Science.gov

Sample records for analogues augmented nerve-mediated

  1. Natriferic and hydrosmotic effects of neurohypophysial peptides and their analogues in augmenting fluid uptake by Bufo melanostictus

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Annie B.

    1968-01-01

    1. The effect of intramuscular injection of 8-arginine vasotocin, 8-arginine vasopressin, 8-lysine vasopressin, oxytocin, 8-ornithine oxytocin and 8-ornithine vasopressin on fluid uptake across the skin was studied in the live toad, Bufo melanostictus, bathed either in distilled water or in NaCl solution (0·1 g/100 ml.). 2. When the bathing solution was distilled water, 8-arginine vasotocin was the most potent, 0·14 nmole/kg augmenting the rate of fluid uptake by 50%. Compared with it the others had relative potencies of: 8-arginine vasopressin 0·8, 8-lysine vasopressin 0·8 × 10-3, oxytocin 0·8 × 10-3, 8-ornithine oxytocin 0·8 × 10-2, 8-ornithine vasopressin < 1·4 × 10-4. 3. When the bathing solution contained 0·1% NaCl, 8-arginine vasotocin was again the most potent, 0·06 nmole/kg augmenting the rate of fluid uptake by 50%. Compared with it the others had relative potencies of: 8-arginine vasopressin 0·3, 8-lysine vasopressin 0·3 × 10-3, oxytocin 0·3 × 10-2, 8-ornithine oxytocin 0·8 × 10-2, 8-ornithine vasopressin < 0·6 × 10-4. 4. Dose—response curves for each peptide showed that in the case of 8-arginine vasopressin, 8-lysine vasopressin and 8-ornithine vasopressin the augmentation of rate of fluid uptake did not differ in the absence or in the presence of NaCl in the bathing solution; whereas in the case of 8-arginine vasotocin, oxytocin, and 8-ornithine oxytocin the augmentation was greater in the presence of sodium chloride. 5. Support has been found for the postulate of a binary action of some neurohypophysial peptides on amphibian skin, arginine in position 8 being correlated with hydrosmotic effect, and isoleucine in position 3 with natriferic effect. PMID:5675041

  2. Repeated allergen exposure enhances excitatory nonadrenergic noncholinergic nerve-mediated bronchoconstriction in sensitized guinea-pigs.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, N; Ichinose, M; Igarashi, A; Miura, M; Yamauchi, H; Sasaki, Y; Ishikawa, J; Tomaki, M; Shirato, K

    1996-07-01

    The effect of repeated allergen inhalation challenge on the airway excitatory nonadrenergic noncholinergic (e-NANC) nerve-mediated bronchoconstrictor response was studied in ovalbumin (OA) sensitized guinea-pigs. Three weeks after sensitization, OA inhalation, 0.03% for 3 min (challenged group), or saline inhalation (control group) was repeated every day for 4 weeks. The e-NANC nerve function was examined in vitro by means of isometric tension measurement of main bronchi. After pretreatment with atropine (10(-6) M) and propranolol (10(-6) M), we performed electrical field stimulation (EFS) or exogenous neurokinin A (NKA) administration. In the challenged group, EFS-induced main bronchial contraction was significantly greater than that of the control group (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01), but exogenous NKA-mediated responses were almost the same in both groups. The e-NANC-induced main bronchial contractions after EFS were enhanced by pretreatment with the neutral endopeptidase inhibitor, phosphoramidon, to the same degree in the control and challenged groups, indicating that the peptide degradation mechanisms were not impaired even in the challenged group. Substance P immunoreactivities in the lung of the challenged group were significantly higher than those of the control group. These results suggest that chronic airway inflammation after repeated allergen challenge increases excitatory nonadrenergic noncholinergic nerve function, possibly by enhancing sensory neuropeptide production and/or release. PMID:8836656

  3. Anandamide induces endothelium-dependent vasoconstriction and CGRPergic nerve-mediated vasodilatation in the rat mesenteric vascular bed.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Chihiro; Nawa, Hideki; Takatori, Shingo; Oda, Sakiko; Sendo, Toshiaki; Zamami, Yoshito; Kawasaki, Hiromu

    2012-01-01

    An endogenous cannabinoid anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamide) has been shown to cause vasodilatation in vitro and a brief vasoconstriction followed by prolonged depressor response in vivo. This study investigated the vascular effects of anandamide and underlying mechanisms in rat mesenteric vascular beds. In preparations with an intact endothelium and active tone, anandamide at low concentrations (0.1 - 1 nM) caused a concentration-dependent decrease in perfusion pressure due to vasodilatation, but at high concentrations (10 nM - 1 µM) elicited an initial and sharp increase in perfusion pressure due to vasoconstriction followed by long-lasting vasodilatation in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment with SR141716A [cannabinoid-1 (CB(1))-receptor antagonist] blunted both the vasoconstrictor and vasodilator responses. Also, removal of the endothelium and indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor), but not adrenergic denervation with 6-hydoxydopamine (adrenergic neurotoxin), markedly inhibited the vasoconstrictor response to anandamide, while these treatments did not affect vasodilatation. The vasodilatation, but not vasoconstriction, in response to anandamide was markedly attenuated by capsazepine [selective antagonist for transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1)], pretreatment with capsaicin [calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)ergic-nerve depletor], or cold-storage denervation. These results suggest that in rat mesenteric vascular beds, anandamide causes CB(1)-receptor- and prostanoid-mediated endothelium-dependent vasoconstriction and perivascular capsaicin-sensitive CGRPergic nerve-mediated vasodilatation.

  4. Differential sensitivity of myosin-heavy-chain-typed fibers to distinct aggregates of nerve-mediated activation.

    PubMed

    Dunn, S E; Michel, R N

    1999-02-01

    We studied the regulatory effects of nerve-mediated activity on the early expression of embryonic and adult myosin heavy chains (MHC) within inactive though still innervated rat plantaris and soleus muscle fibers. To this end, we stimulated motor nerves that were quiescent following treatment with tetrodotoxin (TTX) with paradigms designed to partition the influence of neural activation frequency and assessed the selective expression and accumulation of MHCs within muscle fibers using an array of specific antibodies. We show rapid de novo expression of IIx MHC within select soleus fibers in response to high-frequency activation for more than 0.01% of daily time. High-frequency aggregates were also the most effective in preventing the TTX-induced reexpression of embryonic MHCs within specific fibers. Only configurations that included high-frequency trains for more than 0.01% of daily time or combined with 10 Hz stimulation preserved the size of select fibers, used as a measure of the net cellular content of MHC. The effectiveness of this preservation varied according to the muscle type and MHC expressed, and, in a subset of fibers, was influenced by contractile loading status. Our results demonstrate that distinct subsets of MHC-typed fibers are differentially sensitive to the neural activation cues mediating the cellular expression of these proteins.

  5. Lip augmentation.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Patrick J; Hilger, Peter A

    2004-02-01

    Lip augmentation has become increasingly popular in recent years as a reflection of cultural trends emphasizing youth and beauty. Techniques to enhance the appearance of the lips have evolved with advances in biotechnology. An understanding of lip anatomy and aesthetics forms the basis for successful results. We outline the pertinent anatomy and aesthetics of the preoperative evaluation. A summary of various filler materials available is provided. Augmentation options include both injectable and open surgical techniques. The procedures and materials currently favored by the authors are described in greater detail.

  6. Augmentation cheiloplasty.

    PubMed

    Ho, L C

    1994-06-01

    A technique of augmentation cheiloplasty with prior correction of a thin vermillion is described. Preserving and accentuating the natural contours of the lips is emphasised in vermillion correction and volume expansion with fat cell grafts. Thin vermillion correction, lip volume expansion and the state of fat cell grafts are reviewed.

  7. Chin augmentation.

    PubMed

    Choe, K S; Stucki-McCormick, S U

    2000-01-01

    The primary goal of facial aesthetic surgery is to restore, enhance, and rejuvenate the aging face to a more youthful appearance, achieving balance and harmony. The mental area must be addressed in order to have a complete synthesis of the face. The concept of augmenting the mental area with implants has evolved so significantly that it now stands by itself as an important procedure. Various autogenous implants for chin augmentation have been in use for over 100 years but have complications. The advent of synthetic materials has given rise to various types of alloplastic implants: Gore-Tex, Medpor, Supramid, Silastic, and Mersilene. No one implant is perfect for every face. This article overviews several alloplastic implants--their advantages, disadvantages, and complications, in addition to the different techniques of preparing and delivering the implants.

  8. On the Development of the Augmentation Principle: A Perceptual Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassin, Saul M.; Lowe, Charles A.

    1979-01-01

    A perceptual analogue of Kelley's augmentation principle was created in animated films depicting the movements of two objects toward a goal. Experiment 1 examined children's causal attributions in the presence and absence of inhibitory causes. Experiment 2 investigated children's causal attributions in the presence of inhibitory causes of…

  9. Survey of Analogue Spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Matt

    Analogue spacetimes (and more boldly, analogue models both of and for gravity), have attracted significant and increasing attention over the last decade and a half. Perhaps the most straightforward physical example, which serves as a template for most of the others, is Bill Unruh's model for a dumb hole,(mute black hole, acoustic black hole), wherein sound is dragged along by a moving fluid—and can even be trapped behind an acoustic horizon. This and related analogue models for curved spacetimes are useful in many ways: analogue spacetimes provide general relativists with extremely concrete physical models to help focus their thinking, and conversely the techniques of curved spacetime can sometimes help improve our understanding of condensed matter and/or optical systems by providing an unexpected and countervailing viewpoint. In this chapter, I shall provide a few simple examples of analogue spacetimes as general background for the rest of the contributions.

  10. Nonstationary analogue black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskin, Gregory

    2014-12-01

    We study the existence of analogue nonstationary spherically symmetric black holes. The prime example is the acoustic model see Unruh (1981 Phys. Rev. Lett. 46 1351). We consider also a more general class of metrics that could be useful in other physical models of analogue black and white holes. We give examples of the appearance of black holes and of disappearance of white holes. We also discuss the relation between the apparent and the event horizons for the case of analogue black holes. In the end we study the inverse problem of determination of black or white holes by boundary measurements for the spherically symmetric nonstationary metrics.

  11. Equating of Augmented Subscores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip; Haberman, Shelby J.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing level of interest in subscores for their potential diagnostic value. Haberman (2008b) suggested reporting an augmented subscore that is a linear combination of a subscore and the total score. Sinharay and Haberman (2008) and Sinharay (2010) showed that augmented subscores often lead to more accurate…

  12. Confronting an Augmented Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munnerley, Danny; Bacon, Matt; Wilson, Anna; Steele, James; Hedberg, John; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2012-01-01

    How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself ? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and…

  13. Malar and submalar augmentation.

    PubMed

    Binder, William J; Azizzadeh, Babak

    2008-02-01

    Over the past four decades, revolutionary improvements in the design and manufacture of facial implants have broadened the application of midface augmentation. The contemporary practice of facial rejuvenation reflects a 20-year culmination of rapid advances made in the understanding and treatment of midface aging. This article highlights the practice of malar and submalar augmentation: when and how it should be used.

  14. Augmented reality: a review.

    PubMed

    Berryman, Donna R

    2012-01-01

    Augmented reality is a technology that overlays digital information on objects or places in the real world for the purpose of enhancing the user experience. It is not virtual reality, that is, the technology that creates a totally digital or computer created environment. Augmented reality, with its ability to combine reality and digital information, is being studied and implemented in medicine, marketing, museums, fashion, and numerous other areas. This article presents an overview of augmented reality, discussing what it is, how it works, its current implementations, and its potential impact on libraries.

  15. Augmented reality: a review.

    PubMed

    Berryman, Donna R

    2012-01-01

    Augmented reality is a technology that overlays digital information on objects or places in the real world for the purpose of enhancing the user experience. It is not virtual reality, that is, the technology that creates a totally digital or computer created environment. Augmented reality, with its ability to combine reality and digital information, is being studied and implemented in medicine, marketing, museums, fashion, and numerous other areas. This article presents an overview of augmented reality, discussing what it is, how it works, its current implementations, and its potential impact on libraries. PMID:22559183

  16. RMS active damping augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Michael G.; Scott, Michael A.; Demeo, Martha E.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: RMS active damping augmentation; potential space station assembly benefits to CSI; LaRC/JSC bridge program; control law design process; draper RMS simulator; MIMO acceleration control laws improve damping; potential load reduction benefit; DRS modified to model distributed accelerations; accelerometer location; Space Shuttle aft cockpit simulator; simulated shuttle video displays; SES test goals and objectives; and SES modifications to support RMS active damping augmentation.

  17. Biodegradable analogues of DDT*

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Robert L.; Kapoor, Inder P.; Hirwe, Asha S.

    1971-01-01

    Despite the immense utility of DDT for vector control its usefulness is prejudiced by its stability in the environment and by the low rate at which it can be degraded biologically. Metabolic studies in insects, in mice, and in a model ecosystem with several food chains have shown that DDT analogues with substituent groups readily attacked by multifunction oxidases undergo a substantial degree of biological degradation and do not appear to be stored readily in animal tissues or concentrated in food chains. Detailed metabolic pathways have been worked out and it is clear that comparative biochemistry can be used to develop DDT analogues that are adequately persistent yet biodegradable. A number of new DDT analogues have been evaluated for insecticidal activity against flies and mosquitos and for their potential usefulness as safe, persistent, and biodegradable insecticides. PMID:5315354

  18. Natural Analogue Synthesis Report

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. Simmons

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to present analogue studies and literature reviews designed to provide qualitative and quantitative information to test and provide added confidence in process models abstracted for performance assessment (PA) and model predictions pertinent to PA. This report provides updates to studies presented in the ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' (CRWMS M and O 2000 [151945], Section 13) and new examples gleaned from the literature, along with results of quantitative studies conducted specifically for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The intent of the natural analogue studies was to collect corroborative evidence from analogues to demonstrate additional understanding of processes expected to occur during postclosure at a potential Yucca Mountain repository. The report focuses on key processes by providing observations and analyses of natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) systems to improve understanding and confidence in the operation of these processes under conditions similar to those that could occur in a nuclear waste repository. The process models include those that represent both engineered and natural barrier processes. A second purpose of this report is to document the various applications of natural analogues to geologic repository programs, focusing primarily on the way analogues have been used by the YMP. This report is limited to providing support for PA in a confirmatory manner and to providing corroborative inputs for process modeling activities. Section 1.7 discusses additional limitations of this report. Key topics for this report are analogues to emplacement drift degradation, waste form degradation, waste package degradation, degradation of other materials proposed for the engineered barrier, seepage into drifts, radionuclide flow and transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ), analogues to coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes, saturated zone (SZ) transport, impact of radionuclide

  19. Augmenting computer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, S. H.; Raza, A. D.

    1984-01-01

    Three methods of augmenting computer networks by adding at most one link per processor are discussed: (1) A tree of N nodes may be augmented such that the resulting graph has diameter no greater than 4log sub 2((N+2)/3)-2. Thi O(N(3)) algorithm can be applied to any spanning tree of a connected graph to reduce the diameter of that graph to O(log N); (2) Given a binary tree T and a chain C of N nodes each, C may be augmented to produce C so that T is a subgraph of C. This algorithm is O(N) and may be used to produce augmented chains or rings that have diameter no greater than 2log sub 2((N+2)/3) and are planar; (3) Any rectangular two-dimensional 4 (8) nearest neighbor array of size N = 2(k) may be augmented so that it can emulate a single step shuffle-exchange network of size N/2 in 3(t) time steps.

  20. Soft tissue augmentation.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Ranella J; Cohen, Joel L

    2006-09-01

    Recent additions to the soft tissue augmentation armamentarium have greatly increased the dermatologic surgeon's choices in optimizing facial contouring and the treatment of acne scars. In this article, we review the science of fillers and look at the future of dermal fillers.

  1. Augmented Reality Binoculars.

    PubMed

    Oskiper, Taragay; Sizintsev, Mikhail; Branzoi, Vlad; Samarasekera, Supun; Kumar, Rakesh

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we present an augmented reality binocular system to allow long range high precision augmentation of live telescopic imagery with aerial and terrain based synthetic objects, vehicles, people and effects. The inserted objects must appear stable in the display and must not jitter and drift as the user pans around and examines the scene with the binoculars. The design of the system is based on using two different cameras with wide field of view and narrow field of view lenses enclosed in a binocular shaped shell. Using the wide field of view gives us context and enables us to recover the 3D location and orientation of the binoculars much more robustly, whereas the narrow field of view is used for the actual augmentation as well as to increase precision in tracking. We present our navigation algorithm that uses the two cameras in combination with an inertial measurement unit and global positioning system in an extended Kalman filter and provides jitter free, robust and real-time pose estimation for precise augmentation. We have demonstrated successful use of our system as part of information sharing example as well as a live simulated training system for observer training, in which fixed and rotary wing aircrafts, ground vehicles, and weapon effects are combined with real world scenes. PMID:26357208

  2. Augmentative & Alternative Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patti

    2007-01-01

    There is no definitive recipe for augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) success, but its universal ingredients can be found at home. The main ones are: (1) Understanding that all children need to express themselves, however outgoing or shy they may be; (2) Willingness to embrace the technology that may help your child regardless of your…

  3. Augmented thermal bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurity of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pump to maintain isothermality in the source.

  4. Augmented Thermal Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurality of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pumps to maintain isothermality in the source.

  5. Aspartame and Its Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlova, L. A.; Komarova, T. V.; Davidovich, Yurii A.; Rogozhin, S. V.

    1981-04-01

    The results of studies on the biochemistry of the sweet taste are briefly reviewed. The methods of synthesis of "aspartame" — a sweet dipeptide — are considered, its structural analogues are described, and quantitative estimates are made of the degree of sweetness relative to sucrose. Attention is concentrated mainly on problems of the relation between the structure of the substance and its taste in the series of aspartyl derivatives. The bibliography includes 118 references.

  6. Quantum analogue computing.

    PubMed

    Kendon, Vivien M; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J

    2010-08-13

    We briefly review what a quantum computer is, what it promises to do for us and why it is so hard to build one. Among the first applications anticipated to bear fruit is the quantum simulation of quantum systems. While most quantum computation is an extension of classical digital computation, quantum simulation differs fundamentally in how the data are encoded in the quantum computer. To perform a quantum simulation, the Hilbert space of the system to be simulated is mapped directly onto the Hilbert space of the (logical) qubits in the quantum computer. This type of direct correspondence is how data are encoded in a classical analogue computer. There is no binary encoding, and increasing precision becomes exponentially costly: an extra bit of precision doubles the size of the computer. This has important consequences for both the precision and error-correction requirements of quantum simulation, and significant open questions remain about its practicality. It also means that the quantum version of analogue computers, continuous-variable quantum computers, becomes an equally efficient architecture for quantum simulation. Lessons from past use of classical analogue computers can help us to build better quantum simulators in future.

  7. Using and interpreting analogue designs.

    PubMed

    Cook, Bryan G; Rumrill, Phillip D

    2005-01-01

    Researchers in rehabilitation counseling and disability studies sometimes use analogue research, which involves materials that approximate or describe reality (e.g., written vignettes, videotaped exemplars) rather than investigating phenomena in real-world settings. Analogue research often utilizes experimental designs, and it thereby frequently possesses a high degree of internal validity. Analogue research allows investigators to exercise tight control over the implementation of the independent or treatment variable and over potentially confounding variables, which enables them to isolate the effects of those treatment variables on selected outcome measures. However, the simulated nature of analogue research presents an important threat to external validity. As such, the generalizability of analogue research to real-life settings and situations may be problematic. These and other issues germane to analogue research in vocational rehabilitation are discussed in this article, illustrated with examples from the contemporary literature.

  8. Simple Implant Augmentation Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anh H; Bartlett, Erica L; Kania, Katarzyna; Bae, Sang Mo

    2015-11-01

    Augmentation rhinoplasty among Asian patients is often performed to improve the height of the nasal dorsum. As the use of autogenous tissues poses certain limitations, alloplastic materials are a viable alternative with a long history of use in Asia. The superiority of one implant prosthesis over another for augmentation rhinoplasty is a matter of debate, with each material representing varying strengths and weaknesses, indications for use, and precautions to consider in nasal implant placement. An implant prosthesis should be used on a case-by-case basis. Augmentation rhinoplasty requires the consideration of specific anatomical preoperative factors, including the external nose, nasal length, nasofrontal angle, humps, and facial proportions. It is equally important to consider several operative guidelines to appropriately shape implants to minimize the occurrence of adverse effects and postoperative complications. The most common postoperative complications include infection, nasal height change, movement of implant prosthesis, and silicone implant protrusion. In addition, the surgeon should consider the current standards of Asian beauty aesthetics to better understand the patient's desired outcome. PMID:26648804

  9. Analogue-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analogue Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Martin

    1997-01-01

    Discusses circuits for three-bit and four-bit analogue digital converters and digital analogue converters. These circuits feature slow operating speeds that enable the circuitry to be used to demonstrate the mode of operation using oscilloscopes and signal generators. (DDR)

  10. Mutually Augmented Cognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesdorf, Florian; Pangercic, Dejan; Bubb, Heiner; Beetz, Michael

    In mac, an ergonomic dialog-system and algorithms will be developed that enable human experts and companions to be integrated into knowledge gathering and decision making processes of highly complex cognitive systems (e.g. Assistive Household as manifested further in the paper). In this event we propose to join algorithms and methodologies coming from Ergonomics and Artificial Intelligence that: a) make cognitive systems more congenial for non-expert humans, b) facilitate their comprehension by utilizing a high-level expandable control code for human experts and c) augment representation of such cognitive system into “deep representation” obtained through an interaction with human companions.

  11. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Todd M; Parekh, Vishwas

    2016-09-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor that shares the same histologic appearance and ETV6 gene (12p13) rearrangement as secretory carcinoma of the breast. Prior to its recognition, MASC cases were commonly labeled acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. Despite distinctive histologic features, MASC may be difficult to distinguish from other salivary gland tumors, in particular zymogen-poor acinic cell carcinoma and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. Although characteristic morphologic and immunohistochemical features form the basis of a diagnosis of MASC, the presence of an ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion is confirmatory. Given its recent recognition the true prognostic import of MASC is not yet clearly defined. PMID:27575269

  12. NASA/ESMD Analogue Mission Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation exploring Earth and its analogues is shown. The topics include: 1) ESMD Goals for the Use of Earth Analogues; 2) Stakeholders Summary; 3) Issues with Current Analogue Situation; 4) Current state of Analogues; 5) External Implementation Plan (Second Step); 6) Recent Progress in Utilizing Analogues; 7) Website Layout Example-Home Page; 8) Website Layout Example-Analogue Site; 9) Website Layout Example-Analogue Mission; 10) Objectives of ARDIG Analog Initiatives; 11) Future Plans; 12) Example: Cold-Trap Sample Return; 13) Example: Site Characterization Matrix; 14) Integrated Analogue Studies-Prerequisites for Human Exploration; and 15) Rating Scale Definitions.

  13. Pilot-optimal augmentation synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, D. K.

    1978-01-01

    An augmentation synthesis method usable in the absence of quantitative handling qualities specifications, and yet explicitly including design objectives based on pilot-rating concepts, is presented. The algorithm involves the unique approach of simultaneously solving for the stability augmentation system (SAS) gains, pilot equalization and pilot rating prediction via optimal control techniques. Simultaneous solution is required in this case since the pilot model (gains, etc.) depends upon the augmented plant dynamics, and the augmentation is obviously not a priori known. Another special feature is the use of the pilot's objective function (from which the pilot model evolves) to design the SAS.

  14. Augmented reality system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chien-Liang; Su, Yu-Zheng; Hung, Min-Wei; Huang, Kuo-Cheng

    2010-08-01

    In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR)[1][2][3] is very popular in universities and research organizations. The AR technology has been widely used in Virtual Reality (VR) fields, such as sophisticated weapons, flight vehicle development, data model visualization, virtual training, entertainment and arts. AR has characteristics to enhance the display output as a real environment with specific user interactive functions or specific object recognitions. It can be use in medical treatment, anatomy training, precision instrument casting, warplane guidance, engineering and distance robot control. AR has a lot of vantages than VR. This system developed combines sensors, software and imaging algorithms to make users feel real, actual and existing. Imaging algorithms include gray level method, image binarization method, and white balance method in order to make accurate image recognition and overcome the effects of light.

  15. NASA Communications Augmentation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omidyar, Guy C.; Butler, Thomas E.; Laios, Straton C.

    1990-09-01

    The NASA Communications (Nascom) Division of the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD) is to undertake a major initiative to develop the Nascom Augmentation (NAUG) network to achieve its long-range service objectives for operational data transport to support the Space Station Freedom Program, the Earth Observing System (EOS), and other projects. The NAUG is the Nascom ground communications network being developed to accommodate the operational traffic of the mid-1990s and beyond. The NAUG network development will be based on the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model (OSI-RM). This paper describes the NAUG network architecture, subsystems, topology, and services; addresses issues of internetworking the Nascom network with other elements of the Space Station Information System (SSIS); discusses the operations environment. This paper also notes the areas of related research and presents the current conception of how the network will provide broadband services in 1998.

  16. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past several years, efforts have been under way to design and develop an operationally flexible research facility for investigating the use of cross-field MHD accelerators as a potential thrust augmentation device for thermal propulsion systems. The baseline configuration for this high-power experimental facility utilizes a 1.5-MWe multi-gas arc-heater as a thermal driver for a 2-MWe MHD accelerator, which resides in a large-bore 2-tesla electromagnet. A preliminary design study using NaK seeded nitrogen as the working fluid led to an externally diagonalized segmented MHD channel configuration based on an expendable heat-sink design concept. The current status report includes a review of engineering/design work and performance optimization analyses and summarizes component hardware fabrication and development efforts, preliminary testing results, and recent progress toward full-up assembly and testing

  17. NAESA Augmentation Pilot Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, John J.

    1998-01-01

    This project was one project within the Native American Earth and Space Academy (NAESA). NAESA is a national initiative comprised of several organizations that support programs which focus on 1) enhancing the technological, scientific and pedagogical skills of K-14 teachers who instruct Native Americans, 2) enhancing the understanding and applications of science, technology, and engineering of college-bound Native Americans and teaching them general college "survival skills" (e.g., test taking, time management, study habits), 3) enhancing the scientific and pedagogical skills of the faculty of tribally-controllcd colleges and community colleges with large Native American enrollments, and 4) strengthening the critical relationships between students, their parents, tribal elders, and their communities. This Augmentation Pilot Project focused on the areas of community-school alliances and intemet technology use in teaching and learning and daily living addressing five major objectives.

  18. Augmented kinematic feedback system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andert, Ed P., Jr.; Archipley-Smith, Donna K.

    1994-07-01

    This paper discusses a real-time augmented kinematic feedback system which can be used as a diagnosis tool for individuals with motor disabilities. The system captures and analyzes movement via color targets attached to an individual and then feeds back information about movement kinematics. This target tracking approach has a high potential for achieving a real- time kinematic assessment capability. The approach recognizes distinct moving colored targets using video data. Multiple colored targets are attached to an individual at strategic locations and then target movement is tracked using a video data acquisition system. The ability to track and assess movement in real-time allows researchers and practitioners to better study and potentially treat various motor disabilities. Recent research has suggested that kinematic feedback can enhance motor recovery of disabled individuals. This approach addresses the need for a real-time measure of human movement and discusses using kinematic feedback to enhance disability recovery.

  19. Augmented Virtual Reality Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tully-Hanson, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Real time motion tracking hardware has for the most part been cost prohibitive for research to regularly take place until recently. With the release of the Microsoft Kinect in November 2010, researchers now have access to a device that for a few hundred dollars is capable of providing redgreenblue (RGB), depth, and skeleton data. It is also capable of tracking multiple people in real time. For its original intended purposes, i.e. gaming, being used with the Xbox 360 and eventually Xbox One, it performs quite well. However, researchers soon found that although the sensor is versatile, it has limitations in real world applications. I was brought aboard this summer by William Little in the Augmented Virtual Reality (AVR) Lab at Kennedy Space Center to find solutions to these limitations.

  20. Augmented Reality Comes to Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buesing, Mark; Cook, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology used on computing devices where processor-generated graphics are rendered over real objects to enhance the sensory experience in real time. In other words, what you are really seeing is augmented by the computer. Many AR games already exist for systems such as Kinect and Nintendo 3DS and mobile apps, such as…

  1. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Cole, John; Lineberry, John; Chapman, Jim; Schmidt, Harold; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A fundamental obstacle to routine space access is the specific energy limitations associated with chemical fuels. In the case of vertical take-off, the high thrust needed for vertical liftoff and acceleration to orbit translates into power levels in the 10 GW range. Furthermore, useful payload mass fractions are possible only if the exhaust particle energy (i.e., exhaust velocity) is much greater than that available with traditional chemical propulsion. The electronic binding energy released by the best chemical reactions (e.g., LOX/LH2 for example, is less than 2 eV per product molecule (approx. 1.8 eV per H2O molecule), which translates into particle velocities less than 5 km/s. Useful payload fractions, however, will require exhaust velocities exceeding 15 km/s (i.e., particle energies greater than 20 eV). As an added challenge, the envisioned hypothetical RLV (reusable launch vehicle) should accomplish these amazing performance feats while providing relatively low acceleration levels to orbit (2-3g maximum). From such fundamental considerations, it is painfully obvious that planned and current RLV solutions based on chemical fuels alone represent only a temporary solution and can only result in minor gains, at best. What is truly needed is a revolutionary approach that will dramatically reduce the amount of fuel and size of the launch vehicle. This implies the need for new compact high-power energy sources as well as advanced accelerator technologies for increasing engine exhaust velocity. Electromagnetic acceleration techniques are of immense interest since they can be used to circumvent the thermal limits associated with conventional propulsion systems. This paper describes the Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment (MAPX) being undertaken at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this experiment, a 1-MW arc heater is being used as a feeder for a 1-MW magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerator. The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate

  2. Augmented Likelihood Image Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Stille, Maik; Kleine, Matthias; Hägele, Julian; Barkhausen, Jörg; Buzug, Thorsten M

    2016-01-01

    The presence of high-density objects remains an open problem in medical CT imaging. Data of projections passing through objects of high density, such as metal implants, are dominated by noise and are highly affected by beam hardening and scatter. Reconstructed images become less diagnostically conclusive because of pronounced artifacts that manifest as dark and bright streaks. A new reconstruction algorithm is proposed with the aim to reduce these artifacts by incorporating information about shape and known attenuation coefficients of a metal implant. Image reconstruction is considered as a variational optimization problem. The afore-mentioned prior knowledge is introduced in terms of equality constraints. An augmented Lagrangian approach is adapted in order to minimize the associated log-likelihood function for transmission CT. During iterations, temporally appearing artifacts are reduced with a bilateral filter and new projection values are calculated, which are used later on for the reconstruction. A detailed evaluation in cooperation with radiologists is performed on software and hardware phantoms, as well as on clinically relevant patient data of subjects with various metal implants. Results show that the proposed reconstruction algorithm is able to outperform contemporary metal artifact reduction methods such as normalized metal artifact reduction.

  3. Control Augmented Structural Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lust, Robert V.; Schmit, Lucien A.

    1988-01-01

    A methodology for control augmented structural synthesis is proposed for a class of structures which can be modeled as an assemblage of frame and/or truss elements. It is assumed that both the plant (structure) and the active control system dynamics can be adequately represented with a linear model. The structural sizing variables, active control system feedback gains and nonstructural lumped masses are treated simultaneously as independent design variables. Design constraints are imposed on static and dynamic displacements, static stresses, actuator forces and natural frequencies to ensure acceptable system behavior. Multiple static and dynamic loading conditions are considered. Side constraints imposed on the design variables protect against the generation of unrealizable designs. While the proposed approach is fundamentally more general, here the methodology is developed and demonstrated for the case where: (1) the dynamic loading is harmonic and thus the steady state response is of primary interest; (2) direct output feedback is used for the control system model; and (3) the actuators and sensors are collocated.

  4. Structural consequences of railgun augmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, G.W.; Schuler, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    An augmented railgun can provide the same driving force on a projectile at a lower plasma arc current and thus less potential erosion and barrel damage as an unaugmented railgun. However, there are structural consequences to railgun augmentation which must be overcome before the advantages of lower plasma arc currents can be realized. To investigate these consequences, a bolted V-block supporting structure is considered with two cores; unaugmented (a single pair of conducting rails), and augmented (conducting rails augmented by a second tandem set of conductors). The mechanical load on the cores consist of the static bolt preload, the plasma pressure behind the projectile, and the magnetic pressure induced by currents flowing in the rails or augmenting conductors. Assuming no current diffusion into the conductors, the magnetic pressure distribution on the conductors is determined by solving the two-dimensional magnetostatic field equations using an analogy with heat transfer. These loads are then used in a dynamic finite element structural model. The maximum rail current is found at which the unaugmented railgun can be repetitively fired without detrimental gaps forming at the bore. For the augmented railgun, at the same projectile acceleration, large permanent deformations can occur. Thus successful implementation of rail gun augmentation will require improvement of the supporting structure.

  5. Structural consequences of railgun augmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, G.W.; Schuler, K.W. . Applied Mechanics Div. III)

    1989-01-01

    An augmented railgun can provide the same driving force on a projectile at a lower plasma arc current and thus less potential erosion and barrel damage as an unaugmented railgun. However, there are structural consequences to railgun augmentation which must be overcome before the advantages of lower plasma arc currents can be realized. To investigate these consequences, a bolted V-block supporting structure is considered with two cores; unaugmented (a single pair of conducting rails), and augmented (conducting rails augmented by a second tandem set of conductors). The mechanical load on the cores consist of the static bolt preload, the plasma pressure behind the projectile, and the magnetic pressure induced by currents flowing in the rails or augmenting conductors. Assuming no current diffusion into the conductors, the magnetic pressure distribution on the conductors is determined by solving the two dimensional magnetostatic field equations using an analogy with heat transfer. These loads are then used in a dynamic finite element structural model. The maximum rail current is found at which the unaugmented railgun can be repetitively fired without detrimental gaps forming at the bore. For the augmented railgun, at the same projectile acceleration, large permanent deformations can occur. Thus successful implementation of rail gun augmentation will require improvement of the supporting structure.

  6. Augmentation cystoplasty in neurogenic bladder

    PubMed Central

    Kocjancic, Ervin; Demirdağ, Çetin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to update the indications, contraindications, technique, complications, and the tissue engineering approaches of augmentation cystoplasty (AC) in patients with neurogenic bladder. PubMed/MEDLINE was searched for the keywords "augmentation cystoplasty," "neurogenic bladder," and "bladder augmentation." Additional relevant literature was determined by examining the reference lists of articles identified through the search. The update review of of the indications, contraindications, technique, outcome, complications, and tissue engineering approaches of AC in patients with neurogenic bladder is presented. Although some important progress has been made in tissue engineering AC, conventional AC still has an important role in the surgical treatment of refractory neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction.

  7. Augmented Reality Comes to Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buesing, Mark; Cook, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology used on computing devices where processor-generated graphics are rendered over real objects to enhance the sensory experience in real time. In other words, what you are really seeing is augmented by the computer. Many AR games already exist for systems such as Kinect and Nintendo 3DS and mobile apps, such as Tagwhat and Star Chart (a must for astronomy class). The yellow line marking first downs in a televised football game2 and the enhanced puck that makes televised hockey easier to follow3 both use augmented reality to do the job.

  8. Similarity in drugs: reflections on analogue design.

    PubMed

    Wermuth, Camille G

    2006-04-01

    A survey of novel small-molecule therapeutics reveals that the majority of them result from analogue design and that their market value represents two-thirds of all small-molecule sales. In natural science, the term analogue, derived from the Latin and Greek analogia, has always been used to describe structural and functional similarity. Extended to drugs, this definition implies that the analogue of an existing drug molecule shares structural and pharmacological similarities with the original compound. Formally, this definition allows the establishment of three categories of drug analogues: analogues possessing chemical and pharmacological similarities (direct analogues); analogues possessing structural similarities only (structural analogues); and chemically different compounds displaying similar pharmacological properties (functional analogues). PMID:16580977

  9. Soft tissue augmentation using Restylane.

    PubMed

    Biesman, Brian

    2004-05-01

    Soft tissue augmentation plays an important role in facial rejuvenation. To accomplish this goal, numerous materials have been used. Hyaluronic acids represent the latest family of products to become available in the United States. This article provides an introduction to the proper use of Restylane, the first hyaluronic acid product to be approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for soft tissue augmentation.

  10. Bayesian Alternation during Tactile Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Goeke, Caspar M.; Planera, Serena; Finger, Holger; König, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A large number of studies suggest that the integration of multisensory signals by humans is well-described by Bayesian principles. However, there are very few reports about cue combination between a native and an augmented sense. In particular, we asked the question whether adult participants are able to integrate an augmented sensory cue with existing native sensory information. Hence for the purpose of this study, we build a tactile augmentation device. Consequently, we compared different hypotheses of how untrained adult participants combine information from a native and an augmented sense. In a two-interval forced choice (2 IFC) task, while subjects were blindfolded and seated on a rotating platform, our sensory augmentation device translated information on whole body yaw rotation to tactile stimulation. Three conditions were realized: tactile stimulation only (augmented condition), rotation only (native condition), and both augmented and native information (bimodal condition). Participants had to choose one out of two consecutive rotations with higher angular rotation. For the analysis, we fitted the participants' responses with a probit model and calculated the just notable difference (JND). Then, we compared several models for predicting bimodal from unimodal responses. An objective Bayesian alternation model yielded a better prediction (χred2 = 1.67) than the Bayesian integration model (χred2 = 4.34). Slightly higher accuracy showed a non-Bayesian winner takes all (WTA) model (χred2 = 1.64), which either used only native or only augmented values per subject for prediction. However, the performance of the Bayesian alternation model could be substantially improved (χred2 = 1.09) utilizing subjective weights obtained by a questionnaire. As a result, the subjective Bayesian alternation model predicted bimodal performance most accurately among all tested models. These results suggest that information from augmented and existing sensory modalities in

  11. Augmentation cystoplasty in neurogenic bladder.

    PubMed

    Çetinel, Bülent; Kocjancic, Ervin; Demirdağ, Çetin

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this review is to update the indications, contraindications, technique, complications, and the tissue engineering approaches of augmentation cystoplasty (AC) in patients with neurogenic bladder. PubMed/MEDLINE was searched for the keywords "augmentation cystoplasty," "neurogenic bladder," and "bladder augmentation." Additional relevant literature was determined by examining the reference lists of articles identified through the search. The update review of of the indications, contraindications, technique, outcome, complications, and tissue engineering approaches of AC in patients with neurogenic bladder is presented. Although some important progress has been made in tissue engineering AC, conventional AC still has an important role in the surgical treatment of refractory neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. PMID:27617312

  12. Augmentation cystoplasty in neurogenic bladder

    PubMed Central

    Kocjancic, Ervin; Demirdağ, Çetin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to update the indications, contraindications, technique, complications, and the tissue engineering approaches of augmentation cystoplasty (AC) in patients with neurogenic bladder. PubMed/MEDLINE was searched for the keywords "augmentation cystoplasty," "neurogenic bladder," and "bladder augmentation." Additional relevant literature was determined by examining the reference lists of articles identified through the search. The update review of of the indications, contraindications, technique, outcome, complications, and tissue engineering approaches of AC in patients with neurogenic bladder is presented. Although some important progress has been made in tissue engineering AC, conventional AC still has an important role in the surgical treatment of refractory neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. PMID:27617312

  13. Augmented Reality Tower Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reisman, Ronald J.; Brown, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Augmented Reality technology may help improve Air Traffic Control Tower efficiency and safety during low-visibility conditions. This paper presents the assessments of five off-duty controllers who shadow-controlled' with an augmented reality prototype in their own facility. Initial studies indicated unanimous agreement that this technology is potentially beneficial, though the prototype used in the study was not adequate for operational use. Some controllers agreed that augmented reality technology improved situational awareness, had potential to benefit clearance, control, and coordination tasks and duties and could be very useful for acquiring aircraft and weather information, particularly aircraft location, heading, and identification. The strongest objections to the prototype used in this study were directed at aircraft registration errors, unacceptable optical transparency, insufficient display performance in sunlight, inadequate representation of the static environment and insufficient symbology.

  14. Augmentation-related brain plasticity.

    PubMed

    Di Pino, Giovanni; Maravita, Angelo; Zollo, Loredana; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Today, the anthropomorphism of the tools and the development of neural interfaces require reconsidering the concept of human-tools interaction in the framework of human augmentation. This review analyses the plastic process that the brain undergoes when it comes into contact with augmenting artificial sensors and effectors and, on the other hand, the changes that the use of external augmenting devices produces in the brain. Hitherto, few studies investigated the neural correlates of augmentation, but clues on it can be borrowed from logically-related paradigms: sensorimotor training, cognitive enhancement, cross-modal plasticity, sensorimotor functional substitution, use and embodiment of tools. Augmentation modifies function and structure of a number of areas, i.e., primary sensory cortices shape their receptive fields to become sensitive to novel inputs. Motor areas adapt the neuroprosthesis representation firing-rate to refine kinematics. As for normal motor outputs, the learning process recruits motor and premotor cortices and the acquisition of proficiency decreases attentional recruitment, focuses the activity on sensorimotor areas and increases the basal ganglia drive on the cortex. Augmentation deeply relies on the frontoparietal network. In particular, premotor cortex is involved in learning the control of an external effector and owns the tool motor representation, while the intraparietal sulcus extracts its visual features. In these areas, multisensory integration neurons enlarge their receptive fields to embody supernumerary limbs. For operating an anthropomorphic neuroprosthesis, the mirror system is required to understand the meaning of the action, the cerebellum for the formation of its internal model and the insula for its interoception. In conclusion, anthropomorphic sensorized devices can provide the critical sensory afferences to evolve the exploitation of tools through their embodiment, reshaping the body representation and the sense of the self

  15. Augmentation-related brain plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Di Pino, Giovanni; Maravita, Angelo; Zollo, Loredana; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Today, the anthropomorphism of the tools and the development of neural interfaces require reconsidering the concept of human-tools interaction in the framework of human augmentation. This review analyses the plastic process that the brain undergoes when it comes into contact with augmenting artificial sensors and effectors and, on the other hand, the changes that the use of external augmenting devices produces in the brain. Hitherto, few studies investigated the neural correlates of augmentation, but clues on it can be borrowed from logically-related paradigms: sensorimotor training, cognitive enhancement, cross-modal plasticity, sensorimotor functional substitution, use and embodiment of tools. Augmentation modifies function and structure of a number of areas, i.e., primary sensory cortices shape their receptive fields to become sensitive to novel inputs. Motor areas adapt the neuroprosthesis representation firing-rate to refine kinematics. As for normal motor outputs, the learning process recruits motor and premotor cortices and the acquisition of proficiency decreases attentional recruitment, focuses the activity on sensorimotor areas and increases the basal ganglia drive on the cortex. Augmentation deeply relies on the frontoparietal network. In particular, premotor cortex is involved in learning the control of an external effector and owns the tool motor representation, while the intraparietal sulcus extracts its visual features. In these areas, multisensory integration neurons enlarge their receptive fields to embody supernumerary limbs. For operating an anthropomorphic neuroprosthesis, the mirror system is required to understand the meaning of the action, the cerebellum for the formation of its internal model and the insula for its interoception. In conclusion, anthropomorphic sensorized devices can provide the critical sensory afferences to evolve the exploitation of tools through their embodiment, reshaping the body representation and the sense of the self

  16. Augmentation-related brain plasticity.

    PubMed

    Di Pino, Giovanni; Maravita, Angelo; Zollo, Loredana; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Today, the anthropomorphism of the tools and the development of neural interfaces require reconsidering the concept of human-tools interaction in the framework of human augmentation. This review analyses the plastic process that the brain undergoes when it comes into contact with augmenting artificial sensors and effectors and, on the other hand, the changes that the use of external augmenting devices produces in the brain. Hitherto, few studies investigated the neural correlates of augmentation, but clues on it can be borrowed from logically-related paradigms: sensorimotor training, cognitive enhancement, cross-modal plasticity, sensorimotor functional substitution, use and embodiment of tools. Augmentation modifies function and structure of a number of areas, i.e., primary sensory cortices shape their receptive fields to become sensitive to novel inputs. Motor areas adapt the neuroprosthesis representation firing-rate to refine kinematics. As for normal motor outputs, the learning process recruits motor and premotor cortices and the acquisition of proficiency decreases attentional recruitment, focuses the activity on sensorimotor areas and increases the basal ganglia drive on the cortex. Augmentation deeply relies on the frontoparietal network. In particular, premotor cortex is involved in learning the control of an external effector and owns the tool motor representation, while the intraparietal sulcus extracts its visual features. In these areas, multisensory integration neurons enlarge their receptive fields to embody supernumerary limbs. For operating an anthropomorphic neuroprosthesis, the mirror system is required to understand the meaning of the action, the cerebellum for the formation of its internal model and the insula for its interoception. In conclusion, anthropomorphic sensorized devices can provide the critical sensory afferences to evolve the exploitation of tools through their embodiment, reshaping the body representation and the sense of the self.

  17. Superconducting augmented rail gun (SARG)

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, C.G.; Cummings, C.E.; Fowler, C.M.

    1986-11-01

    Superconducting augmentation consists of a superconducting coil operating in the persistent mode closely coupled magnetically with a normally conducting rail gun. A theoretical investigation of the effect of this system on a rail gun has shown that two benefits occur. Projectile velocities and launch efficiencies increase significantly depending on the magnetic coupling between the rail and augmentation circuits. Previous work evaluated an idealized system by neglecting energy dissipation effects. In this paper, the authors extend the analysis to include the neglected terms and show improved actual launch efficiencies for the SARG configuration. In this paper, the authors discuss details of projectile design in depth and present preliminary results of rail gun performance.

  18. Phosphonate analogue substrates for enolase.

    PubMed

    Anderson, V E; Cleland, W W

    1990-11-20

    Phosphonate analogues in which the bridge between C-2 and phosphorus is a CH2 group are slow substrates for yeast enolase. The pH variation of the kinetic parameters for the methylene analogue of 2-phosphoglycerate suggests that the substrate binds as a dianion and that Mg2+ can bind subsequently only if a metal ligand and the catalytic base are unprotonated. Primary deuterium isotope effects of 4-8 on V/KMg, but ones of only 1.15-1.32 on V for dehydration, show that proton removal to give the carbanion intermediate largely limits V/KMg and that a slow step follows which largely limits V (presumably carbanion breakdown). Since there is a D2O solvent isotope effect on V for the reverse reaction of 5, but not an appreciable one on the forward reaction, it appears that the slow rates with phosphonate analogues result from the fact that the carbanion intermediate is more stable than that formed from the normal substrates, and its reaction in both directions limits V. Increased stability as a result of replacement of oxygen by carbon at C-2 of the carbanion is the expected chemical behavior. PMID:2271661

  19. Substrate analogues for isoprenoid enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Stremler, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    Diphosphonate analogues of geranyl diphosphate, resistant to degradation by phosphatases, were found to be alternate substrates for the reaction with farnesyl diphosphate synthetase isolated from avian liver. The difluoromethane analogue was shown to be the better alternate substrate, in agreement with solvolysis results which indicate that the electronegativity of the difluoromethylene unit more closely approximates that of the normal bridging oxygen. The usefulness of the C/sub 10/ difluoro analogue, for detecting low levels of isoprenoid enzymes in the presence of high levels of phosphatase activity, was demonstrated with a cell-free preparation from lemon peel. A series of C/sub 5/ through C/sub 15/ homoallylic and allylic diphosphonates, as well as two 5'-nucleotide diphosphonates, was prepared in high overall yield using the activation-displacement sequence. Radiolabeled samples of several of the allylic diphosphonates were prepared with tritium located at C1. A series of geraniols, stereospecifically deuterated at C1, was prepared. The enantiomeric purities and absolute configurations were determined by derivatization as the mandelate esters for analysis by /sup 1/H NMR. The stereochemistry of the activation-displacement sequence was examined using C1-deuterated substrates.

  20. Policy issues in space analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auger, Robin N.; Facktor, Debra D.

    Space mission planning is increasingly focusing on destinations beyond Earth orbit. Advancements in technology will inevitably be required to enable long-duration human spaceflight missions, and breakthroughs in the policy arena will also be needed to achieve success in such missions. By exploring how policy issues have been addressed in analogous extreme environments, policymakers can develop a framework for addressing these issues as they apply to long-term human spaceflight. Policy issues that need to be addressed include: crew selection, training, organization, and activities, medical testing, illness, injury, and death; communication; legal accountability and liability; mission safety and risk management; and environmental contamination. This paper outlines the approach of a study underway by The George Washington University and ANSER to examine how these policy issues have been addressed in several analogues and how the experiences of these analogues can help formulate policies for long-duration human spaceflight missions. Analogues being studied include Antarctic bases, submarine voyages, undersea stations, Biosphere 2, and the U.S. Skylab and Russian Mir space stations.

  1. Augmented assessment as a means to augmented reality.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Bryan

    2006-01-01

    Rigorous scientific assessment of educational technologies typically lags behind the availability of the technologies by years because of the lack of validated instruments and benchmarks. Even when the appropriate assessment instruments are available, they may not be applied because of time and monetary constraints. Work in augmented reality, instrumented mannequins, serious gaming, and similar promising educational technologies that haven't undergone timely, rigorous evaluation, highlights the need for assessment methodologies that address the limitations of traditional approaches. The most promising augmented assessment solutions incorporate elements of rapid prototyping used in the software industry, simulation-based assessment techniques modeled after methods used in bioinformatics, and object-oriented analysis methods borrowed from object oriented programming. PMID:16404012

  2. Complications of soft tissue augmentation.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Ranella J; Stier, Meghan

    2008-09-01

    The wide variety of dermal fillers presently available has revolutionized treatment options for patients seeking a refreshed appearance. Soft tissue fillers include both bovine and human collagens, the hyaluronans, calcium hydroxyapatite, poly-L-lactic acid, and synthetic polymers. However, soft tissue augmentation is never risk-free, and as these procedures have increased in prevalence, complications have been more frequently reported. This article describes a range of complications resulting from dermal filler injections, reviews key case studies, and discusses possible treatment options for adverse effects. While biodegradable fillers offer the least risk for the patient, location, allergic reactions, granulomas, necrosis, and infection are all serious complications that must be considered before performing soft tissue augmentation with any approved dermal filler.

  3. Effective Augmentation of Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinjian; Yu, Xinghuo; Stone, Lewi

    2016-01-01

    Networks science plays an enormous role in many aspects of modern society from distributing electrical power across nations to spreading information and social networking amongst global populations. While modern networks constantly change in size, few studies have sought methods for the difficult task of optimising this growth. Here we study theoretical requirements for augmenting networks by adding source or sink nodes, without requiring additional driver-nodes to accommodate the change i.e., conserving structural controllability. Our “effective augmentation” algorithm takes advantage of clusters intrinsic to the network topology, and permits rapidly and efficient augmentation of a large number of nodes in one time-step. “Effective augmentation” is shown to work successfully on a wide range of model and real networks. The method has numerous applications (e.g. study of biological, social, power and technological networks) and potentially of significant practical and economic value. PMID:27165120

  4. Effective Augmentation of Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinjian; Yu, Xinghuo; Stone, Lewi

    2016-05-01

    Networks science plays an enormous role in many aspects of modern society from distributing electrical power across nations to spreading information and social networking amongst global populations. While modern networks constantly change in size, few studies have sought methods for the difficult task of optimising this growth. Here we study theoretical requirements for augmenting networks by adding source or sink nodes, without requiring additional driver-nodes to accommodate the change i.e., conserving structural controllability. Our “effective augmentation” algorithm takes advantage of clusters intrinsic to the network topology, and permits rapidly and efficient augmentation of a large number of nodes in one time-step. “Effective augmentation” is shown to work successfully on a wide range of model and real networks. The method has numerous applications (e.g. study of biological, social, power and technological networks) and potentially of significant practical and economic value.

  5. Augmented reality building operations tool

    SciTech Connect

    Brackney, Larry J.

    2014-09-09

    A method (700) for providing an augmented reality operations tool to a mobile client (642) positioned in a building (604). The method (700) includes, with a server (660), receiving (720) from the client (642) an augmented reality request for building system equipment (612) managed by an energy management system (EMS) (620). The method (700) includes transmitting (740) a data request for the equipment (612) to the EMS (620) and receiving (750) building management data (634) for the equipment (612). The method (700) includes generating (760) an overlay (656) with an object created based on the building management data (634), which may be sensor data, diagnostic procedures, or the like. The overlay (656) is configured for concurrent display on a display screen (652) of the client (642) with a real-time image of the building equipment (612). The method (700) includes transmitting (770) the overlay (656) to the client (642).

  6. TDRSS Augmentation System for Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckler, Gregory W.; Gramling, Cheryl; Valdez, Jennifer; Baldwin, Philip

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) reinvigorated the development of the TDRSS Augmentation Service for Satellites (TASS). TASS is a global, space-based, communications and navigation service for users of Global Navigation Satellite Systems(GNSS) and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). TASS leverages the existing TDRSS to provide an S-band beacon radio navigation and messaging source to users at orbital altitudes 1400 km and below.

  7. Media-Augmented Exercise Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, T.

    2002-01-01

    Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

  8. Augment railgun and sequential discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, K.

    1993-01-01

    Proprietary R&D efforts toward the creation of tactical weapon systems-applicable railguns are presented. Attention is given to measures taken for projectile velocity maximization and sequential-discharge operation, and to an augmenting railgun which has demonstrated a 66-percent efficiency improvement over the two-rail baseline railgun system. This device is characterized by strong interaction between capacitor bank submodules during sequential discharge.

  9. Measuring patient outcomes in breast augmentation: introducing the BREAST-Q Augmentation module.

    PubMed

    Pusic, Andrea L; Reavey, Patrick L; Klassen, Anne F; Scott, Amie; McCarthy, Colleen; Cano, Stefan J

    2009-01-01

    The Breast-Q Augmentation module is a new and unique questionnaire for measuring patient-reported outcomes following breast augmentation. It has undergone a rigorous development and validation process and is currently the only questionnaire for breast augmentation that meets international and federal standards for questionnaire development. The Breast-Q Augmentation module covers a comprehensive set of concerns of breast augmentation patients, including satisfaction with breasts and impact on quality of life. With its excellent psychometric properties, the Breast-Q Augmentation module can provide clinicians and researchers with a wealth of essential data to improve the field of breast augmentation from the perspectives of both surgeons and patients.

  10. FUNCTION GENERATOR FOR ANALOGUE COMPUTERS

    DOEpatents

    Skramstad, H.K.; Wright, J.H.; Taback, L.

    1961-12-12

    An improved analogue computer is designed which can be used to determine the final ground position of radioactive fallout particles in an atomic cloud. The computer determines the fallout pattern on the basis of known wind velocity and direction at various altitudes, and intensity of radioactivity in the mushroom cloud as a function of particle size and initial height in the cloud. The output is then displayed on a cathode-ray tube so that the average or total luminance of the tube screen at any point represents the intensity of radioactive fallout at the geographical location represented by that point. (AEC)

  11. The Canadian Analogue Research Network (CARN): Opportunities for Terrestrial Analogue Studies in Canada and Abroad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipkin, V.; Osinski, G. R.; Berinstain, A.; Léveillé, R.

    2007-03-01

    We will present an overview of the Canadian Analogue Research Network (CARN), including a description of the various analogue sites in CARN, potential new sites, and a discussion regarding how CARN is applicable to the global exploration strategy.

  12. The Valles natural analogue project

    SciTech Connect

    Stockman, H.; Krumhansl, J.; Ho, C.; McConnell, V.

    1994-12-01

    The contact between an obsidian flow and a steep-walled tuff canyon was examined as an analogue for a highlevel waste repository. The analogue site is located in the Valles Caldera in New Mexico, where a massive obsidian flow filled a paleocanyon in the Battleship Rock tuff. The obsidian flow provided a heat source, analogous to waste panels or an igneous intrusion in a repository, and caused evaporation and migration of water. The tuff and obsidian samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and mineralogy by INAA, XRF, X-ray diffraction; and scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe. Samples were also analyzed for D/H and {sup 39}Ar/{sup 4O} isotopic composition. Overall,the effects of the heating event seem to have been slight and limited to the tuff nearest the contact. There is some evidence of devitrification and migration of volatiles in the tuff within 10 meters of the contact, but variations in major and trace element chemistry are small and difficult to distinguish from the natural (pre-heating) variability of the rocks.

  13. Webizing mobile augmented reality content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sangchul; Ko, Heedong; Yoo, Byounghyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a content structure for building mobile augmented reality (AR) applications in HTML5 to achieve a clean separation of the mobile AR content and the application logic for scaling as on the Web. We propose that the content structure contains the physical world as well as virtual assets for mobile AR applications as document object model (DOM) elements and that their behaviour and user interactions are controlled through DOM events by representing objects and places with a uniform resource identifier. Our content structure enables mobile AR applications to be seamlessly developed as normal HTML documents under the current Web eco-system.

  14. CO2 Capture with Enzyme Synthetic Analogue

    SciTech Connect

    Cordatos, Harry

    2010-11-08

    Overview of an ongoing, 2 year research project partially funded by APRA-E to create a novel, synthetic analogue of carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it into a membrane for removal of CO2 from flue gas in coal power plants. Mechanism background, preliminary feasibility study results, molecular modeling of analogue-CO2 interaction, and program timeline are provided.

  15. Continuous analogues of matrix factorizations

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Alex; Trefethen, Lloyd N.

    2015-01-01

    Analogues of singular value decomposition (SVD), QR, LU and Cholesky factorizations are presented for problems in which the usual discrete matrix is replaced by a ‘quasimatrix’, continuous in one dimension, or a ‘cmatrix’, continuous in both dimensions. Two challenges arise: the generalization of the notions of triangular structure and row and column pivoting to continuous variables (required in all cases except the SVD, and far from obvious), and the convergence of the infinite series that define the cmatrix factorizations. Our generalizations of triangularity and pivoting are based on a new notion of a ‘triangular quasimatrix’. Concerning convergence of the series, we prove theorems asserting convergence provided the functions involved are sufficiently smooth. PMID:25568618

  16. Fully analogue photonic reservoir computer.

    PubMed

    Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Akrout, Akram; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2016-03-03

    Introduced a decade ago, reservoir computing is an efficient approach for signal processing. State of the art capabilities have already been demonstrated with both computer simulations and physical implementations. If photonic reservoir computing appears to be promising a solution for ultrafast nontrivial computing, all the implementations presented up to now require digital pre or post processing, which prevents them from exploiting their full potential, in particular in terms of processing speed. We address here the possibility to get rid simultaneously of both digital pre and post processing. The standalone fully analogue reservoir computer resulting from our endeavour is compared to previous experiments and only exhibits rather limited degradation of performances. Our experiment constitutes a proof of concept for standalone physical reservoir computers.

  17. Fully analogue photonic reservoir computer

    PubMed Central

    Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Akrout, Akram; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Introduced a decade ago, reservoir computing is an efficient approach for signal processing. State of the art capabilities have already been demonstrated with both computer simulations and physical implementations. If photonic reservoir computing appears to be promising a solution for ultrafast nontrivial computing, all the implementations presented up to now require digital pre or post processing, which prevents them from exploiting their full potential, in particular in terms of processing speed. We address here the possibility to get rid simultaneously of both digital pre and post processing. The standalone fully analogue reservoir computer resulting from our endeavour is compared to previous experiments and only exhibits rather limited degradation of performances. Our experiment constitutes a proof of concept for standalone physical reservoir computers. PMID:26935166

  18. Augmented reality in medical education?

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Carolien; Barsom, Esther; Schijven, Marlies; Christoph, Noor

    2014-09-01

    Learning in the medical domain is to a large extent workplace learning and involves mastery of complex skills that require performance up to professional standards in the work environment. Since training in this real-life context is not always possible for reasons of safety, costs, or didactics, alternative ways are needed to achieve clinical excellence. Educational technology and more specifically augmented reality (AR) has the potential to offer a highly realistic situated learning experience supportive of complex medical learning and transfer. AR is a technology that adds virtual content to the physical real world, thereby augmenting the perception of reality. Three examples of dedicated AR learning environments for the medical domain are described. Five types of research questions are identified that may guide empirical research into the effects of these learning environments. Up to now, empirical research mainly appears to focus on the development, usability and initial implementation of AR for learning. Limited review results reflect the motivational value of AR, its potential for training psychomotor skills and the capacity to visualize the invisible, possibly leading to enhanced conceptual understanding of complex causality.

  19. Augmented reality in medical education?

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Carolien; Barsom, Esther; Schijven, Marlies; Christoph, Noor

    2014-09-01

    Learning in the medical domain is to a large extent workplace learning and involves mastery of complex skills that require performance up to professional standards in the work environment. Since training in this real-life context is not always possible for reasons of safety, costs, or didactics, alternative ways are needed to achieve clinical excellence. Educational technology and more specifically augmented reality (AR) has the potential to offer a highly realistic situated learning experience supportive of complex medical learning and transfer. AR is a technology that adds virtual content to the physical real world, thereby augmenting the perception of reality. Three examples of dedicated AR learning environments for the medical domain are described. Five types of research questions are identified that may guide empirical research into the effects of these learning environments. Up to now, empirical research mainly appears to focus on the development, usability and initial implementation of AR for learning. Limited review results reflect the motivational value of AR, its potential for training psychomotor skills and the capacity to visualize the invisible, possibly leading to enhanced conceptual understanding of complex causality. PMID:24464832

  20. PRP Augmentation for ACL Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Andriolo, Luca; Di Matteo, Berardo; Kon, Elizaveta; Filardo, Giuseppe; Venieri, Giulia; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2015-01-01

    Current research is investigating new methods to enhance tissue healing to speed up recovery time and decrease the risk of failure in Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery. Biological augmentation is one of the most exploited strategies, in particular the application of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP). Aim of the present paper is to systematically review all the preclinical and clinical papers dealing with the application of PRP as a biological enhancer during ACL reconstructive surgery. Thirty-two studies were included in the present review. The analysis of the preclinical evidence revealed that PRP was able to improve the healing potential of the tendinous graft both in terms of histological and biomechanical performance. Looking at the available clinical evidence, results were not univocal. PRP administration proved to be a safe procedure and there were some evidences that it could favor the donor site healing in case of ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon graft and positively contribute to graft maturation over time, whereas the majority of the papers did not show beneficial effects in terms of bony tunnels/graft area integration. Furthermore, PRP augmentation did not provide superior functional results at short term evaluation. PMID:26064903

  1. Plant Volatile Analogues Strengthen Attractiveness to Insect

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yufeng; Yu, Hao; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Pickett, John A.; Wu, Kongming

    2014-01-01

    Green leaf bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) is one of the major pests in agriculture. Management of A. lucorum was largely achieved by using pesticides. However, the increasing population of A. lucorum since growing Bt cotton widely and the increased awareness of ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety makes their population-control very challenging. Therefore this study was conducted to explore a novel ecological approach, synthetic plant volatile analogues, to manage the pest. Here, plant volatile analogues were first designed and synthesized by combining the bioactive components of β-ionone and benzaldehyde. The stabilities of β-ionone, benzaldehyde and analogue 3 g were tested. The electroantennogram (EAG) responses of A. lucorum adult antennae to the analogues were recorded. And the behavior assay and filed experiment were also conducted. In this study, thirteen analogues were acquired. The analogue 3 g was demonstrated to be more stable than β-ionone and benzaldehyde in the environment. Many of the analogues elicited EAG responses, and the EAG response values to 3 g remained unchanged during seven-day period. 3 g was also demonstrated to be attractive to A. lucorum adults in the laboratory behavior experiment and in the field. Its attractiveness persisted longer than β-ionone and benzaldehyde. This indicated that 3 g can strengthen attractiveness to insect and has potential as an attractant. Our results suggest that synthetic plant volatile analogues can strengthen attractiveness to insect. This is the first published study about synthetic plant volatile analogues that have the potential to be used in pest control. Our results will support a new ecological approach to pest control and it will be helpful to ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety. PMID:24911460

  2. Bioremediation: When is augmentation needed?

    SciTech Connect

    Forsyth, J.V.; Tsao, Y.M.; Bleam, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    Each contaminated site exhibits different characteristics and requires a site-specific remediation plan. The decontamination of a hazardous materials site is a complex procedure involving systematic, step-by-step problem solving. Assessing the conditions necessary to optimize the efficiency of microbial systems in degrading environmental pollutants and the economics required is essential in selecting and implementing cost-effective biotreatment. This assessment requires a good understanding of the microorganisms themselves. A firm grasp of the conditions under which the appropriate mixed culture system can be established and maintained to achieve the desired biodegradation tasks is necessary. The final component, and perhaps the most critical, is the translation of the scientific data into cost-effective full-scale cleanup processes. Augmentation with proven contaminant-degrading microorganisms leads to a higher degree of confidence in remediation success, and for certain sites has been shown to save time and money over alternative approaches.

  3. LOFT Augmented Operator Capability Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenbeck, D.A.; Krantz, E.A.; Hunt, G.L.; Meyer, O.R.

    1980-01-01

    The outline of the LOFT Augmented Operator Capability Program is presented. This program utilizes the LOFT (Loss-of-Fluid Test) reactor facility which is located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the LOFT operational transient experiment series as a test bed for methods of enhancing the reactor operator's capability for safer operation. The design of an Operational Diagnotics and Display System is presented which was backfit to the existing data acquisition computers. Basic color-graphic displays of the process schematic and trend type are presented. In addition, displays were developed and are presented which represent safety state vector information. A task analysis method was applied to LOFT reactor operating procedures to test its usefulness in defining the operator's information needs and workload.

  4. Sensory Augmentation for the Blind

    PubMed Central

    Kärcher, Silke M.; Fenzlaff, Sandra; Hartmann, Daniela; Nagel, Saskia K.; König, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Common navigational aids used by blind travelers during large-scale navigation divert attention away from important cues of the immediate environment (i.e., approaching vehicles). Sensory augmentation devices, relying on principles similar to those at work in sensory substitution, can potentially bypass the bottleneck of attention through sub-cognitive implementation of a set of rules coupling motor actions with sensory stimulation. We provide a late blind subject with a vibrotactile belt that continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. The present experimental approach demonstrates the positive potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of handicapped people. PMID:22403535

  5. Synthesis and biological evaluation of febrifugine analogues.

    PubMed

    Mai, Huong Doan Thi; Thanh, Giang Vo; Tran, Van Hieu; Vu, Van Nam; Vu, Van Loi; Le, Cong Vinh; Nguyen, Thuy Linh; Phi, Thi Dao; Truong, Bich Ngan; Chau, Van Minh; Pham, Van Cuong

    2014-12-01

    A series of febrifugine analogues were designed and synthesized. Antimalarial activity evaluation of the synthetic compounds indicated that these derivatives had a strong inhibition against both chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Many of them were found to be more active than febrifugine hydrochloride. The tested analogues had also a significant cytotoxicity against four cancer cell lines (KB, MCF7, LU1 and HepG2). Among the synthetic analogues, two compounds 17b and 17h displayed a moderate cytotoxicity while they exhibited a remarkable antimalarial activity. PMID:25632466

  6. Augmented Reality for Close Quarters Combat

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a state-of-the-art augmented reality training system for close-quarters combat (CQB). This system uses a wearable augmented reality system to place the user in a real environment while engaging enemy combatants in virtual space (Boston Dynamics DI-Guy). Umbra modeling and simulation environment is used to integrate and control the AR system.

  7. Status report of RMS active damping augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Mike; Demeo, Martha E.

    1993-01-01

    A status report of Remote Manipulator System (RMS) active damping augmentation is presented. Topics covered include: active damping augmentation; benefits of RMS ADA; simulated payload definition; sensor and actuator definition; ADA control law design; Shuttle Engineering Simulator (SES) real-time simulation; and astronaut evaluation.

  8. From Augmentation Media to Meme Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Yuzuru

    Computers as meta media are now evolving from augmentation media vehicles to meme media vehicles. While an augmentation media system provides a seamlessly integrated environment of various tools and documents, meme media system provides further functions to edit and distribute tools and documents. Documents and tools on meme media can easily…

  9. Enhancing Education through Mobile Augmented Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joan, D. R. Robert

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author has discussed about the Mobile Augmented Reality and enhancing education through it. The aim of the present study was to give some general information about mobile augmented reality which helps to boost education. Purpose of the current study reveals the mobile networks which are used in the institution campus as well…

  10. Embedding Augmentative Communication within Early Childhood Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCarlo, Cynthia; Banajee, Meher; Stricklin, Sarintha Buras

    2000-01-01

    This article first describes various augmentative communication systems including sign language, picture symbols, and voice output communication devices. It then explains ways to embed augmentative communication within four types of early childhood classroom activities: (1) special or planned activities, (2) meal time, (3) circle time, and (4)…

  11. Age grouping to optimize augmentation success.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Robert W

    2010-05-01

    This article has described the different age groups that present for noninvasive injectable lip and perioral augmentation, as well as the breakdown of 3 subgroups that present within the 4 general age groups. With the fundamental understanding of these presenting groups and subgroups, the practicing augmenter will be able to better treatment plan and educate the patient on realistic and optimal aesthetic outcomes.

  12. Nonsteady-Flow Thrust Augmenting Ejectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foa, J. V.

    1979-01-01

    Ejector augmenters in which the transfer of mechanical energy from the primary to the secondary flow takes place through the work of interface pressure forces are investigated. Nonsteady flow processes are analyzed from the standpoint of energy transfer efficiency and a comparison of a rotary jet augmenter to an ejector is presented.

  13. Augmented Reality for Close Quarters Combat

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-20

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a state-of-the-art augmented reality training system for close-quarters combat (CQB). This system uses a wearable augmented reality system to place the user in a real environment while engaging enemy combatants in virtual space (Boston Dynamics DI-Guy). Umbra modeling and simulation environment is used to integrate and control the AR system.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of resveratrol analogues.

    PubMed

    Chalal, Malik; Klinguer, Agnès; Echairi, Abdelwahad; Meunier, Philippe; Vervandier-Fasseur, Dominique; Adrian, Marielle

    2014-01-01

    Stilbenes, especially resveratrol and its derivatives, have become famous for their positive effects on a wide range of medical disorders, as indicated by a huge number of published studies. A less investigated area of research is their antimicrobial properties. A series of 13 trans-resveratrol analogues was synthesized via Wittig or Heck reactions, and their antimicrobial activity assessed on two different grapevine pathogens responsible for severe diseases in the vineyard. The entire series, together with resveratrol, was first evaluated on the zoospore mobility and sporulation level of Plasmopara viticola (the oomycete responsible for downy mildew). Stilbenes displayed a spectrum of activity ranging from low to high. Six of them, including the most active ones, were subsequently tested on the development of Botrytis cinerea (fungus responsible for grey mold). The results obtained allowed us to identify the most active stilbenes against both grapevine pathogens, to compare the antimicrobial activity of the evaluated series of stilbenes, and to discuss the relationship between their chemical structure (number and position of methoxy and hydroxy groups) and antimicrobial activity. PMID:24918540

  15. Space analogue studies in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Lugg, D; Shepanek, M

    1999-01-01

    Medical research has been carried out on the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) for 50 years. As an extension of this program collaborative Australian/United States research on immunology, microbiology, psychology and remote medicine has produced important data and insight on how humans adapt to the stress of extreme isolation, confinement and the harsh environment of Antarctica. An outstanding analogue for the isolation and confinement of space missions (especially planetary outposts), ANARE has been used as an international research platform by Australia and the United States since 1993. Collaborative research has demonstrated a lowered responsiveness of the immune system under the isolation and confinement of Antarctic winter-over; a reduction of almost 50% in T cell proliferation to mitogen phytohaemogglutinin, as well as changes in latent herpesvirus states and the expansion of the polyclonal latent Epstein-Barr virus infected B cell populations. Although no clinically significant disease has been found to result from these immune changes, research is currently assessing the effects of psychological factors on the immune system. This and associated research performed to date and its relevance to both organisations is discussed, and comment made on possible extensions to the program in both medical and other fields.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of resveratrol analogues.

    PubMed

    Chalal, Malik; Klinguer, Agnès; Echairi, Abdelwahad; Meunier, Philippe; Vervandier-Fasseur, Dominique; Adrian, Marielle

    2014-06-10

    Stilbenes, especially resveratrol and its derivatives, have become famous for their positive effects on a wide range of medical disorders, as indicated by a huge number of published studies. A less investigated area of research is their antimicrobial properties. A series of 13 trans-resveratrol analogues was synthesized via Wittig or Heck reactions, and their antimicrobial activity assessed on two different grapevine pathogens responsible for severe diseases in the vineyard. The entire series, together with resveratrol, was first evaluated on the zoospore mobility and sporulation level of Plasmopara viticola (the oomycete responsible for downy mildew). Stilbenes displayed a spectrum of activity ranging from low to high. Six of them, including the most active ones, were subsequently tested on the development of Botrytis cinerea (fungus responsible for grey mold). The results obtained allowed us to identify the most active stilbenes against both grapevine pathogens, to compare the antimicrobial activity of the evaluated series of stilbenes, and to discuss the relationship between their chemical structure (number and position of methoxy and hydroxy groups) and antimicrobial activity.

  17. Space analogue studies in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugg, D.; Shepanek, M.

    1999-01-01

    Medical research has been carried out on the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) for 50 years. As an extension of this program collaborative Australian/United States research on immunology, microbiology, psychology and remote medicine has produced important data and insight on how humans adapt to the stress of extreme isolation, confinement and the harsh environment of Antarctica. An outstanding analogue for the isolation and confinement of space missions (especially planetary outposts), ANARE has been used as an international research platform by Australia and the United States since 1993. Collaborative research has demonstrated a lowered responsiveness of the immune system under the isolation and confinement of Antarctic winter-over; a reduction of almost 50% in T cell proliferation to mitogen phytohaemogglutinin, as well as changes in latent herpesvirus states and the expansion of the polyclonal latent Epstein-Barr virus infected B cell populations. Although no clinically significant disease has been found to result from these immune changes, research is currently assessing the effects of psychological factors on the immune system. This and associated research performed to date and its relevance to both organisations is discussed, and comment made on possible extensions to the program in both medical and other fields.

  18. Space analogue studies in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugg, D.; Shepanek, M.

    1999-09-01

    Medical research has been carried out on the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) for 50 years. As an extension of this program collaborative Australian/United States research on immunology, microbiology, psychology and remote medicine has produced important data and insight on how humans adapt to the stress of extreme isolation, confinement and the harsh environment of Antarctica. An outstanding analogue for the isolation and confinement of space missions (especially planetary outposts), ANARE has been used as an international research platform by Australia and the United States since 1993. Collaborative research has demonstrated a lowered responsiveness of the immune system under the isolation and confinement of Antarctic winter-over; a reduction of almost 50% in T cell proliferation to mltogen phytohaemogglutinin, as well as changes in latent herpesvirus states and the expansion of the polyclonal latent Epstein-Barr virus infected B cell populations. Although no clinically significant disease has been found to result from these immune changes, research is currently assessing the effects of psychological factors on the immune system. This and associated research performed to date and its relevance to both organisations is discussed, and comment made on possible extensions to the program in both medical and other fields.

  19. Condensed matter analogues of cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibble, Tom; Srivastava, Ajit

    2013-10-01

    It is always exciting when developments in one branch of physics turn out to have relevance in a quite different branch. It would be hard to find two branches farther apart in terms of energy scales than early-universe cosmology and low-temperature condensed matter physics. Nevertheless ideas about the formation of topological defects during rapid phase transitions that originated in the context of the very early universe have proved remarkably fruitful when applied to a variety of condensed matter systems. The mathematical frameworks for describing these systems can be very similar. This interconnection has led to a deeper understanding of the phenomena in condensed matter systems utilizing ideas from cosmology. At the same time, one can view these condensed matter analogues as providing, at least in a limited sense, experimental access to the phenomena of the early universe for which no direct probe is possible. As this special issue well illustrates, this remains a dynamic and exciting field. The basic idea is that when a system goes through a rapid symmetry-breaking phase transition from a symmetric phase into one with spontaneously broken symmetry, the order parameter may make different choices in different regions, creating domains that when they meet can trap defects. The scale of those domains, and hence the density of defects, is constrained by the rate at which the system goes through the transition and the speed with which order parameter information propagates. This is what has come to be known as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The resultant scaling laws have now been tested in a considerable variety of different systems. The earliest experiments illustrating the analogy between cosmology and condensed matter were in liquid crystals, in particular on the isotropic-to-nematic transition, primarily because it is very easy to induce the phase transition (typically at room temperature) and to image precisely what is going on. This field remains one of the

  20. Irradiated homologous costal cartilage for augmentation rhinoplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Lefkovits, G. )

    1990-10-01

    Although the ideal reconstructive material for augmentation rhinoplasty continues to challenge plastic surgeons, there exists no report in the literature that confines the use of irradiated homologous costal cartilage, first reported by Dingman and Grabb in 1961, to dorsal nasal augmentation. The purpose of this paper is to present a retrospective analysis of the author's experience using irradiated homologous costal cartilage in augmentation rhinoplasty. Twenty-seven dorsal nasal augmentations were performed in 24 patients between 16 and 49 years of age with a follow-up ranging from 1 to 27 months. Good-to-excellent results were achieved in 83.3% (20 of 24). Poor results requiring revision were found in 16.7% (4 of 24). Complication rates included 7.4% infection (2 of 27) and 14.8% warping (4 of 27). The resorption rate was zero. These results compare favorably with other forms of nasal augmentation. Advantages and disadvantages of irradiated homologous costal cartilage are discussed.

  1. Performance of a self-augmented railgun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Rodney L.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Goldstein, Shyke A.

    1991-10-01

    The accelerating force of a railgun can be increased by augmenting the self-induced magnetic field created by the armature current. Augmentation fields can be produced by external current coils or, as is done here, by shorting the railgun muzzle, and using the gun rails as the augmentation coil. Experimental results are presented for a 3.6-m railgun operated in this self-augmented mode, and effective inductance gradients are achieved which are as much as 9.3 times that of the unaugmented gun. A circuit model is presented which explains features of the measured shunt current and voltage. It is concluded that self-augmentation is an effective way to reduce ohmic heating in the armature of a railgun.

  2. Sulfur analogues of psychotomimetic agents. Monothio analogues of mescaline and isomescaline.

    PubMed

    Jacob, P; Shulgin, A T

    1981-11-01

    Two monothio analogues of mescaline and three monothio analogues of 2,3,4-trimethoxyphenethylamine (isomescaline) have been synthesized and characterized. Only the two mescaline analogues (3-and 4-thiomescaline) were found to be psychotomimetics in man, being 6 and 12 times more potent than mescaline, respectively. All five compounds can serve as substrates for bovine plasma monoamine oxidase in vitro, but no positive correlation is apparent between the extent of enzymatic degradation and human psychotomimetic potency.

  3. The structure activity relationship of discodermolide analogues.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Simon J

    2008-03-01

    The marine polyketide discodermolide is a member of a class of natural products that stabilize microtubules. Many analogues have been synthesized suggesting that few changes can be made to the internal carbon backbone. Both ends of the molecule, however, can be modified. The majority of analogues have been generated via modification of the lactone region. This suggests that significant simplifications can be made in this region provided that the lactone moiety is maintained.

  4. Phosphorous-containing analogues of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Nelson, V; Mastalerz, P

    1984-12-01

    Four analogues of aspartame (aspartylphenylalanine methyl ester) were prepared in which one of the carboxylate groups was replaced by a phosphonate group. None of the peptides so obtained was sweet, in contrast with the parent compound which is over 100 times sweeter than sucrose. These results contrast with several published reports of phosphonate analogues of amino acids and peptides which are potent inhibitors of enzymes containing acceptor sites for the parent compound.

  5. Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereaux, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    Initiated in January, 1997, under NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, the Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP) is a means to leverage recent advances in communications, displays, imaging sensors, biosensors, voice recognition and microelectronics to develop a hands-free, tetherless system capable of real-time personal display and control of computer system resources. Using WARP, an astronaut may efficiently operate and monitor any computer-controllable activity inside or outside the vehicle or station. The WARP concept is a lightweight, unobtrusive heads-up display with a wireless wearable control unit. Connectivity to the external system is achieved through a high-rate radio link from the WARP personal unit to a base station unit installed into any system PC. The radio link has been specially engineered to operate within the high- interference, high-multipath environment of a space shuttle or space station module. Through this virtual terminal, the astronaut will be able to view and manipulate imagery, text or video, using voice commands to control the terminal operations. WARP's hands-free access to computer-based instruction texts, diagrams and checklists replaces juggling manuals and clipboards, and tetherless computer system access allows free motion throughout a cabin while monitoring and operating equipment.

  6. Augmented reality: past, present, future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inzerillo, Laura

    2013-03-01

    A great opportunity has permitted to carry out a cultural, historical, architectural and social research with great impact factor on the international cultural interest. We are talking about the realization of a museum whose the main theme is the visit and the discovery of a monument of great prestige: the monumental building the "Steri" in Palermo. The museum is divided into sub themes including the one above all, that has aroused the international interest so much that it has been presented the instance to include the museum in the cultural heritage of UNESCO. It is the realization of a museum path that regards the cells of the Inquisition, which are located just inside of some buildings of the monumental building. The project, as a whole, is faced, in a total view, between the various competences implicated: historic, chemic, architectonic, topographic, drawing, representation, virtual communication, informatics. The birth of the museum will be a sum of the results of all these disciplines involved. Methodology, implementation, fruition, virtual museum, goals, 2D graphic restitution, effects on the cultural heritage and landscape environmental, augmented reality, Surveying 2D and 3D, hi-touch screen, Photogrammetric survey, Photographic survey, representation, drawing 3D and more than this has been dealt with this research.

  7. Augmented reality in surgical procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samset, E.; Schmalstieg, D.; Vander Sloten, J.; Freudenthal, A.; Declerck, J.; Casciaro, S.; Rideng, Ø.; Gersak, B.

    2008-02-01

    Minimally invasive therapy (MIT) is one of the most important trends in modern medicine. It includes a wide range of therapies in videoscopic surgery and interventional radiology and is performed through small incisions. It reduces hospital stay-time by allowing faster recovery and offers substantially improved cost-effectiveness for the hospital and the society. However, the introduction of MIT has also led to new problems. The manipulation of structures within the body through small incisions reduces dexterity and tactile feedback. It requires a different approach than conventional surgical procedures, since eye-hand co-ordination is not based on direct vision, but more predominantly on image guidance via endoscopes or radiological imaging modalities. ARIS*ER is a multidisciplinary consortium developing a new generation of decision support tools for MIT by augmenting visual and sensorial feedback. We will present tools based on novel concepts in visualization, robotics and haptics providing tailored solutions for a range of clinical applications. Examples from radio-frequency ablation of liver-tumors, laparoscopic liver surgery and minimally invasive cardiac surgery will be presented. Demonstrators were developed with the aim to provide a seamless workflow for the clinical user conducting image-guided therapy.

  8. Postauricular fascia in augmentation rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Aldo Benjamin

    2014-06-01

    Ten rhinoplasty operations performed using postauricular fascia for the purpose of augmenting the radix and dorsum of the nose were analyzed retrospectively. All the operations were performed over a 1-year period, between 2005 and 2006. The fascia of the postauricular area has been used as a source of pliable soft-tissue grafts in primary and revision rhinoplasty. It may be easily accessed using a single sulcus incision that also enables harvesting of ear cartilage grafts. Deficiency in the radix is an overlooked abnormality seen in many patients undergoing primary as well as revision rhinoplasty after aggressive hump removal. Recent trends in rhinoplasty have been to avoid the overly reduced nasal skeleton and to create a more balanced nasal surgery result. This article presents the use of the postauricular fascia as a radix graft that has been found to be simple to carry out, reliable, and long lasting. In addition, the fascia graft is useful in the camouflage of various nasal deformities in the dorsum and sidewalls. The average patient follow-up for the study was 24 months.

  9. Planetary habitability: lessons learned from terrestrial analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Louisa J.; Dartnell, Lewis R.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial analogue studies underpin almost all planetary missions and their use is essential in the exploration of our Solar system and in assessing the habitability of other worlds. Their value relies on the similarity of the analogue to its target, either in terms of their mineralogical or geochemical context, or current physical or chemical environmental conditions. Such analogue sites offer critical ground-truthing for astrobiological studies on the habitability of different environmental parameter sets, the biological mechanisms for survival in extreme environments and the preservation potential and detectability of biosignatures. The 33 analogue sites discussed in this review have been selected on the basis of their congruence to particular extraterrestrial locations. Terrestrial field sites that have been used most often in the literature, as well as some lesser known ones which require greater study, are incorporated to inform on the astrobiological potential of Venus, Mars, Europa, Enceladus and Titan. For example, the possibility of an aerial habitable zone on Venus has been hypothesized based on studies of life at high-altitudes in the terrestrial atmosphere. We also demonstrate why many different terrestrial analogue sites are required to satisfactorily assess the habitability of the changing environmental conditions throughout Martian history, and recommend particular sites for different epochs or potential niches. Finally, habitable zones within the aqueous environments of the icy moons of Europa and Enceladus and potentially in the hydrocarbon lakes of Titan are discussed and suitable analogue sites proposed. It is clear from this review that a number of terrestrial analogue sites can be applied to multiple planetary bodies, thereby increasing their value for astrobiological exploration. For each analogue site considered here, we summarize the pertinent physiochemical environmental features they offer and critically assess the fidelity with which

  10. Augmented reality-assisted skull base surgery.

    PubMed

    Cabrilo, I; Sarrafzadeh, A; Bijlenga, P; Landis, B N; Schaller, K

    2014-12-01

    Neuronavigation is widely considered as a valuable tool during skull base surgery. Advances in neuronavigation technology, with the integration of augmented reality, present advantages over traditional point-based neuronavigation. However, this development has not yet made its way into routine surgical practice, possibly due to a lack of acquaintance with these systems. In this report, we illustrate the usefulness and easy application of augmented reality-based neuronavigation through a case example of a patient with a clivus chordoma. We also demonstrate how augmented reality can help throughout all phases of a skull base procedure, from the verification of neuronavigation accuracy to intraoperative image-guidance.

  11. Presence of cobalamin analogues in animal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Haruki; Kolhouse, Fred; Allen, Robert H.

    1980-01-01

    Cobalamin (Cbl, vitamin B-12) has been extracted and isolated from a number of animal tissues by using (i) reverse-affinity chromatography on R protein-Sepharose followed by adsorption to and elution from charcoal-coated agarose and (ii) paper chromatography. Radioisotope dilution assays showed that only 75-97% of the Cbl chromatographed in the position of crystalline Cbl. The remaining 3-25% was present in a number of slower and faster moving fractions. This suggested that Cbl analogues are present in animal tissues because appropriate controls ruled out the possibility that this material was artifactually derived from Cbl during the extraction and purification procedures. With a large-scale isolation from rabbit kidney, the material in five such fractions contained cobalt and had absorption spectra that were similar to but different from the spectrum of Cbl, indicating that they were Cbl analogues. Compared to Cbl, these Cbl analogues had decreased but definite affinities for Cbl-binding proteins with the following order of strength of binding: R protein > transcobalamin II > intrinsic factor. Compared to Cbl, they also had decreased but definite growth-promoting activity for two microorganisms, Euglena gracilis and Lactobacillus leichmannii, which require Cbl for growth. These Cbl analogues differed from each other and from 18 synthetic Cbl analogues, including the most common Cbl analogues synthesized by microorganisms, in at least one of the above features. These studies indicate that animal tissues contain a number of Cbl analogues whose origins, structures, and biologic activities remain to be determined. PMID:6928681

  12. The Canadian Analogue Research Network (CARN): Opportunities for Mars Analogue Studies in the Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinski, G. R.; Berinstain, A.; Lebeuf, M.; Léveillé, R.

    2006-10-01

    The Canadian Analogue Research Network has been established by the Canadian Space Agency. This network of analogue sites, many of which are in the Arctic, provides a unique opportunity to further our understanding of the polar regions of Earth and Mars.

  13. Diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Foreman, Kenneth M.; Gilbert, Barry L.

    1984-01-01

    A diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine having means for energizing the boundary layer at several locations along the diffuser walls is improved by the addition of a short collar extending radially outward from the outlet of the diffuser.

  14. Improved diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Foreman, K.M.; Gilbert, B.L.

    A diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine having means for energizing the boundary layer at several locations along the diffuser walls is improved by the addition of a short collar extending radially outward from the outlet of the diffuser.

  15. Augmented Reality Simulations on Handheld Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, Kurt; Klopfer, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Advancements in handheld computing, particularly its portability, social interactivity, context sensitivity, connectivity, and individuality, open new opportunities for immersive learning environments. This article articulates the pedagogical potential of augmented reality simulations in environmental engineering education by immersing students in…

  16. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone and Its Analogues: Significance for MSCs-Mediated Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Quanwei; Ma, Qunchao; Chen, Huiqiang; Wang, Jian'an

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for regenerative medicine because of their multipotency, immune-privilege, and paracrine properties including the potential to promote angiogenesis. Accumulating evidence suggests that the inherent properties of cytoprotection and tissue repair by native MSCs can be enhanced by various preconditioning stimuli implemented prior to cell transplantation. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), a stimulator in extrahypothalamus systems including tumors, has attracted great attentions in recent years because GHRH and its agonists could promote angiogenesis in various tissues. GHRH and its agonists are proangiogenic in responsive tissues including tumors, and GHRH antagonists have been tested as antitumor agents through their ability to suppress angiogenesis and cell growth. GHRH-R is expressed by MSCs and evolving work from our laboratory indicates that treatment of MSCs with GHRH agonists prior to cell transplantation markedly enhanced the angiogenic potential and tissue reparative properties of MSCs through a STAT3 signaling pathway. In this review we summarized the possible effects of GHRH analogues on cell growth and development, as well as on the proangiogenic properties of MSCs. We also discussed the relationship between GHRH analogues and MSC-mediated angiogenesis. The analyses provide new insights into molecular pathways of MSCs-based therapies and their augmentation by GHRH analogues. PMID:27774107

  17. Dermal fillers for facial soft tissue augmentation.

    PubMed

    Dastoor, Sarosh F; Misch, Carl E; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, patients are demanding not only enhancement to their dental (micro) esthetics, but also their overall facial (macro) esthetics. Soft tissue augmentation via dermal filling agents may be used to correct facial defects such as wrinkles caused by age, gravity, and trauma; thin lips; asymmetrical facial appearances; buccal fold depressions; and others. This article will review the pathogenesis of facial wrinkles, history, techniques, materials, complications, and clinical controversies regarding dermal fillers for soft tissue augmentation.

  18. The HART I augmented electric gun facility

    SciTech Connect

    Fikse, D.A.; Ciesar, J.A.; Wehrli, H.A.; Rimersma, H.; Docherty, E.F.; Pipich, C.W. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an augmented electric gun system that has been commissioned. This system, called HART I (Hypervelocity Augmented Railgun Test), is built around a double augmented rail arrangement with a 1.27-cm square bore. It is powered by the SUVAC II 5.6-MJ distributed capacitor power supply. This arrangement allows operation in a simple, series augmented, or transaugmented gun system configuration. The objective of this facility is to perform materials research augmentation studies, and armature development in the 10-km/s regime. Armature masses of 2 to 4 g will be accelerated in a 4-m long barrel. Baseline bore materials will begin with conventional G9/GlidCop systems and then move into pyrolytic boron nitride/refractory materials. Hybrids, plasma, and ablation stabilized armature systems are planned. The gun system is instrumented with plasma and rail B-dot probes for inbore velocity measurements. In addition, breech and muzzle voltages, currents, and external velocities are measured. The HART I system is currently performing hypervelocity experiments to verify the augmentation models.

  19. Synthesis and anticancer evaluation of spermatinamine analogues.

    PubMed

    Moosa, Basem A; Sagar, Sunil; Li, Song; Esau, Luke; Kaur, Mandeep; Khashab, Niveen M

    2016-03-15

    Spermatinamine was isolated from an Australian marine sponge, Pseudoceratina sp. as an inhibitor of isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase (Icmt), an attractive and novel anticancer target. Herein, we report the synthesis of spermatinamine analogues and their cytotoxic evaluation against three human cancer cell lines, that is, cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and prostate carcinoma (DU145). Analogues 12, 14 and 15 were found to be the most potent against one or more cell lines with the IC50 values in the range of 5-10 μM. The obtained results suggested that longer polyamine linker along with aromatic oxime substitution provided the most potent analogue compounds against cancer cell lines. PMID:26874403

  20. Dolastatin 11 conformations, analogues and pharmacophore.

    PubMed

    Ali, Md Ahad; Bates, Robert B; Crane, Zackary D; Dicus, Christopher W; Gramme, Michelle R; Hamel, Ernest; Marcischak, Jacob; Martinez, David S; McClure, Kelly J; Nakkiew, Pichaya; Pettit, George R; Stessman, Chad C; Sufi, Bilal A; Yarick, Gayle V

    2005-07-01

    Twenty analogues of the natural antitumor agent dolastatin 11, including majusculamide C, were synthesized and tested for cytotoxicity against human cancer cells and stimulation of actin polymerization. Only analogues containing the 30-membered ring were active. Molecular modeling and NMR evidence showed the low-energy conformations. The amide bonds are all trans except for the one between the Tyr and Val units, which is cis. Since an analogue restricted to negative 2-3-4-5 angles stimulated actin polymerization but was inactive in cells, the binding conformation (most likely the lowest-energy conformation in water) has a negative 2-3-4-5 angle, whereas a conformation with a positive 2-3-4-5 angle (most likely the lowest energy conformation in chloroform) goes through cell walls. The highly active R alcohol from borohydride reduction of dolastatin 11 is a candidate for conversion to prodrugs.

  1. Augmenting digital displays with computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing

    As we inevitably step deeper and deeper into a world connected via the Internet, more and more information will be exchanged digitally. Displays are the interface between digital information and each individual. Naturally, one fundamental goal of displays is to reproduce information as realistically as possible since humans still care a lot about what happens in the real world. Human eyes are the receiving end of such information exchange; therefore it is impossible to study displays without studying the human visual system. In fact, the design of displays is rather closely coupled with what human eyes are capable of perceiving. For example, we are less interested in building displays that emit light in the invisible spectrum. This dissertation explores how we can augment displays with computation, which takes both display hardware and the human visual system into consideration. Four novel projects on display technologies are included in this dissertation: First, we propose a software-based approach to driving multiview autostereoscopic displays. Our display algorithm can dynamically assign views to hardware display zones based on multiple observers' current head positions, substantially reducing crosstalk and stereo inversion. Second, we present a dense projector array that creates a seamless 3D viewing experience for multiple viewers. We smoothly interpolate the set of viewer heights and distances on a per-vertex basis across the arrays field of view, reducing image distortion, crosstalk, and artifacts from tracking errors. Third, we propose a method for high dynamic range display calibration that takes into account the variation of the chrominance error over luminance. We propose a data structure for enabling efficient representation and querying of the calibration function, which also allows user-guided balancing between memory consumption and the amount of computation. Fourth, we present user studies that demonstrate that the ˜ 60 Hz critical flicker fusion

  2. Classical Simulated Annealing Using Quantum Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Cour, Brian R.; Troupe, James E.; Mark, Hans M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we consider the use of certain classical analogues to quantum tunneling behavior to improve the performance of simulated annealing on a discrete spin system of the general Ising form. Specifically, we consider the use of multiple simultaneous spin flips at each annealing step as an analogue to quantum spin coherence as well as modifications of the Boltzmann acceptance probability to mimic quantum tunneling. We find that the use of multiple spin flips can indeed be advantageous under certain annealing schedules, but only for long anneal times.

  3. 20 CFR 725.210 - Duration of augmented benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of augmented benefits. 725.210... Entitlement Conditions and Duration of Entitlement: Miner's Dependents (augmented Benefits) § 725.210 Duration of augmented benefits. Augmented benefits payable on behalf of a spouse or divorced spouse, or...

  4. 20 CFR 725.210 - Duration of augmented benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of augmented benefits. 725.210... Entitlement Conditions and Duration of Entitlement: Miner's Dependents (augmented Benefits) § 725.210 Duration of augmented benefits. Augmented benefits payable on behalf of a spouse or divorced spouse, or...

  5. The Role of Bone Cement Augmentation in the Treatment of Chronic Symptomatic Osteoporotic Compression Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeun Sung; Kim, Sung Hoon; Ju, Chang Il; Lee, Sung Myung; Shin, Ho

    2010-01-01

    Objective Bone cement augmentation procedures such as percutaneous vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty have been shown to be effective treatment for acute or subacute osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of bone cement augmentation procedures for long standing osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture with late vertebral collapse and persistent back pain. Methods Among 278 single level osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures that were treated by vertebral augmentation procedures at our institute, 18 consecutive patients were included in this study. Study inclusion was limited to initially, minimal compression fractures, but showing a poor prognosis due to late vertebral collapse, intravertebral vacuum clefts and continuous back pain despite conservative treatment for more than one year. The subjects included three men and 15 women. The mean age was 70.7 with a range from 64 to 85 years of age. After postural reduction for two days, bone cement augmentation procedures following intraoperative pressure reduction were performed. Imaging and clinical findings, including the level of the vertebra involved, vertebral height restoration, injected cement volume, local kyphosis, clinical outcome and complications were analyzed. Results The mean follow-up period after bone cement augmentation procedures was 14.3 months (range 12-27 months). The mean injected cement volume was 4.1 mL (range 2.4-5.9 mL). The unipedicular approach was possible in 15 patients. The mean pain score (visual analogue scale) prior to surgery was 7.1, which decreased to 3.1 at 7 days after the procedure. The pain relief was maintained at the final follow up. The kyphotic angle improved significantly from 21.2 ± 4.9° before surgery to 10.4 ± 3.8° after surgery. The fraction of vertebral height increased from 30% to 60% after bone cement augmentation, and the restored vertebral height was maintained at the final follow up

  6. Augmented Reality for the Improvement of Remote Laboratories: An Augmented Remote Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andujar, J. M.; Mejias, A.; Marquez, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) provides huge opportunities for online teaching in science and engineering, as these disciplines place emphasis on practical training and unsuited to completely nonclassroom training. This paper proposes a new concept in virtual and remote laboratories: the augmented remote laboratory (ARL). ARL is being tested in the first…

  7. ARSC: Augmented Reality Student Card--An Augmented Reality Solution for the Education Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Sayed, Neven A. M.; Zayed, Hala H.; Sharawy, Mohamed I.

    2011-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is the technology of adding virtual objects to real scenes through enabling the addition of missing information in real life. As the lack of resources is a problem that can be solved through AR, this paper presents and explains the usage of AR technology we introduce Augmented Reality Student Card (ARSC) as an application of…

  8. Pyridopyrimidine analogues as novel adenosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zheng, G Z; Lee, C; Pratt, J K; Perner, R J; Jiang, M Q; Gomtsyan, A; Matulenko, M A; Mao, Y; Koenig, J R; Kim, K H; Muchmore, S; Yu, H; Kohlhaas, K; Alexander, K M; McGaraughty, S; Chu, K L; Wismer, C T; Mikusa, J; Jarvis, M F; Marsh, K; Kowaluk, E A; Bhagwat, S S; Stewart, A O

    2001-08-20

    A novel series of pyridopyrimidine analogues 9 was identified as potent adenosine kinase inhibitors based on the SAR and computational studies. Substitution of the C7 position of the pyridopyrimidino core with C2' substituted pyridino moiety increased the in vivo potency and enhanced oral bioavailability of these adenosine kinase inhibitors.

  9. Analogues of thiolactomycin as potential antimalarial agents.

    PubMed

    Jones, Simon M; Urch, Jonathan E; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Harwood, John L; Berry, Colin; Gilbert, Ian H

    2005-09-22

    Analogues of the natural antibiotic thiolactomycin (TLM), an inhibitor of the condensing reactions of type II fatty acid synthase, were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Alkylation of the C4 hydroxyl group led to the most significant increase in growth inhibition (over a 100-fold increase in activity compared to TLM). To investigate the mode of action, the P. falciparum KASIII enzyme was produced for inhibitor assay. A number of TLM derivatives were identified that showed improved inhibition of this enzyme compared to TLM. Structure-activity relationships for enzyme inhibition were identified for some series of TLM analogues, and these also showed weak correlation with inhibition of parasite growth, but this did not hold for other series. On the basis of the lack of a clear correlation between inhibition of pfKASIII activity and parasite growth, we conclude that pfKASIII is not the primary target of TLM analogues. Some of the analogues also inhibited the growth of the parasitic protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi, T. brucei, and Leishmania donovani.

  10. Dumb holes: analogues for black holes.

    PubMed

    Unruh, W G

    2008-08-28

    The use of sonic analogues to black and white holes, called dumb or deaf holes, to understand the particle production by black holes is reviewed. The results suggest that the black hole particle production is a low-frequency and low-wavenumber process.

  11. Stilbenophane analogues of deoxycombretastatin A-4.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Carmen; Pérez-Melero, Concepción; Peláez, Rafael; Medarde, Manuel

    2005-08-01

    A new family of polyoxygenated stilbenophanes has been synthesized as conformationally restricted analogues of antimitotic combretastatins. By means of the McMurry olefination process, compounds derived from diethyleneglycol and 1,6-hexanediol were obtained, whereas Grubbs' catalyst failed in producing the ring-closing metathesis to this kind of macrocyclic products.

  12. Analogue Representations of Spatial Objects and Tranformations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Lynn A.

    Considerable discussion and debate have been devoted to the extent and nature of structural or functional correspondence between internal representations and their external visual counterparts. An analogue representation or process is one in which the relational structure of external events is preserved in the corresponding internal…

  13. CO2 Capture with Enzyme Synthetic Analogue

    SciTech Connect

    Cordatos, Harry

    2010-03-01

    Project overview provides background on carbonic anhydrase transport mechanism for CO2 in the human body and proposed approach for ARPA-E project to create a synthetic enzyme analogue and utilize it in a membrane for CO2 capture from flue gas.

  14. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of squalamine analogue.

    PubMed

    Kim, H S; Choi, B S; Kwon, K C; Lee, S O; Kwak, H J; Lee, C H

    2000-08-01

    Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of squalamine analogue 2 are reported. The synthesis of 2 was accomplished from bisnoralcohol 3. The spermidine moiety was introduced via reductive amination of an appropriately functionalized 3beta-aminosterol with spermidinyl aldehyde 17 utilizing sodium triacetoxyborohydride as the reducing agent. Compound 2 shows weaker antimicrobial activity than squalamine. PMID:11003150

  15. The transareolar incision for breast augmentation revisited.

    PubMed

    Kompatscher, Peter; Schuler, Christine; Beer, Gertrude M

    2004-01-01

    Of the various possible incisions for breast augmentation, the transareolar access has gained only limited popularity. The potential side effects of this incision are said to be altered nipple sensation, impaired lactation, an increased rate of infections with capsular fibrosis, well visible scar formation with hypopigmentation, and the need for an additional access in case a breast ptosis correction should prove necessary at a later date. The purpose of this retrospective study was to judge advantages and limitations of transareolar breast augmentation, and to verify whether the reluctant attitude toward this surgical approach is justified. A sample of 18 patients with a transareolar, retropectoral breast augmentation was selected for a retrospective evaluation. The suitability of the technique in general was examined together with early postoperative complications, sensory changes, and late complications on the basis of an evaluation system for cosmetic surgical results. The study showed that only women with an areolar diameter of 3.5 cm or more without pronounced breast ptosis were suitable for the transareolar access. No early infections were noted. The rate of capsular fibrosis was 11%. Two years after breast augmentation, 16 women (89%) judged their breast sensation to be normal, but objective assessment showed that mean pressure and vibration sensation were moderately compromised in all parts of the breast. The scars were of good quality, with very little hypopigmentation. With appropriate patient selection, respecting the advantages and limitations, the transareolar incision has its definite place among the different incisions for breast augmentation. PMID:15164231

  16. [Dmt(1)]DALDA analogues modified with tyrosine analogues at position 1.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yunxin; Lu, Dandan; Chen, Zhen; Ding, Yi; Chung, Nga N; Li, Tingyou; Schiller, Peter W

    2016-08-01

    Analogues of [Dmt(1)]DALDA (H-Dmt-d-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2; Dmt=2',6'-dimethyltyrosine), a potent μ opioid agonist peptide with mitochondria-targeted antioxidant activity were prepared by replacing Dmt with various 2',6'-dialkylated Tyr analogues, including 2',4',6'-trimethyltyrosine (Tmt), 2'-ethyl-6'-methyltyrosine (Emt), 2'-isopropyl-6'-methyltyrosine (Imt) and 2',6'-diethyltyrosine (Det). All compounds were selective μ opioid agonists and the Tmt(1)-, Emt(1) and Det(1)-analogues showed subnanomolar μ opioid receptor binding affinities. The Tmt(1)- and Emt(1)-analogues showed improved antioxidant activity compared to the Dmt(1)-parent peptide in the DPPH radical-scavenging capacity assay, and thus are of interest as drug candidates for neuropathic pain treatment.

  17. [Dmt(1)]DALDA analogues modified with tyrosine analogues at position 1.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yunxin; Lu, Dandan; Chen, Zhen; Ding, Yi; Chung, Nga N; Li, Tingyou; Schiller, Peter W

    2016-08-01

    Analogues of [Dmt(1)]DALDA (H-Dmt-d-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2; Dmt=2',6'-dimethyltyrosine), a potent μ opioid agonist peptide with mitochondria-targeted antioxidant activity were prepared by replacing Dmt with various 2',6'-dialkylated Tyr analogues, including 2',4',6'-trimethyltyrosine (Tmt), 2'-ethyl-6'-methyltyrosine (Emt), 2'-isopropyl-6'-methyltyrosine (Imt) and 2',6'-diethyltyrosine (Det). All compounds were selective μ opioid agonists and the Tmt(1)-, Emt(1) and Det(1)-analogues showed subnanomolar μ opioid receptor binding affinities. The Tmt(1)- and Emt(1)-analogues showed improved antioxidant activity compared to the Dmt(1)-parent peptide in the DPPH radical-scavenging capacity assay, and thus are of interest as drug candidates for neuropathic pain treatment. PMID:27301366

  18. Orthobiologics in the augmentation of osteoporotic fractures.

    PubMed

    Watson, J Tracy; Nicolaou, Daemeon A

    2015-02-01

    Many orthobiologic adjuvants are available and widely utilized for general skeletal restoration. Their use for the specific task of osteoporotic fracture augmentation is less well recognized. Common conductive materials are reviewed for their value in this patient population including the large group of allograft adjuvants categorically known as the demineralized bone matrices (DBMs). Another large group of alloplastic materials is also examined-the calcium phosphate and sulfate ceramics. Both of these materials, when used for the proper indications, demonstrate efficacy for these patients. The inductive properties of bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and platelet concentrates show no clear advantages for this group of patients. Systemic agents including bisphosphonates, receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand (RANKL) inhibitors, and parathyroid hormone augmentation all demonstrate positive effects with this fracture cohort. Newer modalities, such as trace ion bioceramic augmentation, are also reviewed for their positive effects on osteoporotic fracture healing. PMID:25431160

  19. Augmented repair of acute Achilles tendon ruptures.

    PubMed

    Zell, R A; Santoro, V M

    2000-06-01

    Twenty-five patients who had an acute Achilles tendon rupture were managed with an augmented repair using the gastrocnemius-soleus fascia. All patients healed their repair and there were no re-ruptures. There was one infection. Augmented repair allowed early functional recovery as evidenced by full ankle motion by four to eight weeks, full unassisted weight bearing by three weeks, cessation of braces by four weeks, and return to work by one to six weeks post-operatively. Augmentation adds a sufficient amount of collagen to allow early range of motion and weight bearing without re-rupture. Disadvantages included a long incision, soft tissue prominence, one infection, and sural nerve injury.

  20. Flap-augmented shrouds for aerogenerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seginer, A.

    1976-01-01

    Axisymmetrical shrouds for windmills are augmented by ring-shaped 'flaps' and their performance is studied experimentally. The concept of the shroud as an annular 'wing' is justified, leading to the conclusion that high-lift techniques should be used in shroud design, and that high-lift devices, such as flaps, would increase the power output of the windmill. It is shown experimentally that the ideal power output of a flap-augmented shrouded turbine can be more than 4 times the power of unshrouded turbines of the same diameter.

  1. Minimal inframammary incision for breast augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Fanous, Nabil; Tawilé, Caroline; Brousseau, Valérie J

    2008-01-01

    The inframammary approach in breast augmentation, still the most popular technique among plastic surgeons, has always been hampered by the undesirable appearance of its scar. The present paper describes a modified approach to inframammary augmentation with saline-filled prostheses. This approach uses a very short incision, thus resulting in a much less noticeable scar. The surgical technique is easy to learn, simple to execute, does not necessitate any special equipment and gives consistent results. Decreasing the scar length to an absolute minimum ensures higher patient and surgeon satisfaction. PMID:19554159

  2. Bone Cement-Augmented Percutaneous Short Segment Fixation: An Effective Treatment for Kummell's Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon Joo; Kim, Hyeun Sung; Lee, Seok Ki

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of bone cement-augmented percutaneous short segment fixation for treating Kummell's disease accompanied by severe osteoporosis. Methods From 2009 to 2013, ten patients with single-level Kummell's disease accompanied by severe osteoporosis were enrolled in this study. After postural reduction for 1-2 days, bone cement-augmented percutaneous short segment fixation was performed at one level above, one level below, and at the collapsed vertebra. Clinical results, radiological parameters, and related complications were assessed preoperatively and at 1 month and 12 months after surgery. Results Prior to surgery, the mean pain score on the visual analogue scale was 8.5±1.5. One month after the procedure, this score improved to 2.2±2.0 and the improvement was maintained at 12 months after surgery. The mean preoperative vertebral height loss was 48.2±10.5%, and the surgical procedure reduced this loss to 22.5±12.4%. In spite of some recurrent height loss, significant improvement was achieved at 12 months after surgery compared to preoperative values. The kyphotic angle improved significantly from 22.4±4.9° before the procedure to 10.1±3.8° after surgery and the improved angle was maintained at 12 months after surgery despite a slight correction loss. No patient sustained adjacent fractures after bone cement-augmented percutaneous short segment fixation during the follow-up period. Asymptomatic cement leakage into the paravertebral area was observed in one patient, but no major complications were seen. Conclusion Bone cement-augmented percutaneous short segment fixation can be an effective and safe procedure for Kummell's disease. PMID:26279814

  3. Intelligent Augmented Reality Training for Motherboard Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerfield, Giles; Mitrovic, Antonija; Billinghurst, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the combination of Augmented Reality (AR) with Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) to assist with training for manual assembly tasks. Our approach combines AR graphics with adaptive guidance from the ITS to provide a more effective learning experience. We have developed a modular software framework for intelligent AR training…

  4. An Asynchronous Augmentation to Traditional Course Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Marvin L.; Wolverton, Mimi

    Asynchronous augmentation facilitates distributed learning, which relies heavily on technology and self-learning. This paper reports the results of delivering a real estate principles course using an asynchronous course delivery format. It highlights one of many ways to enhance learning using technology, and it provides information concerning how…

  5. Personalized augmented reality for anatomy education.

    PubMed

    Ma, Meng; Fallavollita, Pascal; Seelbach, Ina; Von Der Heide, Anna Maria; Euler, Ekkehard; Waschke, Jens; Navab, Nassir

    2016-05-01

    Anatomy education is a challenging but vital element in forming future medical professionals. In this work, a personalized and interactive augmented reality system is developed to facilitate education. This system behaves as a "magic mirror" which allows personalized in-situ visualization of anatomy on the user's body. Real-time volume visualization of a CT dataset creates the illusion that the user can look inside their body. The system comprises a RGB-D sensor as a real-time tracking device to detect the user moving in front of a display. In addition, the magic mirror system shows text information, medical images, and 3D models of organs that the user can interact with. Through the participation of 7 clinicians and 72 students, two user studies were designed to respectively assess the precision and acceptability of the magic mirror system for education. The results of the first study demonstrated that the average precision of the augmented reality overlay on the user body was 0.96 cm, while the results of the second study indicate 86.1% approval for the educational value of the magic mirror, and 91.7% approval for the augmented reality capability of displaying organs in three dimensions. The usefulness of this unique type of personalized augmented reality technology has been demonstrated in this paper.

  6. CARE: Creating Augmented Reality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latif, Farzana

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores how Augmented Reality using mobile phones can enhance teaching and learning in education. It specifically examines its application in two cases, where it is identified that the agility of mobile devices and the ability to overlay context specific resources offers opportunities to enhance learning that would not otherwise exist.…

  7. Get Real: Augmented Reality for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rebecca; DeBay, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Kids love augmented reality (AR) simulations because they are like real-life video games. AR simulations allow students to learn content while collaborating face to face and interacting with a multimedia-enhanced version of the world around them. Although the technology may seem advanced, AR software makes it easy to develop content-based…

  8. Location-Based Learning through Augmented Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Te-Lien; Chanlin, Lih-Juan

    2014-01-01

    A context-aware and mixed-reality exploring tool cannot only effectively provide an information-rich environment to users, but also allows them to quickly utilize useful resources and enhance environment awareness. This study integrates Augmented Reality (AR) technology into smartphones to create a stimulating learning experience at a university…

  9. Design Principles for Augmented Reality Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunleavy, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Augmented reality is an emerging technology that utilizes mobile, context-aware devices (e.g., smartphones, tablets) that enable participants to interact with digital information embedded within the physical environment. This overview of design principles focuses on specific strategies that instructional designers can use to develop AR learning…

  10. A Universal Logging Format for Augmentative Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesher, Gregory W.; Moulton, Bryan J.; Rinkus, Gerard; Higginbotham, D. Jeffery

    This report discusses how technical and technological advances in alternative and augmentative communication (AAC) have outstripped the ability to assess their impact on actual communication and argues that this is due in part to the lack of a consistent and reliable method to measure long-term communicative efficacy. The report proposes a…

  11. Introduction to augmented and virtual reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caudell, Thomas P.

    1995-12-01

    This paper introduces the field of augmented reality as a prolog to the body of papers in the remainder of this session. I describe the use of head-mounted display technologies to improve the efficiency and quality of human workers in their performance of engineering design, manufacturing, construction, testing, and maintenance activities. This technology is used to `augment' the visual field of the wearer with information necessary in the performance of the current task. The enabling technology is head-up (see-through) display head sets (HUDsets) combined with head position sensing, real world registration systems, and database access software. A primary difference between virtual reality (VR) and `augmented reality' (AR) is in the complexity of the perceived graphical objects. In AR systems, only simple wire frames, template outlines, designators, and text is displayed. An immediate result of this difference is that augmented reality systems can be driven by standard and inexpensive microprocessors. Many research issues must be addressed before this technology can be widely used, including tracking and registration, human 3D perception and reasoning, and human task performance issues.

  12. Antidepressant augmentation with anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2014-09-01

    Antidepressant augmentation strategies are commonly employed to treat depressed patients who do not respond to antidepressant monotherapy. Neuroinflammatory mechanisms have been implicated in depression, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been found effective in animal models of depression both in monotherapy and when used to augment antidepressant drugs. However, results with NSAIDs have been mixed in human observational studies, with both better and worse depression outcomes reported. Four small (pooled N = 160) randomized controlled trials suggest that celecoxib (200-400 mg/d) augmentation of antidepressant medication improves 4-6 week outcomes in major depressive disorder. There are no data, however, to support the use of celecoxib or other NSAIDs in antidepressant-resistant depression. There are also concerns about adverse events associated with NSAID treatment, and about pharmacodynamic drug interactions between these drugs and serotonin reuptake inhibitors. A reasonable conclusion for the present is that NSAID augmentation of antidepressants is, at best, a tentative approach in nonrefractory major depression.

  13. Augmenting the ADDIE Paradigm for Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni, Xiaopeng; Branch, Robert Maribe

    2008-01-01

    The authors discuss topics appropriate for augmenting the ADDIE paradigm for instructional design. The topics selected are based on data from a study of working professionals who successfully completed an instructional design and technology certificate program and who identified related topics that they regarded as beneficial. The participants…

  14. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene augmentation of the lower face.

    PubMed

    Sherris, D A; Larrabee, W F

    1996-05-01

    Most options for rejuvenation of the lower face use soft-tissue fillers that augment the appropriate sites. Each of these options has associated risks and benefits. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently approved the use of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (E-PTFE) as a soft-tissue filler in the face. From January 1991 through December 1993, the authors used E-PTFE soft-tissue patches for lower facial augmentation in 41 patients at 115 implant sites. Postsurgical follow-up has ranged from 2.5 to 4.5 years; during this time, complications have occurred in 4 patients. One implant had to be removed because of a seroma (1 patient), 4 implants required further secondary augmentation (2 patients), and 1 implant required revision because of malposition (1 patient). There have been no cases of implant infection, extrusion, long-term inflammation, or capsule formation. In this article, the authors review the technical aspects of E-PTFE use and discuss issues relating to the long-term efficacy of this new option for soft-tissue augmentation. The technique is also compared with other options for rejuvenation of the lower face. PMID:8628100

  15. Synthesis and biological evaluation of hydrazidomycin analogues.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Florian; Ueberschaar, Nico; Dahse, Hans-Martin; Hertweck, Christian

    2013-11-15

    Hydrazidomycin A is an unusual secondary metabolite of Streptomyces atratus that features a rare enehydrazide core. To learn more about structure-activity relationships of the reported cytotoxic and antiproliferative agent several synthetic routes were explored to synthesize a variety of hydrazidomycin derivatives. Specifically, the size of the side chains, the nature of the double bond and the polar head group were altered. Overall, fourteen analogues were tested for their cytotoxic and antiproliferative effects. Re-examination of synthetic hydrazidomycin A suggests that the antiproliferative activity is attributed to a yet unknown compound that results from degradation or rearrangement. Several of the less complex analogues, however, show antiproliferative activities against individual cancer cell lines and turned out to be more potent than hydrazidomycin A.

  16. Synthesis of constrained analogues of tryptophan

    PubMed Central

    Negrato, Marco; Abbiati, Giorgio; Dell’Acqua, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Summary A Lewis acid-catalysed diastereoselective [4 + 2] cycloaddition of vinylindoles and methyl 2-acetamidoacrylate, leading to methyl 3-acetamido-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazole-3-carboxylate derivatives, is described. Treatment of the obtained cycloadducts under hydrolytic conditions results in the preparation of a small library of compounds bearing the free amino acid function at C-3 and pertaining to the class of constrained tryptophan analogues. PMID:26664620

  17. Platinum analogues in preclinical and clinical development.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, T C; O'Dwyer, P J; Ozols, R F

    1993-11-01

    The impact of cisplatin on chemotherapy for solid tumors has led to the synthesis of many molecules with platinum as their central building block. These so-called platinum analogues have been developed with the obvious goals of improving the antitumor activity of cisplatin and hopefully, at the same time, altering the dose-limiting side effects of the prototype drug. At least 10 such molecules are in clinical development, whereas several others are at various stages of preclinical testing. PMID:8305533

  18. The Brookhaven electron analogue, 1953--1957

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, M.

    1991-12-18

    The following topics are discussed on the Brookhaven electron analogue: L.J. Haworth and E.L. VanHorn letters; Original G.K. Green outline for report; General description; Parameter list; Mechanical Assembly; Alignment; Degaussing; Vacuum System; Injection System; The pulsed inflector; RF System; Ferrite Cavity; Pick-up electrodes and preamplifiers; Radio Frequency power amplifier; Lens supply; Controls and Power; and RF acceleration summary.

  19. Blood Loss Estimation Using Gauze Visual Analogue

    PubMed Central

    Ali Algadiem, Emran; Aleisa, Abdulmohsen Ali; Alsubaie, Huda Ibrahim; Buhlaiqah, Noora Radhi; Algadeeb, Jihad Bagir; Alsneini, Hussain Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimating intraoperative blood loss can be a difficult task, especially when blood is mostly absorbed by gauze. In this study, we have provided an improved method for estimating blood absorbed by gauze. Objectives To develop a guide to estimate blood absorbed by surgical gauze. Materials and Methods A clinical experiment was conducted using aspirated blood and common surgical gauze to create a realistic amount of absorbed blood in the gauze. Different percentages of staining were photographed to create an analogue for the amount of blood absorbed by the gauze. Results A visual analogue scale was created to aid the estimation of blood absorbed by the gauze. The absorptive capacity of different gauze sizes was determined when the gauze was dripping with blood. The amount of reduction in absorption was also determined when the gauze was wetted with normal saline before use. Conclusions The use of a visual analogue may increase the accuracy of blood loss estimation and decrease the consequences related to over or underestimation of blood loss. PMID:27626017

  20. Blood Loss Estimation Using Gauze Visual Analogue

    PubMed Central

    Ali Algadiem, Emran; Aleisa, Abdulmohsen Ali; Alsubaie, Huda Ibrahim; Buhlaiqah, Noora Radhi; Algadeeb, Jihad Bagir; Alsneini, Hussain Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimating intraoperative blood loss can be a difficult task, especially when blood is mostly absorbed by gauze. In this study, we have provided an improved method for estimating blood absorbed by gauze. Objectives To develop a guide to estimate blood absorbed by surgical gauze. Materials and Methods A clinical experiment was conducted using aspirated blood and common surgical gauze to create a realistic amount of absorbed blood in the gauze. Different percentages of staining were photographed to create an analogue for the amount of blood absorbed by the gauze. Results A visual analogue scale was created to aid the estimation of blood absorbed by the gauze. The absorptive capacity of different gauze sizes was determined when the gauze was dripping with blood. The amount of reduction in absorption was also determined when the gauze was wetted with normal saline before use. Conclusions The use of a visual analogue may increase the accuracy of blood loss estimation and decrease the consequences related to over or underestimation of blood loss.

  1. Recent advances in research on nitrergic nerve-mediated vasodilatation.

    PubMed

    Toda, Noboru; Okamura, Tomio

    2015-06-01

    Cerebral vascular resistance and blood flow were widely considered to be regulated solely by tonic innervation of vasoconstrictor adrenergic nerves. However, pieces of evidence suggesting that parasympathetic nitrergic nerve activation elicits vasodilatation in dog and monkey cerebral arteries were found in 1990. Nitric oxide (NO) as a neurotransmitter liberated from parasympathetic postganglionic neurons decreases cerebral vascular tone and resistance and increases cerebral blood flow, which overcome vasoconstrictor responses to norepinephrine liberated from adrenergic nerves. Functional roles of nitrergic vasodilator nerves are found also in peripheral vasculature, including pulmonary, renal, mesenteric, hepatic, ocular, uterine, nasal, skeletal muscle, and cutaneous arteries and veins; however, adrenergic nerve-induced vasoconstriction is evidently greater than nitrergic vasodilatation in these vasculatures. In coronary arteries, neurogenic NO-mediated vasodilatation is not clearly noted; however, vasodilatation is induced by norepinephrine released from adrenergic nerves that activates β1-adrenoceptors. Impaired actions of NO liberated from the endothelium and nitrergic neurons are suggested to participate in cerebral hypoperfusion, leading to brain dysfunction, like that in Alzheimer's disease. Nitrergic neural dysfunction participates in impaired circulation in peripheral organs and tissues and also in systemic blood pressure increase. NO and vasodilator peptides, as sensory neuromediators, are involved in neurogenic vasodilatation in the skin. Functioning of nitrergic vasodilator nerves is evidenced not only in a variety of mammals, including humans and monkeys, but also in non-mammals. The present review article includes recent advances in research on the functional importance of nitrergic nerves concerning the control of cerebral blood flow, as well as other regions, and vascular resistance. Although information is still insufficient, the nitrergic nerve histology and function in vasculatures of non-mammals are also summarized.

  2. An Augmented Reality based 3D Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Ryo; Kishimoto, Katsumi

    This paper presents a 3D catalog system that uses Augmented Reality technology. The use of Web-based catalog systems that present products in 3D form is increasing in various fields, along with the rapid and widespread adoption of Electronic Commerce. However, 3D shapes could previously only be seen in a virtual space, and it was difficult to understand how the products would actually look in the real world. To solve this, we propose a method that combines the virtual and real worlds simply and intuitively. The method applies Augmented Reality technology, and the system developed based on the method enables users to evaluate 3D virtual products in a real environment.

  3. Augmenting Probabilistic Risk Assesment with Malevolent Initiators

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith; David Schwieder

    2011-11-01

    As commonly practiced, the use of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in nuclear power plants only considers accident initiators such as natural hazards, equipment failures, and human error. Malevolent initiators are ignored in PRA, but are considered the domain of physical security, which uses vulnerability assessment based on an officially specified threat (design basis threat). This paper explores the implications of augmenting and extending existing PRA models by considering new and modified scenarios resulting from malevolent initiators. Teaming the augmented PRA models with conventional vulnerability assessments can cost-effectively enhance security of a nuclear power plant. This methodology is useful for operating plants, as well as in the design of new plants. For the methodology, we have proposed an approach that builds on and extends the practice of PRA for nuclear power plants for security-related issues. Rather than only considering 'random' failures, we demonstrated a framework that is able to represent and model malevolent initiating events and associated plant impacts.

  4. Detonation wave augmentation of gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortman, A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study that examined the effects of using detonation waves to augment the performance of gas turbines are reported. The central ideas were to reduce compressor requirements and to maintain high performance in jet engines. Gasdynamic equations were used to model the flows associated with shock waves generated by the detonation of fuel in detonator tubes. Shock wave attenuation to the level of Mach waves was found possible, thus eliminating interference with the compressor and the necessity of valves and seals. A preliminary parametric study of the performance of a compressor working at a 4:1 ratio in a conceptual design of a detonation wave augmented jet engine in subsonic flight indicated a clear superiority over conventional designs in terms of fuel efficiency and thrust.

  5. Vertebral Augmentation: State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Nabhane, Linda; Issa El Khoury, Fouad; Kreichati, Gaby; El Rachkidi, Rami

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVF) are an increasing public health problem. Cement augmentation (vertebroplasty of kyphoplasty) helps stabilize painful OVF refractory to medical treatment. This stabilization is thought to improve pain and functional outcome. Vertebroplasty consists of injecting cement into a fractured vertebra using a percutaneous transpedicular approach. Balloon kyphoplasty uses an inflatable balloon prior to injecting the cement. Although kyphoplasty is associated with significant improvement of local kyphosis and less cement leakage, this does not result in long-term clinical and functional improvement. Moreover, vertebroplasty is favored by some due to the high cost of kyphoplasty. The injection of cement increases the stiffness of the fracture vertebrae. This can lead, in theory, to adjacent OVF. However, many studies found no increase of subsequent fracture when comparing medical treatment to cement augmentation. Kyphoplasty can have a protective effect due to restoration of sagittal balance. PMID:27114782

  6. Improved approximations for control augmented structural synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, H. L.; Schmit, L. A.

    1990-01-01

    A methodology for control-augmented structural synthesis is presented for structure-control systems which can be modeled as an assemblage of beam, truss, and nonstructural mass elements augmented by a noncollocated direct output feedback control system. Truss areas, beam cross sectional dimensions, nonstructural masses and rotary inertias, and controller position and velocity gains are treated simultaneously as design variables. The structural mass and a control-system performance index can be minimized simultaneously, with design constraints placed on static stresses and displacements, dynamic harmonic displacements and forces, structural frequencies, and closed-loop eigenvalues and damping ratios. Intermediate design-variable and response-quantity concepts are used to generate new approximations for displacements and actuator forces under harmonic dynamic loads and for system complex eigenvalues. This improves the overall efficiency of the procedure by reducing the number of complete analyses required for convergence. Numerical results which illustrate the effectiveness of the method are given.

  7. [Augmentation enterocystoplasty. Apropos of 15 cases].

    PubMed

    Benjelloun, S; Elmrini, M; Bennani, S; Aboutaieb, R

    1995-01-01

    We reviewed the efficacy of augmentation enterocystoplasty about 15 cases, based on technical modalities and intestinal loop used. There were 10 tuberculosis bladders, 2 bilharzial bladders, 2 interstitial cystitis and one neurogenic bladder. We used for bladder augmentation the sigmoid (7 cases), ileum (6 cases) and coeco-ileum (2 cases). Ureteroileoplasty is associated in three cases for large tuberculous ureteral stenosis, and reimplantation of ureter in the neobladder is realised in seven cases. The results with detubularized ileum were excellent. We observed in one patient persistence of dilatation of upper urinary tract after use of detubularized sigmoid. The results with use of ileocoecum are poor. We observed good results by using detubularized ileum, so we prefer this intestinal loop than the others. There was no significative difference between different detubularisation technics. Reimplantation of ureter inneobladder is indicated when there is terminal ureteral lesions. PMID:8554290

  8. Projectile oscillations in augmented rail guns

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgdon, M.L.; Fowler, C.M.; Homan, C.G.

    1986-01-01

    The projectile in an inductive store-powered rail gun, augmented by an external magnetic field, will oscillate under certain conditions. This behavior is easily understood when there is no resistance in the circuit comprising the storage coil, rails and armature. In this case, the flux in the complete circuit is conserved. However, as the projectile moves down the rails, more flux from the augmenting field is picked up. This must be accompanied by a decrease in current in the system to conserve the total flux. At a certain distance down the rails, the current must reverse to conserve the flux, and thus the force on the projectile reverses. This mechanism leads to oscillation of the projectile. An analytic solution is given for the case in which the resistance is zero.

  9. TDRSS Augmentation Service for Satellites (TASS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckler, Gregory W.; Gramling, Cheryl; Valdez, Jennifer; Baldwin, Philip

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) reinvigorated the development of the TDRSS Augmentation Service for Satellites (TASS). TASS is a global, space-based, communications and navigation service for users of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). TASS leverages the existing TDRSS to provide an S-band beacon radio navigation and messaging source to users at orbital altitudes 1400 km and below.

  10. The ligament augmentation device: an historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K; Maffulli, N

    1999-05-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is the most common ligament injury in the knee, and a significant number of patients may develop progressive instability and disability despite aggressive rehabilitation. Various materials have been used for its reconstruction. These include autografts, allografts, prosthetic ligaments, and synthetic augmentation of the biological tissue. The concept of ligament augmentation device (LAD) arose from the observation that biological grafts undergo a phase of degeneration and loss of strength before being incorporated. The LAD is meant to protect the biological graft during this vulnerable phase. However, it provokes an inflammatory reaction in the knee, and has been found to delay maturation of autogenous graft in humans. In experimental situations, the LAD has been found to share loads in a composite graft. It has also been found to be substantially stronger than the biological graft. However, in clinical situations no significant advantages have been observed with the use of LAD to augment patellar tendon or hamstring reconstruction of the chronic ACL-deficient knee or in the acute setting to augment repair of the torn ACL. There are very few reports of the use of LAD in reconstruction of the posterior cruciate ligament, and again these do not suggest any advantage in its use. Insertion of the LAD implies the introduction of a foreign material into the knee, has been associated with complications such as reactive synovitis and effusions, and may also be associated with an increased risk of infection. At present, there is no evidence that its routine use should be advocated in uncomplicated reconstructions of the ACL using biological grafts.

  11. Primary Breast Augmentation with Fat Grafting.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Sydney R; Saboeiro, Alesia P

    2015-07-01

    The controversy over fat grafting to the breasts has now been settled. In 2009, the American Society of Plastic Surgeons Fat Graft Task Force stated that "Fat grafting may be considered for breast augmentation and correction of defects associated with medical conditions and previous breast surgeries; however, results are dependent on technique and surgeon expertise." This article discusses the history, indications, planning, complications, and present technique of fat grafting to the breast using the Coleman technique.

  12. Augmented reality visualization for thoracoscopic spine surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Frank; Vogt, Sebastian; Khamene, Ali; Heining, Sandro; Euler, Ekkehard; Schneberger, Marc; Zuerl, Konrad; Mutschler, Wolf

    2006-03-01

    We are developing an augmented reality (AR) image guidance system in which information derived from medical images is overlaid onto a video view of the patient. The centerpiece of the system is a head-mounted display custom fitted with two miniature color video cameras that capture the stereo view of the scene. Medical graphics is overlaid onto the video view and appears firmly anchored in the scene, without perceivable time lag or jitter. We have been testing the system for different clinical applications. In this paper we discuss minimally invasive thoracoscopic spine surgery as a promising new orthopedic application. In the standard approach, the thoracoscope - a rigid endoscope - provides visual feedback for the minimally invasive procedure of removing a damaged disc and fusing the two neighboring vertebrae. The navigation challenges are twofold. From a global perspective, the correct vertebrae on the spine have to be located with the inserted instruments. From a local perspective, the actual spine procedure has to be performed precisely. Visual feedback from the thoracoscope provides only limited support for both of these tasks. In the augmented reality approach, we give the surgeon additional anatomical context for the navigation. Before the surgery, we derive a model of the patient's anatomy from a CT scan, and during surgery we track the location of the surgical instruments in relation to patient and model. With this information, we can help the surgeon in both the global and local navigation, providing a global map and 3D information beyond the local 2D view of the thoracoscope. Augmented reality visualization is a particularly intuitive method of displaying this information to the surgeon. To adapt our augmented reality system to this application, we had to add an external optical tracking system, which works now in combination with our head-mounted tracking camera. The surgeon's feedback to the initial phantom experiments is very positive.

  13. The ligament augmentation device: an historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K; Maffulli, N

    1999-05-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is the most common ligament injury in the knee, and a significant number of patients may develop progressive instability and disability despite aggressive rehabilitation. Various materials have been used for its reconstruction. These include autografts, allografts, prosthetic ligaments, and synthetic augmentation of the biological tissue. The concept of ligament augmentation device (LAD) arose from the observation that biological grafts undergo a phase of degeneration and loss of strength before being incorporated. The LAD is meant to protect the biological graft during this vulnerable phase. However, it provokes an inflammatory reaction in the knee, and has been found to delay maturation of autogenous graft in humans. In experimental situations, the LAD has been found to share loads in a composite graft. It has also been found to be substantially stronger than the biological graft. However, in clinical situations no significant advantages have been observed with the use of LAD to augment patellar tendon or hamstring reconstruction of the chronic ACL-deficient knee or in the acute setting to augment repair of the torn ACL. There are very few reports of the use of LAD in reconstruction of the posterior cruciate ligament, and again these do not suggest any advantage in its use. Insertion of the LAD implies the introduction of a foreign material into the knee, has been associated with complications such as reactive synovitis and effusions, and may also be associated with an increased risk of infection. At present, there is no evidence that its routine use should be advocated in uncomplicated reconstructions of the ACL using biological grafts. PMID:10355719

  14. Augmentation mammaplasty using implants: a review.

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Susumu

    2012-09-01

    One of the techniques for augmentation mammaplasty is the procedure using implants. Even though this technique has been used for many years, there are still several controversial issues to be discussed and overcome for patient safety. In this review article, capsular contracture, leak or rupture of the implants, possible systemic disease, relation with breast cancer, and recent problems with Poly Implant Prothese implants are described and discussed. PMID:23094237

  15. Augmentation Mammaplasty Using Implants: A Review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    One of the techniques for augmentation mammaplasty is the procedure using implants. Even though this technique has been used for many years, there are still several controversial issues to be discussed and overcome for patient safety. In this review article, capsular contracture, leak or rupture of the implants, possible systemic disease, relation with breast cancer, and recent problems with Poly Implant Prothese implants are described and discussed. PMID:23094237

  16. Percutaneous Vertebral Body Augmentation: An Updated Review

    PubMed Central

    Omidi-Kashani, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    There are many medical conditions like osteoporosis, tumor, or osteonecrosis that weaken the structural strength of the vertebral body and prone it to fracture. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation that is usually applied by polymethylmethacrylate is a relatively safe, effective, and long lasting procedure commonly performed in these situations. In this paper, we updated a review of biomechanics, indications, contraindications, surgical techniques, complications, and overall prognosis of these minimally invasive spinal procedures. PMID:25379561

  17. Augmented Classical Least Squares Multivariate Spectral Analysis

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, David M.; Melgaard, David K.

    2005-01-11

    A method of multivariate spectral analysis, termed augmented classical least squares (ACLS), provides an improved CLS calibration model when unmodeled sources of spectral variation are contained in a calibration sample set. The ACLS methods use information derived from component or spectral residuals during the CLS calibration to provide an improved calibration-augmented CLS model. The ACLS methods are based on CLS so that they retain the qualitative benefits of CLS, yet they have the flexibility of PLS and other hybrid techniques in that they can define a prediction model even with unmodeled sources of spectral variation that are not explicitly included in the calibration model. The unmodeled sources of spectral variation may be unknown constituents, constituents with unknown concentrations, nonlinear responses, non-uniform and correlated errors, or other sources of spectral variation that are present in the calibration sample spectra. Also, since the various ACLS methods are based on CLS, they can incorporate the new prediction-augmented CLS (PACLS) method of updating the prediction model for new sources of spectral variation contained in the prediction sample set without having to return to the calibration process. The ACLS methods can also be applied to alternating least squares models. The ACLS methods can be applied to all types of multivariate data.

  18. Augmented Classical Least Squares Multivariate Spectral Analysis

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, David M.; Melgaard, David K.

    2005-07-26

    A method of multivariate spectral analysis, termed augmented classical least squares (ACLS), provides an improved CLS calibration model when unmodeled sources of spectral variation are contained in a calibration sample set. The ACLS methods use information derived from component or spectral residuals during the CLS calibration to provide an improved calibration-augmented CLS model. The ACLS methods are based on CLS so that they retain the qualitative benefits of CLS, yet they have the flexibility of PLS and other hybrid techniques in that they can define a prediction model even with unmodeled sources of spectral variation that are not explicitly included in the calibration model. The unmodeled sources of spectral variation may be unknown constituents, constituents with unknown concentrations, nonlinear responses, non-uniform and correlated errors, or other sources of spectral variation that are present in the calibration sample spectra. Also, since the various ACLS methods are based on CLS, they can incorporate the new prediction-augmented CLS (PACLS) method of updating the prediction model for new sources of spectral variation contained in the prediction sample set without having to return to the calibration process. The ACLS methods can also be applied to alternating least squares models. The ACLS methods can be applied to all types of multivariate data.

  19. Augmented classical least squares multivariate spectral analysis

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, David M.; Melgaard, David K.

    2004-02-03

    A method of multivariate spectral analysis, termed augmented classical least squares (ACLS), provides an improved CLS calibration model when unmodeled sources of spectral variation are contained in a calibration sample set. The ACLS methods use information derived from component or spectral residuals during the CLS calibration to provide an improved calibration-augmented CLS model. The ACLS methods are based on CLS so that they retain the qualitative benefits of CLS, yet they have the flexibility of PLS and other hybrid techniques in that they can define a prediction model even with unmodeled sources of spectral variation that are not explicitly included in the calibration model. The unmodeled sources of spectral variation may be unknown constituents, constituents with unknown concentrations, nonlinear responses, non-uniform and correlated errors, or other sources of spectral variation that are present in the calibration sample spectra. Also, since the various ACLS methods are based on CLS, they can incorporate the new prediction-augmented CLS (PACLS) method of updating the prediction model for new sources of spectral variation contained in the prediction sample set without having to return to the calibration process. The ACLS methods can also be applied to alternating least squares models. The ACLS methods can be applied to all types of multivariate data.

  20. Augmented amputations of the lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Mohler, D G; Kessler, J I; Earp, B E

    2000-02-01

    Ten patients who had amputations of a lower extremity for high-grade sarcomas underwent bone augmentation with either allograft or autograft between 1988 and 1996. There were eight transfemoral amputations and two transtibial amputations. The transferred segments consisted of one proximal tibia and six distal tibia autografts, two allografts, one autograft talar dome and first metatarsal, and one with a patellar cap of a supracondylar amputation. The average length of followup was 54 months. There were no nonunions of any of the grafts. There were three wound problems requiring additional operations. One autograft resorbed, and one autograft had a late infection. There was one local recurrence. Augmentation to provide length resulted in a 42% increase in bone length in those performed purely for length. All patients were able to use standard prostheses. Functional outcome was appropriate to the amputation level. Half of the patients avoided more proximal levels of amputation because of the ability to augment the osteotomy. The use of nonvascularized structural autografts or allografts is a simple procedure that can produce a superior residual limb in patients undergoing amputation. Its use should be considered in patients for whom traditional amputation techniques will result in poor function, difficulty in fitting a prosthesis, or greater than necessary anatomic loss. PMID:10693566

  1. Service connectivity architecture for mobile augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turunen, Tuukka; Pyssysalo, Tino; Roening, Juha

    2001-06-01

    Mobile augmented reality can be utilized in a number of different services, and it provides a lot of added value compared to the interfaces used in mobile multimedia today. Intelligent service connectivity architecture is needed for the emerging commercial mobile augmented reality services, to guarantee mobility and interoperability on a global scale. Some of the key responsibilities of this architecture are to find suitable service providers, to manage the connection with and utilization of such providers, and to allow smooth switching between them whenever the user moves out of the service area of the service provider she is currently connected to. We have studied the potential support technologies for such architectures and propose a way to create an intelligent service connectivity architecture based on current and upcoming wireless networks, an Internet backbone, and mechanisms to manage service connectivity in the upper layers of the protocol stack. In this paper, we explain the key issues of service connectivity, describe the properties of our architecture, and analyze the functionality of an example system. Based on these, we consider our proposition a good solution to the quest for global interoperability in mobile augmented reality services.

  2. Adaptive information design for outdoor augmented reality.

    PubMed

    Neuhöfer, Jan A; Govaers, Felix; El Mokni, Hichem; Alexander, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Augmented Reality focuses on the enrichment of the user's natural field of view by consistent integration of text, symbols and interactive three-dimensional objects in real time. Placing virtual objects directly into the user's view in a natural context empowers highly dynamic applications. On the other hand, this necessitates deliberate choice of information design and density, in particular for deployment in hazardous environments like military combat scenarios. As the amount of information needed is not foreseeable and strongly depends on the individual mission, an appropriate system must offer adequate adaptation capabilities. The paper presents a prototypical, vehicle-mountable Augmented Reality vision system, designed for enhancing situation awareness in stressful urban warfare scenarios. Tracking, as one of the most crucial challenges for outdoor Augmented Reality, is accomplished by means of a Differential-GPS approach while the type of display to attach can be modified, ranging from ocular displays to standard LCD mini-screens. The overall concept also includes envisioning of own troops (blue forces), for which a multi-sensor tracking approach has been chosen. As a main feature, the system allows switching between different information categories, focusing on friendly, hostile, unidentified or neutral data. Results of an empirical study on the superiority of an in-view navigation cue approach conclude the paper.

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmentation of Pulse Detonation Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeineh, Christopher; Cole, Lord; Karagozian, Ann

    2010-11-01

    Pulse detonation engines (PDEs) are the focus of increasing attention due to their potentially superior performance over constant pressure engines. Yet due to its unsteady chamber pressure, the PDE system will either be over- or under-expanded for the majority of the cycle, with energy being used without maximum gain. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) augmentation offers the opportunity to extract energy and apply it to a separate stream where the net thrust will be increased. With MHD augmentation, such as in the Pulse Detonation Rocket-Induced MHD Ejector (PDRIME) concept, energy could be extracted from the high speed portion of the system, e.g., through a generator in the nozzle, and then applied directly to another flow or portion of the flow as a body force. The present high resolution numerical simulations explore the flow evolution and potential performance of such propulsion systems. An additional magnetic piston applying energy in the PDE chamber can also act in concert with the PDRIME for separate thrust augmentation. Results show that MHD can indeed influence the flow and pressure fields in a beneficial way in these configurations, with potential performance gains under a variety of flight and operating conditions. There are some challenges associated with achieving these gains, however, suggesting further optimization is required.

  4. Adult Partner-Augmented Communication Input to Youth with Mental Retardation Using the System for Augmenting Language (SAL).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevcik, Rose A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the frequency and nature of augmented input that adult partners provided to 13 youth with moderate to severe mental retardation as they began to use the System for Augmenting Language. Analyses revealed differences in the frequency and in the manner and style with which home and school partners provided augmented input.…

  5. Digitoxin Analogues with Improved Anticytomegalovirus Activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac glycosides are potent inhibitors of cancer cell growth and possess antiviral activities at nanomolar concentrations. In this study we evaluated the anticytomegalovirus (CMV) activity of digitoxin and several of its analogues. We show that sugar type and sugar length attached to the steroid core structure affects its anticytomegalovirus activity. Structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies identified the l-sugar containing cardiac glycosides as having improved anti-CMV activity and may lead to better understanding of how these compounds inhibit CMV replication. PMID:24900847

  6. Materials analogue of zero-stiffness structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arun; Subramaniam, Anandh

    2011-04-01

    Anglepoise lamps and certain tensegrities are examples of zero-stiffness structures. These structures are in a state of neutral equilibrium with respect to changes in configuration of the system. Using Eshelby's example of an edge dislocation in a thin plate that can bend, we report the discovery of a non-trivial new class of material structures as an analogue to zero-stiffness structures. For extended positions of the edge dislocation in these structures, the dislocation experiences a zero image force. Salient features of these material structures along with the key differences from conventional zero-stiffness structures are pointed out.

  7. Spectroscopic study of solar twins and analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datson, Juliet; Flynn, Chris; Portinari, Laura

    2015-02-01

    Context. Many large stellar surveys have been and are still being carried out, providing huge amounts of data, for which stellar physical parameters will be derived. Solar twins and analogues provide a means to test the calibration of these stellar catalogues because the Sun is the best-studied star and provides precise fundamental parameters. Solar twins should be centred on the solar values. Aims: This spectroscopic study of solar analogues selected from the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey (GCS) at a resolution of 48 000 provides effective temperatures and metallicities for these stars. We test whether our spectroscopic parameters, as well as the previous photometric calibrations, are properly centred on the Sun. In addition, we search for more solar twins in our sample. Methods: The methods used in this work are based on literature methods for solar twin searches and on methods we developed in previous work to distinguish the metallicity-temperature degeneracies in the differential comparison of spectra of solar analogues versus a reference solar reflection spectrum. Results: We derive spectroscopic parameters for 148 solar analogues (about 70 are new entries to the literature) and verify with a-posteriori differential tests that our values are well-centred on the solar values. We use our dataset to assess the two alternative calibrations of the GCS parameters; our methods favour the latest revision. We show that the choice of spectral line list or the choice of asteroid or time of observation does not affect the results. We also identify seven solar twins in our sample, three of which are published here for the first time. Conclusions: Our methods provide an independent means to differentially test the calibration of stellar catalogues around the values of a well-known benchmark star, which makes our work interesting for calibration tests of upcoming Galactic surveys. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Observatory under programme ID 077.D

  8. Analogue models of pull-apart basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClay, Ken; Dooley, Tim

    1995-08-01

    Sandbox analogue models of pull-apart basins that developed in sedimentary strata above releasing steps in underlying basement faults are characterized by rhombic basins that are flat-bottomed box grabens with a subhorizontal synkinematic basin infill. Steep to nearly vertical, sigmoidal oblique-slip and segmented oblique-extensional faults are the dominant bounding structures of the pull-apart basins. Cross-basin, short-cut faults link the offset principal displacement zones that are characterized by flower structure development. The structural architectures of the physical models compare directly in form and dimensions to natural examples of strike-slip pull-apart basins.

  9. Augmenting the activity of antifungal agents against aspergilli using structural analogues of benzoic acid as chemosensitizing agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Structure-activity analysis revealed that antifungal activities of benzoic and gallic acids were increased against strains of Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus and A. terreus, causative agents of human aspergillosis, by addition of a methyl, methoxyl or a chloro group at position 4 of the aromatic ri...

  10. Augmenting the activity of antifungal agents against aspergilli using structural analogues of benzoic acid as chemosensitizing agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several benzoic acid analogs showed antifungal activity against strains of Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus and A. terreus, causative agents of human aspergillosis. Structure-activity analysis revealed that antifungal activities of benzoic and gallic acids increased by addition of a methyl, methoxyl...

  11. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission natural analogue research program

    SciTech Connect

    Kovach, L.A.; Ott, W.R.

    1995-09-01

    This article describes the natural analogue research program of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC). It contains information on the regulatory context and organizational structure of the high-level radioactive waste research program plan. It also includes information on the conditions and processes constraining selection of natural analogues, describes initiatives of the US NRC, and describes the role of analogues in the licensing process.

  12. CO2 Removal using a Synthetic Analogue of Carbonic Anhydrase

    SciTech Connect

    Cordatos, Harry

    2010-09-14

    Project attempts to develop a synthetic analogue for carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it in a membrane for separation of CO2 from coal power plant flue gas. Conference poster presents result of first 9 months of project progress including concept, basic system architecture and membrane properties target, results of molecular modeling for analogue - CO2 interaction, and next steps of testing analogue resistance to flue gas contaminants.

  13. Gluteal tendon repair augmented with a synthetic ligament: surgical technique and a case series.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Thomas A; Darcy, Peter; Ebert, Jay R; Smith, Anne; Janes, Greg

    2014-01-01

    We describe an augmented surgical repair technique for gluteus minimus and medius tears, along with a supportive case series. A consecutive series of 22 patients presenting with clinical and radiological findings consistent with hip abductor tears, who had undergone failed prior conservative treatments, were prospectively recruited. Patients underwent open bursectomy, Y-iliotibial release, debridement of the diseased tendon, decortication of the trochanteric foot-plate and reattachment augmented with a LARS ligament through a trans-osseous tunnel, together with suture anchors. All patients were assessed pre- and postoperatively to 12 months with the Oxford Hip Score (OHS), the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and a Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAS), while a satisfaction scale was employed at 12 months. A statistically significant improvement (p<0.05) was observed for all patient reported outcome measures, while all patients were at least 'satisfied' with the procedure at 12 months. One patient reported some lateral hip discomfort at 10 months, and removal of the LARS interference screw provided immediate relief. One patient had a urological catheter-related complication. With no other complications and no clinical failures of the repair, we believe the technique to be safe and reliable, whilst reducing the incidence of re-tears as reported in the existing literature. PMID:24186680

  14. Adult partner-augmented communication input to youth with mental retardation using the System for Augmenting Language (SAL).

    PubMed

    Sevcik, R A; Romski, M A; Watkins, R V; Deffebach, K P

    1995-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to characterize the frequency and nature of augmented input that adult partners provided to 13 youth with mental retardation as they began to use the System for Augmenting Language (SAL). Analyses of youth-partner interactions revealed differences in the frequency with which home and school partners provided augmented input and in the manner and style of home and school partners' augmented input, particularly in directiveness and position of lexigram symbols within Utterances. Overall, partners naturally provided augmented input in a manner likely to promote youth's learning of the SAL. PMID:7474982

  15. Self-Powered Analogue Smart Skin.

    PubMed

    Shi, Mayue; Zhang, Jinxin; Chen, Haotian; Han, Mengdi; Shankaregowda, Smitha A; Su, Zongming; Meng, Bo; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Haixia

    2016-04-26

    The progress of smart skin technology presents unprecedented opportunities for artificial intelligence. Resolution enhancement and energy conservation are critical to improve the perception and standby time of robots. Here, we present a self-powered analogue smart skin for detecting contact location and velocity of the object, based on a single-electrode contact electrification effect and planar electrostatic induction. Using an analogue localizing method, the resolution of this two-dimensional smart skin can be achieved at 1.9 mm with only four terminals, which notably decreases the terminal number of smart skins. The sensitivity of this smart skin is remarkable, which can even perceive the perturbation of a honey bee. Meanwhile, benefiting from the triboelectric mechanism, extra power supply is unnecessary for this smart skin. Therefore, it solves the problems of batteries and connecting wires for smart skins. With microstructured poly(dimethylsiloxane) films and silver nanowire electrodes, it can be covered on the skin with transparency, flexibility, and high sensitivity. PMID:27010713

  16. Long-term predictions using natural analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct validation of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems (e.g., {open_quotes}natural analogues{close_quotes}) provide perhaps the only means of partial {open_quotes}validation,{close_quotes} as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (nm to km) and temporal (10{sup 3}-10{sup 8} years) scales and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may affect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the {open_quotes}validation{close_quotes} of performance assessments.

  17. Magnetohydrodynamical Analogue of a Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamorano, Nelson; Asenjo, Felipe

    2014-03-01

    We study the conditions that a plasma fluid and its container should meet to generate a magneto-acoustic horizon. This effect becomes an alternative to the analogue black hole found in a transonic fluid flow setting. In this context we use the magnetohydrodynamic formalism (MHD) to analyze the evolution of an irrotational plasma fluid interacting with an external constant magnetic field. Under certain plausible approximations, the dynamic of the field perturbations is described by a scalar field potential that follows a second order differential equation. As we prove here, this equation corresponds to the wave equation associated to a scalar field in a curved space-time. This horizon emerges when the local speed of the medium grows larger than the sound velocity. The magnetic field generates an effective pressure which contributes to the magneto-acoustic speed. We compare these results with the known physics of analogue black holes. We will also refer to our ongoing experiment that, in its first stage, attempts to reproduce the wave horizons found in an open channel with an obstacle: PRL 106, 021302 (2011).

  18. Resorbable polymer fibers for ligament augmentation.

    PubMed

    Dürselen, L; Dauner, M; Hierlemann, H; Planck, H; Claes, L E; Ignatius, A

    2001-01-01

    Resorbable augmentation devices for cruciate ligament surgery have been developed to temporarily protect healing tendon grafts or sutured ligaments against high tensile loads during the postoperative healing period. Materials available at present [e.g., polydioxanone (PDS)] show a half-life tensile strength of only 4-6 weeks, whereas the process of revitalization and recovering of the transplanted tendon graft can take up to 12 months. Therefore, a device that provides gradually decreasing mechanical properties with a half-time strength of at least 6 months would be desirable. In order to obtain a suitable material, we investigated the degradation kinetics of a variety of different resorbable fibers made of poly(L-lactide) and poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide). The fiber materials differed in processing and treatment parameters like thermal posttreatment, irradiation, and fiber diameter. The fibers were degraded in vitro and were tested for mechanical properties and molecular weight at various time points up to 72 weeks. The half-time strength of the materials ranged between 5 and 64 weeks, depending on their treatment parameters. In contrast, the stiffness did not decrease adequately. However, an augmentation stiffness that does not change much versus time could not provide a gradual increase in graft load, which is important to stimulate the orientation of the collagenous tissue. Therefore, design of an augmentation construct braided out of more than one quickly degrading fiber materials is suggested. After the breakdown of the faster-degrading fiber components the stiffness would automatically decrease by the diminution of the load-carrying fiber volume. PMID:11745519

  19. B-52 stability augmentation system reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowling, T. C.; Key, L. W.

    1976-01-01

    The B-52 SAS (Stability Augmentation System) was developed and retrofitted to nearly 300 aircraft. It actively controls B-52 structural bending, provides improved yaw and pitch damping through sensors and electronic control channels, and puts complete reliance on hydraulic control power for rudder and elevators. The system has experienced over 300,000 flight hours and has exhibited service reliability comparable to the results of the reliability test program. Development experience points out numerous lessons with potential application in the mechanization and development of advanced technology control systems of high reliability.

  20. Space Analogue Environments: Are the Populations Comparable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandal, G. M.

    Background: Much of our present understanding about psychology in space is based on studies of groups operating in so-called analogue environments where personnel are exposed to many of the same stressors as those experienced by astronauts in space. One possible problem with extrapolating results is that personnel operating in various hazardous and confined environments might differ in characteristics influencing coping, interaction, and performance. The object of this study was to compare the psychological similarity of these populations in order to get a better understanding of whether this extrapolation is justifiable. The samples investigated include polar crossings (N= 22), personnel on Antarctic research stations (N= 183), several military occupations (N= 187), and participants in space simulation studies (N=20). Methods: Personnel in each of these environments were assessed using the Personality Characteristic Inventory (PCI) and Utrecht Coping List (UCL). The PCI is a multidimensional trait assessment battery that measures various aspects of achievement orientation and social competence. The UCL is a questionnaire designed to assess habitual coping strategies when encountering stressful or demanding situations. Results: Only minor differences in use of habitual coping strategies were evident across the different samples. In relation to personality scores, the military subjects and participants in space simulation studies indicated higher competitiveness and negative instrumentality compared to both the personnel on Antarctic research stations and participants in polar expedition. Among the personnel on Antarctic research stations, significant gender differences were found with women scoring lower on competitiveness, negative instrumentality and impatience/irritability. Compared to the other samples, the participants in polar expeditions were found to be more homogeneous in personality and no significant gender differences were evident on the traits that

  1. Augmenting Your Own Reality: Student Authoring of Science-Based Augmented Reality Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Eric; Sheldon, Josh

    2010-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) simulations superimpose a virtual overlay of data and interactions onto a real-world context. The simulation engine at the heart of this technology is built to afford elements of game play that support explorations and learning in students' natural context--their own community and surroundings. In one of the more recent…

  2. Solution Processed PEDOT Analogues in Electrochemical Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Österholm, Anna M; Ponder, James F; Kerszulis, Justin A; Reynolds, John R

    2016-06-01

    We have designed fully soluble ProDOTx-EDOTy copolymers that are electrochemically equivalent to electropolymerized PEDOT without using any surfactants or dispersants. We show that these copolymers can be incorporated as active layers in solution processed thin film supercapacitors to demonstrate capacitance, stability, and voltage similar to the values of those that use electrodeposited PEDOT as the active material with the added advantage of the possibility for large scale, high-throughput processing. These Type I supercapacitors provide exceptional cell voltages (up to 1.6 V), highly symmetrical charge/discharge behavior, promising long-term stability exceeding 50 000 charge/discharge cycles, as well as energy (4-18 Wh/kg) and power densities (0.8-3.3 kW/kg) that are comparable to those of electrochemically synthesized analogues. PMID:27195798

  3. Jupiter analogues and planets of active stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kürster, M.; Zechmeister, M.; Endl, M.; Lo Curto, G.; Hartman, H.; Nilsson, H.; Henning, T.; Hatzes, A. P.; Cochran, W. D.

    2013-04-01

    Combined results are now available from a 15 year long search for Jupiter analogues around solar-type stars using the ESO CAT + CES, ESO 3.6 m + CES, and ESO 3.6 m + HARPS instruments. They comprise planet (co-)discoveries (ι Hor and HR 506) and confirmations (three planets in HR 3259) as well as non-confirmations of planets (HR 4523 and ɛ Eri) announced elsewhere. A long-term trend in ɛ Ind found by our survey is probably attributable to a Jovian planet with a period >30 yr, but we cannot fully exclude stellar activity effects as the cause. A 3.8 year periodic variation in HR 8323 can be attributed to stellar activity.

  4. Current european regulatory perspectives on insulin analogues.

    PubMed

    Enzmann, Harald G; Weise, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Insulin analogues are increasingly considered as an alternative to human insulin in the therapy of diabetes mellitus. Insulin analogues (IAs) are chemically different from human insulin and may have different pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic properties. The significance of the modifications of the insulin molecule for the safety profile of IAs must be considered. This review describes the regulatory procedure and the expectations for the scientific content of European marketing authorization applications for innovative IAs submitted to the European Medicines Agency. Particular consideration is given to a potential cancer hazard. Specific regulatory guidance on how to address a possible carcinogenic or tumor promoting effect of innovative IAs in non-clinical studies is available. After marketing authorization, the factual access of patients to the new product will be determined to great extent by health technology assessment bodies, reimbursement decisions and the price. Whereas the marketing authorization is a European decision, pricing and reimbursement are national or regional responsibilities. The assessment of benefit and risk by the European Medicines Agency is expected to influence future decisions on price and reimbursement on a national or regional level. Collaborations between regulatory agencies and health technology assessment bodies have been initiated on European and national level to facilitate the use of the European Medicines Agency's benefit risk assessment as basis on which to build the subsequent health technology assessment. The option for combined or joint scientific advice procedures with regulators and health technology assessment bodies on European level or on a national level in several European Member States may help applicants to optimize their development program and dossier preparation in regard of both European marketing authorization application and reimbursement decisions. PMID:21736748

  5. Natural analogues of nuclear waste glass corrosion.

    SciTech Connect

    Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Ebert, W.L.; Luo, J.S.

    1999-01-06

    This report reviews and summarizes studies performed to characterize the products and processes involved in the corrosion of natural glasses. Studies are also reviewed and evaluated on how well the corrosion of natural glasses in natural environments serves as an analogue for the corrosion of high-level radioactive waste glasses in an engineered geologic disposal system. A wide range of natural and experimental corrosion studies has been performed on three major groups of natural glasses: tektite, obsidian, and basalt. Studies of the corrosion of natural glass attempt to characterize both the nature of alteration products and the reaction kinetics. Information available on natural glass was then compared to corresponding information on the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses, specifically to resolve two key questions: (1) whether one or more natural glasses behave similarly to nuclear waste glasses in laboratory tests, and (2) how these similarities can be used to support projections of the long-term corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The corrosion behavior of basaltic glasses was most similar to that of nuclear waste glasses, but the corrosion of tektite and obsidian glasses involves certain processes that also occur during the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The reactions and processes that control basalt glass dissolution are similar to those that are important in nuclear waste glass dissolution. The key reaction of the overall corrosion mechanism is network hydrolysis, which eventually breaks down the glass network structure that remains after the initial ion-exchange and diffusion processes. This review also highlights some unresolved issues related to the application of an analogue approach to predicting long-term behavior of nuclear waste glass corrosion, such as discrepancies between experimental and field-based estimates of kinetic parameters for basaltic glasses.

  6. Terrestrial Analogues for Lunar Impact Melt Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neish, C. D.; Hamilton, C. W.; Hughes, S. S.; Nawotniak, S. Kobs; Garry, W. B.; Skok, J. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Schaefer, E.; Carter, L. M.; Bandfield, J. L.; Osinski, G. R.; Lim, D.; Heldmann, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Lunar impact melt deposits have unique physical properties. They have among the highest observed radar returns at S-Band (12.6 cm wavelength), implying that they are rough at the decimeter scale. However, they are also observed in high-resolution optical imagery to be quite smooth at the meter scale. These characteristics distinguish them from well-studied terrestrial analogues, such as Hawaiian pahoehoe and ?a ?a lava flows. The morphology of impact melt deposits can be related to their emplacement conditions, so understanding the origin of these unique surface properties will help to inform us as to the circumstances under which they were formed. In this work, we seek to find a terrestrial analogue for well-preserved lunar impact melt flows by examining fresh lava flows on Earth. We compare the radar return and high-resolution topographic variations of impact melt flows to terrestrial lava flows with a range of surface textures. The lava flows examined in this work range from smooth Hawaiian pahoehoe to transitional basaltic flows at Craters of the Moon (COTM) National Monument and Preserve in Idaho to rubbly and spiny pahoehoe-like flows at the recent eruption at Holuhraun in Iceland. The physical properties of lunar impact melt flows appear to differ from those of all the terrestrial lava flows studied in this work. This may be due to (a) differences in post-emplacement modification processes or (b) fundamental differences in the surface texture of the melt flows due to the melts' unique emplacement and/or cooling environment. Information about the surface properties of lunar impact melt deposits will be critical for future landed missions that wish to sample these materials.

  7. Virtually-augmented interfaces for tactical aircraft.

    PubMed

    Haas, M W

    1995-05-01

    The term Fusion Interface is defined as a class of interface which integrally incorporates both virtual and non-virtual concepts and devices across the visual, auditory and haptic sensory modalities. A fusion interface is a multi-sensory virtually-augmented synthetic environment. A new facility has been developed within the Human Engineering Division of the Armstrong Laboratory dedicated to exploratory development of fusion-interface concepts. One of the virtual concepts to be investigated in the Fusion Interfaces for Tactical Environments facility (FITE) is the application of EEG and other physiological measures for virtual control of functions within the flight environment. FITE is a specialized flight simulator which allows efficient concept development through the use of rapid prototyping followed by direct experience of new fusion concepts. The FITE facility also supports evaluation of fusion concepts by operational fighter pilots in a high fidelity simulated air combat environment. The facility was utilized by a multi-disciplinary team composed of operational pilots, human-factors engineers, electronics engineers, computer scientists, and experimental psychologists to prototype and evaluate the first multi-sensory, virtually-augmented cockpit. The cockpit employed LCD-based head-down displays, a helmet-mounted display, three-dimensionally localized audio displays, and a haptic display. This paper will endeavor to describe the FITE facility architecture, some of the characteristics of the FITE virtual display and control devices, and the potential application of EEG and other physiological measures within the FITE facility.

  8. HDF Augmentation: Interoperability in the Last Mile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plutchak, J.; Folk, M. J.; Habermann, T.; Knox, L.

    2014-12-01

    Science data files are generally written to serve well-defined purposes for a small science teams. In many cases, the organization of the data and the metadata are designed for custom tools developed and maintained by and for the team. Using these data outside of this context many times involves restructuring, re-documenting, or reformatting the data. This expensive and time-consuming process usually prevents data reuse and thus decreases the total life-cycle value of the data considerably. If the data are unique or critically important to solving a particular problem, they can be modified into a more generally usable form or metadata can be added in order to enable reuse. This augmentation process can be done to enhance data for the intended purpose or for a new purpose, to make the data available to new tools and applications, to make the data more conventional or standard, or to simplify preservation of the data. The HDF Group has addressed augmentation needs in many ways: by adding extra information, by renaming objects or moving them around in the file, by reducing complexity of the organization, and sometimes by hiding data objects that are not understood by specific applications. In some cases these approaches require re-writing the data into new files and in some cases it can be done externally, without affecting the original file. We will describe and compare several examples of each approach.

  9. Vertical Alveolar Ridge Augmentation by Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, N. Nanda; Ravindran, C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Compromised alveolar ridge in vertical and horizontal dimension is a common finding in patients visiting practitioners for dental prosthesis. Various treatment modalities are available for correction of deficient ridges among which alveolar distraction osteogenesis is one. Aim To study the efficacy of alveolar distraction osteogenesis in augmentation of alveolar ridges deficient in vertical dimension. Materials and Methods Ten patients aged 16 to 46 years with deficient alveolar ridge underwent ridge augmentation in 11 alveolar segments using the distraction osteogenesis method. For each patient a custom made distraction device was fabricated. The device was indigenously manufactured with SS-316 (ISO 3506). Results The vertical bone gain reached more than 10mm without the use of bone transplantation. Certain complications like incorrect vector of distraction, paresthesia, pain and loss of transport segment were encountered during the course of the study. Conclusion Alveolar vertical distraction osteogenesis is a reliable and predictable technique for both hard and soft tissue genesis. Implant placement is feasible with primary stability in neogenerated bone at the level of the distracted areas. PMID:26816991

  10. Preconditioning stimuli that augment chromaffin cell secretion.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Laura; García-Eguiagaray, Josefina; García, Antonio G; Gandía, Luis

    2009-04-01

    We have investigated here whether a preconditioned stimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors augmented the catecholamine release responses elicited by supramaximal 3-s pulses of 100 muM acetylcholine (100ACh) or 100 mM K(+) (100K(+)) applied to fast-perifused bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Threshold concentrations of nicotine (1-3 muM) that caused only a tiny secretion did, however, augment the responses elicited by 100ACh or 100K(+) by 2- to 3.5-fold. This effect was suppressed by mecamylamine and by Ca(2+) deprivation, was developed with a half-time (t(1/2)) of 1 min, and was reversible. The nicotine effect was mimicked by threshold concentrations of ACh, choline, epibatidine, and oxotremorine-M but not by methacholine. Threshold concentrations of K(+) caused lesser potentiation of secretion compared with that of threshold nicotine. The data are compatible with an hypothesis implying 1) that continuous low-frequency sympathetic discharge places chromaffin cells at the adrenal gland in a permanent "hypersensitive" state; and 2) this allows an explosive secretion of catecholamines by high-frequency sympathetic discharge during stress.

  11. Soft tissue augmentation with ArteFill.

    PubMed

    Hilinski, John M; Cohen, Steven R

    2009-05-01

    ArteFill is a novel, third-generation polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) injectable filler with unique properties. When compared with predecessor materials, ArteFill demonstrates improved biocompatibility as a result of more uniform PMMA microsphere size and shape. This translates into less adverse events after placement. ArteFill can provide a permanent volume enhancement by stimulation of fibroblasts that encapsulate nonabsorbable microspheres with collagen deposition. Currently, ArteFill is FDA approved for permanent augmentation of moderately deep nasolabial folds. It is also commonly used off-label for augmentation of other skin creases and regional areas of volume deficiency, such as the tear trough-malar and marionette line-prejowl sulcus regions. The key to success with ArteFill is a conservative approach with avoidance of overcorrection. Proper technique includes deep dermal to subcutaneous placement with full correction achieved gradually over several treatments. Complications are mostly limited to nodule formation, which is easily managed in most cases with conservative intervention.

  12. Biological Augmentation of Rotator Cuff Tendon Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kovacevic, David

    2008-01-01

    A histologically normal insertion site does not regenerate following rotator cuff tendon-to-bone repair, which is likely due to abnormal or insufficient gene expression and/or cell differentiation at the repair site. Techniques to manipulate the biologic events following tendon repair may improve healing. We used a sheep infraspinatus repair model to evaluate the effect of osteoinductive growth factors and BMP-12 on tendon-to-bone healing. Magnetic resonance imaging and histology showed increased formation of new bone and fibrocartilage at the healing tendon attachment site in the treated animals, and biomechanical testing showed improved load-to-failure. Other techniques with potential to augment repair site biology include use of platelets isolated from autologous blood to deliver growth factors to a tendon repair site. Modalities that improve local vascularity, such as pulsed ultrasound, have the potential to augment rotator cuff healing. Important information about the biology of tendon healing can also be gained from studies of substances that inhibit healing, such as nicotine and antiinflammatory medications. Future approaches may include the use of stem cells and transcription factors to induce formation of the native tendon-bone insertion site after rotator cuff repair surgery. PMID:18264850

  13. Prospects for Optogenetic Augmentation of Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Sarah; Schultz, Simon R.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to optically control neural activity opens up possibilities for the restoration of normal function following neurological disorders. The temporal precision, spatial resolution, and neuronal specificity that optogenetics offers is unequalled by other available methods, so will it be suitable for not only restoring but also extending brain function? As the first demonstrations of optically “implanted” novel memories emerge, we examine the suitability of optogenetics as a technique for extending neural function. While optogenetics is an effective tool for altering neural activity, the largest impediment for optogenetics in neural augmentation is our systems level understanding of brain function. Furthermore, a number of clinical limitations currently remain as substantial hurdles for the applications proposed. While neurotechnologies for treating brain disorders and interfacing with prosthetics have advanced rapidly in the past few years, partially addressing some of these critical problems, optogenetics is not yet suitable for use in humans. Instead we conclude that for the immediate future, optogenetics is the neurological equivalent of the 3D printer: its flexibility providing an ideal tool for testing and prototyping solutions for treating brain disorders and augmenting brain function. PMID:26635547

  14. Breast Augmentation With Autologous Fat Injection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fa-Cheng; Chen, Bing; Cheng, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Autologous fat transplantation has attracted great interest in breast augmentation for cosmetic purpose. In the present study, we reported our experience in fat grafting in breast in 105 cases, and some detailed procedure concerning efficacy and safety of grafting was evaluated. Methods Fat was harvested using 20-mL syringe attached to a 3-hole blunt cannula in a diameter not beyond 3 mm. After washing with cool normal saline to remove blood, the fat was managed with open method using cotton towel as a platform for concentration fat tissue and separating them from fluids, oil, and debris. A 14-gauge, 1-hole blunt cannula was used to place the fat through 3-mm incision on inframammary fold. The fat was infiltrated into the breast from deep to superficial subcutaneous plane. Results Between July 2002 and August 2010, 105 patients have undergone this procedure. The age distribution of the patients ranged from 18 to 45 years, with a mean of 31.3 years. Grafted fat volume has ranged from 120 to 250 mL (average, 205 mL) per breast per session. All women had a significant improvement in their breast size and shape postoperatively, and the breasts were soft and natural in appearance. Conclusions Liposuction and autologous fat transplantation is a suitable approach for augmentation mammaplasty. PMID:25003461

  15. Analogues of uracil nucleosides with intrinsic fluorescence (NIF-analogues): synthesis and photophysical properties.

    PubMed

    Segal, Meirav; Fischer, Bilha

    2012-02-28

    Uridine cannot be utilized as fluorescent probe due to its extremely low quantum yield. For improving the uracil fluorescence characteristics we extended the natural chromophore at the C5 position by coupling substituted aromatic rings directly or via an alkenyl or alkynyl linker to create fluorophores. Extension of the uracil base was achieved by treating 5-I-uridine with the appropriate boronic acid under the Suzuki coupling conditions. Analogues containing an alkynyl linker were obtained from 5-I-uridine and the suitable boronic acid in a Sonogashira coupling reaction. The uracil fluorescent analogues proposed here were designed to satisfy the following requirements: a minimal chemical modification at a position not involved in base-pairing, resulting in relatively long absorption and emission wavelengths and high quantum yield. 5-((4-Methoxy-phenyl)-trans-vinyl)-2'-deoxy-uridine, 6b, was found to be a promising fluorescent probe. Probe 6b exhibits a quantum yield that is 3000-fold larger than that of the natural chromophore (Φ 0.12), maximum emission (478 nm) which is 170 nm red shifted as compared to uridine, and a Stokes shift of 143 nm. In addition, since probe 6b adopts the anti conformation and S sugar puckering favored by B-DNA, it makes a promising nucleoside analogue to be incorporated in an oligonucleotide probe for detection of genetic material.

  16. A preliminary look at control augmented dynamic response of structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, R. S.; Jewell, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The augmentation of structural characteristics, mass, damping, and stiffness through the use of control theory in lieu of structural redesign or augmentation was reported. The standard single-degree-of-freedom system was followed by a treatment of the same system using control augmentation. The system was extended to elastic structures using single and multisensor approaches and concludes with a brief discussion of potential application to large orbiting space structures.

  17. Optimal Constellation Design for Satellite Based Augmentation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, Isao

    Global Positioning System (GPS) is widely utilized in daily life, for instance car navigation. Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) and Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) are proposed so as to provide GPS better navigation accuracy and integrity capability. Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) is a kind of WAAS and Multi-functional Transportation Satellite (MTSAT) has been developed in Japan. To improve navigation accuracy most efficiently, augmentation satellites should be so placed that minimize Geometric Dilution of Precision (GDOP) of constellation. In this paper the result of optimal constellation design for SBAS is shown.

  18. Reconfigurable hardware for an augmented reality application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo Moreo, F. Javier; Martinez Alvarez, J. Javier; Garrigos Guerrero, F. Javier; Ferrandez Vicente, J. Manuel

    2005-06-01

    An FPGA-based approach is proposed to build an augmented reality system in order to aid people affected by a visual disorder known as tunnel vision. The aim is to increase the user's knowledge of his environment by superimposing on his own view useful information obtained with image processing. Two different alternatives have been explored to perform the required image processing: a specific purpose algorithm to extract edge detection information, and a cellular neural network with the suitable template. Their implementations in reconfigurable hardware pursue to take advantage of the performance and flexibility that show modern FPGAs. This paper describes the hardware implementation of both the Canny algorithm and the cellular neural network, and the overall system architecture. Results of the implementations and examples of the system functionality are presented.

  19. Augmentation of cognitive behavioral therapy with pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ganasen, K A; Ipser, J C; Stein, D J

    2010-09-01

    There has long been interest in combining pharmacotherapy with psychotherapy, including cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). More recently, basic research on fear extinction has led to interest in augmentation of CBT with the N-methyl Daspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor partial agonist D-cycloserine (DCS) for anxiety disorders. In this article, the literature on clinical trials that have combined pharmacotherapy and CBT is briefly reviewed, focusing particularly on the anxiety disorders. The literature on CBT and DCS is then systematically reviewed. A series of randomized placebo-controlled trials on panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia suggest that low dose DCS before therapy sessions may be more effective compared with CBT alone in certain anxiety disorders. The strong translational foundation of this work is compelling, and the positive preliminary data gathered so far encourage further work. Issues for future research include delineating optimal dosing, and demonstrating effectiveness in real-world settings.

  20. Image-processing with augmented reality (AR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaei, Hossein R.; Mohurutshe, Pagiel L.; Habibi Lashkari, Arash

    2013-03-01

    In this project, the aim is to discuss and articulate the intent to create an image-based Android Application. The basis of this study is on real-time image detection and processing. It's a new convenient measure that allows users to gain information on imagery right on the spot. Past studies have revealed attempts to create image based applications but have only gone up to crating image finders that only work with images that are already stored within some form of database. Android platform is rapidly spreading around the world and provides by far the most interactive and technical platform for smart-phones. This is why it was important to base the study and research on it. Augmented Reality is this allows the user to maipulate the data and can add enhanced features (video, GPS tags) to the image taken.

  1. Augmenting Satellite Precipitation Estimation with Lightning Information

    SciTech Connect

    Mahrooghy, Majid; Anantharaj, Valentine G; Younan, Nicolas H.; Petersen, Walter A.; Hsu, Kuo-Lin; Behrangi, Ali; Aanstoos, James

    2013-01-01

    We have used lightning information to augment the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Imagery using an Artificial Neural Network - Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS). Co-located lightning data are used to segregate cloud patches, segmented from GOES-12 infrared data, into either electrified (EL) or non-electrified (NEL) patches. A set of features is extracted separately for the EL and NEL cloud patches. The features for the EL cloud patches include new features based on the lightning information. The cloud patches are classified and clustered using self-organizing maps (SOM). Then brightness temperature and rain rate (T-R) relationships are derived for the different clusters. Rain rates are estimated for the cloud patches based on their representative T-R relationship. The Equitable Threat Score (ETS) for daily precipitation estimates is improved by almost 12% for the winter season. In the summer, no significant improvements in ETS are noted.

  2. Transaxillary endoscopic silicone gel breast augmentation.

    PubMed

    Strock, Louis L

    2010-09-01

    Following the return of silicone gel breast implants to the US market in 2006, augmentation with these implants has become increasingly popular. Surgeons have an array of refined techniques from which to choose when performing these procedures, many of which offer the advantage of reduced or less-obvious postoperative scarring. For obvious reasons, many patients are requesting placement of the implants through incisions that are removed from the breast area (and thereby hidden). The challenge of these approaches is to provide a level of technical control that matches what is afforded with the traditional inframammary approach. The addition of endoscopic assistance has provided a level of tissue visualization and technical control not previously possible with the transaxillary approach, with results that rival those of an inframammary procedure. In this article, the author presents his current operative technique, which has allowed for the routine placement of silicone gel breast implants through a transaxillary incision using endoscopic assistance.

  3. Evolving neural networks through augmenting topologies.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Kenneth O; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2002-01-01

    An important question in neuroevolution is how to gain an advantage from evolving neural network topologies along with weights. We present a method, NeuroEvolution of Augmenting Topologies (NEAT), which outperforms the best fixed-topology method on a challenging benchmark reinforcement learning task. We claim that the increased efficiency is due to (1) employing a principled method of crossover of different topologies, (2) protecting structural innovation using speciation, and (3) incrementally growing from minimal structure. We test this claim through a series of ablation studies that demonstrate that each component is necessary to the system as a whole and to each other. What results is significantly faster learning. NEAT is also an important contribution to GAs because it shows how it is possible for evolution to both optimize and complexify solutions simultaneously, offering the possibility of evolving increasingly complex solutions over generations, and strengthening the analogy with biological evolution. PMID:12180173

  4. Camera Augmented Mobile C-arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lejing; Weidert, Simon; Traub, Joerg; Heining, Sandro Michael; Riquarts, Christian; Euler, Ekkehard; Navab, Nassir

    The Camera Augmented Mobile C-arm (CamC) system that extends a regular mobile C-arm by a video camera provides an X-ray and video image overlay. Thanks to the mirror construction and one time calibration of the device, the acquired X-ray images are co-registered with the video images without any calibration or registration during the intervention. It is very important to quantify and qualify the system before its introduction into the OR. In this communication, we extended the previously performed overlay accuracy analysis of the CamC system by another clinically important parameter, the applied radiation dose for the patient. Since the mirror of the CamC system will absorb and scatter radiation, we introduce a method for estimating the correct applied dose by using an independent dose measurement device. The results show that the mirror absorbs and scatters 39% of X-ray radiation.

  5. Development of the augmented musculature device.

    SciTech Connect

    Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Pankretz, Ty

    2004-12-01

    We developed an Augmented Musculature Device (AMD) that assists the movements of its wearer. It has direct application to aiding military and law enforcement personnel, the neurologically impaired, or those requiring any type of cybernetic assistance. The AMD consists of a collection of artificial muscles, each individually actuated, strategically placed along the surface of the human body. The actuators employed by the AMD are known as 'air muscles' and operate pneumatically. They are commercially available from several vendors and are relatively inexpensive. They have a remarkably high force-to-weight ratio--as high as 400:1 (as compared with 16:1 typical of DC motors). They are flexible and elastic, even when powered, making them ideal for interaction with humans.

  6. Visualizing Sea Level Rise with Augmented Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kintisch, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    Looking Glass is an application on the iPhone that visualizes in 3-D future scenarios of sea level rise, overlaid on live camera imagery in situ. Using a technology known as augmented reality, the app allows a layperson user to explore various scenarios of sea level rise using a visual interface. Then the user can see, in an immersive, dynamic way, how those scenarios would affect a real place. The first part of the experience activates users' cognitive, quantitative thinking process, teaching them how global sea level rise, tides and storm surge contribute to flooding; the second allows an emotional response to a striking visual depiction of possible future catastrophe. This project represents a partnership between a science journalist, MIT, and the Rhode Island School of Design, and the talk will touch on lessons this projects provides on structuring and executing such multidisciplinary efforts on future design projects.

  7. Status of Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Lineberry, John T.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past several years, efforts have been under way to design and develop an operationally flexible research facility for investigating the use of cross-field MHD accelerators as a potential thrust augmentation device for thermal propulsion systems, The baseline configuration for this high-power experimental facility utilizes a 1,5-MW, multi-gas arc-heater as a thermal driver for a 2-MW, MHD accelerator, which resides in a large-bore 2-tesla electromagnet. A preliminary design study using NaK seeded nitrogen as the working fluid led to an externally diagonalized segmented MHD channel configuration based on an expendable beat-sink design concept. The current status report includes a review of engineering/design work and performance optimization analyses and summarizes component hardware fabrication and development efforts, preliminary testing results, and recent progress toward full-up assembly and testing

  8. Augmented Shock Wave Severance of Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach for severing or weakening a variety of materials. The technique employs embedding explosive cords into parallel grooves that are cut into a surface of a material. The cords are initiated simultaneously to produce shock waves that progress toward the centerline between the cords and the lower surface of the material. Intersecting incident and reflected waves augment at the centerline to fail or weaken the material in tension. No harmful debris is produced on the opposite side of the material from the explosive cords. The primary focus of the effort described in this paper was to fracture the F-16 aircraft trilaminate canopy. Also, complete severance was achieved in 2024-T4 aluminum plate stock. Possible applications are through canopy egress and crew module severance from military aircraft and separation of rocket vehicle stages and payloads. This approach offers important advantages over explosive methods currently in use.

  9. Performance of a solar augmented heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedinger, A. F. G.; Tomlinson, J. J.; Reid, R. L.; Chaffin, D. J.

    Performance of a residential size solar augmented heat pump is reported for the 1979-1980 heating season. The facility located in Knoxville, Tennessee, has a measured heat load coefficient of 339.5 watt/C (644 BTU/hr- F). The solar augmented heat pump system consists of 7.4 cu m of one inch diameter crushed limestone. The heat pump is a nominal 8.8 KW (2 1/2 ton) high efficiency unit. The system includes electric resistance heaters to give the option of adding thermal energy to the pebble bed storage during utility off-peak periods, thus offering considerable load management capability. A 15 KW electric resistance duct heater is used to add thermal energy to the pebble bin as required during off-peak periods. Hourly thermal performance and on site weather data was taken for the period November 1, 1979, to April 13, 1980. Thermal performance data consists of heat flow summations for all modes of the system, pebble bed temperatures, and space temperature. Weather data consists of dry bulb temperature, dew point temperature, total global insolation (in the plane of the collector), and wind speed and direction. An error analysis was performed and the least accurate of the measurements was determined to be the heat flow at 5%. Solar system thermal performance factor was measured to be 8.77. The heat pump thermal performance factor was 1.64. Total system seasonal performance factor was measured to be 1.66. Using a modified version of TRNSYS, the thermal performance of this system was simulated. When simulation results were compared with data collected onsite, the predicted heat flow and power consumption generally were within experimental accuracy.

  10. Synthesis, antiarrhythmic activity, and toxicological evaluation of mexiletine analogues.

    PubMed

    Roselli, Mariagrazia; Carocci, Alessia; Budriesi, Roberta; Micucci, Matteo; Toma, Maddalena; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Lovece, Angelo; Catalano, Alessia; Cavalluzzi, Maria Maddalena; Bruno, Claudio; De Palma, Annalisa; Contino, Marialessandra; Perrone, Maria Grazia; Colabufo, Nicola Antonio; Chiarini, Alberto; Franchini, Carlo; Ghelardini, Carla; Habtemariam, Solomon; Lentini, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    Four mexiletine analogues have been tested for their antiarrhythmic, inotropic, and chronotropic effects on isolated guinea pig heart tissues and to assess calcium antagonist activity, in comparison with the parent compound mexiletine. All analogues showed from moderate to high antiarrhythmic activity. In particular, three of them (1b,c,e) were more active and potent than the reference drug, while exhibiting only modest or no negative inotropic and chronotropic effects and vasorelaxant activity, thus showing high selectivity of action. All compounds showed no cytotoxicity and 1b,c,d did not impair motor coordination. All in, these new analogues exhibit an interesting cardiovascular profile and deserve further investigation. PMID:27267000

  11. Synthesis, antiarrhythmic activity, and toxicological evaluation of mexiletine analogues.

    PubMed

    Roselli, Mariagrazia; Carocci, Alessia; Budriesi, Roberta; Micucci, Matteo; Toma, Maddalena; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Lovece, Angelo; Catalano, Alessia; Cavalluzzi, Maria Maddalena; Bruno, Claudio; De Palma, Annalisa; Contino, Marialessandra; Perrone, Maria Grazia; Colabufo, Nicola Antonio; Chiarini, Alberto; Franchini, Carlo; Ghelardini, Carla; Habtemariam, Solomon; Lentini, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    Four mexiletine analogues have been tested for their antiarrhythmic, inotropic, and chronotropic effects on isolated guinea pig heart tissues and to assess calcium antagonist activity, in comparison with the parent compound mexiletine. All analogues showed from moderate to high antiarrhythmic activity. In particular, three of them (1b,c,e) were more active and potent than the reference drug, while exhibiting only modest or no negative inotropic and chronotropic effects and vasorelaxant activity, thus showing high selectivity of action. All compounds showed no cytotoxicity and 1b,c,d did not impair motor coordination. All in, these new analogues exhibit an interesting cardiovascular profile and deserve further investigation.

  12. Potential Use of Augmented Reality in LIS Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wójcik, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The subject of this article is the use of augmented reality technology in library and information science education. The aim is to determine the scope and potential uses of augmented reality in the education of information professionals. In order to determine the scope and forms of potential use of AR technology in LIS education a two-step…

  13. Augmenting a Child's Reality: Using Educational Tablet Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Patricia; Karas, Carly; Schofield, Damian

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the classroom integration of an innovative technology, augmented reality. Although the process of adding new technologies into a classroom setting can be daunting, the concept of augmented reality has demonstrated the ability to educate students and to assist with their comprehension of a procedural task. One half of the…

  14. 14 CFR 91.1061 - Augmented flight crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Augmented flight crews. 91.1061 Section 91... Operations Program Management § 91.1061 Augmented flight crews. (a) No program manager may assign any flight crewmember, and no flight crewmember may accept an assignment, for flight time as a member of an...

  15. The Local Games Lab ABQ: Homegrown Augmented Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Experiments in the use of augmented reality games formerly required extensive material resources and expertise to implement above and beyond what might be possible within the usual educational contexts. Currently, the more common availability of hardware in these contexts and the existence of easy-to-use, general purpose augmented reality design…

  16. Augmented Reality, the Future of Contextual Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sungkur, Roopesh Kevin; Panchoo, Akshay; Bhoyroo, Nitisha Kirtee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to show the relevance of augmented reality (AR) in mobile learning for the 21st century. With AR, any real-world environment can be augmented by providing users with accurate digital overlays. AR is a promising technology that has the potential to encourage learners to explore learning materials from a totally new…

  17. 14 CFR 25.945 - Thrust or power augmentation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... augmentation liquid tank capacity available for the use of each engine must be large enough to allow operation of the airplane under the approved procedures for the use of liquid-augmented power. The computation of liquid consumption must be based on the maximum approved rate appropriate for the desired...

  18. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ressa, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    A percussive augmenter is being developed and it is designed to add ultrasonic hammering to a conventional commercial rotary drill through an adapter using a piezoelectric actuator. The combination of ultrasonic hammering and rotation creates a drill that requires low power and low axial load while providing faster penetration than conventional rotary-only drills. These characteristics make percussive augmentation of rotary drills ideal for not only planetary exploration but commercial applications as well. The purpose of this internship was to produce, test, and optimize an augmenter that drives a 2 inch diameter bit. This task was part of the percussive augmenter's phase II of an ongoing contract and it involved increasing the capability of the .25 inch version of the augmenter prototype that was developed in phase I. Due to fabrication delays of the augmenter, an extensive part of the test effort was conducted using previous rotary and hammer drill prototypes. These tests focused on drilling deep over long periods of time to provide for effective stress test of the drill. Modifications were made to the drill, its components, and the testing procedure to achieve desired borehole depths. These results were used to start initial testing on the 2 inch augmenter and provide preliminary data on the augmenter's ability to significantly improve penetration rate over conventional rotary-only drills.

  19. On Location Learning: Authentic Applied Science with Networked Augmented Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Eric; Klopfer, Eric; Perry, Judy

    2007-01-01

    The learning of science can be made more like the practice of science through authentic simulated experiences. We have created a networked handheld Augmented Reality environment that combines the authentic role-playing of Augmented Realities and the underlying models of Participatory Simulations. This game, known as Outbreak @ The Institute, is…

  20. Augmentation of Cognition and Perception Through Advanced Synthetic Vision Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Williams, Steve P.; McNabb, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic Vision System technology augments reality and creates a virtual visual meteorological condition that extends a pilot's cognitive and perceptual capabilities during flight operations when outside visibility is restricted. The paper describes the NASA Synthetic Vision System for commercial aviation with an emphasis on how the technology achieves Augmented Cognition objectives.

  1. 14 CFR 91.1061 - Augmented flight crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Augmented flight crews. 91.1061 Section 91...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1061 Augmented flight crews. (a) No program manager may assign any...

  2. Insulin, insulin analogues and diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Chantelau, Ernst; Kimmerle, Renate; Meyer-Schwickerath, Rolf

    2008-02-01

    Insulin is absolutely vital for living beings. It is not only involved in metabolism, but also in the regulation of growth factors, e.g. IGF-1. In this review we address the role insulin has in the natural evolution of diabetic retinopathy. On the one hand, chronic deficiency of insulin and IGF-1 at the retina is thought to cause capillary degeneration, with subsequent ischaemia. On the other hand, acute abundance of (exogenously administered) insulin and IGF-1 enhances ischaemia-induced VEGF expression. A critical ratio of tissue VEGF-susceptibility: VEGF-availability triggers vascular proliferation (i.e. of micro-aneurysms and/or abnormal vessels). The patent-protected insulin analogues Lispro, Glulisine, Aspart, Glargine and Detemir are artificial insulin derivatives with altered biological responses compared to natural insulin (e.g. divergent insulin and /or IGF-1 receptor-binding characteristics, signalling patterns, and mitogenicity). Their safety profiles concerning diabetic retinopathy remain to be established by randomised controlled trials. Anecdotal reports and circumstantial evidence suggest that Lispro and Glargine might worsen diabetic retinopathy.

  3. Actions of Thyroid Hormone Analogues on Chemokines.

    PubMed

    Davis, Paul J; Glinsky, Gennadi V; Lin, Hung-Yun; Mousa, Shaker A

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular domain of plasma membrane integrin αvβ3 contains a receptor for thyroid hormone (L-thyroxine, T4; 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine, T3); this receptor also binds tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), a derivative of T4. Tetrac inhibits the binding of T4 and T3 to the integrin. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a chemokine relevant to inflammatory processes in the CNS that are microglia-dependent but also important to normal brain development. Expression of the CX3CL1 gene is downregulated by tetrac, suggesting that T4 and T3 may stimulate fractalkine expression. Independently of its specific receptor (CX3CR1), fractalkine binds to αvβ3 at a site proximal to the thyroid hormone-tetrac receptor and changes the physical state of the integrin. Tetrac also affects expression of the genes for other CNS-relevant chemokines, including CCL20, CCL26, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL10. The chemokine products of these genes are important to vascularity of the brain, particularly of the choroid plexus, to inflammatory processes in the CNS and, in certain cases, to neuroprotection. Thyroid hormones are known to contribute to regulation of each of these CNS functions. We propose that actions of thyroid hormone and hormone analogues on chemokine gene expression contribute to regulation of inflammatory processes in brain and of brain blood vessel formation and maintenance. PMID:27493972

  4. Inhibition of monoamine oxidase by benzoxathiolone analogues.

    PubMed

    Mostert, Samantha; Petzer, Anél; Petzer, Jacobus P

    2016-02-15

    Inhibitors of the monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes are considered useful therapeutic agents, and are used in the clinic for the treatment of depressive illness and Parkinson's disease. In addition, MAO inhibitors are also under investigation for the treatment of certain cardiovascular pathologies and as possible aids to smoking cessation. In an attempt to discover novel classes of compounds that inhibit the MAOs, the current study examines the human MAO inhibitory properties of a small series of 2H-1,3-benzoxathiol-2-one analogues. The results show that the benzoxathiolones are potent MAO-B inhibitors with IC50 values ranging from 0.003 to 0.051 μM. Although the benzoxathiolones are selective for the MAO-B isoform, two compounds display good MAO-A inhibition with IC50 values of 0.189 and 0.424 μM. Dialysis studies show that a selected compound inhibits the MAOs reversibly. It may thus be concluded that the benzoxathiolone class is suitable for the design and development of MAO-B inhibitors, and that in some instances good MAO-A inhibition may also be achieved.

  5. Fluorescent polyene ceramide analogues as membrane probes.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Ingrid; Artetxe, Ibai; Abad, José Luis; Alonso, Alicia; Busto, Jon V; Fajarí, Lluís; Montes, L Ruth; Sot, Jesús; Delgado, Antonio; Goñi, Félix M

    2015-03-01

    Three ceramide analogues have been synthesized, with sphingosine-like chains containing five conjugated double bonds. Pentaene I has an N-palmitoyl acyl chain, while the other two pentaenes contain also a doxyl radical, respectively, at C5 (Penta5dox) and at C16 (Penta16dox) positions of the N-acyl chain. Pentaene I maximum excitation and emission wavelengths in a phospholipid bilayer are 353 and 478 nm, respectively. Pentaene I does not segregate from the other lipids in the way natural ceramide does, but rather mixes with them in a selective way according to the lipid phases involved. Fluorescence confocal microscopy studies show that when lipid domains in different physical states coexist, Pentaene I emission is higher in gel than in fluid domains, and in liquid-ordered than in liquid-disordered areas. Electron paramagnetic resonance of the pentaene doxyl probes confirms that these molecules are sensitive to the physical state of the bilayer. Calorimetric and fluorescence quenching experiments suggest that the lipids under study orient themselves in lipid bilayers with their polar moieties located at the lipid-water interface. The doxyl radical in the N-acyl chain quenches the fluorescence of the pentaene group when in close proximity. Because of this property, Penta16dox can detect gel-fluid transitions in phospholipids. The availability of probes for lipids in the gel phase is important in view of novel evidence for the existence of gel microdomains in cell membranes.

  6. Inhibition of firefly luciferase by alkane analogues.

    PubMed

    Takehara, Kô; Kamaya, Hiroshi; Ueda, Issaku

    2005-01-18

    We reported that anesthetics increased the partial molal volume of firefly luciferase (FFL), while long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) decreased it. The present study measured the actions of dodecanol (neutral), dodecanoic acid (negatively charged), and dodecylamine (positively charged) hydrophobic molecules on FFL. The interaction modes are measured by (1) ATP-induced bioluminescence of FFL and (2) fluorescence of 2-(p-toluidino)naphthalene-6-sulfonate (TNS). TNS fluoresces brightly in hydrophobic media. It competes with the substrate luciferin on the FFL binding. From the Scatchard plot of TNS titration, the maximum binding number of TNS was 0.83, and its binding constant was 8.27 x 10(5) M(-1). Job's plot also showed that the binding number is 0.89. From the TNS titration of FFL, the binding constant was estimated to be 8.8 x 10(5) M(-1). Dodecanoic acid quenched the TNS fluorescence entirely. Dodecanol quenched about 25% of the fluorescence, whereas dodecylamine increased it. By comparing the fluorescence of TNS and bioluminescence of FFL, the binding modes and the inhibition mechanisms of these dodecane analogues are classified in three different modes: competitive (dodecanoic acid), noncompetitive (dodecylamine), and mixed (dodecanol).

  7. Radiolabeled Somatostatin Analogue Therapy Of Gastroenteropancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bodei, Lisa; Kwekkeboom, Dik J; Kidd, Mark; Modlin, Irvin M; Krenning, Eric P

    2016-05-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) has been utilized for more than two decades and has been accepted as an effective therapeutic modality in the treatment of inoperable or metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) or neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). The two most commonly used radiopeptides for PRRT, (90)Y-octreotide and (177)Lu-octreotate, produce disease-control rates of 68%-94%, with progression-free survival rates that compare favorably with chemotherapy, somatostatin analogues, and newer targeted therapies. In addition, biochemical and symptomatic responses are commonly observed. In general, PRRT is well tolerated with only low to moderate toxicity in most individuals. In line with the need to place PRRT in the therapeutic sequence of gastroenteropancreatic NENs, a recently sponsored phase III randomized trial in small intestine NENs treated with (177)Lu-octreotate vs high-dose octreotide long-acting release demonstrated that (177)Lu-octreotate significantly improved progression-free survival. Other strategies that are presently being developed include combinations with targeted therapies or chemotherapy, intra-arterial PRRT, and salvage treatments. Sophisticated molecular tools need to be incorporated into the management strategy to more effectively define therapeutic efficacy and for an early identification of adverse events. The strategy of randomized controlled trials is a key issue to standardize the treatment and establish the position of PRRT in the therapeutic algorithm of NENs. PMID:27067503

  8. Actions of Thyroid Hormone Analogues on Chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Glinsky, Gennadi V.

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular domain of plasma membrane integrin αvβ3 contains a receptor for thyroid hormone (L-thyroxine, T4; 3,5,3′-triiodo-L-thyronine, T3); this receptor also binds tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), a derivative of T4. Tetrac inhibits the binding of T4 and T3 to the integrin. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a chemokine relevant to inflammatory processes in the CNS that are microglia-dependent but also important to normal brain development. Expression of the CX3CL1 gene is downregulated by tetrac, suggesting that T4 and T3 may stimulate fractalkine expression. Independently of its specific receptor (CX3CR1), fractalkine binds to αvβ3 at a site proximal to the thyroid hormone-tetrac receptor and changes the physical state of the integrin. Tetrac also affects expression of the genes for other CNS-relevant chemokines, including CCL20, CCL26, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL10. The chemokine products of these genes are important to vascularity of the brain, particularly of the choroid plexus, to inflammatory processes in the CNS and, in certain cases, to neuroprotection. Thyroid hormones are known to contribute to regulation of each of these CNS functions. We propose that actions of thyroid hormone and hormone analogues on chemokine gene expression contribute to regulation of inflammatory processes in brain and of brain blood vessel formation and maintenance. PMID:27493972

  9. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma mimicking salivary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lindsay; Chiosea, Simion I

    2013-12-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor characterized by ETV6 translocation. It appears that prior studies have identified MASC by reviewing salivary gland carcinomas, such as acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. To address the possibility of MASC mimicking benign salivary neoplasms we reviewed 12 salivary gland (cyst)adenomas diagnosed prior to the discovery of MASC. One encapsulated (cyst)adenoma of the parotid gland demonstrated features of MASC. The diagnosis was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization with an ETV6 break-apart probe. An unusual complex pattern of ETV6 rearrangement with duplication of the telomeric/distal ETV6 probe was identified. This case illustrates that MASC may mimic salivary (cyst)adenomas. To more accurately assess true clinical and morphologic spectrum of MASC, future studies may have to include review of salivary (cyst)adenomas. The differential diagnosis of MASC may have to be expanded to include cases resembling salivary (cyst)adenomas.

  10. Augmentation in Restless Legs Syndrome: Treatment with Gradual Medication Modification.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, Adam; Rabin, Marcie; Kurlan, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Dopaminergic drugs can cause augmentation during the treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS). We previously reported that sudden withdrawal of dopaminergic treatment was poorly tolerated. We now report our experience with gradual withdrawal of the dopaminergic drug during the drug substitution process using a retrospective chart review with comparison to previous data. Seven patients with RLS and dopaminergic drug-induced augmentation were treated with a gradual withdrawal of the offending drug and replacement with an alternative medication. Compared to sudden withdrawal, measured outcomes were similar but gradual tapering was better tolerated. We conclude that for augmentation in RLS, gradual tapering of the augmentation-inducing dopaminergic drug is better tolerated than sudden withdrawal. The optimal approach to treating augmentation has not been established and may differ between patients. Further study with direct comparison of strategies and a larger patient population is needed to confirm our preliminary observations.

  11. Augmentation in Restless Legs Syndrome: Treatment with Gradual Medication Modification

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstein, Adam; Rabin, Marcie; Kurlan, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Dopaminergic drugs can cause augmentation during the treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS). We previously reported that sudden withdrawal of dopaminergic treatment was poorly tolerated. We now report our experience with gradual withdrawal of the dopaminergic drug during the drug substitution process using a retrospective chart review with comparison to previous data. Seven patients with RLS and dopaminergic drug-induced augmentation were treated with a gradual withdrawal of the offending drug and replacement with an alternative medication. Compared to sudden withdrawal, measured outcomes were similar but gradual tapering was better tolerated. We conclude that for augmentation in RLS, gradual tapering of the augmentation-inducing dopaminergic drug is better tolerated than sudden withdrawal. The optimal approach to treating augmentation has not been established and may differ between patients. Further study with direct comparison of strategies and a larger patient population is needed to confirm our preliminary observations. PMID:26106453

  12. Creating Tangible Interfaces by Augmenting Physical Objects with Multimodal Language

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, David R. ); Cohen, Philip R.

    2001-01-01

    Rasa is a tangible augmented reality environment that digitally enhances the existing paper-based command and control capability in a military command post. By observing and understanding the users' speech, pen, and touch-based multimodal language, Rasa computationally augments the physical objects on a command post map, linking these items to digital representations of the same; for example, linking a paper map to the world and Post-it notes to military units. Herein, we give a thorough account of Rasa's underlying multiagent framework, and its recognition, understanding, and multimodal integration components. Moreover, we examine five properties of language: generativity, comprehensibility, compositionality, referentiality, and, at times, persistence--that render it suitable as an augmentation approach, contrasting these properties to those of other augmentation methods. It is these properties of language that allow users of Rasa to augment physical objects, transforming them into tangible interfaces.

  13. Augmented Reality as a Countermeasure for Sleep Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, James; Dorrlan, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan; Chatburn, Alex; Smith, Ross T; Carskadon, Mary A; Lushington, Kurt; Thomas, Bruce H

    2016-04-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to have serious deleterious effects on executive functioning and job performance. Augmented reality has an ability to place pertinent information at the fore, guiding visual focus and reducing instructional complexity. This paper presents a study to explore how spatial augmented reality instructions impact procedural task performance on sleep deprived users. The user study was conducted to examine performance on a procedural task at six time points over the course of a night of total sleep deprivation. Tasks were provided either by spatial augmented reality-based projections or on an adjacent monitor. The results indicate that participant errors significantly increased with the monitor condition when sleep deprived. The augmented reality condition exhibited a positive influence with participant errors and completion time having no significant increase when sleep deprived. The results of our study show that spatial augmented reality is an effective sleep deprivation countermeasure under laboratory conditions.

  14. A lifting surface theory for thrust augmenting ejectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bevilaqua, P. M.

    1977-01-01

    The circulation theory of airfoil lift has been applied to calculate the performance of thrust augmenting ejectors. The ejector shroud is considered to be 'flying' in the secondary velocity field induced by the entrainment of the primary jet, so that the augmenting thrust is viewed as analogous to the lift on an airfoil. Vortex lattice methods are utilized to compute the thrust augmentation from the force on the flaps. The augmentation is shown to be a function of the length and shape of the flaps, as well as their position and orientation. Predictions of this new theory are compared with the results of classical methods of calculating the augmentation by integration of the stream thrust.

  15. Augmented Reality as a Countermeasure for Sleep Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, James; Dorrlan, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan; Chatburn, Alex; Smith, Ross T; Carskadon, Mary A; Lushington, Kurt; Thomas, Bruce H

    2016-04-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to have serious deleterious effects on executive functioning and job performance. Augmented reality has an ability to place pertinent information at the fore, guiding visual focus and reducing instructional complexity. This paper presents a study to explore how spatial augmented reality instructions impact procedural task performance on sleep deprived users. The user study was conducted to examine performance on a procedural task at six time points over the course of a night of total sleep deprivation. Tasks were provided either by spatial augmented reality-based projections or on an adjacent monitor. The results indicate that participant errors significantly increased with the monitor condition when sleep deprived. The augmented reality condition exhibited a positive influence with participant errors and completion time having no significant increase when sleep deprived. The results of our study show that spatial augmented reality is an effective sleep deprivation countermeasure under laboratory conditions. PMID:26780802

  16. From BPA to its analogues: Is it a safe journey?

    PubMed

    Usman, Afia; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-09-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the most abundant synthetic chemicals in the world due to its uses in plastics. Its widespread exposure vis-a-vis low dose effects led to a reduction in its safety dose and imposition of ban on its use in infant feeding bottles. This restriction paved the way for the gradual market entry of its analogues. However, their structural similarity to BPA has put them under surveillance for endocrine disrupting potential. The application of these analogues is increasing and so are the studies reporting their toxicity. This review highlights the reasons which led to the ban of BPA and also reports the exposure and toxicological data available on its analogues. Hence, this compilation is expected to answer in a better way whether the replacement of BPA by these analogues is safer or more harmful?

  17. Cell-Cycle Analyses Using Thymidine Analogues in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Anda, Silje; Boye, Erik; Grallert, Beata

    2014-01-01

    Thymidine analogues are powerful tools when studying DNA synthesis including DNA replication, repair and recombination. However, these analogues have been reported to have severe effects on cell-cycle progression and growth, the very processes being investigated in most of these studies. Here, we have analyzed the effects of 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) and 5-Chloro-2′-deoxyuridine (CldU) using fission yeast cells and optimized the labelling procedure. We find that both analogues affect the cell cycle, but that the effects can be mitigated by using the appropriate analogue, short pulses of labelling and low concentrations. In addition, we report sequential labelling of two consecutive S phases using EdU and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Furthermore, we show that detection of replicative DNA synthesis is much more sensitive than DNA-measurements by flow cytometry. PMID:24551125

  18. From BPA to its analogues: Is it a safe journey?

    PubMed

    Usman, Afia; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-09-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the most abundant synthetic chemicals in the world due to its uses in plastics. Its widespread exposure vis-a-vis low dose effects led to a reduction in its safety dose and imposition of ban on its use in infant feeding bottles. This restriction paved the way for the gradual market entry of its analogues. However, their structural similarity to BPA has put them under surveillance for endocrine disrupting potential. The application of these analogues is increasing and so are the studies reporting their toxicity. This review highlights the reasons which led to the ban of BPA and also reports the exposure and toxicological data available on its analogues. Hence, this compilation is expected to answer in a better way whether the replacement of BPA by these analogues is safer or more harmful? PMID:27262103

  19. Effects of Prostaglandin Analogues on Aqueous Humor Outflow Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Nelson S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most prevalent risk factor for glaucoma. All treatments, whether surgical or pharmaceutical, are aimed at lowering IOP. Prostaglandin analogues are a first line therapy for glaucoma due to their ability to reduce IOP, once-daily dosing, efficacy, and minimal side-effect profile. Whereas prostaglandin analogues have been known to alter aqueous humor outflow through the unconventional (uveoscleral) pathway, more recent evidence suggests their action also occurs through the conventional (trabecular) pathway. Understanding how prostaglandin analogues successfully lower IOP is important, as this information may lead to the discovery of new molecular targets for future therapeutic intervention. This review explores the current understanding of prostaglandin analogue biology as it pertains to IOP reduction and improved aqueous humor outflow facility. PMID:24359106

  20. Analogues for Wild2: Carbonaceous Chondrites Shot into Aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, L. J.; Bridges, J. C.; MacArthur, J. L.; Wickham-Eade, J. E.; Price, M. C.; Burchell, M. J.; Butterworth, A. L.; Baker, S. H.

    2016-08-01

    Comet Wild2 particles show similarities to carbonaceous chondrites. We compare Wild2 grains to analogue shots of CV3 and CR2 powders in aerogel tracks, using the same techniques, to make accurate comparisons.

  1. Mars Methane Analogue Mission (M3): Analytical Techniques and Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloutis, E.; Vrionis, H.; Qadi, A.; Bell, J. F.; Berard, G.; Boivin, A.; Ellery, A.; Jamroz, W.; Kruzelecky, R.; Mann, P.; Samson, C.; Stromberg, J.; Strong, K.; Tremblay, A.; Whyte, L.; Wing, B.

    2011-03-01

    The Mars Methane Analogue Mission (M3) project is designed to simulate a rover-based search for, and analysis of, methane sources on Mars at a serpentinite open pit mine in Quebec, using a variety of instruments.

  2. Sulphur Spring: Busy Intersection and Possible Martian Analogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nankivell, A.; Andre, N.; Thomas-Keprta, K.; Allen, C.; McKay, D.

    2000-01-01

    Life in extreme environments exhibiting conditions similar to early Earth and Mars, such as Sulphur Spring, may harbor microbiota serving as both relics from the past as well as present day Martian analogues.

  3. Augmented contraction of the human isolated coronary artery by sumatriptan: a possible role for endogenous thromboxane.

    PubMed Central

    Maassen VanDenBrink, A.; Bax, W. A.; Ferrari, M. D.; Zijlstra, F. J.; Bos, E.; Saxena, P. R.

    1996-01-01

    1. The antimigraine drug, sumatriptan, contracts the human coronary artery and, in some patients, elicits chest symptoms (e.g. pressure and pain), particularly after subcutaneous administration. We studied the effects of the thromboxane A2 (TxA2) analogue, U46619 and endothelin-1 on contractile responses to sumatriptan in the human isolated coronary artery as well as the role of endogenously produced TxA2 and endothelin-1 in contractions evoked by sumatriptan. 2. In the presence of U46619 (1 and 3 nM), mean concentration-response curves to sumatriptan in the human coronary artery were shifted vertically due to the initial contraction by U46619, but when this initial contraction was subtracted from the response to sumatriptan, no significant augmentation was observed. However, analysis of the degree of augmentation in individual arterial segments revealed that the augmentation was variable and related inversely to the Emax of sumatriptan in the absence of U46619 (r = 0.78 and 0.81 for 1 and 3 nM, respectively; P < 0.05). 3. Treatment with the TxA2 receptor antagonist, SQ30741 (100 nM), or incubation of vessel segments with aspirin (10 microM), significantly reduced responses to sumatriptan; in aspirin-treated vessel segments, SQ30741 failed to decrease further the contractions to sumatriptan. The decrease in Emax of sumatriptan by both SQ30741 and aspirin correlated significantly with the Emax of sumatriptan without SQ30741 (r = 0.74; P < 0.01) or aspirin (r = 0.94; P < 0.01). In aspirin-treated vessel segments, responses to sumatriptan were significantly augmented in the presence of U46619 (3 nM; P < 0.05). 4. The specificity of SQ30741 was demonstrated by its ability to antagonize coronary artery contractions to U46619 (pA2: 7.54 +/- 0.30), but not endothelin-1. Similarly, incubation with aspirin (10 microM) did not affect contractile responses to endothelin-1, but significantly reduced TxA2 production in coronary artery segments as judged by a decrease in

  4. Cement leakage in pedicle screw augmentation: a prospective analysis of 98 patients and 474 augmented pedicle screws.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Jan U; Baldauf, Joerg; Marx, Sascha; Kirsch, Michael; Schroeder, Henry W S; Pillich, Dirk T

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Loosening and pullout of pedicle screws are well-known problems in pedicle screw fixation surgery. Augmentation of pedicle screws with bone cement, first described as early as 1975, increases the pedicle-screw interface and pullout force in osteoporotic vertebrae. The aim of the present study was to identify cement leakage and pulmonary embolism rates in a large prospective single-center series of pedicle screw augmentations. METHODS All patients who underwent cement-augmented pedicle screw placement between May 2006 and October 2010 at the authors' institution were included in this prospective cohort study. Perivertebral cement leakage and pulmonary cement embolism were evaluated with a CT scan of the area of operation and with a radiograph of the chest, respectively. RESULTS A total of 98 patients underwent placement of cement-augmented pedicle screws; 474 augmented screws were inserted in 237 vertebrae. No symptomatic perivertebral cement leakage or symptomatic pulmonary cement embolism was observed, but asymptomatic perivertebral cement leakage was seen in 88 patients (93.6%) and in 165 augmented vertebrae (73.3%). Cement leakage most often occurred in the perivertebral venous system. Clinically asymptomatic pulmonary cement embolism was found in 4 patients (4.1%). CONCLUSIONS Perivertebral cement leakage often occurs in pedicle screw augmentation, but in most cases, it is clinically asymptomatic. Cement augmentation should be performed under continuous fluoroscopy to avoid high-volume leakage. Alternative strategies, such as use of expandable screws, should be examined in more detail for patients at high risk of screw loosening.

  5. Photochemical synthesis of nucleoside analogues from cyclobutanones: bicyclic and isonucleosides.

    PubMed

    Jaffer, Mileina; Ebead, Abdelaziz; Lee-Ruff, Edward

    2010-05-26

    The preparation of two nucleoside analogues are reported. Both syntheses involve a key photochemical ring-expansion of cyclobutanones to an oxacarbene and its subsequent scavenging by 6-chloropurine. The synthesis of a bicyclic (locked) purine starts from a oxabicycloheptanone with a hydroxymethyl pendant. The preparation of an isonucleoside uses a cyclobutanone with an alpha-substituted 6-chloropurine. Irradiation of the latter produces an isonucleoside and acyclic nucleoside analogues.

  6. Analogue and digital linear modulation techniques for mobile satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmarsh, W. J.; Bateman, A.; Mcgeehan, J. P.

    1990-01-01

    The choice of modulation format for a mobile satellite service is complex. The subjective performance is summarized of candidate schemes and voice coder technologies. It is shown that good performance can be achieved with both analogue and digital voice systems, although the analogue system gives superior performance in fading. The results highlight the need for flexibility in the choice of signaling format. Linear transceiver technology capable of using many forms of narrowband modulation is described.

  7. Carbacaprazamycins: Chemically Stable Analogues of the Caprazamycin Nucleoside Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Mayumi; Hsuan, Lee Shang; Kato, Yuta; Matsuda, Akira

    2015-04-10

    Carbacaprazamycins, which are chemically stable analogues of caprazamycins, were designed and synthesized. These analogues were active against drug-resistant bacterial pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and their activities were comparable to those of the parent caprazamycins. The effect of treatment with carbacaprazamycin on morphological changes in S. aureus indicated that the mode of action was completely different from those of existing peptidoglycan inhibitors. PMID:27622529

  8. Augmentation of IUE Ultraviolet Spectral Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chi-Chao

    The first edition of the IUE Ultraviolet Spectral Atlas was published in 1983 by Wu et al in printed and magnetic tape versions and it has been widely used by the astronomical community for research and teaching purposes. It was recognized then that numerous spectral type-luminosity class combinations were not available in the Atlas, but the authors decided that it was important to provide the Atlas to the community early. Now we are proposing a 3-year program to augment the Atlas (1) to provide as complete a coverage of the spectral type-luminosity class as possible and (2) to provide more than one star per spectral type-luminosity class combination to guard against variability and pecularity and to allow a finite range of temperature, gravity and metallicity in a given combination. Almost all the data in the 1983 Atlas are the high quality, high SIN trailed spectra, we propose to obtain trailed spectra or images with multiple exposures in the large aperture such that the data for the augmentation effort will have the same quality and SIN as the 1983 Atlas. Our primary goal is to collect the data and make them available to the community immediately (without claiming the 6-month proprietary right) and at the end of each year we will provide National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) an annual incremental delivery of the data at an earliest possible date, so the data can be distributed to the general astronomical community. At the end of the 3rd year, our delivery to the NSSDC will contain all the data collected by this program combined with those from the 1983 Atlas and 50 stars from the archive. These data can be used by other astronomers for stellar population synthesis of galaxies, to study the nature of distant galaxies, to attempt establishing a UV spectral classification system, as comparison stars for interstellar extinction studies and for peculiar objects or binary systems, for the study of the effects of temperature, gravity and metallicity on stellar UV

  9. Ionospheric Challenges for GNSS Based Augmentation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, P.; Valladares, C. E.

    2007-12-01

    The ionosphere is a highly dynamic physical phenomenon that presents a variable source of error for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals and GNSS based operational systems. The Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Wide-Area Augmentation System (WAAS) was designed to enhance the GNSS standard positioning service by providing additional accuracy, availability and integrity that is sufficient for use in commercial aviation. It is the first of a number of planned regional Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS). Other systems in development include the European EGNOS system, the MSAS system in Japan and the GAGAN system in India. In addition, the South American countries are investigating the feasibility of operating an SBAS system in this region. Much of the WAAS ionospheric research and development focused on defining and mitigating ionospheric challenges characteristic of the mid-latitude regions, where the ionosphere is well studied and relatively quiescent. The EGNOS and MSAS systems will primarily operate under a similarly quiescent mid-latitude ionosphere. SBAS system development in South America, India and other low-latitude regions, however, will have to contend with much more extreme conditions. These conditions include strong spatial and temporal gradients, plasma depletions and scintillation. All of these conditions have a potential to limit SBAS performance in the low latitude regions. This presentation will review the effects that the ionosphere has on the mid-latitude WAAS system. It will present the techniques that are used to mitigate ionospheric disturbances induced on the system during severe geomagnetic activity and it will quantify the effect that this activity has on system performance. The presentation will then present data from the South American Low-latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (LISN) that can be used to infer the ionospheric effects on SBAS performance in the most challenging low-latitude ionospheric environment

  10. Augmented robotic device for EVA hand manoeuvres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheson, Eloise; Brooker, Graham

    2012-12-01

    During extravehicular activities (EVAs), pressurised space suits can lead to difficulties in performing hand manoeuvres and fatigue. This is often the cause of EVAs being terminated early, or taking longer to complete. Assistive robotic gloves can be used to augment the natural motion of a human hand, meaning work can be carried out more efficiently with less stress to the astronaut. Lightweight and low profile solutions must be found in order for the assistive robotic glove to be easily integrated with a space suit pressure garment. Pneumatic muscle actuators combined with force sensors are one such solution. These actuators are extremely light, yet can output high forces using pressurised gases as the actuation drive. Their movement is omnidirectional, so when combined with a flexible exoskeleton that itself provides a degree of freedom of movement, individual fingers can be controlled during flexion and extension. This setup allows actuators and other hardware to be stored remotely on the user's body, resulting in the least possible mass being supported by the hand. Two prototype gloves have been developed at the University of Sydney; prototype I using a fibreglass exoskeleton to provide flexion force, and prototype II using torsion springs to achieve the same result. The gloves have been designed to increase the ease of human movements, rather than to add unnatural ability to the hand. A state space control algorithm has been developed to ensure that human initiated movements are recognised, and calibration methods have been implemented to accommodate the different characteristics of each wearer's hands. For this calibration technique, it was necessary to take into account the natural tremors of the human hand which may have otherwise initiated unexpected control signals. Prototype I was able to actuate the user's hand in 1 degree of freedom (DOF) from full flexion to partial extension, and prototype II actuated a user's finger in 2 DOF with forces achieved

  11. Cladribine Analogues via O6-(Benzotriazolyl) Derivatives of Guanine Nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Satishkumar, Sakilam; Vuram, Prasanna K.; Relangi, Siva Subrahmanyam; Gurram, Venkateshwarlu; Zhou, Hong; Kreitman, Robert J.; Montemayor, Michelle M. Martínez; Yang, Lijia; Kaliyaperumal, Muralidharan; Sharma, Somesh; Pottabathini, Narender; Lakshman, Mahesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Cladribine, 2-chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine, is a highly efficacious clinically used nucleoside for the treatment of hairy cell leukemia. It is also being evaluated against other lymphoid malignancies and has been a molecule of interest for well over half a century. In continuation of our interest on the amide bond-activation in purine nucleosides via the use of (benzotriazol-1yl-oxy)tris(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate, we have evaluated the use of O6-(benzotriazol-1-yl)-2′-deoxyguanosine as a potential precursor to cladribine and its analogues. These compounds, after appropriate deprotection, were assessed for their biological activities and the data are presented herein. Against hairy cell leukemia (HCL), T-cell lymphoma (TCL), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cladribine was the most active against all. The bromo analogue of cladribine showed comparable activity to the ribose analogue of cladribine against HCL, but was more active against TCL and CLL. The bromo ribo analogue of cladribine possessed activity, but was least active among the C6-NH2-containing compounds. Substitution with alkyl groups at the exocyclic amino group appears detrimental to activity, and only the C6 piperidinyl cladribine analogue demonstrated any activity. Against adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells, only cladribine and its ribose analogue were most active. PMID:26556315

  12. Bisphenol A and Its Analogues Activate Human Pregnane X Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Yipeng; Ai, Ni; Park, Se-Hyung; Rios-Pilier, Jennifer; Perkins, Jordan T.; Welsh, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a base chemical used extensively in many consumer products. BPA and its analogues are present in environmental and human samples. Many endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including BPA, have been shown to activate the pregnane X receptor (PXR), a nuclear receptor that functions as a master regulator of xenobiotic metabolism. However, the detailed mechanism by which these chemicals activate PXR remains unknown. Objective: We investigated the mechanism by which BPA interacts with and activates PXR and examined selected BPA analogues to determine whether they bind to and activate PXR. Methods: Cell-based reporter assays, in silico ligand–PXR docking studies, and site-directed mutagenesis were combined to study the interaction between BPA and PXR. We also investigated the influence of BPA and its analogues on the regulation of PXR target genes in human LS180 cells. Results: We found that BPA and several of its analogues are potent agonists for human PXR (hPXR) but do not affect mouse PXR activity. We identified key residues within hPXR’s ligand-binding pocket that constitute points of interaction with BPA. We also deduced the structural requirements of BPA analogues that activate hPXR. BPA and its analogues can also induce PXR target gene expression in human LS180 cells. Conclusions: The present study advances our understanding of the mechanism by which BPA interacts with and activates human PXR. Activation of PXR by BPA may explain some of the adverse effects of BPA in humans. PMID:22214767

  13. Ultraviolet stimulated melanogenesis by human melanocytes is augmented by di-acyl glycerol but not TPA

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, P.S.; Wren, F.E.; Matthews, J.N. )

    1990-02-01

    Epidermal melanocytes (MC) synthesize melanin in response to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). The mechanisms mediating the UV-induced activation of melanogenesis are unknown but since UVR induces turnover of membrane phospholipids generating prostaglandins (PGs) and other products, it is possible that one of these might provide the activating signal. We have examined the effects of prostaglandins (PGs) E1, E2, D2, F2 alpha, and di-acyl glycerol upon the UV-induced responses of cultured human MC and the Cloudman S91 melanoma cell line. The PGs had little effect on unirradiated cells and did not alter the response to UVR in either human MC or S91 melanoma cells. However, a synthetic analogue of di-acyl glycerol, 1-oleyl 2-acetyl glycerol (OAG), caused a significant (P less than 0.0001), dose-related augmentation of melanin content both in human MC (seven-fold) and S91 cells (three-fold). UVR caused a significant augmentation of the OAG-induced melanogenesis of both human MC and S91 cells. Since OAG is known to activate protein kinase C, it was possible that the observed modulation of the UVR signal could be via that pathway. Di-octanoyl glycerol, another di-acyl glycerol, which activates kinase C, caused a small (70%) increase in melanogenesis in MC which was not altered by UVR. However, 12-0 tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA), a potent activator of protein kinase C, had no significant effect on either basal or UV-induced melanin synthesis in either cell type. These data suggest that the UV-induced signal activating melanogenesis could be mediated by di-acyl glycerol. Furthermore, they imply that the signal is transduced via an alternative, pathway that might be independent of protein kinase C.

  14. Cough augmentation with mechanical insufflation/exsufflation in patients with neuromuscular weakness.

    PubMed

    Chatwin, M; Ross, E; Hart, N; Nickol, A H; Polkey, M I; Simonds, A K

    2003-03-01

    Adults and children with neuromuscular disease exhibit weak cough and are susceptible to recurrent chest infections, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Mechanical insufflation/exsufflation may improve cough efficacy by increasing peak cough flow. It was hypothesised that mechanical insufflation/exsufflation would produce a greater increase in peak cough flow than other modes of cough augmentation. The acceptability of these interventions was also compared. Twenty-two patients aged 10-56 yrs (median 21 yrs) with neuromuscular disease and 19 age-matched controls were studied. Spirometry was performed and respiratory muscle strength measured. Peak cough flow was recorded during maximal unassisted coughs, followed in random order by coughs assisted by physiotherapy, noninvasive ventilation, insufflation and exsufflation, and exsufflation alone. Subjects rated strength of cough, distress and comfort on a visual analogue scale. In the neuromuscular disease group, mean +/- SD forced expiratory volume in one second was 0.8 +/- 0.6 L x s(-1), forced vital capacity 0.9 +/- 0.8 L, maximum inspiratory pressure 25 +/- 16 cmH2O, maximum expiratory pressure 26 +/- 22 cmH2O and unassisted peak cough flow 169 +/- 90 L x min(-1). The greatest increase in peak cough flow was observed with mechanical insufflation/exsufflation at 235 +/- 111 L x min(-1) (p<0.01). All techniques showed similar patient acceptability. Mechanical insufflation/exsufflation produces a greater increase in peak cough flow than other standard cough augmentation techniques in adults and children with neuromuscular disease.

  15. Habitability & Astrobiology Research in Mars Terrestrial Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    We performed a series of field research campaigns (ILEWG EuroMoonMars) in the extreme Utah desert relevant to Mars environments, and in order to help in the interpretation of Mars missions measurements from orbit (MEX, MRO) or from the surface (MER, MSL), or Moon geochemistry (SMART-1, LRO). We shall give an update on the sample analysis in the context of habitability and astrobiology. Methods & Results: In the frame of ILEWG EuroMoonMars campaigns (2009 to 2013) we deployed at Mars Desert Research station, near Hanksville Utah, a suite of instruments and techniques [A, 1, 2, 9-11] including sample collection, context imaging from remote to local and microscale, drilling, spectrometers and life sensors. We analyzed how geological and geochemical evolution affected local parameters (mineralogy, organics content, environment variations) and the habitability and signature of organics and biota. Among the important findings are the diversity in the composition of soil samples even when collected in close proximity, the low abundances of detectable PAHs and amino acids and the presence of biota of all three domains of life with significant heterogeneity. An extraordinary variety of putative extremophiles was observed [3,4,9]. A dominant factor seems to be soil porosity and lower clay-sized particle content [6-8]. A protocol was developed for sterile sampling, contamination issues, and the diagnostics of biodiversity via PCR and DGGE analysis in soils and rocks samples [10, 11]. We compare the 2009 campaign results [1-9] to new measurements from 2010-2013 campaigns [10-12] relevant to: comparison between remote sensing and in-situ measurements; the study of minerals; the detection of organics and signs of life. Keywords: field analogue research, astrobiology, habitability, life detection, Earth-Moon-Mars, organics References [A] Foing, Stoker & Ehrenfreund (Editors, 2011) "Astrobiology field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments", Special Issue of International

  16. Chemotactic peptide analogues. Synthesis and chemotactic activity of N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe analogues containing (S)-phenylalaninol derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zecchini, G P; Paradisi, M P; Torrini, I; Spisani, S

    1995-09-01

    The synthesis and the biological activity towards human neutrophils of some N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe-OMe analogues containing (S)-phenylalaninol (Pheol) or its derivatives in place of the native phenylalanine are reported. While the analogue containing Pheol (4) was found to be devoid of significant biological activity, its esters 3 and 5, although inactive as chemoattractants, are able to strongly stimulate superoxide production and are active with a lower efficacy in the lysozyme release. PMID:7487425

  17. Human responses to augmented virtual scaffolding models.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Simeonov, Peter; Dotson, Brian; Ammons, Douglas; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Chiou, Sharon

    2005-08-15

    This study investigated the effect of adding real planks, in virtual scaffolding models of elevation, on human performance in a surround-screen virtual reality (SSVR) system. Twenty-four construction workers and 24 inexperienced controls performed walking tasks on real and virtual planks at three virtual heights (0, 6 m, 12 m) and two scaffolding-platform-width conditions (30, 60 cm). Gait patterns, walking instability measurements and cardiovascular reactivity were assessed. The results showed differences in human responses to real vs. virtual planks in walking patterns, instability score and heart-rate inter-beat intervals; it appeared that adding real planks in the SSVR virtual scaffolding model enhanced the quality of SSVR as a human - environment interface research tool. In addition, there were significant differences in performance between construction workers and the control group. The inexperienced participants were more unstable as compared to construction workers. Both groups increased their stride length with repetitions of the task, indicating a possibly confidence- or habit-related learning effect. The practical implications of this study are in the adoption of augmented virtual models of elevated construction environments for injury prevention research, and the development of programme for balance-control training to reduce the risk of falls at elevation before workers enter a construction job. PMID:16253942

  18. LCD masks for spatial augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithwick, Quinn Y. J.; Reetz, Daniel; Smoot, Lanny

    2014-03-01

    One aim of Spatial Augmented Reality is to visually integrate synthetic objects into real-world spaces amongst physical objects, viewable by many observers without 3D glasses, head-mounted displays or mobile screens. In common implementations, using beam-combiners, scrim projection, or transparent self-emissive displays, the synthetic object's and real-world scene's light combine additively. As a result, synthetic objects appear low-contrast and semitransparent against well-lit backgrounds, and do not cast shadows. These limitations prevent synthetic objects from appearing solid and visually integrated into the real-world space. We use a transparent LCD panel as a programmable dynamic mask. The LCD panel displaying the synthetic object's silhouette mask is colocated with the object's color image, both staying aligned for all points-of-view. The mask blocks the background providing occlusion, presents a black level for high-contrast images, blocks scene illumination thus casting true shadows, and prevents blow-by in projection scrim arrangements. We have several implementations of SAR with LCD masks: 1) beam-combiner with an LCD mask, 2) scrim projection with an LCD mask, and 3) transparent OLED display with an LCD mask. Large format (80" diagonal) and dual layer volumetric variations are also implemented.

  19. Augmentation of tendon-to-bone healing.

    PubMed

    Atesok, Kivanc; Fu, Freddie H; Wolf, Megan R; Ochi, Mitsuo; Jazrawi, Laith M; Doral, M Nedim; Lubowitz, James H; Rodeo, Scott A

    2014-03-19

    Tendon-to-bone healing is vital to the ultimate success of the various surgical procedures performed to repair injured tendons. Achieving tendon-to-bone healing that is functionally and biologically similar to native anatomy can be challenging because of the limited regeneration capacity of the tendon-bone interface. Orthopaedic basic-science research strategies aiming to augment tendon-to-bone healing include the use of osteoinductive growth factors, platelet-rich plasma, gene therapy, enveloping the grafts with periosteum, osteoconductive materials, cell-based therapies, biodegradable scaffolds, and biomimetic patches. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and extracorporeal shockwave treatment may affect tendon-to-bone healing by means of mechanical forces that stimulate biological cascades at the insertion site. Application of various loading methods and immobilization times influence the stress forces acting on the recently repaired tendon-to-bone attachment, which eventually may change the biological dynamics of the interface. Other approaches, such as the use of coated sutures and interference screws, aim to deliver biological factors while achieving mechanical stability by means of various fixators. Controlled Level-I human trials are required to confirm the promising results from in vitro or animal research studies elucidating the mechanisms underlying tendon-to-bone healing and to translate these results into clinical practice.

  20. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Michak, Patty

    1990-05-01

    Since 1986 Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF) has participated in the Columbia Basin Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Project, funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). This interagency project was developed to provide a standardized level of fish health information from all Agencies rearing fish in the Columbia Basin. Agencies involved in the project are: WDF, Washington Department of Wildlife, Oregon Fish and Wildlife, Idaho Fish and Game, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. WDF has actively participated in this project, and completed its third year of fish health monitoring, data collection and pathogen inspection during 1989. This report will present data collected from January 1, 1989 to December 31, 1989 and will compare sampling results from screening at spawning for viral pathogens and bacterial kidney disease (BKD), and evaluation of causes of pre-spawning loss. The juvenile analysis will include pre-release examination results, mid-term rearing exam results and evaluation of the Organosomatic Analysis completed on stocks. 2 refs., 4 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. Augmented mixed models for clustered proportion data

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Galvis, Diana M; Lachos, Victor H

    2015-01-01

    Often in biomedical research, we deal with continuous (clustered) proportion responses ranging between zero and one quantifying the disease status of the cluster units. Interestingly, the study population might also consist of relatively disease-free as well as highly diseased subjects, contributing to proportion values in the interval [0, 1]. Regression on a variety of parametric densities with support lying in (0, 1), such as beta regression, can assess important covariate effects. However, they are deemed inappropriate due to the presence of zeros and/or ones. To evade this, we introduce a class of general proportion density, and further augment the probabilities of zero and one to this general proportion density, controlling for the clustering. Our approach is Bayesian and presents a computationally convenient framework amenable to available freeware. Bayesian case-deletion influence diagnostics based on q-divergence measures are automatic from the Markov chain Monte Carlo output. The methodology is illustrated using both simulation studies and application to a real dataset from a clinical periodontology study. PMID:25491718

  2. Augmentation of the IUE Ultraviolet Spectral Atlas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Chi-Chao

    1996-01-01

    The IUE Ultraviolet Spectral Atlas and the first addendum were published by Wu et al. in printed and machine readable versions. This atlas and addendum contain UV spectra of 315 stars with spectral types ranging from O3 to M5 and many spectral type-luminosity class combinations. There were three criteria for selecting these stars: (1) they were not spectroscopic binaries or variables with significant changes in magnitude or color, (2) they must have well-determined spectral types (many are MK standards), and (3) the stars should not be heavily reddened. Further augmentation of the atlas is desirable to provide a more complete coverage of the spectral type-luminosity class combinations and more than one star per combination. The extra spectral type-luminosity class combinations reduce the need for interpolation. The extra stars within a given combination guard against variability and peculiarity, and allow for a finite range of temperature, metallicity and gravity. The previous atlas and addendum presented data that were obtained through the eleventh episode under IUE programs with C.-C. Wu and D. Burstein as principal investigators. In this second addendum, we present the spectra obtained by Wu's programs during the twelfth through seventeenth episodes: SALCW, SAMCW, SANCW, SAOCW, SAPCW and SAQCW. During the period between July 1989 and September 1994, Wu observed 183 stars under these programs. Most of these observations are high quality trails or pseudo-trails (multiple exposures in the large aperture).

  3. Evaluating User Experience of Augmented Reality Eyeglasses.

    PubMed

    Gamberini, Luciano; Orso, Valeria; Beretta, Andrea; Jacucci, Giulio; Spagnolli, Anna; Rimondi, Romina

    2015-01-01

    Augmented reality based applications have been experimented with in various contexts. Typically, the interaction is supported by handled devices, which, in specific scenarios, may hinder the interaction and spoil the experience of use, as the user is forced to hold the device and to keep her eyes on it at all times. The recent launch on the market of light-weight, unobtrusive head-mounted displays may change this circumstance. Nevertheless, investigations are needed to understand if such head-worn devices effectively outperform handheld devices in terms of comfort and pleasant experience of use. Here we present two experiments aimed at assessing the comfort of wearing a head-worn, see-through AR viewer in both a controlled and a natural setting. Besides the comfort of wearing the device, aspects related to the user experience were also investigated in the field evaluation. Our findings suggest that the head-mounted display examined is comfortable to wear regardless of the context of use. Interestingly in the field trails, participants did not express concern for the impression they would have made on other people and the experience of use was overall pleasant. Possible issues related to visual fatigue emerged.

  4. Augmenting the Deliberative Method for Ranking Risks.

    PubMed

    Susel, Irving; Lasley, Trace; Montezemolo, Mark; Piper, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) characterized and prioritized the physical cross-border threats and hazards to the nation stemming from terrorism, market-driven illicit flows of people and goods (illegal immigration, narcotics, funds, counterfeits, and weaponry), and other nonmarket concerns (movement of diseases, pests, and invasive species). These threats and hazards pose a wide diversity of consequences with very different combinations of magnitudes and likelihoods, making it very challenging to prioritize them. This article presents the approach that was used at DHS to arrive at a consensus regarding the threats and hazards that stand out from the rest based on the overall risk they pose. Due to time constraints for the decision analysis, it was not feasible to apply multiattribute methodologies like multiattribute utility theory or the analytic hierarchy process. Using a holistic approach was considered, such as the deliberative method for ranking risks first published in this journal. However, an ordinal ranking alone does not indicate relative or absolute magnitude differences among the risks. Therefore, the use of the deliberative method for ranking risks is not sufficient for deciding whether there is a material difference between the top-ranked and bottom-ranked risks, let alone deciding what the stand-out risks are. To address this limitation of ordinal rankings, the deliberative method for ranking risks was augmented by adding an additional step to transform the ordinal ranking into a ratio scale ranking. This additional step enabled the selection of stand-out risks to help prioritize further analysis.

  5. Human responses to augmented virtual scaffolding models.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Simeonov, Peter; Dotson, Brian; Ammons, Douglas; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Chiou, Sharon

    2005-08-15

    This study investigated the effect of adding real planks, in virtual scaffolding models of elevation, on human performance in a surround-screen virtual reality (SSVR) system. Twenty-four construction workers and 24 inexperienced controls performed walking tasks on real and virtual planks at three virtual heights (0, 6 m, 12 m) and two scaffolding-platform-width conditions (30, 60 cm). Gait patterns, walking instability measurements and cardiovascular reactivity were assessed. The results showed differences in human responses to real vs. virtual planks in walking patterns, instability score and heart-rate inter-beat intervals; it appeared that adding real planks in the SSVR virtual scaffolding model enhanced the quality of SSVR as a human - environment interface research tool. In addition, there were significant differences in performance between construction workers and the control group. The inexperienced participants were more unstable as compared to construction workers. Both groups increased their stride length with repetitions of the task, indicating a possibly confidence- or habit-related learning effect. The practical implications of this study are in the adoption of augmented virtual models of elevated construction environments for injury prevention research, and the development of programme for balance-control training to reduce the risk of falls at elevation before workers enter a construction job.

  6. Augmented standard model and the simplest scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tai Tsun; Wu, Sau Lan

    2015-11-01

    The experimental discovery of the Higgs particle in 2012 by the ATLAS Collaboration and the CMS Collaboration at CERN ushers in a new era of particle physics. On the basis of these data, scalar quarks and scalar leptons are added to each generation of quarks and leptons. The resulting augmented standard model has fermion-boson symmetry for each of three generations, but only one Higgs doublet giving masses to all the elementary particles. A specific special case, the simplest scenario, is studied in detail. In this case, there are twenty six quadratic divergences, and all these divergences are cancelled provided that one single relation between the masses is satisfied. This mass relation contains a great deal of information, and in particular determines the masses of all the right-handed scalar quarks and scalar leptons, while gives relations for the masses of the left-handed ones. An alternative procedure is also given with a different starting point and less reliance on the experimental data. The result is of course the same.

  7. Spacecraft 3D Augmented Reality Mobile App

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussey, Kevin J.; Doronila, Paul R.; Kumanchik, Brian E.; Chan, Evan G.; Ellison, Douglas J.; Boeck, Andrea; Moore, Justin M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spacecraft 3D application allows users to learn about and interact with iconic NASA missions in a new and immersive way using common mobile devices. Using Augmented Reality (AR) techniques to project 3D renditions of the mission spacecraft into real-world surroundings, users can interact with and learn about Curiosity, GRAIL, Cassini, and Voyager. Additional updates on future missions, animations, and information will be ongoing. Using a printed AR Target and camera on a mobile device, users can get up close with these robotic explorers, see how some move, and learn about these engineering feats, which are used to expand knowledge and understanding about space. The software receives input from the mobile device's camera to recognize the presence of an AR marker in the camera's field of view. It then displays a 3D rendition of the selected spacecraft in the user's physical surroundings, on the mobile device's screen, while it tracks the device's movement in relation to the physical position of the spacecraft's 3D image on the AR marker.

  8. Augmenting Transition Probabilities for Neutral Atomic Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrazas-Salines, Imelda; Park, Chul; Strawa, Anthony W.; Hartman, G. Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The transition probability values for a number of neutral atomic nitrogen (NI) lines in the visible wavelength range are determined in order to augment those given in the National Bureau of Standards Tables. These values are determined from experimentation as well as by using the published results of other investigators. The experimental determination of the lines in the 410 to 430 nm range was made from the observation of the emission from the arc column of an arc-heated wind tunnel. The transition probability values of these NI lines are determined to an accuracy of +/- 30% by comparison of their measured intensities with those of the atomic oxygen (OI) multiplet at around 615 nm. The temperature of the emitting medium is determined both using a multiple-layer model, based on a theoretical model of the flow in the arc column, and an empirical single-layer model. The results show that the two models lead to the same values of transition probabilities for the NI lines.

  9. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, James W.

    1989-08-15

    Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Contract AI79-87BP35585 was implemented on July 20, 1987. Second year activities focused on full implementation of disease surveillance activities and histopathological support services to participating state agencies. Persistent and sometimes severe disease losses were caused by infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in summer steelhead trout in Idaho and in spring chinook salmon at hatcheries on the lower Columbia River. Diagnostic capability was enhanced by the installation, for field use, of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology at the Dworshak Fish Health Center for the detection and assay of bacterial kidney disease and by a dot-blot'' training session for virus identification at the Lower Columbia Fish Health Center. Complete diagnostic and inspection services were provided to 13 Columbia River basin National Fish hatcheries. Case history data was fully documented in a computerized data base for storage and analysis. This report briefly describes work being done to meet contract requirements for fish disease surveillance at Service facilities in the Columbia River basin. It also summarizes the health status of fish reared at those hatcheries and provides a summary of case history data for calendar year 1988. 2 refs., 4 tabs.

  10. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1990 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, James W.

    1990-08-15

    Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Contract AI79-87BP35585 was implemented on July 20, 1987. This report briefly describes third-year work being done to meet contract requirements for fish disease surveillance at Service facilities in the Columbia River basin and for histopathological support services provided to participating state agencies. It also summarizes the health status of fish reared at participating Service hatcheries and provides a summary of case history data for calendar year 1989. Items of note included severe disease losses to infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in summer steelhead trout in Idaho, the detection of IHN virus in juvenile spring chinook salmon at hatcheries on the lower Columbia River, and improved bacterial kidney disease (BKD) detection and adult assay by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology at the Dworshak Fish Health Center. Complete diagnostic and inspection services were provided to 13 Columbia River Basin National Fish Hatcheries. Case history data was fully documented in a computerized data base for storage and analysis and is summarized herein. 2 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  11. Augmented Fish Monitoring, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Michak, Patty

    1989-05-01

    Since 1986 Washington department of Fisheries (WDF) has participated in the Columbia Basin Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Project. This project provides a standardized level of fish health information from all Agencies rearing fish in the Columbia Basin. WDF has actively participated in this project, and completed its second year of fish health monitoring, data collection and pathogen inspection during 1988. This report will present data collected from January 1, 1988 to December 31, 1988 and will compare sampling results from 1987 and 1988. The analysis will be divided in two sections: adult analysis and juvenile analysis. The adult analysis will include results from screening at spawning for viral pathogens and bacterial kidney disease (BKD), and evaluation of causes of pre-spawning loss. The juvenile analysis will include pre-release examination results, mid-term rearing exam results and evaluation of the Organosomatic Analysis completed on index stocks. Additionally, highlights from monthly monitoring exams will identify any significant and unusual findings from the routine exams completed in 1988. 6 refs., 8 figs., 14 tabs.

  12. Thrust Augmentation with Mixer/Ejector Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Presz, Walter M., Jr.; Reynolds, Gary; Hunter, Craig

    2002-01-01

    Older commercial aircraft often exceed FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) sideline noise regulations. The major problem is the jet noise associated with the high exhaust velocities of the low bypass ratio engines on such aircraft. Mixer/ejector exhaust systems can provide a simple means of reducing the jet noise on these aircraft by mixing cool ambient air with the high velocity engine gases before they are exhausted to ambient. This paper presents new information on thrust performance predictions, and thrust augmentation capabilities of mixer/ejectors. Results are presented from the recent development program of the patented Alternating Lobe Mixer Ejector Concept (ALMEC) suppressor system for the Gulfstream GII, GIIB and GIII aircraft. Mixer/ejector performance procedures are presented which include classical control volume analyses, compound compressible flow theory, lobed nozzle loss correlations and state of the art computational fluid dynamic predictions. The mixer/ejector thrust predictions are compared to subscale wind tunnel test model data and actual aircraft flight test measurements. The results demonstrate that a properly designed mixer/ejector noise suppressor can increase effective engine bypass ratio and generate large thrust gains at takeoff conditions with little or no thrust loss at cruise conditions. The cruise performance obtained for such noise suppressor systems is shown to be a strong function of installation effects on the aircraft.

  13. Wave Augmented Diffuser for Centrifugal Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoch, Gary J. (Inventor); Paxson, Daniel E. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A wave augmented diffuser for a centrifugal compressor surrounds the outlet of an impeller that rotates on a drive shaft having an axis of rotation. The impeller brings flow in in an axial direction and imparts kinetic energy to the flow discharging it in radial and tangential directions. The flow is discharged into a plurality of circumferentially disposed wave chambers. The wave chambers are periodically opened and closed by a rotary valve such that the flow through the diffuser is unsteady. The valve includes a plurality of valve openings that are periodically brought into and out of fluid communication with the wave chambers. When the wave chambers are closed, a reflected compression wave moves upstream towards the diffuser bringing the flow into the wave chamber to rest. This action recovers the kinetic energy from the flow and limits any boundary layer growth. The flow is then discharged in an axial direction through an opening in the valve plate when the valve plate is rotated to an open position. The diffuser thus efficiently raises the static pressure of the fluid and discharges an axially directed flow at a radius that is predominantly below the maximum radius of the diffuser.

  14. Directing driver attention with augmented reality cues

    PubMed Central

    Rusch, Michelle L.; Schall, Mark C.; Gavin, Patrick; Lee, John D.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Vecera, Shaun; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This simulator study evaluated the effects of augmented reality (AR) cues designed to direct the attention of experienced drivers to roadside hazards. Twenty-seven healthy middle-aged licensed drivers with a range of attention capacity participated in a 54 mile (1.5 hour) drive in an interactive fixed-base driving simulator. Each participant received AR cues to potential roadside hazards in six simulated straight (9 mile long) rural roadway segments. Drivers were evaluated on response time for detecting a potentially hazardous event, detection accuracy for target (hazard) and non-target objects, and headway with respect to the hazards. Results showed no negative outcomes associated with interference. AR cues did not impair perception of non-target objects, including for drivers with lower attentional capacity. Results showed near significant response time benefits for AR cued hazards. AR cueing increased response rate for detecting pedestrians and warning signs but not vehicles. AR system false alarms and misses did not impair driver responses to potential hazards. PMID:24436635

  15. Thermal Augmentation of Vancomycin Against Staphylococcal Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Sturtevant, Rachael A; Sharma, Prannda; Pavlovsky, Leonid; Stewart, Elizabeth J; Solomon, Michael J; Younger, John G

    2015-08-01

    Given the increasing evidence of safe application of elevated temperature in other clinical contexts, we consider the potential for supplemental hyperthermia to augment the effects of vancomycin against staphylococci, a major source of postoperative and posttraumatic sepsis. Laboratory reference strains and libraries of clinical blood isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, both as planktonic cells and as established biofilms, were assessed for thermosensitivity and increased susceptibility to vancomycin in the setting of thermal treatment. In addition to viability measures, patterns of stress gene expression were assessed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and structural changes were measured using quantitative transmission electron microscopy. Laboratory strains of both species had reduced growth and biofilm viability at 45°C, a temperature commonly used in other domains such as adjuvant treatments of malignancy. Blood isolates of S. epidermidis were consistent in this regard as well, but significant between-isolate variability in thermosensitivity was seen in blood isolates of S. aureus. Expression profiling and ultrastructural measurements confirmed that elevated temperature was a substantial stressor with or without vancomycin treatment. Our findings suggest that temperature elevations shown to be tolerated in humans in other settings hold the potential to be used as an adjuvant to antibiotic therapy against staphylococcal biofilms. PMID:25784524

  16. Predictive Design Morphologies for Gravel Augmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. A.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2004-12-01

    Spawning habitat rehabilitation (SHR) is an interdisciplinary practice merging hydrology, geomorphology, aquatic ecology, and civil engineering to improve existing aquatic habitat and restoring fluvial complexity. Although SHR is widespread, it needs a science-based design process. The Spawning Habitat Integrated Rehabilitation Approach (SHIRA) is a scientifically peer-reviewed framework for doing SHR on regulated rivers. Although SHIRA has shown success with gravel augmentation on the Mokulmne River using hypothesis driven designs, the goal of this study was to evaluate several more natural processes for their potential in SHR, and to do so at the geomorphic-unit scale for the first time. Multiple design hypotheses were included in 6 SHR scenarios for rehabilitating the Lewiston Dam reach of the Trinity River, CA. Morphologies tested for their process mechanics included central bars, transverse-oblique bars, riffles, point bars, and bench-constricted pools. Varying longitudinal and lateral approach slopes for each feature were evaluated as well as feature sequencing. For each design scenario, a 2D model predicted local depth, velocity, shields stress, depth of scour, and habitat suitability for life stages of chinook and steelhead salmon at 300 and 6000 cfs. Data were analyzed to determine if conceptually expected geomorphic and ecological outcomes were in fact predicted by the 2D model. One design will be selected for actual construction in 2005 to evaluate 2D model predictions.

  17. Breast Augmentation after Conservation Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, James; Hsieh, Frank; Boyages, John

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of data regarding outcomes for patients undergoing breast augmentation with implants after breast conservation surgery (BCS) and radiotherapy. This retrospective study examined outcomes for patients with breast implant-only augmentation after BCS and radiotherapy. Methods: Between June 1998 and December 2010, 671 women underwent prosthetic breast reconstruction. Nineteen patients (2.8%) underwent an augmentation after BCS and radiotherapy. The mean age was 55.8 years (range, 40–69 years). Sixteen of these patients underwent one-stage implant-only breast augmentation, whereas 3 patients underwent two-stage expander and then implant augmentation. Results: All surgeries were successful. The average size of breast implant used was 258.7 g. Seven patients also received contralateral augmentation with an average implant size of 232.2 g. One patient received oral antibiotics for minor wound infection. Patients were judged to have an excellent (14/19; 73.7%), good (3/19; 15.8%), or fair (2/19; 10.5%) cosmetic result. Conclusion: The breasts of selected patients with breast cancer after BCS and radiotherapy. with asymmetry can be adequately augmented with breast implants alone. PMID:27536475

  18. 3D augmented reality with integral imaging display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xin; Hua, Hong; Javidi, Bahram

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) integral imaging display for augmented reality is presented. By implementing the pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion method, elemental image arrays with different capturing parameters can be transferred into the identical format for 3D display. With the proposed merging algorithm, a new set of elemental images for augmented reality display is generated. The newly generated elemental images contain both the virtual objects and real world scene with desired depth information and transparency parameters. The experimental results indicate the feasibility of the proposed 3D augmented reality with integral imaging.

  19. Augmented reality for underground pipe inspection and maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Shaun W.; Pretlove, John R. G.

    1998-12-01

    The University of Surrey is engaged in developing augmented reality systems and teleoperation techniques for enhanced visual analysis and task performance in hostile environments. One particular current project in the UK is addressing the development of stereo vision systems, augmented reality, image processing techniques and specialist robotic vehicles which may be used for the future examination and maintenance of underground sewage pipes. This paper describes the components of the stereo vision and augmented reality system and illustrates some preliminary results of the use of the stereo robotic system mounted on a mobile laboratory vehicle and calibrated using a pin-hole camera model.

  20. Pyriform Aperture Augmentation as An Adjunct to Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Yaremchuk, Michael J; Vibhakar, Dev

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal deficiency in the central midface impacts nasal aesthetics. This lack of lower face projection can be corrected by alloplastic augmentation of the pyriform aperture. Creating convexity in the deficient midface will make the nose seem less prominent. Augmentation of the pyriform aperture is, therefore, often a useful adjunct during the rhinoplasty procedure. Augmenting the skeleton in this area can alter the projection of the nasal base, the nasolabial angle, and the vertical plane of the lip. The implant design and surgical techniques described here are extensions of others' previous efforts to improve paranasal aesthetics. PMID:26616706

  1. Incorporation of tryptophan analogues into the lantibiotic nisin.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang; Shao, Jinfeng; Li, Qian; van Heel, Auke J; de Vries, Marcel P; Broos, Jaap; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2016-05-01

    Lantibiotics are posttranslationally modified peptides with efficient inhibitory activity against various Gram-positive bacteria. In addition to the original modifications, incorporation of non-canonical amino acids can render new properties and functions to lantibiotics. Nisin is the most studied lantibiotic and contains no tryptophan residues. In this study, a system was constructed to incorporate tryptophan analogues into nisin, which included the modification machinery (NisBTC) and the overexpression of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS). Tryptophan and three different tryptophan analogues (5-fluoroTrp (5FW), 5-hydroxyTrp (5HW) and 5-methylTrp (5MeW)) were successfully incorporated at four different positions of nisin (I1W, I4W, M17W and V32W). The incorporation efficiency of tryptophan analogues into mutants I1W, M17W and V32W was over 97 %, while the mutant I4W showed relatively low incorporation efficiency (69-93 %). The variants with 5FW showed relatively higher production yield, while 5MeW-containing variants showed the lowest yield. The dehydration efficiency of serines or threonines was affected by the tryptophan mutants of I4W and V32W. The affinity of the peptides for the cation-ion exchange and reverse phase chromatography columns was significantly reduced when 5HW was incorporated. The antimicrobial activity of IIW and its 5FW analogue both decreased two times compared to that of nisin, while that of its 5HW analogue decreased four times. The 5FW analogue of I4W also showed two times decreased activity than nisin. However, the mutant M17W and its 5HW analogue both showed 32 times reduced activity relative to that of nisin.

  2. Inhibition of guinea-pig lymphocyte activation by histamine and histamine analogues.

    PubMed Central

    Beets, J. L.; Dale, M. M.

    1979-01-01

    1 The incorporation of [3H]-thymidine into guinea-pig lymphocytes stimulated by a plant lectin (concanavalin A), soluble antigen (tuberculin (P.P.D.)) and syngeneic hepatoma cells, was partially inhibited (50%) by histamine in vitro. 2 The effect of histamine on both mitogen and antigen dose-response curves suggests a non-competitive, probably physiological antagonism. 3 The inhibitory dose range of histamine lay between 10 nM and 30 microM with an ID50 of approximately 400 nM. 4 The potency order for histamine analogues for the inhibition of lymphocyte activation was histamine greater than or equal to 4-methylhistamine greater than 2-methylhistamine greater than 3-methylhistamine. This is in accord with the mediation of the response through an H2-receptor. 5 H2-receptor antagonists reversed the inhibitory effect of histamine in a dose-related manner, but both metiamide and burimamide, in high concentrations, augmented lymphocyte activation in their own right. This precluded the determination of affinity constants and made it impossible to state with certainty that the inhibition of lymphocyte activation by histamine was mediated by an H2-receptor. PMID:526705

  3. Dihydrobenzofuran analogues of hallucinogens. 4. Mescaline derivatives.

    PubMed

    Monte, A P; Waldman, S R; Marona-Lewicka, D; Wainscott, D B; Nelson, D L; Sanders-Bush, E; Nichols, D E

    1997-09-12

    hallucinogens, that such compounds must be full agonists at the 5-HT2A receptor subtype. In contrast to the 2,5-dimethoxy-substituted phenethylamines, where rigidification of the methoxy groups had no deleterious effect on activity, the loss of activity in the 3,4,5-trioxygenated mescaline analogues may suggest that the 3 and 5 methoxy groups must remain conformationally mobile to enable receptor activation.

  4. Terrestrial research in Mars analogue environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, G.

    Fatty acids (FA) content was measured by GC-MS SIM technique in Sulfide ores of present day (Mid-Atlantic Ridge and others) and ancient (Ural Paleocene, Russia) black smokers; Early Proterozoic kerites of Volyn; Siberian, Canadian and Antarctic permafrosts and also in rocks of East-European platform Achaean crystalline basement. Analysis was shown presence those and only those fatty acids which are specific to microorganisms. FA with 12 up 19 of carbon atoms are thought to be a bacterial biomass sign. 3-Hydroxy fatty acids also found in samples and are strong specific markers of gram-negative bacteria. Cultivation yield living bacteria in some cases. The East-European platform Achaean crystalline basement rocks opened by Vorotilov Deep Well (VDW) drilled through Puchezh-Katunski impact structure were studied within depths 2575 - 2805 m. 34 microbial lipid markers were detected by GC-MS and 22 species were identified. Bacteria of g. Bacillus reached 6,8 % in subsurface communities. However, members of gg. Clostridium (37,1 - 33,2 %) and Rhodococcus (27,6 - 33,7 %) were absolute dominants within studied depth interval. Some lipid patterns of kerite samples could be assessed to definite genera or, in special cases, to species of contemporary microorganisms. For instance, 2-hydroxylauric acid is specific to Pseudomonas putida group or Acinetobacter spp., and hydroxymyristic together with hydroxypalmitic are specific to P.cepacea and cyanobacteria. 3-hydroxystearic acid was known as component of Acetobacter diazothrophycus and Gloebacter violaceous cyanobacterium. 10-hydroxystearic acid associated with Nocardia spp., which oxidizes oleic acid in organic substrates. 10-methylhexadecanoic (10Me16) acid together with 10Me14, 10Me15 and 10Me17 analogues are markers of actinomycetes. Significant part of Black Smokers organic matter is probably biogenic. Fatty acid features strongly assigns it to bacterial, microeucariotic and planta cells. Par example 3-hydroxy acids are

  5. Spectral analysis of lunar analogue samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offringa, Marloes; Foing, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Analyses of samples derived from terrestrial analogue sites are used to study lunar processes in their geological context (Foing, Stoker, Ehrenfreund, 2011). For this study samples from the volcanic region of the Eifel, Germany collected during field campaigns (Foing et al., 2010), are analyzed with a variety of spectrometers. The aim is to obtain a database of analyzed samples that could be used as a reference for future in situ measurements. Equipment used in the laboratory consists of a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, an X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer, a Raman laser spectrometer, as well as UV-VIS and NIR reflectance spectrometers. The Raman, UV-VIS and NIR are also used in combination with the EXoGeoLab mock-up lander during field campaigns (Foing, Stoker, Ehrenfreund, 2011). Calibration of the UV-VIS and NIR reflectance spectrometers is the main focus of this research in order to obtain the clearest spectra. The calibration of the UV-VIS and NIR reflectance spectrometers requires the use of a good light source as well as suitable optical fibers to create a signal that covers the widest range in wavelengths available. To eliminate noise towards the edges of this range, multiple measurements are averaged and data is processed by dividing the signal by reference spectra. Calibration of the devices by creating a new dark and reference spectra has to take place after every sample measurement. In this way we take into account changes that occur in the signal due to the eating of the devices during the measurements. Moreover, the integration time is adjusted to obtain a clear signal without leading to oversaturation in the reflectance spectrum. The typical integration times for the UV-VIS reflectance spectrometer vary between 1 - 18 s, depending on the amount of daylight during experiments. For the NIR reflectance spectrometer the integration time resulting in the best signals is approximately 150 ms in combination with a broad spectrum light

  6. Iron isotopes in an Archean ocean analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busigny, Vincent; Planavsky, Noah J.; Jézéquel, Didier; Crowe, Sean; Louvat, Pascale; Moureau, Julien; Viollier, Eric; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2014-05-01

    Iron isotopes have been extensively used to trace the history of microbial metabolisms and the redox evolution of the oceans. Archean sedimentary rocks display greater variability in iron isotope ratios and more markedly negative values than those deposited in the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic. This increased variability has been linked to changes in either water column iron cycling or the extent of benthic microbial iron reduction through time. We tested these contrasting scenarios through a detailed study of anoxic and ferruginous Lac Pavin (France), which can serve as a modern analogue of the Archean ocean. A depth-profile in the water column of Lac Pavin shows a remarkable increase in dissolved Fe concentration (0.1-1200 μM) and δ56Fe values (-2.14‰ to +0.31‰) across the oxic-anoxic boundary to the lake bottom. The largest Fe isotope variability is found at the redox boundary and is related to partial oxidation of dissolved ferrous iron, leaving the residual Fe enriched in light isotopes. The analysis of four sediment cores collected along a lateral profile (one in the oxic layer, one at the redox boundary, one in the anoxic zone, and one at the bottom of the lake) indicates that bulk sediments, porewaters, and reactive Fe mostly have δ56Fe values near 0.0 ± 0.2‰, similar to detrital iron. In contrast, pyrite δ56Fe values in sub-chemocline cores (60, 65, and 92 m) are highly variable and show significant deviations from the detrital iron isotope composition (δ56Fepyrite between -1.51‰ and +0.09‰; average -0.93‰). Importantly, the pyrite δ56Fe values mirror the δ56Fe of dissolved iron at the redox boundary—where near quantitative sulfate and sulfide drawdown occurs—suggesting limited iron isotope fractionation during iron sulfide formation. This finding has important implications for the Archean environment. Specifically, this work suggests that in a ferruginous system, most of the Fe isotope variability observed in sedimentary pyrites can

  7. Third-generation percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems.

    PubMed

    Vanni, Daniele; Galzio, Renato; Kazakova, Anna; Pantalone, Andrea; Grillea, Giovanni; Bartolo, Marcello; Salini, Vincenzo; Magliani, Vincenzo

    2016-03-01

    Currently, there is no general consensus about the management of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVF). In the past, conservative treatment for at least one month was deemed appropriate for the majority of vertebral fractures. When pain persisted after conservative treatment, it was necessary to consider surgical interventions including: vertebroplasty for vertebral fractures with less than 30% loss of height of the affected vertebral body and kyphoplasty for vertebral fractures with greater than 30% loss of height. Currently, this type of treatment is not feasible. Herein we review the characteristics and methods of operation of three of the most common percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems (PVAS) for the treatment of OVF: Vertebral Body Stenting(®) (VBS), OsseoFix(®) and Spine Jack(®). VBS is a titanium device accompanied by a hydraulic (as opposed to mechanical) working system which allows a partial and not immediate possibility to control the opening of the device. On the other hand, OsseoFix(®) and Spine Jack(®) are accompanied by a mechanical working system which allows a progressive and controlled reduction of the vertebral fracture. Another important aspect to consider is the vertebral body height recovery. OsseoFix(®) has an indirect mechanism of action: the compaction of the trabecular bone causes an increase in the vertebral body height. Unlike the Vertebral Body Stenting(®) and Spine Jack(®), the OsseoFix(®) has no direct lift mechanism. Therefore, for these characteristics and for the force that this device is able to provide. In our opinion, Spine Jack(®) is the only device also suitable for the treatment OVF, traumatic fracture (recent, old or inveterate) and primary or secondary bone tumors. PMID:27683690

  8. Third-generation percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems

    PubMed Central

    Galzio, Renato; Kazakova, Anna; Pantalone, Andrea; Grillea, Giovanni; Bartolo, Marcello; Salini, Vincenzo; Magliani, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no general consensus about the management of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVF). In the past, conservative treatment for at least one month was deemed appropriate for the majority of vertebral fractures. When pain persisted after conservative treatment, it was necessary to consider surgical interventions including: vertebroplasty for vertebral fractures with less than 30% loss of height of the affected vertebral body and kyphoplasty for vertebral fractures with greater than 30% loss of height. Currently, this type of treatment is not feasible. Herein we review the characteristics and methods of operation of three of the most common percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems (PVAS) for the treatment of OVF: Vertebral Body Stenting® (VBS), OsseoFix® and Spine Jack®. VBS is a titanium device accompanied by a hydraulic (as opposed to mechanical) working system which allows a partial and not immediate possibility to control the opening of the device. On the other hand, OsseoFix® and Spine Jack® are accompanied by a mechanical working system which allows a progressive and controlled reduction of the vertebral fracture. Another important aspect to consider is the vertebral body height recovery. OsseoFix® has an indirect mechanism of action: the compaction of the trabecular bone causes an increase in the vertebral body height. Unlike the Vertebral Body Stenting® and Spine Jack®, the OsseoFix® has no direct lift mechanism. Therefore, for these characteristics and for the force that this device is able to provide. In our opinion, Spine Jack® is the only device also suitable for the treatment OVF, traumatic fracture (recent, old or inveterate) and primary or secondary bone tumors.

  9. Soft Tissue Augmentation with Silk Composite Graft

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong-Tae; Kweon, Hae Yong; Kim, Seong-Gon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction between 4-hexylresorcinol (4HR) and antibody as that affects the performance of a silk-4HR combination graft for soft tissue augmentation in an animal model. Methods: The silk graft materials consisted of four types: silk+10% tricalcium phosphate (TCP) (ST0), silk+10% TCP+1% 4HR (ST1), silk+10% TCP+3% 4HR (ST3), and silk+10% TCP+6% 4-HR (ST6). The antibody binding assay tested the 4HR effect and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) exam was done for silk grafts. The animal experiment used a subcutaneous pocket mouse model. The graft – SH0 or SH1 or SH3 or SH6 – was placed in a subcutaneous pocket. The animals were killed at one, two, and four weeks, postoperatively. The specimens were subjected to histological analysis and lysozyme assay. Results: Groups with 4HR applied showed lower antibody binding affinity to antigen compared to groups without 4HR. In the SEM examination, there was no significant difference among groups. Histological examinations revealed many foreign body giant cells in ST0 and ST1 group at four weeks postoperatively. Both ST3 and ST6 groups developed significantly lower levels of giant cell values compared to ST0 and ST1 groups (P <0.001) at four weeks postoperatively. In the lysozyme assay, the ST1 and ST3 groups showed denser signals than the other groups. Conclusion: 4HR combined silk implants resulted in high levels of vascular and connective tissue regeneration. PMID:27489833

  10. Improving Robotic Operator Performance Using Augmented Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maida, James C.; Bowen, Charles K.; Pace, John W.

    2007-01-01

    The Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) is a two-armed robot that functions as an extension to the end effector of the Space Station Robotics Manipulator System (SSRMS), currently in use on the International Space Station (ISS). Crew training for the SPDM is accomplished using a robotic hardware simulator, which performs most of SPDM functions under normal static Earth gravitational forces. Both the simulator and SPDM are controlled from a standard robotic workstation using a laptop for the user interface and three monitors for camera views. Most operations anticipated for the SPDM involve the manipulation, insertion, and removal of any of several types of Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU), modules which control various ISS functions. Alignment tolerances for insertion of the ORU into its receptacle are 0.25 inch and 0.5 degree from nominal values. The pre-insertion alignment task must be performed within these tolerances by using available video camera views of the intrinsic features of the ORU and receptacle, without special registration markings. Since optimum camera views may not be available, and dynamic orbital lighting conditions may limit periods of viewing, a successful ORU insertion operation may require an extended period of time. This study explored the feasibility of using augmented reality (AR) to assist SPDM operations. Geometric graphical symbols were overlaid on one of the workstation monitors to afford cues to assist the operator in attaining adequate pre-insertion ORU alignment. Twelve skilled subjects performed eight ORU insertion tasks using the simulator with and without the AR symbols in a repeated measures experimental design. Results indicated that using the AR symbols reduced pre-insertion alignment error for all subjects and reduced the time to complete pre-insertion alignment for most subjects.

  11. Gravel Augmentation Below Dams: California Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondolf, G. M.; Minear, J. T.

    2004-12-01

    Most dams block all coarse sediment traveling downstream, such that reaches downstream are commonly typically depleted of gravel, causing a variety of effects such as incision, bank erosion, coarsening of the bed material, and reduction of salmonid spawning habitiat. To compensate for this reduction in coarse sediment supply, gravel has been artificially added below dams, using techniques such as high flow stock piling, high flow direct injection, artificial riffle construction, riffle supplementation, and construction of side channel or artificial spawning channels. In the Trinity and Sacramento-San Joaquin River systems of northern California, loss of suitable salmonid spawning gravels below dams has motivated augmentation of over 320,000 m3 of gravel in 73 separate projects on 19 rivers since 1978, mostly since 1990. Of the 67 projects for which adequate data were available, 48 involved adding less than 7,500 m3 each. Costs reported for 57 of the projects totaled nearly $8,753,000, but these figures generally did not include the cost of staff time involved in planning, design, and oversight. Despite the magnitude of this experimental intervention, fewer than half of the projects were monitored, and of those few had monitored sufficient parameters pre- and post- project to evaluate project performance. Performance of these projects to date has been mixed: in many cases the imported gravels have promptly washed out, some channel forms created have been unnatural and not heavily used by salmon. In all cases, the volumes of gravel artificially added have been only a small percentage of the annual coarse sediment deficit.

  12. Third-generation percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems

    PubMed Central

    Galzio, Renato; Kazakova, Anna; Pantalone, Andrea; Grillea, Giovanni; Bartolo, Marcello; Salini, Vincenzo; Magliani, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no general consensus about the management of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVF). In the past, conservative treatment for at least one month was deemed appropriate for the majority of vertebral fractures. When pain persisted after conservative treatment, it was necessary to consider surgical interventions including: vertebroplasty for vertebral fractures with less than 30% loss of height of the affected vertebral body and kyphoplasty for vertebral fractures with greater than 30% loss of height. Currently, this type of treatment is not feasible. Herein we review the characteristics and methods of operation of three of the most common percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems (PVAS) for the treatment of OVF: Vertebral Body Stenting® (VBS), OsseoFix® and Spine Jack®. VBS is a titanium device accompanied by a hydraulic (as opposed to mechanical) working system which allows a partial and not immediate possibility to control the opening of the device. On the other hand, OsseoFix® and Spine Jack® are accompanied by a mechanical working system which allows a progressive and controlled reduction of the vertebral fracture. Another important aspect to consider is the vertebral body height recovery. OsseoFix® has an indirect mechanism of action: the compaction of the trabecular bone causes an increase in the vertebral body height. Unlike the Vertebral Body Stenting® and Spine Jack®, the OsseoFix® has no direct lift mechanism. Therefore, for these characteristics and for the force that this device is able to provide. In our opinion, Spine Jack® is the only device also suitable for the treatment OVF, traumatic fracture (recent, old or inveterate) and primary or secondary bone tumors. PMID:27683690

  13. Telescopic multi-resolution augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey; Frenchi, Christopher; Szu, Harold

    2014-05-01

    To ensure a self-consistent scaling approximation, the underlying microscopic fluctuation components can naturally influence macroscopic means, which may give rise to emergent observable phenomena. In this paper, we describe a consistent macroscopic (cm-scale), mesoscopic (micron-scale), and microscopic (nano-scale) approach to introduce Telescopic Multi-Resolution (TMR) into current Augmented Reality (AR) visualization technology. We propose to couple TMR-AR by introducing an energy-matter interaction engine framework that is based on known Physics, Biology, Chemistry principles. An immediate payoff of TMR-AR is a self-consistent approximation of the interaction between microscopic observables and their direct effect on the macroscopic system that is driven by real-world measurements. Such an interdisciplinary approach enables us to achieve more than multiple scale, telescopic visualization of real and virtual information but also conducting thought experiments through AR. As a result of the consistency, this framework allows us to explore a large dimensionality parameter space of measured and unmeasured regions. Towards this direction, we explore how to build learnable libraries of biological, physical, and chemical mechanisms. Fusing analytical sensors with TMR-AR libraries provides a robust framework to optimize testing and evaluation through data-driven or virtual synthetic simulations. Visualizing mechanisms of interactions requires identification of observable image features that can indicate the presence of information in multiple spatial and temporal scales of analog data. The AR methodology was originally developed to enhance pilot-training as well as `make believe' entertainment industries in a user-friendly digital environment We believe TMR-AR can someday help us conduct thought experiments scientifically, to be pedagogically visualized in a zoom-in-and-out, consistent, multi-scale approximations.

  14. Transparent 3D display for augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byoungho; Hong, Jisoo

    2012-11-01

    Two types of transparent three-dimensional display systems applicable for the augmented reality are demonstrated. One of them is a head-mounted-display-type implementation which utilizes the principle of the system adopting the concave floating lens to the virtual mode integral imaging. Such configuration has an advantage in that the threedimensional image can be displayed at sufficiently far distance resolving the accommodation conflict with the real world scene. Incorporating the convex half mirror, which shows a partial transparency, instead of the concave floating lens, makes it possible to implement the transparent three-dimensional display system. The other type is the projection-type implementation, which is more appropriate for the general use than the head-mounted-display-type implementation. Its imaging principle is based on the well-known reflection-type integral imaging. We realize the feature of transparent display by imposing the partial transparency to the array of concave mirror which is used for the screen of reflection-type integral imaging. Two types of configurations, relying on incoherent and coherent light sources, are both possible. For the incoherent configuration, we introduce the concave half mirror array, whereas the coherent one adopts the holographic optical element which replicates the functionality of the lenslet array. Though the projection-type implementation is beneficial than the head-mounted-display in principle, the present status of the technical advance of the spatial light modulator still does not provide the satisfactory visual quality of the displayed three-dimensional image. Hence we expect that the head-mounted-display-type and projection-type implementations will come up in the market in sequence.

  15. Augmenting the Deliberative Method for Ranking Risks.

    PubMed

    Susel, Irving; Lasley, Trace; Montezemolo, Mark; Piper, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) characterized and prioritized the physical cross-border threats and hazards to the nation stemming from terrorism, market-driven illicit flows of people and goods (illegal immigration, narcotics, funds, counterfeits, and weaponry), and other nonmarket concerns (movement of diseases, pests, and invasive species). These threats and hazards pose a wide diversity of consequences with very different combinations of magnitudes and likelihoods, making it very challenging to prioritize them. This article presents the approach that was used at DHS to arrive at a consensus regarding the threats and hazards that stand out from the rest based on the overall risk they pose. Due to time constraints for the decision analysis, it was not feasible to apply multiattribute methodologies like multiattribute utility theory or the analytic hierarchy process. Using a holistic approach was considered, such as the deliberative method for ranking risks first published in this journal. However, an ordinal ranking alone does not indicate relative or absolute magnitude differences among the risks. Therefore, the use of the deliberative method for ranking risks is not sufficient for deciding whether there is a material difference between the top-ranked and bottom-ranked risks, let alone deciding what the stand-out risks are. To address this limitation of ordinal rankings, the deliberative method for ranking risks was augmented by adding an additional step to transform the ordinal ranking into a ratio scale ranking. This additional step enabled the selection of stand-out risks to help prioritize further analysis. PMID:26224206

  16. Enrichment design with patient population augmentation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Zhou, Yijie; Zhang, Lanju; Cui, Lu

    2015-05-01

    Clinical trials can be enriched on subpopulations that may be more responsive to treatments to improve the chance of trial success. In 2012 FDA issued a draft guidance to facilitate enrichment design, where it pointed out the uncertainty on the subpopulation classification and on the treatment effect outside of the identified subpopulation. We consider a novel design strategy where the identified subpopulation (biomarker-positive) is augmented by some biomarker-negative patients. Specifically, after sufficiently powering biomarker-positive subpopulation we propose to enroll biomarker-negative patients, enough to assess the overall treatment benefit. We derive a weighted statistic for this assessment, correcting for the disproportionality of biomarker-positive and biomarker-negative subpopulations under enriched trial setting. Screening information is utilized for weight determination. This statistic is an unbiased estimate of the overall treatment effect as that in all-comer trials, and is the basis to power for the overall treatment effect. For analysis, testing will be first performed on biomarker-positive subpopulation; only if treatment benefit is established in this subpopulation will overall treatment effect be tested using the weighted statistic. This design approach differs from typical enrichment design or stratified all-comer design in that the former enrolls only biomarker-positive patients and the latter enrolls a regular all-comer population. It also differs from adaptive enrichment by maintaining the trial design and analysis priority on biomarker-positive subpopulation. Therefore the proposed approach not only warrants a high probability of trial success on biomarker-positive subpopulation, but also efficiently assesses the overall treatment effect in the presence of an uncertain treatment benefit among biomarker-negative patients.

  17. beta. -endorphin augments the cytolytic activity and interferon production of natural killer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mandler, R.N.; Biddison, W.E.; Mandler, R.; Serrate, S.A.

    1986-02-01

    The in vitro effects of the neurohormone ..beta..-endorphin (b-end) on natural killer (NK) activity and interferon (IFN) production mediated by large granular lymphocytes (LGL) were investigated. LGL-enriched fractions from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from normal human volunteers were obtained by fractionation over discontinuous Percoll gradients. LGL were preincubated with or without various concentrations of b-end or the closely related peptides ..cap alpha..-endorphin (a-end), ..gamma..-endorphin (g-end), or D-ALA/sub 2/-..beta..-endorphin (D-ALA/sub 2/-b-end), a synthetic b-end analogue. NK activity was assayed on /sup 51/Cr-labeled K562 target cells. Preincubation of LGL effectors (but not K562 targets) for 2 to 18 hr with concentrations of b-end between 10/sup -7/ M and 10/sup -10/ M produced significant augmentation of NK cytolytic activity (mean percentage increase: 63%). The classic opiate antagonist naloxone blocked the enhancing effect when used at a 100-fold molar excess relative to b-end. These findings demonstrate that b-end enhances NK activity and IFN production of purified LGL, and suggests that b-end might bind to an opioid receptor on LGL that can be blocked by naloxone. These results lend support to the concepts of regulation of the immune response by neurohormones and the functional relationship between the nervous and immune systems.

  18. Novel fiber-based pure chitosan scaffold for tendon augmentation: biomechanical and cell biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nowotny, J; Aibibu, D; Farack, J; Nimtschke, U; Hild, M; Gelinsky, M; Kasten, P; Cherif, Ch

    2016-07-01

    One possibility to improve the mechanical properties after tendon ruptures is augmentation with a scaffold. Based on wet spinning technology, chitosan fibres were processed to a novel pure high-grade multifilament yarn with reproducible quality. The fibres were braided to obtain a 3D tendon scaffold. The CS fibres and scaffolds were evaluated biomechanically and compared to human supraspinatus (SSP) tendons. For the cytobiological characterization, in vitro cell culture experiments with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) were performed. Three types of 3D circular braided scaffolds were fabricated. Significantly, higher ultimate stress values were measured for scaffold with larger filament yarn, compared to scaffold with smaller filament yarn. During cultivation over 28 days, the cells showed in dependence of isolation method and/or donor a doubling or tripling of the cell number or even a six-fold increase on the CS scaffold, which was comparable to the control (polystyrene) or in the case of cells obtained from human biceps tendon even higher proliferation rates. After 14 days, the scaffold surface was covered homogeneously with a cell layer. In summary, the present work demonstrates that braided chitosan scaffolds constitute a straightforward approach for designing tendon analogues, maintaining important flexibility in scaffold design and providing favourable mechanical properties of the resulting construct.

  19. Augmented Reality System for E-maintenance Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benbelkacem, S.; Zenati-Henda, N.; Belhocine, M.; Malek, S.

    2009-03-01

    We present in this paper an Augmented Reality platform for e-maintenance application. In our case, the aim is not to develop a vision system based on augmented reality concept, but to show the relationship between the different actors in the proposed architecture and to facilitate maintenance of the machine. With this platform we identify all possible scenarios which allow the technician to intervene on a machine breakdown using distant expert if necessary. Each scenario depends on the machine parameters and the technician competences. To implement a configuration of Augmented Reality system, we chose a case study of maintenance scenario for machine breakdown. Then we represent this scenario by an interaction model which allows establishing Augmented Reality configuration.

  20. Control-Volume Analysis Of Thrust-Augmenting Ejectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Colin K.

    1990-01-01

    New method of analysis of transient flow in thrust-augmenting ejector based on control-volume formulation of governing equations. Considered as potential elements of propulsion subsystems of short-takeoff/vertical-landing airplanes.

  1. Augmented Reality a Review on Technology and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petruse, Radu Emanuil; Bondrea, Ioan

    2014-11-01

    We present in this paper an overview of the concepts and potential industrial Augmented Reality applications that can be very efficient. We also present the basic technological requirements for an AR system

  2. [Cement augmentation of pedicle screws : Pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Schnake, K J; Blattert, T R; Liljenqvist, U

    2016-09-01

    Cement augmentation of pedicle screws biomechanically increases screw purchase in the bone. However, clinical complications may occur. The pros and cons of the technique are discussed from different clinical perspectives. PMID:27514827

  3. Superconducting augmented rail gun (SARG). Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, C.G.; Scholz, W.

    1987-02-01

    Both the energy efficiency and projectile velocity of a rail-gun system can be substantially increased by the addition of an adjunct superconducting augmentation coil system. The energy efficiency results from the superconducting coil's ability to recover the rail magnetic field energy normally dissipated at the end of launch in rail guns, by means of a unique application of the flux conservation of property of superconducting coils. The increased velocity results from the augmented Lorentz force due to the augmentation-coil magnetic field. In an idealized system, both the energy efficiency and projectile velocities can be increased by more than 80%, dependent on the magnetic coupling between the rail and augmentation coils. The theoretical evaluation was extended to include dissipative effects which reveal that actual launch efficiencies are increased from 25% (rail gun) to over 50% (SARG). A theoretical analysis of SARG is presented here together with the progress of an experimental demonstrator developer at Benet Weapons Lab.

  4. Orthosis reduces breast pain and mechanical forces through natural and augmented breast tissue in women lying prone

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast implant displacement or rupture can cause aesthetic problems and serious medical complications. Activities with prone positioning and loading of the anterior chest wall, such as massage, chiropractic or osteopathic therapies may increase the risk of implant failure and can also cause discomfort in women with natural breast tissue. Here we test the effectiveness of a newly developed orthosis on pain, mechanical pressure and displacement of breast tissue in women with cosmetic augmentation, post-mastectomy reconstruction, lactating or natural breast tissue. Methods Thirty-two females volunteers, aged 25–56 years with augmented, reconstructed, natural or lactating breast tissue and cup sizes B-F, participated in this open-label clinical trial. We measured pain perception, peak pressure, maximum force, and breast tissue displacement using different sizes of the orthosis compared to no orthosis. Different densities of the orthosis were also tested in a subgroup of women (n = 7). Pain perception was rated using a validated 11-point visual-analogue scale. Peak pressure and maximum force were assessed using a bilateral set of capacitance-pliance® sensor strips whilst participants were load bearing in a prone position, and breast displacement was measured by magnetic-resonance-imaging. Results The orthosis significantly reduced pain, breast displacement and mechanical pressures in women with natural and augmented breast tissue in prone position. Greater relief of pain and greater reduction in mechanical forces were found with increased size and density of the orthosis. Use of the orthosis improved overall comfort by 64-100%, lowered peak pressure by up to 85% and maximum force by up to 96%. Medio-lateral displacement of breast tissue was reduced by 16%, resulting in a 51% desirable increase of breast tissue height. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the newly developed orthosis significantly reduced pain, mechanical pressure and breast tissue

  5. Transpedicle body augmenter for vertebral augmentation in symptomatic multiple osteoporotic compression fractures

    PubMed Central

    Li, Allen; Li, Kung-Chia; Hsieh, Ching-Hsiang

    2010-01-01

    Background: Multiple osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) have been treated with polymethylmethacrylate augmentation; however, there are cement complications and long-term fracture healing that are unknown. Transpedicle body augmenter (a porous titanium spacer) has been reported as an internal support to reconstruct the vertebral body combining short-segment fixation in burst fracture and Kümmell's disease with cord compression. Transpedicle body augmenter for vertebral augmentation (TpBA) also has been reported successfully in treating single painful VCF and vertebral metastasis lesions including pending fractures and pathologic compression fractures. To test the hypothesis that TpBA can effectively and safely treat the symptomatic multiple VCFs, this retrospective study was done by analyzing the radiographic and clinical results. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed clinical and radiographic results of TpBA for symptomatic multiple (more than two levels) VCFs in 62 patients with a total of 236 levels, i.e. 3.8 VCFs per patient. Manual reduction and TpBA via paramedian incisions with blunt dissection were done. One incision was made for two continuous levels and alternative side was selected for next incision. Mean age was 74.3 years (range, 62-87 years), and female-male ratio was 5.2:1. Anterior vertebral height and wedge angle by radiographic findings were measured at preoperative, initial follow-up and final follow-up. Clinical results were assessed by questionnaires and clinical observations. By July 2008, 58 patients returned to answer the questionnaire including quantification of pain on the visual analog scale, the response to operations (better, same, or worse after operation), returned to their pre-fracture function (yes/no) and satisfaction (a scale of 0 = completely dissatisfied to 10 = completely satisfied). Results: The mean symptom duration was 7 months, and follow-up, 48 months. The average operation time was 21 min per

  6. Theoretical study on absorption and emission spectra of adenine analogues.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongxia; Song, Qixia; Yang, Yan; Li, Yan; Wang, Haijun

    2014-04-01

    Fluorescent nucleoside analogues have attracted much attention in studying the structure and dynamics of nucleic acids in recent years. In the present work, we use theoretical calculations to investigate the structural and optical properties of four adenine analogues (termed as A1, A2, A3, and A4), and also consider the effects of aqueous solution and base pairing. The results show that the fluorescent adenine analogues can pair with thymine to form stable H-bonded WC base pairs. The excited geometries of both adenine analogues and WC base pairs are similar to the ground geometries. The absorption and emission maxima of adenine analogues are greatly red shifted compared with nature adenine, the oscillator strengths of A1 and A2 are stronger than A3 and A4 in both absorption and emission spectra. The calculated low-energy peaks in the absorption spectra are in good agreement with the experimental data. In general, the aqueous solution and base pairing can slightly red-shift both the absorption and emission maxima, and can increase the oscillator strengths of absorption spectra, but significantly decrease the oscillator strengths of A3 in emission spectra.

  7. Central effects of angiotensin II, its fragment and analogues.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, V P; Klousha, V E; Petkov, V D; Markovska, V L; Svirskis, S V; Mountsinietse, R K; Anouans, Z E

    1984-01-01

    The effects of the octapeptide angiotensin II (AT II), its fragment Ile8 AT3-8 and the analogues Sar1 Ala8 AT II, Ala8 AT II and Ile8 AT II were studied with respect to: the level of biogenic amines (DA, 5-HT and their metabolites HVA and 5-HIAA) in the forebrain; the behaviour of the animals--haloperidol catalepsy, apomorphine stereotypy, unconditioned jumping reaction (UJR), convulsive threshold. Good correlation was found between the biochemical and behavioural effects. The fragment of AT II where phenylalanine is substituted at the C-terminal by Ile reduces the haloperidol-increased content of HVA, potentiates apomorphine stereotypy and reduces catalepsy, whereas the AT II analogues (where the C-terminal phenylalanine is substituted by Ala, and the N-terminal--by Sar) potentiate the effect of haloperidol increasing the HVA content, reduce apomorphine stereotypy and potentiate catalepsy; saralasine independently applied induces brief catalepsy; AT II, its fragment and analogues inhibit UJR, in combination with amphetamine and PTZ this effect becomes deeper; the duration of hexobarbital sleep is increased. The peptides investigated increase the convulsive threshold. The results show that the hexapeptide fragment has preserved the effects of AT II, whereas in the analogues (with changed C- and N-terminals) they are changed. The results obtained may be explained with the modulating influence of AT II-receptors on the DA-ergic receptors in the brain structures with which AT II and its fragment and analogues enter in contact.

  8. Review of Insulin and its Analogues in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Mane, Krishnappa; Chaluvaraju, KC; Niranjan, MS; Zaranappa, TR; Manjuthej, TR

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disorder where in human body does not produce or properly uses insulin, a hormone that is required to convert sugar, starches and other food into energy. Diabetes finally leads to more complications and to prevent these complications insulin and its analogues are used. After more than half a century of treating diabetics with animal insulin’s, recombinant DNA technologies and advanced protein chemistry made human insulin preparations available in the early 1980s. As the next step, over the last decade, insulin analogues were constructed by changing the structure of the native protein with the goal of improving the therapeutic properties of it, because the pharmacokinetic characteristics of rapid, intermediate and long-acting preparations of human insulin make it almost impossible to achieve sustained normoglycemia. The first clinically available insulin analogue, lispro, confirmed the hopes by showing that improved glycaemic control can be achieved without an increase in hypoglycaemic events. Two new insulin analogues, insulin glargine and insulin aspart, have recently been approved for clinical use in the United States and several other analogues are being intensively tested. PMID:24826038

  9. Blunt chest trauma: evaluation of the augmented breast.

    PubMed

    Dellon, A L; Cowley, R A; Hoopes, J E

    1980-11-01

    Breast augmentation is being done increasingly, not only for women who consider their breasts too small but also for those with breast asymmetry, and post-mastectomy patients with reconstruction. It appears inevitable that traumatologists will have to evaluate injury to an augmented breast in a patient who has sustained blunt chest trauma. This paper discusses the differential diagnosis and treatment of implant rupture, hematoma, and spherical capsular contracture as a result of trauma.

  10. Orion MPCV Continuum RCS Heating Augmentation Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt, Andrew J.; White, Molly E.

    2014-01-01

    The reaction control system jets of the Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle can have a significant impact on the magnitude and distribution of the surface heat flux on the leeside of the aft-body, when they are fired. Changes in surface heating are expressed in terms of augmentation factor over the baseline smooth body heating. Wind tunnel tests revealed heating augmentation factors as high as 13.0, 7.6, 2.8, and 5.8 for the roll, pitch down, pitch up, and yaw jets respectively. Heating augmentation factor models, based almost exclusively on data from a series of wind tunnel tests have been developed, for the purposes of thermal protection system design. The wind tunnel tests investigated several potential jet-to-freestream similarity parameters, and heating augmentation factors derived from the data showed correlation with the jet-to-freestream momentum ratio. However, this correlation was not utilized in the developed models. Instead augmentation factors were held constant throughout the potential trajectory space. This simplification was driven by the fact that ground to flight traceability and sting effects are not well understood. Given the sensitivity of the reaction control system jet heating augmentation to configuration, geometry, and orientation the focus in the present paper is on the methodology used to develop the models and the lessons learned from the data. The models that are outlined in the present work are specific to the aerothermal database used to design the thermal protection system for the Exploration Flight Test 1 vehicle.

  11. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system.

    PubMed

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-07-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed. PMID:27446690

  12. Dorsal Augmentation in Rhinoplasty: A Survey and Review.

    PubMed

    Malone, Melanie; Pearlman, Steven

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the nuanced practices and grafting options of dorsal augmentation will improve outcomes and results in rhinoplasty. To better understand the practices of dorsal augmentation among our colleagues. To review the current literature regarding the indications, safety profiles, and outcomes of different materials used in dorsal augmentation. A PubMed search was performed to capture current articles containing reviews or large series regarding the safety and efficacy of various grafting materials used for dorsal augmentation. Of the many options available, autologous cartilage grafts maintain widespread use for dorsal augmentation and other techniques in rhinoplasty. Homologous cartilage grafts, namely irradiated rib, are a preferred alternative. Irradiated costal cartilage has been shown to have low complication rates and is unique in its abundance of supply, particularly in the revision rhinoplasty. Alloplastic implants, particularly silicone, are prevalent in Asian countries where they are a popular first-line choice. ePTFE has a favorable complication profile in primary rhinoplasty; however, caution is recommended when using ePTFE in revision cases. Porous polyethylene has a higher risk of associated complications than the other alloplastic implants listed, and therefore should be considered thoughtfully. Although cartilage is often the preferred graft for dorsal augmentation, there are many other autogenous, homologous, and alloplastic materials that have been shown to be safe and effective choices when applied in the proper setting. PMID:26126225

  13. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system.

    PubMed

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-07-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed.

  14. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-01-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed. PMID:27446690

  15. Analogue modelling of syntectonic leucosomes in migmatitic schists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druguet, Elena; Carreras, Jordi

    2006-10-01

    Migmatites from the Cap de Creus tectonometamorphic belt display a wide variety of structures, from those formed when the leucosomes were melt-bearing, to those developed during solid-state deformation. The observed field structures have been modelled by means of analogue experiments. The materials used in the models are layered plasticine as a schist analogue, and chocolate as analogue of the crystallizing leucosome. A model for the development of syntectonic migmatites is proposed in which initial melt-bearing patches, preferentially formed within fertile pelitic layers, progressively evolve towards lens-shaped veins. Furthermore, heterogeneous deformation of anisotropic metasediments facilitates formation of extensional sites for further melt accumulation and transport. Melt crystallization implies a rapid increase in effective viscosity of leucosomes producing a reversal in competence contrast with respect to the enclosing schists. During the whole process, deformation localizes around crystallizing veins, giving rise to different and contrasting structures for melt-bearing and for solid-state stages.

  16. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Carbocyclic Analogues of Pachastrissamine

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yongseok; Song, Jayoung; Bae, Hoon; Kim, Woo-Jung; Lee, Joo-Youn; Han, Geun-Hee; Lee, Sang Kook; Kim, Sanghee

    2015-01-01

    A series of carbocyclic analogues of naturally-occurring marine sphingolipid pachastrissamine were prepared and biologically evaluated. The analogues were efficiently synthesized via a tandem enyne/diene-ene metathesis reaction as a key step. We found that the analogue 4b exhibited comparable cytotoxicity and more potent inhibitory activity against sphingosine kinases, compared to pachastrissamine. Molecular modeling studies were conducted to provide more detailed insight into the binding mode of 4b in sphingosine kinase. In our docking model, pachastrissamine and 4b were able to effectively bind to the binding pocket of sphingosine kinase 1 as co-crystalized sphingosine. However, 4b showed a hydrophobic interaction with Phe192, which suggests that it contributes to its increased inhibitory activity against sphingosine kinase 1. PMID:25654428

  17. Migrastatin analogues target fascin to block tumour metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Jakoncic, J.; Yang, S.; Zhang, J.; Huang, X.Y.

    2010-04-15

    Tumour metastasis is the primary cause of death of cancer patients. Development of new therapeutics preventing tumour metastasis is urgently needed. Migrastatin is a natural product secreted by Streptomyces, and synthesized migrastatin analogues such as macroketone are potent inhibitors of metastatic tumour cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Here we show that these migrastatin analogues target the actin-bundling protein fascin to inhibit its activity. X-ray crystal structural studies reveal that migrastatin analogues bind to one of the actin-binding sites on fascin. Our data demonstrate that actin cytoskeletal proteins such as fascin can be explored as new molecular targets for cancer treatment, in a similar manner to the microtubule protein tubulin.

  18. New rubrolide analogues as inhibitors of photosynthesis light reactions.

    PubMed

    Varejão, Jodieh O S; Barbosa, Luiz C A; Ramos, Gabriela Álvarez; Varejão, Eduardo V V; King-Díaz, Beatriz; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas

    2015-04-01

    Natural products called rubrolides have been investigated as a model for the development of new herbicides that act on the photosynthesis apparatus. This study comprises a comprehensive analysis of the photosynthesis inhibitory ability of 27 new structurally diverse rubrolide analogues. In general, the results revealed that the compounds exhibited efficient inhibition of the photosynthetic process, but in some cases low water solubility may be a limiting factor. To elucidate their mode of action, the effects of the compounds on PSII and PSI, as well as their partial reaction on chloroplasts and the chlorophyll a fluorescence transients were measured. Our results showed that some of the most active rubrolide analogues act as a Hill reaction inhibitors at the QB level by interacting with the D1 protein at the reducing side of PSII. All of the active analogues follow Tice's rule of 5, which indicates that these compounds present physicochemical properties suitable for herbicides.

  19. Synthesis and cytotoxic activities of semisynthetic zearalenone analogues.

    PubMed

    Tadpetch, Kwanruthai; Kaewmee, Benyapa; Chantakaew, Kittisak; Kantee, Kawalee; Rukachaisirikul, Vatcharin; Phongpaichit, Souwalak

    2016-08-01

    Zearalenone is a β-resorcylic acid macrolide with various biological activities. Herein we report the synthesis and cytotoxic activities of 34 zearalenone analogues against human oral epidermoid carcinoma (KB) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells as well as noncancerous Vero cells. Some zearalenone analogues showed moderately enhanced cytotoxic activities against the two cancer cell lines. We have discovered the potential lead compounds with diminished or no cytotoxicity to Vero cells. Preliminary structure-activity relationship studies revealed that the double bond at the 1' and 2' positions of zearalenone core was crucial for cytotoxic activities on both cell lines. In addition, for zearalenol analogues, the unprotected hydroxyl group at C-2 and an alkoxy substituent at C-4 played key roles on cytotoxic effects of both cell lines.

  20. Conception, synthesis, and biological evaluation of original discodermolide analogues.

    PubMed

    de Lemos, Elsa; Agouridas, Evangelos; Sorin, Geoffroy; Guerreiro, Antonio; Commerçon, Alain; Pancrazi, Ange; Betzer, Jean-François; Lannou, Marie-Isabelle; Ardisson, Janick

    2011-08-29

    Due to its intriguing biological activity profile and potential chemotherapeutic application discodermolide (DDM) proved to be an attractive target. Therefore, notable efforts have been carried out directed toward its total synthesis and toward the production and evaluation of synthetic analogues. Recently, we achieved the total synthesis of DDM. At the present, guided by the knowledge gained during our DDM total synthesis and by the requirement of keeping the bioactive "U" shape conformation, we report the convergent preparation of five original analogues. Three types of changes were realized through modification of the terminal (Z)-diene moiety, of the methyl group at the C14-position, and the lactone region. All analogues were active in the nanomolar range and two of them turned out to be equipotent to DDM.

  1. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of New (-)-Englerin Analogues.

    PubMed

    López-Suárez, Laura; Riesgo, Lorena; Bravo, Fernando; Ransom, Tanya T; Beutler, John A; Echavarren, Antonio M

    2016-05-01

    We report the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of (-)-englerin A analogues obtained along our previously reported synthetic route based on a stereoselective gold(I) cycloaddition process. This synthetic route is a convenient platform to access analogues with broad structural diversity and has led us to the discovery of unprecedented and easier-to-synthesize derivatives with an unsaturation in the cyclopentyl ring between C4 and C5. We also introduce novel analogues in which the original isopropyl motif has been substituted with cyclohexyl, phenyl, and cyclopropyl moieties. The high selectivity and growth-inhibitory activity shown by these new derivatives in renal cancer cell lines opens new ways toward the final goal of finding effective drugs for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

  2. Non-natural acetogenin analogues as potent Trypanosoma brucei inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Florence, Gordon J; Fraser, Andrew L; Gould, Eoin R; King, Elizabeth F B; Menzies, Stefanie K; Morris, Joanne C; Tulloch, Lindsay B; Smith, Terry K

    2014-11-01

    Neglected tropical diseases remain a serious global health concern. Here, a series of novel bis-tetrahydropyran 1,4-triazole analogues based on the framework of chamuvarinin, a polyketide natural product isolated from the annonaceae plant species are detailed. The analogues synthesized display low micromolar trypanocidal activities towards both bloodstream and insect forms of Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African sleeping sickness, also known as Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT). A divergent synthetic strategy was adopted for the synthesis of the key tetrahydropyran intermediates to enable rapid access to diastereochemical variation either side of the 1,4-triazole core. The resulting diastereomeric analogues displayed varying degrees of trypanocidal activity and selectivity in structure-activity relationship studies. Together, the biological potency and calculated lipophilicity values indicate that while there is room for improvement, these derivatives may represent a promising novel class of anti-HAT agents.

  3. Does erythropoietin augment noise induced hearing loss?

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Lund, Søren Peter; Wagner, Niels; Asal, Korhan; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Thomsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss may result from excessive release of glutamate, nitrogen oxide and reactive oxygen species. The effects of these factors on the inner ear may potentially be prevented or reduced by erythropoietin (EPO), as indicated by previously demonstrated neuro-protective effects of EPO upon damage to the central nervous system and the retina. This paper reports three separate trials, conducted to investigate the hypothesis that noise-induced hearing loss is prevented or reduced by erythropoietin. The trials employed three different modes of drug application, different administration time windows and different rodent species. In trial 1, guinea pigs were exposed to 110dB SPL, 4-20kHz wide band noise (WBN) for 8h. EPO was administered to the round window membrane 24h after noise exposure, either sustained by pump for a week or by single dose middle ear instillation. In trial 2, rats were exposed to 105dB SPL, 4-20kHz WBN for 8h. EPO was administered by single dose middle ear instillation 1 or 14h after noise exposure. In trial 3, rats were exposed to 105dB SPL, 4-20kHz WBN for 8 or 3x8h. EPO was injected intraperitoneally 1h before noise exposure. Oto-acoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses (at 16kHz) were recorded before and after noise exposure in all trials. The noise exposure induced a hearing loss in all animals. In trial 1, no recovery and no improvement of hearing occurred in any treatment group. In trial 2 and 3, a partial hearing recovery was seen. However, the hearing loss of the EPO treated animals was significantly worse than controls in trial 2. In trial 3, the hearing of the EPO treated animals exposed for 3x8h was significantly worse than controls. Thus, surprisingly, the results from 2 of the 3 present trials indicate that erythropoietin may in fact augment noise-induced hearing loss. This is contradictory to the beneficial effect of EPO reported by the vast majority of studies on stressed neural tissues. EPO administration

  4. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, James W.

    1992-08-01

    The Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Project (Project) had its origin, in the mid-1980's, in perceived differences or inconsistencies in fish disease detection, diagnosis and control capabilities between the five conservation agencies rearing and releasing anadromous salmonids for fishery resource management and mitigation purposes in the Columbia River basin. Agency fish health programs varied greatly. Some agencies had personnel, equipment and funding to frequently monitor the health status of both juvenile production fish and adult salmon or steelhead trout at the time of spawning. Other agencies had much smaller programs and limited resources. These differences became better understood when the Pacific Northwest Fish Health Protection Committee developed its Model Fish Health Protection Program including recommendations for standard fish disease detection procedures. Even though some agencies could not immediately attain the goals set by the Model Program it was unanimously adopted as a desirable objective. Shortly thereafter, a multi-party planning group was assembled to help the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) find ways to improve agency fish health programs and implement measures under the Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council. The planning group assessed existing agency fish health monitoring capabilities, agreed upon satisfactory levels of capability to detect and identify important fish pathogens, and designed a five-year project establishing comparable fish health monitoring capability in each agency. It was strongly believed that such a project would improve the health and quality of the millions of hatchery fish released annually in the Columbia River basin and improve interagency communications and disease control coordination. During 1986 and 1987 BPA individually negotiated five separate contracts with the fishery agencies to standardize fish health monitoring, develop a common data collection and reporting format

  5. Does erythropoietin augment noise induced hearing loss?

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Lund, Søren Peter; Wagner, Niels; Asal, Korhan; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Thomsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss may result from excessive release of glutamate, nitrogen oxide and reactive oxygen species. The effects of these factors on the inner ear may potentially be prevented or reduced by erythropoietin (EPO), as indicated by previously demonstrated neuro-protective effects of EPO upon damage to the central nervous system and the retina. This paper reports three separate trials, conducted to investigate the hypothesis that noise-induced hearing loss is prevented or reduced by erythropoietin. The trials employed three different modes of drug application, different administration time windows and different rodent species. In trial 1, guinea pigs were exposed to 110dB SPL, 4-20kHz wide band noise (WBN) for 8h. EPO was administered to the round window membrane 24h after noise exposure, either sustained by pump for a week or by single dose middle ear instillation. In trial 2, rats were exposed to 105dB SPL, 4-20kHz WBN for 8h. EPO was administered by single dose middle ear instillation 1 or 14h after noise exposure. In trial 3, rats were exposed to 105dB SPL, 4-20kHz WBN for 8 or 3x8h. EPO was injected intraperitoneally 1h before noise exposure. Oto-acoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses (at 16kHz) were recorded before and after noise exposure in all trials. The noise exposure induced a hearing loss in all animals. In trial 1, no recovery and no improvement of hearing occurred in any treatment group. In trial 2 and 3, a partial hearing recovery was seen. However, the hearing loss of the EPO treated animals was significantly worse than controls in trial 2. In trial 3, the hearing of the EPO treated animals exposed for 3x8h was significantly worse than controls. Thus, surprisingly, the results from 2 of the 3 present trials indicate that erythropoietin may in fact augment noise-induced hearing loss. This is contradictory to the beneficial effect of EPO reported by the vast majority of studies on stressed neural tissues. EPO administration

  6. Augmented reality for biomedical wellness sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey; Szu, Harold

    2013-05-01

    Due to the commercial move and gaming industries, Augmented Reality (AR) technology has matured. By definition of AR, both artificial and real humans can be simultaneously present and realistically interact among one another. With the help of physics and physiology, we can build in the AR tool together with real human day-night webcam inputs through a simple interaction of heat transfer -getting hot, action and reaction -walking or falling, as well as the physiology -sweating due to activity. Knowing the person age, weight and 3D coordinates of joints in the body, we deduce the force, the torque, and the energy expenditure during real human movements and apply to an AR human model. We wish to support the physics-physiology AR version, PPAR, as a BMW surveillance tool for senior home alone (SHA). The functionality is to record senior walking and hand movements inside a home environment. Besides the fringe benefit of enabling more visits from grand children through AR video games, the PP-AR surveillance tool may serve as a means to screen patients in the home for potential falls at points around in house. Moreover, we anticipate PP-AR may help analyze the behavior history of SHA, e.g. enhancing the Smartphone SHA Ubiquitous Care Program, by discovering early symptoms of candidate Alzheimer-like midnight excursions, or Parkinson-like trembling motion for when performing challenging muscular joint movements. Using a set of coordinates corresponding to a set of 3D positions representing human joint locations, we compute the Kinetic Energy (KE) generated by each body segment over time. The Work is then calculated, and converted into calories. Using common graphics rendering pipelines, one could invoke AR technology to provide more information about patients to caretakers. Alerts to caretakers can be prompted by a patient's departure from their personal baseline, and the patient's time ordered joint information can be loaded to a graphics viewer allowing for high

  7. Cement leakage in pedicle screw augmentation: a prospective analysis of 98 patients and 474 augmented pedicle screws.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Jan U; Baldauf, Joerg; Marx, Sascha; Kirsch, Michael; Schroeder, Henry W S; Pillich, Dirk T

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Loosening and pullout of pedicle screws are well-known problems in pedicle screw fixation surgery. Augmentation of pedicle screws with bone cement, first described as early as 1975, increases the pedicle-screw interface and pullout force in osteoporotic vertebrae. The aim of the present study was to identify cement leakage and pulmonary embolism rates in a large prospective single-center series of pedicle screw augmentations. METHODS All patients who underwent cement-augmented pedicle screw placement between May 2006 and October 2010 at the authors' institution were included in this prospective cohort study. Perivertebral cement leakage and pulmonary cement embolism were evaluated with a CT scan of the area of operation and with a radiograph of the chest, respectively. RESULTS A total of 98 patients underwent placement of cement-augmented pedicle screws; 474 augmented screws were inserted in 237 vertebrae. No symptomatic perivertebral cement leakage or symptomatic pulmonary cement embolism was observed, but asymptomatic perivertebral cement leakage was seen in 88 patients (93.6%) and in 165 augmented vertebrae (73.3%). Cement leakage most often occurred in the perivertebral venous system. Clinically asymptomatic pulmonary cement embolism was found in 4 patients (4.1%). CONCLUSIONS Perivertebral cement leakage often occurs in pedicle screw augmentation, but in most cases, it is clinically asymptomatic. Cement augmentation should be performed under continuous fluoroscopy to avoid high-volume leakage. Alternative strategies, such as use of expandable screws, should be examined in more detail for patients at high risk of screw loosening. PMID:26943258

  8. The Object-analogue approach for probabilistic forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frediani, M. E.; Hopson, T. M.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Hacker, J.

    2015-12-01

    The object-analogue is a new method to estimate forecast uncertainty and to derive probabilistic predictions of gridded forecast fields over larger regions rather than point locations. The method has been developed for improving the forecast of 10-meter wind speed over the northeast US, and it can be extended to other forecast variables, vertical levels, and other regions. The object-analogue approach combines the analog post-processing technique (Hopson 2005; Hamill 2006; Delle Monache 2011) with the Method for Object-based Diagnostic Evaluation (MODE) for forecast verification (Davis et al 2006a, b). Originally, MODE is used to verify mainly precipitation forecasts using features of a forecast region represented by an object. The analog technique is used to reduce the NWP systematic and random errors of a gridded forecast field. In this study we use MODE-derived objects to characterize the wind fields forecasts into attributes such as object area, centroid location, and intensity percentiles, and apply the analogue concept to these objects. The object-analogue method uses a database of objects derived from reforecasts and their respective reanalysis. Given a real-time forecast field, it searches the database and selects the top-ranked objects with the most similar set of attributes using the MODE fuzzy logic algorithm for object matching. The attribute probabilities obtained with the set of selected object-analogues are used to derive a multi-layer probabilistic prediction. The attribute probabilities are combined into three uncertainty layers that address the main concerns of most applications: location, area, and magnitude. The multi-layer uncertainty can be weighted and combined or used independently in such that it provides a more accurate prediction, adjusted according to the application interest. In this study we present preliminary results of the object-analogue method. Using a database with one hundred storms we perform a leave-one-out cross-validation to

  9. Analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone containing cytotoxic groups.

    PubMed Central

    Janáky, T; Juhász, A; Bajusz, S; Csernus, V; Srkalovic, G; Bokser, L; Milovanovic, S; Redding, T W; Rékási, Z; Nagy, A

    1992-01-01

    In an attempt to produce better cytotoxic analogues, chemotherapeutic antineoplastic radicals including an alkylating nitrogen mustard derivative of D-phenylalanine (D-melphalan), reactive cyclopropane, anthraquinone derivatives [2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone and the anticancer antibiotic doxorubicin], and an antimetabolite (methotrexate) were coupled to suitably modified agonists and antagonists of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH). Analogues with D-lysine6 and D-ornithine6 or N epsilon-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-lysine and N delta-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-ornithine were used as carriers for one or two cytotoxic moieties. The enhanced biological activities produced by the incorporation of D amino acids into position 6 of the agonistic analogues were further increased by the attachment of hydrophobic cytotoxic groups, resulting in compounds with 10-50 times higher activity than LH-RH. Most of the monosubstituted agonistic analogues showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of human breast cancer cells, while the receptor binding affinities of peptides containing two cytotoxic side chains were lower. Antagonistic carriers [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Trp3,Arg5,D-Lys6,D-Ala10] LH-RH [where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine], [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Trp3,Arg5,N epsilon-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-Lys6,D-Ala10]LH-RH, and their D-Pal(3)3 homologs [Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine] as well as [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Pal(3)3,Tyr5,N epsilon-(2,3-diamino-propionyl)-D-Lys6,D-Ala10]LH-RH were linked to cytotoxic compounds. The hybrid molecules inhibited ovulation in rats at doses of 10 micrograms and suppressed LH release in vitro. The receptor binding of cytotoxic analogues was decreased compared to the precursor peptides, although analogues with 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone hemiglutarate had high affinities. All of the cytotoxic analogues tested inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA in cultures of human breast and prostate cancer cell lines

  10. Five new discodermolide analogues from the marine sponge Discodermia species.

    PubMed

    Gunasekera, Sarath P; Paul, Gopal K; Longley, Ross E; Isbrucker, Richard A; Pomponi, Shirley A

    2002-11-01

    Discodermolide (1) and five new discodermolide analogues trivially named 2-epi-discodermolide (2), 2-des-methyldiscodermolide (3), 5-hydroxymethyldiscodermolate (4), 19-des-aminocarbonyldiscodermolide (5), and 9(13)-cyclodiscodermolide (6) have been isolated from marine sponges belonging to the genus Discodermia collected from the Caribbean Sea. The isolation, structure elucidation, and biological activities of 2-6 are described. The natural analogues, which were isolated in trace amounts, exhibited significant variation of cytotoxicity against the cultured murine P-388 leukemia and A-549 human adenocarcinoma cells and suggested the importance of the C(7) through C(17) moiety for potency against cultured tumor cell lines.

  11. Synthesis and Cytotoxicity of Semisynthetic Withalongolide A Analogues

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The natural product withaferin A exhibits potent antitumor activity and other diverse pharmacological activities. The recently discovered withalongolide A, a C-19 hydroxylated congener of withaferin A, was recently reported to possess cytotoxic activity against head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Semisynthetic acetylated analogues of withalongolide A were shown to be considerably more cytotoxic than the parent compound. To further explore the structure–activity relationships, 20 new semisynthetic analogues of withalongolide A were synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxic activity against four different cancer cell lines. A number of derivatives were found to be more potent than the parent compound and withaferin A. PMID:24273633

  12. Tumor imaging and therapy using radiolabeled somatostatin analogues.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Marion; Breeman, Wout A P; Kwekkeboom, Dik J; Valkema, Roelf; Krenning, Eric P

    2009-07-21

    Molecular imaging plays an essential role in balancing the clinical benefits and risks of radionuclide-based cancer therapy. To effectively treat individual patients, careful assessment of biodistribution, dosimetry, and toxicity is essential. In this Account, we describe advances that combine features of molecular imaging and radionuclide therapy to provide new avenues toward individualized cancer treatment. Selective receptor-targeting radiopeptides have emerged as an important class of radiopharmaceuticals for molecular imaging and therapy of tumors that overexpress peptide receptors on the cell membrane. After such peptides labeled with gamma-emitting radionuclides bind to their receptors, they allow clinicians to visualize receptor-expressing tumors non-invasively. Peptides labeled with beta-particle emitters could also eradicate receptor-expressing tumors. The somatostatin receptors, which are overexpressed in a majority of neuroendocrine tumors, represent the first and best example of targets for radiopeptide-based imaging and radionuclide therapy. The somatostatin analogue (111)In-octreotide permits the localization and staging of neuroendocrine tumors that express the appropriate somatostatin receptors. Newer modified somatostatin analogues, including Tyr(3)-octreotide and Tyr(3)-octreotate, are successfully being used for tumor imaging and radionuclide therapy. Because there are few effective therapies for patients with inoperable or metastasized neuroendocrine tumors, this therapy is a promising novel treatment option for these patients. Peptide receptor imaging and radionuclide therapy can be combined in a single probe, called a "theranostic". To select patients who are likely to benefit from this type of intervention, we first use a peptide analogue labeled with a diagnostic radionuclide to obtain a scan. Selected patients will be treated using the same or a similar peptide analogue labeled with a therapeutic radionuclide. The development of such

  13. On slow light as a black hole analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unruh, W. G.; Schützhold, R.

    2003-07-01

    Although slow light (electromagnetically induced transparency) would seem an ideal medium in which to institute a “dumb hole” (black hole analogue), it suffers from a number of problems. We show that the high phase velocity in the slow light regime ensures that the system cannot be used as an analogue displaying Hawking radiation. Even though an appropriately designed slow-light setup may simulate classical features of black holes—such as horizon, mode mixing, “Bogoliubov” coefficients, etc.—it does not reproduce the related quantum effects.

  14. Naturally occurring crystalline phases: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Haaker, R.F.; Ewing, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Naturally occurring mineral analogues to crystalline phases that are constituents of crystalline radioactive waste forms provide a basis for comparison by which the long-term stability of these phases may be estimated. The crystal structures and the crystal chemistry of the following natural analogues are presented: baddeleyite, hematite, nepheline; pollucite, scheelite;sodalite, spinel, apatite, monazite, uraninite, hollandite-priderite, perovskite, and zirconolite. For each phase in geochemistry, occurrence, alteration and radiation effects are described. A selected bibliography for each phase is included.

  15. Transforming Polar Research with Google Glass Augmented Reality (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruthkoski, T.

    2013-12-01

    Augmented reality is a new technology with the potential to accelerate the advancement of science, particularly in geophysical research. Augmented reality is defined as a live, direct or indirect, view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented (or supplemented) by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data. When paired with advanced computing techniques on cloud resources, augmented reality has the potential to improve data collection techniques, visualizations, as well as in-situ analysis for many areas of research. Google is currently a pioneer of augmented reality technology and has released beta versions of their wearable computing device, Google Glass, to a select number of developers and beta testers. This community of 'Glass Explorers' is the vehicle from which Google shapes the future of their augmented reality device. Example applications of Google Glass in geophysical research range from use as a data gathering interface in harsh climates to an on-site visualization and analysis tool. Early participation in the shaping of the Google Glass device is an opportunity for researchers to tailor this new technology to their specific needs. The purpose of this presentation is to provide geophysical researchers with a hands-on first look at Google Glass and its potential as a scientific tool. Attendees will be given an overview of the technical specifications as well as a live demonstration of the device. Potential applications to geophysical research in polar regions will be the primary focus. The presentation will conclude with an open call to participate, during which attendees may indicate interest in developing projects that integrate Google Glass into their research. Application Mockup: Penguin Counter Google Glass Augmented Reality Device

  16. Transforming Polar Research with Google Glass Augmented Reality (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, R.; McEniry, M.; Maskey, M.

    2011-12-01

    Augmented reality is a new technology with the potential to accelerate the advancement of science, particularly in geophysical research. Augmented reality is defined as a live, direct or indirect, view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented (or supplemented) by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data. When paired with advanced computing techniques on cloud resources, augmented reality has the potential to improve data collection techniques, visualizations, as well as in-situ analysis for many areas of research. Google is currently a pioneer of augmented reality technology and has released beta versions of their wearable computing device, Google Glass, to a select number of developers and beta testers. This community of 'Glass Explorers' is the vehicle from which Google shapes the future of their augmented reality device. Example applications of Google Glass in geophysical research range from use as a data gathering interface in harsh climates to an on-site visualization and analysis tool. Early participation in the shaping of the Google Glass device is an opportunity for researchers to tailor this new technology to their specific needs. The purpose of this presentation is to provide geophysical researchers with a hands-on first look at Google Glass and its potential as a scientific tool. Attendees will be given an overview of the technical specifications as well as a live demonstration of the device. Potential applications to geophysical research in polar regions will be the primary focus. The presentation will conclude with an open call to participate, during which attendees may indicate interest in developing projects that integrate Google Glass into their research. Application Mockup: Penguin Counter Google Glass Augmented Reality Device

  17. Gunner Goggles: Implementing Augmented Reality into Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leo L; Wu, Hao-Hua; Bilici, Nadir; Tenney-Soeiro, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that both smartphone and tablet integration into medical education has been lacking. At the same time, there is a niche for augmented reality (AR) to improve this process through the enhancement of textbook learning. Gunner Goggles is an attempt to enhance textbook learning in shelf exam preparatory review with augmented reality. Here we describe our initial prototype and detail the process by which augmented reality was implemented into our textbook through Layar. We describe the unique functionalities of our textbook pages upon augmented reality implementation, which includes links, videos and 3D figures, and surveyed 24 third year medical students for their impression of the technology. Upon demonstrating an initial prototype textbook chapter, 100% (24/24) of students felt that augmented reality improved the quality of our textbook chapter as a learning tool. Of these students, 92% (22/24) agreed that their shelf exam review was inadequate and 19/24 (79%) felt that a completed Gunner Goggles product would have been a viable alternative to their shelf exam review. Thus, while students report interest in the integration of AR into medical education test prep, future investigation into how the use of AR can improve performance on exams is warranted.

  18. Mobility and low contrast trip hazard avoidance using augmented depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Chris; Walker, Janine G.; Lieby, Paulette; Scott, Adele; Barnes, Nick

    2015-02-01

    Objective. We evaluated a novel visual representation for current and near-term prosthetic vision. Augmented depth emphasizes ground obstacles and floor-wall boundaries in a depth-based visual representation. This is achieved by artificially increasing contrast between obstacles and the ground surface via a novel ground plane extraction algorithm specifically designed to preserve low-contrast ground-surface boundaries. Approach. The effectiveness of augmented depth was examined in human mobility trials compared against standard intensity-based (Intensity), depth-based (Depth) and random (Random) visual representations. Eight participants with normal vision used simulated prosthetic vision with 20 phosphenes and eight perceivable brightness levels to traverse a course with randomly placed small and low-contrast obstacles on the ground. Main results. The number of collisions was significantly reduced using augmented depth, compared with intensity, depth and random representations (48%, 44% and 72% less collisions, respectively). Significance. These results indicate that augmented depth may enable safe mobility in the presence of low-contrast obstacles with current and near-term implants. This is the first demonstration that an augmentation of the scene ensuring key objects are visible may provide better outcomes for prosthetic vision.

  19. Thrust Augmentation Measurements for a Pulse Detonation Engine Driven Ejector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pal, S.; Santoro, Robert J.; Shehadeh, R.; Saretto, S.; Lee, S.-Y.

    2005-01-01

    Thrust augmentation results of an ongoing study of pulse detonation engine driven ejectors are presented and discussed. The experiments were conducted using a pulse detonation engine (PDE) setup with various ejector configurations. The PDE used in these experiments utilizes ethylene (C2H4) as the fuel, and an equi-molar mixture of oxygen and nitrogen as the oxidizer at an equivalence ratio of one. High fidelity thrust measurements were made using an integrated spring damper system. The baseline thrust of the PDE engine was first measured and agrees with experimental and modeling results found in the literature. Thrust augmentation measurements were then made for constant diameter ejectors. The parameter space for the study included ejector length, PDE tube exit to ejector tube inlet overlap distance, and straight versus rounded ejector inlets. The relationship between the thrust augmentation results and various physical phenomena is described. To further understand the flow dynamics, shadow graph images of the exiting shock wave front from the PDE were also made. For the studied parameter space, the results showed a maximum augmentation of 40%. Further increase in augmentation is possible if the geometry of the ejector is tailored, a topic currently studied by numerous groups in the field.

  20. Bubble Augmented Propulsor Mixture Flow Simulation near Choked Flow Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin-Keun; Hsiao, Chao-Tsung; Chahine, Georges

    2013-03-01

    The concept of waterjet thrust augmentation through bubble injection has been the subject of many patents and publications over the past several decades, and computational and experimental evidences of the augmentation of the jet thrust through bubble growth in the jet stream have been reported. Through our experimental studies, we have demonstrated net thrust augmentation as high as 70%for air volume fractions as high as 50%. However, in order to enable practical designs, an adequately validated modeling tool is required. In our previous numerical studies, we developed and validated a numerical code to simulate and predict the performance of a two-phase flow water jet propulsion system for low void fractions. In the present work, we extend the numerical method to handle higher void fractions to enable simulations for the high thrust augmentation conditions. At high void fractions, the speed of sound in the bubbly mixture decreases substantially and could be as low as 20 m/s, and the mixture velocity can approach the speed of sound in the medium. In this numerical study, we extend our numerical model, which is based on the two-way coupling between the mixture flow field and Lagrangian tracking of a large number of bubbles, to accommodate compressible flow regimes. Numerical methods used and the validation studies for various flow conditions in the bubble augmented propulsor will be presented. This work is supported by Office of Naval Research through contract N00014-11-C-0482 monitored by Dr. Ki-Han Kim.

  1. Gunner Goggles: Implementing Augmented Reality into Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leo L; Wu, Hao-Hua; Bilici, Nadir; Tenney-Soeiro, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that both smartphone and tablet integration into medical education has been lacking. At the same time, there is a niche for augmented reality (AR) to improve this process through the enhancement of textbook learning. Gunner Goggles is an attempt to enhance textbook learning in shelf exam preparatory review with augmented reality. Here we describe our initial prototype and detail the process by which augmented reality was implemented into our textbook through Layar. We describe the unique functionalities of our textbook pages upon augmented reality implementation, which includes links, videos and 3D figures, and surveyed 24 third year medical students for their impression of the technology. Upon demonstrating an initial prototype textbook chapter, 100% (24/24) of students felt that augmented reality improved the quality of our textbook chapter as a learning tool. Of these students, 92% (22/24) agreed that their shelf exam review was inadequate and 19/24 (79%) felt that a completed Gunner Goggles product would have been a viable alternative to their shelf exam review. Thus, while students report interest in the integration of AR into medical education test prep, future investigation into how the use of AR can improve performance on exams is warranted. PMID:27046620

  2. Vertical bone augmentation procedures: basics and techniques in dental implantology.

    PubMed

    Draenert, F G; Huetzen, D; Neff, A; Mueller, W E G

    2014-05-01

    An appropriate bony situation is essential for dental implant placement and bony support of soft tissues (pink esthetic). Loss of teeth often results in complex horizontal and vertical alveolar ridge defects. They demand advanced bone augmentation techniques for reconstruction. We present the different techniques and materials used in complex bone augmentation. Clinical cases show the application of the methods in the clinical setting. We present current techniques and materials used in complex bone augmentations. Clinical cases show the application of the methods in the clinical setting. Applied techniques include stabilized-guided bone regeneration (GBR), autologous local block augmentation, modified techniques such as Gellrich shell technique including piezosurgery, pelvic bone blocks, complex materials such as graft-derived bone blocks and their unique handling problems. Successful basic principles are reduction of cortical bone healing due to long remodeling time and possible late loss; extended application of materials with interconnecting porous system and particulate material resulting in fast healing analogous to cancellous bone; mechanical stabilization of the augmentation to allow bony healing in vertical defect situations. GBR and autologous bone blocks with minimal cortical thickness and a high volume of particulated material are most favorable techniques.

  3. Facile Synthesis of Natural Alkoxynaphthalene Analogues from Plant Alkoxybenzenes.

    PubMed

    Tsyganov, Dmitry V; Krayushkin, Mikhail M; Konyushkin, Leonid D; Strelenko, Yuri A; Semenova, Marina N; Semenov, Victor V

    2016-04-22

    Analogues of the bioactive natural alkoxynaphthalene pycnanthulignene D were synthesized by an efficient method. The starting plant allylalkoxybenzenes (1) are easily available from the plant essential oils of sassafras, dill, and parsley. The target 1-arylalkoxynaphthalenes (5) exhibited antiproliferative activity in a phenotypic sea urchin embryo assay. PMID:26910798

  4. Facile Synthesis of Natural Alkoxynaphthalene Analogues from Plant Alkoxybenzenes.

    PubMed

    Tsyganov, Dmitry V; Krayushkin, Mikhail M; Konyushkin, Leonid D; Strelenko, Yuri A; Semenova, Marina N; Semenov, Victor V

    2016-04-22

    Analogues of the bioactive natural alkoxynaphthalene pycnanthulignene D were synthesized by an efficient method. The starting plant allylalkoxybenzenes (1) are easily available from the plant essential oils of sassafras, dill, and parsley. The target 1-arylalkoxynaphthalenes (5) exhibited antiproliferative activity in a phenotypic sea urchin embryo assay.

  5. Cellular Cations Control Conformational Switching of Inositol Pyrophosphate Analogues.

    PubMed

    Hager, Anastasia; Wu, Mingxuan; Wang, Huanchen; Brown, Nathaniel W; Shears, Stephen B; Veiga, Nicolás; Fiedler, Dorothea

    2016-08-22

    The inositol pyrophosphate messengers (PP-InsPs) are emerging as an important class of cellular regulators. These molecules have been linked to numerous biological processes, including insulin secretion and cancer cell migration, but how they trigger such a wide range of cellular responses has remained unanswered in many cases. Here, we show that the PP-InsPs exhibit complex speciation behaviour and propose that a unique conformational switching mechanism could contribute to their multifunctional effects. We synthesised non-hydrolysable bisphosphonate analogues and crystallised the analogues in complex with mammalian PPIP5K2 kinase. Subsequently, the bisphosphonate analogues were used to investigate the protonation sequence, metal-coordination properties, and conformation in solution. Remarkably, the presence of potassium and magnesium ions enabled the analogues to adopt two different conformations near physiological pH. Understanding how the intrinsic chemical properties of the PP-InsPs can contribute to their complex signalling outputs will be essential to elucidate their regulatory functions. PMID:27460418

  6. Trehalose Analogues: Latest Insights in Properties and Biocatalytic Production

    PubMed Central

    Walmagh, Maarten; Zhao, Renfei; Desmet, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Trehalose (α-d-glucopyranosyl α-d-glucopyranoside) is a non-reducing sugar with unique stabilizing properties due to its symmetrical, low energy structure consisting of two 1,1-anomerically bound glucose moieties. Many applications of this beneficial sugar have been reported in the novel food (nutricals), medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Trehalose analogues, like lactotrehalose (α-d-glucopyranosyl α-d-galactopyranoside) or galactotrehalose (α-d-galactopyranosyl α-d-galactopyranoside), offer similar benefits as trehalose, but show additional features such as prebiotic or low-calorie sweetener due to their resistance against hydrolysis during digestion. Unfortunately, large-scale chemical production processes for trehalose analogues are not readily available at the moment due to the lack of efficient synthesis methods. Most of the procedures reported in literature suffer from low yields, elevated costs and are far from environmentally friendly. “Greener” alternatives found in the biocatalysis field, including galactosidases, trehalose phosphorylases and TreT-type trehalose synthases are suggested as primary candidates for trehalose analogue production instead. Significant progress has been made in the last decade to turn these into highly efficient biocatalysts and to broaden the variety of useful donor and acceptor sugars. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the latest insights and future perspectives in trehalose analogue chemistry, applications and production pathways with emphasis on biocatalysis. PMID:26084050

  7. Synthesis of chlorins, bacteriochlorins and their tetraaza analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudkin, S. V.; Makarova, E. A.; Lukyanets, E. A.

    2016-07-01

    The currently known methods for the synthesis of hydrogenated derivatives of synthetic porphyrins — chlorins, bacteriochlorins, isobacteriochlorins and their tetraaza analogues — are considered. Reactions involving quasi-isolated double bonds including reduction, oxidative addition and cycloaddition are presented. Examples of direct synthesis of these macroheterocycles are given. The bibliography includes 168 references.

  8. A Macroscopic Analogue of the Nuclear Pairing Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    A macroscopic system involving permanent magnets is used as an analogue to nucleons in a nucleus to illustrate the significance of the pairing interaction. This illustrates that the view of the total nuclear energy based only on the nucleon occupancy of the energy levels can yield erroneous results and it is only when the pairing interaction is…

  9. q-bosons and the q-analogue quantized field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Charles A.

    1995-01-01

    The q-analogue coherent states are used to identify physical signatures for the presence of a 1-analogue quantized radiation field in the q-CS classical limits where the absolute value of z is large. In this quantum-optics-like limit, the fractional uncertainties of most physical quantities (momentum, position, amplitude, phase) which characterize the quantum field are O(1). They only vanish as O(1/absolute value of z) when q = 1. However, for the number operator, N, and the N-Hamiltonian for a free q-boson gas, H(sub N) = h(omega)(N + 1/2), the fractional uncertainties do still approach zero. A signature for q-boson counting statistics is that (Delta N)(exp 2)/ (N) approaches 0 as the absolute value of z approaches infinity. Except for its O(1) fractional uncertainty, the q-generalization of the Hermitian phase operator of Pegg and Barnett, phi(sub q), still exhibits normal classical behavior. The standard number-phase uncertainty-relation, Delta(N) Delta phi(sub q) = 1/2, and the approximate commutation relation, (N, phi(sub q)) = i, still hold for the single-mode q-analogue quantized field. So, N and phi(sub q) are almost canonically conjugate operators in the q-CS classical limit. The q-analogue CS's minimize this uncertainty relation for moderate (absolute value of z)(exp 2).

  10. Synthesis of 4” manipulated Lewis X trisaccharide analogues

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    Summary Three analogues of the Lex trisaccharide antigen (β-D-Galp(1→4)[α-L-Fucp(1→3)]-D-GlcNAcp) in which the galactosyl residue is modified at O-4 as a methyloxy, deoxychloro or deoxyfluoro, were synthesized. We first report the preparation of the modified 4-OMe, 4-Cl and 4-F trichloroacetimidate galactosyl donors and then report their use in the glycosylation of an N-acetylglucosamine glycosyl acceptor. Thus, we observed that the reactivity of these donors towards the BF3·OEt2-promoted glycosylation at O-4 of the N-acetylglucosamine glycosyl acceptors followed the ranking 4-F > 4-OAc ≈ 4-OMe > 4-Cl. The resulting disaccharides were deprotected at O-3 of the glucosamine residue and fucosylated, giving access to the desired protected Lex analogues. One-step global deprotection (Na/NH3) of the protected 4”-methoxy analogue, and two-step deprotections (removal of a p-methoxybenzyl with DDQ, then Zemplén deacylation) of the 4”-deoxychloro and 4”-deoxyfluoro protected Lex analogues gave the desired compounds in good yields. PMID:23019441

  11. An Analysis of an Autoclitic Analogue in Pigeons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuroda, Toshikazu; Lattal, Kennon A.; García-Penagos, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Using a conditional discrimination procedure, pigeons were exposed to a nonverbal analogue of qualifying autoclitics such as "definitely" and "maybe." It has been suggested that these autoclitics are similar to tacts except that they are under the control of private discriminative stimuli. Instead of the conventional assumption…

  12. A Laboratory Analogue for the Study of Peer Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Damon; Hirschman, Richard; Angelone, D. J.; Lilly, Roy S.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a laboratory analogue for the study of peer sexual harassment, and to examine person and situational factors associated with male on female peer sexual harassment. One hundred twenty-two male participants were given the opportunity to tell jokes to a female confederate from a joke list that included…

  13. New phosphorus analogues of nitrogen classics--no carbon copies.

    PubMed

    Gudat, Dietrich

    2014-05-01

    Getting heavy: The recently prepared phosphorus analogues of two old acquaintances, urea and dinitrogen tetroxide, bear some structural resemblance to their archetypes but are no carbon copies. Their syntheses and chemical properties reveal rather certain peculiarities, which back the doctrine that the electronic properties of the heavier elements in a group differ from those of the lightest congener. PMID:24718995

  14. Non-robust numerical simulations of analogue extension experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naliboff, John; Buiter, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    Numerical and analogue models of lithospheric deformation provide significant insight into the tectonic processes that lead to specific structural and geophysical observations. As these two types of models contain distinct assumptions and tradeoffs, investigations drawing conclusions from both can reveal robust links between first-order processes and observations. Recent studies have focused on detailed comparisons between numerical and analogue experiments in both compressional and extensional tectonics, sometimes involving multiple lithospheric deformation codes and analogue setups. While such comparisons often show good agreement on first-order deformation styles, results frequently diverge on second-order structures, such as shear zone dip angles or spacing, and in certain cases even on first-order structures. Here, we present finite-element experiments that are designed to directly reproduce analogue "sandbox" extension experiments at the cm-scale. We use material properties and boundary conditions that are directly taken from analogue experiments and use a Drucker-Prager failure model to simulate shear zone formation in sand. We find that our numerical experiments are highly sensitive to numerous numerical parameters. For example, changes to the numerical resolution, velocity convergence parameters and elemental viscosity averaging commonly produce significant changes in first- and second-order structures accommodating deformation. The sensitivity of the numerical simulations to small parameter changes likely reflects a number of factors, including, but not limited to, high angles of internal friction assigned to sand, complex, unknown interactions between the brittle sand (used as an upper crust equivalent) and viscous silicone (lower crust), highly non-linear strain weakening processes and poor constraints on the cohesion of sand. Our numerical-analogue comparison is hampered by (a) an incomplete knowledge of the fine details of sand failure and sand

  15. Natural analogue studies: present status and performance assessment implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smellie, John A. T.; Karlsson, Fred; Alexander, W. Russell

    1997-04-01

    Studies of natural geological and archaeological systems as analogues to long-term processes, which are predicted to occur within a radioactive waste repository environment, have become increasingly popular over the last 10 years or so, to the extent that such studies form an integral part of many national programmes for radioactive waste disposal. There is now a common consensus that the natural analogue approach is a very useful scientific methodology to: (a) identify and understand processes and mechanisms analogous to those which could occur in the vicinity of a repository over realistic timescales, (b) derive input data which have been successfully used to test some of the laboratory-based models which form the basis of long-term repository performance assessment, and (c) to produce data which can be input directly to performance assessment models. Increasingly, analogues are playing an important role in public awareness, enabling the layman to understand better the concept of radioactive disposal and demonstrating the reliability of the disposal system over long periods of geological time. The complexity of geological systems means that it is very often difficult and sometimes impossible to quantify precisely the physico-chemical boundary conditions necessary to model a particular geochemical process or mechanism. Consequently, the availability of quantitative analogue data is limited when repository performance assessments are considered. However, this in no way detracts from their value in building confidence by demonstrating that important processes do exist and by showing qualitatively that they behave in a way predicted by models based on laboratory-derived data. The transfer of natural analogue data from the complexity of field studies to simplistic models which, by necessity, are used in performance assessments, is an area of activity which is presently being addressed. Field analogue studies are now being planned to interface with laboratory

  16. Transition States and transition state analogue interactions with enzymes.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Vern L

    2015-04-21

    Enzymatic transition states have lifetimes of a few femtoseconds (fs). Computational analysis of enzyme motions leading to transition state formation suggests that local catalytic site motions on the fs time scale provide the mechanism to locate transition states. An experimental test of protein fs motion and its relation to transition state formation can be provided by isotopically heavy proteins. Heavy enzymes have predictable mass-altered bond vibration states without altered electrostatic properties, according to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. On-enzyme chemistry is slowed in most heavy proteins, consistent with altered protein bond frequencies slowing the search for the transition state. In other heavy enzymes, structural changes involved in reactant binding and release are also influenced. Slow protein motions associated with substrate binding and catalytic site preorganization are essential to allow the subsequent fs motions to locate the transition state and to facilitate the efficient release of products. In the catalytically competent geometry, local groups move in stochastic atomic motion on the fs time scale, within transition state-accessible conformations created by slower protein motions. The fs time scale for the transition state motions does not permit thermodynamic equilibrium between the transition state and stable enzyme states. Isotopically heavy enzymes provide a diagnostic tool for fast coupled protein motions to transition state formation and mass-dependent conformational changes. The binding of transition state analogue inhibitors is the opposite in catalytic time scale to formation of the transition state but is related by similar geometries of the enzyme-transition state and enzyme-inhibitor interactions. While enzymatic transition states have lifetimes as short as 10(-15) s, transition state analogues can bind tightly to enzymes with release rates greater than 10(3) s. Tight-binding transition state analogues stabilize the rare but

  17. Biological evaluation of a novel sorafenib analogue, t-CUPM.

    PubMed

    Wecksler, Aaron T; Hwang, Sung Hee; Liu, Jun-Yan; Wettersten, Hiromi I; Morisseau, Christophe; Wu, Jian; Weiss, Robert H; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-01-01

    Sorafenib (Nexavar®) is currently the only FDA-approved small molecule targeted therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. The use of structural analogues and derivatives of sorafenib has enabled the elucidation of critical targets and mechanism(s) of cell death for human cancer lines. We previously performed a structure-activity relationship study on a series of sorafenib analogues designed to investigate the inhibition overlap between the major targets of sorafenib Raf-1 kinase and VEGFR-2, and an enzyme shown to be a potent off-target of sorafenib, soluble epoxide hydrolase. In the current work, we present the biological data on our lead sorafenib analogue, t-CUPM, demonstrating that this analogue retains cytotoxicity similar to sorafenib in various human cancer cell lines and strongly inhibits growth in the NCI-60 cell line panel. Co-treatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK, failed to rescue the cell viability responses of both sorafenib and t-CUPM, and immunofluorescence microscopy shows similar mitochondrial depolarization and apoptosis-inducing factor release for both compounds. These data suggest that both compounds induce a similar mechanism of caspase-independent apoptosis in hepatoma cells. In addition, t-CUPM displays anti-proliferative effects comparable to sorafenib as seen by a halt in G0/G1 in cell cycle progression. The structural difference between sorafenib and t-CUPM significantly reduces inhibitory spectrum of kinases by this analogue, and pharmacokinetic characterization demonstrates a 20-fold better oral bioavailability of t-CUPM than sorafenib in mice. Thus, t-CUPM may have the potential to reduce the adverse events observed from the multikinase inhibitory properties and the large dosing regimens of sorafenib.

  18. Cysteine analogues potentiate glucose-induced insulin release in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ammon, H.P.; Hehl, K.H.; Enz, G.; Setiadi-Ranti, A.; Verspohl, E.J.

    1986-12-01

    In rat pancreatic islets, cysteine analogues, including glutathione, acetylcysteine, cysteamine, D-penicillamine, L-cysteine ethyl ester, and cysteine-potentiated glucose (11.1 mM) induced insulin secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. Their maximal effects were similar and occurred at approximately 0.05, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.0 mM, respectively. At substimulatory glucose levels (2.8 mM), insulin release was not affected by these compounds. In contrast, thiol compounds, structurally different from cysteine and its analogues, such as mesna, tiopronin, meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), dimercaprol (BAL), beta-thio-D-glucose, as well as those cysteine analogues that lack a free-thiol group, including L-cystine, cystamine, D-penicillamine disulfide, S-carbocysteine, and S-carbamoyl-L-cysteine, did not enhance insulin release at stimulatory glucose levels (11.1 mM); cystine (5 mM) was inhibitory. These in vitro data indicate that among the thiols tested here, only cysteine and its analogues potentiate glucose-induced insulin secretion, whereas thiols that are structurally not related to cysteine do not. This suggests that a cysteine moiety in the molecule is necessary for the insulinotropic effect. For their synergistic action to glucose, the availability of a sulfhydryl group is also a prerequisite. The maximal synergistic action is similar for all cysteine analogues tested, whereas the potency of action is different, suggesting similarity in the mechanism of action but differences in the affinity to the secretory system.

  19. Metric optimisation for analogue forecasting by simulated annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliefernicht, J.; Bárdossy, A.

    2009-04-01

    It is well known that weather patterns tend to recur from time to time. This property of the atmosphere is used by analogue forecasting techniques. They have a long history in weather forecasting and there are many applications predicting hydrological variables at the local scale for different lead times. The basic idea of the technique is to identify past weather situations which are similar (analogue) to the predicted one and to take the local conditions of the analogues as forecast. But the forecast performance of the analogue method depends on user-defined criteria like the choice of the distance function and the size of the predictor domain. In this study we propose a new methodology of optimising both criteria by minimising the forecast error with simulated annealing. The performance of the methodology is demonstrated for the probability forecast of daily areal precipitation. It is compared with a traditional analogue forecasting algorithm, which is used operational as an element of a hydrological forecasting system. The study is performed for several meso-scale catchments located in the Rhine basin in Germany. The methodology is validated by a jack-knife method in a perfect prognosis framework for a period of 48 years (1958-2005). The predictor variables are derived from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data set. The Brier skill score and the economic value are determined to evaluate the forecast skill and value of the technique. In this presentation we will present the concept of the optimisation algorithm and the outcome of the comparison. It will be also demonstrated how a decision maker should apply a probability forecast to maximise the economic benefit from it.

  20. Analogue Sites for Mars Missions - A report from two workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipkin, V.; Voytek, M. A.; Glamoclija, M.

    2014-12-01

    Fieldwork, at terrestrial sites that are analogous in some way to Mars, has a key role in defining questions addressed by Mars missions. For MSL, the question is whether its landing site was habitable, and for Mars 2020, the question is how do we search for and what are signs of life in ancient habitable environments. Implementing these investigations by means of a rover mission on a distant planetary surface has challenges due to a limited set of tools and period of operations. Using this context of planetary missions is important in shaping how analog research can be used to advance planetary science. Following a successful 2010 AGU fall meeting session entitled "Analogue Sites for Mars Missions", two community workshops were held at The Woodlands, TX March 2011 and the Carnegie Institute of Washington in July 2013. These activities represent an ongoing dialogue with the analogue and mission communities. The AGU session solicited presentations of current analogue research relevant to MSL, at which time the landing site selection process was still considering four final sites. The 2011 Woodlands workshop solicited details on representative science questions and analogue sites by means of an abstract template. The output from The Woodlands workshop was an initial metric to assess the utility of analogue sites against specific science questions, as well as recommendations for future activities. The 2013 Carnegie workshop, followed up on some of the recommendations from 2011. Both on-line interactive dialogue and in person discussions targeted broad topics, including 'the advantages and problems of using a great terrestrial analog for field testing', and 'knowing what we currently do about Mars, what would be the best place on the planet to collect the first suite of samples to be returned to Earth? What would be appropriate analog sites on Earth?'. The results and recommendations from both workshops are summarized to publicize and stimulate this ongoing discussion.

  1. Augmented reality three-dimensional display with light field fusion.

    PubMed

    Xie, Songlin; Wang, Peng; Sang, Xinzhu; Li, Chengyu

    2016-05-30

    A video see-through augmented reality three-dimensional display method is presented. The system that is used for dense viewpoint augmented reality presentation fuses the light fields of the real scene and the virtual model naturally. Inherently benefiting from the rich information of the light field, depth sense and occlusion can be handled under no priori depth information of the real scene. A series of processes are proposed to optimize the augmented reality performance. Experimental results show that the reconstructed fused 3D light field on the autostereoscopic display is well presented. The virtual model is naturally integrated into the real scene with a consistence between binocular parallax and monocular depth cues. PMID:27410076

  2. Augmenting ejector endwall effects. [V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, J. L.; Squyers, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Rectangular inlet ejectors which had multiple hypermixing nozzles for their primary jets were investigated for the effects of endwall blowing on thrust augmentation performance. The ejector configurations tested had both straight wall and active boundary layer control type diffusers. Endwall flows were energized and controlled by simple blowing jets suitably located in the ejector. Both the endwall and boundary layer control diffuser blowing rates were varied to determine optimum performance. High area ratio diffusers with insufficient endwall blowing showed endwall separation and rapid degradation of thrust performance. Optimized values of diffuser boundary layer control and endwall nozzle blowing rates in an ejector augmenter were shown to achieve high levels of augmentation performance for maximum compactness.

  3. "Messing with the mind": evolutionary challenges to human brain augmentation.

    PubMed

    Saniotis, Arthur; Henneberg, Maciej; Kumaratilake, Jaliya; Grantham, James P

    2014-01-01

    The issue of brain augmentation has received considerable scientific attention over the last two decades. A key factor to brain augmentation that has been widely overlooked are the complex evolutionary processes which have taken place in evolving the human brain to its current state of functioning. Like other bodily organs, the human brain has been subject to the forces of biological adaptation. The structure and function of the brain, is very complex and only now we are beginning to understand some of the basic concepts of cognition. Therefore, this article proposes that brain-machine interfacing and nootropics are not going to produce "augmented" brains because we do not understand enough about how evolutionary pressures have informed the neural networks which support human cognitive faculties. PMID:25324734

  4. Injectable tissue-engineered soft tissue for tissue augmentation.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Sung-Mi; You, Hi-Jin; Han, Seung-Kyu

    2014-11-01

    Soft tissue augmentation is a process of implanting tissues or materials to treat wrinkles or soft tissue defects in the body. Over the years, various materials have evolved to correct soft tissue defects, including a number of tissues and polymers. Autogenous dermis, autogenous fat, autogenous dermis-fat, allogenic dermis, synthetic implants, and fillers have been widely accepted for soft tissue augmentations. Tissue engineering technology has also been introduced and opened a new venue of opportunities in this field. In particular, a long-lasting filler consisting of hyaluronic acid filler and living human mesenchymal cells called "injectable tissue-engineered soft tissue" has been created and applied clinically, as this strategy has many advantages over conventional methods. Fibroblasts and adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction cells can be clinically used as injectable tissue-engineered soft tissue at present. In this review, information on the soft tissue augmentation method using the injectable tissue-engineered soft tissue is provided.

  5. An Argument Against Augmenting the Lagrangean for Nonholonomic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roithmayr, Carlos M.; Hodges, Dewey H.

    2009-01-01

    Although it is known that correct dynamical equations of motion for a nonholonomic system cannot be obtained from a Lagrangean that has been augmented with a sum of the nonholonomic constraint equations weighted with multipliers, previous publications suggest otherwise. An example has been proposed in support of augmentation and purportedly demonstrates that an accepted method fails to produce correct equations of motion whereas augmentation leads to correct equations; this paper shows that in fact the opposite is true. The correct equations, previously discounted on the basis of a flawed application of the Newton-Euler method, are verified by using Kane's method and a new approach to determining the directions of constraint forces. A correct application of the Newton-Euler method reproduces valid equations.

  6. [Subantral augmentation with porous titanium in experiment and clinic].

    PubMed

    Sirak, S V; Shchetinin, E V; Sletov, A A

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the use of porous titanium for subantral augmentation. Experimental study was conducted on 12 yearling rams. Subantral augmentation using porous titanium was performed in 33 patients. In the control group consisting of 14 patients calcium phosphates and bone collagen based agents ("Bio-Оss" and "Collost") were used. In the main and control groups 46 and 32 implant were placed, respectively. Pilot histological and clinical studies proved that the granules of porous titanium are biocompatible with bone tissue, provide the optimal surface microrelief, thus creating good conditions for adhesion, expansion and migration of osteoforming cells, have negligible kinetics of resorption, are porous to ensure effective neovascularization of de novo formed bone tissue. Porous titanium is an effective alternative material for subantral bone augmentation for dental implantation and reconstructive operations on the maxillary sinus. PMID:26925568

  7. Augmented reality three-dimensional display with light field fusion.

    PubMed

    Xie, Songlin; Wang, Peng; Sang, Xinzhu; Li, Chengyu

    2016-05-30

    A video see-through augmented reality three-dimensional display method is presented. The system that is used for dense viewpoint augmented reality presentation fuses the light fields of the real scene and the virtual model naturally. Inherently benefiting from the rich information of the light field, depth sense and occlusion can be handled under no priori depth information of the real scene. A series of processes are proposed to optimize the augmented reality performance. Experimental results show that the reconstructed fused 3D light field on the autostereoscopic display is well presented. The virtual model is naturally integrated into the real scene with a consistence between binocular parallax and monocular depth cues.

  8. [Subantral augmentation with porous titanium in experiment and clinic].

    PubMed

    Sirak, S V; Shchetinin, E V; Sletov, A A

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the use of porous titanium for subantral augmentation. Experimental study was conducted on 12 yearling rams. Subantral augmentation using porous titanium was performed in 33 patients. In the control group consisting of 14 patients calcium phosphates and bone collagen based agents ("Bio-Оss" and "Collost") were used. In the main and control groups 46 and 32 implant were placed, respectively. Pilot histological and clinical studies proved that the granules of porous titanium are biocompatible with bone tissue, provide the optimal surface microrelief, thus creating good conditions for adhesion, expansion and migration of osteoforming cells, have negligible kinetics of resorption, are porous to ensure effective neovascularization of de novo formed bone tissue. Porous titanium is an effective alternative material for subantral bone augmentation for dental implantation and reconstructive operations on the maxillary sinus.

  9. Complications from injectable materials used for breast augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Walter; Fornasier, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Fewer surgical procedures have a history as fascinating and as terrifying as breast augmentation. Initial efforts at augmentation involved injection of substances such as paraffin or oil into the breast tissue, or the implantation of substances including ivory or glass balls, or rubber. More recent efforts have included the injection of liquid silicone or polyacrylamide hydrogel. The current paper reviews four distinct eras of breast augmentation, and provides the current status of these injection materials. A case report is presented on a woman whose breasts were injected with polyacrylamide hydrogel in Iran. The current status of this group of materials is also presented. During the past 110 years, history has repeated itself during each of the four eras of injection. PMID:20808751

  10. A Determinate Model of Thrust-Augmenting Ejectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitley, N.; Krothapalli, A.; van Dommelen, L.

    1996-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the compressible flow through a constant-area jet-engine ejector in which a primary jet mixes with ambient fluid from a uniform free stream is pursued. The problem is reduced to a determinate mathematical one by prescribing the ratios of stagnation properties between the primary and secondary flows. For some selections of properties and parameters more than one solution is possible and the meaning of these solutions is discussed by means of asymptotic expansions. Our results further show that while under stationary conditions the thrust-augmentation ratio assumes a value of 2 in the large area-ratio limit, for a free-stream Mach number greater than 0.6 very little thrust augmentation is left. Due to the assumptions made, the analysis provides idealized values for the thrust-augmentation ratio and the mass flux entrainment factor.

  11. In search of augmentation at human SI: Somatosensory cortical responses to stimulus trains and their modulation by motor activity.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, Juha

    2010-05-17

    In many animal preparations, repeated stimulation at ca. 10 Hz in thalamic nuclei leads to rapid changes in the cortical evoked responses, known as the augmenting response. The present study was undertaken to evaluate whether anything similar to the augmenting response can be observed in awake human subjects when a peripheral nerve is stimulated, and whether a possible human correlate of augmenting would be modified when the subject is engaged in an active motor task. Somatosensory-evoked magnetic fields (SEFs) were recorded in healthy human subjects in response to stimulus trains (15 pulses at 10 Hz) applied to the left median nerve. SEFs were recorded in a resting condition and during a finger-tapping task performed with the stimulated hand. In the resting condition, the most marked change in the SEF configuration was a reduction of the P35m deflection and a concurrent enhancement of the N45m deflection during the 1st few stimuli of the trains. Another conspicuous feature was a prolongation of the latencies of the N45m and P60m deflections toward the end of the train. In the motor task, the response modulation during the pulse trains was in general similar to the resting condition. The most notable difference was that the P35m amplitude was markedly reduced already for the 1st pulse of the train when compared with rest. Also, the latencies of N45m and P60m were not prolonged during the train. We discuss the possibility that the reduction of P35m and a concurrent increase of N45m during a pulse train constitute a human analogue to the augmenting response, and suggest that these changes may reflect a decrease of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs, P35m) and an increase of secondary excitatory postsynaptic potentials (N45m) during stimulus train presentation. The reduction of P35m during motor activity compared with rest already at the beginning of stimulus trains suggests that postsynaptic IPSPs in response to afferent stimulation are reduced during active

  12. In search of augmentation at human SI: Somatosensory cortical responses to stimulus trains and their modulation by motor activity.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, Juha

    2010-05-17

    In many animal preparations, repeated stimulation at ca. 10 Hz in thalamic nuclei leads to rapid changes in the cortical evoked responses, known as the augmenting response. The present study was undertaken to evaluate whether anything similar to the augmenting response can be observed in awake human subjects when a peripheral nerve is stimulated, and whether a possible human correlate of augmenting would be modified when the subject is engaged in an active motor task. Somatosensory-evoked magnetic fields (SEFs) were recorded in healthy human subjects in response to stimulus trains (15 pulses at 10 Hz) applied to the left median nerve. SEFs were recorded in a resting condition and during a finger-tapping task performed with the stimulated hand. In the resting condition, the most marked change in the SEF configuration was a reduction of the P35m deflection and a concurrent enhancement of the N45m deflection during the 1st few stimuli of the trains. Another conspicuous feature was a prolongation of the latencies of the N45m and P60m deflections toward the end of the train. In the motor task, the response modulation during the pulse trains was in general similar to the resting condition. The most notable difference was that the P35m amplitude was markedly reduced already for the 1st pulse of the train when compared with rest. Also, the latencies of N45m and P60m were not prolonged during the train. We discuss the possibility that the reduction of P35m and a concurrent increase of N45m during a pulse train constitute a human analogue to the augmenting response, and suggest that these changes may reflect a decrease of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs, P35m) and an increase of secondary excitatory postsynaptic potentials (N45m) during stimulus train presentation. The reduction of P35m during motor activity compared with rest already at the beginning of stimulus trains suggests that postsynaptic IPSPs in response to afferent stimulation are reduced during active

  13. E-maintenance Scenarios Based on Augmented Reality Software Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benbelkacem, S.; Zenati-Henda, N.; Belhocine, M.

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents architecture of augmented reality for e-maintenance application. In our case, the aim is not to develop a vision system based on augmented reality concept, but to show the relationship between the different actors in the proposed architecture and to facilitate maintenance of the machine. This architecture allows implementing different scenarios which give to the technician possibilities to intervene on a breakdown device with a distant expert help. Each scenario is established according to machine parameters and technician competences. In our case, a hardware platform is designed to carry out e-maintenance scenarios. An example of e-maintenance scenario is then presented.

  14. Compression Pad Cavity Heating Augmentation on Orion Heat Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to assess the effects of compression pad cavities on the aeroheating environment of the Project Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle heat shield. Testing was conducted in Mach 6 and 10 perfect-gas wind tunnels to obtain heating measurements in and around the compression pads cavities using global phosphor thermography. Data were obtained over a wide range of Reynolds numbers that produced laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow within and downstream of the cavities. The effects of cavity dimensions on boundary-layer transition and heating augmentation levels were studied. Correlations were developed for transition onset and for the average cavity-heating augmentation.

  15. Custom Titanium Ridge Augmentation Matrix (CTRAM): A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Connors, Christopher A; Liacouras, Peter C; Grant, Gerald T

    2016-01-01

    This is a case report of a custom titanium ridge augmentation matrix (CTRAM). Using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), a custom titanium space-maintaining device was developed. Alveolar ridges were virtually augmented, a matrix was virtually designed, and the CTRAM was additively manufactured with titanium (Ti6Al4V). Two cases are presented that resulted in sufficient increased horizontal bone volume with successful dental implant placement. The CTRAM design allows for preoperative planning for increasing alveolar ridge dimensions to support dental implants, reduces surgical time, and prevents the need for a second surgical site to gain sufficient alveolar ridge bone volume for dental implant therapy. PMID:27560675

  16. MHD augmented chemical rocket propulsion for space applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, R.J.; Chapman, J.N.; Rhodes, R.P. )

    1992-07-01

    A performance analysis is carried out of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) augmented chemical thruster (based on a gaseous hydrogen-oxygen system) for space applications such as orbit transfer. The mathematical model used in the analysis is a one-dimensional flow model using equilibrium chemistry for the combustor, choked nozzle, and MHD channel portions of the system, and chemical nonequilibrium kinetics for the high area-ratio gas dynamic nozzle portion of the system. The performance of the chemical-MHD-augmented thruster is compared with that of a pure electric thruster of the same specific impulse level. 13 refs.

  17. Cheek augmentation with Dermicol-P35 27G.

    PubMed

    Sadick, Neil S; Palmisano, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Full and high cheekbones are considered a desirable component of facial attractiveness. The aging process can result in a loss of facial volume and changes in facial contours. Cheek augmentation can replace lost facial volume, rejuvenate facial appearance, enhance cheek prominence, and improve facial symmetry. A new, highly purified, porcine-based collagen filler Dermicol-P35 #27G (Evolence; Ortho Dermatologics, Skillman, NJ) is now available that does not require pretreatment sensitivity testing and has shown a 12-month persistence of results in clinical trials. This article discusses the clinical experience of patients who received cheek augmentation with Dermicol-P35.

  18. Backstepping Control Augmented by Neural Networks For Robot Manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkheiri, Mohammed; Boudjema, Farès

    2008-06-01

    A new control approach is proposed to address the tracking problem of robot manipulators. In this approach, one relies first on a partially known model to the system to be controlled using a backstepping control strategy. The obtained controller is then augmented by an online neural network that serves as an approximator for the neglected dynamics and modeling errors. The proposed approach is systematic, and exploits the known nonlinear dynamics to derive the stepwise virtual stabilizing control laws. At the final step, an augmented Lyapunov function is introduced to derive the adaptation laws of the network weights. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is demonstrated through computer simulation on PUMA 560 robot.

  19. Experimental Investigations of Generalized Predictive Control for Tiltrotor Stability Augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, Mark W.; Langston, Chester W.; Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Piatak, David J.; Kvaternik, Raymond G.; Bennett, Richard L.; Brown, Ross K.

    2001-01-01

    A team of researchers from the Army Research Laboratory, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), and Bell Helicopter-Textron, Inc. have completed hover-cell and wind-tunnel testing of a 1/5-size aeroelastically-scaled tiltrotor model using a new active control system for stability augmentation. The active system is based on a generalized predictive control (GPC) algorithm originally developed at NASA LaRC in 1997 for un-known disturbance rejection. Results of these investigations show that GPC combined with an active swashplate can significantly augment the damping and stability of tiltrotors in both hover and high-speed flight.

  20. Effect of resistance on projectile oscillations in augmented rail guns

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgdon, M.L.; Fowler, C.M.; Homan, C.G.

    1986-01-01

    Approximate solutions for the equation of motion of a projectile in an augmented rail gun are presented. These solutions show that the resistance in the rail gun system plays a role similar to the resistance in an R-C-L circuit. For small values of resistance, the projectile exhibits a slightly damped oscillatory motion, and there is a value of resistance for which the oscillations disappear and the motion appears critically damped. The dependence of the oscillations on the projectile mass and the augmenting field are also discussed.

  1. Augmenting your own reality: student authoring of science-based augmented reality games.

    PubMed

    Klopfer, Eric; Sheldon, Josh

    2010-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) simulations superimpose a virtual overlay of data and interactions onto a real-world context. The simulation engine at the heart of this technology is built to afford elements of game play that support explorations and learning in students' natural context--their own community and surroundings. In one of the more recent games, TimeLab 2100, players role-play citizens of the early 22nd century when global climate change is out of control. Through AR, they see their community as it might be nearly one hundred years in the future. TimeLab and other similar AR games balance location specificity and portability--they are games that are tied to a location and games that are movable from place to place. Focusing students on developing their own AR games provides the best of both virtual and physical worlds: a more portable solution that deeply connects young people to their own surroundings. A series of initiatives has focused on technical and pedagogical solutions to supporting students authoring their own games. PMID:21240956

  2. The use of the Alexis® device in breast augmentation to improve outcomes: a comparative randomized case-control survey

    PubMed Central

    Dessy, Luca Andrea; Serratore, Francesco; Ribuffo, Diego; Mazzocchi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Background We present our experience in using a disposable wound retractor commonly used in abdominal surgery named Alexis® (Applied Medical Resources Corporation, Rancho Santa Margarita, CA, USA), during breast augmentation in order to improve outcomes, particularly final scar length. Methods Between January 2010 and November 2012, 40 patients undergoing breast augmentation with an inframammary approach were enrolled in the present study. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups: group 1 underwent breast augmentation with the standard technique; group 2 underwent breast augmentation by using the Alexis® (Applied Medical Resources Corporation) device. Patients were followed-up for a 12-month period. The time of surgery, the days of drain duration and the length of the incisions were recorded for both groups and statistical significance was evaluated with the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Also, final scar appearance was evaluated using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Results Patients in group 2 reported a lower incidence of hematomas and had shorter drain duration. The difference in scar length between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). Surgeons and patients were mostly satisfied with the final appearance of the scar. Conclusions The use of the Alexis® (Applied Medical Resources Corporation) device has proven useful in reducing the length of the inframammary incision. Interestingly, the increased visibility obtained with the use of the Alexis device allowed a better hemostasis, as suggested by the shorter drain duration and lower incidence of hematomas. However, its use prolongs the operative time, for which we recommend surgeons to allow themselves some time to become familiar with the device. Level of evidence: level I, evidence obtained from at least one properly designed randomized controlled trial. PMID:27294035

  3. [Augmented anterior cruciate ligament replacement with the Kennedy-LAD (ligament augmentation device)--long term outcome].

    PubMed

    Riel, K A

    1998-01-01

    The ligament augmentation device (Kennedy-LAD) is used to protect tendon grafts during the posttransplantation decrease in strength in anterior cruciate ligament (acl) reconstructions. The augmentation with the LAD is based on the concept of load sharing. Since 1983 we used the LAD in acl-reconstructions in 856 patients. In 63 cases we had to treat complications like infection (8), recurrent effusions (21), arthrofibrosis (34). The overall results are good with respect to stability, regain of strength and sports activity. In 73 cases resurgery was necessary because of synovitis (7), LAD-rupture due to re-injury (9), fatigue-rupture of the LAD (22), meniscal tears (35), 2.7 +/- 2.3 years (range: 2 months to 10 years) after LAD implantation. Modern techniques in acl reconstruction lead to comparable results without synthetic augmentation. Therefore, we now recommend the use of a LAD only in cases of repeated acl replacement with week tendon grafts, to avoid an allograft.

  4. An analogue conceptual rainfall-runoff model for educational purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrnegger, Mathew; Riedl, Michael; Schulz, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    Conceptual rainfall-runoff models, in which runoff processes are modelled with a series of connected linear and non-linear reservoirs, remain widely applied tools in science and practice. Additionally, the concept is appreciated in teaching due to its somewhat simplicity in explaining and exploring hydrological processes of catchments. However, when a series of reservoirs are used, the model system becomes highly parametrized and complex and the traceability of the model results becomes more difficult to explain to an audience not accustomed to numerical modelling. Since normally the simulations are performed with a not visible digital code, the results are also not easily comprehensible. This contribution therefore presents a liquid analogue model, in which a conceptual rainfall-runoff model is reproduced by a physical model. This consists of different acrylic glass containers representing different storage components within a catchment, e.g. soil water or groundwater storage. The containers are equipped and connected with pipes, in which water movement represents different flow processes, e.g. surface runoff, percolation or base flow. Water from a storage container is pumped to the upper part of the model and represents effective rainfall input. The water then flows by gravity through the different pipes and storages. Valves are used for controlling the flows within the analogue model, comparable to the parameterization procedure in numerical models. Additionally, an inexpensive microcontroller-based board and sensors are used to measure storage water levels, with online visualization of the states as time series data, building a bridge between the analogue and digital world. The ability to physically witness the different flows and water levels in the storages makes the analogue model attractive to the audience. Hands-on experiments can be performed with students, in which different scenarios or catchment types can be simulated, not only with the analogue but

  5. Bradykinin antagonists with dehydrophenylalanine analogues at position 5.

    PubMed

    Greiner, G; Dornberger, U; Paegelow, I; Schölkens, B A; Liebmann, C; Reissmann, S

    1998-04-01

    Continuing the studies on structural requirements of bradykinin antagonists, it has been found that analogues with dehydrophenylalanine (deltaPhe) or its ring-substituted analogues (deltaPhe(X)) at position 5 act as antagonists on guinea pig pulmonary artery, and on guinea pig ileum. Because both organs are considered to be bradykinin B2 receptor tissues, the analogues with deltaPhe or deltaPhe(X) at position 5, but without any replacement at position 7, seem to represent a new structural type of B2 receptor antagonist. All the analogues investigated act as partial antagonists; they inhibit the bradykinin-induced contraction at low concentrations and act as agonists at higher concentrations. Ring substitutions by methyl groups or iodine reduce both the agonistic and antagonistic activity. Only substitution by fluorine gives a high potency. Incorporation of deltaPhe into different representative antagonists with key modifications at position 7 does not enhance the antagonist activity of the basic structures, with one exception. Only the combination of deltaPhe at position 5 with DPhe at position 7 increases the antagonistic potency on guinea pig ileum by about one order of magnitude. Radioligand binding studies indicate the importance of position 5 for the discrimination of B2 receptor subtypes. The binding affinity to the low-affinity binding site (KL) was not significantly changed by replacement of Phe by deltaPhe. In contrast, ring-methylation of deltaPhe results in clearly reduced binding to KL. The affinity to the high-affinity binding site (KH) was almost unchanged by the replacement of Phe in position 5 by deltaPhe, whereas the analogue with 2-methyl-dehydrophenylalanine completely failed to detect the KH-site. The peptides were synthesized on the Wang-resin according to the Fmoc/Bu(t) strategy using Mtr protection for the side chain of Arg. The dehydrophenylalanine analogues were prepared by a strategy involving PyBop couplings of the dipeptide unit Fmoc

  6. Hydroxamate-based iron chelators: combinatorial syntheses of desferrioxamine B analogues and evaluation of binding affinities.

    PubMed

    Poreddy, Amruta R; Schall, Otto F; Osiek, Todd A; Wheatley, James R; Beusen, Denise D; Marshall, Garland R; Slomczynska, Urszula

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the solid-phase combinatorial methods developed for the synthesis of polyhydroxamate-based siderophores. This strategy was applied to generate several libraries of structural DFO (1a) analogues that include DFO variants, non-amide analogues, C-terminal modified analogues, reverse-amide analogues, and hybrid analogues. To assess the relative iron-binding affinities of these compounds, a high-throughput spectrophotometric screening method based on competition with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid was developed. Some of the promising candidates containing various terminal functional groups were identified and prepared on large scale to enable future studies in animal models for iron-overload diseases.

  7. A Human-Information Interaction Perspective on Augmented Cognition

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Griffith, Douglas

    2006-10-15

    Nearly a half-century ago, J.C.R. Licklider expressed a vision for “man-machine symbiosis,” coupling human brains and computing machines in a partnership that “will think as no human brain has ever thought and process data in a way not approached by the information-handling machines we know today.” Until relatively recently, this vision was largely left idle by human factors engineering (HFE) research that grew over the decades from an initial focus on design of equipment to accommodate human limitations to cognitive systems engineering research to a more recent perspective focusing on design of human-information interaction. These perspective shifts and insights have brought a degree of success to the field in design efforts aimed at enhancing human-system performance. In recent years, the research area of augmented cognition has begun to shift the focus once more not only to enhancing the interaction environment, but also the cognitive abilities of the human operators and decision makers themselves. Ambitious goals of increasing total cognitive capacity through augmented cognition technologies are still on the horizon of this research program. This paper describes a framework within which augmented cognition research may identify requirements that compensate for human information processing shortcomings and augment human potential.

  8. Cranial implant design using augmented reality immersive system.

    PubMed

    Ai, Zhuming; Evenhouse, Ray; Leigh, Jason; Charbel, Fady; Rasmussen, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Software tools that utilize haptics for sculpting precise fitting cranial implants are utilized in an augmented reality immersive system to create a virtual working environment for the modelers. The virtual environment is designed to mimic the traditional working environment as closely as possible, providing more functionality for the users. The implant design process uses patient CT data of a defective area. This volumetric data is displayed in an implant modeling tele-immersive augmented reality system where the modeler can build a patient specific implant that precisely fits the defect. To mimic the traditional sculpting workspace, the implant modeling augmented reality system includes stereo vision, viewer centered perspective, sense of touch, and collaboration. To achieve optimized performance, this system includes a dual-processor PC, fast volume rendering with three-dimensional texture mapping, the fast haptic rendering algorithm, and a multi-threading architecture. The system replaces the expensive and time consuming traditional sculpting steps such as physical sculpting, mold making, and defect stereolithography. This augmented reality system is part of a comprehensive tele-immersive system that includes a conference-room-sized system for tele-immersive small group consultation and an inexpensive, easily deployable networked desktop virtual reality system for surgical consultation, evaluation and collaboration. This system has been used to design patient-specific cranial implants with precise fit. PMID:17377223

  9. Flexible augmented reality architecture applied to environmental management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, Nuno M. R.; Romao, Teresa; Santos, Carlos; Trabuco, Adelaide; Santos, Rossana; Romero, Luis; Danado, Jose; Dias, Eduardo; Camara, Antonio; Nobre, Edmundo

    2003-05-01

    Environmental management often requires in loco observation of the area under analysis. Augmented Reality (AR) technologies allow real time superimposition of synthetic objects on real images, providing augmented knowledge about the surrounding world. Users of an AR system can visualize the real surrounding world together with additional data generated in real time in a contextual way. The work reported in this paper was done in the scope of ANTS (Augmented Environments) project. ANTS is an AR project that explores the development of an augmented reality technological infrastructure for environmental management. This paper presents the architecture and the most relevant modules of ANTS. The system"s architecture follows the client-server model and is based on several independent, but functionally interdependent modules. It has a flexible design, which allows the transfer of some modules to and from the client side, according to the available processing capacities of the client device and the application"s requirements. It combines several techniques to identify the user"s position and orientation allowing the system to adapt to the particular characteristics of each environment. The determination of the data associated to a certain location involves the use of both a 3D Model of the location and the multimedia geo-referenced database.

  10. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring; Volume II of II, Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Michak, Patty

    1991-12-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) initiated the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project in 1986. This project was a five year interagency project involving fish rearing agencies in the Columbia Basin. Participating agencies included: Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). This is the final data report for the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project. Data collected and sampling results for 1990 and 1991 are presented within this report. An evaluation of this project can be found in Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, Volume 1, Completion Report.'' May, 1991. Pathogen detection methods remained the same from methods described in Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, Annual Report 1989,'' May, 1990. From January 1, 1990 to June 30, 1991 fish health monitoring sampling was conducted. In 1990 21 returning adult stocks were sampled. Juvenile pre-release exams were completed on 20 yearling releases, and 13 sub-yearling releases in 1990. In 1991 17 yearling releases and 11 sub-yearling releases were examined. Midterm sampling was completed on 19 stocks in 1990. Organosomatic analysis was performed at release on index station stocks; Cowlitz spring and fall chinook, Lewis river early coho and Lyons Ferry fall chinook.

  11. Augmented Reality in Education--Cases, Places and Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Matt; Howe, Cathie; McCredie, Nerida; Robinson, Austin; Grover, David

    2014-01-01

    Augmented Reality is poised to profoundly transform Education as we know it. The capacity to overlay rich media onto the real world for viewing through web-enabled devices such as phones and tablet devices means that information can be made available to students at the exact time and place of need. This has the potential to reduce cognitive…

  12. Thrust augmentation nozzle (TAN) concept for rocket engine booster applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forde, Scott; Bulman, Mel; Neill, Todd

    2006-07-01

    Aerojet used the patented thrust augmented nozzle (TAN) concept to validate a unique means of increasing sea-level thrust in a liquid rocket booster engine. We have used knowledge gained from hypersonic Scramjet research to inject propellants into the supersonic region of the rocket engine nozzle to significantly increase sea-level thrust without significantly impacting specific impulse. The TAN concept overcomes conventional engine limitations by injecting propellants and combusting in an annular region in the divergent section of the nozzle. This injection of propellants at moderate pressures allows for obtaining high thrust at takeoff without overexpansion thrust losses. The main chamber is operated at a constant pressure while maintaining a constant head rise and flow rate of the main propellant pumps. Recent hot-fire tests have validated the design approach and thrust augmentation ratios. Calculations of nozzle performance and wall pressures were made using computational fluid dynamics analyses with and without thrust augmentation flow, resulting in good agreement between calculated and measured quantities including augmentation thrust. This paper describes the TAN concept, the test setup, test results, and calculation results.

  13. Consistency of Standard Setting in an Augmented State Testing System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lissitz, Robert W.; Wei, Hua

    2008-01-01

    In this article we address the issue of consistency in standard setting in the context of an augmented state testing program. Information gained from the external NRT scores is used to help make an informed decision on the determination of cut scores on the state test. The consistency of cut scores on the CRT across grades is maintained by forcing…

  14. Testing and Development of a Percussive Augmenter for Rotary Drills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnelly, Christopher; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Hammering drills are effective in fracturing the drilled medium while rotary drills remove cuttings. The combination provides a highly effective penetration mechanism. Piezoelectric actuators were integrated into an adapter to produce ultrasonic percussion; augmenting rotary drilling. The drill is capable of operating at low power, low applied force and, with proper tuning, low noise. These characteristics are of great interest for future NASA missions and the construction/remodeling industry. The developed augmenter connects a commercially available drill and bit and was tested to demonstrate its capability. Input power to the drill was read using a multimeter and the augmenter received a separate input voltage. The drive frequency of the piezoelectric actuator was controlled by a hill climb algorithm that optimizes and records average power usage to operate the drill at resonating frequency. Testing the rotary drill and augmenter across a range of combinations with total power constant at 160 Watts has shown results in concrete and limestone samples that are as good as or better than the commercial drill. The drill rate was increased 1.5 to over 10 times when compared to rotation alone.

  15. Frames of Reference in Mobile Augmented Reality Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mou, Weimin; Biocca, Frank; Owen, Charles B.; Tang, Arthur; Xiao, Fan; Lim, Lynette

    2004-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors investigated spatial updating in augmented reality environments. Participants learned locations of virtual objects on the physical floor. They were turned to appropriate facing directions while blindfolded before making pointing judgments (e.g., "Imagine you are facing X. Point to Y"). Experiments manipulated the…

  16. The Design of Immersive English Learning Environment Using Augmented Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Kuo-Chen; Chen, Cheng-Ting; Cheng, Shein-Yung; Tsai, Chung-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The study uses augmented reality (AR) technology to integrate virtual objects into the real learning environment for language learning. The English AR classroom is constructed using the system prototyping method and evaluated by semi-structured in-depth interviews. According to the flow theory by Csikszenmihalyi in 1975 along with the immersive…

  17. Using Augmented Reality Tools to Enhance Children's Library Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, Tamara R.

    2015-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) has been used and documented for a variety of commercial and educational purposes, and the proliferation of mobile devices has increased the average person's access to AR systems and tools. However, little research has been done in the area of using AR to supplement traditional library services, specifically for patrons aged…

  18. Augmented Self-Modeling as an Intervention for Selective Mutism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Byer-Alcorace, Gabriel F.; Theodore, Lea A.; Kovac, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Selective mutism is a rare disorder that is difficult to treat. It is often associated with oppositional defiant behavior, particularly in the home setting, social phobia, and, at times, autism spectrum disorder characteristics. The augmented self-modeling treatment has been relatively successful in promoting rapid diminishment of selective mutism…

  19. Review of Augmented Paper Systems in Education: An Orchestration Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto, Luis P.; Wen, Yun; Caballero, Daniela; Dillenbourg, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Augmented paper has been proposed as a way to integrate more easily ICTs in settings like formal education, where paper has a strong presence. However, despite the multiplicity of educational applications using paper-based computing, their deployment in authentic settings is still marginal. To better understand this gap between research proposals…

  20. Current Status, Opportunities and Challenges of Augmented Reality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Hsin-Kai; Lee, Silvia Wen-Yu; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Liang, Jyh-Chong

    2013-01-01

    Although augmented reality (AR) has gained much research attention in recent years, the term AR was given different meanings by varying researchers. In this article, we first provide an overview of definitions, taxonomies, and technologies of AR. We argue that viewing AR as a concept rather than a type of technology would be more productive for…

  1. Augmented Reality and Mobile Learning: The State of the Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FitzGerald, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Rebecca; Adams, Anne; Gaved, Mark; Mor, Yishay; Thomas, Rhodri

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine the state of the art in augmented reality (AR) for mobile learning. Previous work in the field of mobile learning has included AR as a component of a wider toolkit but little has been done to discuss the phenomenon in detail or to examine in a balanced fashion its potential for learning, identifying both positive…

  2. 14 CFR 25.945 - Thrust or power augmentation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... can freeze, fluid freezing may not damage the airplane or adversely affect airplane performance. (b... to freezing; and (2) The fluid may be drained in flight or during ground operation. (d) The augmentation liquid tank capacity available for the use of each engine must be large enough to allow...

  3. 14 CFR 25.945 - Thrust or power augmentation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... can freeze, fluid freezing may not damage the airplane or adversely affect airplane performance. (b... to freezing; and (2) The fluid may be drained in flight or during ground operation. (d) The augmentation liquid tank capacity available for the use of each engine must be large enough to allow...

  4. Augmented Learning: Research and Design of Mobile Educational Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Eric

    2008-01-01

    New technology has brought with it new tools for learning, and research has shown that the educational potential of video games resonates with scholars, teachers, and students alike. In "Augmented Learning", Eric Klopfer describes the largely untapped potential of mobile learning games--games played on such handheld devices as cell phones, Game…

  5. Analysis of multinomial models with unknown index using data augmentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Dorazio, R.M.; Link, W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Multinomial models with unknown index ('sample size') arise in many practical settings. In practice, Bayesian analysis of such models has proved difficult because the dimension of the parameter space is not fixed, being in some cases a function of the unknown index. We describe a data augmentation approach to the analysis of this class of models that provides for a generic and efficient Bayesian implementation. Under this approach, the data are augmented with all-zero detection histories. The resulting augmented dataset is modeled as a zero-inflated version of the complete-data model where an estimable zero-inflation parameter takes the place of the unknown multinomial index. Interestingly, data augmentation can be justified as being equivalent to imposing a discrete uniform prior on the multinomial index. We provide three examples involving estimating the size of an animal population, estimating the number of diabetes cases in a population using the Rasch model, and the motivating example of estimating the number of species in an animal community with latent probabilities of species occurrence and detection.

  6. Augmenting the Refutation Text Effect with Analogies and Graphics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Robert W.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Kendeou, Panayiota

    2016-01-01

    Refutation texts have been shown to be effective at promoting knowledge revision. It has been suggested that refutation texts are most effective when the misconception and the correct information are co-activated and integrated with causal networks that support the correct information. We explored two augmentations to a refutation text that might…

  7. Native Americans and Augmentative and Alternative Communication Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Sheela; Parette, Howard P., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Professional sensitivity to cultural issues during augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) design and implementation has gained increasing attention in the professional literature. This article describes four cultural domains in which core values characteristic of Native American tribes are discernable: spirituality, trustworthiness,…

  8. A Case Study Model for Augmentative and Alternative Communication Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Katya

    2006-01-01

    Case studies are an accepted method for reporting treatment outcomes. However, to be useful and authentic, a systematic and principled approach to collecting, analyzing, and reporting case data must be observed. This paper proposes a basic case study format for documenting augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) intervention to ensure…

  9. Towards a theory of stochastic vorticity-augmentation. [tornado model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, V. C.

    1977-01-01

    A new hypothesis to account for the formation of tornadoes is presented. An elementary one-dimensional theory is formulated for vorticity transfer between an ambient sheared wind and a transverse penetrating jet. The theory points out the relevant quantities to be determined in describing the present stochastic mode of vorticity augmentation.

  10. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu; Donnelly, Chris; Aldrich, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, NASA exploration mission objectives include sample acquisition tasks for in-situ analysis or for potential sample return to Earth. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a piezoelectric actuated percussive sampling device was developed that requires low preload (as low as 10N) which is important for operation at low gravity. This device can be made as light as 400g, can be operated using low average power, and can drill rocks as hard as basalt. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to provide effective cuttings removal. Generally, hammering is effective in fracturing drilled media while rotation of fluted bits is effective in cuttings removal. To benefit from these two actions, a novel configuration of a percussive mechanism was developed to produce an augmenter of rotary drills. The device was called Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD). A breadboard PARoD was developed with a 6.4 mm (0.25 in) diameter bit and was demonstrated to increase the drilling rate of rotation alone by 1.5 to over 10 times. Further, a large PARoD breadboard with 50.8 mm diameter bit was developed and its tests are currently underway. This paper presents the design, analysis and preliminary test results of the percussive augmenter.

  11. Learning Physics through Play in an Augmented Reality Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enyedy, Noel; Danish, Joshua A.; Delacruz, Girlie; Kumar, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The Learning Physics through Play Project (LPP) engaged 6-8-year old students (n = 43) in a series of scientific investigations of Newtonian force and motion including a series of augmented reality activities. We outline the two design principles behind the LPP curriculum: 1) the use of socio-dramatic, embodied play in the form of participatory…

  12. Computer-vision-based registration techniques for augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, William A.; Nguyen, Khoi; Lyon, Torsten

    1996-10-01

    Augmented reality is a term used to describe systems in which computer-generated information is superimposed on top of the real world; for example, through the use of a see- through head-mounted display. A human user of such a system could still see and interact with the real world, but have valuable additional information, such as descriptions of important features or instructions for performing physical tasks, superimposed on the world. For example, the computer could identify and overlay them with graphic outlines, labels, and schematics. The graphics are registered to the real-world objects and appear to be 'painted' onto those objects. Augmented reality systems can be used to make productivity aids for tasks such as inspection, manufacturing, and navigation. One of the most critical requirements for augmented reality is to recognize and locate real-world objects with respect to the person's head. Accurate registration is necessary in order to overlay graphics accurately on top of the real-world objects. At the Colorado School of Mines, we have developed a prototype augmented reality system that uses head-mounted cameras and computer vision techniques to accurately register the head to the scene. The current system locates and tracks a set of pre-placed passive fiducial targets placed on the real-world objects. The system computes the pose of the objects and displays graphics overlays using a see-through head-mounted display. This paper describes the architecture of the system and outlines the computer vision techniques used.

  13. 14 CFR 91.1061 - Augmented flight crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... crewmember, and no flight crewmember may accept an assignment, for flight time as a member of an augmented crew if that crewmember's total flight time in all commercial flying will exceed— (1) 500 hours in any... crewmember's flight time or duty period will exceed, or rest time will be less than— 3-Pilot crew...

  14. 14 CFR 91.1061 - Augmented flight crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... crewmember, and no flight crewmember may accept an assignment, for flight time as a member of an augmented crew if that crewmember's total flight time in all commercial flying will exceed— (1) 500 hours in any... crewmember's flight time or duty period will exceed, or rest time will be less than— 3-Pilot crew...

  15. 14 CFR 117.17 - Flight duty period: Augmented flightcrew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... minutes. (2) The applicable flight duty period is based on the local time at the theater in which the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight duty period: Augmented flightcrew... FLIGHT AND DUTY LIMITATIONS AND REST REQUIREMENTS: FLIGHTCREW MEMBERS (EFF. 1-4-14) § 117.17 Flight...

  16. Aortic homograft for pulmonary artery augmentation in single lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Pablo; Morales, Jose; Guzman, Enrique; Tellez, Jose L; Niebla, Benito A; Avalos, Alejandro; Patiño, Hilda

    2005-06-01

    We present a case of unilateral lung transplantation in which a segment of the donor's descending aorta was used as a homograft for pulmonary artery augmentation in the donor lung. This technique can be used when the donor's lung artery has been cut at the base of the hilum during the harvesting procedure.

  17. Volunteering amongst Persons Who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trembath, David; Balandin, Susan; Togher, Leanne

    2009-01-01

    Volunteering is a common activity amongst adults without disability, resulting in benefits for individuals, organisations, and societies at large. In an attempt to increase community participation, people with lifelong disability who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems (e.g., speech generating devices or communication…

  18. Episode of massive pulmonary embolism after bilateral breast augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Schonauer, Fabrizio; Nele, Gisella; Di Martino, Annalena; Santoro, Mariangela; Santanelli di Pompeo, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a rare postsurgical complication, even more so following breast augmentation. Herein we present a case of a 23-year-old woman who survived an episode of massive pulmonary embolism after breast implant surgery. Current literature about this subject is very scarce. PMID:27252978

  19. Cranial implant design using augmented reality immersive system.

    PubMed

    Ai, Zhuming; Evenhouse, Ray; Leigh, Jason; Charbel, Fady; Rasmussen, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Software tools that utilize haptics for sculpting precise fitting cranial implants are utilized in an augmented reality immersive system to create a virtual working environment for the modelers. The virtual environment is designed to mimic the traditional working environment as closely as possible, providing more functionality for the users. The implant design process uses patient CT data of a defective area. This volumetric data is displayed in an implant modeling tele-immersive augmented reality system where the modeler can build a patient specific implant that precisely fits the defect. To mimic the traditional sculpting workspace, the implant modeling augmented reality system includes stereo vision, viewer centered perspective, sense of touch, and collaboration. To achieve optimized performance, this system includes a dual-processor PC, fast volume rendering with three-dimensional texture mapping, the fast haptic rendering algorithm, and a multi-threading architecture. The system replaces the expensive and time consuming traditional sculpting steps such as physical sculpting, mold making, and defect stereolithography. This augmented reality system is part of a comprehensive tele-immersive system that includes a conference-room-sized system for tele-immersive small group consultation and an inexpensive, easily deployable networked desktop virtual reality system for surgical consultation, evaluation and collaboration. This system has been used to design patient-specific cranial implants with precise fit.

  20. Augmented thermal bus wih multiple thermoelectric devices individually controlled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurality of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pumps to maintain isothermality in the source.

  1. Prioritizing bottomland hardwood forest sites for protection and augmentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, J.; Biagas, J.

    2007-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood forest has been greatly diminished by conversion to agriculture. Less than 25% of the pre-Columbian bottomland hardwood forests remain in the southeastern United States. Because of the valuable ecological and hydrological functions performed by these forests, their conservation and restoration has been a high priority. Part of these restoration efforts has focused on developing tools that can be used for both assessments at the landscape level and policy implementation at the local level. The distribution of bottomland hardwood forests in the Cache and White River watersheds in eastern Arkansas were examined using existing GIS databases. Criteria were developed to select areas that should be conserved or augmented for wildlife habitat. Over 67% of the study area was classified as agriculture, with bottomland hardwood forest the next largest habitat class. The thickness of a forest fragment was defined as the radius of the largest circle that can be inscribed in a fragment. Thickness was used in three ways. First, individual forest fragments were identified and selected based on ecological function using criteria we established. Second, individual fragments that were too small to support interior species, but large enough that if moderately augmented they could recover that function, were identified and selected. These augmentable fragments were further prioritized by adjacency to habitat that might be suitable for reforestation, namely agriculture. Third, watersheds were prioritized for conservation and augmentation based on the size and distributions of forest fragment thickness and area within each watershed.

  2. Polyacrylamide hydrogel injection for breast augmentation: Another injectable failure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenxiang; Li, Shirong; Wang, Lingli; Zhang, Shu; Jiang, Yan; Chen, Jinping; Luo, Donglin

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Increasing complications of polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) augmentation mammoplasty, such as chronic persistent infection, have recently caught the attention of both the medical field and the general public. Material/Methods A total of 96 patients with severe chronic infection following PAAG augmentation mammoplasty were treated in the present study including 63 cases with infection confined to the breast and 33 with systemic infection. Endoscopy and surgery were performed to completely remove the materials and clear the infected tissues followed by drug-irrigation and vacuum-assisted closure for several days. Results In patients with severe infection there were large amounts of PAAG, fibers and infiltration of numerous neutrophils and macrophages. The infection-inducing materials were extensively dispersed in the mammary and subcutaneous tissues, pectoral fascia and intermuscular space. In addition, there was scattered distribution of PAAG materials in the armpit, chest wall and abdominal wall, which were mixed with necrotic tissues and surrounded by lymphocytes, giant cells, macrophages and other inflammatory cells, forming chronic granulomatous and fibrous lesions. Infection was controlled following surgical intervention. No residual infectious foci or recurrent infections were noted among these patients. Although the severe infection did not result in mastectomy, patients had breast atrophy and various degrees of deformation. Conclusions Chronic infection following PAAG augmentation mammaplasty usually causes systemic infection and other devastating adverse reactions. This study confirms PAAG augmentation mammaplasty is another failed attempt. More attention should be paid to the injection of large doses of liquid filler. PMID:22648256

  3. Repeated Reading, Turn Taking, and Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmister, Evette; Wegner, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This single participant multiple baseline research design measured the effects of repeatedly reading narrative books to children who used voice output augmentative communication devices to communicate. The study sought to determine if there was a difference observed in the number of turns taken when reading stories repeatedly. Three girls ranging…

  4. Benefit assessment of solar-augmented natural gas systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, E. S.; French, R. L.; Sohn, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Report details how solar-energy-augmented system can reduce natural gas consumption by 40% to 70%. Applications discussed include: domestic hot water system, solar-assisted gas heat pumps, direct heating from storage tank. Industrial uses, solar-assisted appliances, and economic factors are discussed.

  5. Haptic Augmentation of Science Instruction: Does Touch Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Gail; Minogue, James; Tretter, Thomas R.; Negishi, Atsuko; Taylor, Russell

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of haptic augmentation of a science inquiry program on students' learning about viruses and nanoscale science. The study assessed how the addition of different types of haptic feedback (active touch and kinesthetic feedback) combined with computer visualizations influenced middle and high school students'…

  6. Haptics-Augmented Simple-Machine Educational Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert L., II; Chen, Meng-Yun; Seaton, Jeffrey M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a unique project using commercial haptic interfaces to augment the teaching of simple machines in elementary school. Suggests that the use of haptics in virtual simple-machine simulations has the potential for deeper, more engaging learning. (Contains 13 references.) (Author/YDS)

  7. Augmented Reality Games: Using Technology on a Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annetta, Leonard; Burton, Erin Peters; Frazier, Wendy; Cheng, Rebecca; Chmiel, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    As smartphones become more ubiquitous among adolescents, there is increasing potential for these as a tool to engage students in science instruction through innovative learning environments such as augmented reality (AR). Aligned with the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996) and integrating the three dimensions of "A Framework for K-12…

  8. Detecting Syntactic Ambiguity: Three Augmented Transition Network Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, L. Russell, Jr.

    When a grammar is expressed in augmented transition network (ATN) form, the problem of detecting syntactic ambuguity reduces to finding all possible paths through the ATNs. Each successfully terminating path through the ATN generates an acceptable parsing of the input string. Two ATN forms, minimal-node and pseudo-tree, are described along with…

  9. Wide area augmentation of the Global Positioning System

    SciTech Connect

    Enge, P.; Walter, T.; Pullen, S.; Kee, C.; Chao, Y.C.; Tsai, Y.J.

    1996-08-01

    The Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) is being deployed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to augment the Global Positioning System (GPS). The WAAS will aid GPS with the following three services. First, it will broadcast spread-spectrum ranging signals from communication satellites. The airborne WAAS receiver will add these new ranging signals to the GPS constellation of measurements. By so doing, the augmented position fix will be less sensitive to the failure of individual system components, thus improving time availability and continuity of service. Second, the WAAS will use a nationwide ground network to monitor the health of all satellites over the airspace and flag situations which threaten flight safety. This data will be modulated on to the WAAS ranging signals and broadcast to the users, thereby guaranteeing the integrity of the airborne position fix. Third, the WAAS will use the ground network to develop corrections for the errors which currently limit the accuracy of unaugmented GPS. This data will also be included on the WAAS broadcast and will improve position accuracy from approximately 100 m to 8 m. When complete, the augmented system will provide an accurate position fix from satellites to an unlimited number of aircraft across the nation. It will be the primary navigation system for aircraft in oceanic routes, enroute over domestic airspace, in crowded metropolitan airspaces, and on airport approach.

  10. Role of computer vision in augmented virtual reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rajeev; Molineros, Jose

    1995-03-01

    An important issue in augmented virtual reality is making the virtual world sensitive to the current state of the surrounding real world as the user interacts with it--changing gaze, manipulating an object, etc. For providing the right virtual stimulus at the right position and time, the system needs some sensor to interpret the surrounding scene. Computer vision holds great potential in providing the necessary interpretation of the scene. We present the preliminary design of a computer vision-based augmented reality system for helping a human in assembling an industrial part from its components. The context of assembly helps in keeping the computer vision task simple by exploiting the geometric model of the assembly components for recognition and pose estimation. The augmentation stimuli include labeling of objects in the scene, helping with sequencing using an assembly planner, visualization of assembly at different stages, handling errors by the human operator, etc. Such a system would have potential applications in assembling complex parts, maintenance, and education. We will present an overview of the design of the system and discuss some of the issues involved in computer vision-based augmented reality.

  11. Education, Information Technologies, and the Augmentation of Human Intellect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Gardner

    2006-01-01

    The author believes that information technologies are powerfully heuristic in addressing one of education's deepest ambitions. Following Engelbart's paradigm, he sees these technologies as augmenting human intellect, not simply because they permit high-speed calculations but also because they externalize our own cognitive processes in a way that…

  12. Design and synthesis of analogues of natural products.

    PubMed

    Maier, Martin E

    2015-05-21

    In this article strategies for the design and synthesis of natural product analogues are summarized and illustrated with some selected examples. Proven strategies include diverted total synthesis (DTS), function-oriented synthesis (FOS), biology-oriented synthesis (BIOS), complexity to diversity (CtD), hybrid molecules, and biosynthesis inspired synthesis. The latter includes mutasynthesis, the synthesis of natural products encoded by silent genes, and propionate scanning. Most of the examples from our group fall in the quite general concept of DTS. Thus, in case an efficient strategy to a natural product is at hand, modifications are possible at almost any stage of a synthesis. However, even for compounds of moderate complexity, organic synthesis remains a bottle neck. Unless some method for predicting the biological activity of a designed molecule becomes available, the design and synthesis of natural product analogues will remain what it is now, namely it will largely rely on trial and error. PMID:25829247

  13. All-dielectric metasurface analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuanmu; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Briggs, Dayrl P.; Valentine, Jason

    2014-12-01

    Metasurface analogues of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) have been a focus of the nanophotonics field in recent years, due to their ability to produce high-quality factor (Q-factor) resonances. Such resonances are expected to be useful for applications such as low-loss slow-light devices and highly sensitive optical sensors. However, ohmic losses limit the achievable Q-factors in conventional plasmonic EIT metasurfaces to values <~10, significantly hampering device performance. Here we experimentally demonstrate a classical analogue of EIT using all-dielectric silicon-based metasurfaces. Due to extremely low absorption loss and coherent interaction of neighbouring meta-atoms, a Q-factor of 483 is observed, leading to a refractive index sensor with a figure-of-merit of 103. Furthermore, we show that the dielectric metasurfaces can be engineered to confine the optical field in either the silicon resonator or the environment, allowing one to tailor light-matter interaction at the nanoscale.

  14. Analogue Transformations in Physics and their Application to Acoustics

    PubMed Central

    García-Meca, C.; Carloni, S.; Barceló, C.; Jannes, G.; Sánchez-Dehesa, J.; Martínez, A.

    2013-01-01

    Transformation optics has shaped up a revolutionary electromagnetic design paradigm, enabling scientists to build astonishing devices such as invisibility cloaks. Unfortunately, the application of transformation techniques to other branches of physics is often constrained by the structure of the field equations. We develop here a complete transformation method using the idea of analogue spacetimes. The method is general and could be considered as a new paradigm for controlling waves in different branches of physics, from acoustics in quantum fluids to graphene electronics. As an application, we derive an “analogue transformation acoustics” formalism that naturally allows the use of transformations mixing space and time or involving moving fluids, both of which were impossible with the standard approach. To demonstrate the power of our method, we give explicit designs of a dynamic compressor, a spacetime cloak for acoustic waves and a carpet cloak for a moving aircraft. PMID:23774575

  15. Analogue transformations in physics and their application to acoustics.

    PubMed

    García-Meca, C; Carloni, S; Barceló, C; Jannes, G; Sánchez-Dehesa, J; Martínez, A

    2013-01-01

    Transformation optics has shaped up a revolutionary electromagnetic design paradigm, enabling scientists to build astonishing devices such as invisibility cloaks. Unfortunately, the application of transformation techniques to other branches of physics is often constrained by the structure of the field equations. We develop here a complete transformation method using the idea of analogue spacetimes. The method is general and could be considered as a new paradigm for controlling waves in different branches of physics, from acoustics in quantum fluids to graphene electronics. As an application, we derive an "analogue transformation acoustics" formalism that naturally allows the use of transformations mixing space and time or involving moving fluids, both of which were impossible with the standard approach. To demonstrate the power of our method, we give explicit designs of a dynamic compressor, a spacetime cloak for acoustic waves and a carpet cloak for a moving aircraft.

  16. Neurological Effects of Bisphenol A and its Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Inadera, Hidekuni

    2015-01-01

    The endocrine disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. The use of BPA-containing products in daily life makes exposure ubiquitous, and the potential human health risks of this chemical are a major public health concern. Although numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have been published on the effects of BPA on biological systems, there is controversy as to whether ordinary levels of exposure can have adverse effects in humans. However, the increasing incidence of developmental disorders is of concern, and accumulating evidence indicates that BPA has detrimental effects on neurological development. Other bisphenol analogues, used as substitutes for BPA, are also suspected of having a broad range of biological actions. The objective of this review is to summarize our current understanding of the neurobiological effects of BPA and its analogues, and to discuss preventive strategies from a public health perspective. PMID:26664253

  17. Novel Azetidine-Containing TZT-1027 Analogues as Antitumor Agents

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qi; Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Wei; Li, Yingxia

    2016-01-01

    A conformational restriction strategy was used to design and synthesize nine TZT-1027 analogues. 3-Aryl-azetidine moiety was used to replace phenylethyl group of TZT-1027 at the C-terminus. These analogues exhibited moderate to excellent antiproliferative activities, and the most potent compound 1a showed IC50 values of 2.2 nM against A549 and 2.1 nM against HCT116 cell lines, respectively. However, 1a could not achieve effective inhibition at all the dose levels in the A549 xenograft model (up to 5 mg/kg, injection, once a day), which is only 16%–35% inhibition at the end of the experiment. PMID:27136567

  18. A rationally designed CD4 analogue inhibits experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jameson, Bradford A.; McDonnell, James M.; Marini, Joseph C.; Korngold, Robert

    1994-04-01

    EXPERIMENTAL allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an acute inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that can be elicited in rodents and is the major animal model for the study of multiple sclerosis (MS)1,2. The pathogenesis of both EAE and MS directly involves the CD4+ helper T-cell subset3-5. Anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies inhibit the development of EAE in rodents6-9, and are currently being used in human clinical trials for MS. We report here that similar therapeutic effects can be achieved in mice using a small (rationally designed) synthetic analogue of the CD4 protein surface. It greatly inhibits both clinical incidence and severity of EAE with a single injection, but does so without depletion of the CD4+ subset and without the inherent immunogenicity of an antibody. Furthermore, this analogue is capable of exerting its effects on disease even after the onset of symptoms.

  19. Neurological Effects of Bisphenol A and its Analogues.

    PubMed

    Inadera, Hidekuni

    2015-01-01

    The endocrine disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. The use of BPA-containing products in daily life makes exposure ubiquitous, and the potential human health risks of this chemical are a major public health concern. Although numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have been published on the effects of BPA on biological systems, there is controversy as to whether ordinary levels of exposure can have adverse effects in humans. However, the increasing incidence of developmental disorders is of concern, and accumulating evidence indicates that BPA has detrimental effects on neurological development. Other bisphenol analogues, used as substitutes for BPA, are also suspected of having a broad range of biological actions. The objective of this review is to summarize our current understanding of the neurobiological effects of BPA and its analogues, and to discuss preventive strategies from a public health perspective. PMID:26664253

  20. Acoustic clouds: Standing sound waves around a black hole analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benone, Carolina L.; Crispino, Luís C. B.; Herdeiro, Carlos; Radu, Eugen

    2015-05-01

    Under certain conditions sound waves in fluids experience an acoustic horizon with analogue properties to those of a black hole event horizon. In particular, a draining bathtub-like model can give rise to a rotating acoustic horizon and hence a rotating black hole (acoustic) analogue. We show that sound waves, when enclosed in a cylindrical cavity, can form stationary waves around such rotating acoustic holes. These acoustic perturbations display similar properties to the scalar clouds that have been studied around Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes; thus they are dubbed acoustic clouds. We make the comparison between scalar clouds around Kerr black holes and acoustic clouds around the draining bathtub explicit by studying also the properties of scalar clouds around Kerr black holes enclosed in a cavity. Acoustic clouds suggest the possibility of testing, experimentally, the existence and properties of black hole clouds, using analog models.

  1. Noncommutative analogue Aharonov-Bohm effect and superresonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anacleto, M. A.; Brito, F. A.; Passos, E.

    2013-06-01

    We consider the idea of modeling a rotating acoustic black hole by an idealized draining bathtub vortex which is a planar circulating flow phenomenon with a sink at the origin. We find the acoustic metric for this phenomenon from a noncommutative Abelian Higgs model. As such the acoustic metric not only describes a rotating acoustic black hole but also inherits the noncommutative characteristic of the spacetime. We address the issues of superresonance and analogue Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect in this background. We mainly show that the scattering of planar waves by a draining bathtub vortex leads to a modified AB effect and due to spacetime noncommutativity, the phase shift persists even in the limit where the parameters associated with the circulation and draining vanish. Finally, we also find that the analogue AB effect and superresonance are competing phenomena at a noncommutative spacetime.

  2. Analogue transformations in physics and their application to acoustics.

    PubMed

    García-Meca, C; Carloni, S; Barceló, C; Jannes, G; Sánchez-Dehesa, J; Martínez, A

    2013-01-01

    Transformation optics has shaped up a revolutionary electromagnetic design paradigm, enabling scientists to build astonishing devices such as invisibility cloaks. Unfortunately, the application of transformation techniques to other branches of physics is often constrained by the structure of the field equations. We develop here a complete transformation method using the idea of analogue spacetimes. The method is general and could be considered as a new paradigm for controlling waves in different branches of physics, from acoustics in quantum fluids to graphene electronics. As an application, we derive an "analogue transformation acoustics" formalism that naturally allows the use of transformations mixing space and time or involving moving fluids, both of which were impossible with the standard approach. To demonstrate the power of our method, we give explicit designs of a dynamic compressor, a spacetime cloak for acoustic waves and a carpet cloak for a moving aircraft. PMID:23774575

  3. Synthesis and antioxidant activities of Coenzyme Q analogues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Li, Shuo; Yang, Tao; Yang, Jian

    2014-10-30

    A series of 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinones (Coenzyme Q) substituted at the C-6 position with various groups were designed and synthesized based on the Coenzyme Q10 as potent antioxidant. In vitro antioxidant activities of these compounds were evaluated and compared with commercial antioxidant Coenzyme Q10 employing DPPH assay. All these synthesized Coenzyme Q analogues are found to exhibit good antioxidant activities. Of which Compound 8b bearing a N-benzoylpiperazine group at the C-6 position showed more potent inhibition of DPPH radical than Coenzyme Q10. All these results suggested the applicability of the Coenzyme Q analogues as potent antioxidants for combating oxidative stress.

  4. Millimeter and Submillimeter Studies of Interstellar Ice Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesko, AJ; Wagner, Ian C.; Smith, Houston Hartwell; Milam, Stefanie N.; Widicus Weaver, Susanna L.

    2015-06-01

    The chemistry of interstellar ice analogues has been a topic of great interest to astrochemists over the last 20 years. Currently, the models of interstellar chemistry feature icy-grain reactions as a primary mechanism for the formation of many astrochemical species as well as potentially astrobiologically-relevant complex organic molecules. This talk presents new spectral results collected by a millimeter and submillimeter spectrometer coupled to a vacuum chamber designed to study the sublimation or sputtered products of icy-grain reactions initiated by thermal-processing or photo-processing of interstellar ice analogues. Initial results from thermal desorption and UV photoprocessing experiments of pure water ice and water + methanol ice mixtures will be presented.

  5. Alligator rivers analogue project an OECD/NEA international project

    SciTech Connect

    Duerden, P.; Airey, P.; Pescatore, C.

    1994-12-31

    The Koongarra uranium deposit in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory of Australia was studied as a natural analogue of the far field behaviour of high level waste repositories following groundwater ingress. A number of mathematical modelling approaches were developed for processes as diverse as groundwater transport, host rock weathering, radionuclide sorption, evolution of the uranium dispersion fan and the distribution of uranium series nuclides between mineral assemblages in weathered host rock. Some of these models are relevant to performance assessment at the level of individual processes and subsystem performance. Through the project, new insights into the application of the natural analogue approach to the assessment of potential waste repository sites were obtained.

  6. Geoscience in Support of a Mars Methane Analogue Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boivin, Alexandre

    The Mars Methane Analogue Mission, funded by the Canadian Space Agency through its Analogue Missions program, simulates a Mars rover mission whose purpose is to detect, analyse, and determine the source of methane emissions on the planet's surface. As part of this project, both an electromagnetic induction sounder (EMIS) and a high-resolution triangulation-based 3D laser scanner were tested in the field to demonstrate the benefit of including these instruments on future rover missions. EMIS data was inverted in order to derive information on the conductivity and magnetic susceptibility of the near subsurface. 3D laser scanner data was processed with fracture detection as a goal in order to simplify the search for areas of potential methane seepage. Both instruments were found to be very valuable for future rover missions of this type.

  7. New selenium-75 labeled radiopharmaceuticals: selenonium analogues of dopamine

    SciTech Connect

    Sadek, S.A.; Basmadjian, G.P.; Hsu, P.M.; Rieger, J.A.

    1983-07-01

    Selenium-75 labeled selenonium analogues of dopamine, (2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl)dimethylselenonium iodide and its dihydroxy analogue, were prepared by reducing (/sup 75/Se)selenious acid with sodium borohydride at pH 6.0 and reacting the NaSeH produced with 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(p-toluenesulfonyloxy)ethane. Tissue distribution studies in rats given the /sup 75/Se-labeled selenonium agents intravenously demonstrated high initial heart uptake. Prolonged adrenal retention and high adrenal to blood ratio of compound 4 were observed. The high uptake and adrenal to blood ratio suggest the potential use of compound 4 as a radiopharmaceutical for the adrenal gland.

  8. Synthesis and biological activity of polyalthenol and pentacyclindole analogues.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Isidro S; Moro, Rosalina F; Costales, Isabel; Basabe, Pilar; Díez, David; Gil, Ana; Mollinedo, Faustino; Pérez-de la Rosa, Fátima; Pérez-Roth, Eduardo; Padrón, José M

    2014-02-12

    A series of indole sesquiterpenes analogues of polyalthenol and pentacyclindole have been synthesized starting from ent-halimic acid in order to test their biological activity. These analogues include diverse oxidation levels at the sesquiterpenyl moiety and different functionalization on the indole ring. All synthetic derivatives were tested against a representative panel of Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains, and the human solid tumour cell lines A549 (non-small cell lung), HBL-100 (breast), HeLa (cervix), SW1573 (non-small cell lung), T-47D (breast) and WiDr (colon). Overall, the compounds presented activity against the cancer cell lines. The resulting lead, displaying a polyalthenol scaffold, showed GI50 values in the range 1.2-5.7 μM against all cell lines tested. PMID:24412720

  9. Evaluation of Anti-HIV-1 Mutagenic Nucleoside Analogues*

    PubMed Central

    Vivet-Boudou, Valérie; Isel, Catherine; El Safadi, Yazan; Smyth, Redmond P.; Laumond, Géraldine; Moog, Christiane; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Marquet, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Because of their high mutation rates, RNA viruses and retroviruses replicate close to the threshold of viability. Their existence as quasi-species has pioneered the concept of “lethal mutagenesis” that prompted us to synthesize pyrimidine nucleoside analogues with antiviral activity in cell culture consistent with an accumulation of deleterious mutations in the HIV-1 genome. However, testing all potentially mutagenic compounds in cell-based assays is tedious and costly. Here, we describe two simple in vitro biophysical/biochemical assays that allow prediction of the mutagenic potential of deoxyribonucleoside analogues. The first assay compares the thermal stabilities of matched and mismatched base pairs in DNA duplexes containing or not the nucleoside analogues as follows. A promising candidate should display a small destabilization of the matched base pair compared with the natural nucleoside and the smallest gap possible between the stabilities of the matched and mismatched base pairs. From this assay, we predicted that two of our compounds, 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxycytidine, should be mutagenic. The second in vitro reverse transcription assay assesses DNA synthesis opposite nucleoside analogues inserted into a template strand and subsequent extension of the newly synthesized base pairs. Once again, only 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxycytidine are predicted to be efficient mutagens. The predictive potential of our fast and easy first line screens was confirmed by detailed analysis of the mutation spectrum induced by the compounds in cell culture because only compounds 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxycytidine were found to increase the mutation frequency by 3.1- and 3.4-fold, respectively. PMID:25398876

  10. OptZyme: Computational Enzyme Redesign Using Transition State Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Grisewood, Matthew J.; Gifford, Nathanael P.; Pantazes, Robert J.; Li, Ye; Cirino, Patrick C.; Janik, Michael J.; Maranas, Costas D.

    2013-01-01

    OptZyme is a new computational procedure for designing improved enzymatic activity (i.e., kcat or kcat/KM) with a novel substrate. The key concept is to use transition state analogue compounds, which are known for many reactions, as proxies for the typically unknown transition state structures. Mutations that minimize the interaction energy of the enzyme with its transition state analogue, rather than with its substrate, are identified that lower the transition state formation energy barrier. Using Escherichia coli β-glucuronidase as a benchmark system, we confirm that KM correlates (R2 = 0.960) with the computed interaction energy between the enzyme and the para-nitrophenyl- β, D-glucuronide substrate, kcat/KM correlates (R2 = 0.864) with the interaction energy of the transition state analogue, 1,5-glucarolactone, and kcat correlates (R2 = 0.854) with a weighted combination of interaction energies with the substrate and transition state analogue. OptZyme is subsequently used to identify mutants with improved KM, kcat, and kcat/KM for a new substrate, para-nitrophenyl- β, D-galactoside. Differences between the three libraries reveal structural differences that underpin improving KM, kcat, or kcat/KM. Mutants predicted to enhance the activity for para-nitrophenyl- β, D-galactoside directly or indirectly create hydrogen bonds with the altered sugar ring conformation or its substituents, namely H162S, L361G, W549R, and N550S. PMID:24116038

  11. Projected Future Climate Analogues and Climate "Velocities" in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, S. L.; Bartlein, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Future climate changes may have significant effects on many North American ecosystems. One way of assessing the potential impacts of future climate change is to use future climate analogues of present climate to evaluate the spatial extent and rates of future climate change. We used a set of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) future climate simulations (2006-2100) produced under representative concentration pathway scenario RCP8.5. We regridded these data to a 10-km equal-area grid of North America. Modern climate data (1961-1990 30-year mean) were interpolated to the same 10-km grid. The projected future climate data were analyzed using 10-year mean values of monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation and a set of derived annual bioclimatic variables (e.g., growing degree days) considered to be ecologically significant. Potential future climate analogues were calculated for each grid cell using Euclidean distances to identify similar climates occurring elsewhere in North America. We identify regions that are projected to retain climates similar to present in the future (e.g., parts of the southeastern United States) and regions where present climates are projected to become less common or to disappear in the future (e.g., high elevation sites in western North America). We also calculate the rates of change in locations of similar climates (i.e., climate analogue velocities) and compare our results with simulated paleoclimate velocities over the past 22 kyr (from TraCE-21ka transient climate simulations for 22 ka-present). We discuss the implications of these results for conservation and natural resource management in North America. We also describe a web application being developed to allow researchers, decision makers, and members of the public, to visualize, explore, and use the climate analogue data.

  12. Chlorophenylpiperazine analogues as high affinity dopamine transporter ligands.

    PubMed

    Motel, William C; Healy, Jason R; Viard, Eddy; Pouw, Buddy; Martin, Kelly E; Matsumoto, Rae R; Coop, Andrew

    2013-12-15

    Selective σ2 ligands continue to be an active target for medications to attenuate the effects of psychostimulants. In the course of our studies to determine the optimal substituents in the σ2-selective phenyl piperazines analogues with reduced activity at other neurotransmitter systems, we discovered that 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-4-phenethylpiperazine actually had preferentially increased affinity for dopamine transporters (DAT), yielding a highly selective DAT ligand. PMID:24211020

  13. Synthesis of phosphonate and phostone analogues of ribose-1-phosphates

    PubMed Central

    Nasomjai, Pitak; Slawin, Alexandra M Z

    2009-01-01

    Summary The synthesis of phosphonate analogues of ribose-1-phosphate and 5-fluoro-5-deoxyribose-1-phosphate is described. Preparations of both the α- and β-phosphonate anomers are reported for the ribose and 5-fluoro-5-deoxyribose series and a synthesis of the corresponding cyclic phostones of each α-ribose is also reported. These compounds have been prepared as tools to probe the details of fluorometabolism in S. cattleya. PMID:19777136

  14. Dimerization and DNA recognition rules of mithramycin and its analogues.

    PubMed

    Weidenbach, Stevi; Hou, Caixia; Chen, Jhong-Min; Tsodikov, Oleg V; Rohr, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    The antineoplastic and antibiotic natural product mithramycin (MTM) is used against cancer-related hypercalcemia and, experimentally, against Ewing sarcoma and lung cancers. MTM exerts its cytotoxic effect by binding DNA as a divalent metal ion (Me(2+))-coordinated dimer and disrupting the function of transcription factors. A precise molecular mechanism of action of MTM, needed to develop MTM analogues selective against desired transcription factors, is lacking. Although it is known that MTM binds G/C-rich DNA, the exact DNA recognition rules that would allow one to map MTM binding sites remain incompletely understood. Towards this goal, we quantitatively investigated dimerization of MTM and several of its analogues, MTM SDK (for Short side chain, DiKeto), MTM SA-Trp (for Short side chain and Acid), MTM SA-Ala, and a biosynthetic precursor premithramycin B (PreMTM B), and measured the binding affinities of these molecules to DNA oligomers of different sequences and structural forms at physiological salt concentrations. We show that MTM and its analogues form stable dimers even in the absence of DNA. All molecules, except for PreMTM B, can bind DNA with the following rank order of affinities (strong to weak): MTM=MTM SDK>MTM SA-Trp>MTM SA-Ala. An X(G/C)(G/C)X motif, where X is any base, is necessary and sufficient for MTM binding to DNA, without a strong dependence on DNA conformation. These recognition rules will aid in mapping MTM sites across different promoters towards development of MTM analogues as useful anticancer agents.

  15. Designing a "Flatter" ExBox(4+) Analogue.

    PubMed

    Bachrach, Steven M; Nickle, Zachary O M

    2015-10-22

    Analogues of ExBox(4+) 1 are proposed that possess triaryl fragments that are nearly flat. These two new hosts are predicted by density functional theory (ωB97X-D/6-311G(d,p)) to bind five small linear acenes more tightly than does 1. The "flatter" triaryl fragments provide a less congested interior along with improved π-π-stacking between these hosts and guests.

  16. Transition State Analogues of Plasmodium falciparum and Human Orotate Phosphoribosyltransferases*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Evans, Gary B.; Clinch, Keith; Crump, Douglas R.; Harris, Lawrence D.; Fröhlich, Richard F. G.; Tyler, Peter C.; Hazleton, Keith Z.; Cassera, María B.; Schramm, Vern L.

    2013-01-01

    The survival and proliferation of Plasmodium falciparum parasites and human cancer cells require de novo pyrimidine synthesis to supply RNA and DNA precursors. Orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT) is an indispensible component in this metabolic pathway and is a target for antimalarials and antitumor drugs. P. falciparum (Pf) and Homo sapiens (Hs) OPRTs are characterized by highly dissociative transition states with ribocation character. On the basis of the geometrical and electrostatic features of the PfOPRT and HsOPRT transition states, analogues were designed, synthesized, and tested as inhibitors. Iminoribitol mimics of the ribocation transition state in linkage to pyrimidine mimics using methylene or ethylene linkers gave dissociation constants (Kd) as low as 80 nm. Inhibitors with pyrrolidine groups as ribocation mimics displayed slightly weaker binding affinities for OPRTs. Interestingly, p-nitrophenyl riboside 5′-phosphate bound to OPRTs with Kd values near 40 nm. Analogues designed with a C5-pyrimidine carbon–carbon bond to ribocation mimics gave Kd values in the range of 80–500 nm. Acyclic inhibitors with achiral serinol groups as the ribocation mimics also displayed nanomolar inhibition against OPRTs. In comparison with the nucleoside derivatives, inhibition constants of their corresponding 5′-phosphorylated transition state analogues are largely unchanged, an unusual property for a nucleotide-binding site. In silico docking of the best inhibitor into the HsOPRT active site supported an extensive hydrogen bond network associated with the tight binding affinity. These OPRT transition state analogues identify crucial components of potent inhibitors targeting OPRT enzymes. Despite their tight binding to the targets, the inhibitors did not kill cultured P. falciparum. PMID:24158442

  17. Using fuzzy sets for data interpretation in natural analogue studies

    SciTech Connect

    De Lemos, F.L.; Sullivan, T.; Hellmuth, K.H.

    2008-07-01

    Natural analogue studies can play a key role in deep geological radioactive disposal systems safety assessment. These studies can help develop a better understanding of complex natural processes and, therefore, provide valuable means of confidence building in the safety assessment. In evaluation of natural analogues, there are, however, several sources of uncertainties that stem from factors such as complexity; lack of data; and ignorance. Often, analysts have to simplify the mathematical models in order to cope with the various sources of complexity and this ads uncertainty to the model results. The uncertainties reflected in model predictions must be addressed to understand their impact on safety assessment and therefore, the utility of natural analogues. Fuzzy sets can be used to represent the information regarding the natural processes and their mutual connections. With this methodology we are able to quantify and propagate the epistemic uncertainties in both processes and, thereby, assign degrees of truth to the similarities between them. An example calculation with literature data is provided. In conclusion: Fuzzy sets are an effective way of quantifying semi-quantitative information such as natural analogues data. Epistemic uncertainty that stems from complexity and lack of knowledge regarding natural processes are represented by the degrees of membership. It also facilitates the propagation of this uncertainty throughout the performance assessment by the extension principle. This principle allows calculation with fuzzy numbers, where fuzzy input results in fuzzy output. This may be one of the main applications of fuzzy sets theory to radioactive waste disposal facility performance assessment. Through the translation of natural data into fuzzy numbers, the effect of parameters in important processes in one site can be quantified and compared to processes in other sites with different conditions. The approach presented in this paper can be extended to

  18. Lysophosphatidylserine analogues differentially activate three LysoPS receptors.

    PubMed

    Uwamizu, Akiharu; Inoue, Asuka; Suzuki, Kensuke; Okudaira, Michiyo; Shuto, Akira; Shinjo, Yuji; Ishiguro, Jun; Makide, Kumiko; Ikubo, Masaya; Nakamura, Sho; Jung, Sejin; Sayama, Misa; Otani, Yuko; Ohwada, Tomohiko; Aoki, Junken

    2015-03-01

    Lysophosphatidylserine (1-oleoyl-2 R-lysophosphatidylserine, LysoPS) has been shown to have lipid mediator-like actions such as stimulation of mast cell degranulation and suppression of T lymphocyte proliferation, although the mechanisms of LysoPS actions have been elusive. Recently, three G protein-coupled receptors (LPS1/GPR34, LPS2/P2Y10 and LPS3/GPR174) were found to react specifically with LysoPS, raising the possibility that LysoPS serves as a lipid mediator that exerts its role through these receptors. Previously, we chemically synthesized a number of LysoPS analogues and evaluated them as agonists for mast-cell degranulation. Here, we used a transforming growth factor-α (TGFα) shedding assay to see if these LysoPS analogues activated the three LysoPS receptors. Modification of the serine moiety significantly reduced the ability of the analogues to activate the three LysoPS receptors, whereas modification of other parts resulted in loss of activity in receptor-specific manner. We found that introduction of methyl group to serine moiety (1-oleoyl-lysophosphatidylallothreonine) and removal of sn-2 hydroxyl group (1-oleoyl-2-deoxy-LysoPS) resulted in reduction of reactivity with LPS1 and LPS3, respectively. Accordingly, we synthesized a LysoPS analogue with the two modifications (1-oleoyl-2-deoxy-lysophosphatidylallothreonine) and found it to be an LPS2-selective agonist. These pharmacological tools will definitely help to identify the biological roles of these LysoPS receptors. PMID:25320102

  19. Photoinduced cytotoxicity and thioadduct formation by a prodigiosin analogue.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, John T; Park, Gyungse; Misenheimer, Jacob A; Kucera, Gregory L; Hesp, Kevin; Manderville, Richard A

    2006-10-12

    [reaction: see text] The prodigiosin alkaloid 1 and the synthetic analogue 2 show photoinduced cytotoxicity against HL-60 cancer cells. Photoirradiation of 1 and 2 causes photofading, photooxidation, and thioadduct formation. These results provide a model for the redox properties of prodigiosins that play a role in their biological activity and provide a new way to functionalize their pyrromethene entity with water-soluble thiol groups.

  20. Porous Tantalum Buttress Augments for Severe Acetabular Posterior Column Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Meneghini, R Michael; Hull, Jason R; Russo, Glenn S; Lieberman, Jay R; Jiranek, William A

    2015-11-01

    In revision total hip arthroplasty (THA), consensus is lacking regarding the optimal method for reconstruction of the most severe acetabular defects. Porous tantalum (TM) buttress augments were designed for the most severe postero-superior defects. The purpose of this study was to report the results of a consecutive series of acetabular reconstructions utilizing TM buttress augments. Eight complex acetabular reconstructions utilizing a TM buttress augment were performed at two centers. All were Paprosky 3A or Paprosky 3B bone loss classification, with severe superior and posterior column deficiency where wedge augments were insufficient for mechanical support. The acetabular cup sizes ranged from 64-78, and a buttress shim was used in 7 of 8 cases. Clinical and radiographic follow-up averaged 16.5 months (range, 10-28) and no cases were lost to follow-up. There were no cases of clinical or radiographic loosening, and no case had required reoperation or revision. All patients except one were ambulating with either no assist device or a single cane at final follow-up. There was one complication of an iliac wing fracture noted incidentally on postoperative x-rays in the lone patient in whom a buttress shim was not used. At short-term follow-up, TM acetabular buttress augments appear to effectively substitute for the use of structural allografts or cages, which would otherwise be used in this challenging setting. The potential for biologic fixation is promising for the durability of these reconstructions; however, longer-term follow-up is required for full evaluation.

  1. Human glans penis augmentation using injectable hyaluronic acid gel.

    PubMed

    Kim, J J; Kwak, T I; Jeon, B G; Cheon, J; Moon, D G

    2003-12-01

    Although augmentation phalloplasty is not an established procedure, some patients still need enlargement of their penis. Current penile augmentation is girth enhancement of penile body by dermofat graft. We performed this study to identify the efficacy and the patient's satisfaction of human glans penis augmentation with injectable hyaluronic acid gel. In 100 patients of subjective small penis (Group I) and 87 patients of small glans after dermofat graft (Group II), 2 cm(3) of hyaluronic acid gel was injected into the glans penis, subcutaneously. At 1 y after injection, changes of glandular diameter were measured by tapeline. Patient's visual estimation of glandular size (Gr 0-4) and patient's satisfaction (Grade (Gr) 0-4) were evaluated, respectively. Any adverse reactions were also evaluated. The mean age of patients was 42.2 (30-70) y in Group I and 42.13 (28-61) y in Group II. The maximal glandular circumference was significantly increased compared to basal circumference of 9.13+/-0.64 cm in Group I (P<0.01) and 9.49+/-1.05 cm in Group II (P<0.01) at 1 y after injection. Net increase of maximal glandular circumference after glans augmentation was 14.93+/-0.80 mm in Group I and 14.78+/-0.89 mm in Group II. In patient's visual estimation, more than 50% of injected volume was maintained in 95% of Group 1 and 100% of Group II. The percentage of postoperative satisfaction (Gr 4, 5) was 77% in Group 1 and 69% in Group II. There was no abnormal reaction in area feeling, texture, and color. In most cases, initial discoloration by glandular swelling recovered to normal within 2 weeks. There were no signs of inflammation and no serious adverse reactions in all cases. These results suggest that injectable hyaluronic acid gel is a safe and effective material for augmentation of glans penis. PMID:14671664

  2. Flashback Detection Sensor for Hydrogen Augmented Natural Gas Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, J.D.; Chorpening, B.T.; Sidwell, T.; Strakey, P.A.; Huckaby, E.D.; Benson, K.J.

    2007-05-01

    The use of hydrogen augmented fuel is being investigated by various researchers as a method to extend the lean operating limit, and potentially reduce thermal NOx formation in natural gas fired lean premixed (LPM) combustion systems. The resulting increase in flame speed during hydrogen augmentation, however, increases the propensity for flashback in LPM systems. Real-time in-situ monitoring of flashback is important for the development of control strategies for use of hydrogen augmented fuel in state-of-the-art combustion systems, and for the development of advanced hydrogen combustion systems. The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and Woodward Industrial Controls are developing a combustion control and diagnostics sensor (CCADS), which has already been demonstrated as a useful sensor for in-situ monitoring of natural gas combustion, including detection of important combustion events such as flashback and lean blowoff. Since CCADS is a flame ionization sensor technique, the low ion concentration produced in pure hydrogen combustion raises concerns of whether CCADS can be used to monitor flashback in hydrogen augmented combustion. This paper discusses CCADS tests conducted at 0.2-0.6 MPa (2-6 atm), demonstrating flashback detection with fuel compositions up to 80% hydrogen (by volume) mixed with natural gas. NETL’s Simulation Validation (SimVal) combustor offers full optical access to pressurized combustion during these tests. The CCADS data and high-speed video show the reaction zone moves upstream into the nozzle as the hydrogen fuel concentration increases, as is expected with the increased flame speed of the mixture. The CCADS data and video also demonstrate the opportunity for using CCADS to provide the necessary in-situ monitor to control flashback and lean blowoff in hydrogen augmented combustion applications.

  3. Human glans penis augmentation using injectable hyaluronic acid gel.

    PubMed

    Kim, J J; Kwak, T I; Jeon, B G; Cheon, J; Moon, D G

    2003-12-01

    Although augmentation phalloplasty is not an established procedure, some patients still need enlargement of their penis. Current penile augmentation is girth enhancement of penile body by dermofat graft. We performed this study to identify the efficacy and the patient's satisfaction of human glans penis augmentation with injectable hyaluronic acid gel. In 100 patients of subjective small penis (Group I) and 87 patients of small glans after dermofat graft (Group II), 2 cm(3) of hyaluronic acid gel was injected into the glans penis, subcutaneously. At 1 y after injection, changes of glandular diameter were measured by tapeline. Patient's visual estimation of glandular size (Gr 0-4) and patient's satisfaction (Grade (Gr) 0-4) were evaluated, respectively. Any adverse reactions were also evaluated. The mean age of patients was 42.2 (30-70) y in Group I and 42.13 (28-61) y in Group II. The maximal glandular circumference was significantly increased compared to basal circumference of 9.13+/-0.64 cm in Group I (P<0.01) and 9.49+/-1.05 cm in Group II (P<0.01) at 1 y after injection. Net increase of maximal glandular circumference after glans augmentation was 14.93+/-0.80 mm in Group I and 14.78+/-0.89 mm in Group II. In patient's visual estimation, more than 50% of injected volume was maintained in 95% of Group 1 and 100% of Group II. The percentage of postoperative satisfaction (Gr 4, 5) was 77% in Group 1 and 69% in Group II. There was no abnormal reaction in area feeling, texture, and color. In most cases, initial discoloration by glandular swelling recovered to normal within 2 weeks. There were no signs of inflammation and no serious adverse reactions in all cases. These results suggest that injectable hyaluronic acid gel is a safe and effective material for augmentation of glans penis.

  4. Augmented microscopy with near-infrared fluorescence detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Jeffrey R.; Martirosyan, Nikolay; Skoch, Jesse; Lemole, G. Michael; Anton, Rein; Romanowski, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence has become a frequently used intraoperative technique for image-guided surgical interventions. In procedures such as cerebral angiography, surgeons use the optical surgical microscope for the color view of the surgical field, and then switch to an electronic display for the NIR fluorescence images. However, the lack of stereoscopic, real-time, and on-site coregistration adds time and uncertainty to image-guided surgical procedures. To address these limitations, we developed the augmented microscope, whereby the electronically processed NIR fluorescence image is overlaid with the anatomical optical image in real-time within the optical path of the microscope. In vitro, the augmented microscope can detect and display indocyanine green (ICG) concentrations down to 94.5 nM, overlaid with the anatomical color image. We prepared polyacrylamide tissue phantoms with embedded polystyrene beads, yielding scattering properties similar to brain matter. In this model, 194 μM solution of ICG was detectable up to depths of 5 mm. ICG angiography was then performed in anesthetized rats. A dynamic process of ICG distribution in the vascular system overlaid with anatomical color images was observed and recorded. In summary, the augmented microscope demonstrates NIR fluorescence detection with superior real-time coregistration displayed within the ocular of the stereomicroscope. In comparison to other techniques, the augmented microscope retains full stereoscopic vision and optical controls including magnification and focus, camera capture, and multiuser access. Augmented microscopy may find application in surgeries where the use of traditional microscopes can be enhanced by contrast agents and image guided delivery of therapeutics, including oncology, neurosurgery, and ophthalmology.

  5. H2OTSTUF: Appropriate Operating Regimes for Magnetohydrodynamic Augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jonathan E.; Hawk, Clark W.

    1998-01-01

    A trade study of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) augmented propulsion reveals a unique operating regime at lower thrust levels. Substantial mass savings are realized over conventional chemical, solar, and electrical propulsion concepts when MHD augmentation is used to obtain optimal I(sub sp). However, trip times for the most conservative estimates of power plant specific impulse and accelerator efficiency may be prohibitively long. Quasi-one-dimensional calculations show that a solar or nuclear thermal system augmented by MHD can provide competitive performance while utilizing a diverse range of propellants including water, which is available from the Space Shuttle, the Moon, asteroids, and various moons and planets within our solar system. The use of in-situ propellants will reduce costs of space operations as well as enable human exploration of our Solar System. The following conclusions can be drawn from the results of the mission trade study: (1) There exists a maximum thrust or mass flow rate above which MHD augmentation increases the initial mass in low earth orbit (LEO); (2) Mass saving of over 50% can be realized for unique combination of solar/MHD systems; (3) Trip times for systems utilizing current power supply technology may be prohibitively long. Theoretical predictions of MHD performance for in space propulsion systems show that improved efficiencies can reduce trip times to acceptable levels; (4) Long trip times indicative of low thrust systems can be shortened by an increase in the MHD accelerator efficiency or a decrease in the specific mass of the power supply and power processing unit; and (5) As for all propulsion concepts, missions with larger (Delta)v's benefit more from the increased specific impulse resulting from MHD augmentation. Using a quasi-one-dimensional analysis, the required operating conditions for a MHD accelerator to reach acceptable efficiencies are outlined. This analysis shows that substantial non-equilibrium ionization is

  6. Do film soundtracks contain nonlinear analogues to influence emotion?

    PubMed

    Blumstein, Daniel T; Davitian, Richard; Kaye, Peter D

    2010-12-23

    A variety of vertebrates produce nonlinear vocalizations when they are under duress. By their very nature, vocalizations containing nonlinearities may sound harsh and are somewhat unpredictable; observations that are consistent with them being particularly evocative to those hearing them. We tested the hypothesis that humans capitalize on this seemingly widespread vertebrate response by creating nonlinear analogues in film soundtracks to evoke particular emotions. We used lists of highly regarded films to generate a set of highly ranked action/adventure, dramatic, horror and war films. We then scored the presence of a variety of nonlinear analogues in these film soundtracks. Dramatic films suppressed noise of all types, contained more abrupt frequency transitions and musical sidebands, and fewer noisy screams than expected. Horror films suppressed abrupt frequency transitions and musical sidebands, but had more non-musical sidebands, and noisy screams than expected. Adventure films had more male screams than expected. Together, our results suggest that film-makers manipulate sounds to create nonlinear analogues in order to manipulate our emotional responses.

  7. Do film soundtracks contain nonlinear analogues to influence emotion?

    PubMed Central

    Blumstein, Daniel T.; Davitian, Richard; Kaye, Peter D.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of vertebrates produce nonlinear vocalizations when they are under duress. By their very nature, vocalizations containing nonlinearities may sound harsh and are somewhat unpredictable; observations that are consistent with them being particularly evocative to those hearing them. We tested the hypothesis that humans capitalize on this seemingly widespread vertebrate response by creating nonlinear analogues in film soundtracks to evoke particular emotions. We used lists of highly regarded films to generate a set of highly ranked action/adventure, dramatic, horror and war films. We then scored the presence of a variety of nonlinear analogues in these film soundtracks. Dramatic films suppressed noise of all types, contained more abrupt frequency transitions and musical sidebands, and fewer noisy screams than expected. Horror films suppressed abrupt frequency transitions and musical sidebands, but had more non-musical sidebands, and noisy screams than expected. Adventure films had more male screams than expected. Together, our results suggest that film-makers manipulate sounds to create nonlinear analogues in order to manipulate our emotional responses. PMID:20504815

  8. The UVB1 Vitamin D analogue inhibits colorectal carcinoma progression.

    PubMed

    Ferronato, María Julia; Alonso, Eliana Noelia; Gandini, Norberto Ariel; Fermento, María Eugenia; Villegas, María Emilia; Quevedo, Mario Alfredo; Arévalo, Julián; López Romero, Alejandro; Rivadulla, Marcos Lois; Gómez, Generosa; Fall, Yagamare; Facchinetti, María Marta; Curino, Alejandro Carlos

    2016-10-01

    Vitamin D has been shown to display a wide variety of antitumour effects, but their therapeutic use is limited by its severe side effects. We have designed and synthesized a Gemini vitamin D analogue of calcitriol (UVB1) which has shown to display antineoplastic effects on different cancer cell lines without causing hypercalcemia. The aim of this work has been to investigate, by employing in silico, in vitro, and in vivo assays, whether UVB1 inhibits human colorectal carcinoma progression. We demonstrated that UVB1 induces apoptotic cell death and retards cellular migration and invasion of HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cells. Moreover, the analogue reduced the tumour volume in vivo, and modulated the expression of Bax, E-cadherin and nuclear β-catenin in tumour animal tissues without producing toxic effects. In silico analysis showed that UVB1 exhibits greater affinity for the ligand binding domain of vitamin D receptor than calcitriol, and that several characteristics in the three-dimensional conformation of VDR may influence the biological effects. These results demonstrate that the Gemini vitamin D analogue affects the growth of the colorectal cancer and suggest that UVB1 is a potential chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of this disease.

  9. Mammalian folylpoly-. gamma. -glutamate synthetase. 3. Specificity for folate analogues

    SciTech Connect

    George, S.; Cichowicz, D.J.; Shane, B.

    1987-01-27

    A variety of folate analogues were synthesized to explore the specificity of the folate binding site of hog liver folypolyglutamate synthetase and the requirements for catalysis. Modifications of the internal and terminal glutamate moieties of folate cause large drops in on rates and/or affinity for the protein. The only exceptions are glutamine, homocysteate, and ornithine analogues, indicating a less stringent specificity around the delta-carbon of glutamate. It is proposed that initial folate binding to the enzyme involves low-affinity interactions at a pterin and a glutamate site and that the first glutamate bound is the internal residue adjacent to the benzoyl group. Processive movement of the polyglutamate chain through the glutamate site and a possible conformational change in the protein when the terminal residue is bound would result in tight binding and would position the ..gamma..-carboxyl of the terminal glutamate in the correct position for catalysis. The 4-amino substitution of folate increases the on rate for monoglutamate derivatives but severely impairs catalysis with diglutamate derivatives. Pteroylornithine derivatives are the first potent and specific inhibitors of folylpolyglutamate synthetase to be identified and may act as analogues of reaction intermediates. Other folate derivatives with tetrahedral chemistry replacing the peptide bond, such as pteroyl-..gamma..-glutamyl-(psi,CH/sub 2/-NH)-glutamate, retain affinity for the protein but are considerably less effective inhibitors than the ornithine derivatives. Enzyme activity was assayed using (/sup 14/C)glutamate.

  10. THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    G. Saulnier and W. Statham

    2006-04-16

    The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following analogous characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site: (1) Analogous source--UO{sub 2} uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geology--(i.e. fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs); (3) Analogous climate--Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous setting--Volcanic tuffs overlie carbonate rocks; and (5) Analogous geochemistry--Oxidizing conditions Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table.

  11. Spin Alignment in Analogues of The Local Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conidis, George J.

    2016-10-01

    Tidal torque theory and simulations of large scale structure predict spin vectors of massive galaxies should be coplanar with sheets in the cosmic web. Recently demonstrated, the giants (K s <= -22.5 mag) in the Local Volume beyond the Local Sheet have spin vectors directed close to the plane of the Local Supercluster, supporting the predictions of Tidal Torque Theory. However, the giants in the Local Sheet encircling the Local Group display a distinctly different arrangement, suggesting that the mass asymmetry of the Local Group or its progenitor torqued them from their primordial spin directions. To investigate the origin of the spin alignment of giants locally, analogues of the Local Sheet were identified in the SDSS DR9. Similar to the Local Sheet, analogues have an interacting pair of disk galaxies isolated from the remaining sheet members. Modified sheets in which there is no interacting pair of disk galaxies were identified as a control sample. Galaxies in face-on control sheets do not display axis ratios predominantly weighted toward low values, contrary to the expectation of tidal torque theory. For face-on and edge-on sheets, the distribution of axis ratios for galaxies in analogues is distinct from that in controls with a confidence of 97.6% & 96.9%, respectively. This corroborates the hypothesis that an interacting pair can affect spin directions of neighbouring galaxies.

  12. Natural analogue studies as supplements to biomineralization research

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, M.B.

    1995-09-01

    Chemical reactions can alter the chemistry and crystal structure of solid objects over archeological or geological times, while preserving external physical shapes. The reactions resulting in these structures offer natural analogues to laboratory experiments in biomineralization and to biologically influenced alteration of nuclear waste packages, and thus, they offer the only available way of validating models that purport waste package behavior over archaeological or geological times. Potential uses of such analogues in the construction and validation of hypothetical mechanisms of microbiological corrosion and biomineralization are reviewed. Evidence from such analogues suggests that biofilms can control materials alteration in ways usually overlooked. The newly hypothesized mechanisms involve control by biofilms of the cation flow near the solid surface and offer plausible mechanisms for the formation of mixed-cation minerals under conditions that would lead to dealloying in abiotic experiments; they also account for the formation of unusual minerals [such as posnjakite, Cu{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 6{center_dot}}H{sub 2}O] and mineral morphologies unusual in corrosion [malachite, Cu{sub 2}CO{sub 3}(OH){sub 2}, rarely forms botryoidally under corrosion conditions and its occasional presence on archaeological objects that appear to have undergone microbiological corrosion may be related to biofilm phenomena].

  13. A dissociation between symbolic number knowledge and analogue magnitude information.

    PubMed

    Polk, T A; Reed, C L; Keenan, J M; Hogarth, P; Anderson, C A

    2001-12-01

    Semantic understanding of numbers and related concepts can be dissociated from rote knowledge of arithmetic facts. However, distinctions among different kinds of semantic representations related to numbers have not been fully explored. Working with numbers and arithmetic requires representing semantic information that is both analogue (e.g., the approximate magnitude of a number) and symbolic (e.g., what / means). In this article, the authors describe a patient (MC) who exhibits a dissociation between tasks that require symbolic number knowledge (e.g., knowledge of arithmetic symbols including numbers, knowledge of concepts related to numbers such as rounding) and tasks that require an analogue magnitude representation (e.g., comparing size or frequency). MC is impaired on a variety of tasks that require symbolic number knowledge, but her ability to represent and process analogue magnitude information is intact. Her deficit in symbolic number knowledge extends to a variety of concepts related to numbers (e.g., decimal points, Roman numerals, what a quartet is) but not to any other semantic categories that we have tested. These findings suggest that symbolic number knowledge is a functionally independent component of the number processing system, that it is category specific, and that it is anatomically and functionally distinct from magnitude representations. PMID:11748908

  14. Stereochemical Assignment of Strigolactone Analogues Confirms Their Selective Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Artuso, Emma; Ghibaudi, Elena; Lace, Beatrice; Marabello, Domenica; Vinciguerra, Daniele; Lombardi, Chiara; Koltai, Hinanit; Kapulnik, Yoram; Novero, Mara; Occhiato, Ernesto G; Scarpi, Dina; Parisotto, Stefano; Deagostino, Annamaria; Venturello, Paolo; Mayzlish-Gati, Einav; Bier, Ariel; Prandi, Cristina

    2015-11-25

    Strigolactones (SLs) are new plant hormones with various developmental functions. They are also soil signaling chemicals that are required for establishing beneficial mycorrhizal plant/fungus symbiosis. In addition, SLs play an essential role in inducing seed germination in root-parasitic weeds, which are one of the seven most serious biological threats to food security. There are around 20 natural SLs that are produced by plants in very low quantities. Therefore, most of the knowledge on SL signal transduction and associated molecular events is based on the application of synthetic analogues. Stereochemistry plays a crucial role in the structure-activity relationship of SLs, as compounds with an unnatural D-ring configuration may induce biological effects that are unrelated to SLs. We have synthesized a series of strigolactone analogues, whose absolute configuration has been elucidated and related with their biological activity, thus confirming the high specificity of the response. Analogues bearing the R-configured butenolide moiety showed enhanced biological activity, which highlights the importance of this stereochemical motif. PMID:26502774

  15. Contact zones and hydrothermal systems as analogues to repository conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Flexser, S.

    1984-10-01

    Radioactive waste isolation efforts in the US are currently focused on examining basalt, tuff, salt, and crystalline rock as candidate rock types to encompass waste repositories. As analogues to near-field conditions, the distributions of radio- and trace-elements have been examined across contacts between these rocks and dikes and stocks that have intruded them. The intensive study of the Stripa quartz monzonite has also offered the opportunity to observe the distribution of uranium and its daughters in groundwater and its relationship to U associated with fracture-filling and alteration minerals. Investigations of intrusive contact zones to date have included (1) a tertiary stock into Precambrian gneiss, (2) a stock into ash flow tuff, (3) a rhyodacite dike into Columbia River basalt, and (4) a kimberlite dike into salt. With respect to temperature and pressure, these contact zones may be considered "worst-case scenario" analogues. Results indicate that there has been no appreciable migration of radioelements from the more radioactive intrusives into the less radioactive country rocks, either in response to the intrusions or in the fracture-controlled hydrological systems that developed following emplacement. In many cases, the radioelements are locked up in accessory minerals, suggesting that artificial analogues to these would make ideal waste forms. Emphasis should now shift to examination of active hydrothermal systems, studying the distribution of key elements in water, fractures, and alteration minerals under pressure and temperature conditions most similar to those expected in the near-field environment of a repository. 14 refs.

  16. An adenosine nucleoside analogue NITD008 inhibits EV71 proliferation.

    PubMed

    Shang, Luqing; Wang, Yaxin; Qing, Jie; Shu, Bo; Cao, Lin; Lou, Zhiyong; Gong, Peng; Sun, Yuna; Yin, Zheng

    2014-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), one of the major causative agents of Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease (HFMD), causes severe pandemics and hundreds of deaths in the Asia-Pacific region annually and is an enormous public health threat. However, effective therapeutic antiviral drugs against EV71 are rare. Nucleoside analogues have been successfully used in the clinic for the treatment of various viral infections. We evaluated a total of 27 nucleoside analogues and discovered that an adenosine nucleoside analogue NITD008, which has been reported to be an antiviral reagent that specifically inhibits flaviviruses, effectively suppressed the propagation of different strains of EV71 in RD, 293T and Vero cells with a relatively high selectivity index. Triphosphorylated NITD008 (ppp-NITD008) functions as a chain terminator to directly inhibit the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity of EV71, and it does not affect the EV71 VPg uridylylation process. A significant synergistic anti-EV71 effect of NITD008 with rupintrivir (AG7088) (a protease inhibitor) was documented, supporting the potential combination therapy of NITD008 with other inhibitors for the treatment of EV71 infections.

  17. Noble gas encapsulation: clathrate hydrates and their HF doped analogues.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Sukanta; Chattaraj, Pratim Kumar

    2014-09-01

    The significance of clathrate hydrates lies in their ability to encapsulate a vast range of inert gases. Although the natural abundance of a few noble gases (Kr and Xe) is poor their hydrates are generally abundant. It has already been reported that HF doping enhances the stability of hydrogen hydrates and methane hydrates, which prompted us to perform a model study on helium, neon and argon hydrates with their HF doped analogues. For this purpose 5(12), 5(12)6(8) and their HF doped analogues are taken as the model clathrate hydrates, which are among the building blocks of sI, sII and sH types of clathrate hydrate crystals. We use the dispersion corrected and gradient corrected hybrid density functional theory for the calculation of thermodynamic parameters as well as conceptual density functional theory based reactivity descriptors. The method of the ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulation is used through atom centered density matrix propagation (ADMP) techniques to envisage the structural behaviour of different noble gas hydrates on a 500 fs timescale. Electron density analysis is carried out to understand the nature of Ng-OH2, Ng-FH and Ng-Ng interactions. The current results noticeably demonstrate that the noble gas (He, Ne, and Ar) encapsulation ability of 5(12), 5(12)6(8) and their HF doped analogues is thermodynamically favourable. PMID:25047071

  18. The UVB1 Vitamin D analogue inhibits colorectal carcinoma progression.

    PubMed

    Ferronato, María Julia; Alonso, Eliana Noelia; Gandini, Norberto Ariel; Fermento, María Eugenia; Villegas, María Emilia; Quevedo, Mario Alfredo; Arévalo, Julián; López Romero, Alejandro; Rivadulla, Marcos Lois; Gómez, Generosa; Fall, Yagamare; Facchinetti, María Marta; Curino, Alejandro Carlos

    2016-10-01

    Vitamin D has been shown to display a wide variety of antitumour effects, but their therapeutic use is limited by its severe side effects. We have designed and synthesized a Gemini vitamin D analogue of calcitriol (UVB1) which has shown to display antineoplastic effects on different cancer cell lines without causing hypercalcemia. The aim of this work has been to investigate, by employing in silico, in vitro, and in vivo assays, whether UVB1 inhibits human colorectal carcinoma progression. We demonstrated that UVB1 induces apoptotic cell death and retards cellular migration and invasion of HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cells. Moreover, the analogue reduced the tumour volume in vivo, and modulated the expression of Bax, E-cadherin and nuclear β-catenin in tumour animal tissues without producing toxic effects. In silico analysis showed that UVB1 exhibits greater affinity for the ligand binding domain of vitamin D receptor than calcitriol, and that several characteristics in the three-dimensional conformation of VDR may influence the biological effects. These results demonstrate that the Gemini vitamin D analogue affects the growth of the colorectal cancer and suggest that UVB1 is a potential chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of this disease. PMID:27208626

  19. Transdermal delivery of a melanotropic peptide hormone analogue

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, B.V.; Hadley, M.E.; Kreutzfeld, K.; Dorr, R.T.; Hruby, V.J.; Al-Obeidi, F.; Don, S.

    1988-01-01

    We previously reported that topical application of (Nl3/sup 4/,D-Phe/sup 7/)alpha-MSH, a superpotent analogue of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone, to mice induces a darkening of follicular melanocytes throughout the skin. We now report that the melanotropin analogue can be delivered across mouse but not rat skin in an in vitro model system. Passage of the analogue from the topically applied vehicle (polyethylene glycol) across the skin into a subcutaneous receiving vessel was demonstrated by both bioassay as well as by radioimmunoassay. The bioassay data demonstrate that percutaneous absorption of the melanotropin did not result in loss of biological activity of the peptide. The differential penetration of the peptide across rodent skin reveals that one cannot predict percutaneous absorption of a substance across the stratum corneum from studies on a single species. The present results are the first to demonstrate, by direct quantitative measurements, that a bioactive peptide can be delivered across the vertebrate integument in vitro. These studies point out the potential of a topically applied melanotropin for tanning of the skin and possibly for treatment of certain hypopigmentary disorders.

  20. Do film soundtracks contain nonlinear analogues to influence emotion?

    PubMed

    Blumstein, Daniel T; Davitian, Richard; Kaye, Peter D

    2010-12-23

    A variety of vertebrates produce nonlinear vocalizations when they are under duress. By their very nature, vocalizations containing nonlinearities may sound harsh and are somewhat unpredictable; observations that are consistent with them being particularly evocative to those hearing them. We tested the hypothesis that humans capitalize on this seemingly widespread vertebrate response by creating nonlinear analogues in film soundtracks to evoke particular emotions. We used lists of highly regarded films to generate a set of highly ranked action/adventure, dramatic, horror and war films. We then scored the presence of a variety of nonlinear analogues in these film soundtracks. Dramatic films suppressed noise of all types, contained more abrupt frequency transitions and musical sidebands, and fewer noisy screams than expected. Horror films suppressed abrupt frequency transitions and musical sidebands, but had more non-musical sidebands, and noisy screams than expected. Adventure films had more male screams than expected. Together, our results suggest that film-makers manipulate sounds to create nonlinear analogues in order to manipulate our emotional responses. PMID:20504815