of the microwave photonic filter can be adjusted from 2 to 5, leading to a reconfigurable microwave photonic filter. The measured frequency responses of the microwave photonic filters agree well with the simulated ones.

  1. Fully tunable 360° microwave photonic phase shifter based on a single semiconductor optical amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sancho, Juan; Lloret, Juan; Gasulla, Ivana; Sales, Salvador; Capmany, José

    2011-08-01

    A fully tunable microwave photonic phase shifter involving a single semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is proposed and demonstrated. 360° microwave phase shift has been achieved by tuning the carrier wavelength and the optical input power injected in an SOA while properly profiting from the dispersion feature of a conveniently designed notch filter. It is shown that the optical filter can be advantageously employed to switch between positive and negative microwave phase shifts. Numerical calculations corroborate the experimental results showing an excellent agreement.

  2. Photonic instantaneous frequency measurement of wideband microwave signals.

    PubMed

    Li, Yueqin; Pei, Li; Li, Jing; Wang, Yiqun; Yuan, Jin; Ning, Tigang

    2017-01-01

    We propose a photonic system for instantaneous frequency measurement (IFM) of wideband microwave signals with a tunable measurement range and resolution based on a polarization-maintaining fiber Bragg grating (PM-FBG). Firstly, in order to be insensitive to laser power fluctuation, we aim at generating two different frequency to amplitude characteristics so that we can normalize them to obtain an amplitude comparison function (ACF). Then we encode these two different wavelengths in two perpendicular polarizations by using the PM-FBG which shows different transmission profiles at two polarizations. The ACF is capable of being adjusted by tuning polarization angle, therefore the measurement range and resolution are tunable. By theoretical analyses and simulated verification, a frequency measurement range of 0~17.2 GHz with average resolution of ±0.12 GHz can be achieved, which signifies a wide measurement range with relatively high resolution. Our system does not require large optical bandwidth for the components because the wavelength spacing can be small, making the system affordable, stable, and reliable with more consistent characteristics due to the narrowband nature of the optical parts. PM-FBG with high integration can be potentially used for more polarization manipulating systems and the use of a single-polarization dual-wavelength laser can simplify the architecture and enhance the stability.

  3. Microwave Photonic Filters for Interference Cancellation and Adaptive Beamforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, John

    Wireless communication has experienced an explosion of growth, especially in the past half- decade, due to the ubiquity of wireless devices, such as tablets, WiFi-enabled devices, and especially smartphones. Proliferation of smartphones with powerful processors and graphic chips have given an increasing amount of people the ability to access anything from anywhere. Unfortunately, this ease of access has greatly increased mobile wireless bandwidth and have begun to stress carrier networks and spectra. Wireless interference cancellation will play a big role alongside the popularity of wire- less communication. In this thesis, we will investigate optical signal processing methods for wireless interference cancellation methods. Optics provide the perfect backdrop for interference cancellation. Mobile wireless data is already aggregated and transported through fiber backhaul networks in practice. By sandwiching the signal processing stage between the receiver and the fiber backhaul, processing can easily be done locally in one location. Further, optics offers the advantages of being instantaneously broadband and size, weight, and power (SWAP). We are primarily concerned with two methods for interference cancellation, based on microwave photonic filters, in this thesis. The first application is for a co-channel situation, in which a transmitter and receiver are co-located and transmitting at the same frequency. A novel analog optical technique extended for multipath interference cancellation of broadband signals is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in this thesis. The proposed architecture was able to achieve a maximum of 40 dB of cancellation over 200 MHz and 50 dB of cancellation over 10 MHz. The broadband nature of the cancellation, along with its depth, demonstrates both the precision of the optical components and the validity of the architecture. Next, we are interested in a scenario with dynamically changing interference, which requires an adaptive photonic

  4. Coherent integrated receiver for highly linear microwave photonic links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klamkin, Jonathan

    Phase modulation can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and spurfree dynamic range (SFDR) of microwave photonic links because phase modulation is not limited in input modulation swing and is inherently linear using certain electro-optic devices. Traditional interferometer-based phase demodulators have a sinusoidal response therefore a novel approach is required for achieving linear coherent detection at the receive end of a photonic link employing phase modulation. In this work, a balanced receiver with feedback to a reference tracking phase modulator was developed. With sufficient feedback loop gain, the received signal phase is closely tracked and the phase detection falls within the linear regime of the interferometer response. For stable operation at high frequency the delay of the feedback loop must be kept short, therefore a monolithic approach is required to realize a compact receiver architecture. The monolithic photonic integrated circuit (PIC) developed here consists of a high power balanced uni-traveling-carrier photodiode (UTC-PD), a compact 2x2 multimode interference (MMI) coupler, and multi-quantum well reference phase modulators. This PIC is hybrid integrated with an electronic IC that provides transconductance amplification of the feedback signal for increased loop gain. Novel concepts such as charge compensation, partially depleted absorption, and absorption profile modification were incorporated into the design of the waveguide UTCPDs resulting in record output saturation current and linearity. Both general interference surface ridge (SR) MMI couplers and restricted interference deep ridge (DR) MMI couplers were explored, the latter for reducing the loop delay. Current injection tuning was incorporated into the MMI couplers for fine tuning the output power splitting ratio. The quantum well design of the reference phase modulators was optimized for realizing low Vpi, low insertion loss, low absorption modulation, and improved linearity

  5. Engineering entangled microwave photon states through multiphoton interactions between two cavity fields and a superconducting qubit

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan-Jun; Wang, Changqing; Zhu, Xiaobo; Liu, Yu-xi

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that there are not only transverse but also longitudinal couplings between microwave fields and a superconducting qubit with broken inversion symmetry of the potential energy. Using multiphoton processes induced by longitudinal coupling fields and frequency matching conditions, we design a universal algorithm to produce arbitrary superpositions of two-mode photon states of microwave fields in two separated transmission line resonators, which are coupled to a superconducting qubit. Based on our algorithm, we analyze the generation of evenly-populated states and NOON states. Compared to other proposals with only single-photon process, we provide an efficient way to produce entangled microwave photon states when the interactions between superconducting qubits and microwave fields are in the strong and ultrastrong regime. PMID:27033558

  6. Generation of phase-coded microwave signals using a polarization-modulator-based photonic microwave phase shifter.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yamei; Pan, Shilong

    2013-03-01

    A scheme for the generation of phase-coded microwave signals using an electrically tunable photonic microwave phase shifter is proposed and demonstrated. The photonic phase shifter is based on a single-sideband polarization modulator (PolM), and the tuning of the phase shifter is implemented by a second PolM. By introducing an RF signal to the first PolM and an electrical coding signal to the second PolM, a phase-coded microwave signal with binary phase codes or polyphase codes is achieved. An experiment is performed. The simple and flexible operation, high coding rate, large frequency range, excellent transmission performance, and high stability of the system is confirmed.

  7. A microwave beam waveguide undulator for a brilliant above 100 keV photon source.

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y. W.

    1999-04-19

    For generation of photons above 100-keV with a magnetic field strength in the range 0.2-0.5 Tesla, an undulator wavelength {lambda}{sub u} shorter than 5 mm may be needed with beam in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. A microwave beam waveguide undulator system has been investigated for generation of such light. The waveguide structure consists of two parallel reflector surfaces that can be derived from an elliptically cylindrical waveguide. The structure can support deflecting TE{sub m0} modes with very low microwave loss. A microwave ring resonator circuit employing the beam waveguide is considered to construct an undulator with the above requirement. Microwave properties of the beam waveguide structure have been investigated, and the design criteria for a microwave undulator are discussed.

  8. Microwave frequency measurement based on photonic sampling analog-to-digital conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yangxue; Zhang, Zhiyao; Peng, Di; Zou, Jinfang; Liu, Yong

    2016-11-01

    A new microwave photonic approach to microwave frequency measurement with a high resolution and a large bandwidth is proposed. In this method, three photonic sampling analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) with co-prime sampling rates are employed. Three Fourier frequencies acquiring through down-converted analog-to-digital conversion of the unknown microwave signal are utilized to recovery the frequency of the unknown signal. The simulation results show that a microwave frequency measurement system which is feasible for multi-frequency microwave signal achieves a large measurement range of 0-50GHz and an accuracy of+/-1MHz. In addition, the spur-free dynamic range of 101.1dB-Hz2/3@50GHz is also numerically demonstrated.

  9. Influence of an externally modulated photonic link on a microwave communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, X. S.; Maleki, L.

    1994-01-01

    We analyze the influence of an externally modulated photonic link on the performance of a microwave communications system. From the analysis, we deduce limitations on the photocurrent, magnitude of the relaxation oscillation noise of the laser, third-order intercept point of the preamplifier, and other parameters in order for the photonic link to function according to the system specifications. Based on this, we outline a procedure for designing a photonic link that can be integrated in a system with minimal performance degradation.

  10. Using microwave and macroscopic samples of dielectric solids to study the photonic properties of disordered photonic bandgap materials.

    PubMed

    Hashemizad, Seyed Reza; Tsitrin, Sam; Yadak, Polin; He, Yingquan; Cuneo, Daniel; Williamson, Eric Paul; Liner, Devin; Man, Weining

    2014-09-26

    Recently, disordered photonic materials have been suggested as an alternative to periodic crystals for the formation of a complete photonic bandgap (PBG). In this article we will describe the methods for constructing and characterizing macroscopic disordered photonic structures using microwaves. The microwave regime offers the most convenient experimental sample size to build and test PBG media. Easily manipulated dielectric lattice components extend flexibility in building various 2D structures on top of pre-printed plastic templates. Once built, the structures could be quickly modified with point and line defects to make freeform waveguides and filters. Testing is done using a widely available Vector Network Analyzer and pairs of microwave horn antennas. Due to the scale invariance property of electromagnetic fields, the results we obtained in the microwave region can be directly applied to infrared and optical regions. Our approach is simple but delivers exciting new insight into the nature of light and disordered matter interaction. Our representative results include the first experimental demonstration of the existence of a complete and isotropic PBG in a two-dimensional (2D) hyperuniform disordered dielectric structure. Additionally we demonstrate experimentally the ability of this novel photonic structure to guide electromagnetic waves (EM) through freeform waveguides of arbitrary shape.

  11. Using Microwave and Macroscopic Samples of Dielectric Solids to Study the Photonic Properties of Disordered Photonic Bandgap Materials

    PubMed Central

    Hashemizad, Seyed Reza; Tsitrin, Sam; Yadak, Polin; He, Yingquan; Cuneo, Daniel; Williamson, Eric Paul; Liner, Devin; Man, Weining

    2014-01-01

    Recently, disordered photonic materials have been suggested as an alternative to periodic crystals for the formation of a complete photonic bandgap (PBG). In this article we will describe the methods for constructing and characterizing macroscopic disordered photonic structures using microwaves. The microwave regime offers the most convenient experimental sample size to build and test PBG media. Easily manipulated dielectric lattice components extend flexibility in building various 2D structures on top of pre-printed plastic templates. Once built, the structures could be quickly modified with point and line defects to make freeform waveguides and filters. Testing is done using a widely available Vector Network Analyzer and pairs of microwave horn antennas. Due to the scale invariance property of electromagnetic fields, the results we obtained in the microwave region can be directly applied to infrared and optical regions. Our approach is simple but delivers exciting new insight into the nature of light and disordered matter interaction. Our representative results include the first experimental demonstration of the existence of a complete and isotropic PBG in a two-dimensional (2D) hyperuniform disordered dielectric structure. Additionally we demonstrate experimentally the ability of this novel photonic structure to guide electromagnetic waves (EM) through freeform waveguides of arbitrary shape. PMID:25285416

  12. Single microwave-photon detector using an artificial Λ-type three-level system

    PubMed Central

    Inomata, Kunihiro; Lin, Zhirong; Koshino, Kazuki; Oliver, William D.; Tsai, Jaw-Shen; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Yasunobu

    2016-01-01

    Single-photon detection is a requisite technique in quantum-optics experiments in both the optical and the microwave domains. However, the energy of microwave quanta are four to five orders of magnitude less than their optical counterpart, making the efficient detection of single microwave photons extremely challenging. Here we demonstrate the detection of a single microwave photon propagating through a waveguide. The detector is implemented with an impedance-matched artificial Λ system comprising the dressed states of a driven superconducting qubit coupled to a microwave resonator. Each signal photon deterministically induces a Raman transition in the Λ system and excites the qubit. The subsequent dispersive readout of the qubit produces a discrete ‘click'. We attain a high single-photon-detection efficiency of 0.66±0.06 with a low dark-count probability of 0.014±0.001 and a reset time of ∼400 ns. This detector can be exploited for various applications in quantum sensing, quantum communication and quantum information processing. PMID:27453153

  13. Photonic compressive sensing for analog-to-information conversion with a delay-line based microwave photonic filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhijing; Chi, Hao; Jin, Tao; Zheng, Shilie; Jin, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Xianmin

    2016-07-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) in the photonic domain is highly promising for analog-to-information conversion of sparse signals due to its potential capability of high input bandwidth and digitization with sub-Nyquist sampling. In this paper, we suggest that the concept of delay-line based microwave photonic filter be used in photonic CS to realize the low-pass filtering (LPF) function which is required in CS. A microwave photonic filter (MPF) with a dispersive element and fiber delay lines is applied in photonic CS to achieve better performance and flexibility. In the approach, the input radio-frequency signal and the pseudorandom bit sequence (PRBS) are modulated on a multi-wavelength optical carrier and propagate through a dispersive element. The modulated optical signal is split into multiple channels with tunable delay lines. The multiple wavelengths, dispersive element and multiple channels constitute a reconfigurable low-pass microwave filter. Experiment and simulations are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and potentials of this approach.

  14. Investigation of a metallic photonic crystal high power microwave mode converter

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dong Qin, Fen; Xu, Sha; Yu, Aimin; Wu, Yong

    2015-02-15

    It is demonstrated that an L band metallic photonic crystal TEM-TE{sub 11} mode converter is suitable for narrow band high power microwave application. The proposed mode converter is realized by partially filling metallic photonic crystals along azimuthal direction in a coaxial transmission line for phase-shifting. A three rows structure is designed and simulated by commercial software CST Microwave Studio. Simulation results show that its conversion efficiency is 99% at the center frequency 1.58 GHz. Over the frequency range of 1.56-1.625 GHz, the conversion efficiency exceeds 90 %, with a corresponding bandwidth of 4.1 %. This mode converter has a gigawatt level power handling capability which is suitable for narrow band high power microwave application. Using magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator(MILO) as a high power microwave source, particle-in-cell simulation is carried out to test the performance of the mode converter. The expected TE{sub 11} mode microwave output is obtained and the MILO works well. Mode conversion performance of the converter is tested by far-field measurement method. And the experimental result confirms the validity of our design. Then, high power microwave experiment is carried out on a Marx-driven Blumlein water line pulsed power accelerator. Microwave frequency, radiated pattern and power are measured in the far-field region and the results agree well with simulation results. The experiment also reveals that no microwave breakdown or pulse shortening took place in the experimental setup.

  15. Investigation of a metallic photonic crystal high power microwave mode converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Qin, Fen; Xu, Sha; Yu, Aimin; Wu, Yong

    2015-02-01

    It is demonstrated that an L band metallic photonic crystal TEM-TE11 mode converter is suitable for narrow band high power microwave application. The proposed mode converter is realized by partially filling metallic photonic crystals along azimuthal direction in a coaxial transmission line for phase-shifting. A three rows structure is designed and simulated by commercial software CST Microwave Studio. Simulation results show that its conversion efficiency is 99% at the center frequency 1.58 GHz. Over the frequency range of 1.56-1.625 GHz, the conversion efficiency exceeds 90 %, with a corresponding bandwidth of 4.1 %. This mode converter has a gigawatt level power handling capability which is suitable for narrow band high power microwave application. Using magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator(MILO) as a high power microwave source, particle-in-cell simulation is carried out to test the performance of the mode converter. The expected TE11 mode microwave output is obtained and the MILO works well. Mode conversion performance of the converter is tested by far-field measurement method. And the experimental result confirms the validity of our design. Then, high power microwave experiment is carried out on a Marx-driven Blumlein water line pulsed power accelerator. Microwave frequency, radiated pattern and power are measured in the far-field region and the results agree well with simulation results. The experiment also reveals that no microwave breakdown or pulse shortening took place in the experimental setup.

  16. Stabilizing an optoelectronic microwave oscillator with photonic filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, D.; Aveline, D.; Yu, N.; Thompson, R.; Matsko, A. B.; Maleki, L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper compares methods of active stabilization of an optoelectronic microwave oscillator (OEO) based on insertion of a source of optical group delay into an OEO loop. The performance of an OEO stabilized with either a high- optical cavity or an atomic cell is analyzed. We show that the elements play a role of narrow-band microwave filters improving an OEO stability.

  17. Photonic approach to microwave frequency measurement with digital circular-code results.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xihua; Pan, Wei; Luo, Bin; Yan, Lianshan; Jiang, Yushi

    2011-10-10

    A photonic approach to measuring microwave frequency with digital results is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed approach, N photonic phase-shifted filters with a phase shift increment of π/N in the transmission responses are designed. The filters are then employed to process the single optical sideband generated by applying a microwave signal to a single sideband suppressed-carrier (SSB-SC) modulation module, to perform frequency-to-amplitude conversion and analog-to-digital conversion simultaneously. After the implementation of power detection and decision operation to the filtered optical sideband, an N-bit result in the form of the circular code is obtained, which indicates the frequency of the microwave signal. A proof-of-concept experiment is performed to verify the proposed approach and a 5-bit circular code is generated to indicate microwave frequency up to 40 GHz.

  18. Ultrahigh energy photons, electrons, and neutrinos, the microwave background, and the universal cosmic-ray hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1972-01-01

    The production of ultrahigh energy photons, electrons and neutrinos as the decay products of pions produced in photomeson interactions between cosmic ray nucleons and the blackbody microwave background is discussed in terms of the resultant energy spectra of these particles. Simple asymptotic formulas are given for calculating the ultrahigh energy photon spectrum predicted for the universal cosmic ray hypothesis and the resulting spectra are compared with those obtained previously by numerical means using a different propagation equation for the photons. Approximate analytic solutions for the photon spectra are given in terms of simple power-law energy functions and slowly varying logarithmic functions.

  19. Design and Validation of Rugged Microwave Photonic Network for Phased-Array Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, Manisha; Rai, J. K.; Sridhar, N.

    2015-11-01

    Military radar has the requirement of 24 × 7 operation in harsh environments with a high level of safety and integrity built in for equipment and personnel working with it. This article presents an application of a microwave photonic network for phased-array military radar. The design challenge is to realize faithful reproduction of the input microwave signals over extreme temperature and frequency ranges. Environmental testing has been carried out to validate the performance of the proposed microwave photonic network over 2-4 GHz and a temperature range of -20°C to +55°C. The result shows that the photonic network can be successfully utilized for phased-array radar.

  20. Creating photon-number squeezed strong microwave fields by a Cooper-pair injection laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppenhöfer, Martin; Leppäkangas, Juha; Marthaler, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The use of artificial atoms as an active lasing medium opens a way to construct novel sources of nonclassical radiation. An example is the creation of photon-number squeezed light. Here, we present a design of a laser consisting of multiple Cooper-pair transistors coupled to a microwave resonator. Over a broad range of experimentally realizable parameters, this laser creates photon-number squeezed microwave radiation, characterized by a Fano factor F ≪1 , at a very high resonator photon number. We investigate the impact of gate-charge disorder in a Cooper-pair transistor and show that the system can create squeezed strong microwave fields even in the presence of maximum disorder.

  1. Optical single photons on-demand teleported from microwave cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzanjeh, Sh; Vitali, D.; Tombesi, P.

    2013-03-01

    We propose a scheme for entangling the optical and microwave output modes of the respective cavities by using a micro mechanical resonator. The micro mechanical resonator, on one side, is capacitively coupled to the microwave cavity and, on the other side, it is coupled to a high-finesses optical cavity. We then show how this continuous variable entanglement can be profitably used to teleport the non-Gaussian number state |1> and the superposition (|0\\rangle +|1\\rangle )/\\sqrt 2 from the microwave cavity output mode onto an output of the optical cavity mode with fidelity much larger than the no-cloning limit.

  2. A 3 to 6 GHz microwave/photonic transceiver for phased-array interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, Edward; Wanuga, Stephen; Candela, Karen; Scotti, Ronald E.; MacDonald, V. W.; Gates, John V.

    1992-04-01

    The general design and operation of a microwave/photonic transceiver operating in the range 3-6 GHz are presented. The transceiver consists of drop-in submodules with optical fiber pigtails mounted on a brass carrier measuring less than 1 x 1 x 0.1 inch along with MMIC amplifiers and an alumina motherboard. Minimum 3 to 6 GHz return losses of 6 dB have been measured for both the microwave input and the microwave output of the module; the insertion loss is between 19 and 20 dB at most frequencies in the 3-6 GHz band.

  3. Dynamic modes of microwave signal autogeneration in a radio photonic ring generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrashov, A. V.; Ustinov, A. B.; Kalinikos, B. A.

    2017-02-01

    Dynamic modes of microwave signal autogeneration in a radio photonic generator have been investigated. The generator is a ring circuit with a low-pass filter and microwave amplifier in its microwave path. The optical path contains an optical fiber delay line. The generator demonstrates the periodical, chaotic, and noise dynamics. It has been shown that the correlation dimensionality of the random signal attractor in the chaotic generation mode saturates with increasing phase space dimensionality. Saturation is not observed in the noise-generation mode.

  4. Fiber Sensor Systems Based on Fiber Laser and Microwave Photonic Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Hongyan; Chen, Daru; Cai, Zhiping

    2012-01-01

    Fiber-optic sensors, especially fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are very attractive due to their numerous advantages over traditional sensors, such as light weight, high sensitivity, cost-effectiveness, immunity to electromagnetic interference, ease of multiplexing and so on. Therefore, fiber-optic sensors have been intensively studied during the last several decades. Nowadays, with the development of novel fiber technology, more and more newly invented fiber technologies bring better and superior performance to fiber-optic sensing networks. In this paper, the applications of some advanced photonic technologies including fiber lasers and microwave photonic technologies for fiber sensing applications are reviewed. FBG interrogations based on several kinds of fiber lasers, especially the novel Fourier domain mode locking fiber laser, have been introduced; for the application of microwave photonic technology, examples of microwave photonic filtering utilized as a FBG sensing interrogator and microwave signal generation acting as a transversal loading sensor have been given. Both theoretical analysis and experimental demonstrations have been carried out. The comparison of these advanced photonic technologies for the applications of fiber sensing is carried out and important issues related to the applications have been addressed and the suitable and potential application examples have also been discussed in this paper. PMID:22778591

  5. Fiber sensor systems based on fiber laser and microwave photonic technologies.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hongyan; Chen, Daru; Cai, Zhiping

    2012-01-01

    Fiber-optic sensors, especially fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are very attractive due to their numerous advantages over traditional sensors, such as light weight, high sensitivity, cost-effectiveness, immunity to electromagnetic interference, ease of multiplexing and so on. Therefore, fiber-optic sensors have been intensively studied during the last several decades. Nowadays, with the development of novel fiber technology, more and more newly invented fiber technologies bring better and superior performance to fiber-optic sensing networks. In this paper, the applications of some advanced photonic technologies including fiber lasers and microwave photonic technologies for fiber sensing applications are reviewed. FBG interrogations based on several kinds of fiber lasers, especially the novel Fourier domain mode locking fiber laser, have been introduced; for the application of microwave photonic technology, examples of microwave photonic filtering utilized as a FBG sensing interrogator and microwave signal generation acting as a transversal loading sensor have been given. Both theoretical analysis and experimental demonstrations have been carried out. The comparison of these advanced photonic technologies for the applications of fiber sensing is carried out and important issues related to the applications have been addressed and the suitable and potential application examples have also been discussed in this paper.

  6. A bifunctional curcumin analogue for two-photon imaging and inhibiting crosslinking of amyloid beta in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueli; Tian, Yanli; Yuan, Peng; Li, Yuyan; Yaseen, Mohammad A; Grutzendler, Jaime; Moore, Anna; Ran, Chongzhao

    2014-10-09

    In this report, we designed a highly bright bifunctional curcumin analogue CRANAD-28. In vivo two-photon imaging suggested that CRANAD-28 could penetrate the blood brain barrier (BBB) and label plaques and cerebral amyloid angiopathies (CAAs). We also demonstrated that this imaging probe could inhibit the crosslinking of amyloid beta induced either by copper or by natural conditions.

  7. Multiple-output microwave single-photon source using superconducting circuits with longitudinal and transverse couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Miranowicz, Adam; Li, Hong-Rong; Nori, Franco

    2016-11-01

    Single-photon devices at microwave frequencies are important for applications in quantum information processing and communication in the microwave regime. In this work we describe a proposal of a multioutput single-photon device. We consider two superconducting resonators coupled to a gap-tunable qubit via both its longitudinal and transverse degrees of freedom. Thus, this qubit-resonator coupling differs from the coupling in standard circuit quantum-electrodynamic systems described by the Jaynes-Cummings model. We demonstrate that an effective quadratic coupling between one of the normal modes and the qubit can be induced and this induced second-order nonlinearity is much larger than that for conventional Kerr-type systems exhibiting photon blockade. Assuming that a coupled normal mode is resonantly driven, we observe that the output fields from the resonators exhibit strong sub-Poissonian photon-number statistics and photon antibunching. Contrary to previous studies on resonant photon blockade, the first-excited state of our device is a pure single-photon Fock state rather than a polariton state, i.e., a highly hybridized qubit-photon state. In addition, it is found that the optical state truncation caused by the strong qubit-induced nonlinearity can lead to an entanglement between the two resonators, even in their steady state under the Markov approximation.

  8. Honeycomb lattice meshes for reconfigurable universal microwave photonics processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, D.; Gasulla, I.; Capmany, J.; Soref, Richard A.

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the use of honeycomb lattice waveguide meshes for universal linear operations and photonic integrated circuit synthesis by programming a common hardware. We discuss the main photonic processor architecture, the non-ideal effects to be considered and its application to different signal processing functionalities.

  9. Microwave photonic filter using multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with double-Brillouin-frequency shift

    SciTech Connect

    Loh, K. K.; Yeo, K. S.; Shee, Y. G.

    2015-04-24

    A microwave photonic filter based on double-Brillouin-frequency spaced multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser (BEFL) is experimentally demonstrated. The filter selectivity can be easily adjusted by tuning and apodizing the optical taps generated from the multiwavelength BEFL. Reconfiguration of different frequency responses are demonstrated.

  10. Photon noise limited radiation detection with lens-antenna coupled microwave kinetic inductance detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, S. J. C.; Baselmans, J. J. A.; Endo, A.; Janssen, R. M. J.; Ferrari, L.; Diener, P.; Baryshev, A. M.

    2011-08-01

    Microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) have shown great potential for sub-mm instrumentation because of the high scalability of the technology. Here, we demonstrate for the first time in the sub-mm band (0.1-2 mm) a photon noise limited performance of a small antenna coupled MKID detector array and we describe the relation between photon noise and MKID intrinsic generation-recombination noise. Additionally, we use the observed photon noise to measure the optical efficiency of detectors to be 0.8 ± 0.2.

  11. Photon noise limited radiation detection with lens-antenna coupled microwave kinetic inductance detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, S. J. C.; Baselmans, J. J. A.; Diener, P.; Endo, A.; Janssen, R. M. J.; Ferrari, L.; Baryshev, A. M.

    2011-08-15

    Microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) have shown great potential for sub-mm instrumentation because of the high scalability of the technology. Here, we demonstrate for the first time in the sub-mm band (0.1-2 mm) a photon noise limited performance of a small antenna coupled MKID detector array and we describe the relation between photon noise and MKID intrinsic generation-recombination noise. Additionally, we use the observed photon noise to measure the optical efficiency of detectors to be 0.8 {+-} 0.2.

  12. Theory of microwave single-photon detection using an impedance-matched Λ system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshino, Kazuki; Inomata, Kunihiro; Lin, Zhirong; Nakamura, Yasunobu; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi

    2015-04-01

    By properly driving a qubit-resonator system in the strong dispersive regime, we implement an "impedance-matched" Λ system in the dressed states, where a resonant single photon deterministically induces a Raman transition and excites the qubit. Combining this effect and a fast dispersive readout of the qubit, we realize a detector of itinerant microwave photons. We theoretically analyze the single-photon response of the Λ system and evaluate its performance as a detector. We achieve a high detection efficiency without relying on precise temporal control of the input pulse shape and under a conservative estimate of the system parameters. The detector can also be reset quickly by applying microwave pulses, which allows a short dead time and a high repetition rate.

  13. Demonstration and experimental evaluation of a bi-directional 10-GHz microwave photonic filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaldívar-Huerta, I. E.; Correa-Mena, A. G.; Hernández-Nava, P.; García-Juárez, A.; Rodríguez-Asomoza, J.; Lee, Min Won

    2016-09-01

    A bi-directional 10-GHz microwave photonic filter is proposed and experimentally evaluated. Its frequency response consists of a series of microwave band-pass windows obtained by the interaction of externally modulated multimode laser diodes emitting around of 1550 nm associated to the chromatic dispersion parameter of an optical fiber, as well as the length of the optical link. Microwave band-pass windows exhibit on average a-3 dB bandwidth of 378 MHz. This electro-optical system shows an efficient configuration and good performance. Potentially, filtered microwave signals can be used as electrical carriers in optical communication systems to transmit and distribute services such as video, voice and data.

  14. Rigorous numerical study of strong microwave photon-magnon coupling in all-dielectric magnetic multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Maksymov, Ivan S.; Hutomo, Jessica; Nam, Donghee; Kostylev, Mikhail

    2015-05-21

    We demonstrate theoretically a ∼350-fold local enhancement of the intensity of the in-plane microwave magnetic field in multilayered structures made from a magneto-insulating yttrium iron garnet (YIG) layer sandwiched between two non-magnetic layers with a high dielectric constant matching that of YIG. The enhancement is predicted for the excitation regime when the microwave magnetic field is induced inside the multilayer by the transducer of a stripline Broadband Ferromagnetic Resonance (BFMR) setup. By means of a rigorous numerical solution of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation consistently with the Maxwell's equations, we investigate the magnetisation dynamics in the multilayer. We reveal a strong photon-magnon coupling, which manifests itself as anti-crossing of the ferromagnetic resonance magnon mode supported by the YIG layer and the electromagnetic resonance mode supported by the whole multilayered structure. The frequency of the magnon mode depends on the external static magnetic field, which in our case is applied tangentially to the multilayer in the direction perpendicular to the microwave magnetic field induced by the stripline of the BFMR setup. The frequency of the electromagnetic mode is independent of the static magnetic field. Consequently, the predicted photon-magnon coupling is sensitive to the applied magnetic field and thus can be used in magnetically tuneable metamaterials based on simultaneously negative permittivity and permeability achievable thanks to the YIG layer. We also suggest that the predicted photon-magnon coupling may find applications in microwave quantum information systems.

  15. Detecting topological phases of microwave photons in a circuit quantum electrodynamics lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Pu; Yang, Wan-Li; Hu, Yong; Xue, Zheng-Yuan; Wu, Ying

    2016-06-01

    Topology is an important degree of freedom in characterising electronic systems. Recently, it also brings new theoretical frontiers and many potential applications in photonics. However, the verification of the topological nature is highly nontrivial in photonic systems, as there is no direct analogue of quantised Hall conductance for bosonic photons. Here we propose a scheme of investigating topological photonics in superconducting quantum circuits by a simple parametric coupling method, the flexibility of which can lead to the effective in situ tunable artificial gauge field for photons on a square lattice. We further study the detection of the topological phases of the photons. Our idea uses the exotic properties of the edge state modes, which result in novel steady states of the lattice under the driving-dissipation competition. Through the pumping and the photon-number measurements of merely few sites, not only the spatial and the spectral characters but also the momentums and even the integer topological quantum numbers with arbitrary values of the edge state modes can be directly probed, which reveal unambiguously the topological nature of photons on the lattice.

  16. SNR approach for performance evaluation of time-stretching photonic analogue to digital converter system.

    PubMed

    Alves, Tiago M F; Cartaxo, Adolfo V T

    2011-01-17

    A semi-analytical simulation method (SASM) is proposed to evaluate the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of time stretched signals at the output of photonic analogue-to-digital converter (Ph-ADC) system. Analytical expressions of the signal at Ph-ADC output considering generic electrical signals applied to the electro-optic modulators of the Ph-ADC are derived. The contribution to the total variance of the received signal from the noise introduced by the electrical transmitter and receiver, and by the optical amplifier are derived analytically taking into account the pulsed nature of the optical signal. The proposed SASM shows excellent agreement of SNR estimates with the estimates provided by Monte Carlo simulation. This result is confirmed for variance dominantly imposed by the noise introduced by the electrical transmitter, by the optical amplifier and by the electrical receiver. A simplified approach is also proposed and compared with previous work. It is shown that mean power estimates obtained from this simplified approach are valid while the modulator is operating in the linear region and the signal is not affected by the frequency response of the electrical receiver filter. Additionally, it is concluded that the estimates of the noise variance due to the electrical transmitter are acceptable when a small signal analysis of noise along the Ph-ADC is valid.

  17. Some observations on hyperuniform disordered photonic bandgap materials, from microwave scale study to infrared scale study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsitrin, Sam; Nahal, Geev; Florescu, Marian; Man, Weining; San Francisco State University Team; University of Surrey Team

    2015-03-01

    A novel class of disordered photonic materials, hyperuniform disordered solids (HUDS), attracted more attention. Recently they have been experimentally proven to provide complete photonic band gap (PBG) when made with Alumina or Si; as well as single-polarization PBG when made with plastic with refract index of 1.6. These PBGs were shown to be real energy gaps with zero density of photonic states, instead of mobility gaps of low transmission due to scattering, etc. Using cm-scale samples and microwave experiments, we reveal the nature of photonic modes existing in these disordered materials by analyzing phase delay and mapping field distribution profile inside them. We also show how to extend the proof-of-concept microwave studies of these materials to proof-of-scale studies for real applications, by designing and fabricating these disordered photonic materials at submicron-scale with functional devices for 1.55 micron wavelength. The intrinsic isotropy of the disordered structure is an inherent advantage associated with the absence of limitations of orientational order, which is shown to provide valuable freedom in defect architecture design impossible in periodical structures. NSF Award DMR-1308084, the University of Surrey's FRSF and Santander awards.

  18. Tuneable on-demand single-photon source in the microwave range

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Z. H.; de Graaf, S. E.; Tsai, J. S.; Astafiev, O. V.

    2016-01-01

    An on-demand single-photon source is a key element in a series of prospective quantum technologies and applications. Here we demonstrate the operation of a tuneable on-demand microwave photon source based on a fully controllable superconducting artificial atom strongly coupled to an open-ended transmission line. The atom emits a photon upon excitation by a short microwave π-pulse applied through a control line. The intrinsically limited device efficiency is estimated to be in the range 65–80% in a wide frequency range from 7.75 to 10.5 GHz continuously tuned by an external magnetic field. The actual demonstrated efficiency is also affected by the excited state preparation, which is about 90% in our experiments. The single-photon generation from the single-photon source is additionally confirmed by anti-bunching in the second-order correlation function. The source may have important applications in quantum communication, quantum information processing and sensing. PMID:27545689

  19. Nonlinear microwave photon occupancy of a driven resonator strongly coupled to a transmon qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suri, B.; Keane, Z. K.; Bishop, Lev S.; Novikov, S.; Wellstood, F. C.; Palmer, B. S.

    2015-12-01

    We measure photon occupancy in a thin-film superconducting lumped element resonator coupled to a transmon qubit at 20 mK and find a nonlinear dependence on the applied microwave power. The transmon-resonator system was operated in the strong dispersive regime, where the ac Stark shift (2 χ ) due to a single microwave photon present in the resonator was larger than the linewidth (Γ ) of the qubit transition. When the resonator was coherently driven at 5.474 325 GHz, the transition spectrum of the transmon at 4.982 GHz revealed well-resolved peaks, each corresponding to an individual photon number-state of the resonator. From the relative peak heights we obtain the occupancy of the photon states and the average photon occupancy n ¯ of the resonator. We observe a nonlinear variation of n ¯ with the applied drive power Prf for n ¯<5 and compare our results to numerical simulations of the system-bath master equation in the steady state, as well as to a semiclassical model for the resonator that includes the Jaynes-Cummings interaction between the transmon and the resonator. We find good quantitative agreement using both models and analysis reveals that the nonlinear behavior is principally due to shifts in the resonant frequency caused by a qubit-induced Jaynes-Cummings nonlinearity.

  20. Strong coupling of a single electron in silicon to a microwave photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, X.; Cady, J. V.; Zajac, D. M.; Deelman, P. W.; Petta, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    Silicon is vital to the computing industry because of the high quality of its native oxide and well-established doping technologies. Isotopic purification has enabled quantum coherence times on the order of seconds, thereby placing silicon at the forefront of efforts to create a solid-state quantum processor. We demonstrate strong coupling of a single electron in a silicon double quantum dot to the photonic field of a microwave cavity, as shown by the observation of vacuum Rabi splitting. Strong coupling of a quantum dot electron to a cavity photon would allow for long-range qubit coupling and the long-range entanglement of electrons in semiconductor quantum dots.

  1. Tunable narrowband microwave photonic filter created by stimulated Brillouin scattering from a silicon nanowire.

    PubMed

    Casas-Bedoya, Alvaro; Morrison, Blair; Pagani, Mattia; Marpaung, David; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate the first, to the best of our knowledge, functional signal processing device based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in a silicon nanowire. We use only 1 dB of on-chip stimulated Brillouin scattering gain to create an RF photonic notch filter with 48 dB of suppression, 98 MHz linewidth, and 6 GHz frequency tuning. This device has potential applications in on-chip microwave signal processing and establishes the foundation for the first CMOS-compatible high-performance RF photonic filter.

  2. Microwave photonic notch filter with complex coefficient based on four wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dong; Cao, Ye; Tong, Zheng-rong; Yang, Jing-peng

    2016-11-01

    A microwave photonic notch filter with a complex coefficient is proposed and demonstrated based on four wave mixing (FWM). FWM effect of two single-frequency laser beams occurs in a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF), and multi-wavelength optical signals are generated and used to generate the multi-tap of microwave photonic filter (MPF). The complex coefficient is generated by using a Fourier-domain optical processor (FD-OP) to control the amplitude and phase of the optical carrier and phase modulation sidebands. The results show that this filter can be changed from bandpass filter to notch filter by controlling the FD-OP. The center frequency of the notch filter can be continuously tuned from 5.853 GHz to 29.311 GHz with free spectral range ( FSR) of 11.729 GHz. The shape of the frequency response keeps unchanged when the phase is tuned.

  3. Single-sideband photonic microwave generation with an optically injected quantum-dot semiconductor laser.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ying; Cheng, Chih-Hao; Lin, Fan-Yi

    2016-12-26

    We studied single-sideband (SSB) photonic microwave generation with a high sideband rejection ratio (SRR) based on the period-one dynamical states of an optically injected quantum-dot (QD) semiconductor laser and demonstrated that the SSB signals have SRRs of approximately 15 dB higher than those generated with a conventional quantum-well semiconductor laser under conditions of optimal microwave power. The enhancement of SRR in the QD laser, which is important in mitigating the power penalty effect in applications such as radio-over-fiber optical communications, could be primarily attributed to a lower carrier decay rate in the dots, smaller linewidth enhancement factor, and reduced photon decay rate.

  4. Demodulation of an optical fiber MEMS pressure sensor based on single bandpass microwave photonic filter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiping; Ni, Xiaoqi; Wang, Ming; Cui, Yifeng; Shi, Qingyun

    2017-01-23

    In this paper, a demodulation method for optic fiber micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) pressure sensor exploiting microwave photonics filter technique is firstly proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A single bandpass microwave photonic filter (MPF) which mainly consists of a spectrum-sliced light source, a pressurized optical fiber MEMS EFPI, a phase modulator (PM) and a length of dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) is demonstrated. The frequency response of the filter with respect to the pressure is studied. By detecting the resonance frequency shifts of the MPF, the pressure can be determined. The theoretical and experimental results show that the proposed EFPI pressure demodulation method has a higher resolution and higher speed than traditional methods based on optical spectrum analysis. The sensitivity of the sensor is measured to be as high as 86 MHz/MPa in the range of 0-4Mpa. Moreover, the sensitivity can be easily adjusted.

  5. An optical fiber MEMS pressure sensor using microwave photonics filtering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiping; Wang, Ming; Ni, Xiaoqi; Xia, Wei; Guo, Dongmei; Hao, Hui; Ma, Qingyu; Zhuang, Wei

    2017-04-01

    A fiber-optic micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) pressure sensor exploiting microwave photonics filtering technique is firstly proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A single-bandpass microwave photonic filter (MPF) which mainly consists of a spectrum-sliced light source, a pressurized EFPI, a phase modulator (PM) and a length of dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) is demonstrated. The frequency response of the filter with respect to the pressure is studied. By detecting the resonance frequency shifts of the MPF, the pressure can be determined. The theoretical and experimental results show that the proposed EFPI pressure sensor has a higher resolution and higher speed than traditional methods based on optical spectrum analysis. The sensitivity of the sensor is measured to be as high as 86 MHz/MPa in the range of 0-4MPa.

  6. Quantum efficiency of a single microwave photon detector based on a semiconductor double quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Clement H.; Vavilov, Maxim G.

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by recent interest in implementing circuit quantum electrodynamics with semiconducting quantum dots, we consider a double quantum dot (DQD) capacitively coupled to a superconducting resonator that is driven by the microwave field of a superconducting transmission line. We analyze the DQD current response using input-output theory and show that the resonator-coupled DQD is a sensitive microwave single photon detector. Using currently available experimental parameters of DQD-resonator coupling and dissipation, including the effects of 1 /f charge noise and phonon noise, we determine the parameter regime for which incident photons are completely absorbed and near-unit ≳98 % efficiency can be achieved. We show that this regime can be reached by using very high quality resonators with quality factor Q ≃105 .

  7. Practical application of a bidirectional microwave photonic filter: simultaneous transmission of analog TV signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa-Mena, Ana Gabriela; Zaldívar-Huerta, Ignacio E.; Abril García, Jose Humberto; García-Juárez, Alejandro; Vera-Marquina, Alicia

    2016-10-01

    A practical application of a bidirectional microwave photonic filter (MPF) to transmit simultaneous analog TV signals coded on microwave carriers is experimentally demonstrated. The frequency response of the bidirectional MPF is obtained by the interaction of an externally modulated multimode laser diode emitting at 1.55 μm associated to the free-spectral range of the optical source, the chromatic dispersion parameter of the optical fiber, as well as the length of the optical link. The filtered microwave bandpass window generated around 2 GHz is used as electrical carrier in order to simultaneously transmit TV signals of 67.25 and 61.25 MHz in both directions. The obtained signal-to-noise ratios for the transmitted signals of 67.25 and 61.25 MHz are 37.62 and 44.77 dB, respectively.

  8. Optically injected InAs/GaAs quantum dot laser for tunable photonic microwave generation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Raghunathan, Ravi; Schires, Kevin; Chan, Sze-Chun; Lester, Luke F; Grillot, Frédéric

    2016-03-15

    We present an experimental investigation on the period-one dynamics of an optically injected InAs/GaAs quantum dot laser as a photonic microwave source. It is shown that the microwave frequency of the quantum dot laser's period-one oscillation is continuously tunable through the adjustment of the frequency detuning. The microwave power is enhanced by increasing the injection strength providing that the operation is away from the Hopf bifurcation, whereas the second-harmonic distortion of the electrical signal is well reduced by increasing the detuning frequency. Both strong optical injection and high detuning frequency are favorable for obtaining a single sideband optical signal. In addition, particular period-one oscillation points of low sensitivity to the frequency detuning are found close to the Hopf bifurcation line.

  9. Photonic generation of versatile frequency-doubled microwave waveforms via a dual-polarization modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zihang; Zhao, Shanghong; Li, Xuan; Qu, Kun; Lin, Tao

    2017-02-01

    We report a photonic approach to generate frequency-doubled microwave waveforms using an integrated electro-optic dual-polarization modulator driven by a sinusoidal radio frequency (RF) signal. With active bias control, two MZMs of the dual-polarization modulator operate at minimum transmission points, a triangular waveform can be generated by a parameter setting of modulation index. After introducing a broadband 90° microwave phase shifter, a square waveform can be obtained by readjusting the power relationship of harmonics. The proposal is first theoretically analyzed and then validated by simulation. Simulation results show that a 10 GHz triangular and square waveform sequences are successfully generated from a 5 GHz sinusoidal RF drive signal, and the performance of the microwave waveforms are not influenced by the finite extinction ratio of modulator.

  10. Integrated wideband optical frequency combs with high stability and their application in microwave photonic filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenhui; Wang, Sunlong; Zhong, Xin; Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Wenting; Tong, Youwan; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Haiqing; Yu, Lijuan; Zhu, Ninghua

    2016-08-01

    An integrated wideband optical frequency comb (OFC) based on a semiconductor quantum dot laser is realized with high stability. The OFC module is packaged in our lab. A circuit which is designed to provide a low-ripple current and control the temperature regards as a servo system to enhance the stability of the OFC. The frequency stability of the OFC is 2.7×10-9 (Allan Variance). The free spectral range (FSR) of the OFC is 40 GHz and the number of comb lines is up to 55. The flatness of the OFC over span of 4 nm can be limited to 0.5 dB. Negative coefficients microwave photonic filters with multiple taps are generated based on the proposed OFC. For the 10 taps microwave photonic filter, the pass-band at 8.74 GHz has a 3 dB bandwidth of 630 MHz with 16.58 dB side-lobe suppression. Compared with the published microwave photonic filters, the proposed system is more stable, of more compact structures, and of less power consumption.

  11. High-speed tunable microwave photonic notch filter based on phase modulator incorporated Lyot filter.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jia; Feng, Hanlin; Scott, Guy; Fok, Mable P

    2015-01-01

    A high-speed tunable microwave photonic notch filter with ultrahigh rejection ratio is presented, which is achieved by semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA)-based single-sideband modulation and optical spectral filtering with a phase modulator-incorporated Lyot (PM-Lyot) filter. By varying the birefringence of the phase modulator through electro-optic effect, electrically tuning of the microwave photonic notch filter is experimentally achieved at tens of gigahertz speed. The use of SOA-polarizer based single-sideband modulation scheme provides good sideband suppression over a wide frequency range, resulting in an ultrahigh rejection ratio of the microwave photonic notch filter. Stable filter spectrum with bandstop rejection ratio over 60 dB is observed over a frequency tuning range from 1.8 to 10 GHz. Compare with standard interferometric notch filter, narrower bandwidth and sharper notch profile are achieved with the unique PM-Lyot filter, resulting in better filter selectivity. Moreover, bandwidth tuning is also achieved through polarization adjustment inside the PM-Lyot filter, that the 10-dB filter bandwidth is tuned from 0.81 to 1.85 GHz.

  12. Photonic bandgap crystals on magnetic-dielectric for microwave frequency applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Manoj K.; Gupta, K. K.; Gupta, H. C.; Dube, D. C.

    2006-04-01

    The variation of magnetic permeability of substrate on Photonic Band Gap (PBG) has been studied for microstrip type periodic metallic structure and the experimental findings will be presented and discussed. Periodic structure was carved out in the metallic foil of 18 micron thickness and was put on the composite of magnetic and dielectric substrate. As the dielectric constant of the substrate affects the band gap for the photons in the microwave region, the combined effect of magneto-dielectric substrate have been studied here for different combination of ferrite materials with different composition and different sintering temperature. The substrate of Ni-Zn ferrite was prepared on the Perspex sheet of desired dimensions. The behavior of variation of band gap was also been studied for the air as dielectric material of the substrate. We found a well defined PBG and the band gap increases and transmission loss decreases in the microwave region with appropriate combination of magnetic and dielectric substrate. Thus it could be concluded that the dielectric constant viz. a viz. magnetic permeability plays an important role in the formation of broad band photonic materials for the microwave applications such as filters, antennas, frequency selective surfaces etc. Further work is going on to fabricate the patch antenna on the PBG embedded ground plane.

  13. Properties of microplasmas excited by microwaves for VUV photon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooley, James E.; Urdahl, Randall; Xue, Jun; Denning, Mark; Tian, Peng; Kushner, Mark J.

    2015-12-01

    Microplasma sources typically take advantage of pd (pressure  ×  size) scaling by increasing pressure to operate at dimensions as small as tens of microns. In many applications, low pressure operation is desirable, which makes miniaturization difficult. In this paper, the characteristics of low pressure microplasma sources excited by microwave power are discussed based on results from experimental and computational studies. The intended application is production of VUV radiation for chemical analysis, and so emphasis in this study is on the production of resonant excited states of rare gases and radiation transport. The systems of interest operate at a few to 10 Torr in Ar and He/Ar mixtures with cavity dimensions of hundreds of microns to 1 mm. Power deposition is a few watts which produces fractional ionization of about 0.1%. We found that production of VUV radiation from argon microplasmas at 104.8 nm and 106.7 nm saturates as a function of power deposition due to a quasi-equilibrium that is established between the electron temperature (that is not terribly sensitive to power deposition) and the population of the Ar(4s) manifold.

  14. Linear, Low Noise Microwave Photonic Systems using Phase and Frequency Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyrwas, John Michael

    Photonic systems that transmit and process microwave-frequency analog signals have traditionally been encumbered by relatively large signal distortion and noise. Optical phase modulation (PM) and frequency modulation (FM) are promising techniques that can improve system performance. In this dissertation, I discuss an optical filtering approach to demodulation of PM and FM signals, which does not rely on high frequency electronics, and which scales in linearity with increasing photonic integration. I present an analytical model, filter designs and simulations, and experimental results using planar lightwave circuit (PLC) filters and FM distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers. The linearity of the PM and FM photonic links exceed that of the current state-of-the-art.

  15. Demonstration of a single-photon router in the microwave regime.

    PubMed

    Hoi, Io-Chun; Wilson, C M; Johansson, Göran; Palomaki, Tauno; Peropadre, Borja; Delsing, Per

    2011-08-12

    We have embedded an artificial atom, a superconducting transmon qubit, in an open transmission line and investigated the strong scattering of incident microwave photons (∼6  GHz). When an input coherent state, with an average photon number N≪1 is on resonance with the artificial atom, we observe extinction of up to 99.6% in the forward propagating field. We use two-tone spectroscopy to study scattering from excited states and we observe electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We then use EIT to make a single-photon router, where we can control to what output port an incoming signal is delivered. The maximum on-off ratio is around 99% with a rise and fall time on the order of nanoseconds, consistent with theoretical expectations. The router can easily be extended to have multiple output ports and it can be viewed as a rudimentary quantum node, an important step towards building quantum information networks.

  16. Measured Phase Performance of the Photonics System for Microwave Power Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeper, Herbert R.; Arndt, Dickey G.

    2002-01-01

    A microwave wireless power transmission has a large phased array antenna which focuses its beam onto a ground rectenna. The microwave beam is steered using retrodirective phase control which has the necessary safety feature of always focusing the beam onto the rectenna. It is not possible for the beam to "wander" around the countryside. In order for the retrodirective phase control technique to work, it is necessary to distribute a very stable phase reference throughout the antenna to each subarray. A photonics system which modulates an RF signal onto a laser which is then transmitted via fiber optic cables over the 500 meter transmit antenna. Since there will be regions of various temperature ranges over the antenna due to the heat generated in the microwave tubes, the DC/DC converters at each subarray, and the DC power line I2R losses. The photonics system must be able to maintain a stable phase reference despite varying temperature increases in the fiber optic cables. In a study to determine the induced phase changes over various temperatures for a number of commercially available fiber optic cables, a test program has been initiated at the NASA Johnson Space Center. In addition to the regular fiber cables being tested, special cables with a low coefficient of thermal expansion have been investigated. In each test the phase of a microwave signal transmitted over the fiber cables is measured while the operating temperature is varied inside a thermal test chamber. This paper describes a possible configuration for the photonics system within the transmit array, the test system, and the test results. Recommendations for future studies are also included.

  17. Narrow-linewidth photonic microwave generation based on an optically injected 1550 nm VCSEL subject to optoelectronic feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qing; Fan, Li; Yang, Ji-Yun; Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Wu, Zheng-Mao; Xia, Guang-Qiong

    2016-11-01

    High-quality photonic microwave generation is experimentally demonstrated based on the period-one (P1) dynamical state output from an optically injected 1550 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (1550 nm-VCSEL) subject to optoelectronic negative feedback. The experimental results show that, under suitable injection condition, the 1550 nm-VCSEL can generate a photonic microwave signal with single sideband optical spectrum structure, but the linewidth of the microwave signal is relatively wide (on the order of MHz). After further introducing optoelectronic negative feedback, the linewidth of the microwave signal can be narrowed two orders of magnitude to 105.7 kHz. Furthermore, for the case that the feedback strength is set at an optimized value, the frequency of the microwave signal can be tuned continuously within a certain range through simply adjusting the injection strength.

  18. Microwave/millimeter wave arbitrary waveform generation via ultrafast photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, Andrew M.; McKinney, Jason D.; Lin, Ingrid S.

    2005-05-01

    Femtosecond pulse shaping for generating nearly arbitrarily shaped ultrafast optical pulses is now a well-established technology and has been widely adopted for applications ranging from high-speed communications to coherent laser control of chemical reactions. Arbitrary waveform generation (AWG) capabilities for millimeter-wave, microwave and THz electromagnetic signals, however, are quite limited. Commercial radio frequency AWG instrumentation is currently limited to ~2 GHz bandwidth. In this talk we review work at Purdue in which shaped optical pulses are used to drive an optical-to-electrical (O/E) converter. This leverages our femtosecond optical AWG technology to achieve cycle-by-cycle synthesis of arbitrary voltage waveforms in the range between a few GHz and ~1 THz. Such capabilities could open new possibilities for applications in areas such as wireless communications, electronic countermeasures, sensing, and pulsed radar. Recently our work has focused on the range from GHz to tens of GHz. A particular focus has been on the generation of signals appropriate for ultrawideband (UWB) wireless communications using "monocycle" pulses with very large fractional bandwidths. UWB technology provides high immunity to multipath interference, low probability of intercept, and high spatial resolution (for position location). Potential defense applications include tactical sensor networks and RFIF tags for inventory control. Our experiments demonstrate the ability to generate programmable monocycles with spectra that can be tailored to match emission limits and with durations and bandwidths that improve on the mainstream electronic technology. Additional potential applications include predistortion of transmit waveforms in order to precompensate distortions associated with broadband antennas and waveform optimization for enhanced target discrimination in pulsed radar.

  19. Tunable microwave signal generation based on an Opto-DMD processor and a photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Sang, Xin-Zhu; Yan, Bin-Bin; Ai, Qi; Li, Yan; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Gen-Xiang; Song, Fei-Jun; Zhang, Xia; Wang, Kui-Ru; Yuan, Jin-Hui; Yu, Chong-Xiu; Xiao, Feng; Alameh, Kamal

    2014-06-01

    Frequency-tunable microwave signal generation is proposed and experimentally demonstrated with a dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on a digital Opto-DMD processor and four-wave mixing (FWM) in a high-nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The high-nonlinear PCF is employed for the generation of the FWM to obtain stable and uniform dual-wavelength oscillation. Two different short passive sub-ring cavities in the main ring cavity serve as mode filters to make SLM lasing. The two lasing wavelengths are electronically selected by loading different gratings on the Opto-DMD processor controlled with a computer. The wavelength spacing can be smartly adjusted from 0.165 nm to 1.08 nm within a tuning accuracy of 0.055 nm. Two microwave signals at 17.23 GHz and 27.47 GHz are achieved. The stability of the microwave signal is discussed. The system has the ability to generate a 137.36-GHz photonic millimeter signal at room temperature.

  20. One pot synthesis, structural and spectral analysis of some symmetrical curcumin analogues catalyzed by calcium oxide under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Elavarasan, S; Bhakiaraj, D; Chellakili, B; Elavarasan, T; Gopalakrishnan, M

    2012-11-01

    A series of sixteen number of curcumin analogues have been synthesized under microwave irradiation using calcium oxide as a catalyst. The synthesized compounds have been characterized using FT-IR, MS, elemental analysis, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic techniques. The UV-Vis absorption studies for these compounds have been studied in order to provide the electronic transitions taking place in the molecule. When compared to the curcumin ((1E,4Z,6E)-5-hydroxy-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one), the absorption maxima, λ(max) for all the synthesized curcumin analogues with a variety of substituents gets blue shifted i.e., hypsochromic shift was observed. This shift may be assigned to the change of dipole moment within the solvated molecule. Theoretical calculations regarding the optimization of the synthesized molecules, electronic properties like highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and mapped electron density surface diagrams were done. The geometrical energy, dipole moments and heat of formation values have also been calculated using the ArgusLab package by AM1 semi-empirical method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Analytical model and figures of merit for filtered Microwave Photonic Links.

    PubMed

    Gasulla, Ivana; Capmany, José

    2011-09-26

    The concept of filtered Microwave Photonic Links is proposed in order to provide the most general and versatile description of complex analog photonic systems. We develop a field propagation model where a global optical filter, characterized by its optical transfer function, embraces all the intermediate optical components in a linear link. We assume a non-monochromatic light source characterized by an arbitrary spectral distribution which has a finite linewidth spectrum and consider both intensity modulation and phase modulation with balanced and single detection. Expressions leading to the computation of the main figures of merit concerning the link gain, noise and intermodulation distortion are provided which, to our knowledge, are not available in the literature. The usefulness of this derivation resides in the capability to directly provide performance criteria results for complex links just by substituting in the overall closed-form formulas the numerical or measured optical transfer function characterizing the link. This theory is presented thus as a potential tool for a wide range of relevant microwave photonic application cases which is extendable to multiport radio over fiber systems.

  2. A tunable and wideband microwave photonic phase shifter based on dual-polarization modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhengxue; Wen, Aijun; Gao, Yongsheng; Tu, Zhaoyang

    2017-01-01

    A microwave photonic phase shifter based on dual-polarization Mach-Zehnder modulator (DPol-MZM) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in this paper. A polarization multiplexed double sideband (DSB) signal is produced by a DPol-MZM. An optical bandpass filter (OBPF) follows after the DPol-MZM to filter out the optical carrier and one sideband. The polarization multiplexed signal is converted into a linear polarization light by a polarizer (Pol), and then beat at a photodiode (PD) to obtain the phase shifted signal. Experiments are carried out, and a continuous phase shift from -180° to 180° over a wide microwave frequency range of 10-33 GHz can be achieved by changing the polarization state using a polarization controller (PC). We also studied the spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) in the experiments. The features of this proposed phase shifter are large operation bandwidth, full-range 360° phase shift, and simple structure.

  3. Frequency agile microwave photonic notch filter with anomalously high stopband rejection.

    PubMed

    Marpaung, David; Morrison, Blair; Pant, Ravi; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2013-11-01

    We report a novel class microwave photonic (MWP) notch filter with a very narrow isolation bandwidth (10 MHz), an ultrahigh stopband rejection (>60 dB), a wide frequency tuning (1-30 GHz), and flexible bandwidth reconfigurability (10-65 MHz). This performance is enabled by a new concept of sideband amplitude and phase controls using an electro-optic modulator and an optical filter. This concept enables energy efficient operation in active MWP notch filters, and opens up a pathway toward enabling low-power nanophotonic devices as high-performance RF filters.

  4. Figures of merit for microwave photonic phase shifters based on semiconductor optical amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Sancho, Juan; Lloret, Juan; Gasulla, Ivana; Sales, Salvador; Capmany, José

    2012-05-07

    We theoretically and experimentally compare the performance of two fully tunable phase shifter structures based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) by means of several figures of merit common to microwave photonic systems. A single SOA stage followed by a tailored notch filter is compared with a cascaded implementation comprising three SOA-based phase shifter stages. Attention is focused on the assessment of the RF net gain, noise figure and nonlinear distortion. Recommendations on the performance optimization of this sort of approaches are detailed.

  5. Microwave photonic filter with multiple taps based on single semiconductor optical amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Xu, Enming; Zhou, Lina; Yu, Yuan; Dong, Jianji; Zhang, Xinliang

    2010-08-01

    A novel technique to implement a microwave photonic filter structure with multiple taps and arbitrary frequency response is presented. The proposed filter is based on Four-Wave Mixing (FWM) and Cross-Gain Modulation (XGM) in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). Two-tap notch filter and three-tap bandpass filter with arbitrary bipolar tap generation, high rejection ratio, and widely tunability are successfully demonstrated in the experiment. Extensions to this concept by adding new probe light to provide more taps and improve the bandwidth to high frequency regime are also discussed.

  6. High-efficiency microwave photonic harmonic down-conversion with tunable and reconfigurable filtering.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jinxin; Zheng, Xiaoping; Li, Shangyuan; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhou, Bingkun

    2014-12-01

    A new optical-frequency comb-based microwave photonic harmonic down-convertor with tunable and reconfigurable filtering is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The coherent evenly spaced optical carriers offer harmonic down-conversion for ultrahigh radio frequency signals with low-frequency local oscillator, and construct a tunable and reconfigurable bandpass filter for the intermediate-frequency (IF) signal combined with dispersion. This implementation features high conversion efficiency. Experimental results show the filtered output IF signal has a clean spectrum with high quality. Measured conversion loss is 8.3 dB without extra electrical amplification.

  7. Integrated frequency comb source based Hilbert transformer for wideband microwave photonic phase analysis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thach G; Shoeiby, Mehrdad; Chu, Sai T; Little, Brent E; Morandotti, Roberto; Mitchell, Arnan; Moss, David J

    2015-08-24

    We demonstrate a photonic RF Hilbert transformer for broadband microwave in-phase and quadrature-phase generation based on an integrated frequency optical comb, generated using a nonlinear microring resonator based on a CMOS compatible, high-index contrast, doped-silica glass platform. The high quality and large frequency spacing of the comb enables filters with up to 20 taps, allowing us to demonstrate a quadrature filter with more than a 5-octave (3 dB) bandwidth and an almost uniform phase response.

  8. Research of dual-band microwave photonic filter for WLAN based on optical frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Jiaqi; Jiang, Lingke; Pan, Linbing; Dong, Wei; Zhang, Xindong; Ruan, Shengping

    2016-07-20

    This paper presents a dual-band microwave photonic filter for a wireless local area networks with independently tunable passband center frequencies and bandwidths. The two bands of the filter were 2.4 GHz and 5.725 GHz, respectively. The filter was based on a stimulated Brillouin scattering and an optical frequency comb (OFC) scheme. We created this filter using OFC pumps instead of a single pump. The OFC scheme consists of a cascaded Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) and a dual-parallel MZM (DPMZM) hybrid modulation that generated seven and 11 lines. The experimental results show that the two passbands of the filter were 80 and 130 MHz.

  9. The Convenient Synthesis of Unsaturated Nucleoside Analogues in Water under Microwave Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ran; Sun, Li-Ping

    2016-01-01

    A convenient method for the regioselective synthesis of unsaturated nucleoside analogs in water under microwave irradiation was developed. All pyrimidine and purine nucleoside derivatives were exclusively alkylated at N1 and N9 respectively in good to excellent yields. In addition, this system could tolerate a broad range of functional groups, such as chloro, bromo, iodo, alkyl, amino, and hydroxyl groups. More importantly, the reaction scale could be enlarged to 50 mmol which made this route attractive for industrial application.

  10. Acousto-optic modulation of a photonic crystal nanocavity with Lamb waves in microwave K band

    SciTech Connect

    Tadesse, Semere A.; Li, Huan; Liu, Qiyu; Li, Mo

    2015-11-16

    Integrating nanoscale electromechanical transducers and nanophotonic devices potentially can enable acousto-optic devices to reach unprecedented high frequencies and modulation efficiency. Here, we demonstrate acousto-optic modulation of a photonic crystal nanocavity using Lamb waves with frequency up to 19 GHz, reaching the microwave K band. The devices are fabricated in suspended aluminum nitride membrane. Excitation of acoustic waves is achieved with interdigital transducers with period as small as 300 nm. Confining both acoustic wave and optical wave within the thickness of the membrane leads to improved acousto-optic modulation efficiency in these devices than that obtained in previous surface acoustic wave devices. Our system demonstrates a scalable optomechanical platform where strong acousto-optic coupling between cavity-confined photons and high frequency traveling phonons can be explored.

  11. A novel phase noise measurement of phase modulation microwave photonic links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Quanyi; Gao, Yingjie; Yang, Chun

    2016-07-01

    Microwave photonic links can provide many advantages over traditional coaxial due to its low loss, small size, lightweight, large bandwidth and immunity to external interference. In this paper, a novel phase noise measurement system is built, since the input signal and the power supply noise can be effectively cancelled by a two-arm configuration without the phase locking. Using this approach, the phase noise performance of the 10-GHz phase modulation photonic link has been measured for the first time, evaluated the values of -124 dBc/Hz at 1 kHz offset and -132 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset is obtained. Theoretical analysis on the phase noise measurement system calibration is also discussed.

  12. Nanowires and sidewall Bragg gratings in silicon as enabling technologies for microwave photonic filters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lawrence R; Li, Jia; Spasojevic, Mina; Adams, Rhys

    2013-08-26

    We describe the use of various silicon photonic device technologies to implement microwave photonic filters (MPFs). We demonstrate four-wave mixing in a silicon nanowire waveguide (SNW) to increase the number of taps for MPFs based on finite impulse response filter designs. Using a 12 mm long SNW reduces the footprint by five orders of magnitude compared to silica highly nonlinear fiber while only requiring approximately two times more input power. We also demonstrate optical delays based on serial sidewall Bragg grating arrays and step-chirped sidewall Bragg gratings in silicon waveguides. We obtain up to 63 ps delay in discrete steps from 15 ps to 32 ps over a wide bandwidth range from 33 nm to at least 62 nm. These components can be integrated with other silicon-based components such as integrated spectral shapers and modulators to realize a fully integrated MPF.

  13. Acousto-optic modulation of a photonic crystal nanocavity with Lamb waves in microwave K band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadesse, Semere A.; Li, Huan; Liu, Qiyu; Li, Mo

    2015-11-01

    Integrating nanoscale electromechanical transducers and nanophotonic devices potentially can enable acousto-optic devices to reach unprecedented high frequencies and modulation efficiency. Here, we demonstrate acousto-optic modulation of a photonic crystal nanocavity using Lamb waves with frequency up to 19 GHz, reaching the microwave K band. The devices are fabricated in suspended aluminum nitride membrane. Excitation of acoustic waves is achieved with interdigital transducers with period as small as 300 nm. Confining both acoustic wave and optical wave within the thickness of the membrane leads to improved acousto-optic modulation efficiency in these devices than that obtained in previous surface acoustic wave devices. Our system demonstrates a scalable optomechanical platform where strong acousto-optic coupling between cavity-confined photons and high frequency traveling phonons can be explored.

  14. Microwave-induced three-photon coherence of Rydberg atomic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Hyo Min; Jeong, Taek; Lee, Yoon-Seok; Moon, Han Seb

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the three-photon coherence (TPC) effects of the Rydberg state in a Doppler-broadened four-level ladder-type atomic system for the 5S1/2(F=3)-5P3/2(F‧=4)-50D5/2-51P3/2 transition of 85Rb atoms. Upon interaction of the Rydberg Rb atom of the ladder-type electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) scheme with a resonant microwave (MW) field, we numerically analyze the spectral features of the Rydberg TPC from two viewpoints, Autler-Townes splitting (AT-splitting) of the Rydberg EIT and three-photon electromagnetically induced absorption (TPEIA). We determine the criterion to differentiate between AT-splitting of the Rydberg EIT and TPEIA in the Doppler-broadened ladder-type atomic system.

  15. Broadband microwave photonic phase shifter based on a feedback-coupled microring resonator with small radio frequency power variations.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jian; Li, Ming; Sun, Shuqian; Li, Zhiyong; Li, Wei; Zhu, Ninghua

    2016-10-15

    An on-chip microwave photonic phase shifter based on an electrically tunable feedback-coupled microring resonator (FCMR) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. By properly adjusting the voltage applied on the FCMR, the transmission spectrum with different optical extinction ratios is realized while the phase shift range remains almost unchanged. This proposal solves the conflict between the large range of phase shift and small radio frequency (RF) power variation in the ring-resonator-based microwave photonics phase shifter. Finally, a microwave photonic phase shifter with phase tuning of over 172 deg from 20 to 30 GHz is obtained, and the RF power variation can be compressed less than 5 dB under a certain status tuned by the bias voltage.

  16. Tailoring of the Brillouin gain for on-chip widely tunable and reconfigurable broadband microwave photonic filters.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Amol; Aryanfar, Iman; Shahnia, Shayan; Morrison, Blair; Vu, Khu; Madden, Stephen; Luther-Davies, Barry; Marpaung, David; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2016-02-01

    An unprecedented Brillouin gain of 44 dB in a photonic chip enables the realization of broadly tunable and reconfigurable integrated microwave photonic filters. More than a decade bandwidth reconfigurability from 30 up to 440 MHz, with a passband ripple <1.9  dB is achieved by tailoring the Brillouin pump. The filter central frequency is continuously tuned up to 30 GHz with no degradation of the passband response, which is a major improvement over electronic filters. Furthermore, we demonstrate pump tailoring to realize multiple bandpass filters with different bandwidths and central frequencies, paving the way for multiple on-chip microwave filters and channelizers.

  17. Fast universal quantum gates on microwave photons with all-resonance operations in circuit QED

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Ming; Tao, Ming-Jie; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Stark shift on a superconducting qubit in circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED) has been used to construct universal quantum entangling gates on superconducting resonators in previous works. It is a second-order coupling effect between the resonator and the qubit in the dispersive regime, which leads to a slow state-selective rotation on the qubit. Here, we present two proposals to construct the fast universal quantum gates on superconducting resonators in a microwave-photon quantum processor composed of multiple superconducting resonators coupled to a superconducting transmon qutrit, that is, the controlled-phase (c-phase) gate on two microwave-photon resonators and the controlled-controlled phase (cc-phase) gates on three resonators, resorting to quantum resonance operations, without any drive field. Compared with previous works, our universal quantum gates have the higher fidelities and shorter operation times in theory. The numerical simulation shows that the fidelity of our c-phase gate is 99.57% within about 38.1 ns and that of our cc-phase gate is 99.25% within about 73.3 ns. PMID:25787147

  18. Fast universal quantum gates on microwave photons with all-resonance operations in circuit QED.

    PubMed

    Hua, Ming; Tao, Ming-Jie; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2015-03-19

    Stark shift on a superconducting qubit in circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED) has been used to construct universal quantum entangling gates on superconducting resonators in previous works. It is a second-order coupling effect between the resonator and the qubit in the dispersive regime, which leads to a slow state-selective rotation on the qubit. Here, we present two proposals to construct the fast universal quantum gates on superconducting resonators in a microwave-photon quantum processor composed of multiple superconducting resonators coupled to a superconducting transmon qutrit, that is, the controlled-phase (c-phase) gate on two microwave-photon resonators and the controlled-controlled phase (cc-phase) gates on three resonators, resorting to quantum resonance operations, without any drive field. Compared with previous works, our universal quantum gates have the higher fidelities and shorter operation times in theory. The numerical simulation shows that the fidelity of our c-phase gate is 99.57% within about 38.1 ns and that of our cc-phase gate is 99.25% within about 73.3 ns.

  19. Generation of triangular waveforms based on a microwave photonic filter with negative coefficient.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Wen Ting; Sun, Wen Hui; Wang, Wei Yu; Zhu, Ning Hua

    2014-06-16

    We report a novel approach to generating full-duty-cycle triangular waveforms based on a microwave photonic filter (MPF) with negative coefficient. It is known that the Fourier series expansion of a triangular waveform has only odd-order harmonics. In this work, the undesired even-order harmonics are suppressed by the MPF that has a periodic transmission response. A triangular waveform at fundamental frequency can be generated by setting the bias of a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) at quadrature point. However, it is found that a broadband 90° microwave phase shifter has to be used after photodetection to adjust the phases of odd-order harmonics. Alternatively, a frequency doubling triangular waveform can be generated by setting the bias of the MZM at maximum or minimum transmission point. This approach is more promising because the broadband microwave phase shifter is no longer required in this case but it is more power consuming. The proposed approach is theoretically analyzed and experimentally verified.

  20. Microwave Photonics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    sensors , High temperature sapphire pressure sensors , Platinum thin film thermal sensors , Diamond film deposition by...reproducible electrical and mechanical thin - film properties. By combining a bulk-micromachining SOI process module with a polysilicon surface...cleanroom layout Dry Etch Bay Wet Etch Bay Gowning Diffusion / Thin Film Bay Photo Bay CMP Bay Wet Strip Bay Future expansion

  1. Wideband dynamic microwave frequency identification system using a low-power ultracompact silicon photonic chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burla, Maurizio; Wang, Xu; Li, Ming; Chrostowski, Lukas; Azaña, José

    2016-09-01

    Photonic-based instantaneous frequency measurement (IFM) of unknown microwave signals offers improved flexibility and frequency range as compared with electronic solutions. However, no photonic platform has ever demonstrated the key capability to perform dynamic IFM, as required in real-world applications. In addition, all demonstrations to date employ bulky components or need high optical power for operation. Here we demonstrate an integrated photonic IFM system that can identify frequency-varying signals in a dynamic manner, without any need for fast measurement instrumentation. The system is based on a fully linear, ultracompact system based on a waveguide Bragg grating on silicon, only 65-μm long and operating up to ~30 GHz with carrier power below 10 mW, significantly outperforming present technologies. These results open a solid path towards identification of dynamically changing signals over tens of GHz bandwidths using a practical, low-cost on-chip implementation for applications from broadband communications to biomedical, astronomy and more.

  2. Wideband dynamic microwave frequency identification system using a low-power ultracompact silicon photonic chip

    PubMed Central

    Burla, Maurizio; Wang, Xu; Li, Ming; Chrostowski, Lukas; Azaña, José

    2016-01-01

    Photonic-based instantaneous frequency measurement (IFM) of unknown microwave signals offers improved flexibility and frequency range as compared with electronic solutions. However, no photonic platform has ever demonstrated the key capability to perform dynamic IFM, as required in real-world applications. In addition, all demonstrations to date employ bulky components or need high optical power for operation. Here we demonstrate an integrated photonic IFM system that can identify frequency-varying signals in a dynamic manner, without any need for fast measurement instrumentation. The system is based on a fully linear, ultracompact system based on a waveguide Bragg grating on silicon, only 65-μm long and operating up to ∼30 GHz with carrier power below 10 mW, significantly outperforming present technologies. These results open a solid path towards identification of dynamically changing signals over tens of GHz bandwidths using a practical, low-cost on-chip implementation for applications from broadband communications to biomedical, astronomy and more. PMID:27687576

  3. Novel microwave photonic fractional Hilbert transformer using a ring resonator-based optical all-pass filter.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Leimeng; Khan, Muhammad Rezaul; Beeker, Willem; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René; Roeloffzen, Chris

    2012-11-19

    We propose and demonstrate a novel wideband microwave photonic fractional Hilbert transformer implemented using a ring resonator-based optical all-pass filter. The full programmability of the ring resonator allows variable and arbitrary fractional order of the Hilbert transformer. The performance analysis in both frequency and time domain validates that the proposed implementation provides a good approximation to an ideal fractional Hilbert transformer. This is also experimentally verified by an electrical S21 response characterization performed on a waveguide realization of a ring resonator. The waveguide-based structure allows the proposed Hilbert transformer to be integrated together with other building blocks on a photonic integrated circuit to create various system-level functionalities for on-chip microwave photonic signal processors. As an example, a circuit consisting of a splitter and a ring resonator has been realized which can perform on-chip phase control of microwave signals generated by means of optical heterodyning, and simultaneous generation of in-phase and quadrature microwave signals for a wide frequency range. For these functionalities, this simple and on-chip solution is considered to be practical, particularly when operating together with a dual-frequency laser. To our best knowledge, this is the first-time on-chip demonstration where ring resonators are employed to perform phase control functionalities for optical generation of microwave signals by means of optical heterodyning.

  4. Third-order linearization for self-beating filtered microwave photonic systems using a dual parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Daniel; Gasulla, Ivana; Capmany, José; Fandiño, Javier S; Muñoz, Pascual; Alavi, Hossein

    2016-09-05

    We develop, analyze and apply a linearization technique based on dual parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator to self-beating microwave photonics systems. The approach enables broadband low-distortion transmission and reception at expense of a moderate electrical power penalty yielding a small optical power penalty (<1 dB).

  5. Tunable and wideband microwave photonic phase shifter based on a single-sideband polarization modulator and a polarizer.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shilong; Zhang, Yamei

    2012-11-01

    A novel microwave photonic phase shifter based on a single-sideband (SSB) polarization modulator (PolM) and a polarizer is proposed and demonstrated. In the SSB-PolM, two SSB intensity-modulated signals with a phase difference of π along two orthogonal polarization directions are generated. With the polarizer to combine the two signals, the phase of the optical microwave signal can be tuned from -180 to 180 deg by simply adjusting the polarization direction of the polarizer, whereas the amplitude keeps unchanged. An experiment is carried out. A full-range tunable phase shift in the frequency range of 11-43 GHz is achieved. The flat power response, power independent operation, and high stability of the proposed microwave photonic phase shifter is also confirmed.

  6. Hyperuniform disordered photonic bandgap materials, from microwave to infrared wavelength regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Weining

    Recently, we have introduced a new class of hyperuniform disordered (HUD) photonic bandgap (PBG) materials enabled by a novel constrained optimization method for engineering the material's Fourier transform to be continuous, isotropic and stealthy. Their structure factor S (k) is equal to zero for small kand exhibits a broad ring of maximum values around a characteristic wave-length range. Experimentally, an isotropic complete PBG (at all angles and for all polarizations) in an alumina-based HUD structure and single-polarized PBGs for plastic-based HUD structure have been demonstrated. Using measured and simulated transmission and phase delay information through these HUD structures, we also unfolded their band structures and reconstructed the effective dispersion relations of propagating electromagnetic modes in them. The intrinsic isotropy in these disordered structures is an inherent advantage associated with the lack of crystalline order, offering unprecedented freedom for functional defect design impossible to achieve in photonic crystals. In the microwave regime, we have shown the creation of freeform waveguides, which can channel photons robustly along arbitrarily curved paths and around sharp bends, and be decorated with defects to produce sharply resonant structures useful for filtering and frequency splitting. Recent simulation and experimental results for waveguides and modulators based on submicron-scale planar hyperuniform disordered PBG structures further highlight their ability to serve as highly compact, flexible and energy-efficient platforms for photonic integrated circuits. NSF DMR-1308084, EPSRC (UK) DTG Grant KD5050, EPSRC (UK) Strategic Equipment Grant EP/M008576/1, NSF SBIR-1345168, NSF MRI-1040444.

  7. Reconfigurable microwave photonic in-phase and quadrature detector for frequency agile radar.

    PubMed

    Emami, Hossein; Sarkhosh, Niusha

    2014-06-01

    A microwave photonic in-phase and quadrature detector is conceived and practically demonstrated. The detector has the ability to become electronically reconfigured to operate at any frequency over a wide range. This makes it an excellent candidate for frequency agile radars and other electronic warfare systems based on frequency hopping. The detector exhibits a very low amplitude and phase imbalance, which removes the need for any imbalance compensation technique. The system is designed based on the transversal filtering concept and reconfigurability is achieved via wavelength control in a dispersive fiber. The system operation was demonstrated over a frequency range of 3.5-35 GHz, with a maximum of -32 dB amplitude imbalance.

  8. Microwave photonic link with improved phase noise using a balanced detection scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jingjing; Gu, Yiying; Tan, Wengang; Zhu, Wenwu; Wang, Linghua; Zhao, Mingshan

    2016-07-01

    A microwave photonic link (MPL) with improved phase noise performance using a dual output Mach-Zehnder modulator (DP-MZM) and balanced detection is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The fundamental concept of the approach is based on the two complementary outputs of DP-MZM and the destructive combination of the photocurrent in balanced photodetector (BPD). Theoretical analysis is performed to numerical evaluate the additive phase noise performance and shows a good agreement with the experiment. Experimental results are presented for 4 GHz, 8 GHz and 12 GHz transmission link and an 11 dB improvement of phase noise performance at 10 MHz offset is achieved compared to the conventional intensity-modulation and direct-detection (IMDD) MPL.

  9. Investigation of microwave photonic filter based on multiple longitudinal modes fiber laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yuan; Li, Feng; Feng, Xinhuan; Lu, Chao; Guan, Bai-ou; Wai, P. K. A.

    2015-06-01

    We theoretically study the transfer function of a finite impulse response microwave photonic filter (FIR-MPF) system using a multi-wavelength fiber laser source by considering multiple longitudinal modes in each wavelength. The full response function with the response from longitudinal mode taps is obtained. We also discussed the influence of the longitudinal mode envelope and mode spacing on the performance of FIR-MPF. The response function of the longitudinal mode taps is fully discussed and the contribution is compared with the response of the carrier suppression factor for double sideband (DSB) modulation. The multiple longitudinal modes structure in the wavelength taps can be utilized to engineer the response of the FIR-MPF such that desirable features such as high side lode suppression ratio can be realized. The analysis provides a guideline for designing incoherent FIR-MPF systems.

  10. Frequency-multiplying microwave photonic phase shifter for independent multichannel phase shifting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yamei; Pan, Shilong

    2016-03-15

    A frequency-multiplying microwave photonic phase shifter with independent multichannel phase shifting capability is proposed and demonstrated using an integrated polarization division multiplexing dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (PDM-DPMZM) and a polarizer. By building a proper power distribution network to drive the PDM-DPMZM, two sidebands along two orthogonal polarization directions are generated with a spacing of two or four times the frequency of the driving signal. Leading the signal to a polarizer and a photodetector, a frequency-doubled or frequency-quadrupled signal with its phase adjusted by the polarization direction of the polarizer is achieved. The magnitude of the signal remains almost unchanged when the phase is adjusted. The proposed approach features compact configuration, scalable independent phase-shift channels and wide bandwidth, which can find applications in beam forming and analog signal processing for millimeter-wave or terahertz applications.

  11. Photonic-assisted microwave frequency measurement system based on a silicon ORR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jianfei; Shao, Haifeng; Li, Xia; Li, Yan; Dai, Tingge; Wang, Gencheng; Yang, Jianyi; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Yu, Hui

    2017-01-01

    A photonic-assisted instantaneous microwave frequency measurement (IFM) system is demonstrated with add-drop optical ring resonators (ORRs) on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. By launching a double-sideband suppressed carrier modulated optical signal into the ring, a monotonous amplitude comparison function (ACF) irrespective of the amplitudes of both optical and RF signals is established to translate the RF frequency to the power ratio between the through and drop ports of the ring. Two experiments have been set up with two rings which have different Q values. Two 25 μm radius ORRs with Q values of 3974 and 25833 are used to offer different measurement ranges and accuracies. In the experiments the ORR with low Q value has a large measurement range of 0.5-35 GHz, and the other one with high Q value exhibits a high accuracy of 0.1 GHz in the frequency range of 0.1-5 GHz.

  12. A microwave photonic link with high spurious-free dynamic range based on a parallel structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shi-kui; Gao, Yong-sheng; Wen, Ai-jun; Liu, Ling

    2015-03-01

    A microwave photonic link (MPL) with high spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) is proposed and analyzed. The optical carrier is divided equally into two paths. The path 1 is modulated by radio frequency (RF) signals in a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM), and the phase of path 2 is controlled before the combination with path 1. By properly adjusting the phase difference of the two paths with the optical phase shifter, the third-order intermodulation distortion (IMD3) can be significantly suppressed. A proof-of-concept simulation is carried out. The results show that a reduction of 40 dB in the IMD3 and an improvement of 21.1 dB in the SFDR are achieved as compared with the conventional MZM-based MPL. The proposed MPL shows the advantages of simple structure, low cost and high efficiency.

  13. Phase noise of whispering gallery photonic hyper-parametric microwave oscillators.

    PubMed

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy A; Rubiola, Enrico; Matsko, Andrey B; Ilchenko, Vladimir S; Maleki, Lute

    2008-03-17

    We report on the experimental study of phase noise properties of a high frequency photonic microwave oscillator based on four wave mixing in calcium fluoride whispering gallery mode resonators. Specifically, the oscillator generates approximately 8.5 GHz signals with -120 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz from the carrier. The floor of the phase noise is limited by the shot noise of the signal received at the photodetector. We argue that the performance of the oscillator can be significantly improved if one uses extremely high finesse resonators, increases the input optical power, supersaturates the oscillator, and suppresses the residual stimulated Raman scattering in the resonator. We also disclose a method of extremely sensitive measurement of the integral dispersion of millimeter scale dielectric resonators.

  14. A continuously tunable microwave photonic notch filter with complex coefficient based on phase modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dong; Cao, Ye; Tong, Zheng-rong; Yang, Jing-peng

    2017-01-01

    A continuously tunable microwave photonic notch filter with complex coefficient based on phase modulation is proposed and demonstrated. The complex coefficient is generated using a Fourier-domain optical processor (FD-OP) to control the amplitude and phase of the optical carrier and radio-frequency (RF) phase modulation sidebands. By controlling the FD-OP, the frequency response of the filter can be tuned in the full free spectral range ( FSR) without changing the shape and the FSR of the frequency response. The results show that the center frequency of the notch filter can be continuously tuned from 17.582 GHz to 29.311 GHz with FSR of 11.729 GHz. The shape of the frequency response keeps unchanged when the phase is tuned.

  15. Single crystal silicon capacitors with low microwave loss in the single photon regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, S. J.; Murch, K. W.; Slichter, D. H.; Vijay, R.; Siddiqi, I.

    2011-04-01

    We have fabricated superconducting microwave resonators in a lumped element geometry using single crystal silicon dielectric parallel plate capacitors with C >2 pF. Aluminum devices with resonant frequencies between 4.0 and 6.5 GHz exhibited an average internal quality factor Qi of 2×105 in the single photon excitation regime at T =20 mK. Attributing the observed loss solely to the capacitive element, our measurements place an upper bound on the loss tangent of the silicon dielectric layer of tan δi=5×10-6. This level of loss is an order of magnitude lower than is currently observed in structures incorporating amorphous dielectric materials, thus making single crystal silicon capacitors an attractive, robust route for realizing long-lived quantum circuits.

  16. Two-photon microwave transitions and strong-field effects in a room-temperature Rydberg-atom gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. A.; Schwarzkopf, A.; Miller, S. A.; Thaicharoen, N.; Raithel, G.; Gordon, J. A.; Holloway, C. L.

    2014-10-01

    We investigate two-photon Autler-Townes splitting and strong-field effects of 85Rb Rydberg atoms in a room-temperature vapor cell. To observe the level structure we employ electromagnetically induced transparency. We first study the two-photon 62 S1 /2-63 S1 /2 microwave transition using an electric-field reference measurement obtained with the one-photon 62 S1 /2-62 P3 /2 transition. We then study the 61 D5 /2-62 D5 /2 transition where the microwave electric-field range is extended up to ˜40 V /m . A Floquet analysis is used to model field-induced level shifts and state-mixing effects present in the strongly driven quantum systems under consideration. Calculations are found to be in good agreement with experimental observations.

  17. Frequency switched narrow linewidth microwave signal photonic generation based on a double-Brillouin-frequency spaced fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Tianshu; Jia, Qingsong; Sun, Hongwei; Dong, Keyan; Liu, Xin; Kong, Mei; Jiang, Huilin

    2014-04-10

    A simple photonic approach to generate microwave frequency switched microwave signal is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In this scheme, a Brillouin fiber laser with double-Brillouin-frequency spacing is used. The Brillouin ring configuration suppresses incoming Brillouin pump and even-order Stokes signals in the cavity. In addition, it also allows propagation of the odd-order Brillouin Stokes signals from configuration to output coupler. A dual-wavelength optical signal is heterodyned at the high-speed photodetector to produce a microwave signal. Frequency switched microwave signals, at 10.75 and 21.39 GHz, respectively, can be obtained through adjusting the polarization controller (PC) and loss of the variable optical attenuator (VOA).

  18. High speed and high resolution interrogation of a fiber Bragg grating sensor based on microwave photonic filtering and chirped microwave pulse compression.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ou; Zhang, Jiejun; Yao, Jianping

    2016-11-01

    High speed and high resolution interrogation of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor based on microwave photonic filtering and chirped microwave pulse compression is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed sensor, a broadband linearly chirped microwave waveform (LCMW) is applied to a single-passband microwave photonic filter (MPF) which is implemented based on phase modulation and phase modulation to intensity modulation conversion using a phase modulator (PM) and a phase-shifted FBG (PS-FBG). Since the center frequency of the MPF is a function of the central wavelength of the PS-FBG, when the PS-FBG experiences a strain or temperature change, the wavelength is shifted, which leads to the change in the center frequency of the MPF. At the output of the MPF, a filtered chirped waveform with the center frequency corresponding to the applied strain or temperature is obtained. By compressing the filtered LCMW in a digital signal processor, the resolution is improved. The proposed interrogation technique is experimentally demonstrated. The experimental results show that interrogation sensitivity and resolution as high as 1.25 ns/με and 0.8 με are achieved.

  19. Design and optimization of polymer ring resonator modulators for analog microwave photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh, Arash; Middlebrook, Christopher T.

    2016-02-01

    Efficient modulation of electrical signals onto an optical carrier remains the main challenge in full implementation of microwave photonic links (MPLs) for applications such as antenna remoting and wireless access networks. Current MPLs utilize Mach-Zehnder Interferometers (MZI) with sinusoidal transfer function as electro-optic modulators causing nonlinear distortions in the link. Recently ring resonator modulators (RRM) consisting of a ring resonator coupled to a base waveguide attracted interest to enhance linearity, reduce the size and power consumption in MPLs. Fabrication of a RRM is more challenging than the MZI not only in fabrication process but also in designing and optimization steps. Although RRM can be analyzed theoretically for MPLs, physical structures need to be designed and optimized utilizing simulation techniques in both optical and microwave regimes with consideration of specific material properties. Designing and optimization steps are conducted utilizing full-wave simulation software package and RRM function analyzed in both passive and active forms and confirmed through theoretical analysis. It is shown that RRM can be completely designed and analyzed utilizing full-wave simulation techniques and as a result linearity effect of the modulator on MPLs can be studied and optimized. The material nonlinearity response can be determined computationally and included in modulator design and readily adaptable for analyzing other materials such as silicon or structures where theoretical analysis is not easily achieved.

  20. Microwave response and photon emission of a voltage baised Josephson junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jebari, Salha; Grimm, Alexander; Hazra, Dibyendu; Hofheinz, Max

    The readout of superconducting qubits requires amplifiers combining noise close to the quantum limit, high gain, large bandwidth, and sufficient dynamic range. Josephson parametric amplifiers using Josephson junctions in the 0-voltage state, driven by a large microwave signals, begin to perform sufficiently well in all 4 of these aspects to be of practical use, but remain difficult to optimize and use. Recent experiments with superconducting circuits consisting of a DC voltage-biased Josephson junction in series with a resonator, showed that a tunneling Cooper pair can emit one or several photons with a total energy of 2e times the applied voltage. We present microwave reflection measurements on this device indicating that amplification is possible with a simple DC voltage-biased Josephson junction. We compare these measurements with the noise power emitted by the junction and show that, for low Josephson energy, transmission and noise emission can be explained within the framework of P(E) theory of inelastic Cooper pair tunneling. Combined with a theoretical model, our results indicate that voltage-biased Josephson junctions might be useful for amplification near the quantum limit, offering simpler design and a different trade-off between gain, bandwidth and dynamic range.

  1. Stability of Continental Lithosphere based on Analogue Experiments with Microwave Induced Internal Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourel, Loic; Limare, Angela; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile; Neamtu, Camelia; Vilella, Kenny; Farnetani, Cinzia; Kaminski, Edouard; Jaupart, Claude

    2015-04-01

    Continental lithosphere is usually depicted as the upper conductive layer of the Earth. Its formation is achieved through melt depletion that generates a residue that is less dense and more viscous than the underlying convecting mantle. As it is cooled from above, continental lithosphere can develop its own convective currents and may become unstable depending on its thickness and density contrast with the mantle. But chemical differentiation due to mantle magmatism also enriches continental lithosphere in heat producing elements. According to present estimates, the Earth's mantle may have lost as much as half of its radioactive elements in favour of continental crust and this stratified redistribution of heat sources has two main effects. First, mantle convection vigor decreases and becomes increasingly sensitive to heat supply from the core. Second, localized heat production at the top surface increases the continental insulating effects and competes against lithospheric instabilities. In the present study, we focus on the later and we determine which amount of internal heating is required to keep the lithosphere stable for a given rate of cooling from the top. The physics underlying instability triggering corresponds to the problem of a two differentially heated layered system cooled from above, where the top layer is less dense and more viscous than the bottom one, representative of the lithosphere-mantle system. Few studies have been devoted to the intrinsic characteristics of this layered type of convection. Here, we present a state of the art laboratory setup to generate internal heating in controlled conditions based on microwave (MW) absorption. The volumetric heat source can be localized in space and its intensity can be varied in time. Our tank prototype has horizontal dimensions of 30 cm x 30 cm and 5 cm height. A uniform and constant temperature is maintained at the upper boundary by an aluminium heat exchanger and adiabatic conditions are imposed at

  2. Lossless microwave photonic delay line using a ring resonator with an integrated semiconductor optical amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yiwei; Zhuang, Leimeng; Boller, Klaus-Jochen; Lowery, Arthur James

    2017-06-01

    Optical delay lines implemented in photonic integrated circuits (PICs) are essential for creating robust and low-cost optical signal processors on miniaturized chips. In particular, tunable delay lines enable a key feature of programmability for the on-chip processing functions. However, the previously investigated tunable delay lines are plagued by a severe drawback of delay-dependent loss due to the propagation loss in the constituent waveguides. In principle, a serial-connected amplifier can be used to compensate such losses or perform additional amplitude manipulation. However, this solution is generally unpractical as it introduces additional burden on chip area and power consumption, particularly for large-scale integrated PICs. Here, we report an integrated tunable delay line that overcomes the delay-dependent loss, and simultaneously allows for independent manipulation of group delay and amplitude responses. It uses a ring resonator with a tunable coupler and a semiconductor optical amplifier in the feedback path. A proof-of-concept device with a free spectral range of 11.5 GHz and a delay bandwidth in the order of 200 MHz is discussed in the context of microwave photonics and is experimentally demonstrated to be able to provide a lossless delay up to 1.1 to a 5 ns Gaussian pulse. The proposed device can be designed for different frequency scales with potential for applications across many other areas such as telecommunications, LIDAR, and spectroscopy, serving as a novel building block for creating chip-scale programmable optical signal processors.

  3. Spontaneous emission from a microwave-driven four-level atom in an anisotropic photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Li; Wan, Ren-Gang; Yao, Zhi-Hai

    2016-10-01

    The spontaneous emission from a microwave-driven four-level atom embedded in an anisotropic photonic crystal is studied. Due to the modified density of state (DOS) in the anisotropic photonic band gap (PBG) and the coherent control induced by the coupling fields, spontaneous emission can be significantly enhanced when the position of the spontaneous emission peak gets close to the band gap edge. As a result of the closed-loop interaction between the fields and the atom, the spontaneous emission depends on the dynamically induced Autler-Townes splitting and its position relative to the PBG. Interesting phenomena, such as spectral-line suppression, enhancement and narrowing, and fluorescence quenching, appear in the spontaneous emission spectra, which are modulated by amplitudes and phases of the coherently driven fields and the effect of PBG. This theoretical study can provide us with more efficient methods to manipulate the atomic spontaneous emission. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11447232, 11204367, 11447157, and 11305020).

  4. Dynamics of a three-level V-type atom driven by a cavity photon and microwave field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan-Li, Xue; Shi-Deng, Zhu; Ju, Liu; Ting-Hui, Xiao; Bao-Hua, Feng; Zhi-Yuan, Li

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the dynamics of a three-level V-type atom driven simultaneously by a cavity photon and microwave field by examining the atomic population evolution. Owing to the coupling effect of the cavity photon, periodical oscillation of the population between the two upper states and the ground state takes place, which is the well-known vacuum Rabi oscillation. Meanwhile, the population exchange between the upmost level and the middle level can occur due to the driving action of the external microwave field. The general dynamic behavior is the superposition of a fast and a slow periodical oscillation under the cooperative and competitive effect of the cavity photon and the microwave field. Numerical results demonstrate that the time evolution of the population is strongly dependent on the atom-cavity coupling coefficient g and Rabi frequency Ω e that reflects the intensity of the external microwave field. By modulating the two parameters g and Ω e, a large number of population transfer behaviors can be achieved. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11434017 and 11374357) and the National Basics Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB632704).

  5. Spin-wave band-pass filters based on yttrium iron garnet films for tunable microwave photonic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustinov, A. B.; Drozdovskii, A. V.; Nikitin, A. A.; Kalinikos, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    The paper reports on development of tunable band-pass microwave filters for microwave photonic generators. The filters were fabricated with the use of epitaxial yttrium iron garnet films. Principle of operation of the filters was based on excitation, propagation, and reception of spin waves. In order to obtain narrow pass band, the filtering properties of excitation and reception antennas were exploited. The filters demonstrated insertion losses of 2-3 dB, bandwidth of 25-35 MHz, and tuning range of up to 1.5 GHz in the range 3-7 GHz.

  6. Photonic microwave amplification for radio-over-fiber links using period-one nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor lasers.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yu-Han; Hwang, Sheng-Kwang

    2013-09-01

    For radio-over-fiber links, microwave-modulated optical carriers with high optical modulation depth are preferred because high optical modulation depth allows generation of high microwave power after photodetection, leading to high detection sensitivity, long transmission distance, and large link gain. This study investigates the period-one nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor lasers for optical modulation depth improvement to achieve photonic microwave amplification through modulation sideband enhancement. In our scheme, only typical semiconductor lasers are required as the amplification unit. The amplification is achieved for a broad microwave range, from less than 25 GHz to more than 60 GHz, and for a wide gain range, from less than 10 dB to more than 30 dB. The microwave phase quality is mainly preserved while the microwave power is largely amplified, improving the signal-to-noise ratio up to at least 25 dB. The bit-error ratio at 1.25 Gbits/s is better than 10(-9), and a sensitivity improvement of up to at least 15 dB is feasible.

  7. Combined Brillouin light scattering and microwave absorption study of magnon-photon coupling in a split-ring resonator/YIG film system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingler, S.; Maier-Flaig, H.; Gross, R.; Hu, C.-M.; Huebl, H.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.; Weiler, M.

    2016-08-01

    Microfocused Brillouin light scattering (BLS) and microwave absorption (MA) are used to study magnon-photon coupling in a system consisting of a split-ring microwave resonator and an yttrium iron garnet (YIG) film. The split-ring resonator is defined by optical lithography and loaded with a 1 μm-thick YIG film grown by liquid phase epitaxy. BLS and MA spectra of the hybrid system are simultaneously recorded as a function of the applied magnetic field magnitude and microwave excitation frequency. Strong coupling of the magnon and microwave resonator modes is found with a coupling strength of geff /2π = 63 MHz. The combined BLS and MA data allow us to study the continuous transition of the hybridized modes from a purely magnonic to a purely photonic mode by varying the applied magnetic field and microwave frequency. Furthermore, the BLS data represent an up-conversion of the microwave frequency coupling to optical frequencies.

  8. Microwave-assisted deuterium exchange: the convenient preparation of isotopically labelled analogues for stable isotope dilution analysis of volatile wine phenols.

    PubMed

    Crump, Anna M; Sefton, Mark A; Wilkinson, Kerry L

    2014-11-01

    This study reports the convenient, low cost, one-step synthesis of labelled analogues of six volatile phenols, guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, 4-ethylguaiacol, 4-ethylphenol, eugenol and vanillin, using microwave-assisted deuterium exchange, for use as internal standards for stable isotope dilution analysis. The current method improves on previous strategies in that it enables incorporation of deuterium atoms on the aromatic ring, thereby ensuring retention of the isotope label during mass spectrometry fragmentation. When used as standards for SIDA, these labelled volatile phenols will improve the accuracy and reproducibility of quantitative food and beverage analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Photonic generation of a phase-coded microwave signal based on a single dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhenzhou; Zhang, Tingting; Zhang, Fangzheng; Pan, Shilong

    2013-12-15

    A compact scheme for photonic generation of a phase-coded microwave signal using a dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DMZM) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed scheme, the radio frequency (RF) carrier and the coding signal are sent to the two RF ports of the DMZM, respectively. By properly setting the amplitude of the coding signal and the bias voltage of the DMZM, an exact π-phase-shift phase-coded microwave signal is generated. The proposed scheme has a simple structure since only a single DMZM is required. In addition, good frequency tunability is achieved because no frequency-dependent electrical devices or wavelength-dependent optical devices are applied. The feasibility of the proposed scheme is verified by experiment. 2 or 2.5 Gb/s phase-coded 10 and 20 GHz microwave signals are successfully generated.

  10. Photonic generation of phase-stable and wideband chirped microwave signals based on phase-locked dual optical frequency combs.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yitian; Zhou, Qian; Han, Daming; Li, Baiyu; Xie, Weilin; Liu, Zhangweiyi; Qin, Jie; Wang, Xiaocheng; Dong, Yi; Hu, Weisheng

    2016-08-15

    A photonics-based scheme is presented for generating wideband and phase-stable chirped microwave signals based on two phase-locked combs with fixed and agile repetition rates. By tuning the difference of the two combs' repetition rates and extracting different order comb tones, a wideband linearly frequency-chirped microwave signal with flexible carrier frequency and chirped range is obtained. Owing to the scheme of dual-heterodyne phase transfer and phase-locked loop, extrinsic phase drift and noise induced by the separated optical paths is detected and suppressed efficiently. Linearly frequency-chirped microwave signals from 5 to 15 GHz and 237 to 247 GHz with 30 ms duration are achieved, respectively, contributing to the time-bandwidth product of 3×108. And less than 1.3×10-5 linearity errors (RMS) are also obtained.

  11. Ring resonator-based on-chip modulation transformer for high-performance phase-modulated microwave photonic links.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Leimeng; Taddei, Caterina; Hoekman, Marcel; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René; van Dijk, Paulus; Roeloffzen, Chris

    2013-11-04

    In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel wideband on-chip photonic modulation transformer for phase-modulated microwave photonic links. The proposed device is able to transform phase-modulated optical signals into intensity-modulated versions (or vice versa) with nearly zero conversion of laser phase noise to intensity noise. It is constructed using waveguide-based ring resonators, which features simple architecture, stable operation, and easy reconfigurability. Beyond the stand-alone functionality, the proposed device can also be integrated with other functional building blocks of photonic integrated circuits (PICs) to create on-chip complex microwave photonic signal processors. As an application example, a PIC consisting of two such modulation transformers and a notch filter has been designed and realized in TriPleX(TM) waveguide technology. The realized device uses a 2 × 2 splitting circuit and 3 ring resonators with a free spectral range of 25 GHz, which are all equipped with continuous tuning elements. The device can perform phase-to-intensity modulation transform and carrier suppression simultaneously, which enables high-performance phase-modulated microwave photonics links (PM-MPLs). Associated with the bias-free and low-complexity advantages of the phase modulators, a single-fiber-span PM-MPL with a RF bandwidth of 12 GHz (3 dB-suppression band 6 to 18 GHz) has been demonstrated comprising the proposed PIC, where the achieved spurious-free dynamic range performance is comparable to that of Class-AB MPLs using low-biased Mach-Zehnder modulators.

  12. Structure Determination of Cisplatin-Amino Acid Analogues by Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation Action Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chenchen; Bao, Xun; Zhu, Yanlong; Strobehn, Stephen; Kimutai, Bett; Nei, Y.-W.; Chow, C. S.; Rodgers, M. T.; Gao, Juehan; Oomens, J.

    2015-06-01

    To gain a better understanding of the binding mechanism and assist in the optimization of relevant drug and chemical probe design, both experimental and theoretical studies were performed on a series of amino acid-linked cisplatin derivatives, including glycine-, lysine-, and ornithine-linked cisplatin, Gplatin, Kplatin, and Oplatin, respectively. Cisplatin, the first FDA-approved platinum-based anticancer drug, has been widely used in cancer chemotherapy. Its pharmacological mechanism has been identified as its ability to coordinate to genomic DNA, and guanine is its major target. In previous reports, cisplatin was successfully utilized as a chemical probe to detect solvent accessible sites in ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Among the amino-acid-linked cisplatin derivatives, Oplatin exhibits preference for adenine over guanine. The mechanism behind its different selectivity compared to cisplatin may relate to its potential of forming a hydrogen bond between the carboxylate group in Pt (II) complex and the 6-amino moiety of adenosine stabilizes A-Oplatin products. Tandem mass spectrometry analysis also indicates that different coordination sites of Oplatin on adenosine affect glycosidic bond stability. Infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy experiments were performed on all three amino acid-linked cisplatin to characterize their structures. An extensive theoretical study has been performed on Gplatin to guide the selection of the most effective theory and basis set based on its geometric information. The results for Gplatin provide the foundation for characterization of the more complex amino acid-linked cisplatin derivatives, Oplatin and Kplatin. Structural and energetic information elucidated for these compounds, particularly Oplatin reveal the reason for its alternative selectivity compared to cisplatin.

  13. An optically tunable wideband optoelectronic oscillator based on a bandpass microwave photonic filter.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fan; Wong, Jia Haur; Lam, Huy Quoc; Zhou, Junqiang; Aditya, Sheel; Lim, Peng Huei; Lee, Kenneth Eng Kian; Shum, Perry Ping; Zhang, Xinliang

    2013-07-15

    An optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) with wideband frequency tunability and stable output based on a bandpass microwave photonic filter (MPF) has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Realized by cascading a finite impulse response (FIR) filter and an infinite impulse response (IIR) filter together, the tunable bandpass MPF successfully replaces the narrowband electrical bandpass filter in a conventional single-loop OEO and serves as the oscillating frequency selector. The FIR filter is based on a tunable multi-wavelength laser and dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) while the IIR filter is simply based on an optical loop. Utilizing a long length of DCF as the dispersion medium for the FIR filter also provides a long delay line for the OEO feedback cavity and as a result, optical tuning over a wide frequency range can be achieved without sacrificing the quality of the generated signal. By tuning the wavelength spacing of the multi-wavelength laser, the oscillation frequency can be tuned from 6.88 GHz to 12.79 GHz with an average step-size of 0.128 GHz. The maximum frequency drift of the generated 10 GHz signal is observed to be 1.923 kHz over 1 hour and its phase noise reaches the -112 dBc/Hz limit of our measuring equipment at 10 kHz offset frequency.

  14. Reconfigurable broadband microwave photonic intensity differentiator based on an integrated optical frequency comb source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xingyuan; Wu, Jiayang; Shoeiby, Mehrdad; Nguyen, Thach G.; Chu, Sai T.; Little, Brent E.; Morandotti, Roberto; Mitchell, Arnan; Moss, David J.

    2017-09-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a microwave photonic intensity differentiator based on a Kerr optical comb generated by a compact integrated micro-ring resonator (MRR). The on-chip Kerr optical comb, containing a large number of comb lines, serves as a high-performance multi-wavelength source for implementing a transversal filter, which will greatly reduce the cost, size, and complexity of the system. Moreover, owing to the compactness of the integrated MRR, frequency spacings of up to 200-GHz can be achieved, enabling a potential operation bandwidth of over 100 GHz. By programming and shaping individual comb lines according to calculated tap weights, a reconfigurable intensity differentiator with variable differentiation orders can be realized. The operation principle is theoretically analyzed, and experimental demonstrations of the first-, second-, and third-order differentiation functions based on this principle are presented. The radio frequency amplitude and phase responses of multi-order intensity differentiations are characterized, and system demonstrations of real-time differentiations for a Gaussian input signal are also performed. The experimental results show good agreement with theory, confirming the effectiveness of our approach.

  15. Quantum superposition of a single microwave photon in two different 'colour' states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakka-Bajjani, Eva; Nguyen, François; Lee, Minhyea; Vale, Leila R.; Simmonds, Raymond W.; Aumentado, José

    2011-08-01

    Fully controlled coherent coupling of arbitrary harmonic oscillators is an important tool for processing quantum information. Coupling between quantum harmonic oscillators has previously been demonstrated in several physical systems using a two-level system as a mediating element. Direct interaction at the quantum level has only recently been realized by means of resonant coupling between trapped ions. Here we implement a tunable direct coupling between the microwave harmonics of a superconducting resonator by means of parametric frequency conversion. We accomplish this by coupling the mode currents of two harmonics through a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) and modulating its flux at the difference (~7GHz) of the harmonic frequencies. We deterministically prepare a single-photon Fock state and coherently manipulate it between multiple modes, effectively controlling it in a superposition of two different 'colours'. This parametric interaction can be described as a beamsplitter-like operation that couples different frequency modes. As such, it could be used to implement linear optical quantum computing protocols on-chip.

  16. Theoretical investigation of the capture effect in intensity-modulation direct-detection microwave photonic links.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyyed Esmail; Banai, Ali

    2013-10-01

    We introduce the capture effect concept in microwave photonic links (MWPLs) for the first time to our knowledge. The capture effect or the small-signal suppression is the change in the amplitude ratio of the two signals between input and output of the intensity-modulation direct-detection (IMDD) MWPLs. An analytical explanation of the performance of external IMDD MWPLs due to the effects of nonlinearity combined with sum of several input sinusoidal signals is given. We have investigated the suppression of a weaker signal in these links. General analytic expression for the small-signal suppression is derived using a nonlinear analytical approach. We show that the small-signal suppression is quite dependent on the input back-off, the power ratio of input signals, and on the number of input sinusoidal signals. The theoretical maximum possible signal suppression was found to be 6 dB. This analytical asymptotic value is verified by numerical results. We show the influence of the capture effect of the nonlinear MWPL on the optoelectronic oscillator operation that is verified by experimental data in the literature that has already been published.

  17. An intensity modulation and coherent balanced detection intersatellite microwave photonic link using polarization direction control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuan; Zhu, Zihang; Zhao, Shanghong; Li, Yongjun; Han, Lei; Zhao, Jing

    2014-03-01

    A simple approach for high loss intersatellite microwave photonic link with intensity modulation and coherent balanced detection is proposed. In the transmitter, the double sideband-suppressed carrier (DSB-SC) modulated optical signal and optical carrier (OC) are combined by employing a polarization combiner to chose and control the signals polarization directions, while in the receiver, they are selected respectively by using a polarization splitter for they have orthogonal polarization directions. The separated DSB-SC signal and OC put into balanced detectors and the coherent detection is realized without a local oscillator (LO). At the output, the fundamental signal is augmented and the third-order distortion is suppressed for the DSB-SC modulation, the second-order distortion is removed for the balanced detection and the noise is reduced for the polarization direction control. The signal to noise and distortion ratio (SNDR) can be optimized by adjusting the power of OC and modulation index. The simulation results show that, a SNDR higher than 30 dB can be obtained for the proposed method, which is in agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  18. Optimization of an analog intersatellite microwave photonics link with an optical preamplifier.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zihang; Zhao, Shanghong; Li, Yongjun; Chu, Xingchun; Hou, Rui; Wang, Xiang; Zhao, Guhao

    2012-12-01

    An exact analytical expression of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for an intersatellite microwave photonics link with an optical preamplifier is derived considering the signal fade caused by the pointing errors of the transceiver, and an optimized model for laser output power and direct current (DC) bias phase shift of the Mach-Zehnder modulator is established. It is shown that, given the desired SNR and the root mean square (rms) random pointing jitter, an optimal DC bias phase shift exists that minimizes laser output power. The effects of the optical preamplifier parameters on the minimum laser output power and optimal DC bias phase shift are also examined. Numerical results show that the preamplifier noise figure determines the minimum laser output power needed to achieve the desired SNR but affects the optimal DC bias phase shift little. For a SNR of 20 dB, doubling the preamplifier noise figure results in a 6.36 dB increase in minimum laser output power for rms pointing jitter of 0.4 μrad.

  19. Microwave-driven plasmas in hollow-core photonic crystal fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debord, B.; Alves, L. L.; Gérôme, F.; Jamier, R.; Leroy, O.; Boisse-Laporte, C.; Leprince, P.; Benabid, F.

    2014-02-01

    Argon micro-plasmas a few centimetres long are generated at low gas pressure (6 mbar) in hollow-core photonic crystal fibres with 100 µm core diameter, using microwave excitation (2.45 GHz) based on a surfatron, with no damage to the host structure. Electromagnetic simulations assist the design of the surfatron cavity, finding optimal conditions for discharge ignition and maintenance. The plasma characterization reveals an electron density in the range 8 × 1014-1015 cm-3 (estimated from a semi-empirical analysis of the power coupled to the plasma, along the axial-direction) and a gas temperature of 1100-1300 K at the centre of the fibre (measured by optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics), thus showing an impressive ionization degree of ˜10-2 for power densities of ˜0.1 MW cm-3. The micro-plasma dynamics is investigated using a self-consistent one-dimensional (radial) fluid model, describing the charged particle and the electron energy transport, the electromagnetic excitation and the gas heating. Model results are used to confirm the diagnostics, revealing an extreme plasma confinement and a steep temperature gradient that give rise to the main operation features of this novel compact UV source.

  20. Linearization of microwave photonic link based on nonlinearity of distributed feedback laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Zi-jian; Gu, Yi-ying; Zhu, Wen-wu; Fan, Feng; Hu, Jing-jing; Zhao, Ming-shan

    2016-02-01

    A microwave photonic link (MPL) with spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) improvement utilizing the nonlinearity of a distributed feedback (DFB) laser is proposed and demonstrated. First, the relationship between the bias current and nonlinearity of a semiconductor DFB laser is experimentally studied. On this basis, the proposed linear optimization of MPL is realized by the combination of the external intensity Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) modulation MPL and the direct modulation MPL with the nonlinear operation of the DFB laser. In the external modulation MPL, the MZM is biased at the linear point to achieve the radio frequency (RF) signal transmission. In the direct modulation MPL, the third-order intermodulation (IMD3) components are generated for enhancing the SFDR of the external modulation MPL. When the center frequency of the input RF signal is 5 GHz and the two-tone signal interval is 10 kHz, the experimental results show that IMD3 of the system is effectively suppressed by 29.3 dB and the SFDR is increased by 7.7 dB.

  1. Simplified photonic-assisted digitalized microwave frequency measurement with improved coding efficiency and sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bing; Pan, Wei; Zou, Xihua; Yan, Lianshan; Luo, Bin; Liu, Xinkai; Li, Peixuan; Yan, Xianglei

    2016-08-01

    A simplified photonic approach to implement digitalized microwave frequency measurement with improved coding efficiency and receiving sensitivity is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed approach, an optical phase-shifted filter array and multiple optical filters with multiplied FSRs are designed to obtain digitalized results in the form of binary encoding. Thanks to the complementary outputs, an adaptive threshold decision implemented using balanced receivers is employed to perform binary encoding, instead of a fixed power ratio threshold of 0.5, leading to an improvement in the receiving sensitivity. Besides, a high coding efficiency and a fine measurement resolution are achieved with relaxed accuracy requirement on phase shifts of the optical filters. In particular, compared with the previous approaches, larger tolerances on the phase shifts of the optical phase-shifted filters are provided in the proposed approach having the same coding efficiency and resolution. Therefore, the proposed system is easy to be implemented and robust to noise. A proof-of-concept experiment is then performed. 6-bit binary digital results with a 5-bit effective number are obtained in the range from 10 GHz to 40 GHz. In addition, an integrated version of such a filter array is designed and analyzed in simulation.

  2. Two Photon Absorption Laser Induced Fluorescence of Helium Ions in a Microwave Assisted Helicon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scime, Earl

    2014-10-01

    The spectroscopic measurement of helium ion velocity distribution functions in a low temperature plasma is problematic for a number of reasons. First and foremost is the difficulty in accessing the UV and soft x-ray transitions to the ground state. Conventional laser induced fluorescence on ions in plasmas is routinely performed in argon, neon, xenon, and barium. Two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TALIF) on neutrals has been demonstrated in hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen plasmas. We have successfully performed LIF on helium atoms and have had some hints of success with laser absorption spectroscopy on excited states of helium ions, the n = 5 to n = 6 transition in the infrared (1012 nm). Here we report a new approach using TALIF to access the n = 2 to n = 6 transition of singly ionized helium. The fluorescence path at 656 nm completes the three-level sequence. To obtain the electron temperatures necessary to create a sufficient population of metastable helium ions trapped in the 2S state, we have increased the electron temperature of a helicon plasma with 1.2 kW of microwaves at 2.45 GHz. Here we report emission spectroscopy measurements that confirm the increase in excited state population densities and preliminary TALIF measurements on helium ions. This work is funded by the US Department of Energy through Grant DE-SC0004736.

  3. Quantum simulation with interacting photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Michael J.

    2016-10-01

    Enhancing optical nonlinearities so that they become appreciable on the single photon level and lead to nonclassical light fields has been a central objective in quantum optics for many years. After this has been achieved in individual micro-cavities representing an effectively zero-dimensional volume, this line of research has shifted its focus towards engineering devices where such strong optical nonlinearities simultaneously occur in extended volumes of multiple nodes of a network. Recent technological progress in several experimental platforms now opens the possibility to employ the systems of strongly interacting photons, these give rise to as quantum simulators. Here we review the recent development and current status of this research direction for theory and experiment. Addressing both, optical photons interacting with atoms and microwave photons in networks of superconducting circuits, we focus on analogue quantum simulations in scenarios where effective photon-photon interactions exceed dissipative processes in the considered platforms.

  4. Enhancement of negligible transmission band using hybrid periodic/Fibonacci photonic crystal in near infrared and microwave domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouldi, Abir; Kanzari, Mounir

    2012-06-01

    A hybrid structure of the type Bragg mirror-(Fibonacci)S is proposed to enhance the zero transmission band through the one dimensional photonic crystal in microwave domain and in the infrared. The efficiency of the configuration is proved in microwave domain for angles below 57°. In the infrared, the use of the configuration exhibits a large photonic band gap at any angle of incidence and for both polarizations. The proposed structure is a quarter wavelength omnidirectional mirror of 37 layers with a bandwidth larger than that of the periodic structure with an increasing ratio 3.7 and it covers all the optical telecommunication wavelengths 0.85, 1.3 and 1.55 μm. Unlike the previous devices, the structure is simple to fabricate and it shows interesting optical properties. The configuration Bragg mirror-(Fibonacci)S-Bragg mirror is also investigated to more extend the photonic band gap. Since different physical phenomena have their own appropriate physical scales, we exploited the physical properties of the proposed hybrid structure in different wavelength domains.

  5. Fully reconfigurable photonic microwave transversal filter based on digital micromirror device and continuous-wave, incoherent supercontinuum source.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Han; Chang, You Min; Han, Young-Geun; Lee, Sang Bae; Chung, Hae Yang

    2007-08-01

    The combined use of a programmable, digital micromirror device (DMD) and an ultrabroadband, cw, incoherent supercontinuum (SC) source is experimentally demonstrated to fully explore various aspects on the reconfiguration of a microwave filter transfer function by creating a range of multiwavelength optical filter shapes. Owing to both the unique characteristic of the DMD that an arbitrary optical filter shape can be readily produced and the ultrabroad bandwidth of the cw SC source that is 3 times larger than that of Er-amplified spontaneous emission, a multiwavelength optical beam pattern can be generated with a large number of wavelength filter taps apodized by an arbitrary amplitude window. Therefore various types of high-quality microwave filter can be readily achieved through the spectrum slicing-based photonic microwave transversal filter scheme. The experimental demonstration is performed in three aspects: the tuning of a filter resonance bandwidth at a fixed resonance frequency, filter resonance frequency tuning at a fixed resonance frequency, and flexible microwave filter shape reconstruction.

  6. Design of a vector-sum integrated microwave photonic phase shifter in silicon-on-insulator waveguides.

    PubMed

    Qu, Pengfei; Liu, Caixia; Dong, Wei; Chen, Weiyou; Li, Fumin; Li, Haibin; Gong, Zhaoxin; Ruan, Shengping; Zhang, Xindong; Zhou, Jingran

    2011-06-10

    An orthogonal vector-sum integrated microwave photonic phase shifter (IMWPPS), consisting of mode-order converter multiplexers (MOCMs), a variable optical power splitter (VOPS), an optical switch (OS) and fixed time delay lines (FTDLs), was theoretically demonstrated in a silicon-on-insulator wafer. MOCMs, as a key element of our device, were employed to generate orthogonal vector signals and served as lossless optical combiners. Combining with the thermo-optical VOPS, OS and FTDLs, the microwave phase shift of 0∼2π could be achieved by a refractive index variation of 0∼15×10(-3) in the millimeter wave band. The corresponding tuning resolution was about 1.64°/°C. This work, for the first time to our knowledge, provides an attractive solution to transferring a vector-sum method based bulk MWPPS into a integrated one, which is very important for large-scale optically controlled phase array antenna.

  7. A novel approach to photonic generate microwave signals based on optical injection locking and four-wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huatao; Wang, Rong; Xiang, Peng; Pu, Tao; Fang, Tao; Zheng, Jilin; Li, Yuandong

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a novel approach for photonic generation of microwave signals based on frequency multiplication using an injected distributed-feedback (DFB) semiconductor laser is proposed and demonstrated by a proof-of-concept experiment. The proposed system is mainly made up of a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DPMZM) and an injected DFB laser. By properly setting the bias voltage of the DPMZM, ±2-order sidebands with carrier suppression are generated, which are then injected into the slave laser. Due to the optical sideband locking and four-wave mixing (FWM) nonlinearity in the slave laser, new sidebands are generated. Then these sidebands are sent to an optical notch filter where all the undesired sidebands are removed. Finally, after photodetector detection, frequency multiplied microwave signals can be generated. Thanks to the flexibility of the optical sideband locking and FWM, frequency octupling, 12-tupling, 14-tupling and 16-tupling can be obtained.

  8. Bandwidth improvement of microwave photonic components based on electro-optic polymers loaded with TiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palessonga, D.; El Gibari, M.; Ginestar, S.; Terrisse, H.; Guiffard, B.; Kassiba, A.; Li, H. W.

    2017-08-01

    Electro-optic (EO) polymers offer a very attractive possibility of realizing low-cost microwave photonic components with a wide bandwidth and a low driving voltage, thanks to a low dispersion from microwave to optical frequency of polymeric materials on the one hand, and the progress in the synthesis of high hyperpolarizability chromophores on the other hand. This paper studies the influence of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticle loading on the microwave and optical properties of EO polymers. Thus, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and disperse red 1 (DR1) are used as host polymer and guest EO chromophore, respectively. With 1-3% TiO2 nanoparticle homogeneously incorporated in the polymer, the dielectric constant varies from 2.73 to 3.40 over the 400 MHz-10 GHz range, and the refractive index increases from 1.483 to 1.488 at the wavelength of 1539.6 nm. It is shown that fine tuning of dielectric constant and refractive index could allow improvement of the microwave photonic component bandwidth. For example, with an EO interaction length L = 2 cm (typical length of EO modulators), the ultimate modulator bandwidth could be raised to 258 GHz by loading PMMA-DR1 EO polymer with 1% wt of TiO2 nanoparticles. It is also found that loading polymer with nanoparticles could improve the EO response of poled polymers, represented by the intensity of the second-harmonic-generation (SHG) signal. The latter presents more than a threefold increase by loading PMMA-DR1 EO polymer with 2% wt TiO2 nanoparticles.

  9. Tunable complex-valued multi-tap microwave photonic filter based on single silicon-on-insulator microring resonator.

    PubMed

    Lloret, Juan; Sancho, Juan; Pu, Minhao; Gasulla, Ivana; Yvind, Kresten; Sales, Salvador; Capmany, José

    2011-06-20

    A complex-valued multi-tap tunable microwave photonic filter based on single silicon-on-insulator microring resonator is presented. The degree of tunability of the approach involving two, three and four taps is theoretical and experimentally characterized, respectively. The constraints of exploiting the optical phase transfer function of a microring resonator aiming at implementing complex-valued multi-tap filtering schemes are also reported. The trade-off between the degree of tunability without changing the free spectral range and the number of taps is studied in-depth. Different window based scenarios are evaluated for improving the filter performance in terms of the side-lobe level.

  10. A photonic approach for microwave/millimeter-wave frequency measurement using stimulated brillouin scattering in single mode fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, K.; Sun, X. Q.; Fu, S. N.; Wu, J.; Hong, X. B.; Shum, Perry; Lin, J. T.

    2010-04-01

    A photonic approach for microwave/millimeter-wave (MMW) frequency measurement is proposed and demonstrated based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) of a 20-km standard single mode fiber (SSMF). After the MMW signal is modulated to a laser source with two sidebands using optical carrier suppression (OCS) modulation, its frequency can be easily measured by monitoring the SBS-induced amplification with a power meter. Due to the 1-pm resolution of a tunable pump laser source, a frequency measurement range of 1-40 GHz is demonstrated in our experiment with a frequency resolution of 125 MHz. We believe the frequency measurement range can be further extended to satisfy photonic radar front-end processing application.

  11. Wideband 360 degrees microwave photonic phase shifter based on slow light in semiconductor optical amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Xue, Weiqi; Sales, Salvador; Capmany, José; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-03-15

    In this work we demonstrate for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a continuously tunable 360 degrees microwave phase shifter spanning a microwave bandwidth of several tens of GHz (up to 40 GHz). The proposed device exploits the phenomenon of coherent population oscillations, enhanced by optical filtering, in combination with a regeneration stage realized by four-wave mixing effects. This combination provides scalability: three hybrid stages are demonstrated but the technology allows an all-integrated device. The microwave operation frequency limitations of the suggested technique, dictated by the underlying physics, are also analyzed.

  12. Reconfigurable and frequency-agile on-chip microwave photonic bandpass and bandstop filters using stimulated Brillouin scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Amol; Aryanfar, Iman; Shahnia, Shayan; Morrison, Blair; Pagani, Mattia; Liu, Yang; Vu, Khu; Madden, Stephen; Luther-Davies, Barry; Marpaung, David; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present our recent results in the area of microwave photonics. Integrated microwave photonic bandpass and bandstop filters were realized using stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). Our recent breakthrough in the fabrication of chalcogenide waveguides has allowed us to achieve an on-chip SBS gain of >40 dB, enabling for the first time the tailoring of the SBS response well beyond the intrinsic linewidth ( 30 MHz). An electrical comb generated by an arbitrary waveform generator was modulated onto an optical carrier to generate a broadened pump which via the SBS effect created a flat and rectangular bandpass filter response in the RF domain. Controlling the number of pump lines allowed bandwidth reconfigurability from 30 MHz to 440 MHz. The measured selectivity and the passband ripple were >20 dB and <1.9 dB, respectively and the center frequency of the filter was tuned up to 30 GHz. A bandstop filter response was realized by using a novel RF interferometry technique via accurate control of the amplitude and phase of the sidebands of the modulated probe. The bandwidth was reconfigurable from 75 MHz-300 MHz and the central frequency of the filter was tunable up to 30 GHz.

  13. Novel wideband microwave polarization network using a fully-reconfigurable photonic waveguide interleaver with a two-ring resonator-assisted asymmetric Mach-Zehnder structure.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Leimeng; Beeker, Willem; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René; van Dijk, Paulus; Roeloffzen, Chris

    2013-02-11

    We propose and demonstrate a novel wideband microwave photonic polarization network for dual linear-polarized antennas. The polarization network is based on a waveguide-implemented fully-reconfigurable optical interleaver using a two-ring resonator-assisted asymmetric Mach-Zehnder structure. For microwave photonic signal processing, this structure is able to serve as a wideband 2 × 2 RF coupler with reconfigurable complex coefficients, and therefore can be used as a polarization network for wideband antennas. Such a device can equip the antennas with not only the polarization rotation capability for linear-polarization signals but also the capability to operate with and tune between two opposite circular polarizations. Operating together with a particular modulation scheme, the device is also able to serve for simultaneous feeding of dual-polarization signals. These photonic-implemented RF functionalities can be applied to wideband antenna systems to perform agile polarization manipulations and tracking operations. An example of such a interleaver has been realized in TriPleX waveguide technology, which was designed with a free spectral range of 20 GHz and a mask footprint of smaller than 1 × 1 cm. Using the realized device, the reconfigurable complex coefficients of the polarization network were demonstrated with a continuous bandwidth from 2 to 8 GHz and an in-band phase ripple of smaller than 5 degree. The waveguide structure of the device allows it to be further integrated with other functional building blocks of a photonic integrated circuit to realize on-chip, complex microwave photonic processors. Of particular interest, it can be included in an optical beamformer for phased array antennas, so that simultaneous wideband beam and polarization trackings can be achieved photonically. To our knowledge, this is the first-time on-chip demonstration of an integrated microwave photonic polarization network for dual linear-polarized antennas.

  14. Combined Brillouin light scattering and microwave absorption study of magnon-photon coupling in a split-ring resonator/YIG film system

    SciTech Connect

    Klingler, S. Maier-Flaig, H.; Weiler, M.; Gross, R.; Huebl, H.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.; Hu, C.-M.

    2016-08-15

    Microfocused Brillouin light scattering (BLS) and microwave absorption (MA) are used to study magnon-photon coupling in a system consisting of a split-ring microwave resonator and an yttrium iron garnet (YIG) film. The split-ring resonator is defined by optical lithography and loaded with a 1 μm-thick YIG film grown by liquid phase epitaxy. BLS and MA spectra of the hybrid system are simultaneously recorded as a function of the applied magnetic field magnitude and microwave excitation frequency. Strong coupling of the magnon and microwave resonator modes is found with a coupling strength of g{sub eff} /2π = 63 MHz. The combined BLS and MA data allow us to study the continuous transition of the hybridized modes from a purely magnonic to a purely photonic mode by varying the applied magnetic field and microwave frequency. Furthermore, the BLS data represent an up-conversion of the microwave frequency coupling to optical frequencies.

  15. Sub-femtosecond absolute timing jitter with a 10 GHz hybrid photonic-microwave oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortier, T. M.; Nelson, C. W.; Hati, A.; Quinlan, F.; Taylor, J.; Jiang, H.; Chou, C. W.; Rosenband, T.; Lemke, N.; Ludlow, A.; Howe, D.; Oates, C. W.; Diddams, S. A.

    2012-06-01

    We present an optical-electronic approach to generating microwave signals with high spectral purity. By circumventing shot noise and operating near fundamental thermal limits, we demonstrate 10 GHz signals with an absolute timing jitter for a single hybrid oscillator of 420 attoseconds (1 Hz-5 GHz).

  16. A single source microwave photonic filter using a novel single-mode fiber to multimode fiber coupling technique.

    PubMed

    Chang, John; Fok, Mable P; Meister, James; Prucnal, Paul R

    2013-03-11

    In this paper we present a fully tunable and reconfigurable single-laser multi-tap microwave photonic FIR filter that utilizes a special SM-to-MM combiner to sum the taps. The filter requires only a single laser source for all the taps and a passive component, a SM-to-MM combiner, for incoherent summing of signal. The SM-to-MM combiner does not produce optical interference during signal merging and is phase-insensitive. We experimentally demonstrate an eight-tap filter with both positive and negative programmable coefficients with excellent correspondence between predicted and measured values. The magnitude response shows a clean and accurate function across the entire bandwidth, and proves successful operation of the FIR filter using a SM-to-MM combiner.

  17. Photonic subsampling analog-to-digital conversion of microwave signals at 40-GHz with higher than 7-ENOB resolution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungwon; Park, Matthew J; Perrott, Michael H; Kärtner, Franz X

    2008-10-13

    Conversion of analog signals into digital signals is one of the most important functionalities in modern signal processing systems. As the signal frequency increases beyond 10 GHz, the timing jitter from electronic clocks, currently limited at approximately 100 fs, compromises the achievable resolution of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). Owing to their ultralow timing jitter, the use of optical pulse trains from passively mode-locked lasers has been considered to be a promising way for sampling electronic signals. In this paper, based on sub-10 fs jitter optical sampling pulse trains, we demonstrate a photonic subsampling ADC that downconverts and digitizes a narrowband microwave signal at 40 GHz carrier frequency with higher than 7 effective-number-of-bit (ENOB) resolution.

  18. Single-passband microwave photonic filter based on a self-seeded multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ronghui; Zhang, Xuping; Hu, Junhui; Xia, Lan

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a single-passband microwave photonic filter based on a self-seeded multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser is demonstrated experimentally. In the filter, the multiwavelength Brillouin comb generated from the laser is used as the filter taps. The Brillouin comb is with the feature of quasi-Gaussian continuous distribution, which can ensure the filter realizes single-passband characteristic. The baseband response is suppressed effectively with the help of phase modulation. The single-passband filter has an out-of-band rejection of 25 dB. By adjusting the Brillouin multiwavelengh, the 3-dB bandwidth and the center frequency of the filter can be changed.

  19. A monolithically integrated dual-mode laser for photonic microwave generation and all-optical clock recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Liqiang; Zhou, Daibing; Zhao, Lingjuan

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate a monolithically integrated dual-mode laser (DML) with narrow-beat-linewidth and wide-beat-tunability. Using a monolithic DFB laser subjected to amplified feedback, photonic microwave generation of up to 45 GHz is obtained with higher than 15 GHz beat frequency tunability. Thanks to the high phase correlation of the two modes and the narrow mode linewidth, a RF linewidth of lower than 50 kHz is measured. Simulations are also carried out to illustrate the dual-mode beat characteristic. Furthermore, using the DML, an all-optical clock recovery for 40  Gbaud NRZ-QPSK signals is demonstrated. Timing jitter of lower than 363 fs (integrated within a frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 GHz) is obtained.

  20. Broadband photonic microwave phase shifter based on controlling two RF modulation sidebands via a Fourier-domain optical processor.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Chan, E H W; Wang, X; Feng, X; Guan, B

    2015-05-04

    An all-optical photonic microwave phase shifter that can realize a continuous 360° phase shift over a wide frequency range is presented. It is based on the new concept of controlling the amplitude and phase of the two RF modulation sidebands via a Fourier-domain optical processor. The operating frequency range of the phase shifter is largely increased compared to the previously reported Fourier-domain optical processor based phase shifter that uses only one RF modulation sideband. This is due to the extension of the lower RF operating frequency by designing the amplitude and phase of one of the RF modulation sidebands while the other sideband is designed to realize the required RF signal phase shift. The two-sideband amplitude-and-phase-control based photonic microwave phase shifter has a simple structure as it only requires a single laser source, a phase modulator, a Fourier-domain optical processor and a single photodetector. Investigation on the bandwidth limitation problem in the conventional Fourier-domain optical processor based phase shifter is presented. Comparisons between the measured phase shifter output RF amplitude and phase responses with theory, which show excellent agreement, are also presented for the first time. Experimental results demonstrate the full -180° to + 180° phase shift with little RF signal amplitude variation of less than 3 dB and with a phase deviation of less than 4° over a 7.5 GHz to 26.5 GHz frequency range, and the phase shifter exhibits a long term stable performance.

  1. Realizing 60 GHz narrow-linewidth photonic microwaves with very low RF driving power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Weiwei; Lin, Peng; Ke, Shanming; Zeng, Xierong

    2016-12-01

    In this letter, we realize tunable (up to 60 GHz) microwave signal generation with low phase noise (-82.7 dBc Hz-1 with an offset of 10 kHz at 60 GHz) and low RF driving power (⩽2.0 dBm). A monolithically integrated semiconductor dual wavelength laser diode is used, where an enhanced  -3 dB bandwidth of up to 30 GHz is realized with a PP resonance effect. By using an RF signal (ƒmod  =  ƒ/2) to directly modulate the distributed feedback laser section, the dual wavelengths of the laser diode can be locked by the generated sidebands (±2nd order), the beating of which generates a stable microwave signal with high purity.

  2. Advanced Microwave Frequency Sources and Filters Based on Superconducting Photonic Band Gap (PBG) Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-16

    high Q PBG resonators and who also have strong interests in microwave technology. As a result, we have formed a collaborative effort with Conductus Inc... Conductus has participated in the preparation of our Phase II proposal and will be a key team member if this work is funded. (6) - Complete a report...division multiplexing and power combining. Conductus has a close relationship with a small company, Endgate Technology, which is designing antenna systems

  3. QUANTUM INFORMATION. Coherent coupling of a single spin to microwave cavity photons.

    PubMed

    Viennot, J J; Dartiailh, M C; Cottet, A; Kontos, T

    2015-07-24

    Electron spins and photons are complementary quantum-mechanical objects that can be used to carry, manipulate, and transform quantum information. To combine these resources, it is desirable to achieve the coherent coupling of a single spin to photons stored in a superconducting resonator. Using a circuit design based on a nanoscale spin valve, we coherently hybridize the individual spin and charge states of a double quantum dot while preserving spin coherence. This scheme allows us to achieve spin-photon coupling up to the megahertz range at the single-spin level. The cooperativity is found to reach 2.3, and the spin coherence time is about 60 nanoseconds. We thereby demonstrate a mesoscopic device suitable for nondestructive spin readout and distant spin coupling. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Manifestation of Strong Coupling Between Microwave Photons and Spins in the epr Spectrum of Anthracite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedaruk, R.; Adashkevich, S. V.

    2014-07-01

    The change of the anthracite EPR signal shape that was caused by increasing the sample size was observed by continuous-wave EPR with automatic frequency control locked to the measuring cavity. For large samples (>10 mm3), hysteresis (a difference in the resonant magnetic flux densities when the magnetic field was scanned upwards or downwards) and a bistability (a sharp amplitude change) were observed. A two-peak spectrum for a strongly coupled system formed by an electron-spin ensemble and the cavity microwave field was found by changing the frequency of the microwave oscillator during recording of the EPR signals. The difference in the frequencies of these peaks (Rabi splitting) was a measure of the coupling strength between the spins and the microwave field and increased with increasing sample size. The simultaneous increase of the hysteresis and bistability of the EPR signals provided evidence that these peculiarities were caused by the Rabi splitting. Use of the Rabi splitting to determine the number of electron spins in a sample was proposed.

  5. Third-order intermodulation distortion elimination of microwave photonics link based on integrated dual-drive dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Zhang, Yi-Chen; Yu, Song; Jiang, Tianwei; Xie, Qian; Gu, Wanyi

    2013-11-01

    A method to realize a highly linear microwave photonics link is proposed based on the dual-drive dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM). The scheme theoretically eliminates third-order intermodulation distortion (IMD3) completely by taking all the sidebands in the optical spectrum that cause IMD3 into consideration. Without digital linearization and other optical processors, the method utilizes simple electrical signal phase control. Microwave signals are symmetrically single sideband modulated in the two MZMs. IMD3 suppression of approximately 30 dB is experimentally demonstrated, and the spurious-free dynamic range is improved by 12 dB·Hz2/3.

  6. Frequency-Modulated Microwave Photonic Links with Direct Detection: Review and Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-15

    splitters was suggested by [13]. In this case, balanced photodetection was used to cancel AM. Such an interferometer was experimentally veried by [14...residual intensity modulation as well as imperfect common- mode rejection from the balanced photodetection . 3.2 Filter coecients The frequency...Numerical model of an FM photonic link with two discriminator lters and balanced detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 3.2.1

  7. Centimeter- and millimeter-wavelength matched loads based on microwave photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usanov, D. A.; Meshchanov, V. P.; Skripal', A. V.; Popova, N. F.; Ponomarev, D. V.; Merdanov, M. K.

    2017-02-01

    Novel, small-sized broadband matched loads in the form of disordered photonic crystals containing nanometer metallic and insulating layers have been developed. It has been proposed to form insulating layers with different permittivities and low dissipation factors in both centimeter and millimeter wavelength ranges from the composites that consist of insulating matrices filled with air inclusions.

  8. Four-photon microwave laser spectroscopy of molecules in the hydration layers of biopolymers and nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Bunkin, Aleksei F; Pershin, Sergei M

    2009-07-31

    Four-photon laser scattering spectra of bidistilled water and aqueous solutions of biopolymers (proteins and DNA), carbon nanotubes and hydrogen peroxide have been measured in the range {+-}10 cm{sup -1}. The spectra show rotational resonances of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, ortho-H{sub 2}O and para-H{sub 2}O molecules. The resonance contribution of the H{sub 2}O rotational spectrum to the four-photon scattering signal in the solutions of the biopolymers and hydrophobic nanoparticles is an order of magnitude larger in comparison with water, which points to free rotation of the water molecules near the surface of such particles. This effect is due to the formation of water depletion layers near hydrophobic nanoparticles, as predicted in earlier theoretical studies. (special issue devoted to the 80th birthday of S.A. Akhmanov)

  9. Spontaneous and induced radiation by electrons/positrons in natural and photonic crystals. Volume free electron lasers (VFELs): From microwave and optical to X-ray range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baryshevsky, V. G.

    2015-07-01

    Spontaneous and induced radiation produced by relativistic particles passing through natural and photonic crystals has enhanced capabilities for achieving the radiation sources operating in different wavelength ranges. Use of a non-one-dimensional distributed feedback, arising through Bragg diffraction in spatially periodic systems (natural and artificial (electromagnetic, photonic) crystals), establishes the foundation for the development of volume free electron lasers/masers (VFELs/VFEMs) as well as high-energy charged particle accelerators. The analysis of basic principles of VFEL theory demonstrates the promising potential of VFELs as the basis for the development of high-power microwave and optical sources.

  10. A wideband 360° photonic-assisted microwave phase shifter using a polarization modulator and a polarization-maintaining fiber Bragg grating.

    PubMed

    Li, Wangzhe; Zhang, Weifeng; Yao, Jianping

    2012-12-31

    A novel approach to implementing a wideband microwave photonic phase shifter by a joint use of a polarization modulator (PolM) and a polarization-maintaining fiber Bragg grating (PM-FBG) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A microwave signal to be phase shifted is applied to the PolM. Two phase-modulated signals along the two principal axes of the PolM are generated and sent to the PM-FBG. The phase-modulated signals have a static but complementary phase shift introduced by the dc bias applied to the PolM. Due to the birefringence of the polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber, the PM-FBG has two spectrally separated and orthogonally polarized reflection bands. By employing the PM-FBG to reflect one first-order sideband along one polarization direction and one optical carrier along the other polarization direction, and send them back to the PolM, a second-time phase modulation is imposed to the sideband and the optical carrier. By sending the two signals to a polarizer and beating them at a photodetector, a phase shifted microwave signal is obtained. Since the PolM is used twice, a low dc bias voltage would lead to a large phase shift. A full 360° microwave photonic phase shifter over a frequency range of 30-40 GHz is experimentally demonstrated. The spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) of the phase shifter is also studied.

  11. Four-photon microwave laser spectroscopy of aqueous solutions of biopolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Bunkin, A F; Nurmatov, A A; Pershin, S M; Khusainova, R S; Potekhin, S A

    2007-10-31

    The four-photon laser radiation scattering spectra are obtained in the submillimetre range (75-95 cm{sup -1}) for deionised water, aqueous solutions of DNA and {alpha}-chymotrypsin protein. Narrow resonances are recorded whose frequencies coincide (within the resolution power of a spectrometer) with rotational frequencies in the ground electronic state and vibrational state of ortho and para isomers of H{sub 2}O molecule in a gas phase and with the frequencies of the lines of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and OH{sup -} molecules. It is shown that the resonance contribution of the rotational lines of ortho isomers of H{sub 2}O to the signal of four-photon scattering of native solutions of biopolymers increases by a factor of at least 8 compared to their contribution to the scattering signal in water, and becomes considerably larger than the contribution from the paraisomer lines. Denaturation of DNA after heating and cooling of the solution leads to the disappearance of such selectivity. (special issue devoted to the 25th anniversary of the a.m. prokhorov general physics institute)

  12. Photonic generation of widely tunable phase-coded microwave signals based on a dual-parallel polarization modulator.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shifeng; Zhu, Dan; Wei, Zhengwu; Pan, Shilong

    2014-07-01

    A photonic approach for the generation of a widely tunable arbitrarily phase-coded microwave signal based on a dual-parallel polarization modulator (DP-PolM) is proposed and demonstrated without using any optical or electrical filter. Two orthogonally polarized ± first-order optical sidebands with suppressed carrier are generated based on the DP-PolM, and their polarization directions are aligned with the two principal axes of the following PolM. Phase coding is implemented at a following PolM driven by an electrical coding signal. The inherent frequency-doubling operation can make the system work at a frequency beyond the operation bandwidth of the DP-PolM and the 90° hybrid. Because no optical or electrical filter is applied, good frequency tunability is realized. An experiment is performed. The generation of phase-coded signals tuning from 10 to 40 GHz with up to 10  Gbit/s coding rates is verified.

  13. Versatile photonic microwave waveforms generation using a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator without other dispersive elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Guang-Fu; Hu, Lin; Jiang, Yang; Tian, Jing; Zi, Yue-Jiao; Wu, Ting-Wei; Huang, Feng-Qin

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a photonic microwave waveform generator based on a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In this reported scheme, only one radio frequency signal is used to drive the dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator. Meanwhile, dispersive elements or filters are not required in the proposed scheme, which make the scheme simpler and more stable. In this way, six variables can be adjusted. Through the different combinations of these variables, basic waveforms with full duty and small duty cycle can be generated. Tunability of the generator can be achieved by adjusting the frequency of the RF signal and the optical carrier. The corresponding theoretical analysis and simulation have been conducted. With guidance of theory and simulation, proof-of-concept experiments are carried out. The basic waveforms, including Gaussian, saw-up, and saw-down waveforms, with full duty and small duty cycle are generated at the repetition rate of 2 GHz. The theoretical and simulation results agree with the experimental results very well.

  14. Intermodulation and harmonic distortion in slow light Microwave Photonic phase shifters based on Coherent Population Oscillations in SOAs.

    PubMed

    Gasulla, Ivana; Sancho, Juan; Capmany, José; Lloret, Juan; Sales, Salvador

    2010-12-06

    We theoretically and experimentally evaluate the propagation, generation and amplification of signal, harmonic and intermodulation distortion terms inside a Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) under Coherent Population Oscillation (CPO) regime. For that purpose, we present a general optical field model, valid for any arbitrarily-spaced radiofrequency tones, which is necessary to correctly describe the operation of CPO based slow light Microwave Photonic phase shifters which comprise an electrooptic modulator and a SOA followed by an optical filter and supplements another recently published for true time delay operation based on the propagation of optical intensities. The phase shifter performance has been evaluated in terms of the nonlinear distortion up to 3rd order, for a modulating signal constituted of two tones, in function of the electrooptic modulator input RF power and the SOA input optical power, obtaining a very good agreement between theoretical and experimental results. A complete theoretical spectral analysis is also presented which shows that under small signal operation conditions, the 3rd order intermodulation products at 2Ω1 + Ω2 and 2Ω2 + Ω1 experience a power dip/phase transition characteristic of the fundamental tones phase shifting operation.

  15. Noise figure of microwave photonic links operating under large-signal modulation and its application to optoelectronic oscillators.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyyed Esmail; Banai, Ali

    2014-10-01

    The noise performance of intensity-modulation direct-detection microwave photonic links (MWPL) operating under large-signal conditions has been studied in this paper. A sinusoidal signal plus narrowband white Gaussian noise is applied at the radio frequency input of the link, and the output spectrum is derived using a nonlinear analytical approach. We show that the output SNR can be severely affected by the interaction of signal and noise due to the nonlinearity of the MWPL combined with the large input modulating signal. It is shown that the large-signal noise figure (NF) of an MWPL depends on the input power, a dependence that is not readily apparent under small-signal conditions, due to two unavoidable issues appearing in the large-signal conditions: (1) the link power gain is a function of its input power, and (2) the link power gain is not the same for the signal and noise due to the capture effect. We also have observed that if shot noise or laser relative intensity noise (RIN) is the dominant source of noise, link large-signal NF increases as the input signal power increases. We have shown that, when the MWPL is operating in the linear regime, our theoretical predictions approach the already published results on small-signal NF, which are verified by experimental data. We have shown that large-signal NF affects the noise performance of optoelectronic oscillators because they contain MWPLs at saturation.

  16. Photonic synthesis of high fidelity microwave arbitrary waveforms using near field frequency to time mapping.

    PubMed

    Dezfooliyan, Amir; Weiner, Andrew M

    2013-09-23

    Photonic radio-frequency (RF) arbitrary waveform generation (AWG) based on spectral shaping and frequency-to-time mapping has received substantial attention. This technique, however, is critically constrained by the far-field condition which imposes strict limits on the complexity of the generated waveforms. The time bandwidth product (TBWP) decreases as the inverse of the RF bandwidth which limits one from exploiting the full TBWP available from modern pulse shapers. Here we introduce a new RF-AWG technique which we call near-field frequency-to-time mapping. This approach overcomes the previous restrictions by predistorting the amplitude and phase of the spectrally shaped optical signal to achieve high fidelity waveforms with radically increased TBWP in the near field region.

  17. Low-Pressure Microwave Excited Microplasmas as Sources of VUV Photons and Metastable Excited Atoms: Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushner, Mark; Cooley, James; Xue, Jun; Urdhal, Randall

    2011-10-01

    Low pressure plasmas sustained in rare gases and rare gas mixtures can be efficient sources of VUV light from resonant optical transitions. Many applications would benefit from having small, inexpensive sources of plasma produced VUV light. To address this need, microwave wave excited microplasma sources in rare gases operating at pressures of <10 Torr are being developed. The microplasmas are sustained in ceramic cavities having cross sectional dimensions of <=1 mm, excited by a split-ring resonator antenna operated at 2.45 GHz. Power deposition is a few W. Hybrid computer modeling of microplasmas sustained in Ar has been performed to develop scaling laws for increasing the efficiency of VUV light production. The model includes a Monte Carlo simulation for the electron energy distribution and for radiation transport. Results from those studies will be discussed for plasma densities, electron energy distributions, VUV light production and excited state densities as a function of power, pressure and aspect ratio of the microplasma cavities. Modeling results will be compared to laser absorption spectroscopy of Ar excited state densities. Work supported by Agilent Technologies.

  18. Negative refraction and flat-lens focusing in a 2D square-lattice photonic crystal at microwave and millimeter wave frequencies.

    PubMed

    Meisels, R; Gajic, R; Kuchar, F; Hingerl, K

    2006-07-24

    We report on a study of the wave propagation and refraction in a 2D square-lattice photonic crystal for the first two photonic bands as well as the coupling of the external waves and criteria for flat-lens focusing. Microwave experiments and numerical simulations are performed. Main results concern the transition from positive to negative refraction below the first band gap, the flat-lens focusing using a novel criterion, viz. the constancy of the ratio of the tangents of the incident and refracted angle. Focusing results for medium ( approximately 10) and ultra-large dielectric contrast ( approximately 100) are presented. In the latter case focusing with a spot size below one wavelength at distances several wavelengths behind the photonic crystal is achieved.

  19. Analysis and design of tunable wideband microwave photonics phase shifter based on Fabry-Perot cavity and Bragg mirrors in silicon-on-insulator waveguide.

    PubMed

    Qu, Pengfei; Zhou, Jingran; Chen, Weiyou; Li, Fumin; Li, Haibin; Liu, Caixia; Ruan, Shengping; Dong, Wei

    2010-04-20

    We designed a microwave (MW) photonics phase shifter, consisting of a Fabry-Perot filter, a phase modulation region (PMR), and distributed Bragg reflectors, in a silicon-on-insulator rib waveguide. The thermo-optics effect was employed to tune the PMR. It was theoretically demonstrated that the linear MW phase shift of 0-2pi could be achieved by a refractive index variation of 0-9.68x10(-3) in an ultrawideband (about 38?GHz-1.9?THz), and the corresponding tuning resolution was about 6.92 degrees / degrees C. The device had a very compact size. It could be easily integrated in silicon optoelectronic chips and expected to be widely used in the high-frequency MW photonics field.

  20. Photonic generation of frequency-sextupled microwave signal based on dual-polarization modulation without an optical filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zihang; Zhao, Shanghong; Li, Xuan; Qu, Kun; Lin, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Frequency-sextupled microwave signal generation based on dual-polarization modulation using an electro-optic dual-parallel polarization modulator (DPPolM) without an optical filter is proposed. From a theoretical analysis, the frequency-sextupled microwave signal can be obtained by properly adjusting the polarization directions of the modulated optical signals, the powers and the phases of the microwave drive signals applied to the DPPolM. Simulation results show that a 24 GHz microwave signal with an optical sideband suppression ratio (OSSR) exceeding 31 dB and a radio frequency spurious suppression ratio (RFSSR) higher than 25 dB is generated from a 4 GHz microwave drive signal, which match well with the theoretical analysis. Furthermore, it is also proved to be valid that even if the microwave drive voltage, the phase difference, and the polarization direction of light wave deviate from the ideal values to a certain degree, the performance of the generated frequency-sextupled microwave signal is still acceptable.

  1. Suppression of Rayleigh backscattering noise using cascaded-SOA and microwave photonic filter for 10 Gb/s loop-back WDM-PON.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hanlin; Ge, Jia; Xiao, Shilin; Fok, Mable P

    2014-05-19

    In this paper, we present a novel Rayleigh backscattering (RB) noise mitigation scheme based on central carrier suppression for 10 Gb/s loop-back wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON). Microwave modulated multi-subcarrier optical signal is used as downstream seeding light, while cascaded semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) are used in the optical network unit (ONU) for suppressing the central carrier of the multi-subcarrier upstream signal. With central carrier suppression, interference generated by carrier RB noise at low frequency region is eliminated successfully. Transmission performance over 45 km single mode fiber (SMF) is studied experimentally, and the optical-signal-to-Rayleigh-noise-ratio (OSRNR) can be reduced to 15 dB with central carrier suppression ratio (CCSR) of 21 dB. Receiver sensitivity is further improved by 6 dB with the use of microwave photonic filter (MPF) for suppressing residual upstream microwave signal and residual carrier RB at high frequency region.

  2. Analogue Gravity.

    PubMed

    Barceló, Carlos; Liberati, Stefano; Visser, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Analogue gravity is a research programme which investigates analogues of general relativistic gravitational fields within other physical systems, typically but not exclusively condensed matter systems, with the aim of gaining new insights into their corresponding problems. Analogue models of (and for) gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing) and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity).

  3. Tunable negative-tap photonic microwave filter based on a cladding-mode coupler and an optically injected laser of large detuning.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sze-Chun; Liu, Qing; Wang, Zhu; Chiang, Kin Seng

    2011-06-20

    A tunable negative-tap photonic microwave filter using a cladding-mode coupler together with optical injection locking of large wavelength detuning is demonstrated. Continuous and precise tunability of the filter is realized by physically sliding a pair of bare fibers inside the cladding-mode coupler. Signal inversion for the negative tap is achieved by optical injection locking of a single-mode semiconductor laser. To couple light into and out of the cladding-mode coupler, a pair of matching long-period fiber gratings is employed. The large bandwidth of the gratings requires injection locking of an exceptionally large wavelength detuning that has never been demonstrated before. Experimentally, injection locking with wavelength detuning as large as 27 nm was achieved, which corresponded to locking the 36-th side mode. Microwave filtering with a free-spectral range tunable from 88.6 MHz to 1.57 GHz and a notch depth larger than 35 dB was obtained.

  4. Determination of Low Loss in Isotopically Pure Single Crystal 28Si at Low Temperatures and Single Microwave Photon Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostylev, Nikita; Goryachev, Maxim; Bulanov, Andrey D.; Gavva, Vladimir A.; Tobar, Michael E.

    2017-03-01

    The low dielectric losses of an isotopically pure single crystal 28Si sample were determined at a temperature of 20 mK and at powers equivalent to that of a single photon. Whispering Gallery Mode (WGM) analysis revealed large Quality Factors of order 2 × 106 (dielectric loss ~5 × 10‑7) at high powers, degrading to 7 × 10‑5 (dielectric loss ~1.4 × 10‑6 at single photon energy. A very low-loss narrow line width paramagnetic spin flip transition was detected with extreme sensitivity in 28Si, with very small concentration below 1010 cm‑3 (less than 10 parts per trillion) and g-factor of 1.995 ± 0.008. Such determination was only possible due to the low dielectric photonic losses combined with the long lifetime of the spin transition (low magnetic loss), which enhances the magnetic AC susceptibility. Such low photonic loss at single photon energy combined with the narrow line width of the spin ensemble, indicate that single crystal 28Si could be an important crystal for future cavity QED experiments.

  5. Determination of Low Loss in Isotopically Pure Single Crystal (28)Si at Low Temperatures and Single Microwave Photon Energy.

    PubMed

    Kostylev, Nikita; Goryachev, Maxim; Bulanov, Andrey D; Gavva, Vladimir A; Tobar, Michael E

    2017-03-20

    The low dielectric losses of an isotopically pure single crystal (28)Si sample were determined at a temperature of 20 mK and at powers equivalent to that of a single photon. Whispering Gallery Mode (WGM) analysis revealed large Quality Factors of order 2 × 10(6) (dielectric loss ~5 × 10(-7)) at high powers, degrading to 7 × 10(-5) (dielectric loss ~1.4 × 10(-6) at single photon energy. A very low-loss narrow line width paramagnetic spin flip transition was detected with extreme sensitivity in (28)Si, with very small concentration below 10(10) cm(-3) (less than 10 parts per trillion) and g-factor of 1.995 ± 0.008. Such determination was only possible due to the low dielectric photonic losses combined with the long lifetime of the spin transition (low magnetic loss), which enhances the magnetic AC susceptibility. Such low photonic loss at single photon energy combined with the narrow line width of the spin ensemble, indicate that single crystal (28)Si could be an important crystal for future cavity QED experiments.

  6. Determination of Low Loss in Isotopically Pure Single Crystal 28Si at Low Temperatures and Single Microwave Photon Energy

    PubMed Central

    Kostylev, Nikita; Goryachev, Maxim; Bulanov, Andrey D.; Gavva, Vladimir A.; Tobar, Michael E.

    2017-01-01

    The low dielectric losses of an isotopically pure single crystal 28Si sample were determined at a temperature of 20 mK and at powers equivalent to that of a single photon. Whispering Gallery Mode (WGM) analysis revealed large Quality Factors of order 2 × 106 (dielectric loss ~5 × 10−7) at high powers, degrading to 7 × 10−5 (dielectric loss ~1.4 × 10−6 at single photon energy. A very low-loss narrow line width paramagnetic spin flip transition was detected with extreme sensitivity in 28Si, with very small concentration below 1010 cm−3 (less than 10 parts per trillion) and g-factor of 1.995 ± 0.008. Such determination was only possible due to the low dielectric photonic losses combined with the long lifetime of the spin transition (low magnetic loss), which enhances the magnetic AC susceptibility. Such low photonic loss at single photon energy combined with the narrow line width of the spin ensemble, indicate that single crystal 28Si could be an important crystal for future cavity QED experiments. PMID:28317908

  7. Microwave Photonic Architecture for Direction Finding of LPI Emitters: Front End Analog Circuit Design and Component Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    14  III.  INNOVATIVE SYSTEM DESIGN ....................................................................15  A.  RF...DF System from Previous Design . Source: [11].............11  Figure 3.  Improved Design of Photonics DF System ...obtain DF information in computing the AOA. The type of DF technique employed influences the complexity of system design , cost of construction, and

  8. Invited Article: Electrically tunable silicon-based on-chip microdisk resonator for integrated microwave photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weifeng; Yao, Jianping

    2016-11-01

    Silicon photonics with advantages of small footprint, compatibility with the mature CMOS fabrication technology, and its potential for seamless integration with electronics is making a significant difference in realizing on-chip integration of photonic systems. A microdisk resonator (MDR) with a strong capacity in trapping and storing photons is a versatile element in photonic integrated circuits. Thanks to the large index contrast, a silicon-based MDR with an ultra-compact footprint has a great potential for large-scale and high-density integrations. However, the existence of multiple whispering gallery modes (WGMs) and resonance splitting in an MDR imposes inherent limitations on its widespread applications. In addition, the waveguide structure of an MDR is incompatible with that of a lateral PN junction, which leads to the deprivation of its electrical tunability. To circumvent these limitations, in this paper we propose a novel design of a silicon-based MDR by introducing a specifically designed slab waveguide to surround the disk and the lateral sides of the bus waveguide to suppress higher-order WGMs and to support the incorporation of a lateral PN junction for electrical tunability. An MDR based on the proposed design is fabricated and its optical performance is evaluated. The fabricated MDR exhibits single-mode operation with a free spectral range of 28.85 nm. Its electrical tunability is also demonstrated and an electro-optic frequency response with a 3-dB modulation bandwidth of ˜30.5 GHz is measured. The use of the fabricated MDR for the implementation of an electrically tunable optical delay-line and a tunable fractional-order temporal photonic differentiator is demonstrated.

  9. Simultaneous even- and third-order distortion suppression in a microwave photonic link based on orthogonal polarization modulation, balanced detection, and optical sideband filtering.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiuyou; Chen, Xiang; Yao, Jianping

    2016-06-27

    A microwave photonic link (MPL) with simultaneous suppression of the even-order and third-order distortions using a polarization modulator (PolM), an optical bandpass filter (OBPF), and a balanced photodetector (BPD) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The even-order distortions are suppressed by utilizing orthogonal polarization modulation based on the PolM and balanced differential detection based on the BPD. The third-order distortions (IMD3) are suppressed by optimizing the spectral response of the OBPF with an optimal power ratio between the optical carrier and the sidebands of the phase-modulated signals from the PolM. Since the suppression of the IMD3 is achieved when the MPL is optimized for even-order distortion suppression, the proposed MPL can operate with simultaneous suppression of the even-order and third-order distortions. The proposed MPL is analyzed theoretically and is verified by an experiment. For a two-tone RF signal of f1 = 10 GHz and f2 = 19.95 GHz, the spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR2) is enhanced by 23.4 dB for the second harmonic (2f1), and 29.1 and 27.6 dB for the second intermodulation (f2-f1 and f1 + f2), as compared with a conventional MPL. For a two-tone RF signal of f1 = 9.95 GHz and f2 = 10 GHz, the SFDR3 is increased by 13.1 dB as compared with a conventional MPL.

  10. Nonlinear stimulated Brillouin scattering based photonic signal processors

    SciTech Connect

    Minasian, Robert A.

    2014-10-06

    Recent new methods in photonic signal processing based on stimulated Brillouin scattering, that enable the realization of photonic mixers with high conversion efficiency, ultra-wide continuously tunable high-resolution microwave photonic filters and programmable switchable microwave photonic tunable filters, are presented. These processors provide new capabilities for the realisation of high-performance and high-resolution signal processing.

  11. Photonics-based microwave frequency measurement using a double-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation and an InP integrated ring-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer filter.

    PubMed

    Fandiño, Javier S; Muñoz, Pascual

    2013-11-01

    A photonic system capable of estimating the unknown frequency of a CW microwave tone is presented. The core of the system is a complementary optical filter monolithically integrated in InP, consisting of a ring-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a second-order elliptic response. By simultaneously measuring the different optical powers produced by a double-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation at the outputs of the photonic integrated circuit, an amplitude comparison function that depends on the input tone frequency is obtained. Using this technique, a frequency measurement range of 10 GHz (5-15 GHz) with a root mean square value of frequency error lower than 200 MHz is experimentally demonstrated. Moreover, simulations showing the impact of a residual optical carrier on system performance are also provided.

  12. Epinephrine analogues.

    PubMed

    Sneader, W

    2001-11-01

    Tyramine was the first epinephrine analogue to be introduced into medicine, in the early 1900s. It was followed by ephedrine and pseudoephedrine in the 1920s and by the amfetamines a decade later. The popularity of the amfetamines grew throughout the 1930s and 1940s; after that, there was a slowly dawning realization that they were being widely abused. Isoprenaline, introduced in the 1950s, was soon recognized as superior to epinephrine when used as an inhaler by asthmatics, and it remained the drug of choice for the relief of bronchospasm until around 1970. Orciprenaline, which featured an orcinol system, had a long duration of action and was active by mouth; Boehringer marketed it both as an inhaler and as a syrup for the prophylaxis of bronchospasm. The greatly superior bronchodilators salbutamol and terbutaline, launched in 1968 and 1970, respectively, incorporate further variation on the molecular theme that had led to the development of orciprenaline. (c) 2001 Prous Science. All rights reserved.

  13. A fully photonics-based coherent radar system.

    PubMed

    Ghelfi, Paolo; Laghezza, Francesco; Scotti, Filippo; Serafino, Giovanni; Capria, Amerigo; Pinna, Sergio; Onori, Daniel; Porzi, Claudio; Scaffardi, Mirco; Malacarne, Antonio; Vercesi, Valeria; Lazzeri, Emma; Berizzi, Fabrizio; Bogoni, Antonella

    2014-03-20

    The next generation of radar (radio detection and ranging) systems needs to be based on software-defined radio to adapt to variable environments, with higher carrier frequencies for smaller antennas and broadened bandwidth for increased resolution. Today's digital microwave components (synthesizers and analogue-to-digital converters) suffer from limited bandwidth with high noise at increasing frequencies, so that fully digital radar systems can work up to only a few gigahertz, and noisy analogue up- and downconversions are necessary for higher frequencies. In contrast, photonics provide high precision and ultrawide bandwidth, allowing both the flexible generation of extremely stable radio-frequency signals with arbitrary waveforms up to millimetre waves, and the detection of such signals and their precise direct digitization without downconversion. Until now, the photonics-based generation and detection of radio-frequency signals have been studied separately and have not been tested in a radar system. Here we present the development and the field trial results of a fully photonics-based coherent radar demonstrator carried out within the project PHODIR. The proposed architecture exploits a single pulsed laser for generating tunable radar signals and receiving their echoes, avoiding radio-frequency up- and downconversion and guaranteeing both the software-defined approach and high resolution. Its performance exceeds state-of-the-art electronics at carrier frequencies above two gigahertz, and the detection of non-cooperating aeroplanes confirms the effectiveness and expected precision of the system.

  14. A fully photonics-based coherent radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghelfi, Paolo; Laghezza, Francesco; Scotti, Filippo; Serafino, Giovanni; Capria, Amerigo; Pinna, Sergio; Onori, Daniel; Porzi, Claudio; Scaffardi, Mirco; Malacarne, Antonio; Vercesi, Valeria; Lazzeri, Emma; Berizzi, Fabrizio; Bogoni, Antonella

    2014-03-01

    The next generation of radar (radio detection and ranging) systems needs to be based on software-defined radio to adapt to variable environments, with higher carrier frequencies for smaller antennas and broadened bandwidth for increased resolution. Today's digital microwave components (synthesizers and analogue-to-digital converters) suffer from limited bandwidth with high noise at increasing frequencies, so that fully digital radar systems can work up to only a few gigahertz, and noisy analogue up- and downconversions are necessary for higher frequencies. In contrast, photonics provide high precision and ultrawide bandwidth, allowing both the flexible generation of extremely stable radio-frequency signals with arbitrary waveforms up to millimetre waves, and the detection of such signals and their precise direct digitization without downconversion. Until now, the photonics-based generation and detection of radio-frequency signals have been studied separately and have not been tested in a radar system. Here we present the development and the field trial results of a fully photonics-based coherent radar demonstrator carried out within the project PHODIR. The proposed architecture exploits a single pulsed laser for generating tunable radar signals and receiving their echoes, avoiding radio-frequency up- and downconversion and guaranteeing both the software-defined approach and high resolution. Its performance exceeds state-of-the-art electronics at carrier frequencies above two gigahertz, and the detection of non-cooperating aeroplanes confirms the effectiveness and expected precision of the system.

  15. Prediction of coronary artery lesions in unstable angina by iodine 123 beta-methyl iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP), a fatty acid analogue, single photon emission computed tomography at rest.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, K; Tomoda, H; Yoshitake, M; Aoki, N; Handa, S; Suzuki, Y

    1999-08-01

    Iodine 123 beta-methyl iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (123I-BMIPP), a beta-methyl-branched fatty acid analogue, has been proven by experimental studies to reveal abnormalities in fatty-acid-related metabolism. This study was undertaken to validate the accuracy and limitations of 123I-BMIPP imaging at rest in detecting myocardial metabolic abnormalities and predicting coronary lesions in unstable angina (UA). One hundred UA patients without prior myocardial infarction were studied. 123I-BMIPP and thallium 201 chloride (201TlCl) imaging with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and coronary and left ventricular cineangiography (LVC) were performed 1 week after the last episode of angina. There was reduced uptake of 123I-BMIPP imaging in 70 patients, reduced uptake of 201TlCl in 41, and abnormal LVC contraction in 49 patients. There were significant increases in severity scores of 123I-BMIPP imaging along with increases in the number of stenosed coronary arteries and the severity of stenosis in individual coronary arteries. There was a significant reduction in 123I-BMIPP severity scores 1 month after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (p < 0.01) and a significant correlation between the severity scores of 123I-BMIPP and LVC (r=0. 579, p<0.001). Overall rates of sensitivity and specificity in detecting significant coronary stenosis by 123I-BMIPP imaging were 74% and 86%, respectively, whereas rates of sensitivity and specificity in detecting significant coronary stenosis by 201TlCl were 31% and 91%, respectively. 123I-BMIPP sensitivity increases to 86% if only advanced coronary stenosis of >90% is included. In conclusion, 123I-BMIPP myocardial imaging is an effective method of predicting coronary artery lesions of UA patients without provocative test.

  16. The Josephson Microwave Photomultiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osberg, Brendan; Gambetta, Jay; Wilhelm, Frank

    2009-03-01

    The current lack of single microwave photon counters -as opposed to microwave amplifiers- has become a problematic omission in the toolkit of available circuit QED devices. Hence, we propose a microwave photo-multiplier based on a modified phase qubit. Such a system, trapped in the metastable state, can be activated over its potential energy barrier by an incoming photon, creating an avalanche effect analogous to current photo-diodes. Linear coupling of the junction flux with the radiation field, in the weak damping regime, permits photodetection from an arbitrary quantum source in the GHz range. We model this device theoretically and investigate its sensitivity, bandwidth, efficiency, and dark-count rate using the Langevine stochastic differential equations and a path integral approach.

  17. Microwave Ovens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Standards Industry Guidance Other Resources Description Microwave ovens heat food using microwaves, a form of electromagnetic radiation ... vibration results in friction between molecules, which produces heat that cooks the food. Risks/Benefits Microwaves are ...

  18. Photonic generation of stable microwave signals from a dual-wavelength Al2O3:Yb3+ distributed-feedback waveguide laser.

    PubMed

    Bernhardi, E H; Khan, M R H; Roeloffzen, C G H; van Wolferen, H A G M; Wörhoff, K; de Ridder, R M; Pollnau, M

    2012-01-15

    We report the fabrication and characterization of a dual-wavelength distributed-feedback channel waveguide laser in ytterbium-doped aluminum oxide. Operation of the device is based on the optical resonances that are induced by two local phase shifts in the distributed-feedback structure. A stable microwave signal at ~15 GHz with a -3 dB width of 9 kHz was subsequently created via the heterodyne photodetection of the two laser wavelengths. The long-term frequency stability of the microwave signal produced by the free-running laser is better than ±2.5 MHz, while the power of the microwave signal is stable within ±0.35 dB.

  19. Ultrastable Multigigahertz Photonic Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Ronald T., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Novel photonic oscillator developed to serve as ultrastable source of microwave and millimeter-wave signals. In system, oscillations generated photonically, then converted to electronic form. Includes self-mode-locked semiconductor laser producing stream of pulses, detected and fed back to laser as input. System also includes fiber-optic-delay-line discriminator, which detects fluctuations of self-mode-locking frequency and generates error signal used in negative-feedback loop to stabilize pulse-repetition frequency.

  20. Guiding, bending, and splitting of coupled defect surface modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile

    2016-01-25

    We experimentally demonstrate a type of waveguiding mechanism for coupled surface-wave defect modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal. Unlike conventional spoof surface plasmon waveguides, waveguiding of coupled surface-wave defect modes is achieved through weak coupling between tightly localized defect cavities in an otherwise gapped surface-wave photonic crystal, as a classical wave analogue of tight-binding electronic wavefunctions in solid state lattices. Wave patterns associated with the high transmission of coupled defect surface modes are directly mapped with a near-field microwave scanning probe for various structures including a straight waveguide, a sharp corner, and a T-shaped splitter. These results may find use in the design of integrated surface-wave devices with suppressed crosstalk.

  1. Microwave photonic system for instantaneous frequency measurement based on principles of "frequency-amplitude" conversion in fiber Bragg grating and additional frequency separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Alexander A.; Morozov, Oleg G.; Andreev, Vladimir A.; Morozov, Gennady A.; Kuznetsov, Artem A.; Faskhutdinov, Lenar M.

    2017-04-01

    This article describes the design principles of optoelectronic system (OES) for instantaneous frequency measurement (IFM) of microwave signals based on the use of amplitude-phase modulation conversion of single optical carrier into symmetrical dual-frequency signal for additional frequency separation, its modulation by unknown frequency and subsequent "frequency-amplitude" measurement conversion in Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) with Gaussian reflection profile. Such approach allows increasing of measurement resolution at low frequencies.

  2. Weyl points and line nodes in gapless gyroid photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ling; Fu, Liang; Joannopoulos, John; Soljacic, Marin; MIT Team

    2013-03-01

    Weyl points and line nodes are three-dimensional linear point- and line-degeneracies between two bands. In contrast to Dirac points, which are their two-dimensional analogues, Weyl points are stable in the momentum space and the associated surface states are predicted to be topologically non-trivial. However, Weyl points are yet to be discovered in nature. Here, we report photonic crystals, based on the double-gyroid structures, exhibiting frequency-isolated Weyl points with complete phase diagrams by breaking the parity and time-reversal symmetries. The surface states associated with the non-zero Chern numbers are demonstrated. Line nodes are also found in similar geometries; the associated surface states are shown to be at bands. Our results are based on realistic ``numerical experiments'' with true predictive power and should be readily experimentally realizable at both microwave and optical frequencies.

  3. Weyl points and line nodes in gyroid photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ling; Fu, Liang; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin

    2013-04-01

    Weyl points and line nodes are three-dimensional linear point and line degeneracies between two bands. In contrast to two-dimensional Dirac points, which are their lower-dimensional analogues, Weyl points are stable in momentum space, and the associated surface states are predicted to be topologically non-trivial. However, Weyl points are yet to be discovered in nature. Here, we report photonic crystals based on double-gyroid structures, exhibiting frequency-isolated Weyl points with complete phase diagrams by breaking the parity and time-reversal symmetries. Gapless surface dispersions associated with non-zero Chern numbers are demonstrated. Line nodes are also found in similar geometries, the associated surface states forming flat dispersion bands. Our results are based on realistic ab initio calculations with true predictive power and should be readily realizable experimentally from microwave to optical frequencies.

  4. Survey of Analogue Spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Matt

    Analogue spacetimes (and more boldly, analogue models both of and for gravity), have attracted significant and increasing attention over the last decade and a half. Perhaps the most straightforward physical example, which serves as a template for most of the others, is Bill Unruh's model for a dumb hole,(mute black hole, acoustic black hole), wherein sound is dragged along by a moving fluid—and can even be trapped behind an acoustic horizon. This and related analogue models for curved spacetimes are useful in many ways: analogue spacetimes provide general relativists with extremely concrete physical models to help focus their thinking, and conversely the techniques of curved spacetime can sometimes help improve our understanding of condensed matter and/or optical systems by providing an unexpected and countervailing viewpoint. In this chapter, I shall provide a few simple examples of analogue spacetimes as general background for the rest of the contributions.

  5. Photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    Studies of photon-photon collisions are reviewed with particular emphasis on new results reported to this conference. These include results on light meson spectroscopy and deep inelastic e..gamma.. scattering. Considerable work has now been accumulated on resonance production by ..gamma gamma.. collisions. Preliminary high statistics studies of the photon structure function F/sub 2//sup ..gamma../(x,Q/sup 2/) are given and comments are made on the problems that remain to be solved.

  6. Charge Qubit Coupled to an Intense Microwave Electromagnetic Field in a Superconducting Nb Device: Evidence for Photon-Assisted Quasiparticle Tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, S. E.; Leppäkangas, J.; Adamyan, A.; Danilov, A. V.; Lindström, T.; Fogelström, M.; Bauch, T.; Johansson, G.; Kubatkin, S. E.

    2013-09-01

    We study a superconducting charge qubit coupled to an intensive electromagnetic field and probe changes in the resonance frequency of the formed dressed states. At large driving strengths, exceeding the qubit energy-level splitting, this reveals the well known Landau-Zener-Stückelberg interference structure of a longitudinally driven two-level system. For even stronger drives, we observe a significant change in the Landau-Zener-Stückelberg pattern and contrast. We attribute this to photon-assisted quasiparticle tunneling in the qubit. This results in the recovery of the qubit parity, eliminating effects of quasiparticle poisoning, and leads to an enhanced interferometric response. The interference pattern becomes robust to quasiparticle poisoning and has a good potential for accurate charge sensing.

  7. Charge qubit coupled to an intense microwave electromagnetic field in a superconducting Nb device: evidence for photon-assisted quasiparticle tunneling.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, S E; Leppäkangas, J; Adamyan, A; Danilov, A V; Lindström, T; Fogelström, M; Bauch, T; Johansson, G; Kubatkin, S E

    2013-09-27

    We study a superconducting charge qubit coupled to an intensive electromagnetic field and probe changes in the resonance frequency of the formed dressed states. At large driving strengths, exceeding the qubit energy-level splitting, this reveals the well known Landau-Zener-Stückelberg interference structure of a longitudinally driven two-level system. For even stronger drives, we observe a significant change in the Landau-Zener-Stückelberg pattern and contrast. We attribute this to photon-assisted quasiparticle tunneling in the qubit. This results in the recovery of the qubit parity, eliminating effects of quasiparticle poisoning, and leads to an enhanced interferometric response. The interference pattern becomes robust to quasiparticle poisoning and has a good potential for accurate charge sensing.

  8. Storage and control of optical photons using Rydberg polaritons.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, D; Szwer, D J; Paredes-Barato, D; Busche, H; Pritchard, J D; Gauguet, A; Weatherill, K J; Jones, M P A; Adams, C S

    2013-03-08

    We use a microwave field to control the quantum state of optical photons stored in a cold atomic cloud. The photons are stored in highly excited collective states (Rydberg polaritons) enabling both fast qubit rotations and control of photon-photon interactions. Through the collective read-out of these pseudospin rotations it is shown that the microwave field modifies the long-range interactions between polaritons. This technique provides a powerful interface between the microwave and optical domains, with applications in quantum simulations of spin liquids, quantum metrology and quantum networks.

  9. Microwave detector

    DOEpatents

    Meldner, Heiner W.; Cusson, Ronald Y.; Johnson, Ray M.

    1986-01-01

    A microwave detector (10) is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite (26, 28) produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop (16, 20). The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means (18, 22) are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

  10. Microwave detector

    DOEpatents

    Meldner, H.W.; Cusson, R.Y.; Johnson, R.M.

    1985-02-08

    A microwave detector is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop. The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

  11. Photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1988-07-01

    Highlights of the VIIIth International Workshop on Photon-Photon Collisions are reviewed. New experimental and theoretical results were reported in virtually every area of ..gamma gamma.. physics, particularly in exotic resonance production and tests of quantum chromodynamics where asymptotic freedom and factorization theorems provide predictions for both inclusive and exclusive ..gamma gamma.. reactions at high momentum transfer. 73 refs., 12 figs.

  12. Progress in Ultrafast Photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, Takeshi; Tsuchiya, Masahiro

    2005-08-01

    Recent progress in ultrafast photonics is reviewed with special emphasis on the research and development activities in Japanese research institutions in the field of optical communication and related measurement technologies. After summarizing the physical natures of ultrashort optical pulses, selected topics are reviewed on such as (1) ultrahigh-bit-rate optical communication employing the combination of optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), (2) optical components for ultrafast photonics with emphasis on all optical switches including semiconductor optical amplifiers, cascaded second order frequency converters, semiconductor saturable absorber switches, organic dye saturable absorber switches and bistable semiconductor lasers, (3) microwave photonics, emphasizing millimeter-wave/photonic communication technologies, and (4) high-speed optical measurements featuring both compact femtosecond pulse source development and rf magnetic field imaging. Some comments on the future prospect of ultrafast photonics are also given. It is concluded that in order to bring the powerful and versatile capability of ultrafast photonics into the real world, further collaboration between photonics specialists and production engineers/information specialists is strongly desired.

  13. Microwave signal processing in two-frequency domain for ROF systems implementation: training course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Oleg G.; Morozov, Gennady A.

    2014-04-01

    This article is presented materials from two tutorials: "Optical two-frequency domain reflectometry1, 2" and "Microwave technologies in industry, living systems and telecommunications3". These materials were prepared for master training courses and listed in the "SPIE Optical Education Directory" for 2013/2014. The main its theme is microwave photonics. Microwave photonics has been defined as the study of photonic devices operating at microwave frequencies and their application to microwave and optical systems. Its initial rationale was to use the advantages of photonic technologies to provide functions in microwave systems that are very complex or even impossible to carry out directly in the radiofrequency domain. But microwave photonics is also succeeding in incorporating a variety of techniques used in microwave engineering to improve the performance of photonic communication networks and systems. Three parts of this chapter are devoted to applications and construction principles of systems forming microwave photonic filters, measuring instantaneous frequency of microwave heterodyne signals and characterizing stimulated Mandelstam- Brillouin scattering spectrum in ROF systems. The main emphasis is on the use of the two-frequency symmetric radiation, generated by the Il'in-Morozov's method4, in given systems. It is forming radiation for the synthesis of optical filters coefficients, it's application and processing determine the increase in the signal-to-noise ratio during heterodyne frequencies monitoring and characterization of nonlinear effects spectrum.

  14. Bidirectional conversion between microwave and light via ferromagnetic magnons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisatomi, R.; Osada, A.; Tabuchi, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Noguchi, A.; Yamazaki, R.; Usami, K.; Nakamura, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Coherent conversion of microwave and optical photons in the single quantum level can significantly expand our ability to process signals in various fields. Efficient up-conversion of a feeble signal in the microwave domain to the optical domain will lead to quantum-noise-limited microwave amplifiers. Coherent exchange between optical photons and microwave photons will also be a stepping stone to realize long-distance quantum communication. Here we demonstrate bidirectional and coherent conversion between microwave and light using collective spin excitations in a ferromagnet. The converter consists of two harmonic oscillator modes, a microwave cavity mode and a magnetostatic mode called the Kittel mode, where microwave photons and magnons in the respective modes are strongly coupled and hybridized. An itinerant microwave field and a traveling optical field can be coupled through the hybrid system, where the microwave field is coupled to the hybrid system through the cavity mode, while the optical field addresses the hybrid system through the Kittel mode via Faraday and inverse Faraday effects. The conversion efficiency is theoretically analyzed and experimentally evaluated. The possible schemes for improving the efficiency are also discussed.

  15. Microwave detector

    SciTech Connect

    Meldner, H.W.; Cusson, R.Y.; Johnson, R.M.

    1986-12-02

    A detector is described for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations, the detector comprising: a B-dot loop linking the magnetic field of the microwave pulse; a biased ferrite, that produces a magnetization field flux that links the B-dot loop. The ferrite is positioned within the B-dot loop so that the magnetic field of the microwave pulse interacts with the ferrite and thereby participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux; and high-frequency insensitive means for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop.

  16. Microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Kwan, T.J.T.; Snell, C.M.

    1987-03-31

    A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit there through effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators. 6 figs.

  17. Compact Microwave Fourier Spectrum Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2009-01-01

    A compact photonic microwave Fourier spectrum analyzer [a Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer, (FTMWS)] with no moving parts has been proposed for use in remote sensing of weak, natural microwave emissions from the surfaces and atmospheres of planets to enable remote analysis and determination of chemical composition and abundances of critical molecular constituents in space. The instrument is based on a Bessel beam (light modes with non-zero angular momenta) fiber-optic elements. It features low power consumption, low mass, and high resolution, without a need for any cryogenics, beyond what is achievable by the current state-of-the-art in space instruments. The instrument can also be used in a wide-band scatterometer mode in active radar systems.

  18. Natural Analogue Synthesis Report

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. Simmons

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to present analogue studies and literature reviews designed to provide qualitative and quantitative information to test and provide added confidence in process models abstracted for performance assessment (PA) and model predictions pertinent to PA. This report provides updates to studies presented in the ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' (CRWMS M and O 2000 [151945], Section 13) and new examples gleaned from the literature, along with results of quantitative studies conducted specifically for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The intent of the natural analogue studies was to collect corroborative evidence from analogues to demonstrate additional understanding of processes expected to occur during postclosure at a potential Yucca Mountain repository. The report focuses on key processes by providing observations and analyses of natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) systems to improve understanding and confidence in the operation of these processes under conditions similar to those that could occur in a nuclear waste repository. The process models include those that represent both engineered and natural barrier processes. A second purpose of this report is to document the various applications of natural analogues to geologic repository programs, focusing primarily on the way analogues have been used by the YMP. This report is limited to providing support for PA in a confirmatory manner and to providing corroborative inputs for process modeling activities. Section 1.7 discusses additional limitations of this report. Key topics for this report are analogues to emplacement drift degradation, waste form degradation, waste package degradation, degradation of other materials proposed for the engineered barrier, seepage into drifts, radionuclide flow and transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ), analogues to coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes, saturated zone (SZ) transport, impact of radionuclide

  19. Photonic topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Hossein Mousavi, S.; Tse, Wang-Kong; Kargarian, Mehdi; MacDonald, Allan H.; Shvets, Gennady

    2013-03-01

    Recent progress in understanding the topological properties of condensed matter has led to the discovery of time-reversal-invariant topological insulators. A remarkable and useful property of these materials is that they support unidirectional spin-polarized propagation at their surfaces. Unfortunately topological insulators are rare among solid-state materials. Using suitably designed electromagnetic media (metamaterials) we theoretically demonstrate a photonic analogue of a topological insulator. We show that metacrystals—superlattices of metamaterials with judiciously designed properties—provide a platform for designing topologically non-trivial photonic states, similar to those that have been identified for condensed-matter topological insulators. The interfaces of the metacrystals support helical edge states that exhibit spin-polarized one-way propagation of photons, robust against disorder. Our results demonstrate the possibility of attaining one-way photon transport without application of external magnetic fields or breaking of time-reversal symmetry. Such spin-polarized one-way transport enables exotic spin-cloaked photon sources that do not obscure each other.

  20. Photonic topological insulators.

    PubMed

    Khanikaev, Alexander B; Mousavi, S Hossein; Tse, Wang-Kong; Kargarian, Mehdi; MacDonald, Allan H; Shvets, Gennady

    2013-03-01

    Recent progress in understanding the topological properties of condensed matter has led to the discovery of time-reversal-invariant topological insulators. A remarkable and useful property of these materials is that they support unidirectional spin-polarized propagation at their surfaces. Unfortunately topological insulators are rare among solid-state materials. Using suitably designed electromagnetic media (metamaterials) we theoretically demonstrate a photonic analogue of a topological insulator. We show that metacrystals-superlattices of metamaterials with judiciously designed properties-provide a platform for designing topologically non-trivial photonic states, similar to those that have been identified for condensed-matter topological insulators. The interfaces of the metacrystals support helical edge states that exhibit spin-polarized one-way propagation of photons, robust against disorder. Our results demonstrate the possibility of attaining one-way photon transport without application of external magnetic fields or breaking of time-reversal symmetry. Such spin-polarized one-way transport enables exotic spin-cloaked photon sources that do not obscure each other.

  1. Microwave furnace having microwave compatible dilatometer

    DOEpatents

    Kimrey, Jr., Harold D.; Janney, Mark A.; Ferber, Mattison K.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of a sample being heated by microwave energy is described. The apparatus comprises a microwave heating device for heating a sample by microwave energy, a microwave compatible dilatometer for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of the sample being heated by microwave energy without leaking microwaves out of the microwave heating device, and a temperature determination device for measuring and monitoring the temperature of the sample being heated by microwave energy.

  2. Microwave furnace having microwave compatible dilatometer

    DOEpatents

    Kimrey, H.D. Jr.; Janney, M.A.; Ferber, M.K.

    1992-03-24

    An apparatus for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of a sample being heated by microwave energy is described. The apparatus comprises a microwave heating device for heating a sample by microwave energy, a microwave compatible dilatometer for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of the sample being heated by microwave energy without leaking microwaves out of the microwave heating device, and a temperature determination device for measuring and monitoring the temperature of the sample being heated by microwave energy. 2 figs.

  3. Observing Photons in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Martin C. E.; Pauluhn, Anuschka; Timothy, J. Gethyn

    This first chapter of the book "Observing Photons in Space" serves to illustrate the rewards of observing photons in space, to state our aims, and to introduce the structure and the conventions used. The title of the book reflects the history of space astronomy: it started at the high-energy end of the electromagnetic spectrum, where the photon aspect of the radiation dominates. Nevertheless, both the wave and the photon aspects of this radiation will be considered extensively. In this first chapter we describe the arduous efforts that were needed before observations from pointed, stable platforms, lifted by rocket above the Earth"s atmosphere, became the matter of course they seem to be today. This exemplifies the direct link between technical effort -- including proper design, construction, testing and calibration -- and some of the early fundamental insights gained from space observations. We further report in some detail the pioneering work of the early space astronomers, who started with the study of γ- and X-rays as well as ultraviolet photons. We also show how efforts to observe from space platforms in the visible, infrared, sub-millimetre and microwave domains developed and led to today"s emphasis on observations at long wavelengths.

  4. Nonlinear Dynamics of Photonics for Optical Signal Processing - Optical Frequency Conversion and Optical DSB-to-SSB Conversion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-17

    Multiplexing, Optical Amplifier , Terahertz Electronics, Four-wave mixing, Radio-over-fiber networks, Intensity-asymmetry 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...structure and operation. For the photonic microwave amplification, we have demonstrated that microwaves can be amplified “photonically” by up to 30 dB for...linewidth and stability. 3. Photonic microwave amplification: Goals: To “photonically” amplify microwaves for a broad frequency range, from a few tens

  5. Aspartame and Its Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlova, L. A.; Komarova, T. V.; Davidovich, Yurii A.; Rogozhin, S. V.

    1981-04-01

    The results of studies on the biochemistry of the sweet taste are briefly reviewed. The methods of synthesis of "aspartame" — a sweet dipeptide — are considered, its structural analogues are described, and quantitative estimates are made of the degree of sweetness relative to sucrose. Attention is concentrated mainly on problems of the relation between the structure of the substance and its taste in the series of aspartyl derivatives. The bibliography includes 118 references.

  6. A photon thermal diode.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen; Wong, Carlaton; Lubner, Sean; Yee, Shannon; Miller, John; Jang, Wanyoung; Hardin, Corey; Fong, Anthony; Garay, Javier E; Dames, Chris

    2014-11-17

    A thermal diode is a two-terminal nonlinear device that rectifies energy carriers (for example, photons, phonons and electrons) in the thermal domain, the heat transfer analogue to the familiar electrical diode. Effective thermal rectifiers could have an impact on diverse applications ranging from heat engines to refrigeration, thermal regulation of buildings and thermal logic. However, experimental demonstrations have lagged far behind theoretical proposals. Here we present the first experimental results for a photon thermal diode. The device is based on asymmetric scattering of ballistic energy carriers by pyramidal reflectors. Recent theoretical work has predicted that this ballistic mechanism also requires a nonlinearity in order to yield asymmetric thermal transport, a requirement of all thermal diodes arising from the second Law of Thermodynamics, and realized here using an 'inelastic thermal collimator' element. Experiments confirm both effects: with pyramids and collimator the thermal rectification is 10.9 ± 0.8%, while without the collimator no rectification is detectable (<0.3%).

  7. Photon scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Goudonnet, J.P.; Salomon, L.; De Fornel, F.; Chabrier, G. . Lab. de Physique du Solide); Warmack, R.J.; Ferrell, T.L. )

    1990-01-01

    The Photon Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (PSTM) is the photon analogue of the electron Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM). It uses the evanescent field due to the total internal reflection of a light beam in a Total Internal Reflection (TIR) prism. The sample, mounted on the base of the prism, modulates the evanescent field. A sharpened optical fiber probes this field, and the collected light is processed to generate an image of the topography and the chemical composition of the surface. We give, in this paper, a description of the microscope and discuss the influence of several parameters such as -- polarization of light, angle of incidence, shape of the end of the fiber -- on the resolution. Images of various samples -- glass samples, teflon spheres -- are presented. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Germananes: Germanium Graphane Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberger, Joshua

    2014-03-01

    Graphene's success has shown that it is not only possible to create stable, single-atom thick sheets from a crystalline solid, but that these materials have fundamentally different properties than the parent material. Our interest focuses on the synthesis and properties of Group IV graphane analogues. We have synthesized for the first time, mm-scale crystals of a hydrogen-terminated germanium multilayered graphane analogue (germanane, GeH) from the topochemical deintercalation of CaGe2. This layered van der Waals solid is analogous to multilayered graphane. The surface layer of GeH only slowly oxidizes in air over the span of five months, while the underlying layers are resilient to oxidation. We demonstrate that it is possible to covalently terminate the external surface with organic substituents to tune the electronic structure, and enhance the stability. These materials represent a new class of covalently terminated graphane analogues having great potential for a wide range of optoelectronic and sensing applications, especially since theory predicts a direct band gap of 1.53 eV and an electron mobility of 18,000 cm2/Vs which is five times higher than that of bulk Ge.

  9. Quantum analogue computing.

    PubMed

    Kendon, Vivien M; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J

    2010-08-13

    We briefly review what a quantum computer is, what it promises to do for us and why it is so hard to build one. Among the first applications anticipated to bear fruit is the quantum simulation of quantum systems. While most quantum computation is an extension of classical digital computation, quantum simulation differs fundamentally in how the data are encoded in the quantum computer. To perform a quantum simulation, the Hilbert space of the system to be simulated is mapped directly onto the Hilbert space of the (logical) qubits in the quantum computer. This type of direct correspondence is how data are encoded in a classical analogue computer. There is no binary encoding, and increasing precision becomes exponentially costly: an extra bit of precision doubles the size of the computer. This has important consequences for both the precision and error-correction requirements of quantum simulation, and significant open questions remain about its practicality. It also means that the quantum version of analogue computers, continuous-variable quantum computers, becomes an equally efficient architecture for quantum simulation. Lessons from past use of classical analogue computers can help us to build better quantum simulators in future.

  10. [Special basic material for microwave polymerization of AKR-MV].

    PubMed

    Poiurovskaia, I Ia; Sutugina, T F; Rudenko, K N

    2002-01-01

    Some physical and mechanical properties of the new acrylic material ACR-MW for microwave polymerization, the base material Etacryl-02 ("Stoma", Ukraine) and their analogue Acron MC (GC Lab Technologies Inc., Japan). The findings suggest that the new special denture base material ACR-MW for rapid microwave polymerization (3 min at 100%) possesses the highest bending strength with lower water absorption and solubility. The properties of ACR-MW meet the requirements of ISO 1567.

  11. Active microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D.; Vidal-Madjar, D.

    1994-01-01

    Research on the use of active microwaves in remote sensing, presented during plenary and poster sessions, is summarized. The main highlights are: calibration techniques are well understood; innovative modeling approaches have been developed which increase active microwave applications (segmentation prior to model inversion, use of ERS-1 scatterometer, simulations); polarization angle and frequency diversity improves characterization of ice sheets, vegetation, and determination of soil moisture (X band sensor study); SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) interferometry potential is emerging; use of multiple sensors/extended spectral signatures is important (increase emphasis).

  12. Radial Photonic Crystals for Microwave Operation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    can be designed and implemented in acoustics as well as in electromagnetism by using anisotropic metamaterials . They were originally proposed in...implemented in acoustics as well as in electromagnetism by using anisotropic metamaterials . They were originally proposed in acoustics , but similar... metamaterials for engineering acoustic or electromagnetic waves, Physical Review Letters, vol. 103, p. 064301, 2009. [2] J. Carbonell, D. Torrent, A

  13. Providing reference standards and metrology for the few photon-photon counting community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaumont, Andrew R.; Cheung, Jessica Y.; Chunnilall, Christopher J.; Ireland, Jane; White, Malcolm G.

    2009-10-01

    The main drivers for developing few-photon metrological techniques are the rapidly progressing field of quantum information processing, which requires the development of high-efficiency photon-counting detectors, and the wider use of photon-counting technology in biology, medical physics and nuclear physics. This paper will focus on the provision of standards for the few photon community and the development of techniques for the characterisation of photon-counting detectors. At the high-power end, microwatts, we are developing a low-power absolute radiometer as a primary standard that will be used to provide traceability over a much broader spectral range. At the few photon-photon-counting level we are developing a conventional calibration technique, which is traceable to the primary standard through a reference trap detector. This method can be used in both analogue and photon-counting modes and provides a convenient route for providing customer calibration at few-photon levels across the optical spectrum. At the photon-counting/single-photon level we are developing a technique based on correlated photons. These are produced via parametric downconversion and can be used to measure directly the detection efficiency of photon-counting detectors. A cross-validation of the correlated photon and conventional technique is reported. Finally we discuss this work in the context of an EU project, that is aimed at establishing the route towards the re-definition of the candela, the SI unit for optical radiation.

  14. Intracity Quantum Communication via Thermal Microwave Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Ze-Liang; Zhang, Mengzhen; Jiang, Liang; Rabl, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Communication over proven-secure quantum channels is potentially one of the most wide-ranging applications of currently developed quantum technologies. It is generally envisioned that in future quantum networks, separated nodes containing stationary solid-state or atomic qubits are connected via the exchange of optical photons over large distances. In this work, we explore an intriguing alternative for quantum communication via all-microwave networks. To make this possible, we describe a general protocol for sending quantum states through thermal channels, even when the number of thermal photons in the channel is much larger than 1. The protocol can be implemented with state-of-the-art superconducting circuits and enables the transfer of quantum states over distances of about 100 m via microwave transmission lines cooled to only T =4 K . This opens up new possibilities for quantum communication within and across buildings and, consequently, for the implementation of intracity quantum networks based on microwave technology only.

  15. Sensing feeble microwave signals via an optomechanical transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Keye; Bariani, Francesco; Dong, Ying; Zhang, Weiping; Meystre, Pierre

    2015-05-01

    Due to their low energy content microwave signals at the single-photon level are extremely challenging to measure. Guided by recent progress in single-photon optomechanics and hybrid optomechanical systems, we propose a multimode optomechanical transducer that can detect intensities significantly below the single-photon level via off-resonant adiabatic transfer of the microwave signal to the optical frequency domain where the measurement is then performed. The influence of intrinsic quantum and thermal fluctuations on the performance of this detector are considered in detail. We acknowledge financial support from National Basic Research Program of China, NSF, ARO and the DARPA QuaSAR and ORCHID programs.

  16. Parametrically enhanced hidden photon search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Peter W.; Mardon, Jeremy; Rajendran, Surjeet; Zhao, Yue

    2014-10-01

    Many theories beyond the Standard Model contain hidden photons. A light hidden photon will generically couple to the Standard Model through a kinetic mixing term, giving a powerful avenue for detection using "light-shining-through-a-wall"-type transmission experiments with resonant cavities. We demonstrate a parametric enhancement of the signal in such experiments, resulting from transmission of the longitudinal mode of the hidden photon. While previous literature has focused on the production and detection of transverse modes, the longitudinal mode allows a significant improvement in experimental sensitivity. Although optical experiments such as ALPS are unable to take useful advantage of this enhancement, the reach of existing microwave cavity experiments such as CROWS is significantly enhanced beyond their published results. Future microwave cavity experiments, designed with appropriate geometry to take full advantage of the longitudinal mode, will provide a powerful probe of hidden-photon parameter space extending many orders of magnitude beyond current limits, including significant regions where the hidden photon can be dark matter.

  17. Photonic Floquet topological insulators.

    PubMed

    Rechtsman, Mikael C; Zeuner, Julia M; Plotnik, Yonatan; Lumer, Yaakov; Podolsky, Daniel; Dreisow, Felix; Nolte, Stefan; Segev, Mordechai; Szameit, Alexander

    2013-04-11

    Topological insulators are a new phase of matter, with the striking property that conduction of electrons occurs only on their surfaces. In two dimensions, electrons on the surface of a topological insulator are not scattered despite defects and disorder, providing robustness akin to that of superconductors. Topological insulators are predicted to have wide-ranging applications in fault-tolerant quantum computing and spintronics. Substantial effort has been directed towards realizing topological insulators for electromagnetic waves. One-dimensional systems with topological edge states have been demonstrated, but these states are zero-dimensional and therefore exhibit no transport properties. Topological protection of microwaves has been observed using a mechanism similar to the quantum Hall effect, by placing a gyromagnetic photonic crystal in an external magnetic field. But because magnetic effects are very weak at optical frequencies, realizing photonic topological insulators with scatter-free edge states requires a fundamentally different mechanism-one that is free of magnetic fields. A number of proposals for photonic topological transport have been put forward recently. One suggested temporal modulation of a photonic crystal, thus breaking time-reversal symmetry and inducing one-way edge states. This is in the spirit of the proposed Floquet topological insulators, in which temporal variations in solid-state systems induce topological edge states. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a photonic topological insulator free of external fields and with scatter-free edge transport-a photonic lattice exhibiting topologically protected transport of visible light on the lattice edges. Our system is composed of an array of evanescently coupled helical waveguides arranged in a graphene-like honeycomb lattice. Paraxial diffraction of light is described by a Schrödinger equation where the propagation coordinate (z) acts as 'time'. Thus the helicity of the

  18. Analogue-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analogue Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Martin

    1997-01-01

    Discusses circuits for three-bit and four-bit analogue digital converters and digital analogue converters. These circuits feature slow operating speeds that enable the circuitry to be used to demonstrate the mode of operation using oscilloscopes and signal generators. (DDR)

  19. Single Photon Counting Performance and Noise Analysis of CMOS SPAD-Based Image Sensors.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Neale A W; Gyongy, Istvan; Parmesan, Luca; Henderson, Robert K

    2016-07-20

    SPAD-based solid state CMOS image sensors utilising analogue integrators have attained deep sub-electron read noise (DSERN) permitting single photon counting (SPC) imaging. A new method is proposed to determine the read noise in DSERN image sensors by evaluating the peak separation and width (PSW) of single photon peaks in a photon counting histogram (PCH). The technique is used to identify and analyse cumulative noise in analogue integrating SPC SPAD-based pixels. The DSERN of our SPAD image sensor is exploited to confirm recent multi-photon threshold quanta image sensor (QIS) theory. Finally, various single and multiple photon spatio-temporal oversampling techniques are reviewed.

  20. Single Photon Counting Performance and Noise Analysis of CMOS SPAD-Based Image Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Dutton, Neale A. W.; Gyongy, Istvan; Parmesan, Luca; Henderson, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    SPAD-based solid state CMOS image sensors utilising analogue integrators have attained deep sub-electron read noise (DSERN) permitting single photon counting (SPC) imaging. A new method is proposed to determine the read noise in DSERN image sensors by evaluating the peak separation and width (PSW) of single photon peaks in a photon counting histogram (PCH). The technique is used to identify and analyse cumulative noise in analogue integrating SPC SPAD-based pixels. The DSERN of our SPAD image sensor is exploited to confirm recent multi-photon threshold quanta image sensor (QIS) theory. Finally, various single and multiple photon spatio-temporal oversampling techniques are reviewed. PMID:27447643

  1. Microwave processing of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the following topics on microwave processing of ceramics: Microwave-material interactions; anticipated advantage of microwave sintering; ceramic sintering; and ceramic joining. 24 refs., 4 figs. (LSP)

  2. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Todd M; Parekh, Vishwas

    2016-09-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor that shares the same histologic appearance and ETV6 gene (12p13) rearrangement as secretory carcinoma of the breast. Prior to its recognition, MASC cases were commonly labeled acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. Despite distinctive histologic features, MASC may be difficult to distinguish from other salivary gland tumors, in particular zymogen-poor acinic cell carcinoma and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. Although characteristic morphologic and immunohistochemical features form the basis of a diagnosis of MASC, the presence of an ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion is confirmatory. Given its recent recognition the true prognostic import of MASC is not yet clearly defined.

  3. Quantum and wave dynamical chaos in superconducting microwave billiards

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, B. Richter, A.

    2015-09-15

    Experiments with superconducting microwave cavities have been performed in our laboratory for more than two decades. The purpose of the present article is to recapitulate some of the highlights achieved. We briefly review (i) results obtained with flat, cylindrical microwave resonators, so-called microwave billiards, concerning the universal fluctuation properties of the eigenvalues of classically chaotic systems with no, a threefold and a broken symmetry; (ii) summarize our findings concerning the wave-dynamical chaos in three-dimensional microwave cavities; (iii) present a new approach for the understanding of the phenomenon of dynamical tunneling which was developed on the basis of experiments that were performed recently with unprecedented precision, and finally, (iv) give an insight into an ongoing project, where we investigate universal properties of (artificial) graphene with superconducting microwave photonic crystals that are enclosed in a microwave resonator, i.e., so-called Dirac billiards.

  4. Photonic Hypercrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narimanov, Evgenii E.

    2014-10-01

    We introduce a new "universality class" of artificial optical media—photonic hypercrystals. These hyperbolic metamaterials, with periodic spatial variation of dielectric permittivity on subwavelength scale, combine the features of optical metamaterials and photonic crystals. In particular, surface waves supported by a hypercrystal possess the properties of both the optical Tamm states in photonic crystals and surface-plasmon polaritons at the metal-dielectric interface.

  5. Photon absorptiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Velchik, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the detection and treatment of osteoporosis. This paper is a review of the merits and limitations of the various noninvasive modalities currently available for the measurement of bone mineral density with special emphasis placed upon the nuclear medicine techniques of single-photon and dual-photon absorptiometry. The clinicians should come away with an understanding of the relative advantages and disadvantages of photon absorptiometry and its optimal clinical application. 49 references.

  6. NASA/ESMD Analogue Mission Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation exploring Earth and its analogues is shown. The topics include: 1) ESMD Goals for the Use of Earth Analogues; 2) Stakeholders Summary; 3) Issues with Current Analogue Situation; 4) Current state of Analogues; 5) External Implementation Plan (Second Step); 6) Recent Progress in Utilizing Analogues; 7) Website Layout Example-Home Page; 8) Website Layout Example-Analogue Site; 9) Website Layout Example-Analogue Mission; 10) Objectives of ARDIG Analog Initiatives; 11) Future Plans; 12) Example: Cold-Trap Sample Return; 13) Example: Site Characterization Matrix; 14) Integrated Analogue Studies-Prerequisites for Human Exploration; and 15) Rating Scale Definitions.

  7. Topological photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, S. C.

    2008-03-01

    We associate intrinsic energy equal to hν /2 with the spin angular momentum of photon, and propose a topological model based on orbifold in space and tifold in time as topological obstructions. The model is substantiated using vector wavefield disclinations. The physical photon is suggested to be a particlelike topological photon and a propagating wave such that the energy hν of photon is equally divided between spin energy and translational energy, corresponding to linear momentum of hν /c. The enigma of wave-particle duality finds natural resolution, and the proposed model gives new insights into the phenomena of interference and emission of radiation.

  8. Spin Pumping in Electrodynamically Coupled Magnon-Photon Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Lihui; Harder, M.; Chen, Y. P.; Fan, X.; Xiao, J. Q.; Hu, C.-M.

    2015-06-01

    We use electrical detection, in combination with microwave transmission, to investigate both resonant and nonresonant magnon-photon coupling at room temperature. Spin pumping in a dynamically coupled magnon-photon system is found to be distinctly different from previous experiments. Characteristic coupling features such as modes anticrossing, linewidth evolution, peculiar line shape, and resonance broadening are systematically measured and consistently analyzed by a theoretical model set on the foundation of classical electrodynamic coupling. Our experimental and theoretical approach paves the way for pursuing microwave coherent manipulation of pure spin current via the combination of spin pumping and magnon-photon coupling.

  9. Radiating dipoles in photonic crystals

    PubMed

    Busch; Vats; John; Sanders

    2000-09-01

    The radiation dynamics of a dipole antenna embedded in a photonic crystal are modeled by an initially excited harmonic oscillator coupled to a non-Markovian bath of harmonic oscillators representing the colored electromagnetic vacuum within the crystal. Realistic coupling constants based on the natural modes of the photonic crystal, i.e., Bloch waves and their associated dispersion relation, are derived. For simple model systems, well-known results such as decay times and emission spectra are reproduced. This approach enables direct incorporation of realistic band structure computations into studies of radiative emission from atoms and molecules within photonic crystals. We therefore provide a predictive and interpretative tool for experiments in both the microwave and optical regimes.

  10. The photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Russell L.

    2009-10-01

    There are no TEM waves, only photons. Lets build a photon, using a radio antenna. A short antenna (2L<< λ) simplifies the calculation, letting B fall off everywhere as 1/r^2. The Biot-Savart law finds B = (μ0/4π)(LI0/r^2)θφt. The magnetic flux thru a semi-circle of radius λ/2 is set equal to the flux quantum h/e, determining the needed source strength, LI0. From this, one can integrate the magnetic energy density over a sphere of radius λ/2 and finds it to be 1.0121 hc/λ. Pretty close. A B field collapses when the current ceases, but the photon evades this by creating a ɛ0E / t displacement current at center that fully supports the toroidal B assembly as it moves at c. This E=vxB arises because the photon moves at c. Stopped, a photon decays. At every point along the photon's path, an observer will note a transient oscillation of an E field. This sources the EM ``guiding wave'', carrying little or no energy and expanding at c. At the head of the photon, all these spherical guiding waves gather ``in-phase'' as a planar wavefront. This model speaks to all the many things we know about light. The photon is tiny, but its guiding wave is huge.

  11. Atomic lenses and ideal single-photon detections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingmin; Xie, Lingyun; Wei, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Photon detector is one of the key units in the integrated optical devices. Due to the weak atom-photon interaction, the detection efficiency of a single photon by a bare atom (as a photon detector aside the waveguide) is relatively low (the most reachable value is shown as 50 % , which has being approached experimentally). In order to overcome such a limit, a pair of spatially separated two-level atoms (the photon lenses) with adjustable inflection and transmission coefficients of the photon are introduced to generate an atomic cavity, in which the detected probability of the waveguide photon by the single detector can be significantly enhanced (even reach to 100 % under certain conditions). The proposal is demonstrated specifically by a circuit QED system for highly effective detection of a single microwave photon.

  12. Measuring microwave quantum states: Tomogram and moments

    SciTech Connect

    Filippov, Sergey N.; Man'ko, Vladimir I.

    2011-09-15

    Two measurable characteristics of microwave one-mode photon states are discussed: a rotated quadrature distribution (tomogram) and normally and antinormally ordered moments of photon creation and annihilation operators. Extraction of these characteristics from an amplified microwave signal is presented. Relations between the tomogram and the moments are found and can be used as a cross-check of experiments. Formalism of the ordered moments is developed. The state purity and generalized uncertainty relations are considered in terms of moments. Unitary and nonunitary time evolution of moments is obtained in the form of a system of linear differential equations in contrast to partial differential equations for quasidistributions. Time evolution is specified for the cases of a harmonic oscillator and a damped harmonic oscillator which describe noiseless and decoherence processes, respectively.

  13. Fusaric acid and analogues as Gram-negative bacterial quorum sensing inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tung, Truong Thanh; Jakobsen, Tim Holm; Dao, Trong Tuan; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe; Givskov, Michael; Christensen, Søren Brøgger; Nielsen, John

    2017-01-27

    Taking advantage of microwave-assisted synthesis, efficient and expedite procedures for preparation of a library of fusaric acid and 39 analogues are reported. The fusaric acid analogues were tested in cell-based screening assays for inhibition of the las and rhl quorum sensing system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the lux quorum sensing system in Vibrio fischeri. Eight of the 40 compounds in the library including fusaric acid inhibited lux quorum sensing and one compound inhibited activity of the las quorum sensing system. To our delight, none of the compounds showed growth inhibitory effects in the tested concentration ranges.

  14. Superstrong coupling of thin film magnetostatic waves with microwave cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xufeng; Tang, Hong X.; Zou, Changling; Jiang, Liang

    2016-01-14

    We experimentally demonstrated the strong coupling between a microwave cavity and standing magnetostatic magnon modes in a yttrium iron garnet film. Such strong coupling can be observed for various spin wave modes under different magnetic field bias configurations, with a coupling strength inversely proportional to the transverse mode number. A comb-like spectrum can be obtained from these high order modes. The collectively enhanced magnon-microwave photon coupling strength is comparable with the magnon free spectral range and therefore leads to the superstrong coupling regime. Our findings pave the road towards designing a new type of strongly hybridized magnon-photon system.

  15. Total microwave processing using microwave technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, P.J.; Kingston, H.M.

    1995-12-31

    The implementation of total microwave processing of samples involves all processes after the collection of a sample up to but not including the analysis. These processes are often time consuming and a primary source of critical analytical errors. The use of microwave technology has been shown to improve sample digestion while also reducing contamination. However, microwave technology can also be used in the preparation of representative samples and matrix modifications; essentially total sample preparation. The concept of total microwave processing will be discussed as applied to the routine analysis of samples according to proposed Environmental Protection Agency Method 3052. This method requires microwave digestion and provides for several methods of post-digestion removal of hydrofluoric acid. Microwave technologies will be shown to efficiently dry, digest, and perform matrix modifications.

  16. Propagation of microwaves in gradient transmission lines: exactly solvable model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvartsburg, A. B.; Silin, N. V.

    2015-08-01

    Propagation of microwaves along the transmission line with smoothly continuously distributed capacitance and inductance (gradient transmission line) is considered in the framework of an exactly solvable model. The appearance of strong heterogeneity-induced plasma-like dispersion in gradient transmission line determined by the sizes and shapes of these distributions, is visualized by means of this model. Owing to this dispersion the energy transport in the line discussed can be ensured by both travelling and evanescent microwave modes, characterized by the real and imaginary wave numbers, respectively. The reflectance spectra for microwaves, incident on this heterogeneous transition section located between two homogeneous sections of transmission line are presented, the antireflection properties of this section are demonstrated. The interference of evanescent and anti-evanescent microwave modes is shown to provide the effective weakly attenuated energy transfer in the tunneling regime. The analogy between this microwave system and gradient nano-optical photonic barrier in revealed.

  17. Photon generator

    DOEpatents

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni

    2002-01-01

    A photon generator includes an electron gun for emitting an electron beam, a laser for emitting a laser beam, and an interaction ring wherein the laser beam repetitively collides with the electron beam for emitting a high energy photon beam therefrom in the exemplary form of x-rays. The interaction ring is a closed loop, sized and configured for circulating the electron beam with a period substantially equal to the period of the laser beam pulses for effecting repetitive collisions.

  18. A photon thermal diode

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhen; Wong, Carlaton; Lubner, Sean; Yee, Shannon; Miller, John; Jang, Wanyoung; Hardin, Corey; Fong, Anthony; Garay, Javier E.; Dames, Chris

    2014-01-01

    A thermal diode is a two-terminal nonlinear device that rectifies energy carriers (for example, photons, phonons and electrons) in the thermal domain, the heat transfer analogue to the familiar electrical diode. Effective thermal rectifiers could have an impact on diverse applications ranging from heat engines to refrigeration, thermal regulation of buildings and thermal logic. However, experimental demonstrations have lagged far behind theoretical proposals. Here we present the first experimental results for a photon thermal diode. The device is based on asymmetric scattering of ballistic energy carriers by pyramidal reflectors. Recent theoretical work has predicted that this ballistic mechanism also requires a nonlinearity in order to yield asymmetric thermal transport, a requirement of all thermal diodes arising from the second Law of Thermodynamics, and realized here using an ‘inelastic thermal collimator’ element. Experiments confirm both effects: with pyramids and collimator the thermal rectification is 10.9±0.8%, while without the collimator no rectification is detectable (<0.3%). PMID:25399761

  19. Photon diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, John

    2009-11-01

    In current light models, a particle-like model of light is inconsistent with diffraction observations. A model of light is proposed wherein photon inferences are combined with the cosmological scalar potential model (SPM). That the photon is a surface with zero surface area in the travel direction is inferred from the Michelson-Morley experiment. That the photons in slits are mathematically treated as a linear antenna array (LAA) is inferred from the comparison of the transmission grating interference pattern and the single slit diffraction pattern. That photons induce a LAA wave into the plenum is inferred from the fractal model. Similarly, the component of the photon (the hod) is treated as a single antenna radiating a potential wave into the plenum. That photons are guided by action on the surface of the hod is inferred from the SPM. The plenum potential waves are a real field (not complex) that forms valleys, consistent with the pilot waves of the Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics. Therefore, the Afshar experiment result is explained, supports Bohm, and falsifies Copenhagen. The papers may be viewed at http://web.citcom.net/˜scjh/.

  20. Photonic lanterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon-Saval, Sergio G.; Argyros, Alexander; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2013-12-01

    Multimode optical fibers have been primarily (and almost solely) used as "light pipes" in short distance telecommunications and in remote and astronomical spectroscopy. The modal properties of the multimode waveguides are rarely exploited and mostly discussed in the context of guiding light. Until recently, most photonic applications in the applied sciences have arisen from developments in telecommunications. However, the photonic lantern is one of several devices that arose to solve problems in astrophotonics and space photonics. Interestingly, these devices are now being explored for use in telecommunications and are likely to find commercial use in the next few years, particularly in the development of compact spectrographs. Photonic lanterns allow for a low-loss transformation of a multimode waveguide into a discrete number of single-mode waveguides and vice versa, thus enabling the use of single-mode photonic technologies in multimode systems. In this review, we will discuss the theory and function of the photonic lantern, along with several different variants of the technology. We will also discuss some of its applications in more detail. Furthermore, we foreshadow future applications of this technology to the field of nanophotonics.

  1. Cavity Microwave Searches for Cosmological Axions

    SciTech Connect

    Carosi, G; van Bibber, K

    2007-01-22

    This chapter will cover the search for dark matter axions based on microwave cavity experiments proposed by Pierre Sikivie. We will start with a brief overview of halo dark matter and the axion as a candidate. The principle of resonant conversion of axions in an external magnetic field will be described as well as practical considerations in optimizing the experiment as a signal-to-noise problem. A major focus of this chapter will be the two complementary strategies for ultra-low noise detection of the microwave photons--the 'photon-as-wave' approach (i.e. conventional heterojunction amplifiers and soon to be quantum-limited SQUID devices), and 'photon-as-particle' (i.e. Rydberg-atom single-quantum detection). Experimental results will be presented; these experiments have already reached well into the range of sensitivity to exclude plausible axion models, for limited ranges of mass. The section will conclude with a discussion of future plans and challenges for the microwave cavity experiment.

  2. MICROWAVE SOLID-STATE GENERATORS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    RADIOFREQUENCY GENERATORS , *SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES, *TRANSISTORS, MICROWAVE EQUIPMENT, X BAND, FREQUENCY MULTIPLIERS, MICROWAVE OSCILLATORS, CIRCUITS, BROADBAND, NARROWBAND, RADIOFREQUENCY POWER, TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS.

  3. PTH analogues and osteoporotic fractures.

    PubMed

    Verhaar, Harald J J; Lems, Willem F

    2010-09-01

    At present there are two parathyroid hormone (PTH) analogues (PTH 1 - 34 and PTH 1 - 84) registered for the treatment of established osteoporosis in postmenopausal women (PTH 1 - 34 and PTH 1 - 84) and in men (PTH 1 - 34 only) who are at increased risk of having a fracture. The efficacy and safety of PTH 1 - 34 and PTH 1 - 84 in the management of osteoporosis is evaluated by reviewing published literature and presentations from scientific meetings through to 2010. This review focuses on data on fracture risk reduction and safety endpoints of PTH analogues. The adverse reactions reported most are nausea, pain in the extremities, headache and dizziness. Exogenous PTH analogues, given as daily subcutaneous injections, stimulate bone formation, increase bone mass and bone strength, and improve calcium balance. In postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, PTH analogues reduced the risk of vertebral (PTH 1 - 34 and PTH 1 - 84) and non-vertebral fractures (only PTH 1 - 34). In men and women with glucocorticosteroid-induced osteoporosis, PTH 1 - 34 reduced the risk of vertebral fractures. In general, PTH analogues are well tolerated with an acceptable safety profile: they can be used for the prevention and treatment of fractures in postmenopausal women with severe, established osteoporosis.

  4. Photonic crystal alloys: a new twist in controlling photonic band structure properties.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Dong-Uk; Roh, Young-Geun; Yu, Jaejun; Jeon, Heonsu; Park, Q-Han

    2008-04-28

    We identified new photonic structures and phenomenon that are analogous to alloy crystals and the associated electronic bandgap engineering. From a set of diamond-lattice microwave photonic crystals of randomly mixed silica and alumina spheres but with a well defined mixing composition, we observed that both bandedges of the L-point bandgap monotonically shifted with very little bowing as the composition was varied. The observed results were in excellent agreement with the virtual crystal approximation theory originally developed for electronic properties of alloy crystals. This result signifies the similarity and correspondence between photonics and electronics.

  5. Antenna coupled photonic wire lasers

    DOE PAGES

    Kao, Tsung-Kao; Cai, Xiaowei; Lee, Alan W. M.; ...

    2015-06-22

    Slope efficiency (SE) is an important performance metric for lasers. In conventional semiconductor lasers, SE can be optimized by careful designs of the facet (or the modulation for DFB lasers) dimension and surface. However, photonic wire lasers intrinsically suffer low SE due to their deep sub-wavelength emitting facets. Inspired by microwave engineering techniques, we show a novel method to extract power from wire lasers using monolithically integrated antennas. These integrated antennas significantly increase the effective radiation area, and consequently enhance the power extraction efficiency. When applied to wire lasers at THz frequency, we achieved the highest single-side slope efficiency (~450more » mW/A) in pulsed mode for DFB lasers at 4 THz and a ~4x increase in output power at 3 THz compared with a similar structure without antennas. This work demonstrates the versatility of incorporating microwave engineering techniques into laser designs, enabling significant performance enhancements.« less

  6. Antenna coupled photonic wire lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Tsung-Kao; Cai, Xiaowei; Lee, Alan W. M.; Reno, John L.; Hu, Qing

    2015-06-22

    Slope efficiency (SE) is an important performance metric for lasers. In conventional semiconductor lasers, SE can be optimized by careful designs of the facet (or the modulation for DFB lasers) dimension and surface. However, photonic wire lasers intrinsically suffer low SE due to their deep sub-wavelength emitting facets. Inspired by microwave engineering techniques, we show a novel method to extract power from wire lasers using monolithically integrated antennas. These integrated antennas significantly increase the effective radiation area, and consequently enhance the power extraction efficiency. When applied to wire lasers at THz frequency, we achieved the highest single-side slope efficiency (~450 mW/A) in pulsed mode for DFB lasers at 4 THz and a ~4x increase in output power at 3 THz compared with a similar structure without antennas. This work demonstrates the versatility of incorporating microwave engineering techniques into laser designs, enabling significant performance enhancements.

  7. Antenna coupled photonic wire lasers

    DOE PAGES

    Kao, Tsung-Kao; Cai, Xiaowei; Lee, Alan W. M.; ...

    2015-06-22

    Slope efficiency (SE) is an important performance metric for lasers. In conventional semiconductor lasers, SE can be optimized by careful designs of the facet (or the modulation for DFB lasers) dimension and surface. However, photonic wire lasers intrinsically suffer low SE due to their deep sub-wavelength emitting facets. Inspired by microwave engineering techniques, we show a novel method to extract power from wire lasers using monolithically integrated antennas. These integrated antennas significantly increase the effective radiation area, and consequently enhance the power extraction efficiency. When applied to wire lasers at THz frequency, we achieved the highest single-side slope efficiency (~450more » mW/A) in pulsed mode for DFB lasers at 4 THz and a ~4x increase in output power at 3 THz compared with a similar structure without antennas. This work demonstrates the versatility of incorporating microwave engineering techniques into laser designs, enabling significant performance enhancements.« less

  8. Non-Gaussian Photon Probability Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Benjamin T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the axiom that the photon's probability distribution is a Gaussian distribution. The Airy disc empirical evidence shows that the best fit, if not exact, distribution is a modified Gamma mΓ distribution (whose parameters are α = r, βr/√u ) in the plane orthogonal to the motion of the photon. This modified Gamma distribution is then used to reconstruct the probability distributions along the hypotenuse from the pinhole, arc from the pinhole, and a line parallel to photon motion. This reconstruction shows that the photon's probability distribution is not a Gaussian function. However, under certain conditions, the distribution can appear to be Normal, thereby accounting for the success of quantum mechanics. This modified Gamma distribution changes with the shape of objects around it and thus explains how the observer alters the observation. This property therefore places additional constraints to quantum entanglement experiments. This paper shows that photon interaction is a multi-phenomena effect consisting of the probability to interact Pi, the probabilistic function and the ability to interact Ai, the electromagnetic function. Splitting the probability function Pi from the electromagnetic function Ai enables the investigation of the photon behavior from a purely probabilistic Pi perspective. The Probabilistic Interaction Hypothesis is proposed as a consistent method for handling the two different phenomena, the probability function Pi and the ability to interact Ai, thus redefining radiation shielding, stealth or cloaking, and invisibility as different effects of a single phenomenon Pi of the photon probability distribution. Sub wavelength photon behavior is successfully modeled as a multi-phenomena behavior. The Probabilistic Interaction Hypothesis provides a good fit to Otoshi's (1972) microwave shielding, Schurig et al. (2006) microwave cloaking, and Oulton et al. (2008) sub wavelength confinement; thereby providing a strong case that

  9. Gravitational Repulsion of Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brynjolfsson, Ari

    2012-03-01

    Plasma redshift explains the cosmological redshift, the redshift of stars and galaxies, the cosmic microwave background, the cosmic X-ray background, the observed redshift relation for magnitude and surface-brightness for supernovae, the solar redshift, the transition zone for the solar corona, the high temperatures of the solar corona. Plasma redshift makes it clear that the optical solar lines are not gravitationally redshifted when observed on Earth. Instead their gravitational redshifts in the Sun are reversed, as the photons travel from the Sun to the Earth. This means that the photons are repelled and not attracted by the gravitational field. There is, therefore, no need for Einstein's Lambda for explaining the static Universe. When the matter concentrates and falls towards the center of galaxies, it becomes so hot that it disintegrates matter to reform primordial like matter. In this way the universe can renew itself forever. This is all based on conventional physics, using only more accurate physics and calculations than those usually used. There is no need for Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Accelerated Expansion, nor Black Holes for explaining the everlasting Universe.

  10. Photon correlations through Raman virtual processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo E Souza, Reinaldo; Saraiva, Andre; Koiller, Belita

    In Raman inelastic scattering phonons are either absorbed or created, in what is respectively called an anti-Stokes (aS) or a Stokes (S) process. While these two processes are generally uncorrelated, it is possible that the same phonon generated by S is subsequently absorbed by aS. This two photon process is referred to as SaS. In a standard Raman process, conservation of energy forbids virtual phonons to play a role. However, in a SaS process these virtual phonons may be relevant as long as their lifetimes exceed the interval between the two scatterings. We derive the effective photon-photon interaction mediated by the phonon field. The effective hamiltonian is analogue to the one present in BCS superconductivity. The difference lies in the nature of the particles involved - since photons are bosons, there is no Fermi sea instability and no pair condensation. Still it is possible to obtain an attractive photon-photon interaction. Finally, we propose an experiment to detect the correlated photons emerging from a semiconductor. We pinpoint the material properties that might enhance this effect and discuss the possible technological applications of this idea as a correlated photon source. This work is part of the Brazilian National Institute for Science and Technology on Quantum Information. We also acknowledge partial support from the Brazilian agencies FAPERJ, CNPq and CAPES.

  11. Pressor effects of tryptamine analogues.

    PubMed Central

    Bosin, T R; Hixson, E J; Maickel, R P

    1976-01-01

    1. Methylation of tryptamine in the 1-position had little effect on the potency of the drug as a pressor agent in the intact anaesthetized rat. 2. In contrast, substitution of a benzo[b]thiophene ring system for the indole ring decreased the pressor activity. 3. Pretreatment of the animals with reserpine reduced the pressor effect of tryptamine and its benzo[b]thiophene analogue while increasing the effect of the 1-methylindole analogue. 4. Pretreatment with phenoxybenzamine reduced the pressor effect of all three compounds. PMID:1252662

  12. Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, VR

    2006-08-01

    The Microwave Radiometer (MWR) provides time-series measurements of column-integrated amounts of water vapor and liquid water. The instrument itself is essentially a sensitive microwave receiver. That is, it is tuned to measure the microwave emissions of the vapor and liquid water molecules in the atmosphere at specific frequencies.

  13. Microwave Workshop for Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Colin

    1998-01-01

    "Microwave Workshop for Windows" consists of three programs that act as teaching aid and provide a circuit design utility within the field of microwave engineering. The first program is a computer representation of a graphical design tool; the second is an accurate visual and analytical representation of a microwave test bench; the third…

  14. Valley-dependent beam manipulators based on photonic graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Fu-Sheng; Sun, Yong; Dong, Li-Juan; Liu, Yan-Hong; Shi, Yun-Long

    2017-02-01

    Trigonal warping distortion in energy band lifts the degeneracy of two valleys (K and K' points) of graphene. In this situation, electron transport becomes valley dependent, which can be used to design the valley beam splitter, collimator, or guiding device. Here, valley-dependent beam manipulators are designed based on artificial photonic graphene. In this scheme, the finite-size artificial photonic graphene is intentionally designed to realize the novel device functionalities. This kind of valley-dependent beam manipulators can work at an arbitrary range of electromagnetic waves from microwave to visible light. It potentially paves the way for the application of photonic graphene in future integrated photonic devices.

  15. Waveguide circuits in three-dimensional photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Rana; Christensen, C.; Muehlmeier, J.; Tuttle, G.; Ho, K.-M.

    2008-04-07

    Waveguide circuits in three-dimensional photonic crystals with complete photonic band gaps are simulated with finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations, and compared with measurements on microwave scale photonic crystals. The transmission through waveguide bends critically depends on the photonic crystal architecture in the bend region. We have found experimentally and theoretically, a new waveguide bend configuration consisting of overlapping rods in the bend region, that performs better than the simple waveguide bend of terminated rods, especially in the higher frequency portion of the band. Efficient beam splitters with this junction geometry are also simulated.

  16. Compton scattering of blackbody photons by relativistic electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Pjanka, Patryk

    2013-12-01

    We present simple and accurate analytical formulas for the rates of Compton scattering by relativistic electrons integrated over the energy distribution of blackbody seed photons. Both anisotropic scattering, in which blackbody photons arriving from one direction are scattered by an anisotropic electron distribution into another direction, and scattering of isotropic seed photons are considered. Compton scattering by relativistic electrons off blackbody photons from either stars or cosmic microwave background takes place, in particular, in microquasars, colliding-wind binaries, supernova remnants, interstellar medium and the vicinity of the Sun.

  17. Green photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Frederic

    2012-02-01

    Photonics, the broad merger of electronics with the optical sciences, encompasses such a wide swath of technology that its impact is almost universal in our everyday lives. This is a broad overview of some aspects of the industry and their contribution to the ‘green’ or environmental movement. The rationale for energy conservation is briefly discussed and the impact of photonics on our everyday lives and certain industries is described. Some opinions from industry are presented along with market estimates. References are provided to some of the most recent research in these areas.

  18. Vesicle Photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Scott, E. A.; Roke, Sylvie; Hubbell, J. A.; Psaltis, D.

    2013-04-03

    Thin membranes, under appropriate boundary conditions, can self-assemble into vesicles, nanoscale bubbles that encapsulate and hence protect or transport molecular payloads. In this paper, we review the types and applications of light fields interacting with vesicles. By encapsulating light-emitting molecules (e.g. dyes, fluorescent proteins, or quantum dots), vesicles can act as particles and imaging agents. Vesicle imaging can take place also under second harmonic generation from vesicle membrane, as well as employing mass spectrometry. Light fields can also be employed to transport vesicles using optical tweezers (photon momentum) or directly pertrurbe the stability of vesicles and hence trigger the delivery of the encapsulated payload (photon energy).

  19. (18)F-labelled metomidate analogues as adrenocortical imaging agents.

    PubMed

    Erlandsson, Maria; Karimi, Farhad; Lindhe, Orjan; Långström, Bengt

    2009-05-01

    Two- and one-step syntheses of (18)F-labelled analogues of metomidate, such as 2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl 1-[(1R)-1-phenylethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (1), 2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl 1-[(1R)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (2), 2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl 1-[(1R)-1-(4-bromophenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (3), 3-[(18)F]fluoropropyl 1-[(1R)-1-(4-bromophenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (4) and 3-[(18)F]fluoropropyl 1-[(1R)-1-phenylethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (5) are presented. Analogues 1-5 were prepared by a two-step reaction sequence that started with the synthesis of either 2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate or 3-[(18)F]fluoropropyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate. These were used as (18)F-alkylating agents in the second step, in which they reacted with the ammonium salt of a 1-[(1R)-1-phenylethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylic acid. One-step-labelling syntheses of 1, 2 and 5 were also explored. Analogues 1-4 were biologically validated by frozen-section autoradiography and organ distribution. Metabolite analysis was performed for 2 and 3. The radiochemical yield of the two-step synthesis was in the range of 10-29% and that of the one-step synthesis was 25-37%. Using microwave irradiation in the one-step synthesis of 1 and 2 increased the radiochemical yield to 46+/-3% and 79+/-30%, respectively. Both the frozen-section autoradiography and organ distribution results indicated that analogue 2 has a potential as an adrenocortical imaging agent, having the highest degree of specific adrenal binding and best ratio of adrenal to organ uptake among the compounds studied.

  20. Photonic Bandgaps in Photonic Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.; Chang, Hongrok; Gates, Amanda L.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Gregory, Don A.; Witherow, William K.; Paley, Mark S.; Frazier, Donald O.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This talk will focus on photonic bandgaps that arise due to nearly free photon and tight-binding effects in coupled microparticle and ring-resonator systems. The Mie formulation for homogeneous spheres is generalized to handle core/shell systems and multiple concentric layers in a manner that exploits an analogy with stratified planar systems, thereby allowing concentric multi-layered structures to be treated as photonic bandgap (PBG) materials. Representative results from a Mie code employing this analogy demonstrate that photonic bands arising from nearly free photon effects are easily observed in the backscattering, asymmetry parameter, and albedo for periodic quarter-wave concentric layers, though are not readily apparent in extinction spectra. Rather, the periodicity simply alters the scattering profile, enhancing the ratio of backscattering to forward scattering inside the bandgap, in direct analogy with planar quarter-wave multilayers. PBGs arising from tight-binding may also be observed when the layers (or rings) are designed such that the coupling between them is weak. We demonstrate that for a structure consisting of N coupled micro-resonators, the morphology dependent resonances split into N higher-Q modes, in direct analogy with other types of oscillators, and that this splitting ultimately results in PBGs which can lead to enhanced nonlinear optical effects.

  1. Microwave sintering of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, W.B.

    1989-01-01

    Successful adaptation of microwave heating to the densification of ceramic materials require a marriage of microwave and materials technologies. Using an interdisciplinary team of microwave and materials engineers, we have successfully demonstrated the ability to density ceramic materials over a wide range of temperatures. Microstructural evolution during microwave sintering has been found to be significantly different from that observed in conventional sintering. Our results and those of others indicate that microwave sintering has the potential to fabricate components to near net shape with mechanical properties equivalent to hot pressed or hot isostatically pressed material. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  2. High brightness microwave lamp

    DOEpatents

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Dolan, James T.; MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Simpson, James E.

    2003-09-09

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes a source of microwave energy, a microwave cavity, a structure configured to transmit the microwave energy from the source to the microwave cavity, a bulb disposed within the microwave cavity, the bulb including a discharge forming fill which emits light when excited by the microwave energy, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity, wherein the reflector defines a reflective cavity which encompasses the bulb within its volume and has an inside surface area which is sufficiently less than an inside surface area of the microwave cavity. A portion of the reflector may define a light emitting aperture which extends from a position closely spaced to the bulb to a light transmissive end of the microwave cavity. Preferably, at least a portion of the reflector is spaced from a wall of the microwave cavity. The lamp may be substantially sealed from environmental contamination. The cavity may include a dielectric material is a sufficient amount to require a reduction in the size of the cavity to support the desired resonant mode.

  3. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.

    2002-01-01

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stroke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  4. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.

    2007-06-05

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stoke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  5. Sharp phase variations from the plasmon mode causing the Rabi-analogue splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yujia; Sun, Chengwei; Gan, Fengyuan; Li, Hongyun; Gong, Qihuang; Chen, Jianjun

    2017-06-01

    The Rabi-analogue splitting in nanostructures resulting from the strong coupling of different resonant modes is of importance for lasing, sensing, switching, modulating, and quantum information processes. To give a clearer physical picture, the phase analysis instead of the strong coupling is provided to explain the Rabi-analogue splitting in the Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity, of which one end mirror is a metallic nanohole array and the other is a thin metal film. The phase analysis is based on an analytic model of the FP cavity, in which the reflectance and the reflection phase of the end mirrors are dependent on the wavelength. It is found that the Rabi-analogue splitting originates from the sharp phase variation brought by the plasmon mode in the FP cavity. In the experiment, the Rabi-analogue splitting is realized in the plasmonic-photonic coupling system, and this splitting can be continually tuned by changing the length of the FP cavity. These experimental results agree well with the analytic and simulation data, strongly verifying the phase analysis based on the analytic model. The phase analysis presents a clear picture to understand the working mechanism of the Rabi-analogue splitting; thus, it may facilitate the design of the plasmonic-photonic and plasmonic-plasmonic coupling systems.

  6. Photon-assisted tunneling through a quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Kouwenhoven, L.P.; Jauhar, S.; McCormick, K.; Dixon, D.; McEuen, P.L. Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, Mail Stop 2-200, Berkeley, California 94720 ); Nazarov, Y.V.; van der Vaart, N.C. ); Foxon, C.T. )

    1994-07-15

    We study single-electron tunneling in a two-junction device in the presence of microwave radiation. We introduce a model for numerical simulations that extends the Tien-Gordon theory for photon-assisted tunneling to encompass correlated single-electron tunneling. We predict sharp current jumps which reflect the discrete photon energy [ital hf], and a zero-bias current whose sign changes when an electron is added to the central island of the device. Measurements on split-gate quantum dots show microwave-induced features that are in good agreement with the model.

  7. RF Photonic Technology in Optical Fiber Links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, William S. C.

    2007-06-01

    List of contributors; Introduction and preface; 1. Figures of merit and performance analysis of photonic microwave links Charles Cox and William S. C. Chang; 2. RF subcarrier links in local access networks Xiaolin Lu; 3. Analog modulation of semiconductor lasers Joachim Piprek and John E. Bowers; 4. LiNbO3 external modulators and their use in high performance analog links Gary E. Betts; 5. Broadband traveling wave modulators in LiNbO3 Marta M. Howerton and William K. Burns; 6. Multiple quantum well electroabsorption modulators for RF photonic links William S. C. Chang; 7. Polymer modulators for RF photonics Timothy Van Eck; 8. Photodiodes for high performance analog links P. K. L. Yu and Ming C. Wu; 9. Opto-electronic oscillators X. Steve Yao; 10. Photonic link techniques for microwave frequency conversion Stephen A. Pappert, Roger Helkey and Ronald T. Logan Jr; 11. Antenna-coupled millimeter-wave electro-optical modulators William B. Bridges; 12. System design and performance of wideband photonic phased array antennas Greg L. Tangonan, Willie Ng, Daniel Yap and Ron Stephens; Acknowledgements; References; Index.

  8. Continuous-Wave Single-Photon Transistor Based on a Superconducting Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyriienko, Oleksandr; Sørensen, Anders S.

    2016-09-01

    We propose a microwave frequency single-photon transistor which can operate under continuous wave probing and represents an efficient single microwave photon detector. It can be realized using an impedance matched system of a three level artificial ladder-type atom coupled to two microwave cavities connected to input-output waveguides. Using a classical drive on the upper transition, we find parameter space where a single photon control pulse incident on one of the cavities can be fully absorbed into hybridized excited states. This subsequently leads to series of quantum jumps in the upper manifold and the appearance of a photon flux leaving the second cavity through a separate input-output port. The proposal does not require time variation of the probe signals, thus corresponding to a passive version of a single-photon transistor. The resulting device is robust to qubit dephasing processes, possesses low dark count rate for large anharmonicity, and can be readily implemented using current technology.

  9. Evidence of a Nonequilibrium Distribution of Quasiparticles in the Microwave Response of a Superconducting Aluminum Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Visser, P. J.; Goldie, D. J.; Diener, P.; Withington, S.; Baselmans, J. J. A.; Klapwijk, T. M.

    2014-01-01

    In a superconductor, absorption of photons with an energy below the superconducting gap leads to redistribution of quasiparticles over energy and thus induces a strong nonequilibrium quasiparticle energy distribution. We have measured the electrodynamic response, quality factor, and resonant frequency of a superconducting aluminium microwave resonator as a function of microwave power and temperature. Below 200 mK, both the quality factor and resonant frequency decrease with increasing microwave power, consistent with the creation of excess quasiparticles due to microwave absorption. Counterintuitively, above 200 mK, the quality factor and resonant frequency increase with increasing power. We demonstrate that the effect can only be understood by a nonthermal quasiparticle distribution.

  10. Non-equilibrium mechanisms of light in the microwave region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortenson, Juliana H. J.

    2011-09-01

    Quantum mechanics and quantum chemistry have taught for more than 100 years that "photons" associated with microwaves cannot exert photochemical effects because their "photon energies" are smaller than chemical bond energies. Those quantum theories have been strongly contradicted within the last few decades by physical experiments demonstrating non-equilibrium, photochemical and photomaterial activity by microwaves. Reactions among scientists to these real physical models and proofs have varied from disbelief and denial, to acceptance of the real physical phenomena and demands for revisions to quantum theory. At the previous "Nature of Light" meeting, an advance in the foundations of quantum mechanics was presented. Those discoveries have revealed the source of these conflicts between quantum theory and microwave experiments. Critical variables and constants were missing from quantum theory due to a minor mathematical inadvertence in Planck's original quantum work. As a result, erroneous concepts were formed nearly a century ago regarding the energetics and mechanisms of lower frequency light, such as in the microwave region. The new discoveries have revealed that the traditional concept of "photons" mistakenly attributed elementary particle status to what is actually an arbitrarily time-based collection of sub-photonic, elementary particles. In a mathematical dimensional sense, those time-based energy measurements cannot be mathematically equivalent to bond energies as historically believed. Only an "isolated quantity of energy", as De Broglie referred to it, can be equivalent to bond energy. With the aid of the new variables and constants, the non-equilibrium mechanisms of light in the microwave region can now be described. They include resonant absorption, splitting frequency stimulation leading to electronic excitation, and resonant acoustic transduction. Numerous practical engineering applications can be envisioned for non-equilibrium microwaves.

  11. Photon Collider Physics with Real Photon Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Gronberg, J; Asztalos, S

    2005-11-03

    Photon-photon interactions have been an important probe into fundamental particle physics. Until recently, the only way to produce photon-photon collisions was parasitically in the collision of charged particles. Recent advances in short-pulse laser technology have made it possible to consider producing high intensity, tightly focused beams of real photons through Compton scattering. A linear e{sup +}e{sup -} collider could thus be transformed into a photon-photon collider with the addition of high power lasers. In this paper they show that it is possible to make a competitive photon-photon collider experiment using the currently mothballed Stanford Linear Collider. This would produce photon-photon collisions in the GeV energy range which would allow the discovery and study of exotic heavy mesons with spin states of zero and two.

  12. Novel High Cooperativity Photon-Magnon Cavity QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobar, Michael; Bourhill, Jeremy; Kostylev, Nikita; G, Maxim; Creedon, Daniel

    Novel microwave cavities are presented, which couple photons and magnons in YIG spheres in a super- and ultra-strong way at around 20 mK in temperature. Few/Single photon couplings (or normal mode splitting, 2g) of more than 6 GHz at microwave frequencies are obtained. Types of cavities include multiple post reentrant cavities, which co-couple photons at different frequencies with a coupling greater that the free spectral range, as well as spherical loaded dielectric cavity resonators. In such cavities we show that the bare dielectric properties can be obtained by polarizing all magnon modes to high energy using a 7 Tesla magnet. We also show that at zero-field, collective effects of the spins significantly perturb the photon modes. Other effects like time-reversal symmetry breaking are observed.

  13. Hamiltonian tomography of photonic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ruichao; Owens, Clai; LaChapelle, Aman; Schuster, David I.; Simon, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we introduce an approach to Hamiltonian tomography of noninteracting tight-binding photonic lattices. To begin with, we prove that the matrix element of the low-energy effective Hamiltonian between sites α and β may be obtained directly from Sα β(ω ) , the (suitably normalized) two-port measurement between sites α and β at frequency ω . This general result enables complete characterization of both on-site energies and tunneling matrix elements in arbitrary lattice networks by spectroscopy, and suggests that coupling between lattice sites is a topological property of the two-port spectrum. We further provide extensions of this technique for measurement of band projectors in finite, disordered systems with good band flatness ratios, and apply the tool to direct real-space measurement of the Chern number. Our approach demonstrates the extraordinary potential of microwave quantum circuits for exploration of exotic synthetic materials, providing a clear path to characterization and control of single-particle properties of Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard lattices. More broadly, we provide a robust, unified method of spectroscopic characterization of linear networks from photonic crystals to microwave lattices and everything in between.

  14. Piezoelectric tunable microwave superconducting cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, N. C.; Fan, Y.; Tobar, M. E.

    2016-09-01

    In the context of engineered quantum systems, there is a demand for superconducting tunable devices, able to operate with high-quality factors at power levels equivalent to only a few photons. In this work, we developed a 3D microwave re-entrant cavity with such characteristics ready to provide a very fine-tuning of a high-Q resonant mode over a large dynamic range. This system has an electronic tuning mechanism based on a mechanically amplified piezoelectric actuator, which controls the resonator dominant mode frequency by changing the cavity narrow gap by very small displacements. Experiments were conducted at room and dilution refrigerator temperatures showing a large dynamic range up to 4 GHz and 1 GHz, respectively, and were compared to a finite element method model simulated data. At elevated microwave power input, nonlinear thermal effects were observed to destroy the superconductivity of the cavity due to the large electric fields generated in the small gap of the re-entrant cavity.

  15. Neuronal Analogues of Conditioning Paradigms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-24

    Although the mechanisms of interneuronal communication have been well established, the changes underlying most forms of learning have thus far eluded...stimulating electrodes on one of the connectives was adjusted so as to produce a small excitatory postsynaptic potential ( EPSP ) in the impaled cell...two stimuli would constitute a neuronal analogue of conditioning by producing an increased EPSP in response to the test stimulus alone. If so, then

  16. Desferrithiocin Analogue Uranium Decorporation Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Raymond J.; Wiegand, Jan; Singh, Shailendra

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Previous systematic structure-activity studies of the desferrithiocin (DFT) platform have allowed the design and synthesis of analogues and derivatives of DFT that retain the exceptional iron-clearing activity of the parent, while eliminating its adverse effects. We hypothesized that a similar approach could be adopted to identify DFT-related analogues that could effectively decorporate uranium. Materials and Methods The decorporation properties of nine DFT-related analogues were determined in a bile duct-cannulated rat model. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) served as a positive control. Selected ligands also underwent multiple and delayed dosing regimens. Uranium excretion in urine and bile or stool was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS); tissue levels of uranium were also assessed. Results The two best clinical candidates are (S)-4,5-dihydro-2-[2-hydroxy-4-(3,6,9-trioxadecyloxy)phenyl]-4-methyl-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid [(S)-4'-(HO)-DADFT-PE (9)], with a 57% reduction in kidney uranium levels on oral (p.o.) administration and (S)-4,5-dihydro-2-[2-hydroxy-3-(3,6,9-trioxadecyloxy)phenyl]-4-methyl-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid [(S)-3'-(HO)-DADFT-PE (10)], with a 62% renal reduction on p.o. administration. The majority of the metal excretion promoted by these analogues is in the bile, thus further reducing kidney actinide exposure. Conclusions While 9 administered p.o. or subcutaneously (s.c.) immediately post-metal is an effective decorporation agent, withholding the dose (s.c.) until 4 h reduced the activity of the compound. Conversion of 9 to its isopropyl ester may circumvent this issue. PMID:19399680

  17. Engineering Topological Many-Body Materials in Microwave Cavity Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Brandon M.; Ma, Ruichao; Owens, Clai; Schuster, David I.; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-10-01

    We present a scalable architecture for the exploration of interacting topological phases of photons in arrays of microwave cavities, using established techniques from cavity and circuit quantum electrodynamics. A time-reversal symmetry-breaking (nonreciprocal) flux is induced by coupling the microwave cavities to ferrites, allowing for the production of a variety of topological band structures including the α =1 /4 Hofstadter model. To induce photon-photon interactions, the cavities are coupled to superconducting qubits; we find these interactions are sufficient to stabilize a ν =1 /2 bosonic Laughlin puddle. Exact diagonalization studies demonstrate that this architecture is robust to experimentally achievable levels of disorder. These advances provide an exciting opportunity to employ the quantum circuit toolkit for the exploration of strongly interacting topological materials.

  18. Photon-assisted tunnelling with nonclassical light

    PubMed Central

    Souquet, J. -R.; Woolley, M. J.; Gabelli, J.; Simon, P.; Clerk, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Among the most exciting recent advances in the field of superconducting quantum circuits is the ability to coherently couple microwave photons in low-loss cavities to quantum electronic conductors. These hybrid quantum systems hold great promise for quantum information-processing applications; even more strikingly, they enable exploration of new physical regimes. Here we study theoretically the new physics emerging when a quantum electronic conductor is exposed to nonclassical microwaves (for example, squeezed states, Fock states). We study this interplay in the experimentally relevant situation where a superconducting microwave cavity is coupled to a conductor in the tunnelling regime. We find that the conductor acts as a nontrivial probe of the microwave state: the emission and absorption of photons by the conductor is characterized by a nonpositive definite quasi-probability distribution, which is related to the Glauber–Sudarshan P-function of quantum optics. These negative quasi-probabilities have a direct influence on the conductance of the conductor. PMID:25424422

  19. Characterization of Lasers for Use in Analog Photonic Links

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-22

    measurements. Trade-offs for each of the lasers characterized are discussed as well as their impact on analog photonic link performance. 22-11-2011... impact on the performance of a photonic link when it occurs with high intensity at radio and microwave frequencies such as decreased sensitivity and...from being straightforward. The first subtlety is the fact that the noise of the lasers will typically be below the noise floor of the electrical

  20. Microalgae photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floume, Timmy; Coquil, Thomas; Sylvestre, Julien

    2011-05-01

    Due to their metabolic flexibility and fast growth rate, microscopic aquatic phototrophs like algae have a potential to become industrial photochemical converters. Algae photosynthesis could enable the large scale production of clean and renewable liquid fuels and chemicals with major environmental, economic and societal benefits. Capital and operational costs are the main issues to address through optical, process and biochemical engineering improvements. In this perspective, a variety of photonic approaches have been proposed - we introduce them here and describe their potential, limitations and compatibility with separate biotechnology and engineering progresses. We show that only sunlight-based approaches are economically realistic. One of photonics' main goals in the algae field is to dilute light to overcome photosaturation effects that impact upon cultures exposed to full sunlight. Among other approaches, we introduce a widely-compatible broadband spectral adaptation technique called AlgoSun® that uses luminescence to optimize sunlight spectrum in view of the bioconverter's requirements.

  1. Substrate analogues for isoprenoid enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Stremler, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    Diphosphonate analogues of geranyl diphosphate, resistant to degradation by phosphatases, were found to be alternate substrates for the reaction with farnesyl diphosphate synthetase isolated from avian liver. The difluoromethane analogue was shown to be the better alternate substrate, in agreement with solvolysis results which indicate that the electronegativity of the difluoromethylene unit more closely approximates that of the normal bridging oxygen. The usefulness of the C/sub 10/ difluoro analogue, for detecting low levels of isoprenoid enzymes in the presence of high levels of phosphatase activity, was demonstrated with a cell-free preparation from lemon peel. A series of C/sub 5/ through C/sub 15/ homoallylic and allylic diphosphonates, as well as two 5'-nucleotide diphosphonates, was prepared in high overall yield using the activation-displacement sequence. Radiolabeled samples of several of the allylic diphosphonates were prepared with tritium located at C1. A series of geraniols, stereospecifically deuterated at C1, was prepared. The enantiomeric purities and absolute configurations were determined by derivatization as the mandelate esters for analysis by /sup 1/H NMR. The stereochemistry of the activation-displacement sequence was examined using C1-deuterated substrates.

  2. Microwave memristive-like nonlinearity in a dielectric metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongya; Zhou, Ji; Lan, Chuwen; Guo, Yunsheng; Bi, Ke

    2014-06-30

    Memristor exhibit interesting and valuable circuit properties and have thus become the subject of increasing scientific interest. Scientists wonder if they can conceive a microwave memristor that behaves as a memristor operating with electromagnetic fields. Here, we report a microwave memristive-like nonlinear phenomenon at room temperature in dielectric metamaterials consisting of CaTiO3-ZrO2 ceramic dielectric cubes. Hysteretic transmission-incident field power loops (similar to the hysteretic I-V loop of memristor which is the fingerprint of memristor) with various characteristics were systematically observed in the metamaterials, which exhibited designable microwave memristive-like behavior. The effect is attributed to the decreasing permittivity of the dielectric cubes with the increasing temperature generated by the interaction between the electromagnetic waves and the dielectric cubes. This work demonstrates the feasibility of fabrication transient photonic memristor at microwave frequencies with metamaterials.

  3. Magnetometer Based on Optoelectronic Microwave Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maleki, Lute; Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey

    2005-01-01

    proposed instrument, intended mainly for use as a magnetometer, would include an optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) stabilized by an atomic cell that could play the role of a magnetically tunable microwave filter. The microwave frequency would vary with the magnetic field in the cell, thereby providing an indication of the magnetic field. The proposed magnetometer would offer a combination of high accuracy and high sensitivity, characterized by flux densities of less than a picotesla. In comparison with prior magnetometers, the proposed magnetometer could, in principle, be constructed as a compact, lightweight instrument: It could fit into a package of about 10 by 10 by 10 cm and would have a mass <0.5 kg. As described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, an OEO is a hybrid of photonic and electronic components that generates highly spectrally pure microwave radiation, and optical radiation modulated by the microwave radiation, through direct conversion between laser light and microwave radiation in an optoelectronic feedback loop. As used here, "atomic cell" signifies a cell containing a vapor, the constituent atoms of which can be made to undergo transitions between quantum states, denoted hyperfine levels, when excited by light in a suitable wavelength range. The laser light must be in this range. The energy difference between the hyperfine levels defines the microwave frequency. In the proposed instrument (see figure), light from a laser would be introduced into an electro-optical modulator (EOM). Amplitude-modulated light from the exit port of the EOM would pass through a fiber-optic splitter having two output branches. The light in one branch would be sent through an atomic cell to a photodiode. The light in the other branch would constitute the microwave-modulated optical output. Part of the light leaving the atomic cell could also be used to stabilize the laser at a frequency in the vicinity of the desired hyperfine or other quantum transition. The

  4. Photon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Va`vra, J.

    1995-10-01

    J. Seguinot and T. Ypsilantis have recently described the theory and history of Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. In this paper, I will expand on these excellent review papers, by covering the various photon detector designs in greater detail, and by including discussion of mistakes made, and detector problems encountered, along the way. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photo-electrons. For gaseous devices, this requires the correct choice of gas gain in order to prevent breakdown and wire aging, together with the use of low noise electronics having the maximum possible amplification. In addition, the detector must be constructed of materials which resist corrosion due to photosensitive materials such as, the detector enclosure must be tightly sealed in order to prevent oxygen leaks, etc. The most critical step is the selection of the photocathode material. Typically, a choice must be made between a solid (CsI) or gaseous photocathode (TMAE, TEA). A conservative approach favors a gaseous photocathode, since it is continuously being replaced by flushing, and permits the photon detectors to be easily serviced (the air sensitive photocathode can be removed at any time). In addition, it can be argued that we now know how to handle TMAE, which, as is generally accepted, is the best photocathode material available as far as quantum efficiency is concerned. However, it is a very fragile molecule, and therefore its use may result in relatively fast wire aging. A possible alternative is TEA, which, in the early days, was rejected because it requires expensive CaF{sub 2} windows, which could be contaminated easily in the region of 8.3 eV and thus lose their UV transmission.

  5. Photonic homeostatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Timon C.; Li, Fan-Hui

    2010-11-01

    Photonic homeostatics is a discipline to study the establishment, maintenance, decay, upgrading and representation of function-specific homoestasis (FSH) by using photonics. FSH is a negative-feedback response of a biosystem to maintain the function-specific fluctuations inside the biosystem so that the function is perfectly performed. A stress may increase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) activities above FSH-specific SIRT1 activity to induce a function far from its FSH. On the one hand, low level laser irradiation or monochromatic light (LLL) can not modulate a function in its FSH or a stress in its stress-specific homeostasis (StSH), but modulate a function far from its FSH or a stress far from its StSH. On the other hand, the biophotons from a biosystem with its function in its FSH should be less than the one from the biosystem with its function far from its FSH. The non-resonant interaction of low intensity laser irradiation or monochromatic light (LIL) and a kind of membrane protein can be amplified by all the membrane proteins if the function is far from its FSH. This amplification might hold for biophoton emission of the membrane protein so that the photonic spectroscopy can be used to represent the function far from its FSH, which is called photonomics.

  6. Three-photon coherence of Rydberg atomic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Hyo Min; Jeong, Taek; Lee, Yoon-Seok; Moon, Han Seb

    2016-05-01

    We investigated three-photon coherence effects of the Rydberg state in a four-level ladder-type atomic system for the 5 S1/2 (F = 3) - 5 P3/2 (F' = 4) - 50 D5/2 - 51 P3/2 transition of 85 Rb atoms. By adding a resonant electric field of microwave (MW) at electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in Rydberg state scheme, we observed experimentally that splitting of EIT signal appears under the condition of three-photon resonance in the Doppler-broadened atomic system. Discriminating the two- and three-photon coherence terms from the calculated spectrum in a simple four-level ladder-type Doppler-broadened atomic system, we found that the physical origin of splitting of EIT was three-photon coherence effect, but not three-photon quantum interference phenomena such as three-photon electromagnetically induced absorption (TPEIA).

  7. Dielectric matrices with air cavities as a waveguide photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usanov, D. A.; Skripal', A. V.; Merdanov, M. K.; Gorlitskii, V. O.

    2016-02-01

    Frequency dependences of the transmission coefficient of a microwave photonic crystal that represents a structure containing alternating layers of ceramic material (Al2O3) with a relatively large number of cavities and foam plastic are studied in the presence and absence of distortions of the periodicity of a photonic structure. The frequency dependences of the transmission coefficient can be analyzed using a model of effective medium that makes it possible to consider the interaction of electromagnetic wave and photonic crystal using a transfer matrix of a 1D photonic crystal. The band character of the frequency dependence of the transmission coefficient of the photonic crystal related to the periodicity of the photonic crystal in the transverse plane for the waveguide with a standard cross section is not manifested in a certain range of material permittivities.

  8. Microwave Lightcraft concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Looking like an alien space ship or a flying saucer the Microwave Lightcraft is an unconventional launch vehicle approach for delivering payload to orbit using power transmitted via microwaves. Microwaves re beamed from either a ground station or an orbiting solar power satellite to the lightcraft. The energy received breaks air molecules into a plasma and a magnetohydrodynamic fanjet provides the lifting force. Only a small amount of propellant is required for circulation, attitude control and deorbit.

  9. Microwave Lightcraft concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Looking like an alien space ship or a flying saucer the Microwave Lightcraft is an unconventional launch vehicle approach for delivering payload to orbit using power transmitted via microwaves. Microwaves re beamed from either a ground station or an orbiting solar power satellite to the lightcraft. The energy received breaks air molecules into a plasma and a magnetohydrodynamic fanjet provides the lifting force. Only a small amount of propellant is required for circulation, attitude control and deorbit.

  10. Investigation of Analog Photonic Link Technology for Timing and Metrological Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-18

    Urick (202) 767-9352 Microwave photonics RF photonics Single-sideband phase noise measurements have been conducted in support of precision timing...amplifier was a DBS Microwave device (DB96-0611) with about 46 dB small-signal gain and a maximum output power of about 32 dBm. The LNA was the low...general, the close-in phase noise rivals or is significantly less than that for state-of-the-art microwave oscillators. On the other hand, white

  11. A microwave cavity search for axions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, D. B.

    2007-04-01

    The mass of the axion, a hypothetical elementary particle proposed as a solution to the ``strong-CP'' problem, is constrained by experimental and astrophysical considerations to a range where the axion is a very plausible cold dark matter candidate. This weakly-interacting dark matter particle could constitute the halo of our galaxy. In the Axion Dark Matter eXperiment (ADMX), halo axions flow through a microwave resonant cavity permeated by a static magnetic field, where some convert into microwave photons. These photons are detected by an ultralow-noise receiver. The ADMX Collaboration has set limits on the axion-to-photon coupling and/or local axion halo mass density for axion mass between 1.9 and 3.3 μeV. Consideration of phase-space structure of the axion flow, which predicts extremely sharp peaks in the axion kinetic-energy spectrum, improves the limit. Presently underway is an upgrade to the experiment, using SQUID RF amplifiers, which will improve the performance by more than a factor of 10.Work done with L.D. Duffy, P. Sikivie, University of Florida, S.J. Asztalos, G. Carosi, D. Carter, C. Hagmann, D. Kinion, L.J. Rosenberg, K. van Bibber, LLNL, D.B. Yu, MIT, and R.F. Bradley, NRAO.

  12. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  13. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  14. Digital communications: Microwave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feher, K.

    Transmission concepts and techniques of digital systems are presented; and practical state-of-the-art implementation of digital communications systems by line-of-sight microwaves is described. Particular consideration is given to statistical methods in digital transmission systems analysis, digital modulation methods, microwave amplifiers, system gain, m-ary and QAM microwave systems, correlative techniques and applications to digital radio systems, hybrid systems, digital microwave systems design, diversity and protection switching techniques, measurement techniques, and research and development trends and unsolved problems.

  15. Fast tuning of superconducting microwave cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg, M.; Wilson, C. M.; Persson, F.; Johansson, G.; Shumeiko, V.; Bauch, T.; Duty, T.; Delsing, P.

    2008-11-07

    Photons are fundamental excitations of electromagnetic fields and can be captured in cavities. For a given cavity with a certain size, the fundamental mode has a fixed frequency f which gives the photons a specific 'color'. The cavity also has a typical lifetime {tau}, which results in a finite linewidth {delta}f. If the size of the cavity is changed fast compared to {tau}, and so that the frequency change {delta}f>>{delta}f, then it is possible to change the 'color' of the captured photons. Here we demonstrate superconducting microwave cavities, with tunable effective lengths. The tuning is obtained by varying a Josephson inductance at one end of the cavity. We show data on four different samples and demonstrate tuning by several hundred linewidths in a time {delta}t<<{tau}. Working in the few photon limit, we show that photons stored in the cavity at one frequency will leak out from the cavity with the new frequency after the detuning. The characteristics of the measured devices make them suitable for different applications such as dynamic coupling of qubits and parametric amplification.

  16. NOVEL MICROWAVE FILTER DESIGN TECHNIQUES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE FILTERS, MICROWAVE FREQUENCY, PHASE SHIFT CIRCUITS, BANDPASS FILTERS, TUNED CIRCUITS, NETWORKS, IMPEDANCE MATCHING , LOW PASS FILTERS, MULTIPLEXING, MICROWAVE EQUIPMENT, WAVEGUIDE FILTERS, WAVEGUIDE COUPLERS.

  17. NOVEL MICROWAVE FILTER DESIGN TECHNIQUES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ELECTRIC FILTERS, MICROWAVE FREQUENCY), (*MICROWAVE EQUIPMENT, ELECTRIC FILTERS), CIRCUITS, CAPACITORS, COILS, RESONATORS, STRIP TRANSMISSION LINES, WAVEGUIDES, TUNING DEVICES, PARAMETRIC AMPLIFIERS, FREQUENCY CONVERTERS .

  18. Photonic Nanojets.

    PubMed

    Heifetz, Alexander; Kong, Soon-Cheol; Sahakian, Alan V; Taflove, Allen; Backman, Vadim

    2009-09-01

    This paper reviews the substantial body of literature emerging since 2004 concerning photonic nanojets. The photonic nanojet is a narrow, high-intensity, non-evanescent light beam that can propagate over a distance longer than the wavelength λ after emerging from the shadow-side surface of an illuminated lossless dielectric microcylinder or microsphere of diameter larger than λ. The nanojet's minimum beamwidth can be smaller than the classical diffraction limit, in fact as small as ~λ/3 for microspheres. It is a nonresonant phenomenon appearing for a wide range of diameters of the microcylinder or microsphere if the refractive index contrast relative to the background is less than about 2:1. Importantly, inserting within a nanojet a nanoparticle of diameter d(ν) perturbs the far-field backscattered power of the illuminated microsphere by an amount that varies as d(ν)3 for a fixed λ. This perturbation is much slower than the d(ν)6 dependence of Rayleigh scattering for the same nanoparticle, if isolated. This leads to a situation where, for example, the measured far-field backscattered power of a 3-μm diameter microsphere could double if a 30-nm diameter nanoparticle were inserted into the nanojet emerging from the microsphere, despite the nanoparticle having only 1/10,000(th) the cross-section area of the microsphere. In effect, the nanojet serves to project the presence of the nanoparticle to the far field. These properties combine to afford potentially important applications of photonic nanojets for detecting and manipulating nanoscale objects, subdiffraction-resolution nanopatterning and nanolithography, low-loss waveguiding, and ultrahigh-density optical storage.

  19. Photonic Nanojets

    PubMed Central

    Heifetz, Alexander; Kong, Soon-Cheol; Sahakian, Alan V.; Taflove, Allen; Backman, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the substantial body of literature emerging since 2004 concerning photonic nanojets. The photonic nanojet is a narrow, high-intensity, non-evanescent light beam that can propagate over a distance longer than the wavelength λ after emerging from the shadow-side surface of an illuminated lossless dielectric microcylinder or microsphere of diameter larger than λ. The nanojet’s minimum beamwidth can be smaller than the classical diffraction limit, in fact as small as ~λ/3 for microspheres. It is a nonresonant phenomenon appearing for a wide range of diameters of the microcylinder or microsphere if the refractive index contrast relative to the background is less than about 2:1. Importantly, inserting within a nanojet a nanoparticle of diameter dν perturbs the far-field backscattered power of the illuminated microsphere by an amount that varies as dν3 for a fixed λ. This perturbation is much slower than the dν6 dependence of Rayleigh scattering for the same nanoparticle, if isolated. This leads to a situation where, for example, the measured far-field backscattered power of a 3-μm diameter microsphere could double if a 30-nm diameter nanoparticle were inserted into the nanojet emerging from the microsphere, despite the nanoparticle having only 1/10,000th the cross-section area of the microsphere. In effect, the nanojet serves to project the presence of the nanoparticle to the far field. These properties combine to afford potentially important applications of photonic nanojets for detecting and manipulating nanoscale objects, subdiffraction-resolution nanopatterning and nanolithography, low-loss waveguiding, and ultrahigh-density optical storage. PMID:19946614

  20. Photon calorimeter

    DOEpatents

    Chow, Tze-Show

    1988-04-22

    A photon calorimeter is provided that comprises a laminar substrate that is uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition. A plasma-sprayed coating, that is generally uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition within the proximity of planes that are parallel to the surfaces of the substrate, is applied to either one or both sides of the laminar substrate. The plasma-sprayed coatings may be very efficiently spectrally tailored in atomic number. Thermocouple measuring junctions, are positioned within the plasma-sprayed coatings. The calorimeter is rugged, inexpensive, and equilibrates in temperature very rapidly. 4 figs.

  1. Photon Calorimeter

    DOEpatents

    Chow, Tze-Show

    1989-01-01

    A photon calorimeter (20, 40) is provided that comprises a laminar substrate (10, 22, 42) that is uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition. A plasma-sprayed coating (28, 48, 52), that is generally uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition within the proximity of planes that are parallel to the surfaces of the substrate, is applied to either one or both sides of the laminar substrate. The plasma-sprayed coatings may be very efficiently spectrally tailored in atomic number. Thermocouple measuring junctions (30, 50, 54) are positioned within the plasma-sprayed coatings. The calorimeter is rugged, inexpensive, and equilibrates in temperature very rapidly.

  2. Microwave synthesizer using an on-chip Brillouin oscillator.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang; Lee, Hansuek; Vahala, Kerry J

    2013-01-01

    Low-phase-noise microwave oscillators are important to a wide range of subjects, including communications, radar and metrology. Photonic-based microwave-wave sources now provide record, close-to-carrier phase-noise performance, and compact sources using microcavities are available commercially. Photonics-based solutions address a challenging scaling problem in electronics, increasing attenuation with frequency. A second scaling challenge, however, is to maintain low phase noise in reduced form factor and even integrated systems. On this second front, there has been remarkable progress in the area of microcavity devices with large storage time (high optical quality factor). Here we report generation of highly coherent microwaves using a chip-based device that derives stability from high optical quality factor. The device has a record low electronic white-phase-noise floor for a microcavity-based oscillator and is used as the optical, voltage-controlled oscillator in the first demonstration of a photonic-based, microwave frequency synthesizer. The synthesizer performance is comparable to mid-range commercial devices.

  3. Choline Analogues in Malaria Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Peyrottes, Suzanne; Caldarelli, Sergio; Wein, Sharon; Périgaud, Christian; Pellet, Alain; Vial, Henri

    2012-01-01

    Emerging resistance against well-established anti-malaria drugs warrants the introduction of new therapeutic agents with original mechanisms of action. Inhibition of membrane-based phospholipid biosynthesis, which is crucial for the parasite, has thus been proposed as a novel and promising therapeutic strategy. This review compiles literature concerning the design and study of choline analogues and related cation derivatives as potential anti-malarials. It covers advances achieved over the last two decades and describes: the concept validation, the design and selection of a clinical candidate (Albitiazolium), back-up derivatives while also providing insight into the development of prodrug approaches. PMID:22607139

  4. Ecstasy analogues found in cacti.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Jan G; El-Seedi, Hesham R; Stephanson, Nikolai; Beck, Olof; Shulgin, Alexander T

    2008-06-01

    Human interest in psychoactive phenethylamines is known from the use of mescaline-containing cacti and designer drugs such as Ecstasy. From the alkaloid composition of cacti we hypothesized that substances resembling Ecstasy might occur naturally. In this article we show that lophophine, homopiperonylamine and lobivine are new minor constituents of two cactus species, Lophophora williamsii (peyote) and Trichocereus pachanoi (San Pedro). This is the first report of putatively psychoactive phenethylamines besides mescaline in these cacti. A search for further biosynthetic analogues may provide new insights into the structure-activity relationships of mescaline. An intriguing question is whether the new natural compounds can be called "designer drugs."

  5. FUNCTION GENERATOR FOR ANALOGUE COMPUTERS

    DOEpatents

    Skramstad, H.K.; Wright, J.H.; Taback, L.

    1961-12-12

    An improved analogue computer is designed which can be used to determine the final ground position of radioactive fallout particles in an atomic cloud. The computer determines the fallout pattern on the basis of known wind velocity and direction at various altitudes, and intensity of radioactivity in the mushroom cloud as a function of particle size and initial height in the cloud. The output is then displayed on a cathode-ray tube so that the average or total luminance of the tube screen at any point represents the intensity of radioactive fallout at the geographical location represented by that point. (AEC)

  6. Template polymerization of nucleotide analogues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orgel, L. E.

    1991-01-01

    Recent work on the template-directed reactions of the natural D-nucleotides has made it clear that l-nucleotides and nucleotide-like derivatives of other sugars would strongly inhibit the formation of long oligonucleotides. Consequently, attention is focusing on molecules simpler than nucleotides that might have acted as monomers of an information transfer system. We have begun a general exploration of the template directed reactions of diverse peptide analogues. I will present work by Dr. Taifeng Wu on oxidative oligomerization of phosphorothioates and of Dr. Mary Tohidi on the cyclic polymerization of nucleoside and related cyclic pyrophosphates.

  7. The Concept of Photonics-Based Virtual Ground Tracking Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Cong, B.; Nie, Y. M.; He, J.; Wang, X. Q.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose the concept of virtual ground tracking station for space missions. Based on microwave photonics, the virtual tracking station can realize spatial diversity, antenna arraying, dynamic resource allocation and distributed signal processing. Compared with conventional design, the flexibility, efficiency and performance can be significantly improved.

  8. Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bible, Don W.; Lauf, Robert J.; Johnson, Arvid C.; Thigpen, Larry T.

    1999-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  9. Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.; Johnson, A.C.; Thigpen, L.T.

    1999-10-05

    A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  10. Television Microwave--1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Roger E.

    Since it became a reality just before World War II, terrestrial microwave has improved in systems and equipments, but with the improvements have come higher costs. Television microwave costs are so high because users are demanding more capability, land prices have increased, operating costs are higher, and there is frequency congestion along many…

  11. Active microwave water equivalence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyne, H. S.; Ellerbruch, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of water equivalence using an active FM-CW microwave system were conducted over the past three years at various sites in Colorado, Wyoming, and California. The measurement method is described. Measurements of water equivalence and stratigraphy are compared with ground truth. A comparison of microwave, federal sampler, and snow pillow measurements at three sites in Colorado is described.

  12. Microwave processing of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Recent work in the areas of microwave processing and joining of ceramics is briefly reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of microwave processing as well as some of the current issues in the field are discussed. Current state and potential for future commercialization of this technology is also addressed.

  13. Microwave processing of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.D.

    1993-04-01

    Recent work in the areas of microwave processing and joining of ceramics is briefly reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of microwave processing as well as some of the current issues in the field are discussed. Current state and potential for future commercialization of this technology is also addressed.

  14. Microwave device investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, K. K. D.; Haddad, G. I.; Kwok, S. P.; Masnari, N. A.; Trew, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Materials, devices and novel schemes for generation, amplification and detection of microwave and millimeter wave energy are studied. Considered are: (1) Schottky-barrier microwave devices; (2) intermodulation products in IMPATT diode amplifiers; and (3) harmonic generation using Read diode varactors.

  15. Coaxial microwave plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Gritsinin, S. I.; Gushchin, P. A.; Davydov, A. M.; Kossyi, I. A.; Kotelev, M. S.

    2011-11-15

    Physical principles underlying the operation of a pulsed coaxial microwave plasma source (micro-wave plasmatron) are considered. The design and parameters of the device are described, and results of experimental studies of the characteristics of the generated plasma are presented. The possibility of application of this type of plasmatron in gas-discharge physics is discussed.

  16. MICROWAVES IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of microwaves, a non-ionizing radiation, on organic reactions is described both in polar solvents and under solvent-free conditions. The special applications are highlighted in the context of solventless organic synthesis which involve microwave (MW) exposure of neat r...

  17. Photonic nanojet-enabled optical data storage.

    PubMed

    Kong, Soon-Cheol; Sahakian, Alan; Taflove, Allen; Backman, Vadim

    2008-09-01

    We show that our recently reported microwave photonic jet technique for detection of deeply subwavelength pits in a metal substrate can be extended to optical wavelengths for purposes of high-density data storage. Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain computational solutions of Maxwell's equations are used to optimize the photonic nanojet and pit configuration to account for the Drude dispersion of an aluminum substrate in the spectral range near lambda= 400 nm. Our results show that nanojet-illuminated pits having lateral dimensions of only 50 nm x 80 nm yield a contrast ratio 27 dB greater than previously reported using a lens system for pits of similar area. Such pits are much smaller than BluRay features. The high detection contrast afforded by the photonic nanojet could potentially yield significant increases in data density and throughput relative to current commercial optical data-storage systems while retaining the basic geometry of the storage medium.

  18. Signal interference RF photonic bandstop filter.

    PubMed

    Aryanfar, Iman; Choudhary, Amol; Shahnia, Shayan; Pagani, Mattia; Liu, Yang; Marpaung, David; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2016-06-27

    In the microwave domain, signal interference bandstop filters with high extinction and wide stopbands are achieved through destructive interference of two signals. Implementation of this filtering concept using RF photonics will lead to unique filters with high performance, enhanced tuning range and reconfigurability. Here we demonstrate an RF photonic signal interference filter, achieved through the combination of precise synthesis of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) loss with advanced phase and amplitude tailoring of RF modulation sidebands. We achieve a square-shaped, 20-dB extinction RF photonic filter over a tunable bandwidth of up to 1 GHz with a central frequency tuning range of 16 GHz using a low SBS loss of ~3 dB. Wideband destructive interference in this novel filter leads to the decoupling of the filter suppression from its bandwidth and shape factor. This allows the creation of a filter with all-optimized qualities.

  19. Graphene-Based Josephson-Junction Single-Photon Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Evan D.; Efetov, Dmitri K.; Lee, Gil-Ho; Heuck, Mikkel; Crossno, Jesse; Ohki, Thomas A.; Kim, Philip; Englund, Dirk; Fong, Kin Chung

    2017-08-01

    We propose to use graphene-based Josephson junctions (GJJs) to detect single photons in a wide electromagnetic spectrum from visible to radio frequencies. Our approach takes advantage of the exceptionally low electronic heat capacity of monolayer graphene and its constricted thermal conductance to its phonon degrees of freedom. Such a system could provide high-sensitivity photon detection required for research areas including quantum information processing and radio astronomy. As an example, we present our device concepts for GJJ single-photon detectors in both the microwave and infrared regimes. The dark count rate and intrinsic quantum efficiency are computed based on parameters from a measured GJJ, demonstrating feasibility within existing technologies.

  20. Microwave hydrology: A trilogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.; Johnston, E. J.; Girard, M. A.; Regusters, H. A.

    1985-01-01

    Microwave hydrology, as the term in construed in this trilogy, deals with the investigation of important hydrological features on the Earth's surface as they are remotely, and passively, sensed by orbiting microwave receivers. Microwave wavelengths penetrate clouds, foliage, ground cover, and soil, in varying degrees, and reveal the occurrence of standing liquid water on and beneath the surface. The manifestation of liquid water appearing on or near the surface is reported by a microwave receiver as a signal with a low flux level, or, equivalently, a cold temperature. Actually, the surface of the liquid water reflects the low flux level from the cosmic background into the input terminals of the receiver. This trilogy describes and shows by microwave flux images: the hydrological features that sustain Lake Baykal as an extraordinary freshwater resource; manifestations of subsurface water in Iran; and the major water features of the Congo Basin, a rain forest.

  1. Microwave ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Thomae, Rainer W.

    2005-07-26

    A compact microwave ion source has a permanent magnet dipole field, a microwave launcher, and an extractor parallel to the source axis. The dipole field is in the form of a ring. The microwaves are launched from the middle of the dipole ring using a coaxial waveguide. Electrons are heated using ECR in the magnetic field. The ions are extracted from the side of the source from the middle of the dipole perpendicular to the source axis. The plasma density can be increased by boosting the microwave ion source by the addition of an RF antenna. Higher charge states can be achieved by increasing the microwave frequency. A xenon source with a magnetic pinch can be used to produce intense EUV radiation.

  2. Resolving photon number states in a superconducting circuit.

    PubMed

    Schuster, D I; Houck, A A; Schreier, J A; Wallraff, A; Gambetta, J M; Blais, A; Frunzio, L; Majer, J; Johnson, B; Devoret, M H; Girvin, S M; Schoelkopf, R J

    2007-02-01

    Electromagnetic signals are always composed of photons, although in the circuit domain those signals are carried as voltages and currents on wires, and the discreteness of the photon's energy is usually not evident. However, by coupling a superconducting quantum bit (qubit) to signals on a microwave transmission line, it is possible to construct an integrated circuit in which the presence or absence of even a single photon can have a dramatic effect. Such a system can be described by circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED)-the circuit equivalent of cavity QED, where photons interact with atoms or quantum dots. Previously, circuit QED devices were shown to reach the resonant strong coupling regime, where a single qubit could absorb and re-emit a single photon many times. Here we report a circuit QED experiment in the strong dispersive limit, a new regime where a single photon has a large effect on the qubit without ever being absorbed. The hallmark of this strong dispersive regime is that the qubit transition energy can be resolved into a separate spectral line for each photon number state of the microwave field. The strength of each line is a measure of the probability of finding the corresponding photon number in the cavity. This effect is used to distinguish between coherent and thermal fields, and could be used to create a photon statistics analyser. As no photons are absorbed by this process, it should be possible to generate non-classical states of light by measurement and perform qubit-photon conditional logic, the basis of a logic bus for a quantum computer.

  3. The Valles natural analogue project

    SciTech Connect

    Stockman, H.; Krumhansl, J.; Ho, C.; McConnell, V.

    1994-12-01

    The contact between an obsidian flow and a steep-walled tuff canyon was examined as an analogue for a highlevel waste repository. The analogue site is located in the Valles Caldera in New Mexico, where a massive obsidian flow filled a paleocanyon in the Battleship Rock tuff. The obsidian flow provided a heat source, analogous to waste panels or an igneous intrusion in a repository, and caused evaporation and migration of water. The tuff and obsidian samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and mineralogy by INAA, XRF, X-ray diffraction; and scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe. Samples were also analyzed for D/H and {sup 39}Ar/{sup 4O} isotopic composition. Overall,the effects of the heating event seem to have been slight and limited to the tuff nearest the contact. There is some evidence of devitrification and migration of volatiles in the tuff within 10 meters of the contact, but variations in major and trace element chemistry are small and difficult to distinguish from the natural (pre-heating) variability of the rocks.

  4. Heteroatom-Containing Porphyrin Analogues.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Tamal; Shetti, Vijayendra S; Sharma, Ritambhara; Ravikanth, Mangalampalli

    2017-02-22

    The heteroatom-containing porphyrin analogues or core-modified porphyrins that resulted from the replacement of one or two pyrrole rings with other five-membered heterocycles such as furan, thiophene, selenophene, tellurophene, indene, phosphole, and silole are highly promising macrocycles and exhibit quite different physicochemical properties compared to regular azaporphyrins. The properties of heteroporphyrins depend on the nature and number of different heterocycle(s) present in place of pyrrole ring(s). The heteroporphyrins provide unique and unprecedented coordination environments for metals. Unlike regular porphyrins, the monoheteroporphyrins are known to stabilize metals in unusual oxidation states such as Cu and Ni in +1 oxidation states. The diheteroporphyrins, which are neutral macrocycles without ionizable protons, also showed interesting coordination chemistry. Thus, significant progress has been made in last few decades on core-modified porphyrins in terms of their synthesis, their use in building multiporphyrin arrays for light-harvesting applications, their use as ligands to form interesting metal complexes, and also their use for several other studies. The synthetic methods available in the literature allow one to prepare mono- and diheteroporphyrins and their functionalized derivatives, which were used extensively to prepare several covalent and noncovalent heteroporphyrin-based multiporphyrin arrays. The methods are also developed to synthesize different hetero analogues of porphyrin derivatives such as heterocorroles, heterochlorins, heterocarbaporphyrinoids, heteroatom-substituted confused porphyrins, and so on. This Review summarizes the key developments that have occurred in heteroporphyrin chemistry over the last four decades.

  5. Microwave radiation hazards around large microwave antenna.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klascius, A.

    1973-01-01

    The microwave radiation hazards associated with the use of large antennas become increasingly more dangerous to personnel as the transmitters go to ever higher powers. The near-field area is of the greatest concern. It has spill over from subreflector and reflections from nearby objects. Centimeter waves meeting in phase will reinforce each other and create hot spots of microwave energy. This has been measured in front of and around several 26-meter antennas. Hot spots have been found and are going to be the determining factor in delineating safe areas for personnel to work. Better techniques and instruments to measure these fields are needed for the evaluation of hazard areas.

  6. Tevatron direct photon results.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlmann, S.

    1999-09-21

    Tevatron direct photon results since DIS98 are reviewed. Two new CDF measurements are discussed, the Run Ib inclusive photon cross section and the photon + Muon cross section. Comparisons with the latest NLO QCD calculations are presented.

  7. Control over few-photon pulses by a time-periodic modulation of the photon emitter coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletyukhov, Mikhail; Pedersen, Kim G. L.; Gritsev, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    We develop a Floquet scattering formalism for the description of quasistationary states of microwave photons in a one-dimensional waveguide interacting with a nonlinear cavity by means of a periodically modulated coupling. This model is inspired by the recent progress in engineering of tunable coupling schemes with superconducting qubits. We argue that our model can realize the quantum analog of an optical chopper. We find strong periodic modulations of the transmission and reflection envelopes in the scattered few-photon pulses, including photon compression and blockade, as well as dramatic changes in statistics. Our theoretical analysis allows us to explain these nontrivial phenomena as arising from nonadiabatic memory effects.

  8. Flying microwave qubits with nearly perfect transfer efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotkov, Alexander N.

    2011-07-01

    We propose a procedure for transferring the state a microwave qubit via a transmission line from one resonator to another resonator, with a theoretical efficiency arbitrarily close to 100%. The emission and capture of the microwave energy is performed using tunable couplers, whose transmission coefficients vary in time. Using the superconducting phase qubit technology and tunable couplers with maximum coupling of 100 MHz, the procedure with theoretical efficiency η=0.999 requires a duration of about 400 ns (excluding propagation time) and an on/off ratio of 45. The procedure may also be used for a quantum state transfer with optical photons.

  9. Detection of Weak Microwave Fields with an Underdamped Josephson Junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelsner, G.; Andersen, C. K.; Rehák, M.; Schmelz, M.; Anders, S.; Grajcar, M.; Hübner, U.; Mølmer, K.; Il'ichev, E.

    2017-01-01

    We construct a microwave detector based on the voltage switching of an underdamped Josephson junction that is positioned at a current antinode of a λ /4 coplanar waveguide resonator. By measuring the switching current and the transmission through a waveguide capacitively coupled to the resonator at different drive frequencies and temperatures, we are able to fully characterize the system and assess its detection efficiency and sensitivity. Testing the detector by applying a classical microwave field with the strength of a single photon yields a sensitivity parameter of 0.5, in qualitative agreement with theoretical calculations.

  10. Coherent frequency up-conversion of microwaves to the optical telecommunications band in an Er:YSO crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Gonzalvo, Xavier; Chen, Yu-Hui; Yin, Chunming; Rogge, Sven; Longdell, Jevon J.

    2015-12-01

    The ability to convert quantum states from microwave photons to optical photons is important for hybrid system approaches to quantum information processing. We report the up-conversion of a microwave signal into the optical telecommunications wavelength band using erbium dopants in a yttrium orthosilicate crystal via stimulated Raman scattering. The microwaves were applied to the sample using a three-dimensional copper loop-gap resonator and the coupling and signal optical fields were single passed. The conversion efficiency was low, in agreement with a theoretical analysis, but can be significantly enhanced with an optical resonator.

  11. Characterizing superconducting filters using residual microwave background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtinen, J. S.; Mykkänen, E.; Kemppinen, A.; Lotkhov, S. V.; Golubev, D.; Manninen, A. J.

    2017-05-01

    A normal metal-superconductor hybrid single-electron trap with tunable barrier is utilized as a tool for spectrum analysis at the extremely low signal levels, using only well filtered cryogenic microwave background as a photon source in the frequency range from about 50 to 210 GHz. We probe millimeter wave propagation in two superconducting systems: a Josephson junction array around its plasma frequency, and a superconducting titanium film in the limit when the photon energies are larger than the superconducting energy gap. This regime is relevant for improving the performance of cryogenic quantum devices but is hard to access with conventional techniques. We show that relatively simple models can be used to describe the essential properties of the studied components.

  12. Advances in photonic reservoir computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Sande, Guy; Brunner, Daniel; Soriano, Miguel C.

    2017-05-01

    We review a novel paradigm that has emerged in analogue neuromorphic optical computing. The goal is to implement a reservoir computer in optics, where information is encoded in the intensity and phase of the optical field. Reservoir computing is a bio-inspired approach especially suited for processing time-dependent information. The reservoir's complex and high-dimensional transient response to the input signal is capable of universal computation. The reservoir does not need to be trained, which makes it very well suited for optics. As such, much of the promise of photonic reservoirs lies in their minimal hardware requirements, a tremendous advantage over other hardware-intensive neural network models. We review the two main approaches to optical reservoir computing: networks implemented with multiple discrete optical nodes and the continuous system of a single nonlinear device coupled to delayed feedback.

  13. HARD X-RAY AND MICROWAVE EMISSIONS FROM SOLAR FLARES WITH HARD SPECTRAL INDICES

    SciTech Connect

    Kawate, T.; Nishizuka, N.; Oi, A.; Ohyama, M.; Nakajima, H.

    2012-03-10

    We analyze 10 flare events that radiate intense hard X-ray (HXR) emission with significant photons over 300 keV to verify that the electrons that have a common origin of acceleration mechanism and energy power-law distribution with solar flares emit HXRs and microwaves. Most of these events have the following characteristics. HXRs emanate from the footpoints of flare loops, while microwaves emanate from the tops of flare loops. The time profiles of the microwave emission show delays of peak with respect to those of the corresponding HXR emission. The spectral indices of microwave emissions show gradual hardening in all events, while the spectral indices of the corresponding HXR emissions are roughly constant in most of the events, though rather rapid hardening is simultaneously observed in some for both indices during the onset time and the peak time. These characteristics suggest that the microwave emission emanates from the trapped electrons. Then, taking into account the role of the trapping of electrons for the microwave emission, we compare the observed microwave spectra with the model spectra calculated by a gyrosynchrotron code. As a result, we successfully reproduce the eight microwave spectra. From this result, we conclude that the electrons that have a common acceleration and a common energy distribution with solar flares emit both HXR and microwave emissions in the eight events, though microwave emission is contributed to by electrons with much higher energy than HXR emission.

  14. Physics at high energy photon photon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1994-06-01

    I review the physic prospects for high energy photon photon colliders, emphasizing results presented at the LBL Gamma Gamma Collider Workshop. Advantages and difficulties are reported for studies of QCD, the electroweak gauge sector, supersymmetry, and electroweak symmetry breaking.

  15. Resonance formation in photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Gidal, G.

    1988-08-01

    Recent experimental progress on resonance formation in photon-photon collisions is reviewed with particular emphasis on the pseudoscalar and tensor nonents and on the ..gamma gamma..* production of spin-one resonances. 37 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Microwave bonding of MEMS component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Mai, John D. (Inventor); Jackson, Henry W. (Inventor); Budraa, Nasser K. (Inventor); Pike, William T. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Bonding of MEMs materials is carried out using microwave. High microwave absorbing films are placed within a microwave cavity, and excited to cause selective heating in the skin of the material. This causes heating in one place more than another. Thereby minimizing the effects of the bonding microwave energy.

  17. Disordered photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersma, Diederik S.

    2013-03-01

    What do lotus flowers have in common with human bones, liquid crystals with colloidal suspensions, and white beetles with the beautiful stones of the Taj Mahal? The answer is they all feature disordered structures that strongly scatter light, in which light waves entering the material are scattered several times before exiting in random directions. These randomly distributed rays interfere with each other, leading to interesting, and sometimes unexpected, physical phenomena. This Review describes the physics behind the optical properties of disordered structures and how knowledge of multiple light scattering can be used to develop new applications. The field of disordered photonics has grown immensely over the past decade, ranging from investigations into fundamental topics such as Anderson localization and other transport phenomena, to applications in imaging, random lasing and solar energy.

  18. Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Krantz, Kelsie E.; Christian, Jonathan H.; Coopersmith, Kaitlin; Washington, II, Aaron L.; Murph, Simona H.

    2016-07-27

    At the nanometer scale, numerous compounds display different properties than those found in bulk material that can prove useful in areas such as medicinal chemistry. Gold nanoparticles, for example, display promise in newly developed hyperthermia therapies for cancer treatment. Currently, gold nanoparticle synthesis is performed via the hot injection technique which has large variability in final particle size and a longer reaction time. One underdeveloped area by which these particles could be produced is through microwave synthesis. To initiate heating, microwaves agitate polar molecules creating a vibration that gives off the heat energy needed. Previous studies have used microwaves for gold nanoparticle synthesis; however, polar solvents were used that partially absorbed incident microwaves, leading to partial thermal heating of the sample rather than taking full advantage of the microwave to solely heat the gold nanoparticle precursors in a non-polar solution. Through this project, microwaves were utilized as the sole heat source, and non-polar solvents were used to explore the effects of microwave heating only as pertains to the precursor material. Our findings show that the use of non-polar solvents allows for more rapid heating as compared to polar solvents, and a reduction in reaction time from 10 minutes to 1 minute; this maximizes the efficiency of the reaction, and allows for reproducibility in the size/shape of the fabricated nanoparticles.

  19. Experiment and simulation on one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lin; Ouyang, Ji-Ting

    2014-10-15

    The transmission characteristics of microwaves passing through one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals (PPCs) have been investigated by experiment and simulation. The PPCs were formed by a series of discharge tubes filled with argon at 5 Torr that the plasma density in tubes can be varied by adjusting the discharge current. The transmittance of X-band microwaves through the crystal structure was measured under different discharge currents and geometrical parameters. The finite-different time-domain method was employed to analyze the detailed properties of the microwaves propagation. The results show that there exist bandgaps when the plasma is turned on. The properties of bandgaps depend on the plasma density and the geometrical parameters of the PPCs structure. The PPCs can perform as dynamical band-stop filter to control the transmission of microwaves within a wide frequency range.

  20. Cosmic Microwave Background spectral distortions from cosmic string loops

    SciTech Connect

    Anthonisen, Madeleine; Brandenberger, Robert; Laguë, Alex; Morrison, Ian A.; Xia, Daixi E-mail: rhb@physics.mcgill.ca E-mail: imorrison@physics.mcgill.ca

    2016-02-01

    Cosmic string loops contain cusps which decay by emitting bursts of particles. A significant fraction of the released energy is in the form of photons. These photons are injected non-thermally and can hence cause spectral distortions of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Under the assumption that cusps are robust against gravitational back-reaction, we compute the fractional energy density released as photons in the redshift interval where such non-thermal photon injection causes CMB spectral distortions. Whereas current constraints on such spectral distortions are not strong enough to constrain the string tension, future missions such as the PIXIE experiment will be able to provide limits which rule out a range of string tensions between G μ ∼ 10{sup −15} and G μ ∼ 10{sup −12}, thus ruling out particle physics models yielding these kind of intermediate-scale cosmic strings.

  1. Approaching perfect microwave photodetection in circuit QED

    SciTech Connect

    Peropadre, B.; Garcia-Ripoll, J. J.; Romero, G.; Johansson, G.; Wilson, C. M.; Solano, E.

    2011-12-15

    In order to apply all ideas from quantum optics to the field of quantum circuits, one of the missing ingredients is a high-efficiency single-photon detector. In this work we propose a design for such a device which successfully reaches 100% efficiency with only one absorber. Our photon detector consists of a three-level system (a phase qubit) coupled to a semi-infinite one-dimensional waveguide (a microwave transmission line) which performs highly efficient photodetection in a simplified manner as compared to previous proposals. Using the tools of quantum optics we extensively study the scattering properties of realistic wave packets against this device, thereby computing the efficiency of the detector. We find that the detector has many operating modes, can detect detuned photons, is robust against design imperfections, and can be made broadband by using more than one absorbing element in the design. Many of these ideas could be translated to other single-mode photonic or plasmonic waveguides interacting with three-level atoms or quantum dots.

  2. Microwave thawing apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Fathi, Zakaryae; Lauf, Robert J.; McMillan, April D.

    2004-06-01

    An apparatus for thawing a frozen material includes: a microwave energy source; a microwave applicator which defines a cavity for applying microwave energy from the microwave source to a material to be thawed; and a shielded region which is shielded from the microwave source, the shielded region in fluid communication with the cavity so that thawed material may flow from the cavity into the shielded region.

  3. Protection layers on a superconducting microwave resonator toward a hybrid quantum system

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jongmin; Park, Dong Hun

    2015-10-07

    We propose a protection scheme of a superconducting microwave resonator to realize a hybrid quantum system, where cold neutral atoms are coupled with a single microwave photon through magnetic dipole interaction at an interface inductor. The evanescent field atom trap, such as a waveguide/nanofiber atom trap, brings both surface-scattered photons and absorption-induced broadband blackbody radiation which result in quasiparticles and a low quality factor at the resonator. A proposed multiband protection layer consists of pairs of two dielectric layers and a thin nanogrid conductive dielectric layer above the interface inductor. We show numerical simulations of quality factors and reflection/absorption spectra, indicating that the proposed multilayer structure can protect a lumped-element microwave resonator from optical photons and blackbody radiation while maintaining a reasonably high quality factor.

  4. Protection layers on a superconducting microwave resonator toward a hybrid quantum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jongmin; Park, Dong Hun

    2015-10-01

    We propose a protection scheme of a superconducting microwave resonator to realize a hybrid quantum system, where cold neutral atoms are coupled with a single microwave photon through magnetic dipole interaction at an interface inductor. The evanescent field atom trap, such as a waveguide/nanofiber atom trap, brings both surface-scattered photons and absorption-induced broadband blackbody radiation which result in quasiparticles and a low quality factor at the resonator. A proposed multiband protection layer consists of pairs of two dielectric layers and a thin nanogrid conductive dielectric layer above the interface inductor. We show numerical simulations of quality factors and reflection/absorption spectra, indicating that the proposed multilayer structure can protect a lumped-element microwave resonator from optical photons and blackbody radiation while maintaining a reasonably high quality factor.

  5. Microwave coupler and method

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.

    1984-11-29

    The present invention is directed to a microwave coupler for enhancing the heating or metallurgical treatment of materials within a cold-wall, rapidly heated cavity as provided by a microwave furnace. The coupling material of the present invention is an alpha-rhombohedral-boron-derivative-structure material such as boron carbide or boron silicide which can be appropriately positioned as a susceptor within the furnace to heat other material or be in powder particulate form so that composites and structures of boron carbide such as cutting tools, grinding wheels and the like can be rapidly and efficiently formed within microwave furnaces.

  6. Microwave coupler and method

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a microwave coupler for enhancing the heating or metallurgical treatment of materials within a cold-wall, rapidly heated cavity as provided by a microwave furnace. The coupling material of the present invention is an alpha-rhombohedral-boron-derivative-structure material such as boron carbide or boron silicide which can be appropriately positioned as a susceptor within the furnace to heat other material or be in powder particulate form so that composites and structures of boron carbide such as cutting tools, grinding wheels and the like can be rapidly and efficiently formed within microwave furnaces.

  7. Monolithic microwave integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucel, R. A.

    Monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs), a new microwave technology which is expected to exert a profound influence on microwave circuit designs for future military systems as well as for the commercial and consumer markets, is discussed. The book contains an historical discussion followed by a comprehensive review presenting the current status in the field. The general topics of the volume are: design considerations, materials and processing considerations, monolithic circuit applications, and CAD, measurement, and packaging techniques. All phases of MMIC technology are covered, from design to testing.

  8. Microwave vision for robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Leon; Struckman, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Microwave Vision (MV), a concept originally developed in 1985, could play a significant role in the solution to robotic vision problems. Originally our Microwave Vision concept was based on a pattern matching approach employing computer based stored replica correlation processing. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) processor technology offers an attractive alternative to the correlation processing approach, namely the ability to learn and to adapt to changing environments. This paper describes the Microwave Vision concept, some initial ANN-MV experiments, and the design of an ANN-MV system that has led to a second patent disclosure in the robotic vision field.

  9. Microwave Comb Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigman, E. H.

    1989-01-01

    Stable reference tones aid testing and calibration of microwave receivers. Signal generator puts out stable tones in frequency range of 2 to 10 GHz at all multiples of reference input frequency, at any frequency up to 1 MHz. Called "comb generator" because spectral plot resembles comb. DC reverse-bias current switched on and off at 1 MHz to generate sharp pulses in step-recovery diode. Microwave components mounted on back of special connector containing built-in attenuator. Used in testing microwave and spread-spectrum wide-band receivers.

  10. CO2 Capture with Enzyme Synthetic Analogue

    SciTech Connect

    Cordatos, Harry

    2010-11-08

    Overview of an ongoing, 2 year research project partially funded by APRA-E to create a novel, synthetic analogue of carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it into a membrane for removal of CO2 from flue gas in coal power plants. Mechanism background, preliminary feasibility study results, molecular modeling of analogue-CO2 interaction, and program timeline are provided.

  11. Macrolactam analogues of macrolide natural products.

    PubMed

    Hügel, Helmut M; Smith, Andrew T; Rizzacasa, Mark A

    2016-12-07

    The chemical modification of macrolide natural products into aza- or lactam analogues is a strategy employed to improve their metabolic stability and biological activity. The methods for the synthesis of several lactam analogues of macrolide natural products are highlighted and aspects of their biological properties presented.

  12. Microwave-to-Optical Conversion in WGM Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Strekalov, Dmitry; Yu, Nan; Matsko, Andrey; Maleki, Lute

    2008-01-01

    Microwave-to-optical frequency converters based on whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonators have been proposed as mixers for the input ends of microwave receivers in which, downstream of the input ends, signals would be processed photonically. A frequency converter as proposed (see figure) would exploit the nonlinearity of the electromagnetic response of a WGM resonator made of LiNbO3 or another suitable ferroelectric material. Up-conversion would take place by three-wave mixing in the resonator. The WGM resonator would be de - signed and fabricated to obtain (1) resonance at both the microwave and the optical operating frequencies and (2) phase matching among the input and output microwave and optical signals as described in the immediately preceding article. Because the resonator would be all dielectric there would be no metal electrodes signal losses would be very low and, consequently, the resonance quality factors (Q values) of the microwave and optical fields would be very large. The long lifetimes associated with the large Q values would enable attainment of high efficiency of nonlinear interaction with low saturation power. It is anticipated that efficiency would be especially well enhanced by the combination of optical and microwave resonances in operation at input signal frequencies between 90 and 300 GHz.

  13. Continuous analogues of matrix factorizations

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Alex; Trefethen, Lloyd N.

    2015-01-01

    Analogues of singular value decomposition (SVD), QR, LU and Cholesky factorizations are presented for problems in which the usual discrete matrix is replaced by a ‘quasimatrix’, continuous in one dimension, or a ‘cmatrix’, continuous in both dimensions. Two challenges arise: the generalization of the notions of triangular structure and row and column pivoting to continuous variables (required in all cases except the SVD, and far from obvious), and the convergence of the infinite series that define the cmatrix factorizations. Our generalizations of triangularity and pivoting are based on a new notion of a ‘triangular quasimatrix’. Concerning convergence of the series, we prove theorems asserting convergence provided the functions involved are sufficiently smooth. PMID:25568618

  14. Non-Gaussian Photon Probability Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, Benjamin T.

    2010-01-28

    This paper investigates the axiom that the photon's probability distribution is a Gaussian distribution. The Airy disc empirical evidence shows that the best fit, if not exact, distribution is a modified Gamma mGAMMA distribution (whose parameters are alpha = r, betar/sq root(u)) in the plane orthogonal to the motion of the photon. This modified Gamma distribution is then used to reconstruct the probability distributions along the hypotenuse from the pinhole, arc from the pinhole, and a line parallel to photon motion. This reconstruction shows that the photon's probability distribution is not a Gaussian function. However, under certain conditions, the distribution can appear to be Normal, thereby accounting for the success of quantum mechanics. This modified Gamma distribution changes with the shape of objects around it and thus explains how the observer alters the observation. This property therefore places additional constraints to quantum entanglement experiments. This paper shows that photon interaction is a multi-phenomena effect consisting of the probability to interact P{sub i}, the probabilistic function and the ability to interact A{sub i}, the electromagnetic function. Splitting the probability function P{sub i} from the electromagnetic function A{sub i} enables the investigation of the photon behavior from a purely probabilistic P{sub i} perspective. The Probabilistic Interaction Hypothesis is proposed as a consistent method for handling the two different phenomena, the probability function P{sub i} and the ability to interact A{sub i}, thus redefining radiation shielding, stealth or cloaking, and invisibility as different effects of a single phenomenon P{sub i} of the photon probability distribution. Sub wavelength photon behavior is successfully modeled as a multi-phenomena behavior. The Probabilistic Interaction Hypothesis provides a good fit to Otoshi's (1972) microwave shielding, Schurig et al.(2006) microwave cloaking, and Oulton et al.(2008) sub

  15. The future of somatostatin analogue therapy.

    PubMed

    Stewart, P M; James, R A

    1999-10-01

    Since its discovery almost 30 years ago, the mode of action and therapeutic applications of somatostatin have been defined. In particular the cloning and characterization of somatostatin receptor subtypes has facilitated the development of high affinity analogues. In the context of pituitary disease, long-acting somatostatin analogues (octreotide, lanreotide) have been used to treat a variety of pituitary tumours but are most efficacious for the treatment of GH and TSH-secreting adenomas. In patients with acromegaly, depot preparations of these analogues are administered intramuscularly every 10-28 days and provide consistent suppression of GH levels to < 5 mU/l in approximately 50-65% of all cases. Even more specific somatostatin receptor analogues are under development. Finally, radiolabelled somatostatin analogue scintigraphy and, in larger doses, therapy, are now established tools in the evaluation and treatment of neuroendocrine tumours.

  16. Antinociceptive activity of glycosidic enkephalin analogues.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, R E; Rodríguez, F D; Sacristán, M P; Torres, J L; Reig, F; García Antón, J M; Valencia, G

    1990-01-01

    The antinociceptive activity of two new enkephalin analogues: N1.5-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)[D-Met2, Pro5]enkephalinamide and N1.5-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)[D-Met2, Pro5]enkephalinamide was assessed using the tail immersion and paw pressure behavioural tests. Both enkephalin analogues appear to be more active than morphine when injected either into the fourth ventricle or intrathecally; the galactose analogue is more than 5000 times more active than morphine when injected into the fourth ventricle. The analgesic effects produced by the analogues are partially reversed by SC naloxone (0.1 mg/kg) and totally reversed when the dose of naloxone used was 1 mg/kg, suggesting that the analogues act upon more than one type of opiate receptor (mu/delta).

  17. Detecting phonon blockade with photons

    SciTech Connect

    Didier, Nicolas; Pugnetti, Stefano; Fazio, Rosario; Blanter, Yaroslav M.

    2011-08-01

    Measuring the quantum dynamics of a mechanical system, when few phonons are involved, remains a challenge. We show that a superconducting microwave resonator linearly coupled to the mechanical mode constitutes a very powerful probe for this scope. This new coupling can be much stronger than the usual radiation pressure interaction by adjusting a gate voltage. We focus on the detection of phonon blockade, showing that it can be observed by measuring the statistics of the light in the cavity. The underlying reason is the formation of an entangled state between the two resonators. Our scheme realizes a phonotonic Josephson junction, giving rise to coherent oscillations between phonons and photons as well as a self-trapping regime for a coupling smaller than a critical value. The transition from the self-trapping to the oscillating regime is also induced dynamically by dissipation.

  18. Narrow-linewidth microwave generation using AlGaInAs/InP microdisk lasers subject to optical injection and optoelectronic feedback.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiu-Wen; Huang, Yong-Zhen; Zou, Ling-Xiu; Liu, Bo-Wen; Long, Heng; Weng, Hai-Zhong; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long

    2015-08-10

    Narrow-linewidth and low phase noise photonic microwave generation under sideband-injection locking are demonstrated using an 8-μm-radius AlGaInAs/InP microdisk laser subject to optical injection and optoelectronic feedback. Microdisk laser subject to external optical injection at the period-one state provides the microwave subcarrier seed signal, and the optoelectronic feedback serves as direct current modulation to stabilize and lock the generated microwave signal without using the electrical filter. High-quality photonic microwave signals are realized with the 3-dB linewidth of less than 1 kHz and the frequency tunable range from 8.8 to 17 GHz. Single sideband phase noise of -101 dBc/Hz is obtained at a frequency offset of 10 kHz for the generated 14.7 GHz signal. Furthermore, the dependences of photonic microwave signal on the optical injection and optoelectronic feedback parameters are investigated.

  19. Optically-controlled microwave phase shifting and sampling by efficient photoconductive switching on LT-GaAs substrate integrated technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripon-Canseliet, C.; Faci, S.; Blary, K.; Deshours, F.; Alquié, G.; Formont, S.; Chazelas, J.

    2006-09-01

    Microwave photonics contributes through ultrafast devices to the processing of high data rates. In this area, microwave photoconductive switches (MPCSs) in integrated technology have proved their performances to control the transmission of high frequency signals in complex systems. Their ability to switch microwave signal phase and magnitude is fully defined by a complex frequency-dependant ON/OFF ratio R ON/OFF determined from S-Parameters measurements in microwave frequency domain. This paper reports on a new design of MPCSs to be used, after realization and evaluation, as a basic block in optically controlled MMIC devices for application in high frequency samplers or phase shifters.

  20. Optomechanical photon shuttling between photonic cavities.

    PubMed

    Li, Huan; Li, Mo

    2014-11-01

    Mechanical motion of photonic devices driven by optical forces provides a profound means of coupling between optical fields. The current focus of these optomechanical effects has been on cavity optomechanics systems in which co-localized optical and mechanical modes interact strongly to enable wave mixing between photons and phonons, and backaction cooling of mechanical modes. Alternatively, extended mechanical modes can also induce strong non-local effects on propagating optical fields or multiple localized optical modes at distances. Here, we demonstrate a multicavity optomechanical device in which torsional optomechanical motion can shuttle photons between two photonic crystal nanocavities. The resonance frequencies of the two cavities, one on each side of this 'photon see-saw', are modulated antisymmetrically by the device's rotation. Pumping photons into one cavity excites optomechanical self-oscillation, which strongly modulates the inter-cavity coupling and shuttles photons to the other empty cavity during every oscillation cycle in a well-regulated fashion.

  1. An efficient green synthesis of 2-arylbenzothiazole analogues as potent antibacterial and anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Mohit; Sinha, Sohini; Banerjee, Swagata; Paira, Priyankar

    2016-01-01

    We have demonstrated a novel and green approach for the synthesis of 2-substituted benzothiazole analogues. A number of 2-aryl and heteroaryl benzothiazole scaffolds were synthesized using Amberlite IR-120 resin under microwave irradiation. The catalytic role and reusability of the resin was well established here. 2-Substituted benzothiazole analogues (3a-l) were also tested against several bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella) and cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and HeLa). The stability of compound 2-phenyl benzothiazole (3a) and 2-pyridin-2-yl-benzothiazole (3k) in GSH (0.01mM dissolved in DMSO) was measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Compound 3k also shows remarkable fluorescence in MeOH.

  2. Microwave fluid flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Billeter, Thomas R.; Philipp, Lee D.; Schemmel, Richard R.

    1976-01-01

    A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.

  3. Microwave Oven Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumrall, William J.; Richardson, Denise; Yan, Yuan

    1998-01-01

    Explains a series of laboratory activities which employ a microwave oven to help students understand word problems that relate to states of matter, collect data, and calculate and compare electrical costs to heat energy costs. (DDR)

  4. Emitron: microwave diode

    DOEpatents

    Craig, G.D.; Pettibone, J.S.; Drobot, A.T.

    1982-05-06

    The invention comprises a new class of device, driven by electron or other charged particle flow, for producing coherent microwaves by utilizing the interaction of electromagnetic waves with electron flow in diodes not requiring an external magnetic field. Anode and cathode surfaces are electrically charged with respect to one another by electron flow, for example caused by a Marx bank voltage source or by other charged particle flow, for example by a high energy charged particle beam. This produces an electric field which stimulates an emitted electron beam to flow in the anode-cathode region. The emitted electrons are accelerated by the electric field and coherent microwaves are produced by the three dimensional spatial and temporal interaction of the accelerated electrons with geometrically allowed microwave modes which results in the bunching of the electrons and the pumping of at least one dominant microwave mode.

  5. Microwave Oven Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumrall, William J.; Richardson, Denise; Yan, Yuan

    1998-01-01

    Explains a series of laboratory activities which employ a microwave oven to help students understand word problems that relate to states of matter, collect data, and calculate and compare electrical costs to heat energy costs. (DDR)

  6. High power microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, Carl A.

    1986-01-01

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  7. High power microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, C.A.

    1983-12-29

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  8. Microwave emissions from snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation emitted from dry and wet snowpack in the microwave region (1 to 100 GHz) is discussed and related to ground observations. Results from theoretical model calculations match the brightness temperatures obtained by truck mounted, airborne and spaceborne microwave sensor systems. Snow wetness and internal layer structure complicate the snow parameter retrieval algorithm. Further understanding of electromagnetic interaction with snowpack may eventually provide a technique to probe the internal snow properties

  9. Tunable Microwave Transversal Filters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER AFOSR-TR. 84-0977 S4. TI TLE (and Subtitle) 5. TYP ?FE&T&PEO OEE U!NABLE MICROWAVE TRANSVERSAL FILTERS...this goal through magnetostatic waves MSW propagating at microwave frequency in magnetically biased, liquid phase epitaxial films of yttrium iron...garnet (YIG) grown on gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG). This technology has a number of advantages; low loss (greater than 30db/usec at xband), tunable by

  10. Automatic Microwave Network Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A program and procedure are developed for the automatic measurement of microwave networks using a Hewlett-Packard network analyzer and programmable calculator . The program and procedure are used in the measurement of a simple microwave two port network. These measurements are evaluated by comparing with measurements on the same network using other techniques. The programs...in the programmable calculator are listed in Appendix 1. The step by step procedure used is listed in Appendix 2. (Author)

  11. Microwave excitation of spin wave beams in thin ferromagnetic films

    PubMed Central

    Gruszecki, P.; Kasprzak, M.; Serebryannikov, A. E.; Krawczyk, M.; Śmigaj, W.

    2016-01-01

    An inherent element of research and applications in photonics is a beam of light. In magnonics, which is the magnetic counterpart of photonics, where spin waves are used instead of electromagnetic waves to transmit and process information, the lack of a beam source limits exploration. Here, we present an approach enabling generation of narrow spin wave beams in thin homogeneous nanosized ferromagnetic films by microwave current. We show that the desired beam-type behavior can be achieved with the aid of a properly designed coplanar waveguide transducer generating a nonuniform microwave magnetic field. We test this idea using micromagnetic simulations, confirming numerically that the resulting spin wave beams propagate over distances of several micrometers. The proposed approach requires neither inhomogeneity of the ferromagnetic film nor nonuniformity of the biasing magnetic field. It can be generalized to different magnetization configurations and yield multiple spin wave beams of different width at the same frequency. PMID:26971711

  12. Microwave irradiation and quasiparticles in a superconducting double dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, N. J.; Esmail, A. A.; Pollock, F. A.; Edwards, M.; Lovett, B. W.; Ferguson, A. J.

    2017-06-01

    We study the interaction of the charge states of a superconducting double dot, comprising two superconducting islands coupled by a Josephson junction, with microwaves between 2 and 55 GHz. We observe resonant transitions between even-parity charge states at relatively low frequencies and breaking of Cooper pairs under higher-frequency irradiation, allowing our device to act as a click detector for microwave photons. By applying a magnetic field and tuning the pair-breaking energy, we perform spectroscopy on the environment in our cryostat and determine the temperature of a nonequilibrium photon bath. Finally, we exploit the band structure of our device to break Cooper pairs dependent on the symmetry of the initial Cooper pair state.

  13. Silicon-based optical-microwave integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soref, Richard

    1992-05-01

    While III-V semiconductor technology currently dominates the MMIC field, attention is presently given to the possibility of developing Si-based MMICs capable of capturing a portion of the GaAs MMIC market. The Si-based devices would use state-of-the-art heterostructures in conjunction with novel group IV compounds. The field of photonics may also be addressed; bandgap engineering and processing research on IV-IV structures are also required in order to boost the response of Si-based optical modulators into the 10-50 GHz range. Optical and microwave development can then converge to achieve the monolithic integration of ultrafast group IV photonic devices with Si-based microwave circuits.

  14. Cavity quantum electro-optics. II. Input-output relations between traveling optical and microwave fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Mankei

    2011-10-01

    In a previous paper [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.81.063837 81, 063837 (2010)], I proposed a quantum model of the cavity electro-optic modulator, which can coherently couple an optical cavity mode to a microwave resonator mode and enable quantum operations on the two modes, including laser cooling of the microwave resonator, electro-optic entanglement, and backaction-evading optical measurement of a microwave quadrature. In this sequel, I focus on the quantum input-output relations between traveling optical and microwave fields coupled to the cavity electro-optic modulator. With red-sideband optical pumping, the relations are shown to resemble those of a beam splitter for the traveling fields, so that in the ideal case of zero parasitic loss and critical coupling, microwave photons can be coherently up converted to “flying” optical photons with unit efficiency, and vice versa. With blue-sideband pumping, the modulator acts as a nondegenerate parametric amplifier, which can generate two-mode squeezing and hybrid entangled photon pairs at optical and microwave frequencies. These fundamental operations provide a potential bridge between circuit quantum electrodynamics and quantum optics.

  15. Cavity quantum electro-optics. II. Input-output relations between traveling optical and microwave fields

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Mankei

    2011-10-15

    In a previous paper [Phys. Rev. A 81, 063837 (2010)], I proposed a quantum model of the cavity electro-optic modulator, which can coherently couple an optical cavity mode to a microwave resonator mode and enable quantum operations on the two modes, including laser cooling of the microwave resonator, electro-optic entanglement, and backaction-evading optical measurement of a microwave quadrature. In this sequel, I focus on the quantum input-output relations between traveling optical and microwave fields coupled to the cavity electro-optic modulator. With red-sideband optical pumping, the relations are shown to resemble those of a beam splitter for the traveling fields, so that in the ideal case of zero parasitic loss and critical coupling, microwave photons can be coherently up converted to ''flying'' optical photons with unit efficiency, and vice versa. With blue-sideband pumping, the modulator acts as a nondegenerate parametric amplifier, which can generate two-mode squeezing and hybrid entangled photon pairs at optical and microwave frequencies. These fundamental operations provide a potential bridge between circuit quantum electrodynamics and quantum optics.

  16. Microwave manipulation of an atomic electron.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Thomas

    2006-05-01

    Applying a microwave field to an atom at its Kepler orbital frequency, the frequency of the δ n = 1 transition, phase locks the motion of the electron, producing a non dispersing wave packet. Such wavepackets are robust and do not disperse for thousands of orbits. The phase locked electron's motion can be sped up or slowed down by chirping the frequency of the microwave field, and changes in n of 10 have been observed. In quantum mechanical terms such a process is adiabatic passage through a series of overlapping single photon resonances. It is also possible to produce large changes in n by chirping the frequency backwards, in which case the population transfer occurs by a single multiphoton adiabatic passage, and only small frequency chirps are required. These process are all readily understood in terms of the evolution of the Floquet, or dressed energy levels during the microwave pulse. It is a pleasure to acknowledge the invaluable contributions of H. Maeda, D. V. L. Norum, and J. H. Gurian to this work. This work has been supported by the National Science Foundation.

  17. Microwave sintering process model.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hu; Tinga, W R; Sundararaj, U; Eadie, R L

    2003-01-01

    In order to simulate and optimize the microwave sintering of a silicon nitride and tungsten carbide/cobalt toolbits process, a microwave sintering process model has been built. A cylindrical sintering furnace was used containing a heat insulating layer, a susceptor layer, and an alumina tube containing the green toolbit parts between parallel, electrically conductive, graphite plates. Dielectric and absorption properties of the silicon nitride green parts, the tungsten carbide/cobalt green parts, and an oxidizable susceptor material were measured using perturbation and waveguide transmission methods. Microwave absorption data were measured over a temperature range from 20 degrees C to 800 degrees C. These data were then used in the microwave process model which assumed plane wave propagation along the radial direction and included the microwave reflection at each interface between the materials and the microwave absorption in the bulk materials. Heat transfer between the components inside the cylindrical sintering furnace was also included in the model. The simulated heating process data for both silicon nitride and tungsten carbide/cobalt samples closely follow the experimental data. By varying the physical parameters of the sintering furnace model, such as the thickness of the susceptor layer, the thickness of the allumina tube wall, the sample load volume and the graphite plate mass, the model data predicts their effects which are helpful in optimizing those parameters in the industrial sintering process.

  18. Microwaves and Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xia; Huang, Wen-Juan; Chen, Wei-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's diseases (AD) is the most common type of dementia and a neurodegenerative disease that occurs when the nerve cells in the brain die. The cause and treatment of AD remain unknown. However, AD is a disease that affects the brain, an organ that controls behavior. Accordingly, anything that can interact with the brain may affect this organ positively or negatively, thereby protecting or encouraging AD. In this regard, modern life encompasses microwaves for all issues including industrial, communications, medical and domestic tenders, and among all applications, the cell phone wave, which directly exposes the brain, continues to be the most used. Evidence suggests that microwaves may produce various biological effects on the central nervous system (CNS) and many arguments relay the possibility that microwaves may be involved in the pathophysiology of CNS disease, including AD. By contrast, previous studies have reported some beneficial cognitive effects and that microwaves may protect against cognitive impairment in AD. However, although many of the beneficial effects of microwaves are derived from animal models, but can easily be extrapolated to humans, whether microwaves cause AD is an important issue that is to be addressed in the current review. PMID:27698682

  19. Microwaves and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Huang, Wen-Juan; Chen, Wei-Wei

    2016-10-01

    Alzheimer's diseases (AD) is the most common type of dementia and a neurodegenerative disease that occurs when the nerve cells in the brain die. The cause and treatment of AD remain unknown. However, AD is a disease that affects the brain, an organ that controls behavior. Accordingly, anything that can interact with the brain may affect this organ positively or negatively, thereby protecting or encouraging AD. In this regard, modern life encompasses microwaves for all issues including industrial, communications, medical and domestic tenders, and among all applications, the cell phone wave, which directly exposes the brain, continues to be the most used. Evidence suggests that microwaves may produce various biological effects on the central nervous system (CNS) and many arguments relay the possibility that microwaves may be involved in the pathophysiology of CNS disease, including AD. By contrast, previous studies have reported some beneficial cognitive effects and that microwaves may protect against cognitive impairment in AD. However, although many of the beneficial effects of microwaves are derived from animal models, but can easily be extrapolated to humans, whether microwaves cause AD is an important issue that is to be addressed in the current review.

  20. Microwave radiation absorption: behavioral effects.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, J A

    1991-07-01

    The literature contains much evidence that absorption of microwave energy will lead to behavioral changes in man and laboratory animals. The changes include simple perturbations or outright stoppage of ongoing behavior. On one extreme, intense microwave absorption can result in seizures followed by death. On the other extreme, man and animals can hear microwave pulses at very low rates of absorption. Under certain conditions of exposure, animals will avoid microwaves, while under other conditions, they will actively work to obtain warmth produced by microwaves. Some research has shown behavioral effects during chronic exposure to low-level microwaves. The specific absorption rates that produce behavioral effects seem to depend on microwave frequency, but controversy exists over thresholds and mechanism of action. In all cases, however, the behavioral disruptions cease when chronic microwave exposure is terminated. Thermal changes in man and animals during microwave exposure appear to account for all reported behavioral effects.

  1. Standoff detection of large organic molecules using Rydberg fingerprint spectroscopy and microwave Rayleigh scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Rudakov, Fedor M; Zhang, Zhili

    2012-01-01

    We present a technique for nonintrusive and standoff detection of large organic molecules using coherent microwave Rayleigh scattering from plasma produced by structure sensitive photoionization through Rydberg states. We test the method on 1,4-diazobicyclooctane. Transitions between the 3s Rydberg state and higher lying Rydberg states are probed using two-color photoionization with 266?nm photons and photons in the range of 460-2400 nm. Photoionization is detected using microwave radiation, which is scattered by the unbounded electrons. Highly resolved Rydberg spectra are acquired in vacuum and in air.

  2. Simultaneous broadband microwave downconversion and programmable complex filtering by optical frequency comb shaping.

    PubMed

    Torres-Company, Victor; Leaird, Daniel E; Weiner, Andrew M

    2012-10-01

    High-repetition-rate optical frequency combs can act as broadband photonic mixers and downconvert a microwave signal to an intermediate frequency (IF) band so that it becomes accessible with high-speed electronics. In this Letter, we show that with line-by-line pulse shaping and dispersive propagation, the photonic mixer can simultaneously perform programmable multitap complex-coefficient-filtering within the IF band. This solution opens new possibilities for microwave signal processing by combining the flexibility of optoelectronic frequency comb technology with high-speed analog-to-digital converters.

  3. Path Entanglement of Continuous-Variable Quantum Microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, E. P.; Deppe, F.; Eder, P.; Zhong, L.; Haeberlein, M.; Baust, A.; Hoffmann, E.; Marx, A.; Gross, R.; di Candia, R.; Solano, E.; Ballester, D.; Ihmig, M.; Inomata, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Nakamura, Y.

    2013-03-01

    Entanglement is a quantum mechanical phenomenon playing a key role in quantum communication and information processing protocols. Here, we report on frequency-degenerate entanglement between continuous-variable quantum microwaves propagating along two separated paths. In our experiment, we combine a squeezed and a vacuum state via a beam splitter. Overcoming the challenges imposed by the low photon energies in the microwave regime, we reconstruct the squeezed state and, independently from this, detect and quantify the produced entanglement via correlation measurements (E. P. Menzel et al., arXiv:1210.4413). Our work paves the way towards quantum communication and teleportation with continuous variables in the microwave regime. This work is supported by SFB 631, German Excellence Initiative via NIM, EU projects SOLID, CCQED and PROMISCE, MEXT Kakenhi ``Quantum Cybernetics'', JSPS FIRST Program, the NICT Commissioned Research, EPSRC EP/H050434/1, Basque Government IT472-10, and Spanish MICINN FIS2009-12773-C02-01.

  4. Microwaves and particle accelerators: a fundamental link

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, Swapan

    2011-07-01

    John Cockcroft's splitting of the atom and Ernest Lawrence's invention of the cyclotron in the first half of the twentieth century ushered in the grand era of ever higher energy particle accelerators to probe deeper into matter. It also forged a link, bonding scientific discovery with technological innovation that continues today in the twenty first century. The development of radar and high power vacuum electronics, especially microwave power tubes like the magnetrons and the klystrons in the pre-second world war era, was instrumental in the rapid development of circular and linear charged particle accelerators in the second half of the twentieth century. We had harnessed the powerful microwave radio-frequency sources from few tens of MHz to up to 90 GHz spanning L-band to W-band frequencies. Simultaneously in the second half of the twentieth century, lasers began to offer very first opportunities of controlling charged particles at smaller resolutions on the scale of wavelengths of visible light. We also witnessed in this period the emergence of the photon and neutron sciences driven by accelerators built-by-design producing tailored and ultra-bright pulses of bright photons and neutrons to probe structure and function of matter from aggregate to individual molecular and atomic scales in unexplored territories in material and life sciences. As we enter the twenty first century, the race for ever higher energies, brightness and luminosity to probe atto-metric and atto-second domains of the ultra-small structures and ultra-fast processes continues. These developments depend crucially on yet further advancements in the production and control of high power and high frequency microwaves and light sources, often intricately coupled in their operation to the high energy beams themselves. We give a glimpse of the recent developments and innovations in the electromagnetic production and control of charged particle beams in the service of science and society. (author)

  5. Distributed meandering waveguides (DMWs) for novel photonic circuits (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dag, Ceren B.; Anil, Mehmet Ali; Serpengüzel, Ali

    2017-05-01

    Meandering waveguide distributed feedback structures are novel integrated photonic lightwave and microwave circuit elements. Meandering waveguide distributed feedback structures with a variety of spectral responses can be designed for a variety of lightwave and microwave circuit element functions. Distributed meandering waveguide (DMW) structures [1] show a variety of spectral behaviors with respect to the number of meandering loop mirrors (MLMs) [2] used in their composition as well as their internal coupling constants (Cs). DMW spectral behaviors include Fano resonances, coupled resonator induced transparency (CRIT), notch, add-drop, comb, and hitless filters. What makes the DMW special is the self-coupling property intrinsic to the DMW's nature. The basic example of DMW's nature is motivated through the analogy between the so-called symmetric meandering resonator (SMR), which consists of two coupled MLMs, and the resonator enhanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer (REMZI) [3]. A SMR shows the same spectral characteristics of Fano resonances with its self-coupling property, similar to the single, distributed and binary self coupled optical waveguide (SCOW) resonators [4]. So far DMWs have been studied for their electric field intensity, phase [5] and phasor responses [6]. The spectral analysis is performed using the coupled electric field analysis and the generalization of single meandering loop mirrors to multiple meandering distributed feedback structures is performed with the transfer matrix method. The building block of the meandering waveguide structures, the meandering loop mirror (MLM), is the integrated analogue of the fiber optic loop mirrors. The meandering resonator (MR) is composed of two uncoupled MLM's. The meandering distributed feedback (MDFB) structure is the DFB of the MLM. The symmetric MR (SMR) is composed of two coupled MLM's, and has the characteristics of a Fano resonator in the general case, and tunable power divider or tunable hitless filter

  6. Fabrication and characterization of aluminum airbridges for superconducting microwave circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zijun; Megrant, A.; Kelly, J.; Barends, R.; Bochmann, J.; Chen, Yu; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Mutus, J. Y.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Neill, C.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T. C.; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, John M.

    2014-02-01

    Superconducting microwave circuits based on coplanar waveguides (CPW) are susceptible to parasitic slotline modes which can lead to loss and decoherence. We motivate the use of superconducting airbridges as a reliable method for preventing the propagation of these modes. We describe the fabrication of these airbridges on superconducting resonators, which we use to measure the loss due to placing airbridges over CPW lines. We find that the additional loss at single photon levels is small, and decreases at higher drive powers.

  7. Microwave-induced direct spin-flip transitions in mesoscopic Pd/Co heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietsch, Torsten; Egle, Stefan; Keller, Martin; Fridtjof-Pernau, Hans; Strigl, Florian; Scheer, Elke

    2016-09-01

    We experimentally investigate the effect of resonant microwave absorption on the magneto-conductance of tunable Co/Pd point contacts. At the interface a non-equilibrium spin accumulation is created via microwave absorption and can be probed via point contact spectroscopy. We interpret the results as a signature of direct spin-flip excitations in Zeeman-split spin-subbands within the Pd normal metal part of the junction. The inverse effect, which is associated with the emission of a microwave photon in a ferromagnet/normal metal point contact, can also be detected via its unique signature in transport spectroscopy.

  8. Specific effects in microwave chemistry explored through reactor vessel design, theory, and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Bridgett; Lovingood, Derek D; Chiu, Yu-Che; Gao, Hanwei; Owens, Jeffery; Strouse, Geoffrey F

    2015-11-07

    Microwave chemistry has revolutionized synthetic methodology for the preparation of organics, pharmaceuticals, materials, and peptides. The enhanced reaction rates commonly observed in a microwave have led to wide speculation about the function of molecular microwave absorption and whether the absorption leads to microwave specific effects and enhanced molecular heating. The comparison of theoretical modeling, reactor vessel design, and dielectric spectroscopy allows the nuance of the interaction to be directly understood. The study clearly shows an unaltered silicon carbide vessel allows measurable microwave penetration and therefore, molecular absorption of the microwave photons by the reactants within the reaction vessel cannot be ignored when discussing the role of molecular heating in enhanced molecular reactivity for microwave synthesis. The results of the study yield an improved microwave reactor vessel design that eliminates microwave leakage into the reaction volume by incorporating a noble metal surface layer onto a silicon carbide reaction vessel. The systematic study provides the necessary theory and measurements to better inform the arguments in the field.

  9. Microwave platform as a valuable tool for characterization of nanophotonic devices

    PubMed Central

    Shishkin, Ivan; Baranov, Dmitry; Slobozhanyuk, Alexey; Filonov, Dmitry; Lukashenko, Stanislav; Samusev, Anton; Belov, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The rich potential of the microwave experiments for characterization and optimization of optical devices is discussed. While the control of the light fields together with their spatial mapping at the nanoscale is still laborious and not always clear, the microwave setup allows to measure both amplitude and phase of initially determined magnetic and electric field components without significant perturbation of the near-field. As an example, the electromagnetic properties of an add-drop filter, which became a well-known workhorse of the photonics, is experimentally studied with the aid of transmission spectroscopy measurements in optical and microwave ranges and through direct mapping of the near fields at microwave frequencies. We demonstrate that the microwave experiments provide a unique platform for the comprehensive studies of electromagnetic properties of micro- and nanophotonic devices, and allow to obtain data which are hardly acquirable by conventional optical methods. PMID:27759058

  10. Plant Volatile Analogues Strengthen Attractiveness to Insect

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yufeng; Yu, Hao; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Pickett, John A.; Wu, Kongming

    2014-01-01

    Green leaf bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) is one of the major pests in agriculture. Management of A. lucorum was largely achieved by using pesticides. However, the increasing population of A. lucorum since growing Bt cotton widely and the increased awareness of ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety makes their population-control very challenging. Therefore this study was conducted to explore a novel ecological approach, synthetic plant volatile analogues, to manage the pest. Here, plant volatile analogues were first designed and synthesized by combining the bioactive components of β-ionone and benzaldehyde. The stabilities of β-ionone, benzaldehyde and analogue 3 g were tested. The electroantennogram (EAG) responses of A. lucorum adult antennae to the analogues were recorded. And the behavior assay and filed experiment were also conducted. In this study, thirteen analogues were acquired. The analogue 3 g was demonstrated to be more stable than β-ionone and benzaldehyde in the environment. Many of the analogues elicited EAG responses, and the EAG response values to 3 g remained unchanged during seven-day period. 3 g was also demonstrated to be attractive to A. lucorum adults in the laboratory behavior experiment and in the field. Its attractiveness persisted longer than β-ionone and benzaldehyde. This indicated that 3 g can strengthen attractiveness to insect and has potential as an attractant. Our results suggest that synthetic plant volatile analogues can strengthen attractiveness to insect. This is the first published study about synthetic plant volatile analogues that have the potential to be used in pest control. Our results will support a new ecological approach to pest control and it will be helpful to ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety. PMID:24911460

  11. Coulomb Bound States of Strongly Interacting Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghrebi, M. F.; Gullans, M. J.; Bienias, P.; Choi, S.; Martin, I.; Firstenberg, O.; Lukin, M. D.; Büchler, H. P.; Gorshkov, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    We show that two photons coupled to Rydberg states via electromagnetically induced transparency can interact via an effective Coulomb potential. This interaction gives rise to a continuum of two-body bound states. Within the continuum, metastable bound states are distinguished in analogy with quasibound states tunneling through a potential barrier. We find multiple branches of metastable bound states whose energy spectrum is governed by the Coulomb potential, thus obtaining a photonic analogue of the hydrogen atom. Under certain conditions, the wave function resembles that of a diatomic molecule in which the two polaritons are separated by a finite "bond length." These states propagate with a negative group velocity in the medium, allowing for a simple preparation and detection scheme, before they slowly decay to pairs of bound Rydberg atoms.

  12. Coulomb bound states of strongly interacting photons

    SciTech Connect

    Maghrebi, M. F.; Choi, S.; Martin, I.; Firstenberg, O.; Lukin, M. D.; Büchler, H. P.; Gorshkov, A. V.

    2015-09-16

    We show that two photons coupled to Rydberg states via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) can interact via an effective Coulomb potential. The interaction then gives rise to a continuum of two-body bound states. Within the continuum, metastable bound states are distinguished in analogy with quasi-bound states tunneling through a potential barrier. We find multiple branches of metastable bound states whose energy spectrum is governed by the Coulomb problem, thus obtaining a photonic analogue of the hydrogen atom. These states propagate with a negative group velocity in the medium, which allows for a simple preparation and detection scheme, before they slowly decay to pairs of bound Rydberg atoms. As a result, we verify the metastability and backward propagation of these Coulomb bound states with exact numerical simulations.

  13. Coulomb bound states of strongly interacting photons

    DOE PAGES

    Maghrebi, M. F.; Gullans, Michael J.; Bienias, P.; ...

    2015-09-16

    We show that two photons coupled to Rydberg states via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) can interact via an effective Coulomb potential. The interaction then gives rise to a continuum of two-body bound states. Within the continuum, metastable bound states are distinguished in analogy with quasi-bound states tunneling through a potential barrier. We find multiple branches of metastable bound states whose energy spectrum is governed by the Coulomb problem, thus obtaining a photonic analogue of the hydrogen atom. These states propagate with a negative group velocity in the medium, which allows for a simple preparation and detection scheme, before they slowlymore » decay to pairs of bound Rydberg atoms. As a result, we verify the metastability and backward propagation of these Coulomb bound states with exact numerical simulations.« less

  14. Laboratory simulation on EUV photolysis of inorganic interstellar ice analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. J.; Nuevo, M.; Yih, T. S.; Ip, W. H.; Wu, C. Y.; Fung, H. S.; Lee, Y. Y.; Cheng, C.; Tsai, H. R.

    In this report we focused on the formation of large organic molecules from most simple cosmic inorganic ice analogues consisting of H 2 O CO 2 and NH 3 irradiated by extreme ultraviolet EUV photons We employed an ultra-high vacuum chamber equipped with a closed- cycle helium cryostat to simulate the environment of the space beyond the atmosphere The necessary intense simulation of solar radiation is provided by a synchrotron beam in the wide 4 -- 20eV range at National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center in Hsinchu Taiwan After exposure to 10 20 photon dose the icy sample was warmed up to room temperature under dynamic vacuum then we deposited another icy sample as well as last one and EUV irradiated and warmed up to room temperature again and again for six times the KBr substrate was then removed in an environment filled with argon gas After removed into laboratory the sample was washed with distilled water and hydrolyzed in a standard procedure the residue was then analyzed by HPLC The result shows that we could clearly identify 8 amino acids such as glycine Banaline Bserine ldots etc which were left over in the residue Associated with those basic amino acids are several other large molecules that could be tentatively identified as basic organic materials evolved from photolysis process

  15. Space analogue studies in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugg, D.; Shepanek, M.

    1999-01-01

    Medical research has been carried out on the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) for 50 years. As an extension of this program collaborative Australian/United States research on immunology, microbiology, psychology and remote medicine has produced important data and insight on how humans adapt to the stress of extreme isolation, confinement and the harsh environment of Antarctica. An outstanding analogue for the isolation and confinement of space missions (especially planetary outposts), ANARE has been used as an international research platform by Australia and the United States since 1993. Collaborative research has demonstrated a lowered responsiveness of the immune system under the isolation and confinement of Antarctic winter-over; a reduction of almost 50% in T cell proliferation to mitogen phytohaemogglutinin, as well as changes in latent herpesvirus states and the expansion of the polyclonal latent Epstein-Barr virus infected B cell populations. Although no clinically significant disease has been found to result from these immune changes, research is currently assessing the effects of psychological factors on the immune system. This and associated research performed to date and its relevance to both organisations is discussed, and comment made on possible extensions to the program in both medical and other fields.

  16. Space analogue studies in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Lugg, D; Shepanek, M

    1999-01-01

    Medical research has been carried out on the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) for 50 years. As an extension of this program collaborative Australian/United States research on immunology, microbiology, psychology and remote medicine has produced important data and insight on how humans adapt to the stress of extreme isolation, confinement and the harsh environment of Antarctica. An outstanding analogue for the isolation and confinement of space missions (especially planetary outposts), ANARE has been used as an international research platform by Australia and the United States since 1993. Collaborative research has demonstrated a lowered responsiveness of the immune system under the isolation and confinement of Antarctic winter-over; a reduction of almost 50% in T cell proliferation to mitogen phytohaemogglutinin, as well as changes in latent herpesvirus states and the expansion of the polyclonal latent Epstein-Barr virus infected B cell populations. Although no clinically significant disease has been found to result from these immune changes, research is currently assessing the effects of psychological factors on the immune system. This and associated research performed to date and its relevance to both organisations is discussed, and comment made on possible extensions to the program in both medical and other fields.

  17. Space analogue studies in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugg, D.; Shepanek, M.

    1999-01-01

    Medical research has been carried out on the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) for 50 years. As an extension of this program collaborative Australian/United States research on immunology, microbiology, psychology and remote medicine has produced important data and insight on how humans adapt to the stress of extreme isolation, confinement and the harsh environment of Antarctica. An outstanding analogue for the isolation and confinement of space missions (especially planetary outposts), ANARE has been used as an international research platform by Australia and the United States since 1993. Collaborative research has demonstrated a lowered responsiveness of the immune system under the isolation and confinement of Antarctic winter-over; a reduction of almost 50% in T cell proliferation to mitogen phytohaemogglutinin, as well as changes in latent herpesvirus states and the expansion of the polyclonal latent Epstein-Barr virus infected B cell populations. Although no clinically significant disease has been found to result from these immune changes, research is currently assessing the effects of psychological factors on the immune system. This and associated research performed to date and its relevance to both organisations is discussed, and comment made on possible extensions to the program in both medical and other fields.

  18. Condensed matter analogues of cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibble, Tom; Srivastava, Ajit

    2013-10-01

    It is always exciting when developments in one branch of physics turn out to have relevance in a quite different branch. It would be hard to find two branches farther apart in terms of energy scales than early-universe cosmology and low-temperature condensed matter physics. Nevertheless ideas about the formation of topological defects during rapid phase transitions that originated in the context of the very early universe have proved remarkably fruitful when applied to a variety of condensed matter systems. The mathematical frameworks for describing these systems can be very similar. This interconnection has led to a deeper understanding of the phenomena in condensed matter systems utilizing ideas from cosmology. At the same time, one can view these condensed matter analogues as providing, at least in a limited sense, experimental access to the phenomena of the early universe for which no direct probe is possible. As this special issue well illustrates, this remains a dynamic and exciting field. The basic idea is that when a system goes through a rapid symmetry-breaking phase transition from a symmetric phase into one with spontaneously broken symmetry, the order parameter may make different choices in different regions, creating domains that when they meet can trap defects. The scale of those domains, and hence the density of defects, is constrained by the rate at which the system goes through the transition and the speed with which order parameter information propagates. This is what has come to be known as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The resultant scaling laws have now been tested in a considerable variety of different systems. The earliest experiments illustrating the analogy between cosmology and condensed matter were in liquid crystals, in particular on the isotropic-to-nematic transition, primarily because it is very easy to induce the phase transition (typically at room temperature) and to image precisely what is going on. This field remains one of the

  19. Space analogue studies in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugg, D.; Shepanek, M.

    1999-09-01

    Medical research has been carried out on the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) for 50 years. As an extension of this program collaborative Australian/United States research on immunology, microbiology, psychology and remote medicine has produced important data and insight on how humans adapt to the stress of extreme isolation, confinement and the harsh environment of Antarctica. An outstanding analogue for the isolation and confinement of space missions (especially planetary outposts), ANARE has been used as an international research platform by Australia and the United States since 1993. Collaborative research has demonstrated a lowered responsiveness of the immune system under the isolation and confinement of Antarctic winter-over; a reduction of almost 50% in T cell proliferation to mltogen phytohaemogglutinin, as well as changes in latent herpesvirus states and the expansion of the polyclonal latent Epstein-Barr virus infected B cell populations. Although no clinically significant disease has been found to result from these immune changes, research is currently assessing the effects of psychological factors on the immune system. This and associated research performed to date and its relevance to both organisations is discussed, and comment made on possible extensions to the program in both medical and other fields.

  20. Microwave readout of Majorana qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohm, C.; Hassler, F.

    2015-02-01

    Majorana qubits offer a promising way to store and manipulate quantum information by encoding it into the state of Majorana zero modes. As the information is stored in a topological property of the system, local noise cannot lead to decoherence. Manipulation of the information is achieved by braiding the zero modes. The measurement, however, is challenging as the information is well hidden and thus inherently hard to access. Here, we discuss a setup for measuring the state of a Majorana qubit by employing standard tools of microwave engineering. The basic physical effect that we employ is the fact that a voltage-biased Josephson junction hosting Majorana fermions allows photons to be emitted and absorbed at half the Josephson frequency. We show that in the dispersive regime, our setup allows us to perform a quantum nondemolition measurement and to reach the quantum limit. An appealing feature of our setup is that the interaction of the Majorana qubit with the measurement device can be turned on and off at will by changing the dc bias of the junction.

  1. Nuclear photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habs, D.; Günther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-01

    With the planned new γ-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 1013 γ/s and a band width of ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-3, a new era of γ beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HIγS facility at Duke University (USA) with 108 γ/s and ΔEγ/Eγ≈3ṡ10-2. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for γ beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused γ beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the γ beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for γ beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for γ beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the γ-beam facility, the γ-beam optics and γ detectors. We can trade γ intensity for band width, going down to ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-6 and address individual nuclear levels. The term "nuclear photonics" stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with γ-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, γ beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to μm resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of applications. We find many new applications in biomedicine, green energy, radioactive waste management or homeland security. Also more brilliant secondary beams of neutrons and positrons can be produced.

  2. Nuclear photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Habs, D.; Guenther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-09

    With the planned new {gamma}-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 10{sup 13}{gamma}/s and a band width of {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -3}, a new era of {gamma} beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HI{gamma}S facility at Duke University (USA) with 10{sup 8}{gamma}/s and {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 3 Dot-Operator 10{sup -2}. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for {gamma} beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused {gamma} beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the {gamma} beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for {gamma} beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for {gamma} beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the {gamma}-beam facility, the {gamma}-beam optics and {gamma} detectors. We can trade {gamma} intensity for band width, going down to {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -6} and address individual nuclear levels. The term 'nuclear photonics' stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with {gamma}-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, {gamma} beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to {mu}m resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of

  3. Design of a microwave calorimeter for the microwave tokamak experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Marinak, M. )

    1988-10-07

    The initial design of a microwave calorimeter for the Microwave Tokamak Experiment is presented. The design is optimized to measure the refraction and absorption of millimeter rf microwaves as they traverse the toroidal plasma of the Alcator C tokamak. Techniques utilized can be adapted for use in measuring high intensity pulsed output from a microwave device in an environment of ultra high vacuum, intense fields of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation and intense magnetic fields. 16 refs.

  4. Recent applications of microwave irradiation to medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Alcázar, Jesús; Oehlrich, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    The demands made on the pharmaceutical industry are changing at an unprecedented pace, making modern drug discovery dependent on high speed organic synthesis. Over the last few years, different technologies have been introduced in medicinal chemistry laboratories in order to improve their productivity. Microwave-assisted organic synthesis is proving to be instrumental in the rapid synthesis of compounds with new and improved biological activities. This review highlights the application of this approach as a way to explore analogue synthesis in medicinal chemistry over the last 3 years. We describe a number of examples taken from the literature that are related to various targets within different therapeutic areas. Clearly microwave irradiation is becoming a fundamental tool for optimizing key steps in the synthesis of target compounds within the field of drug discovery.

  5. All-dielectric photonic-assisted wireless receiver.

    PubMed

    Ayazi, Ali; Hsu, Rick C J; Houshmand, Bijan; Steier, William H; Jalali, Bahram

    2008-02-04

    High Power Microwave (HPM) weapons and other sources of intense microwave power pose a growing threat to modern RF receivers. To address this problem, all-dielectric photonic-assisted receivers have been proposed and demonstrated. Here, we describe a new configuration of this type with 15 dB better sensitivity over prior designs. The complete lack of metal and electronics in the front-end offers immunity against damage from intense electromagnetic radiation. In this experiment, detection of C band electromagnetic signal at 6.54 GHz with a sensitivity of -112 dBm/Hz is demonstrated.

  6. Two Photon Detection Techniques for Atomic Fluorine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-30

    to the two-photon detection technique. ’.d. %.. %9I Flowing He/F Mixture CaF 2 (20% F) from Pellin- Broca ionization Microwave Discharge Prism 1~~T6th...Stokes (AS) orders are separated using a CaF2 Pellin- Broca prism. The sixth AS at 170 un is propagated through an evacuated beam path (10 .5 torr) and...CaF2 Pellin- Broca prism. The atoms Br (Ref. 5) and Cl (Ref. 6) with limited sensitiv- sixth AS wave at 170 nm is propagated through a series ity6

  7. A plasma photonic crystal bandgap device

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, B.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2016-04-18

    A fully tunable plasma photonic crystal is used to control the propagation of free space electromagnetic waves in the S to X bands of the microwave spectrum. An array of discharge plasma tubes forms a simple square crystal structure with the individual plasma dielectric constant tuned through variation in the plasma density. We show, through simulations and experiments, that transverse electric mode bandgaps exist, arising from the positive and negative dielectric constant regimes of the plasma, and that the respective bandgap frequencies can be shifted through changing the dielectric constant by varying discharge current density.

  8. Nonclassical Photon Number Distribution in a Superconducting Cavity under a Squeezed Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, S.; Masuyama, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Tabuchi, Y.; Yamazaki, R.; Usami, K.; Koshino, K.; Nakamura, Y.

    2017-07-01

    A superconducting qubit in the strong dispersive regime of circuit quantum electrodynamics is a powerful probe for microwave photons in a cavity mode. In this regime, a qubit excitation spectrum is split into multiple peaks, with each peak corresponding to an individual photon number in the cavity (discrete ac Stark shift). Here, we measure the qubit spectrum in a cavity that is driven continuously with a squeezed vacuum generated by a Josephson parametric amplifier. By fitting the obtained spectrum with a model which takes into account the finite qubit excitation power, we determine the photon number distribution, which reveals an even-odd photon number oscillation and quantitatively fulfills Klyshko's criterion for nonclassicality.

  9. Cotton-yarn/TiO {2} dispersed resin photonic crystals with straight and wavy structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Kirihara, S.; Miyamoto, Y.; Sakoda, K.

    2004-06-01

    The feasibility of three-dimensional (3-D) photonic crystals made using textile technology was investigated. Three different textures consisting of the cotton-yarn and TiO2 dispersed resin; a crossed linear-yarn laminated fabric, a multi layered woven fabric, and a 3-D woven fabric, were fabricated. The microwave attenuation of the transmission amplitude through these photonic crystals was measured. The straight cotton-yarn as well as the wavy cotton-yarn/TiO2 dispersed resin photonic crystals exhibited band gaps in the 6 to 15 GHz range. Thus, we could fabricate successfully 3-D photonic crystals using textile technology.

  10. Transient evolution of a photon gas in the nonlinear QED vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, S Q; Hartemann, F V

    2011-10-04

    Thermally induced vacuum polarization stemming from QED radiative corrections to the electromagnetic field equations is studied. The physical behavior of thermal radiation, in the nonlinear QED vacuum first described by Heisenberg and Euler, is a problem of some theoretical importance in view of its relation to the cosmic microwave background (CMB), early universe evolution, and Hawking-Unruh radiation. The questions of evolution toward equilibrium, stability, and invariance of thermal radiation under such conditions are of great interest. Our analysis presents novel aspects associated with photon-photon scattering in a photon gas in the framework of quantum kinetic theory. Within the context of the Euler-Heisenberg theory, we show that a homogeneous, isotropic photon gas with arbitrary spectral distribution function evolves toward an equilibrium state with a Bose-Einstein distribution. The transient evolution toward equilibrium of a gas of photons undergoing photon-photon scattering is studied in detail via the Boltzmann transport equation.

  11. Metallic photonic crystals for thermophotovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Timothy A.

    can be measured. It is found that by concentrating the thermal emission in a narrow band at the photovoltaic cell bandgap energy, the photonic crystal radiator can produce approximate 80% of the electrical power density that is possible with the blackbody while increasing the efficiency of the energy conversion by a significant amount. Photonic crystal manufacture is studied with the fabrication of a six layer copper woodpile structure. The fabrication proceeds with a layer by layer technique utilizing 8" silicon wafer substrates. Back end of the line integrated circuit manufacturing techniques are used to fabricate this interconnected multilayer structure. The completed wafers show good uniformity die to die and within a single die, demonstrating the feasibility of large scale production of woodpile photonic crystal structures. Structural and optical characterization of the fabricated woodpile are presented. The final section of this work deals with materials considerations for short wavelength high temperature photonic crystal emitters. In the mid infrared and microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum, all metals effectively behave as ideal conductors. However at shorter wavelengths, material absorption increases and has a significant effect on the optical properties of a woodpile photonic crystal designed for operation at these wavelengths. Tungsten was explored for woodpile photonic crystal thermal emitters due to its high melting point, however the optical properties are not well suited to devices with emission peaks below ˜2 mum. Iridium is an alternate high temperature material with more ideal optical behavior in the 1--2 mum range than tungsten. It is found that by coating tungsten woodpile structures with a thin layer of iridium using atomic layer deposition, the photonic band edge can be moved below 1 mum, which was not possible in tungsten simply by scaling the feature sizes to smaller values.

  12. Frequency-multiplexed bias and readout of a 16-pixel superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerner, S.; Kuzmin, A.; Wuensch, S.; Charaev, I.; Boes, F.; Zwick, T.; Siegel, M.

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate a 16-pixel array of microwave-current driven superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with an integrated and scalable frequency-division multiplexing architecture, which reduces the required number of bias and readout lines to a single microwave feed line. The electrical behavior of the photon-sensitive nanowires, embedded in a resonant circuit, as well as the optical performance and timing jitter of the single detectors is discussed. Besides the single pixel measurements, we also demonstrate the operation of a 16-pixel array with a temporal, spatial, and photon-number resolution.

  13. MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave-accelerated chemical syntheses in various solvents as well as under solvent-free conditions have witnessed an explosive growth. The technique has found widespread application predominantly exploiting the inexpensive unmodified household microwave (MW) ovens although th...

  14. Refinement of microwave vegetation indices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous investigations have established the basis for a new type of vegetation index based on passive microwave satellite observations. These microwave vegetation indices (MVIs) have been qualitatively evaluated by examining global spatial and seasonal temporal features. Limited quantitative studie...

  15. MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave-accelerated chemical syntheses in various solvents as well as under solvent-free conditions have witnessed an explosive growth. The technique has found widespread application predominantly exploiting the inexpensive unmodified household microwave (MW) ovens although th...

  16. Photoreactivity of condensed species on Titan's aerosols analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Benjamin; Gudipati, Murthy; Carrasco, Nathalie

    2016-10-01

    Titan's aerosols formation is initiated in the upper atmospheric layers at about 1000 km by the dissociation and the ionization of N2 and CH4 by the VUV solar photons [1]. Then, they aggregate and sediment to the surface. The temperatures of the stratosphere and the troposphere [3] (measured by the HASI instrument onboard the Huygens probe [2]) allow the condensation of many volatile organics on the solid aerosols, forming organic ice coating on the aerosol polymers. We will present an experimental study simulating this process and discuss the photoreactivity of condensed species on Titan's aerosols analogues in the atmosphere and on the surface. We demonstrated experimentally that the organic aerosols, which cover the Titan's surface, drive the photoreactivity of condensed species such as acetylene when they are irradiated with long wavelength photons (λ > 300 nm). This result highlights that Titan's surface remains active despite the absorption of the most energetic photons by the atmosphere.AcknowledgmentsThis work is supported by NASA Solar System Workings grant " Photochemistry in Titan's Lower Atmosphere". The research work has been carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NC acknowledges the European Research Council for their financial support (ERC Starting Grant PRIMCHEM, grant agreement n°636829).References[1] Waite, J. H., et al., The process of Tholin formation in Titan's upper atmosphere, (2007), Science 316, 870-875.[2] Fulchignoni, M., et al., In situ measurements of the physical characteristics of Titan's environment, (2005), Nature 438, 785-791[3] Lavvas, P., et al., Condensation in Titan's atmosphere at the Huygens landing site, (2011), Icarus 215, 732-750.

  17. Disinfection of Wastewater by Microwaves.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    temperature of the cells before treatment with microwaves nor the temperature of the diluent buffer showed any effect on the rate and extent of...suspension on the sur- vival of E. coli B cells subjected to microwave treatment. 11 2. Effect of the temperature of diluent upon the survival of microwave...the surface of the material to be heated by conduction, convection, and/or radiation. While microwave energy is recognized to have bactericidal ability

  18. Microwave Ablation of Hepatic Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Lubner, Meghan G.; Brace, Christopher L.; Ziemlewicz, Tim J.; Hinshaw, J. Louis; Lee, Fred T.

    2013-01-01

    Microwave ablation is an extremely promising heat-based thermal ablation modality that has particular applicability in treating hepatic malignancies. Microwaves can generate very high temperatures in very short time periods, potentially leading to improved treatment efficiency and larger ablation zones. As the available technology continues to improve, microwave ablation is emerging as a valuable alternative to radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of hepatic malignancies. This article reviews the current state of microwave ablation including technical and clinical considerations. PMID:24436518

  19. Uniform batch processing using microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Jackson, Henry W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A microwave oven and microwave heating method generates microwaves within a cavity in a predetermined mode such that there is a known region of uniform microwave field. Samples placed in the region will then be heated in a relatively identical manner. Where perturbations induced by the samples are significant, samples are arranged in a symmetrical distribution so that the cumulative perturbation at each sample location is the same.

  20. Analogue gravity models from conformal rescaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossenfelder, Sabine; Zingg, Tobias

    2017-08-01

    Analogue gravity is based on a mathematical identity between quantum field theory in curved space-time and the propagation of perturbations in certain condensed matter systems. But not every curved space-time can be simulated in such a way. For analogue gravity to work, one needs not only a condensed matter system that generates the desired metric tensor, but this system then also has to obey its own equations of motion. However, the relation to the metric tensor usually overdetermines the equations of the underlying condensed matter system, such that they in general cannot be fulfilled. In this case the desired metric does not have an analogue. Here, we show that the class of metrics that have an analogue is larger than previously thought. The reason is that the analogue metric is only defined up to a choice of parametrization of the perturbation in the underlying condensed matter system. In this way, the class of analogue gravity models can be vastly expanded.