Science.gov

Sample records for analysing access control

  1. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

  2. ACCESS Pointing Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James; Trauger, John; Moody, Dwight; Egerman, Robert; Vallone, Phillip; Elias, Jason; Hejal, Reem; Camelo, Vanessa; Bronowicki, Allen; O'Connor, David; Partrick, Richard; Orzechowski, Pawel; Spitter, Connie; Lillie, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    ACCESS (Actively-Corrected Coronograph for Exoplanet System Studies) was one of four medium-class exoplanet concepts selected for the NASA Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study (ASMCS) program in 2008/2009. The ACCESS study evaluated four major coronograph concepts under a common space observatory. This paper describes the high precision pointing control system (PCS) baselined for this observatory.

  3. CAS. Controlled Access Security

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, B.; Pomeroy, G.

    1989-12-01

    The Security Alarm System is a data acquisition and control system which collects data from intrusion sensors and displays the information in a real-time environment for operators. The Access Control System monitors and controls the movement of personnel with the use of card readers and biometrics hand readers.

  4. Mobile access control vestibule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DePoy, Jennifer M.

    1998-12-01

    The mobile access control vestibule (MACV) is an adaptation of techniques developed for mobile military command centers. The overall configuration of modules acts as an entry control/screening facility or transportable command center. The system would provide the following capabilities: (1) A key element for force protection, rapid deployment units sent to areas having no prepositioned equipment or where there has been a degradation of that equipment as a result of natural disasters or civil unrest. (2) A rapidly deployable security control center to upgrade the security at nonmilitary sites (e.g., diplomatic or humanitarian organizations). (3) Personnel screening, package screening, badge/identification card production for authorized personnel, centralized monitoring of deployed perimeter sensors, and centralized communications for law enforcement personnel. (4) Self-contained screening and threat detection systems, including explosives detection using the system developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the FAA. When coupled with transportable electric generators, the system is self-sufficient. The communication system for the MACV would be a combination of physically wired and wireless communication units that supports by ad hoc networking.

  5. Bibliographic Access and Control System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Betsy; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Presents a brief summary of the functions of the Bibliographic Access & Control System (BACS) implemented at the Washington University School of Medicine Library, and outlines the design, development, and uses of the system. Bibliographic control of books and serials and user access to the system are also discussed. (Author/JL)

  6. Network Access Control List Situation Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reifers, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Network security is a large and complex problem being addressed by multiple communities. Nevertheless, current theories in networking security appear to overestimate network administrators' ability to understand network access control lists (NACLs), providing few context specific user analyses. Consequently, the current research generally seems to…

  7. LANSCE personnel access control system

    SciTech Connect

    Sturrock, J.C.; Gallegos, F.R.; Hall, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. The Personnel Access Control System (PACS) is a component of the RSS that is designed to prevent personnel access to areas where prompt radiation is a hazard. PACS was designed to replace several older personnel safety systems (PSS) with a single modem unified design. Lessons learned from the operation over the last 20 years were incorporated into a redundant sensor, single-point failure safe, fault tolerant, and tamper-resistant system that prevents access to the beam areas by controlling the access keys and beam stoppers. PACS uses a layered philosophy to the physical and electronic design. The most critical assemblies are battery backed up, relay logic circuits; less critical devices use Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) for timing functions and communications. Outside reviewers have reviewed the operational safety of the design. The design philosophy, lessons learned, hardware design, software design, operation, and limitations of the device are described.

  8. Efficient Access Control in Multimedia Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachan, Amit; Emmanuel, Sabu

    Multimedia social networks (MMSNs) have provided a convenient way to share multimedia contents such as images, videos, blogs, etc. Contents shared by a person can be easily accessed by anybody else over the Internet. However, due to various privacy, security, and legal concerns people often want to selectively share the contents only with their friends, family, colleagues, etc. Access control mechanisms play an important role in this situation. With access control mechanisms one can decide the persons who can access a shared content and who cannot. But continuously growing content uploads and accesses, fine grained access control requirements (e.g. different access control parameters for different parts in a picture), and specific access control requirements for multimedia contents can make the time complexity of access control to be very large. So, it is important to study an efficient access control mechanism suitable for MMSNs. In this chapter we present an efficient bit-vector transform based access control mechanism for MMSNs. The proposed approach is also compatible with other requirements of MMSNs, such as access rights modification, content deletion, etc. Mathematical analysis and experimental results show the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed approach.

  9. Logical Access Control Mechanisms in Computer Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, David K.

    The subject of access control mechanisms in computer systems is concerned with effective means to protect the anonymity of private information on the one hand, and to regulate the access to shareable information on the other hand. Effective means for access control may be considered on three levels: memory, process and logical. This report is a…

  10. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dischinger, Portia

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation presents NASA's Common Badging and Access Control System. NASA began a Smart Card implementation in January 2004. Following site surveys, it was determined that NASA's badging and access control systems required upgrades to common infrastructure in order to provide flexibly, usability, and return on investment prior to a smart card implantation. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS) provides the common infrastructure from which FIPS-201 compliant processes, systems, and credentials can be developed and used.

  11. 10 CFR 36.23 - Access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Access control. 36.23 Section 36.23 Energy NUCLEAR... activation of the control. (g) Each entrance to the radiation room of a panoramic irradiator and each... unauthorized entry when the personnel access barrier is locked. Activation of the intrusion alarm must alert...

  12. 10 CFR 36.23 - Access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Access control. 36.23 Section 36.23 Energy NUCLEAR... activation of the control. (g) Each entrance to the radiation room of a panoramic irradiator and each... unauthorized entry when the personnel access barrier is locked. Activation of the intrusion alarm must alert...

  13. 10 CFR 36.23 - Access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Access control. 36.23 Section 36.23 Energy NUCLEAR... activation of the control. (g) Each entrance to the radiation room of a panoramic irradiator and each... unauthorized entry when the personnel access barrier is locked. Activation of the intrusion alarm must alert...

  14. 10 CFR 36.23 - Access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Access control. 36.23 Section 36.23 Energy NUCLEAR... activation of the control. (g) Each entrance to the radiation room of a panoramic irradiator and each... unauthorized entry when the personnel access barrier is locked. Activation of the intrusion alarm must alert...

  15. 10 CFR 36.23 - Access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Access control. 36.23 Section 36.23 Energy NUCLEAR... activation of the control. (g) Each entrance to the radiation room of a panoramic irradiator and each... unauthorized entry when the personnel access barrier is locked. Activation of the intrusion alarm must alert...

  16. 47 CFR 95.645 - Control accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Control accessibility. 95.645 Section 95.645 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.645 Control accessibility. (a) No...

  17. 47 CFR 95.645 - Control accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Control accessibility. 95.645 Section 95.645 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.645 Control accessibility. (a) No...

  18. 47 CFR 95.645 - Control accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Control accessibility. 95.645 Section 95.645 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.645 Control accessibility. (a) No...

  19. 47 CFR 95.645 - Control accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control accessibility. 95.645 Section 95.645 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.645 Control accessibility. (a) No...

  20. Proximity Displays for Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaniea, Kami

    2012-01-01

    Managing access to shared digital information, such as photographs and documents. is difficult for end users who are accumulating an increasingly large and diverse collection of data that they want to share with others. Current policy-management solutions require a user to proactively seek out and open a separate policy-management interface when…

  1. The linked medical data access control framework.

    PubMed

    Kamateri, Eleni; Kalampokis, Evangelos; Tambouris, Efthimios; Tarabanis, Konstantinos

    2014-08-01

    The integration of medical data coming from multiple sources is important in clinical research. Amongst others, it enables the discovery of appropriate subjects in patient-oriented research and the identification of innovative results in epidemiological studies. At the same time, the integration of medical data faces significant ethical and legal challenges that impose access constraints. Some of these issues can be addressed by making available aggregated instead of raw record-level data. In many cases however, there is still a need for controlling access even to the resulting aggregated data, e.g., due to data provider's policies. In this paper we present the Linked Medical Data Access Control (LiMDAC) framework that capitalizes on Linked Data technologies to enable controlling access to medical data across distributed sources with diverse access constraints. The LiMDAC framework consists of three Linked Data models, namely the LiMDAC metadata model, the LiMDAC user profile model, and the LiMDAC access policy model. It also includes an architecture that exploits these models. Based on the framework, a proof-of-concept platform is developed and its performance and functionality are evaluated by employing two usage scenarios.

  2. Speed control system for an access gate

    DOEpatents

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M [Knoxville, TN

    2012-03-20

    An access control apparatus for an access gate. The access gate typically has a rotator that is configured to rotate around a rotator axis at a first variable speed in a forward direction. The access control apparatus may include a transmission that typically has an input element that is operatively connected to the rotator. The input element is generally configured to rotate at an input speed that is proportional to the first variable speed. The transmission typically also has an output element that has an output speed that is higher than the input speed. The input element and the output element may rotate around a common transmission axis. A retardation mechanism may be employed. The retardation mechanism is typically configured to rotate around a retardation mechanism axis. Generally the retardation mechanism is operatively connected to the output element of the transmission and is configured to retard motion of the access gate in the forward direction when the first variable speed is above a control-limit speed. In many embodiments the transmission axis and the retardation mechanism axis are substantially co-axial. Some embodiments include a freewheel/catch mechanism that has an input connection that is operatively connected to the rotator. The input connection may be configured to engage an output connection when the rotator is rotated at the first variable speed in a forward direction and configured for substantially unrestricted rotation when the rotator is rotated in a reverse direction opposite the forward direction. The input element of the transmission is typically operatively connected to the output connection of the freewheel/catch mechanism.

  3. Social Network Privacy via Evolving Access Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Crescenzo, Giovanni; Lipton, Richard J.

    We study the problem of limiting privacy loss due to data shared in a social network, where the basic underlying assumptions are that users are interested in sharing data and cannot be assumed to constantly follow appropriate privacy policies. Note that if these two assumptions do not hold, social network privacy is theoretically very easy to achieve; for instance, via some form of access control and confidentiality transformation on the data.

  4. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldridge, Tim

    2005-01-01

    The goals of the project are: Achieve high business value through a common badging and access control system that integrates with smart cards. Provide physical (versus logical) deployment of smart cards initially. Provides a common consistent and reliable environment into which to release the smart card. Gives opportunity to develop agency-wide consistent processes, practices and policies. Enables enterprise data capture and management. Promotes data validation prior to SC issuance.

  5. External access to ALICE controls conditions data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadlovský, J.; Jadlovská, A.; Sarnovský, J.; Jajčišin, Š.; Čopík, M.; Jadlovská, S.; Papcun, P.; Bielek, R.; Čerkala, J.; Kopčík, M.; Chochula, P.; Augustinus, A.

    2014-06-01

    ALICE Controls data produced by commercial SCADA system WINCCOA is stored in ORACLE database on the private experiment network. The SCADA system allows for basic access and processing of the historical data. More advanced analysis requires tools like ROOT and needs therefore a separate access method to the archives. The present scenario expects that detector experts create simple WINCCOA scripts, which retrieves and stores data in a form usable for further studies. This relatively simple procedure generates a lot of administrative overhead - users have to request the data, experts needed to run the script, the results have to be exported outside of the experiment network. The new mechanism profits from database replica, which is running on the CERN campus network. Access to this database is not restricted and there is no risk of generating a heavy load affecting the operation of the experiment. The developed tools presented in this paper allow for access to this data. The users can use web-based tools to generate the requests, consisting of the data identifiers and period of time of interest. The administrators maintain full control over the data - an authorization and authentication mechanism helps to assign privileges to selected users and restrict access to certain groups of data. Advanced caching mechanism allows the user to profit from the presence of already processed data sets. This feature significantly reduces the time required for debugging as the retrieval of raw data can last tens of minutes. A highly configurable client allows for information retrieval bypassing the interactive interface. This method is for example used by ALICE Offline to extract operational conditions after a run is completed. Last but not least, the software can be easily adopted to any underlying database structure and is therefore not limited to WINCCOA.

  6. Access control and confidentiality in radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noumeir, Rita; Chafik, Adil

    2005-04-01

    A medical record contains a large amount of data about the patient such as height, weight and blood pressure. It also contains sensitive information such as fertility, abortion, psychiatric data, sexually transmitted diseases and diagnostic results. Access to this information must be carefully controlled. Information technology has greatly improved patient care. The recent extensive deployment of digital medical images made diagnostic images promptly available to healthcare decision makers, regardless of their geographic location. Medical images are digitally archived, transferred on telecommunication networks, and visualized on computer screens. However, with the widespread use of computing and communication technologies in healthcare, the issue of data security has become increasingly important. Most of the work until now has focused on the security of data communication to ensure its integrity, authentication, confidentiality and user accountability. The mechanisms that have been proposed to achieve the security of data communication are not specific to healthcare. Data integrity can be achieved with data signature. Data authentication can be achieved with certificate exchange. Data confidentiality can be achieved with encryption. User accountability can be achieved with audits. Although these mechanisms are essential to ensure data security during its transfer on the network, access control is needed in order to ensure data confidentiality and privacy within the information system application. In this paper, we present and discuss an access control mechanism that takes into account the notion of a care process. Radiology information is categorized and a model to enforce data privacy is proposed.

  7. Quality control considerations in performing washability analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.D.

    1984-10-01

    The author describes, in considerable detail, the procedures for carrying out washability analyses as laid down in ASTM Standard Test Method D4371. These include sampling, sample preparation, hydrometer standardisation, washability testing, and analysis of specific gravity fractions.

  8. A service-oriented data access control model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Wei; Li, Fengmin; Pan, Juchen; Song, Song; Bian, Jiali

    2017-01-01

    The development of mobile computing, cloud computing and distributed computing meets the growing individual service needs. Facing with complex application system, it's an urgent problem to ensure real-time, dynamic, and fine-grained data access control. By analyzing common data access control models, on the basis of mandatory access control model, the paper proposes a service-oriented access control model. By regarding system services as subject and data of databases as object, the model defines access levels and access identification of subject and object, and ensures system services securely to access databases.

  9. Secure Dynamic access control scheme of PHR in cloud computing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Liu, Chia-Hui; Chen, Tzer-Long; Chen, Chin-Sheng; Bau, Jian-Guo; Lin, Tzu-Ching

    2012-12-01

    With the development of information technology and medical technology, medical information has been developed from traditional paper records into electronic medical records, which have now been widely applied. The new-style medical information exchange system "personal health records (PHR)" is gradually developed. PHR is a kind of health records maintained and recorded by individuals. An ideal personal health record could integrate personal medical information from different sources and provide complete and correct personal health and medical summary through the Internet or portable media under the requirements of security and privacy. A lot of personal health records are being utilized. The patient-centered PHR information exchange system allows the public autonomously maintain and manage personal health records. Such management is convenient for storing, accessing, and sharing personal medical records. With the emergence of Cloud computing, PHR service has been transferred to storing data into Cloud servers that the resources could be flexibly utilized and the operation cost can be reduced. Nevertheless, patients would face privacy problem when storing PHR data into Cloud. Besides, it requires a secure protection scheme to encrypt the medical records of each patient for storing PHR into Cloud server. In the encryption process, it would be a challenge to achieve accurately accessing to medical records and corresponding to flexibility and efficiency. A new PHR access control scheme under Cloud computing environments is proposed in this study. With Lagrange interpolation polynomial to establish a secure and effective PHR information access scheme, it allows to accurately access to PHR with security and is suitable for enormous multi-users. Moreover, this scheme also dynamically supports multi-users in Cloud computing environments with personal privacy and offers legal authorities to access to PHR. From security and effectiveness analyses, the proposed PHR access

  10. 50 CFR 216.47 - Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses, and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Resources, NMFS. The written request must include: (i) A clear and concise statement of the proposed use of... analyses (DNA sequencing) will be archived in the National Center for biotechnology Information's GenBank. Sequence accessions in GenBank should document the source, citing a NIST field number that indentifies...

  11. 50 CFR 216.47 - Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses, and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Resources, NMFS. The written request must include: (i) A clear and concise statement of the proposed use of... analyses (DNA sequencing) will be archived in the National Center for biotechnology Information's GenBank. Sequence accessions in GenBank should document the source, citing a NIST field number that indentifies...

  12. 50 CFR 216.47 - Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses, and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Resources, NMFS. The written request must include: (i) A clear and concise statement of the proposed use of... analyses (DNA sequencing) will be archived in the National Center for biotechnology Information's GenBank. Sequence accessions in GenBank should document the source, citing a NIST field number that indentifies...

  13. 50 CFR 216.47 - Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses, and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Resources, NMFS. The written request must include: (i) A clear and concise statement of the proposed use of... analyses (DNA sequencing) will be archived in the National Center for biotechnology Information's GenBank. Sequence accessions in GenBank should document the source, citing a NIST field number that indentifies...

  14. Cardea: Dynamic Access Control in Distributed Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepro, Rebekah

    2004-01-01

    Modern authorization systems span domains of administration, rely on many different authentication sources, and manage complex attributes as part of the authorization process. This . paper presents Cardea, a distributed system that facilitates dynamic access control, as a valuable piece of an inter-operable authorization framework. First, the authorization model employed in Cardea and its functionality goals are examined. Next, critical features of the system architecture and its handling of the authorization process are then examined. Then the S A M L and XACML standards, as incorporated into the system, are analyzed. Finally, the future directions of this project are outlined and connection points with general components of an authorization system are highlighted.

  15. Application-Defined Decentralized Access Control

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuanzhong; Dunn, Alan M.; Hofmann, Owen S.; Lee, Michael Z.; Mehdi, Syed Akbar; Witchel, Emmett

    2014-01-01

    DCAC is a practical OS-level access control system that supports application-defined principals. It allows normal users to perform administrative operations within their privilege, enabling isolation and privilege separation for applications. It does not require centralized policy specification or management, giving applications freedom to manage their principals while the policies are still enforced by the OS. DCAC uses hierarchically-named attributes as a generic framework for user-defined policies such as groups defined by normal users. For both local and networked file systems, its execution time overhead is between 0%–9% on file system microbenchmarks, and under 1% on applications. This paper shows the design and implementation of DCAC, as well as several real-world use cases, including sandboxing applications, enforcing server applications’ security policies, supporting NFS, and authenticating user-defined sub-principals in SSH, all with minimal code changes. PMID:25426493

  16. Rural providers' access to online resources: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Laura J.; McElfresh, Karen R.; Warner, Teddy D.; Stromberg, Tiffany L.; Trost, Jaren; Jelinek, Devin A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The research determined the usage and satisfaction levels with one of two point-of-care (PoC) resources among health care providers in a rural state. Methods In this randomized controlled trial, twenty-eight health care providers in rural areas were stratified by occupation and region, then randomized into either the DynaMed or the AccessMedicine study arm. Study participants were physicians, physician assistants, and nurses. A pre- and post-study survey measured participants' attitudes toward different information resources and their information-seeking activities. Medical student investigators provided training and technical support for participants. Data analyses consisted of analysis of variance (ANOVA), paired t tests, and Cohen's d statistic to compare pre- and post-study effects sizes. Results Participants in both the DynaMed and the AccessMedicine arms of the study reported increased satisfaction with their respective PoC resource, as expected. Participants in both arms also reported that they saved time in finding needed information. At baseline, both arms reported too little information available, which increased to “about right amounts of information” at the completion of the study. DynaMed users reported a Cohen's d increase of +1.50 compared to AccessMedicine users' reported use of 0.82. DynaMed users reported d2 satisfaction increases of 9.48 versus AccessMedicine satisfaction increases of 0.59 using a Cohen's d. Conclusion Participants in the DynaMed arm of the study used this clinically oriented PoC more heavily than the users of the textbook-based AccessMedicine. In terms of user satisfaction, DynaMed users reported higher levels of satisfaction than the users of AccessMedicine. PMID:26807050

  17. Modeling mandatory access control in role-based security systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nyanchama, M.; Osborn, S.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the realization of mandatory access control in role-based protection systems. Starting from the basic definitions of roles, their application in security and the basics of the concept of mandatory access control, we develop a scheme of role-based protection that realizes mandatory access control. The basis of this formulation develops from the recognition that roles can be seen as facilitating access to some given information context. By handling each of the role contexts as independent security levels of information, we simulate mandatory access by imposing the requirements of mandatory access control. Among the key considerations, we propose a means of taming Trojan horses by imposing acyclic information flow among contexts in role-based protection systems. The acyclic information flows and suitable access rules incorporate secrecy which is an essential component of mandatory access control.

  18. The Galaxy platform for accessible, reproducible and collaborative biomedical analyses: 2016 update

    PubMed Central

    Afgan, Enis; Baker, Dannon; van den Beek, Marius; Blankenberg, Daniel; Bouvier, Dave; Čech, Martin; Chilton, John; Clements, Dave; Coraor, Nate; Eberhard, Carl; Grüning, Björn; Guerler, Aysam; Hillman-Jackson, Jennifer; Von Kuster, Greg; Rasche, Eric; Soranzo, Nicola; Turaga, Nitesh; Taylor, James; Nekrutenko, Anton; Goecks, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput data production technologies, particularly ‘next-generation’ DNA sequencing, have ushered in widespread and disruptive changes to biomedical research. Making sense of the large datasets produced by these technologies requires sophisticated statistical and computational methods, as well as substantial computational power. This has led to an acute crisis in life sciences, as researchers without informatics training attempt to perform computation-dependent analyses. Since 2005, the Galaxy project has worked to address this problem by providing a framework that makes advanced computational tools usable by non experts. Galaxy seeks to make data-intensive research more accessible, transparent and reproducible by providing a Web-based environment in which users can perform computational analyses and have all of the details automatically tracked for later inspection, publication, or reuse. In this report we highlight recently added features enabling biomedical analyses on a large scale. PMID:27137889

  19. 33 CFR 106.260 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.260 Security measures for access control. (a)...

  20. 33 CFR 106.260 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.260 Security measures for access control. (a)...

  1. 33 CFR 106.260 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.260 Security measures for access control. (a)...

  2. Open versus Controlled-Access Data | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    OCG employs stringent human subjects’ protection and data access policies to protect the privacy and confidentiality of the research participants. Depending on the risk of patient identification, OCG programs data are available to the scientific community in two tiers: open or controlled access. Both types of data can be accessed through its corresponding OCG program-specific data matrix or portal. Open-access Data

  3. Analysis of Access Control Policies in Operating Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Operating systems rely heavily on access control mechanisms to achieve security goals and defend against remote and local attacks. The complexities of modern access control mechanisms and the scale of policy configurations are often overwhelming to system administrators and software developers. Therefore, mis-configurations are common, and the…

  4. Permission to Speak: A Novel Formal Foundation for Access Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-21

    NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Pennsylvania,Computer and Information Science ,Philadelphia,PA,19104 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER... science • Uniform treatment of access control and conformance – Access control is verification of permissions – Conformance is satisfaction of

  5. 33 CFR 105.255 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... each MARSEC Level, including those points where TWIC access control provisions will be applied. Each... escorting them; (4) Procedures for identifying authorized and unauthorized persons at any MARSEC level; and... access controls, particularly if they are to be applied on a random or occasional basis. (f) MARSEC...

  6. A design of tamper resistant prescription RFID access control system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Yi; Huang, Der-Chen; Tsai, Meng-Lin; Jan, Jinn-Ke

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a tamper resistant prescription RFID access control protocol for different authorized readers. Not only the authentication mechanism but also the access right authorization mechanism is designed in our scheme. Only the specific doctor, usually the patient's doctor, can access the tag. Moreover, some related information of patient's prescription is attached to a RFID tag for tamper resistance. The patients' rights will be guaranteed.

  7. An accessible, scalable ecosystem for enabling and sharing diverse mass spectrometry imaging analyses.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Curt R; Ruebel, Oliver; Bowen, Benjamin P

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is used in an increasing number of biological applications. Typical MSI datasets contain unique, high-resolution mass spectra from tens of thousands of spatial locations, resulting in raw data sizes of tens of gigabytes per sample. In this paper, we review technical progress that is enabling new biological applications and that is driving an increase in the complexity and size of MSI data. Handling such data often requires specialized computational infrastructure, software, and expertise. OpenMSI, our recently described platform, makes it easy to explore and share MSI datasets via the web - even when larger than 50 GB. Here we describe the integration of OpenMSI with IPython notebooks for transparent, sharable, and replicable MSI research. An advantage of this approach is that users do not have to share raw data along with analyses; instead, data is retrieved via OpenMSI's web API. The IPython notebook interface provides a low-barrier entry point for data manipulation that is accessible for scientists without extensive computational training. Via these notebooks, analyses can be easily shared without requiring any data movement. We provide example notebooks for several common MSI analysis types including data normalization, plotting, clustering, and classification, and image registration.

  8. Test-specific control conditions for functional analyses.

    PubMed

    Fahmie, Tara A; Iwata, Brian A; Querim, Angie C; Harper, Jill M

    2013-01-01

    Most functional analyses of problem behavior include a common condition (play or noncontingent reinforcement) as a control for both positive and negative reinforcement. However, test-specific conditions that control for each potential source of reinforcement may be beneficial occasionally. We compared responding during alone, ignore, play, and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) control conditions for individuals whose problem behavior was maintained by positive or negative reinforcement. Results showed that all of the conditions were effective controls for problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement; however, the DRO condition was consistently ineffective as a control for problem behavior maintained by negative reinforcement. Implications for the design of functional analyses and future research are discussed.

  9. Managed Access by Controlled Sensing (MACS)

    SciTech Connect

    Curtiss, J.A.; Indusi, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    During chemical weapons challenge inspections, the CWC treaty allows ``alternate means`` of access to be proposed by the nation challenged. BNL`s Safeguards, Safety and Nonproliferation Division is funded by the Defense Nuclear Agency to develop a system to provide the challenge inspection team with a ``virtual presence`` within the facility while denying personal access. A general purpose configuration of a mobile station manned by site personnel and a base station manned by the challenge inspector, supported by a flexible communication system, will allow facility personnel to tailor the basic model to their site. Design of the MACS system is based on maximum use of commercial equipment that is available on the international market. Design requirements for the MACS system include methods of establishing geographical position, distance measuring equipment for use in verifying dimensions on floor plans, video and two-way audio links between the mobile unit and the base station, and portability and versatility of the equipment. The MACS platform will also support deployment of selected instrumentation which the site may offer to the challenge inspection team. This paper describes the design and construction of the prototype MACS system.

  10. 49 CFR 1542.207 - Access control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Access control systems. 1542.207 Section 1542.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.207 Access...

  11. 49 CFR 1542.207 - Access control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Access control systems. 1542.207 Section 1542.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.207 Access...

  12. 49 CFR 1542.207 - Access control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Access control systems. 1542.207 Section 1542.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.207 Access...

  13. 49 CFR 1542.207 - Access control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access control systems. 1542.207 Section 1542.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.207 Access...

  14. 49 CFR 1542.207 - Access control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Access control systems. 1542.207 Section 1542.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.207 Access...

  15. Urban Studies: A Study of Bibliographic Access and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Barbara E.

    This paper analyzes: (1) the bibliographic access to publications in urban studies via printed secondary sources; (2) development and scope of classification systems and of vocabulary control for urban studies; and (3) currently accessible automated collections of bibliographic citations. Urban studies is defined as "an agglomeration of…

  16. 14 CFR 420.53 - Control of public access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Responsibilities of a Licensee § 420.53 Control of public access. (a) A licensee shall prevent unauthorized access to the launch site, and... the launch site of safety rules and emergency and evacuation procedures prior to that person's...

  17. Access Control of Web- and Java-Based Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tso, Kam S.; Pajevski, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Cybersecurity has become a great concern as threats of service interruption, unauthorized access, stealing and altering of information, and spreading of viruses have become more prevalent and serious. Application layer access control of applications is a critical component in the overall security solution that also includes encryption, firewalls, virtual private networks, antivirus, and intrusion detection. An access control solution, based on an open-source access manager augmented with custom software components, was developed to provide protection to both Web-based and Javabased client and server applications. The DISA Security Service (DISA-SS) provides common access control capabilities for AMMOS software applications through a set of application programming interfaces (APIs) and network- accessible security services for authentication, single sign-on, authorization checking, and authorization policy management. The OpenAM access management technology designed for Web applications can be extended to meet the needs of Java thick clients and stand alone servers that are commonly used in the JPL AMMOS environment. The DISA-SS reusable components have greatly reduced the effort for each AMMOS subsystem to develop its own access control strategy. The novelty of this work is that it leverages an open-source access management product that was designed for Webbased applications to provide access control for Java thick clients and Java standalone servers. Thick clients and standalone servers are still commonly used in businesses and government, especially for applications that require rich graphical user interfaces and high-performance visualization that cannot be met by thin clients running on Web browsers

  18. Personnel Access Control System Evaluation for National Ignition Facility Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Altenbach, T; Brereton, S.; Hermes, G.; Singh, M.

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to analyze the baseline Access Control System for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and to assess its effectiveness at controlling access to hazardous locations during full NIF operations. It reviews the various hazards present during a NIF shot sequence, and evaluates the effectiveness of the applicable set of controls at preventing access while the hazards are present. It considers only those hazards that could potentially be lethal. In addition, various types of technologies that might be applicable at NIF are reviewed, as are systems currently in use at other facilities requiring access control for safety reasons. Recommendations on how this system might be modified to reduce risk are made.

  19. Authenticated IGMP for Controlling Access to Multicast Distribution Tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chang-Seop; Kang, Hyun-Sun

    A receiver access control scheme is proposed to protect the multicast distribution tree from DoS attack induced by unauthorized use of IGMP, by extending the security-related functionality of IGMP. Based on a specific network and business model adopted for commercial deployment of IP multicast applications, a key management scheme is also presented for bootstrapping the proposed access control as well as accounting and billing for CP (Content Provider), NSP (Network Service Provider), and group members.

  20. RANDOM ACCESS CONTROL OF ELECTROLUMINESCENT ELEMENTS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Cadmium selenide (CdSe) switches were devised to control the luminous emittance of electroluminescent cells in a solid-state display. The technique...purpose of this contract was to establish the feasibility of utilizing the hysteretic effect in cadmium selenide to provide switching and storage to an...array of electroluminescent cells by investigating the cadmium selenide material, by studying panel structure, and by investigating the addressing of

  1. Context-aware access control for pervasive access to process-based healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Koufi, Vassiliki; Vassilacopoulos, George

    2008-01-01

    Healthcare is an increasingly collaborative enterprise involving a broad range of healthcare services provided by many individuals and organizations. Grid technology has been widely recognized as a means for integrating disparate computing resources in the healthcare field. Moreover, Grid portal applications can be developed on a wireless and mobile infrastructure to execute healthcare processes which, in turn, can provide remote access to Grid database services. Such an environment provides ubiquitous and pervasive access to integrated healthcare services at the point of care, thus improving healthcare quality. In such environments, the ability to provide an effective access control mechanism that meets the requirement of the least privilege principle is essential. Adherence to the least privilege principle requires continuous adjustments of user permissions in order to adapt to the current situation. This paper presents a context-aware access control mechanism for HDGPortal, a Grid portal application which provides access to workflow-based healthcare processes using wireless Personal Digital Assistants. The proposed mechanism builds upon and enhances security mechanisms provided by the Grid Security Infrastructure. It provides tight, just-in-time permissions so that authorized users get access to specific objects according to the current context. These permissions are subject to continuous adjustments triggered by the changing context. Thus, the risk of compromising information integrity during task executions is reduced.

  2. Control with a random access protocol and packet dropouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liyuan; Guo, Ge

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates networked control systems whose actuators communicate with the controller via a limited number of unreliable channels. The access to the channels is decided by a so-called group random access protocol, which is modelled as a binary Markov sequence. Data packet dropouts in the channels are modelled as independent Bernoulli processes. For such systems, a systematic characterisation for controller synthesis is established and stated in terms of the transition probabilities of the Markov protocol and the packet dropout probabilities. The results are illustrated via a numerical example.

  3. Towards an Access-Control Framework for Countering Insider Threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crampton, Jason; Huth, Michael

    As insider threats pose very significant security risks to IT systems, we ask what policy-based approaches to access control can do for the detection, mitigation or countering of insider threats and insider attacks. Answering this question is difficult: little public data about insider-threat cases is available; there is not much consensus about what the insider problem actually is; and previous research in access control has by-and-large not dealt with this issue. We explore existing notions of insiderness in order to identify the relevant research issues. We then formulate a set of requirements for next-generation access-control systems, whose realization might form part of an overall strategy to address the insider problem.

  4. Doping control analyses in horseracing: a clinician's guide.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jenny K Y; Wan, Terence S M

    2014-04-01

    Doping(1) in sports is highly detrimental, not only to the athletes involved but to the sport itself as well as to the confidence of the spectators and other participants. To protect the integrity of any sport, there must be in place an effective doping control program. In human sports, a 'top-down' and generally unified approach is taken where the rules and regulations against doping for the majority of elite sport events held in any country are governed by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). However, in horseracing, there is no single organisation regulating this form of equestrian sport; instead, the rules and regulations are provided by individual racing authorities and so huge variations exist in the doping control programs currently in force around the world. This review summarises the current status of doping control analyses in horseracing, from sample collection, to the analyses of the samples, and to the need for harmonisation as well as exploring some of the difficulties currently faced by racing authorities, racing chemists and regulatory veterinarians worldwide.

  5. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  6. Secondary retention of rubber dam: effective moisture control access considerations.

    PubMed

    Liebenberg, W H

    1995-04-01

    Primary rubber dam retention affects attachment of the latex sheet to the anchor teeth bordering the isolated working field. Secondary rubber dam retention is the provision of an effective seal at the dam-tooth junction, which is essential to the maintenance of adequate access and moisture control within the working field. Practical hints are offered to optimize access and moisture control through well-planned and properly executed secondary retention of classic rubber dam applications. In addition, innovative solutions to the limitations of general field isolation, which pertain mostly to secondary retention of the unrestrained buccal and lingual curtains of the slit dam, are introduced.

  7. Access and control of information and intellectual property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Gerald S.

    1996-03-01

    This paper introduces the technology of two pioneering patents for the secure distribution of information and intellectual property. The seminal technology has been used in the control of sensitive material such as medical records and imagery in distributed networks. It lends itself to the implementation of an open architecture access control system that provides local or remote user selective access to digital information stored on any computer system or storage medium, down to the data element, pixel, and sub-pixel levels. Use of this technology is especially suited for electronic publishing, health care records, MIS, and auditing.

  8. Joint Access Control Based on Access Ratio and Resource Utilization for High-Speed Railway Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuzhe; Ai, Bo

    2015-05-01

    The fast development of high-speed rails makes people's life more and more convenient. However, provisioning of quality of service of multimedia applications for users on the high-speed train is a critical task for wireless communications. Therefore, new solutions are desirable to be found to address this kind of problem. Current researches mainly focus on providing seamless broadband wireless access for high-speed mobile terminals. In this paper, an algorithm to calculate the optimal resource reservation fraction of handovers is proposed. A joint access control scheme for high-speed railway communication handover scenario is proposed. Metrics of access ratio and resource utilization ratio are considered jointly in the analysis and the performance evaluation. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm and the scheme improve quality of service compared with other conventional schemes.

  9. Access Control of Web and Java Based Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tso, Kam S.; Pajevski, Michael J.; Johnson, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Cyber security has gained national and international attention as a result of near continuous headlines from financial institutions, retail stores, government offices and universities reporting compromised systems and stolen data. Concerns continue to rise as threats of service interruption, and spreading of viruses become ever more prevalent and serious. Controlling access to application layer resources is a critical component in a layered security solution that includes encryption, firewalls, virtual private networks, antivirus, and intrusion detection. In this paper we discuss the development of an application-level access control solution, based on an open-source access manager augmented with custom software components, to provide protection to both Web-based and Java-based client and server applications.

  10. Access Control for Agent-based Computing: A Distributed Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonopoulos, Nick; Koukoumpetsos, Kyriakos; Shafarenko, Alex

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the mobile software agent paradigm that provides a foundation for the development of high performance distributed applications and presents a simple, distributed access control architecture based on the concept of distributed, active authorization entities (lock cells), any combination of which can be referenced by an agent to provide…

  11. Fine-Grained Access Control for Electronic Health Record Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hue, Pham Thi Bach; Wohlgemuth, Sven; Echizen, Isao; Thuy, Dong Thi Bich; Thuc, Nguyen Dinh

    There needs to be a strategy for securing the privacy of patients when exchanging health records between various entities over the Internet. Despite the fact that health care providers such as Google Health and Microsoft Corp.'s Health Vault comply with the U.S Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), the privacy of patients is still at risk. Several encryption schemes and access control mechanisms have been suggested to protect the disclosure of a patient's health record especially from unauthorized entities. However, by implementing these approaches, data owners are not capable of controlling and protecting the disclosure of the individual sensitive attributes of their health records. This raises the need to adopt a secure mechanism to protect personal information against unauthorized disclosure. Therefore, we propose a new Fine-grained Access Control (FGAC) mechanism that is based on subkeys, which would allow a data owner to further control the access to his data at the column-level. We also propose a new mechanism to efficiently reduce the number of keys maintained by a data owner in cases when the users have different access privileges to different columns of the data being shared.

  12. Access control and interlock system at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Forrestal, J.; Hogrefe, R.; Knott, M.; McDowell, W.; Reigle, D.; Solita, L.; Koldenhoven, R.; Haid, D.

    1997-08-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) consists of a linac, position accumulator ring (PAR), booster synchrotron, storage ring, and up to 70 experimental beamlines. The Access Control and Interlock System (ACIS) utilizes redundant programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and a third hard-wired chain to protect personnel from prompt radiation generated by the linac, PAR, synchrotron, and storage ring. This paper describes the ACIS`s design philosophy, configuration, hardware, functionality, validation requirements, and operational experience.

  13. Project W-320 SAR and process control thermal analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Sathyanarayana, K.

    1997-06-19

    This report summarizes the results of thermal hydraulic computer modeling supporting Project W-320 for process control and SAR documentation. Parametric analyses were performed for the maximum steady state waste temperature. The parameters included heat load distribution, tank heat load, fluffing factor and thermal conductivity. Uncertainties in the fluffing factor and heat load distribution had the largest effect on maximum waste temperature. Safety analyses were performed for off normal events including loss of ventilation, loss of evaporation and loss of secondary chiller. The loss of both the primary and secondary ventilation was found to be the most limiting event with saturation temperature in the bottom waste reaching in just over 30 days. An evaluation was performed for the potential lowering of the supernatant level in tank 241-AY-102. The evaluation included a loss of ventilation and steam bump analysis. The reduced supernatant level decreased the time to reach saturation temperature in the waste for the loss of ventilation by about one week. However, the consequence of a steam bump were dramatically reduced.

  14. Comparative Analyses of Physiological Responses of Cynodon dactylon Accessions from Southwest China to Sulfur Dioxide Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Li, Yiqiao; Cai, Shizhen

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2), a major air pollutant in developing countries, is highly toxic to plants. To achieve better air quality and landscape, planting appropriate grass species in severe SO2 polluted areas is very critical. Cynodon dactylon, a widely used warm season turfgrass species, has good SO2-tolerant ability. In this study, we selected 9 out of 38 C. dactylon accessions from Southwest China as representatives of high, intermediate SO2-tolerant and SO2-sensitive accessions to comparatively analyze their physiological differences in leaves under SO2 untreated and treated conditions. Our results revealed that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions showed higher soluble sugar, proline, and chlorophyll a contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions; higher chlorophyll b and carotenoid under SO2 treated condition; lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, oxidative damages, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities under SO2 treated condition; and higher peroxidase (POD) activities under SO2 untreated condition. Further results indicated that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions had higher sulfur contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, consistent with higher SO activities under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, and higher SiR activities under SO2 treated condition. Taken together, our results indicated that SO2 tolerance of C. dactylon might be largely related to soluble sugar, proline and chlorophyll a contents, and SO enzyme activity. PMID:25097893

  15. PGA: power calculator for case-control genetic association analyses

    PubMed Central

    Menashe, Idan; Rosenberg, Philip S; Chen, Bingshu E

    2008-01-01

    Background Statistical power calculations inform the design and interpretation of genetic association studies, but few programs are tailored to case-control studies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in unrelated subjects. Results We have developed the "Power for Genetic Association analyses" (PGA) package which comprises algorithms and graphical user interfaces for sample size and minimum detectable risk calculations using SNP or haplotype effects under different genetic models and study constrains. The software accounts for linkage disequilibrium and statistical multiple comparisons. The results are presented in graphs or tables and can be printed or exported in standard file formats. Conclusion PGA is user friendly software that can facilitate decision making for association studies of candidate genes, fine-mapping studies, and whole-genome scans. Stand-alone executable files and a Matlab toolbox are available for download at: PMID:18477402

  16. Distributed reservation control protocols for random access broadcasting channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, E. P.; Ephremides, A.

    1981-05-01

    Attention is given to a communication network consisting of an arbitrary number of nodes which can communicate with each other via a time-division multiple access (TDMA) broadcast channel. The reported investigation is concerned with the development of efficient distributed multiple access protocols for traffic consisting primarily of single packet messages in a datagram mode of operation. The motivation for the design of the protocols came from the consideration of efficient multiple access utilization of moderate to high bandwidth (4-40 Mbit/s capacity) communication satellite channels used for the transmission of short (1000-10,000 bits) fixed length packets. Under these circumstances, the ratio of roundtrip propagation time to packet transmission time is between 100 to 10,000. It is shown how a TDMA channel can be adaptively shared by datagram traffic and constant bandwidth users such as in digital voice applications. The distributed reservation control protocols described are a hybrid between contention and reservation protocols.

  17. Distributed reservation control protocols for random access broadcasting channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, E. P.; Ephremides, A.

    1981-01-01

    Attention is given to a communication network consisting of an arbitrary number of nodes which can communicate with each other via a time-division multiple access (TDMA) broadcast channel. The reported investigation is concerned with the development of efficient distributed multiple access protocols for traffic consisting primarily of single packet messages in a datagram mode of operation. The motivation for the design of the protocols came from the consideration of efficient multiple access utilization of moderate to high bandwidth (4-40 Mbit/s capacity) communication satellite channels used for the transmission of short (1000-10,000 bits) fixed length packets. Under these circumstances, the ratio of roundtrip propagation time to packet transmission time is between 100 to 10,000. It is shown how a TDMA channel can be adaptively shared by datagram traffic and constant bandwidth users such as in digital voice applications. The distributed reservation control protocols described are a hybrid between contention and reservation protocols.

  18. Access control and privacy in large distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiner, B. M.; Bishop, M.

    1986-01-01

    Large scale distributed systems consists of workstations, mainframe computers, supercomputers and other types of servers, all connected by a computer network. These systems are being used in a variety of applications including the support of collaborative scientific research. In such an environment, issues of access control and privacy arise. Access control is required for several reasons, including the protection of sensitive resources and cost control. Privacy is also required for similar reasons, including the protection of a researcher's proprietary results. A possible architecture for integrating available computer and communications security technologies into a system that meet these requirements is described. This architecture is meant as a starting point for discussion, rather that the final answer.

  19. Designing optimized industrial process analysers for closed loop control

    PubMed Central

    Grevesmuehl, Bernard; Kradjel, Cynthia; Kellner, Hanno

    1991-01-01

    Manufacturers are now looking closely at ways of optimizing ‘quality’ and increasing process efficiency while reducing manufacturing costs. Near infra-red (NIR) technology is a popular solution to this challenge: it provides manufacturers with rapid and reliable in-process analysis and thousands of systems have already been installed in the food, chemical, pharmaceutical and agricultural markets. For over 10 years, NIR has been successfully applied to at-line process analysis. Rugged and easy-to-operate filter analysers are traditionally located in the control room–process operators can then ‘grab samples’ and obtain results in less than a minute. There are many practical advantages to using at-line filter systems. Products from many lines can be run on one system, and, since there is no direct process interface, installation, operation and maintenance are quite simple. Many manufacturers, however, are now striving to achieve on-line closed loop control, in these cases the benefit of obtaining continuous measurement is well worth the effort required to automate the analysis. PMID:18924898

  20. Tag Content Access Control with Identity-based Key Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Liang; Rong, Chunming

    2010-09-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology that used to identify objects and users has been applied to many applications such retail and supply chain recently. How to prevent tag content from unauthorized readout is a core problem of RFID privacy issues. Hash-lock access control protocol can make tag to release its content only to reader who knows the secret key shared between them. However, in order to get this shared secret key required by this protocol, reader needs to communicate with a back end database. In this paper, we propose to use identity-based secret key exchange approach to generate the secret key required for hash-lock access control protocol. With this approach, not only back end database connection is not needed anymore, but also tag cloning problem can be eliminated at the same time.

  1. 30 CFR 816.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... schedule. (c) Access control. Access within the blasting area shall be controlled to prevent presence of..., and access control. 816.66 Section 816.66 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access...

  2. Integration of access control and ancillary information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Ahrens, J.S.

    1995-07-01

    The DOE has identified the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ARGUS system as the standard entry control system for the DOE Complex. ARGUS integrates several key functions, specifically, badging, entry control, and verification of clearance status. Not all sites need or can afford an ARGUS system. Such sites are therefore limited to commercial equipment which provide ARGUS like features. In this project an alternative way to integrate commercial equipment into an integrated system to include badging, access control, property control, and automated verification of clearance status has been investigated. Such a system would provide smaller sites the same functionality as is provided by ARGUS. Further, it would allow sites to fully participate in the DOE`s concept of Complex wide access control. This multi-year task is comprised of three phases. Phase 1, system requirements and definitions, and phase 2, software and hardware development, were completed during fiscal year 1994. This report covers these two phases and the demonstration system which resulted. Phase three would employ the demonstration system to evaluate system performance, identify operational limits and to integrate additional features. The demonstration system includes a badging station, a database server, a managers workstation, an entry control system, and a property protection system. The functions have been integrated through the use of custom interfaces and operator screens which greatly increase ease of use.

  3. Hand geometry biometric device for secure access control

    SciTech Connect

    Colbert, C.; Moles, D.R. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the authors developed for the Air Force the Mark VI Personal Identity Verifier (PIV) for controlling access to a fixed or mobile ICBM site, a computer terminal, or mainframe. The Mark VI records the digitized silhouettes of four fingers of each hand on an AT and T smart card. Like fingerprints, finger shapes, lengths, and widths constitute an unguessable biometric password. A Security Officer enrolls an authorized person who places each hand, in turn, on a backlighted panel. An overhead scanning camera records the right and left hand reference templates on the smart card. The Security Officer adds to the card: name, personal identification number (PIN), and access restrictions such as permitted days of the week, times of day, and doors. To gain access, cardowner inserts card into a reader slot and places either hand on the panel. Resulting access template is matched to the reference template by three sameness algorithms. The final match score is an average of 12 scores (each of the four fingers, matched for shape, length, and width), expressing the degree of sameness. (A perfect match would score 100.00.) The final match score is compared to a predetermined score (threshold), generating an accept or reject decision.

  4. Global Access-controlled Transfer e-frame (GATe)

    SciTech Connect

    2012-05-30

    Global Access-controlled Transfer e-frame (GATe) was designed to take advantage of the patterns that occur during an electronic record transfer process. The e-frame (or electronic framework or platform) is the foundation for developing secure information transfer to meet classified and unclassified business processes and is particularly useful when there is a need to share information with various entities in a controlled and secure environment. It can share, search, upload, download and retrieve sensitive information, as well as provides reporting capabilities.

  5. A study of multiple access schemes in satellite control network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Zijian; Wang, Zhonghai; Xiang, Xingyu; Wang, Gang; Chen, Genshe; Nguyen, Tien; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik

    2016-05-01

    Satellite Control Networks (SCN) have provided launch control for space lift vehicles; tracking, telemetry and commanding (TTC) for on-orbit satellites; and, test support for space experiments since the 1960s. Currently, SCNs encounter a new challenge: how to maintain the high reliability of services when sharing the spectrum with emerging commercial services. To achieve this goal, the capability of multiple satellites reception is deserved as an update/modernization of SCN in the future. In this paper, we conducts an investigation of multiple access techniques in SCN scenario, e.g., frequency division multiple access (FDMA) and coded division multiple access (CDMA). First, we introduce two upgrade options of SCN based on FDMA and CDMA techniques. Correspondingly, we also provide their performance analysis, especially the system improvement in spectrum efficiency and interference mitigation. Finally, to determine the optimum upgrade option, this work uses CRISP, i.e., Cost, Risk, Installation, Supportability and Performance, as the baseline approach for a comprehensive trade study of these two options. Extensive numerical and simulation results are presented to illustrate the theoretical development.

  6. Access Control Model for Sharing Composite Electronic Health Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jing; Ahn, Gail-Joon; Covington, Michael J.; Zhang, Xinwen

    The adoption of electronically formatted medical records, so called Electronic Health Records (EHRs), has become extremely important in healthcare systems to enable the exchange of medical information among stakeholders. An EHR generally consists of data with different types and sensitivity degrees which must be selectively shared based on the need-to-know principle. Security mechanisms are required to guarantee that only authorized users have access to specific portions of such critical record for legitimate purposes. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for modelling access control scheme for composite EHRs. Our model formulates the semantics and structural composition of an EHR document, from which we introduce a notion of authorized zones of the composite EHR at different granularity levels, taking into consideration of several important criteria such as data types, intended purposes and information sensitivities.

  7. 30 CFR 817.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... notification required in § 817.64(a). (c) Access control. Access within the blasting areas shall be controlled..., and access control. 817.66 Section 817.66 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting signs shall meet the specifications of § 817.11. The operator...

  8. Privacy and Access Control for IHE-Based Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katt, Basel; Breu, Ruth; Hafner, Micahel; Schabetsberger, Thomas; Mair, Richard; Wozak, Florian

    Electronic Health Record (EHR) is the heart element of any e-health system, which aims at improving the quality and efficiency of healthcare through the use of information and communication technologies. The sensitivity of the data contained in the health record poses a great challenge to security. In this paper we propose a security architecture for EHR systems that are conform with IHE profiles. In this architecture we are tackling the problems of access control and privacy. Furthermore, a prototypical implementation of the proposed model is presented.

  9. Efficient identity management and access control in cloud environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloster, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    As more enterprises are enticed to move data to a cloud environment to enhance data sharing and reduce operating costs by exploiting shared resources, concerns have risen over the ability to secure information within the cloud. This paper examines how a traditional Identity and Access Control (IDAM) architecture can be adapted to address security concerns of a cloud environment. We propose changing the paradigm of IDAM form a pure trust model to a risk based model will enable information to be protected securely in a cloud environment without impacting efficiencies of cloud environments.

  10. Accessibility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Federal laws, including Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, mandate that people with disabilities have access to the same information that someone without a disability would have. 508 standards cover electronic and information technology (EIT) products.

  11. 76 FR 67019 - Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control... RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control. DATES:...

  12. Metabolomics Analyses of Cancer Cells in Controlled Microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Gravel, Simon-Pierre; Avizonis, Daina; St-Pierre, Julie

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is a complex and heterogeneous milieu in which cancer cells undergo metabolic reprogramming to fuel their growth. Cancer cell lines grown in vitro using traditional culture methods represent key experimental models to gain a mechanistic understanding of tumor biology. This protocol describes the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to assess metabolic changes in cancer cells grown under varied levels of oxygen and nutrients that may better mimic the tumor microenvironment. Intracellular metabolite changes, metabolite uptake and release, as well as stable isotope ((13)C) tracer analyses are done in a single experimental setup to provide an integrated understanding of metabolic adaptation. Overall, this chapter describes some essential tools and methods to perform comprehensive metabolomics analyses.

  13. BIOPACK: the ground controlled late access biological research facility.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Jack J W A

    2004-03-01

    Future Space Shuttle flights shall be characterized by activities necessary to further build the International Space Station, ISS. During these missions limited resources are available to conduct biological experiments in space. The Shuttles' Middeck is a very suitable place to conduct science during the ISS assembly missions or dedicated science missions. The BIOPACK, which flew its first mission during the STS-107, provides a versatile Middeck Locker based research tool for gravitational biology studies. The core facility occupies the space of only two Middeck Lockers. Experiment temperatures are controlled for bacteria, plant, invertebrate and mammalian cultures. Gravity levels and profiles can be set ranging from 0 to 2.0 x g on three independent centrifuges. This provides the experimenter with a 1.0 x g on-board reference and intermediate hypogravity and hypergravity data points to investigate e.g. threshold levels in biological responses. Temperature sensitive items can be stored in the facilities' -10 degrees C and +4 degrees C stowage areas. During STS-107 the facility also included a small glovebox (GBX) and passive temperature controlled units (PTCU). The GBX provides the experimenter with two extra levels of containment for safe sample handling. This biological research facility is a late access (L-10 hrs) laboratory, which, when reaching orbit, could automatically be starting up reducing important experiment lag-time and valuable crew time. The system is completely telecommanded when needed. During flight system parameters like temperatures, centrifuge speeds, experiment commanding or sensor readouts can be monitored and changed when needed. Although ISS provides a wide range of research facilities there is still need for an STS-based late access facility such as the BIOPACK providing experimenters with a very versatile research cabinet for biological experiments under microgravity and in-flight control conditions.

  14. Birth Control Pills and Nonprofessional Voice: Acoustic Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Ofer; Biron-Shental, Tal; Shabtai, Esther

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies are presented here. Study 1 was aimed at evaluating whether the voice characteristics of women who use birth control pills that contain different progestins differ from the voice characteristics of a control group. Study 2 presents a meta-analysis that combined the results of Study 1 with those from 3 recent studies that…

  15. First Experiences Using XACML for Access Control in Distributed Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorch, Marcus; Proctor, Seth; Lepro, Rebekah; Kafura, Dennis; Shah, Sumit

    2003-01-01

    Authorization systems today are increasingly complex. They span domains of administration, rely on many different authentication sources, and manage permissions that can be as complex as the system itself. Worse still, while there are many standards that define authentication mechanisms, the standards that address authorization are less well defined and tend to work only within homogeneous systems. This paper presents XACML, a standard access control language, as one component of a distributed and inter-operable authorization framework. Several emerging systems which incorporate XACML are discussed. These discussions illustrate how authorization can be deployed in distributed, decentralized systems. Finally, some new and future topics are presented to show where this work is heading and how it will help connect the general components of an authorization system.

  16. A Framework for Context Sensitive Risk-Based Access Control in Medical Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Choi, Donghee; Kim, Dohoon; Park, Seog

    2015-01-01

    Since the access control environment has changed and the threat of insider information leakage has come to the fore, studies on risk-based access control models that decide access permissions dynamically have been conducted vigorously. Medical information systems should protect sensitive data such as medical information from insider threat and enable dynamic access control depending on the context such as life-threatening emergencies. In this paper, we suggest an approach and framework for context sensitive risk-based access control suitable for medical information systems. This approach categorizes context information, estimating and applying risk through context- and treatment-based permission profiling and specifications by expanding the eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML) to apply risk. The proposed framework supports quick responses to medical situations and prevents unnecessary insider data access through dynamic access authorization decisions in accordance with the severity of the context and treatment.

  17. Dynamic access control model for privacy preserving personalized healthcare in cloud environment.

    PubMed

    Son, Jiseong; Kim, Jeong-Dong; Na, Hong-Seok; Baik, Doo-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    When sharing and storing healthcare data in a cloud environment, access control is a central issue for preserving data privacy as a patient's personal health data may be accessed without permission from many stakeholders. Specifically, dynamic authorization for the access of data is required because personal health data is stored in cloud storage via wearable devices. Therefore, we propose a dynamic access control model for preserving the privacy of personal healthcare data in a cloud environment. The proposed model considers context information for dynamic access. According to the proposed model, access control can be dynamically determined by changing the context information; this means that even for a subject with the same role in the cloud, access permission is defined differently depending on the context information and access condition. Furthermore, we experiment the ability of the proposed model to provide correct responses by representing a dynamic access decision with real-life personalized healthcare system scenarios.

  18. Hypertension Detection, Management, Control and Associated Factors Among Residents Accessing Community Health Services In Beijing

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, Bin; LIU, Hongmei; RU, Xiaojuan; ZHANG, Hui; WU, Shengping; WANG, Wenzhi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse high blood pressure detection, management, control and associated factors among residents accessing community health services (CHSs) in Beijing. We screened for HBP in 9524 individuals aged 50 years or older who accessed care in four Beijing CHSs. Among the 9397 residents with questionnaire responses that qualified them for inclusion in the study, 5029 patients with HBP were identified, 1510 (i.e., 30% of the HBP patient group) of whom were newly identified cases. The rate of hypertension detection was 53.5%. Among the 5029 HBP patients, the rates of awareness, treatment and control of hypertension were 70.0%, 62.1% and 29.6%, respectively. In general, the rate of hypertension control was higher when the rates of hypertension awareness and treatment were higher in subgroups stratified by different sociodemographic and risk factors, except for the overweight and obesity subgroups. In conclusion, suboptimal HBP awareness, treatment, and control are still major problems confronting CHSs in Beijing. Control of hypertension in the population may be improved by increasing awareness and improving the treatment of hypertension in CHSs. PMID:24784167

  19. Hypertension detection, management, control and associated factors among residents accessing community health services in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bin; Liu, Hongmei; Ru, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Hui; Wu, Shengping; Wang, Wenzhi

    2014-05-02

    The aim of this study was to analyse high blood pressure detection, management, control and associated factors among residents accessing community health services (CHSs) in Beijing. We screened for HBP in 9524 individuals aged 50 years or older who accessed care in four Beijing CHSs. Among the 9397 residents with questionnaire responses that qualified them for inclusion in the study, 5029 patients with HBP were identified, 1510 (i.e., 30% of the HBP patient group) of whom were newly identified cases. The rate of hypertension detection was 53.5%. Among the 5029 HBP patients, the rates of awareness, treatment and control of hypertension were 70.0%, 62.1% and 29.6%, respectively. In general, the rate of hypertension control was higher when the rates of hypertension awareness and treatment were higher in subgroups stratified by different sociodemographic and risk factors, except for the overweight and obesity subgroups. In conclusion, suboptimal HBP awareness, treatment, and control are still major problems confronting CHSs in Beijing. Control of hypertension in the population may be improved by increasing awareness and improving the treatment of hypertension in CHSs.

  20. 75 FR 69791 - Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... CFR Part 240 Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access; Final Rule #0;#0... 3235-AK53 Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access AGENCY: Securities and... alternative trading system (``ATS''), including those providing sponsored or direct market access to...

  1. 75 FR 4007 - Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 240 RIN 3235-AK53 Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access... market access to customers or other persons, to implement risk management controls and supervisory... growing popularity of sponsored or direct market access arrangements where broker-dealers allow...

  2. 78 FR 31627 - Twenty-Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ...: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation... 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the twenty-second meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...

  3. 75 FR 80886 - Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control... meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access...

  4. 78 FR 43963 - Twenty-Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty-Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held on June 20,...

  5. 76 FR 59481 - Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access... Committee 224 meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control...

  6. 77 FR 64838 - Sixteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Sixteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held November 15,...

  7. 78 FR 16757 - Twentieth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twentieth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held April 4, 2013 from...

  8. 77 FR 15448 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Notice of meeting RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems DATES: The meeting will be held April 5, 2012, from 10...

  9. 78 FR 22025 - Twenty First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held April 9-10,...

  10. 77 FR 71474 - Seventeenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Seventeenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held December 13,...

  11. 77 FR 55894 - Fifteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fifteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems DATES: The meeting will be held September 27-28,...

  12. 77 FR 2343 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA..., Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held February 9, 2012, from 10...

  13. 76 FR 16470 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control... meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access...

  14. 76 FR 9632 - Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control... meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access...

  15. A stochastic control approach to Slotted-ALOHA random access protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrabissa, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    ALOHA random access protocols are distributed protocols based on transmission probabilities, that is, each node decides upon packet transmissions according to a transmission probability value. In the literature, ALOHA protocols are analysed by giving necessary and sufficient conditions for the stability of the queues of the node buffers under a control vector (whose elements are the transmission probabilities assigned to the nodes), given an arrival rate vector (whose elements represent the rates of the packets arriving in the node buffers). The innovation of this work is that, given an arrival rate vector, it computes the optimal control vector by defining and solving a stochastic control problem aimed at maximising the overall transmission efficiency, while keeping a grade of fairness among the nodes. Furthermore, a more general case in which the arrival rate vector changes in time is considered. The increased efficiency of the proposed solution with respect to the standard ALOHA approach is evaluated by means of numerical simulations.

  16. Service Independent Access Control Architecture for User Generated Content (UGC) and Its Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Akira; Kubota, Ayumu; Miyake, Yutaka; Hashimoto, Kazuo

    Using Web-based content management systems such as Blog, an end user can easily publish User Generated Content (UGC). Although publishing of UGCs is easy, controlling access to them is a difficult problem for end users. Currently, most of Blog sites offer no access control mechanism, and even when it is available to users, it is not sufficient to control users who do not have an account at the site, not to mention that it cannot control accesses to content hosted by other UGC sites. In this paper, we propose new access control architecture for UGC, in which third party entities can offer access control mechanism to users independently of UGC hosting sites. With this architecture, a user can control accesses to his content that might be spread over many different UGC sites, regardless of whether those sites have access control mechanism or not. The key idea to separate access control mechanism from UGC sites is to apply cryptographic access control and we implemented the idea in such a way that it requires no modification to UGC sites and Web browsers. Our prototype implementation shows that the proposed access control architecture can be easily deployed in the current Web-based communication environment and it works quite well with popular Blog sites.

  17. CADDIS Volume 4. Data Analysis: Advanced Analyses - Controlling for Natural Variability

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Methods for controlling natural variability, predicting environmental conditions from biological observations method, biological trait data, species sensitivity distributions, propensity scores, Advanced Analyses of Data Analysis references.

  18. CADDIS Volume 4. Data Analysis: Advanced Analyses - Controlling for Natural Variability: SSD Plot Diagrams

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Methods for controlling natural variability, predicting environmental conditions from biological observations method, biological trait data, species sensitivity distributions, propensity scores, Advanced Analyses of Data Analysis references.

  19. Information dynamics in cardiorespiratory analyses: application to controlled breathing.

    PubMed

    Widjaja, Devy; Faes, Luca; Montalto, Alessandro; Van Diest, Ilse; Marinazzo, Daniele; Van Huffel, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Voluntary adjustment of the breathing pattern is widely used to deal with stress-related conditions. In this study, effects of slow and fast breathing with a low and high inspiratory to expiratory time on heart rate variability (HRV) are evaluated by means of information dynamics. Information transfer is quantified both as the traditional transfer entropy as well as the cross entropy, where the latter does not condition on the past of HRV, thereby taking the highly unidirectional relation between respiration and heart rate into account. The results show that the cross entropy is more suited to quantify cardiorespiratory information transfer as this measure increases during slow breathing, indicating the increased cardiorespiratory coupling and suggesting the shift towards vagal activation during slow breathing. Additionally we found that controlled breathing, either slow or fast, results as well in an increase in cardiorespiratory coupling, compared to spontaneous breathing, which demonstrates the beneficial effects of instructed breathing.

  20. Data Access, Ownership, and Control: Toward Empirical Studies of Access Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgartner, Stephen; Brandt-Rauf, Sherry I.

    1994-01-01

    Examines how the new sociology of science can approach data access issues. A perspective is developed based on an analysis of the process of scientific production, data streams, and intellectual policy issues. (Contains 55 references.) (JLB)

  1. Bureau of Prisons access control system: functional and operational requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janus, Michael; Carlson, Peter M.; Kane, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) operates 86 correctional institutions nationwide. The BOP has grown dramatically, the size of its inmate population growing from just over 41,000 inmates in 1987 to over 100,000 today. The number of BOP staff managing these facilities has grown correspondingly, more than doubling in number in the same ten year period. Technology has paid a major role in keeping up with this growth while maintaining high standards of security in BOP institutions. In an attempt to further enhance security in its institutions, the BOP has recently begun pilot testing an access control and entry system (ACES). ACES is intended to provide an automated record of very entry and exit to a correctional institution. ACES takes advantage of several methods of identifying an individual (inmate, staff or visitor) to assure that the individual exiting the institution is the same as the individual entering. The pilot test has raised a number of questions regarding the implementation of a technologically sophisticated system in a correctional institution. Questions of training, support, 'ownership,' cost effectiveness, and future potential all influence the deployment of this system. Preliminary results indicate that an adequate training and support system is essential to the performance of any sophisticated system and that other organizational issues need to be addressed before the decision to implement is made.

  2. Everywhere Access: Remote Control Software for the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, George

    1994-01-01

    Describes a new software program called "Everywhere Access" that provides remote access to libraries' networked personal computers and that is suitable for use with the Internet. Highlights include installation; operation; security; standards issues; documentation and technical support; and potential uses and applications. (LRW)

  3. 33 CFR 105.255 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) All persons seeking unescorted access to secure areas must present their TWIC for inspection before being allowed unescorted access, in accordance with § 101.514 of this subchapter. Inspection must... screening or inspection; and (ii) Failure to consent or submit to screening or inspection will result...

  4. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  5. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  6. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  7. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  8. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  9. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  10. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  11. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  12. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  13. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  14. 78 FR 7850 - Nineteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held February 21,...

  15. Broadband passive optical network media access control protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quayle, Alan

    1996-11-01

    Most telecommunication operators are currently deciding on how to respond to customers' needs stimulated by the synergy between compression coding of multimedia and the emergence of broadband digital networks. This paper describes a range of broadband access architectures under consideration in the full services access network initiative. All architectures have a common requirement for a broadband ATM PON. A common broadband PON applicable to many operators increases the world-wide market for the product. With greater production volumes manufacturers' costs reduce because of the experience curve effect making broadband access systems economic.

  16. The Model and Control Methods of Access to Information and Technology Resources of Automated Control Systems in Water Supply Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rytov, M. Yu; Spichyack, S. A.; Fedorov, V. P.; Petreshin, D. I.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes a formalized control model of access to information and technological resources of automated control systems at water supply enterprises. The given model considers the availability of various communication links with information systems and technological equipment. There are also studied control methods of access to information and technological resources of automated control systems at water supply enterprises. On the basis of the formalized control model and appropriate methods there was developed a software-hardware complex for rapid access to information and technological resources of automated control systems, which contains an administrator’s automated workplace and ultimate users.

  17. Security analysis and improvements of authentication and access control in the Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Ndibanje, Bruce; Lee, Hoon-Jae; Lee, Sang-Gon

    2014-08-13

    Internet of Things is a ubiquitous concept where physical objects are connected over the internet and are provided with unique identifiers to enable their self-identification to other devices and the ability to continuously generate data and transmit it over a network. Hence, the security of the network, data and sensor devices is a paramount concern in the IoT network as it grows very fast in terms of exchanged data and interconnected sensor nodes. This paper analyses the authentication and access control method using in the Internet of Things presented by Jing et al. (Authentication and Access Control in the Internet of Things. In Proceedings of the 2012 32nd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, Macau, China, 18-21 June 2012, pp. 588-592). According to our analysis, Jing et al.'s protocol is costly in the message exchange and the security assessment is not strong enough for such a protocol. Therefore, we propose improvements to the protocol to fill the discovered weakness gaps. The protocol enhancements facilitate many services to the users such as user anonymity, mutual authentication, and secure session key establishment. Finally, the performance and security analysis show that the improved protocol possesses many advantages against popular attacks, and achieves better efficiency at low communication cost.

  18. Security Analysis and Improvements of Authentication and Access Control in the Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Ndibanje, Bruce; Lee, Hoon-Jae; Lee, Sang-Gon

    2014-01-01

    Internet of Things is a ubiquitous concept where physical objects are connected over the internet and are provided with unique identifiers to enable their self-identification to other devices and the ability to continuously generate data and transmit it over a network. Hence, the security of the network, data and sensor devices is a paramount concern in the IoT network as it grows very fast in terms of exchanged data and interconnected sensor nodes. This paper analyses the authentication and access control method using in the Internet of Things presented by Jing et al (Authentication and Access Control in the Internet of Things. In Proceedings of the 2012 32nd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, Macau, China, 18–21 June 2012, pp. 588–592). According to our analysis, Jing et al.'s protocol is costly in the message exchange and the security assessment is not strong enough for such a protocol. Therefore, we propose improvements to the protocol to fill the discovered weakness gaps. The protocol enhancements facilitate many services to the users such as user anonymity, mutual authentication, and secure session key establishment. Finally, the performance and security analysis show that the improved protocol possesses many advantages against popular attacks, and achieves better efficiency at low communication cost. PMID:25123464

  19. An effective access control approach to support mobility in IPv6 networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xue-hai; Lin, Chuang

    2005-11-01

    Access control is an important method to improve network security and prevent protected resources from being used by some nodes without authority. Moreover, mobility is an important trend of internet. In this paper, based on the architecture of hierarchical mobile IPv6, we proposed an effective access control approach to support mobility in IPv6 networks, which can ensure the operation of access control when a mobile node roams in these domains with different polices, with decreased delay of access negotiation and cost of delivering messages.

  20. Open access, readership, citations: a randomized controlled trial of scientific journal publishing.

    PubMed

    Davis, Philip M

    2011-07-01

    Does free access to journal articles result in greater diffusion of scientific knowledge? Using a randomized controlled trial of open access publishing, involving 36 participating journals in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities, we report on the effects of free access on article downloads and citations. Articles placed in the open access condition (n=712) received significantly more downloads and reached a broader audience within the first year, yet were cited no more frequently, nor earlier, than subscription-access control articles (n=2533) within 3 yr. These results may be explained by social stratification, a process that concentrates scientific authors at a small number of elite research universities with excellent access to the scientific literature. The real beneficiaries of open access publishing may not be the research community but communities of practice that consume, but rarely contribute to, the corpus of literature.

  1. Access control and privilege management in electronic health record: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Jayabalan, Manoj; O'Daniel, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    This study presents a systematic literature review of access control for electronic health record systems to protect patient's privacy. Articles from 2006 to 2016 were extracted from the ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore Digital Library, Science Direct, MEDLINE, and MetaPress using broad eligibility criteria, and chosen for inclusion based on analysis of ISO22600. Cryptographic standards and methods were left outside the scope of this review. Three broad classes of models are being actively investigated and developed: access control for electronic health records, access control for interoperability, and access control for risk analysis. Traditional role-based access control models are extended with spatial, temporal, probabilistic, dynamic, and semantic aspects to capture contextual information and provide granular access control. Maintenance of audit trails and facilities for overriding normal roles to allow full access in emergency cases are common features. Access privilege frameworks utilizing ontology-based knowledge representation for defining the rules have attracted considerable interest, due to the higher level of abstraction that makes it possible to model domain knowledge and validate access requests efficiently.

  2. 36 CFR 1256.70 - What controls access to national security-classified information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What controls access to national security-classified information? 1256.70 Section 1256.70 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... controls access to national security-classified information? (a) The declassification of and public...

  3. 33 CFR 150.604 - Who controls access to medical monitoring and exposure records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Who controls access to medical monitoring and exposure records? 150.604 Section 150.604 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Health Safety and Health (general) § 150.604 Who controls access to medical monitoring and...

  4. 33 CFR 150.604 - Who controls access to medical monitoring and exposure records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who controls access to medical... Health Safety and Health (general) § 150.604 Who controls access to medical monitoring and exposure records? If medical monitoring is performed or exposure records are maintained by an employer, the...

  5. 75 FR 61819 - First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this... Control Systems (Update to DO-230B): November 2, 2010 Welcome/Introductions/Administrative Remarks Agenda... Federal Aviation Administration First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access...

  6. 78 FR 51810 - Twenty-Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control... RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held on... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Twenty-Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224,...

  7. 76 FR 50811 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security... Committee 224 meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control...

  8. 77 FR 25525 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security... (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems DATES: The meeting will be held May 30, 2012, from...

  9. 33 CFR 104.265 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.265 Security... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security measures for access... security measures to: (1) Deter the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and...

  10. 33 CFR 104.265 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.265 Security... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security measures for access... security measures to: (1) Deter the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and...

  11. 33 CFR 104.265 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.265 Security... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security measures for access... security measures to: (1) Deter the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and...

  12. 33 CFR 105.255 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.255 Security... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security measures for access... security measures to: (1) Deter the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and...

  13. Computer Control of a Random Access Slide Projector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Philip G.

    1982-01-01

    A description of a simple interface to enable the interconnection of a random access slide projector and a microcomputer is provided, as well as summaries of the role of slide images as a means of implementing graphic communication and the new activity in graphics as an area of information processing. The microcomputer interface is then detailed,…

  14. Scalable Machine Learning Framework for Behavior-Based Access Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    rules. Dynamic events, such as subversion of credentials (e.g., theft of a Smart Card [3] such as the Common Access Card [4]) or changes in actor... Smart card handbook. Wiley, 2010. [4] DoD ID Card Reference Center, 2013, http://www.cac.mil/ [5] Hearst, Marti A., et al. "Support vector machines

  15. Regulation of the nucleosome unwrapping rate controls DNA accessibility

    PubMed Central

    North, Justin A.; Shimko, John C.; Javaid, Sarah; Mooney, Alex M.; Shoffner, Matthew A.; Rose, Sean D.; Bundschuh, Ralf; Fishel, Richard; Ottesen, Jennifer J.; Poirier, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are repetitively wrapped into nucleosomes that then regulate access of transcription and DNA repair complexes to DNA. The mechanisms that regulate extrinsic protein interactions within nucleosomes are unresolved. We demonstrate that modulation of the nucleosome unwrapping rate regulates protein binding within nucleosomes. Histone H3 acetyl-lysine 56 [H3(K56ac)] and DNA sequence within the nucleosome entry-exit region additively influence nucleosomal DNA accessibility by increasing the unwrapping rate without impacting rewrapping. These combined epigenetic and genetic factors influence transcription factor (TF) occupancy within the nucleosome by at least one order of magnitude and enhance nucleosome disassembly by the DNA mismatch repair complex, hMSH2–hMSH6. Our results combined with the observation that ∼30% of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TF-binding sites reside in the nucleosome entry–exit region suggest that modulation of nucleosome unwrapping is a mechanism for regulating transcription and DNA repair. PMID:22965129

  16. Secure Remote Access Issues in a Control Center Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Lee; McNair, Ann R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The ISS finally reached an operational state and exists for local and remote users. Onboard payload systems are managed by the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC). Users access HOSC systems by internet protocols in support of daily operations, preflight simulation, and test. In support of this diverse user community, a modem security architecture has been implemented. The architecture has evolved over time from an isolated but open system to a system which supports local and remote access to the ISS over broad geographic regions. This has been accomplished through the use of an evolved security strategy, PKI, and custom design. Through this paper, descriptions of the migration process and the lessons learned are presented. This will include product decision criteria, rationale, and the use of commodity products in the end architecture. This paper will also stress the need for interoperability of various products and the effects of seemingly insignificant details.

  17. Controls Over the Contractor Common Access Card Life Cycle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-10

    Identification System SES Senior Executive Service SPOC Service Point of Contact TASM Trusted Agent Security Manager USD (AT&L) Under...the final report by October 31, 2008. 53 Finding D. Oversight of Common Access Card Sponsors DoD CVS Service Points of Contact ( SPOCs ...authorization to approve contractor CACs. Organization of CAC Application Sites Each Service agency has an SPOC who is responsible for coordinating with

  18. Proximity-based access control for context-sensitive information provision in SOA-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajappan, Gowri; Wang, Xiaofei; Grant, Robert; Paulini, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) has enabled open-architecture integration of applications within an enterprise. For net-centric Command and Control (C2), this elucidates information sharing between applications and users, a critical requirement for mission success. The Information Technology (IT) access control schemes, which arbitrate who gets access to what information, do not yet have the contextual knowledge to dynamically allow this information sharing to happen dynamically. The access control might prevent legitimate users from accessing information relevant to the current mission context, since this context may be very different from the context for which the access privileges were configured. We evaluate a pair of data relevance measures - proximity and risk - and use these as the basis of dynamic access control. Proximity is a measure of the strength of connection between the user and the resource. However, proximity is not sufficient, since some data might have a negative impact, if leaked, which far outweighs importance to the subject's mission. For this, we use a risk measure to quantify the downside of data compromise. Given these contextual measures of proximity and risk, we investigate extending Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC), which is used by the Department of Defense, and Role-Based Access Control (RBAC), which is widely used in the civilian market, so that these standards-based access control models are given contextual knowledge to enable dynamic information sharing. Furthermore, we consider the use of such a contextual access control scheme in a SOA-based environment, in particular for net-centric C2.

  19. Disturbance rejection performance analyses of closed loop control systems by reference to disturbance ratio.

    PubMed

    Alagoz, Baris Baykant; Deniz, Furkan Nur; Keles, Cemal; Tan, Nusret

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates disturbance rejection capacity of closed loop control systems by means of reference to disturbance ratio (RDR). The RDR analysis calculates the ratio of reference signal energy to disturbance signal energy at the system output and provides a quantitative evaluation of disturbance rejection performance of control systems on the bases of communication channel limitations. Essentially, RDR provides a straightforward analytical method for the comparison and improvement of implicit disturbance rejection capacity of closed loop control systems. Theoretical analyses demonstrate us that RDR of the negative feedback closed loop control systems are determined by energy spectral density of controller transfer function. In this manner, authors derived design criteria for specifications of disturbance rejection performances of PID and fractional order PID (FOPID) controller structures. RDR spectra are calculated for investigation of frequency dependence of disturbance rejection capacity and spectral RDR analyses are carried out for PID and FOPID controllers. For the validation of theoretical results, simulation examples are presented.

  20. Fertility effects of abortion and birth control pill access for minors.

    PubMed

    Guldi, Melanie

    2008-11-01

    This article empirically assesses whether age-restricted access to abortion and the birth control pill influence minors' fertility in the United States. There is not a strong consensus in previous literature regarding the relationship between laws restricting minors' access to abortion and minors' birth rates. This is the first study to recognize that state laws in place prior to the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision enabled minors to legally consent to surgical treatment-including abortion-in some states but not in others, and to construct abortion access variables reflecting this. In this article, age-specific policy variables measure either a minor's legal ability to obtain an abortion or to obtain the birth control pill without parental involvement. I find fairly strong evidence that young women's birth rates dropped as a result of abortion access as well as evidence that birth control pill access led to a drop in birth rates among whites.

  1. Preliminary access routes and cost study analyses for seven potentially acceptable salt sites: Final report, October 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    This report analyzes highway and railroad access to seven potentially acceptable salt repository sites: Richton Dome and Cypress Creek Dome in Mississippi, Vacherie Dome in Louisiana, Swisher County and Deaf Smith County in Texas, and Davis Canyon and Lavender Canyon in utah. The objectives of the study were to investigate the routing of reasonable access corridors to the sites, describe major characteristics of each route, and estimate the costs for constructing or upgrading highways and railroads. The routes used in the analysis are not necessarily recommended or preferred over other routes, nor do they represent an implied final selection. Detailed engineering studies must be performed for the Davis Canyon and Lavender Canyon highway access before the analyzed routes can be considered to be viable. 20 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Leisure Items as Controls in the Attention Condition of Functional Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCord, Brandon E.; Neef, Nancy A.

    2005-01-01

    Leisure items (e.g., games, toys) are commonly made available as controls during attention conditions of functional analyses (Ringdahl, Winborn, Andelman, & Kitsukawa, 2002). However, Ringdahl et al. raised questions about this practice. This paper reviews research that supports and conflicts with the inclusion of leisure items as controls,…

  3. Play versus Alone Conditions as Controls during Functional Analyses of Self-Injurious Escape Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahng, SungWoo; Iwata, Brian A.

    1998-01-01

    A study compared effects of continuous reinforcement (play) and alone conditions as controls during functional analyses for 66 individuals whose self-injurious behavior (SIB) was maintained by escape. SIB was lower during both control conditions than it was during the test (demand) condition. SIB was lowest during the alone condition. (Author/CR)

  4. 36 CFR 1256.70 - What controls access to national security-classified information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What controls access to national security-classified information? 1256.70 Section 1256.70 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... HISTORICAL MATERIALS Access to Materials Containing National Security-Classified Information § 1256.70...

  5. 36 CFR 1256.70 - What controls access to national security-classified information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... national security-classified information? 1256.70 Section 1256.70 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... HISTORICAL MATERIALS Access to Materials Containing National Security-Classified Information § 1256.70 What controls access to national security-classified information? (a) The declassification of and public...

  6. 36 CFR 1256.70 - What controls access to national security-classified information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... national security-classified information? 1256.70 Section 1256.70 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... HISTORICAL MATERIALS Access to Materials Containing National Security-Classified Information § 1256.70 What controls access to national security-classified information? (a) The declassification of and public...

  7. 36 CFR 1256.70 - What controls access to national security-classified information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... national security-classified information? 1256.70 Section 1256.70 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... HISTORICAL MATERIALS Access to Materials Containing National Security-Classified Information § 1256.70 What controls access to national security-classified information? (a) The declassification of and public...

  8. 75 FR 71790 - Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access... Committee 224 meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport...

  9. 76 FR 3931 - Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access... Committee 224 Meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport...

  10. 76 FR 38742 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access... Committee 224 meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport...

  11. Modeling of Control Costs, Emissions, and Control Retrofits for Cost Effectiveness and Feasibility Analyses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about EPA’s use of the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) to develop estimates of SO2 and NOx emission control costs, projections of futureemissions, and projections of capacity of future control retrofits, assuming controls on EGUs.

  12. The Smart Card concept applied to access control

    SciTech Connect

    Seidman, S.

    1986-01-01

    Passwords tend to be handled carelessly, and so are easily lost or stolen. Because they are intangible, their loss or theft generally goes unnoticed. Because they are constant, they may be used by anyone for as long as they remain in active use by a legitimate user. A step up in password security is offered by a new range of products which generate a new code each time the device is used. Devices are being produced in packages as small as a standard plastic credit card, including internal battery power, integral keyboard and LCD display. Security features of the Smart Card are reviewed, and several random access code generators currently available in the commercial marketplace are described.

  13. 77 FR 26789 - Certain Semiconductor Chips Having Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory Controllers and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Chips Having Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory Controllers and Products Containing Same; Determination Rescinding the Exclusion Order and Cease and Desist Orders...

  14. 75 FR 47464 - Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Office 37 CFR Part 201 Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies AGENCY: Copyright Office, Library of Congress. ACTION: Final...

  15. A contextual role-based access control authorization model for electronic patient record.

    PubMed

    Motta, Gustavo H M B; Furuie, Sergio S

    2003-09-01

    The design of proper models for authorization and access control for electronic patient record (EPR) is essential to a wide scale use of EPR in large health organizations. In this paper, we propose a contextual role-based access control authorization model aiming to increase the patient privacy and the confidentiality of patient data, whereas being flexible enough to consider specific cases. This model regulates user's access to EPR based on organizational roles. It supports a role-tree hierarchy with authorization inheritance; positive and negative authorizations; static and dynamic separation of duties based on weak and strong role conflicts. Contextual authorizations use environmental information available at access time, like user/patient relationship, in order to decide whether a user is allowed to access an EPR resource. This enables the specification of a more flexible and precise authorization policy, where permission is granted or denied according to the right and the need of the user to carry out a particular job function.

  16. Implementing the Victory Access Control Framework in a Military Ground Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    Attribute Markup Language (SAML) and eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML). These technologies are typically used for securing an...interfaces. REFERENCES [1] OASIS, “Assertions and Protocols for the OASIS Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) V2.0”, OASIS Standard...Online]. Available: http://docs.oasis- open.org/security/saml/v2.0/saml-core-2.0-os.pdf March 2005. [2] OASIS, “eXtensible Access Control Markup

  17. Springfield Processing Plant* (A Hypothetical Facility) SPP, Entry Control Point and Vehicle Gate Access Control Post Order

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, Gregory A.

    2014-06-01

    This hypothetical order provides the requirements and instructions for the Springfield Processing Plant (SPP) Vehicle Gate and Entry Control Point (ECP) in the perimeter access building. The purpose of this post is to prevent the theft, sabotage or diversion of nuclear material (NM), control access and exit at the protected area, and to respond to emergencies according the SPP Guard Force (GF) Contingency Plan and as directed by a Guard Force Supervisor.

  18. Performance analysis and overload control of an open service access (OSA) architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Jens K.; Nyberg, Christian; Kihl, Maria

    2003-08-01

    The trend of the service architectures developed in telecommunications today is that they should be open in the sense that they can communicate over the borders of different networks. Instead of each network having their own service architecture with their own applications, all networks should be able to use the same applications. 3GPP, the organization developing specifications for the 3G networks has specified the standard Open Service Access (OSA), as a part of the 3G specification. OSA offers different Application Protocol Interfaces that enable an application that resides outside a network to use the capabilities of the network. This paper analyses the performance of an OSA gateway. It is examined how the overload control can be dealt with in a way to best satisfy the operators and the 3'rd parties. There are some guiding principles in the specifications, but a lot of decisions have to be made by the implementors of application servers and OSA gateways. Proposals of different requirements for an OSA architecture exist such as, minimum amount of accepted calls per second and time constraint for the maximal total delay for an application. Maximal and fair throughput have to be prioritized from the 3'rd parties view, but profit is the main interest from the operators point of view. Therefore this paper examines a priority based proposal of an overload control mechanism taking these aspects and requirements into account.

  19. Increasing software testability with standard access and control interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikora, Allen P; Some, Raphael R.; Tamir, Yuval

    2003-01-01

    We describe an approach to improving the testability of complex software systems with software constructs modeled after the hardware JTAG bus, used to provide visibility and controlability in testing digital circuits.

  20. Advanced Techniques for Deploying Reliable and Efficient Access Control: Application to E-healthcare.

    PubMed

    Jaïdi, Faouzi; Labbene-Ayachi, Faten; Bouhoula, Adel

    2016-12-01

    Nowadays, e-healthcare is a main advancement and upcoming technology in healthcare industry that contributes to setting up automated and efficient healthcare infrastructures. Unfortunately, several security aspects remain as main challenges towards secure and privacy-preserving e-healthcare systems. From the access control perspective, e-healthcare systems face several issues due to the necessity of defining (at the same time) rigorous and flexible access control solutions. This delicate and irregular balance between flexibility and robustness has an immediate impact on the compliance of the deployed access control policy. To address this issue, the paper defines a general framework to organize thinking about verifying, validating and monitoring the compliance of access control policies in the context of e-healthcare databases. We study the problem of the conformity of low level policies within relational databases and we particularly focus on the case of a medical-records management database defined in the context of a Medical Information System. We propose an advanced solution for deploying reliable and efficient access control policies. Our solution extends the traditional lifecycle of an access control policy and allows mainly managing the compliance of the policy. We refer to an example to illustrate the relevance of our proposal.

  1. 76 FR 38293 - Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 240 RIN 3235-AK53 Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access... establish, document, and maintain a system of risk management controls and supervisory procedures that... develop, test, and implement the relevant risk management controls and supervisory procedures...

  2. 33 CFR 165.9 - Geographic application of limited and controlled access areas and regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and controlled access areas and regulated navigation areas. 165.9 Section 165.9 Navigation and... controlled access areas and regulated navigation areas. (a) General. The geographic application of the limited and controlled access areas and regulated navigation areas in this part are determined based...

  3. Cognitive Control and Lexical Access in Younger and Older Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialystok, Ellen; Craik, Fergus; Luk, Gigi

    2008-01-01

    Ninety-six participants, who were younger (20 years) or older (68 years) adults and either monolingual or bilingual, completed tasks assessing working memory, lexical retrieval, and executive control. Younger participants performed most of the tasks better than older participants, confirming the effect of aging on these processes. The effect of…

  4. Trust-Based Access Control Model from Sociological Approach in Dynamic Online Social Network Environment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seungjoo

    2014-01-01

    There has been an explosive increase in the population of the OSN (online social network) in recent years. The OSN provides users with many opportunities to communicate among friends and family. Further, it facilitates developing new relationships with previously unknown people having similar beliefs or interests. However, the OSN can expose users to adverse effects such as privacy breaches, the disclosing of uncontrolled material, and the disseminating of false information. Traditional access control models such as MAC, DAC, and RBAC are applied to the OSN to address these problems. However, these models are not suitable for the dynamic OSN environment because user behavior in the OSN is unpredictable and static access control imposes a burden on the users to change the access control rules individually. We propose a dynamic trust-based access control for the OSN to address the problems of the traditional static access control. Moreover, we provide novel criteria to evaluate trust factors such as sociological approach and evaluate a method to calculate the dynamic trust values. The proposed method can monitor negative behavior and modify access permission levels dynamically to prevent the indiscriminate disclosure of information. PMID:25374943

  5. Trust-based access control model from sociological approach in dynamic online social network environment.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seungsoo; Kim, Seungjoo

    2014-01-01

    There has been an explosive increase in the population of the OSN (online social network) in recent years. The OSN provides users with many opportunities to communicate among friends and family. Further, it facilitates developing new relationships with previously unknown people having similar beliefs or interests. However, the OSN can expose users to adverse effects such as privacy breaches, the disclosing of uncontrolled material, and the disseminating of false information. Traditional access control models such as MAC, DAC, and RBAC are applied to the OSN to address these problems. However, these models are not suitable for the dynamic OSN environment because user behavior in the OSN is unpredictable and static access control imposes a burden on the users to change the access control rules individually. We propose a dynamic trust-based access control for the OSN to address the problems of the traditional static access control. Moreover, we provide novel criteria to evaluate trust factors such as sociological approach and evaluate a method to calculate the dynamic trust values. The proposed method can monitor negative behavior and modify access permission levels dynamically to prevent the indiscriminate disclosure of information.

  6. An Action-Based Fine-Grained Access Control Mechanism for Structured Documents and Its Application

    PubMed Central

    Su, Mang; Li, Fenghua; Tang, Zhi; Yu, Yinyan; Zhou, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an action-based fine-grained access control mechanism for structured documents. Firstly, we define a describing model for structured documents and analyze the application scenarios. The describing model could support the permission management on chapters, pages, sections, words, and pictures of structured documents. Secondly, based on the action-based access control (ABAC) model, we propose a fine-grained control protocol for structured documents by introducing temporal state and environmental state. The protocol covering different stages from document creation, to permission specification and usage control are given by using the Z-notation. Finally, we give the implementation of our mechanism and make the comparisons between the existing methods and our mechanism. The result shows that our mechanism could provide the better solution of fine-grained access control for structured documents in complicated networks. Moreover, it is more flexible and practical. PMID:25136651

  7. The ribosome quality control pathway can access nascent polypeptides stalled at the Sec61 translocon.

    PubMed

    von der Malsburg, Karina; Shao, Sichen; Hegde, Ramanujan S

    2015-06-15

    Cytosolic ribosomes that stall during translation are split into subunits, and nascent polypeptides trapped in the 60S subunit are ubiquitinated by the ribosome quality control (RQC) pathway. Whether the RQC pathway can also target stalls during cotranslational translocation into the ER is not known. Here we report that listerin and NEMF, core RQC components, are bound to translocon-engaged 60S subunits on native ER membranes. RQC recruitment to the ER in cultured cells is stimulated by translation stalling. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that translocon-targeted nascent polypeptides that subsequently stall are polyubiquitinated in 60S complexes. Ubiquitination at the translocon requires cytosolic exposure of the polypeptide at the ribosome-Sec61 junction. This exposure can result from either failed insertion into the Sec61 channel or partial backsliding of translocating nascent chains. Only Sec61-engaged nascent chains early in their biogenesis were relatively refractory to ubiquitination. Modeling based on recent 60S-RQC and 80S-Sec61 structures suggests that the E3 ligase listerin accesses nascent polypeptides via a gap in the ribosome-translocon junction near the Sec61 lateral gate. Thus the RQC pathway can target stalled translocation intermediates for degradation from the Sec61 channel.

  8. The ribosome quality control pathway can access nascent polypeptides stalled at the Sec61 translocon

    PubMed Central

    von der Malsburg, Karina; Shao, Sichen; Hegde, Ramanujan S.

    2015-01-01

    Cytosolic ribosomes that stall during translation are split into subunits, and nascent polypeptides trapped in the 60S subunit are ubiquitinated by the ribosome quality control (RQC) pathway. Whether the RQC pathway can also target stalls during cotranslational translocation into the ER is not known. Here we report that listerin and NEMF, core RQC components, are bound to translocon-engaged 60S subunits on native ER membranes. RQC recruitment to the ER in cultured cells is stimulated by translation stalling. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that translocon-targeted nascent polypeptides that subsequently stall are polyubiquitinated in 60S complexes. Ubiquitination at the translocon requires cytosolic exposure of the polypeptide at the ribosome–Sec61 junction. This exposure can result from either failed insertion into the Sec61 channel or partial backsliding of translocating nascent chains. Only Sec61-engaged nascent chains early in their biogenesis were relatively refractory to ubiquitination. Modeling based on recent 60S–RQC and 80S–Sec61 structures suggests that the E3 ligase listerin accesses nascent polypeptides via a gap in the ribosome–translocon junction near the Sec61 lateral gate. Thus the RQC pathway can target stalled translocation intermediates for degradation from the Sec61 channel. PMID:25877867

  9. The SH2 domain of Abl kinases regulates kinase autophosphorylation by controlling activation loop accessibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamontanara, Allan Joaquim; Georgeon, Sandrine; Tria, Giancarlo; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Hantschel, Oliver

    2014-11-01

    The activity of protein kinases is regulated by multiple molecular mechanisms, and their disruption is a common driver of oncogenesis. A central and almost universal control element of protein kinase activity is the activation loop that utilizes both conformation and phosphorylation status to determine substrate access. In this study, we use recombinant Abl tyrosine kinases and conformation-specific kinase inhibitors to quantitatively analyse structural changes that occur after Abl activation. Allosteric SH2-kinase domain interactions were previously shown to be essential for the leukemogenesis caused by the Bcr-Abl oncoprotein. We find that these allosteric interactions switch the Abl activation loop from a closed to a fully open conformation. This enables the trans-autophosphorylation of the activation loop and requires prior phosphorylation of the SH2-kinase linker. Disruption of the SH2-kinase interaction abolishes activation loop phosphorylation. Our analysis provides a molecular mechanism for the SH2 domain-dependent activation of Abl that may also regulate other tyrosine kinases.

  10. Advanced Guidance and Control for Hypersonics and Space Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Hall, Charles E.; Mulqueen, John A.; Jones, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Advanced guidance and control (AG&C) technologies are critical for meeting safety, reliability, and cost requirements for the next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV), whether it is fully rocket-powered or has air- breathing components. This becomes clear upon examining the number of expendable launch vehicle failures in the recent past where AG&C technologies could have saved a RLV with the same failure mode, the additional vehicle problems where t h i s technology applies, and the costs and time associated with mission design with or without all these failure issues. The state-of-the-art in guidance and control technology, as well as in computing technology, is the point where we can look to the possibility of being able to safely return a RLV in any situation where it can physically be recovered. This paper outlines reasons for AWC, current technology efforts, and the additional work needed for making this goal a reality. There are a number of approaches to AG&C that have the potential for achieving the desired goals. For some of these methods, we compare the results of tests designed to demonstrate the achievement of the goals. Tests up to now have been focused on rocket-powered vehicles; application to hypersonic air-breathers is planned. We list the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, briefly describe an automated test scoring method, and display results of the tests. Some of the technology components have reached the maturity level where they are ready for application to a new vehicle concept, while others are not far along in development.

  11. Steganography-based access control to medical data hidden in electrocardiogram.

    PubMed

    Mai, Vu; Khalil, Ibrahim; Ibaida, Ayman

    2013-01-01

    Steganographic techniques allow secret data to be embedded inside another host data such as an image or a text file without significant changes to the quality of the host data. In this research, we demonstrate how steganography can be used as the main mechanism to build an access control model that gives data owners complete control to their sensitive cardiac health information hidden in their own Electrocardiograms. Our access control model is able to protect the privacy of users, the confidentiality of medical data, reduce storage space and make it more efficient to upload and download large amount of data.

  12. Modelling of Medium Access Control (MAC) Protocols for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Slot IP Internet Protocol LAN Local Area Network MAC Medium Access Control MACAW Medium Access Protocol for Wireless LANs MANET Mobile Ad-hoc...Unforced state – It waits after entering the state until it is invoked by another process or an interrupt. It is in dark grey on this report, and red ... green in OPNET. A MAC process model is built for general initialisations of the MAC module, and to invoke the selected MAC protocol process model

  13. Analysis of Decision Factors for the Application of Information Access Controls within the Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foerster, Carl A.

    2013-01-01

    The application of access controls on internal information necessarily impacts the availability of that information for sharing inside the enterprise. The decisions establishing the degree of control are a crucial first step to balance the requirements to protect and share. This research develops a set of basic decision factors and examines other…

  14. Sex based subgroup differences in randomized controlled trials: empirical evidence from Cochrane meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Wallach, Joshua D; Sullivan, Patrick G; Trepanowski, John F; Steyerberg, Ewout W

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the frequency, validity, and relevance of statistically significant (P<0.05) sex-treatment interactions in randomized controlled trials in Cochrane meta-analyses. Design Meta-epidemiological study. Data sources Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) and PubMed. Eligibility criteria for study selection Reviews published in the CDSR with sex-treatment subgroup analyses in the forest plots, using data from randomized controlled trials. Data extraction Information on the study design and sex subgroup data were extracted from reviews and forest plots that met inclusion criteria. For each statistically significant sex-treatment interaction, the potential for biological plausibility and clinical significance was considered. Results Among the 41 reviews with relevant data, there were 109 separate treatment-outcome analyses (“topics”). Among the 109 topics, eight (7%) had a statistically significant sex-treatment interaction. The 109 topics included 311 randomized controlled trials (162 with both sexes, 46 with males only, 103 with females only). Of the 162 individual randomized controlled trials that included both sexes, 15 (9%) had a statistically significant sex-treatment interaction. Of four topics where the first published randomized controlled trial had a statistically significant sex-treatment interaction, no meta-analyses that included other randomized controlled trials retained the statistical significance and no meta-analyses showed statistical significance when data from the first published randomized controlled trial were excluded. Of the eight statistically significant sex-treatment interactions from the overall analyses, only three were discussed by the CDSR reviewers for a potential impact on different clinical management for males compared with females. None of these topics had a sex-treatment interaction that influenced treatment recommendations in recent guidelines. UpToDate, an online physician-authored clinical

  15. MAAC: a software tool for user authentication and access control to the electronic patient record in an open distributed environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, Gustavo H.; Furuie, Sergio S.

    2004-04-01

    Designing proper models for authorization and access control for the electronic patient record (EPR) is essential to wide scale use of the EPR in large health organizations. This work presents MAAC (Middleware for Authentication and Access Control), a tool that implements a contextual role-based access control (RBAC) authorization model. RBAC regulates user"s access to computers resources based on their organizational roles. A contextual authorization uses environmental information available at access-request time, like user/patient relationship, in order to decide whether a user has the right to access an EPR resource. The software architecture where MAAC is implemented uses Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, Java programming language and the CORBA/OMG standards CORBA Security Service and Resource Access Decision Facility. With those open and distributed standards, heterogeneous EPR components can request user authentication and access authorization services in a unified and consistent fashion across multiple platforms.

  16. Guidelines for the quality control of population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analyses: an industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Bonate, P L; Strougo, A; Desai, A; Roy, M; Yassen, A; van der Walt, J S; Kaibara, A; Tannenbaum, S

    2012-12-01

    Quality population modeling and simulation analyses and reports are something every modeler desires. However, little attention in the literature has been paid to what constitutes quality regarding population analyses. Very rarely do published manuscripts contain any statement about quality assurance of the modeling results contained therein. The purpose of this manuscript is to present guidelines for the quality assurance of population analyses, particularly with regards to the use of NONMEM from an industrial perspective. Quality guidelines are developed for the NONMEM installation itself, NONMEM data sets, control streams, output listings, output data files and resultant post-processing, reporting of results, and the review processes. These guidelines were developed to be thorough yet practical, though are not meant to be completely comprehensive. It is our desire to ensure that what is reported accurately reflects the collected data, the modeling process, and model outputs for a modeling project.

  17. Analyses and tests of the B-1 aircraft structural mode control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wykes, J. H.; Byar, T. R.; Macmiller, C. J.; Greek, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    Analyses and flight tests of the B-1 structural mode control system (SMCS) are presented. Improvements in the total dynamic response of a flexible aircraft and the benefits to ride qualities, handling qualities, crew efficiency, and reduced dynamic loads on the primary structures, were investigated. The effectiveness and the performance of the SMCS, which uses small aerodynamic surfaces at the vehicle nose to provide damping to the structural modes, were evaluated.

  18. Virus spreading in wireless sensor networks with a medium access control mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya-Qi; Yang, Xiao-Yuan

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, an extended version of standard susceptible-infected (SI) model is proposed to consider the influence of a medium access control mechanism on virus spreading in wireless sensor networks. Theoretical analysis shows that the medium access control mechanism obviously reduces the density of infected nodes in the networks, which has been ignored in previous studies. It is also found that by increasing the network node density or node communication radius greatly increases the number of infected nodes. The theoretical results are confirmed by numerical simulations.

  19. RiBAC: Role Interaction Based Access Control Model for Community Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Youna; Masoumzadeh, Amirreza; Joshi, James B. D.; Kim, Minkoo

    Community computing is an agent-based development paradigm for ubiquitous computing systems. In a community computing system, ubiquitous services are provided by cooperation among agents. While agents cooperate, they interact with each other continuously to access data of other agents and/or to execute other agent’s actions. However, in cases of security-critical ubiquitous services such as medical or military services, an access control mechanism is necessary to prevent unauthorized access to critical data or action. In this paper, we propose a family of Role interaction Based Access Control (RiBAC) models for Community Computing, by extending the existing RBAC model to consider role interactions. As a basic model, we propose the core RiBAC model. For the convenience of management and to provide more fine-grained access control, we propose Hierarchical RiBAC (H-RiBAC), Constrained RiBAC (C-RiBAC), and Constrained Hierarchical RiBAC (CH-RiBAC) models. Finally, we extend the existing community computing framework to accommodate the specification and enforcement of RiBAC policies.

  20. Chroni - an Android Application for Geochronologists to Access Archived Sample Analyses from the NSF-Funded Geochron.Org Data Repository.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nettles, J. J.; Bowring, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    NSF requires data management plans as part of funding proposals and geochronologists, among other scientists, are archiving their data and results to the public cloud archives managed by the NSF-funded Integrated Earth Data Applications, or IEDA. GeoChron is a database for geochronology housed within IEDA. The software application U-Pb_Redux developed at the Cyber Infrastructure Research and Development Lab for the Earth Sciences (CIRDLES.org) at the College of Charleston provides seamless connectivity to GeoChron for uranium-lead (U-Pb) geochronologists to automatically upload and retrieve their data and results. U-Pb_Redux also manages publication-quality documents including report tables and graphs. CHRONI is a lightweight mobile application for Android devices that provides easy access to these archived data and results. With CHRONI, U-Pb geochronologists can view archived data and analyses downloaded from the Geochron database, or any other location, in a customizable format. CHRONI uses the same extensible markup language (XML) schema and documents used by U-Pb_Redux and GeoChron. Report Settings are special XML files that can be customized in U-Pb_Redux, stored in the cloud, and then accessed and used in CHRONI to create the same customized data display on the mobile device. In addition to providing geologists effortless and mobile access to archived data and analyses, CHRONI allows users to manage their GeoChron credentials, quickly download private and public files via a specified IEDA International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) or URL, and view specialized graphics associated with particular IGSNs. Future versions of CHRONI will be developed to support iOS compatible devices. CHRONI is an open source project under the Apache 2 license and is hosted at https://github.com/CIRDLES/CHRONI. We encourage community participation in its continued development.

  1. Automated biometric access control system for two-man-rule enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.P.; Maxwell, R.L. ); Henderson, R.W. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a limited access control system for nuclear facilities which makes use of the eye retinal identity verifier to control the passage of personnel into and out of one or a group of security controlled working areas. This access control system requires no keys, cards or credentials. The user simply enters his Personal Identification Number (PIN) and takes an eye reading to request passage. The PIN does not have to be kept secret. The system then relies on biometric identity verification of the user, along with other system information, to make the decision of whether or not to unlock the door. It also enforces multiple zones control with personnel tracking and the two-man-rule.

  2. High-Alpha Research Vehicle Lateral-Directional Control Law Description, Analyses, and Simulation Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Lallman, Frederick J.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Bacon, Barton J.

    1998-01-01

    This report contains a description of a lateral-directional control law designed for the NASA High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The HARV is a F/A-18 aircraft modified to include a research flight computer, spin chute, and thrust-vectoring in the pitch and yaw axes. Two separate design tools, CRAFT and Pseudo Controls, were integrated to synthesize the lateral-directional control law. This report contains a description of the lateral-directional control law, analyses, and nonlinear simulation (batch and piloted) results. Linear analysis results include closed-loop eigenvalues, stability margins, robustness to changes in various plant parameters, and servo-elastic frequency responses. Step time responses from nonlinear batch simulation are presented and compared to design guidelines. Piloted simulation task scenarios, task guidelines, and pilot subjective ratings for the various maneuvers are discussed. Linear analysis shows that the control law meets the stability margin guidelines and is robust to stability and control parameter changes. Nonlinear batch simulation analysis shows the control law exhibits good performance and meets most of the design guidelines over the entire range of angle-of-attack. This control law (designated NASA-1A) was flight tested during the Summer of 1994 at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center.

  3. Accessibility to tuberculosis control services and tuberculosis programme performance in southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Dangisso, Mesay Hailu; Datiko, Daniel Gemechu; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the expansion of health services and community-based interventions in Ethiopia, limited evidence exists about the distribution of and access to health facilities and their relationship with the performance of tuberculosis (TB) control programmes. We aim to assess the geographical distribution of and physical accessibility to TB control services and their relationship with TB case notification rates (CNRs) and treatment outcome in the Sidama Zone, southern Ethiopia. Design We carried out an ecological study to assess physical accessibility to TB control facilities and the association of physical accessibility with TB CNRs and treatment outcome. We collected smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) cases treated during 2003–2012 from unit TB registers and TB service data such as availability of basic supplies for TB control and geographic locations of health services. We used ArcGIS 10.2 to measure the distance from each enumeration location to the nearest TB control facilities. A linear regression analysis was employed to assess factors associated with TB CNRs and treatment outcome. Results Over a decade the health service coverage (the health facility–to-population ratio) increased by 36% and the accessibility to TB control facilities also improved. Thus, the mean distance from TB control services was 7.6 km in 2003 (ranging from 1.8 to 25.5 km) between kebeles (the smallest administrative units) and had decreased to 3.2 km in 2012 (ranging from 1.5 to 12.4 km). In multivariate linear regression, as distance from TB diagnostic facilities (b-estimate=−0.25, p<0.001) and altitude (b-estimate=−0.31, p<0.001) increased, the CNRs of TB decreased, whereas a higher population density was associated with increased TB CNRs. Similarly, distance to TB control facilities (b-estimate=−0.27, p<0.001) and altitude (b-estimate=−0.30, p<0.001) were inversely associated with treatment success (proportion of treatment completed or cured cases). Conclusions

  4. Developing Access Control Model of Web OLAP over Trusted and Collaborative Data Warehouses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fugkeaw, Somchart; Mitrpanont, Jarernsri L.; Manpanpanich, Piyawit; Juntapremjitt, Sekpon

    This paper proposes the design and development of Role- based Access Control (RBAC) model for the Single Sign-On (SSO) Web-OLAP query spanning over multiple data warehouses (DWs). The model is based on PKI Authentication and Privilege Management Infrastructure (PMI); it presents a binding model of RBAC authorization based on dimension privilege specified in attribute certificate (AC) and user identification. Particularly, the way of attribute mapping between DW user authentication and privilege of dimensional access is illustrated. In our approach, we apply the multi-agent system to automate flexible and effective management of user authentication, role delegation as well as system accountability. Finally, the paper culminates in the prototype system A-COLD (Access Control of web-OLAP over multiple DWs) that incorporates the OLAP features and authentication and authorization enforcement in the multi-user and multi-data warehouse environment.

  5. Pace: Privacy-Protection for Access Control Enforcement in P2P Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Artigas, Marc; García-López, Pedro

    In open environments such as peer-to-peer (P2P) systems, the decision to collaborate with multiple users — e.g., by granting access to a resource — is hard to achieve in practice due to extreme decentralization and the lack of trusted third parties. The literature contains a plethora of applications in which a scalable solution for distributed access control is crucial. This fact motivates us to propose a protocol to enforce access control, applicable to networks consisting entirely of untrusted nodes. The main feature of our protocol is that it protects both sensitive permissions and sensitive policies, and does not rely on any centralized authority. We analyze the efficiency (computational effort and communication overhead) as well as the security of our protocol.

  6. Dynamics, stability, and control analyses of flapping wing micro-air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlowski, Christopher T.; Girard, Anouck R.

    2012-05-01

    The paper presents an overview of the various analyses of flight dynamics, stability, and control of flapping wing micro-air vehicles available in the literature. The potential benefits of flapping wing micro-air vehicles for civil, military, and search and rescue operations are numerous. The majority of the flight dynamics research involves the standard aircraft (6DOF) equations of motion, although a growth is evident in examining the multibody flight dynamics models of flapping wing micro-air vehicles. The stability of flapping wing micro-air vehicles is largely studied in the vicinity of hover and forward flight. The majority of stability studies focus on linear, time-invariant stability in the vicinity of reference flight conditions, such as hover or forward flight. The consistent result is that flapping wing micro-air vehicles are unstable in an open loop setting. The unstable result is based on linear and nonlinear stability analyses. Control has been demonstrated for hovering and forward flight through various methods, both linear and nonlinear in nature. The entirety of reported research into the stability and control of flapping wing micro-air vehicles has neglected the mass effects of the wings on the position and orientation of the central body. Successful control of a flapping wing micro-air vehicle, with the wings' mass effects included, is still an open research area.

  7. The need for the use of XACML access control policy in a distributed EHR and some performance considerations.

    PubMed

    Sucurovic, Snezana; Milutinovic, Veljko

    2008-01-01

    The Internet based distributed large scale information systems implements attribute based access control (ABAC) rather than Role Based Access Control (RBAC). The reason is that the Internet is identity less and that ABAC scales better. EXtensible Access Control Markup Language is standardized language for writing access control policies, access control requests and access control responses in ABAC. XACML can provide decentralized administration and credentials distribution. In year 2002 version of CEN ENV 13 606 attributes have been attached to EHCR components and in such a system ABAC and XACML have been easy to implement. This paper presents writing XACML policies in the case when attributes are in hierarchical structure. It is presented two possible solutions to write XACML policy in that case and that the solution when set functions are used is more compact and provides 10% better performances.

  8. Nurse practitioners and controlled substances prescriptive authority: improving access to care.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Michelle A; Tarlier, Denise S

    2013-03-01

    In 2007, Health Canada proposed a new framework to regulate prescriptive authority for controlled substances, titled New Classes of Practitioners Regulations (NCPR). The new regulatory framework was passed in November 2012; it gives nurse practitioners (NPs), midwives and podiatrists the authority to prescribe controlled medications under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act. It is expected that authorizing NPs to write prescriptions for certain controlled substances commonly used in primary care will enhance flexibility and timeliness in primary care service delivery. Studies from the United States have shown positive outcomes in primary care access, decreased healthcare costs and the evolution and advancement of the NP role when prescriptive authority was expanded to include controlled substances. The purpose of this paper is to examine how NPs' prescriptive authority for controlled substances affects access to primary care and NP role development. Three key issues identified from the experience of one group of NPs in the United States (access to care, professional autonomy and prescriber knowledge) offer insight into the practice changes that may be anticipated for NPs in Canada now that they have acquired prescriptive authority for controlled substances. Recommendations are offered to assist nurse leaders and educators to best support NPs as they take on this new and important role responsibility.

  9. Prevention and Control of Dental Disease through Improved Access to Comprehensive Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Dental Association, Chicago, IL.

    Prevention of dental disease is the key to improving the nation's oral health. The American Dental Association (ADA) program of prevention and control of dental disease through improved access to comprehensive care concentrates on those who have special difficulties in receiving care: the poor, the elderly, the handicapped, the institutionalized…

  10. Secure Access Control and Large Scale Robust Representation for Online Multimedia Event Detection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changyu; Li, Huiling

    2014-01-01

    We developed an online multimedia event detection (MED) system. However, there are a secure access control issue and a large scale robust representation issue when we want to integrate traditional event detection algorithms into the online environment. For the first issue, we proposed a tree proxy-based and service-oriented access control (TPSAC) model based on the traditional role based access control model. Verification experiments were conducted on the CloudSim simulation platform, and the results showed that the TPSAC model is suitable for the access control of dynamic online environments. For the second issue, inspired by the object-bank scene descriptor, we proposed a 1000-object-bank (1000OBK) event descriptor. Feature vectors of the 1000OBK were extracted from response pyramids of 1000 generic object detectors which were trained on standard annotated image datasets, such as the ImageNet dataset. A spatial bag of words tiling approach was then adopted to encode these feature vectors for bridging the gap between the objects and events. Furthermore, we performed experiments in the context of event classification on the challenging TRECVID MED 2012 dataset, and the results showed that the robust 1000OBK event descriptor outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches. PMID:25147840

  11. Mining Roles and Access Control for Relational Data under Privacy and Accuracy Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pervaiz, Zahid

    2013-01-01

    Access control mechanisms protect sensitive information from unauthorized users. However, when sensitive information is shared and a Privacy Protection Mechanism (PPM) is not in place, an authorized insider can still compromise the privacy of a person leading to identity disclosure. A PPM can use suppression and generalization to anonymize and…

  12. A Model for Trust-based Access Control and Delegation in Mobile Clouds (Post Print)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Qing-Guo, Z., Rong, L.: An Access Control Model for Ubiquitous Computing Application. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Mobile ... Technology , Applications and Systems, Guangzhou, China (November 2005) 22. Baracaldo, N., Joshi, J.B.D.: A Trust-and-Risk Aware RBAC Framework: Tackling

  13. Functional requirements with survey results for integrated intrusion detection and access control annunciator systems

    SciTech Connect

    Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.

    1995-09-01

    This report contains the guidance Functional Requirements for an Integrated Intrusion Detection and Access Control Annunciator System, and survey results of selected commercial systems. The survey questions were based upon the functional requirements; therefore, the results reflect which and sometimes how the guidance recommendations were met.

  14. The Role of Automatic Indexing in Access Control: A Modular View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartson, H. Rex

    1974-01-01

    A model which relates the access control and indexing functions. The model is based on concept protection which allows a practically unbounded number of levels (subsets) of protection without requiring a fixed hierarchy among the levels. This protection is offered independently for each of the user operations allowed. (Author)

  15. Predicting Health Care Utilization among Latinos: Health Locus of Control Beliefs or Access Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jesus, Maria; Xiao, Chenyang

    2014-01-01

    There are two competing research explanations to account for Latinos' underutilization of health services relative to non-Latino Whites in the United States. One hypothesis examines the impact of health locus of control (HLOC) beliefs, while the other focuses on the role of access factors on health care use. To date, the relative strength of…

  16. The Use of Passwords for Controlled Access to Computer Resources. Computer Science & Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Helen M.

    This paper considers the generation of passwords and their effective application to the problem of controlling access to computer resources. After describing the need for and uses of passwords, password schemes are categorized according to selection technique, lifetime, physical characteristics, and information content. Password protection, both…

  17. An Access Control and Trust Management Framework for Loosely-Coupled Multidomain Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yue

    2010-01-01

    Multidomain environments where multiple organizations interoperate with each other are becoming a reality as can be seen in emerging Internet-based enterprise applications. Access control to ensure secure interoperation in such an environment is a crucial challenge. A multidomain environment can be categorized as "tightly-coupled" and…

  18. 21 CFR 1311.125 - Requirements for establishing logical access control-Individual practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... least one of the individuals designated under paragraph (a) of this section must verify that the DEA... authentication credential to satisfy the logical access controls. The second individual must be a DEA registrant... practitioner's DEA registration expires, unless the registration has been renewed. (3) The...

  19. 21 CFR 1311.125 - Requirements for establishing logical access control-Individual practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... least one of the individuals designated under paragraph (a) of this section must verify that the DEA... authentication credential to satisfy the logical access controls. The second individual must be a DEA registrant... practitioner's DEA registration expires, unless the registration has been renewed. (3) The...

  20. 21 CFR 1311.125 - Requirements for establishing logical access control-Individual practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... least one of the individuals designated under paragraph (a) of this section must verify that the DEA... authentication credential to satisfy the logical access controls. The second individual must be a DEA registrant... practitioner's DEA registration expires, unless the registration has been renewed. (3) The...

  1. 21 CFR 1311.125 - Requirements for establishing logical access control-Individual practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... least one of the individuals designated under paragraph (a) of this section must verify that the DEA... authentication credential to satisfy the logical access controls. The second individual must be a DEA registrant... practitioner's DEA registration expires, unless the registration has been renewed. (3) The...

  2. A Stateful Multicast Access Control Mechanism for Future Metro-Area-Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Wei-qiang; Li, Jin-sheng; Hong, Pei-lin

    2003-01-01

    Multicasting is a necessity for a broadband metro-area-network; however security problems exist with current multicast protocols. A stateful multicast access control mechanism, based on MAPE, is proposed. The architecture of MAPE is discussed, as well as the states maintained and messages exchanged. The scheme is flexible and scalable. (Author/AEF)

  3. 76 FR 78866 - Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... for Access Control Technologies AGENCY: Copyright Office, Library of Congress. ACTION: Notice of... submitted comments. The Office is taking this action, in part, to clarify the proposal to the best of the... formats; and (2) are legally obtained by blind or other persons with print disabilities (as such...

  4. ACCIDENT ANALYSES & CONTROL OPTIONS IN SUPPORT OF THE SLUDGE WATER SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIAMS, J.C.

    2003-11-15

    This report documents the accident analyses and nuclear safety control options for use in Revision 7 of HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, ''K Basins Safety Analysis Report'' and Revision 4 of HNF-SD-SNF-TSR-001, ''Technical Safety Requirements - 100 KE and 100 KW Fuel Storage Basins''. These documents will define the authorization basis for Sludge Water System (SWS) operations. This report follows the guidance of DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports'', for calculating onsite and offsite consequences. The accident analysis summary is shown in Table ES-1 below. While this document describes and discusses potential control options to either mitigate or prevent the accidents discussed herein, it should be made clear that the final control selection for any accident is determined and presented in HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062.

  5. Using an integrated methods approach to analyse the emergent properties of military command and control.

    PubMed

    Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Stewart, Rebecca; Jenkins, Daniel; Wells, Linda; Salmon, Paul; Baber, Chris

    2009-07-01

    This paper applies the event analysis for systemic teamwork (EAST) method to an example of military command and control. EAST offers a way to describe system level emergent properties that arise from the complex interactions of system components (human and technical). These are described using an integrated methods approach and modelled using Task, Social and Propositional networks. The current article is divided into three parts: a brief description of the military command and control context, a brief description of the EAST method, and a more in depth presentation of the analysis outcomes. The emergent properties of the military scenario relate to the degree of system reconfigurability, systems level situational awareness and the role of mediating technology. The findings are compared with similar analyses undertaken in civilian domains, in which the latest developments in command and control, under the aegis of Network Enabled Capability (NEC), are already in place.

  6. Quality control and conduct of genome-wide association meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Thomas W; Day, Felix R; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Wood, Andrew R; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Ferreira, Teresa; Fall, Tove; Graff, Mariaelisa; Justice, Anne E; Luan, Jian'an; Gustafsson, Stefan; Randall, Joshua C; Vedantam, Sailaja; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Scherag, André; Esko, Tonu; Kutalik, Zoltán; Heid, Iris M; Loos, Ruth J F

    2014-05-01

    Rigorous organization and quality control (QC) are necessary to facilitate successful genome-wide association meta-analyses (GWAMAs) of statistics aggregated across multiple genome-wide association studies. This protocol provides guidelines for (i) organizational aspects of GWAMAs, and for (ii) QC at the study file level, the meta-level across studies and the meta-analysis output level. Real-world examples highlight issues experienced and solutions developed by the GIANT Consortium that has conducted meta-analyses including data from 125 studies comprising more than 330,000 individuals. We provide a general protocol for conducting GWAMAs and carrying out QC to minimize errors and to guarantee maximum use of the data. We also include details for the use of a powerful and flexible software package called EasyQC. Precise timings will be greatly influenced by consortium size. For consortia of comparable size to the GIANT Consortium, this protocol takes a minimum of about 10 months to complete.

  7. Quality control and conduct of genome-wide association meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Thomas W; Day, Felix R; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Wood, Andrew R; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Ferreira, Teresa; Fall, Tove; Graff, Mariaelisa; Justice, Anne E; Luan, Jian'an; Gustafsson, Stefan; Randall, Joshua C; Vedantam, Sailaja; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Scherag, André; Esko, Tonu; Kutalik, Zoltán; Heid, Iris M; Loos, Ruth JF

    2014-01-01

    Rigorous organization and quality control (QC) are necessary to facilitate successful genome-wide association meta-analyses (GWAMAs) of statistics aggregated across multiple genome-wide association studies. This protocol provides guidelines for [1] organizational aspects of GWAMAs, and for [2] QC at the study file level, the meta-level across studies, and the meta-analysis output level. Real–world examples highlight issues experienced and solutions developed by the GIANT Consortium that has conducted meta-analyses including data from 125 studies comprising more than 330,000 individuals. We provide a general protocol for conducting GWAMAs and carrying out QC to minimize errors and to guarantee maximum use of the data. We also include details for use of a powerful and flexible software package called EasyQC. For consortia of comparable size to the GIANT consortium, the present protocol takes a minimum of about 10 months to complete. PMID:24762786

  8. Towards equitable access to medicines for the rural poor: analyses of insurance claims reveal rural pharmacy initiative triggers price competition in Kyrgyzstan

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background A rural pharmacy initiative (RPI) designed to increase access to medicines in rural Kyrgyzstan created a network of 12 pharmacies using a revolving drug fund mechanism in 12 villages where no pharmacies previously existed. The objective of this study was to determine if the establishment of the RPI resulted in the unforeseen benefit of triggering medicine price competition in pre-existing (non-RPI) private pharmacies located in the region. Methods We conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses on medicine insurance claims data from Kyrgyzstan's Mandatory Health Insurance Fund for the Jumgal District of Naryn Province from October 2003 to December 2007. We compared average quarterly medicine prices in competitor pharmacies before and after the introduction of the rural pharmacy initiative in October 2004 to determine the RPI impact on price competition. Results Descriptive analyses suggest competitors reacted to RPI prices for 21 of 30 (70%) medicines. Competitor medicine prices from the quarter before RPI introduction to the end of the study period decreased for 17 of 30 (57%) medicines, increased for 4 of 30 (13%) medicines, and remained unchanged for 9 of 30 (30%) medicines. Among the 9 competitor medicines with unchanged prices, five initially decreased in price but later reverted back to baseline prices. Multivariate analyses on 19 medicines that met sample size criteria confirm these findings. Fourteen of these 19 (74%) competitor medicines changed significantly in price from the quarter before RPI introduction to the quarter after RPI introduction, with 9 of 19 (47%) decreasing in price and 5 of 19 (26%) increasing in price. Conclusions The RPI served as a market driver, spurring competition in medicine prices in competitor pharmacies, even when they were located in different villages. Initiatives designed to increase equitable access to medicines in rural regions of developing and transitional countries should consider the potential to

  9. Joint Power and Multiple Access Control for Wireless Mesh Network with Rose Projection Method

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Meiqin; Shang, Lili; Xin, Yalin; Liu, Xiaohua; Wei, Xinjiang

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the utility maximization problem for the downlink of the multi-interface multichannel wireless mesh network with orthogonal frequency division multiple access. A cross-layer joint power and multiple access control algorithm are proposed. Rosen projection matrix is combined with Solodov projection techniques to build a three-memory gradient Rosen projection method, which is applied to solve this optimization problem. The convergence analysis is given and simulations show that the proposed solution achieves significant throughput compared with existing approaches. PMID:24883384

  10. Joint power and multiple access control for wireless mesh network with Rose projection method.

    PubMed

    Tang, Meiqin; Shang, Lili; Xin, Yalin; Liu, Xiaohua; Wei, Xinjiang

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the utility maximization problem for the downlink of the multi-interface multichannel wireless mesh network with orthogonal frequency division multiple access. A cross-layer joint power and multiple access control algorithm are proposed. Rosen projection matrix is combined with Solodov projection techniques to build a three-memory gradient Rosen projection method, which is applied to solve this optimization problem. The convergence analysis is given and simulations show that the proposed solution achieves significant throughput compared with existing approaches.

  11. Accessibility of dog populations for rabies control in Kathmandu valley, Nepal.

    PubMed Central

    Bögel, K.; Joshi, D. D.

    1990-01-01

    The accessibility of dogs in urban areas of Kathmandu valley was measured using the following approaches: determination of the proportion of dogs that bore signs of having been the objects of religious worship and other signs of household association, supplemented by information obtained by interviewing people in the neighbourhood; and the vaccination coverage attained in a rabies control campaign that was preceded by intensive activities to encourage the community to participate. An accessibility rate of 90-95% was determined using the first of these approaches, whereas 75-80% of the total dog population was reached in the vaccination campaign. PMID:2289296

  12. Access Scheme for Controlling Mobile Agents and its Application to Share Medical Information.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yu-Ting; Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Chen, Tzer-Long; Chung, Yu-Fang; Chen, Yu- Xin; Hwang, Jen-Hung; Wang, Huihui; Wei, Wei

    2016-05-01

    This study is showing the advantage of mobile agents to conquer heterogeneous system environments and contribute to a virtual integrated sharing system. Mobile agents will collect medical information from each medical institution as a method to achieve the medical purpose of data sharing. Besides, this research also provides an access control and key management mechanism by adopting Public key cryptography and Lagrange interpolation. The safety analysis of the system is based on a network attacker's perspective. The achievement of this study tries to improve the medical quality, prevent wasting medical resources and make medical resources access to appropriate configuration.

  13. Analyses of eigenvalue bias and control rod worths in FFTF (Fast Flux Test Facility)

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.V.; Dobbin, K.D.; Wootan, D.W.; Campbell, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) core loading during its ninth operating cycle was significantly different from that of previous cycles because of the presence of the Core Demonstration Experiment (CDE). The CDE consists of a number of axially blanketed fuel assemblies and internal blankets prototypic of advanced oxide cores in Liquid Metal Reactors (LMR). In preparation for the Cycle 9 reload design effort, a careful assessment of control rod worth and reactivity calculations for Cycles 1 through 8 was made. The goal of this study was to establish calculational biases and reduce uncertainties factored into the reload design calculations. These analyses helped assure that the operational objectives for Cycle 9 were met.

  14. HER2 codon 655 polymorphism and breast cancer: results from kin-cohort and case-control analyses.

    PubMed

    Millikan, Robert C; Hummer, Amanda J; Wolff, Mary S; Hishida, Asahi; Begg, Colin B

    2005-02-01

    Several published epidemiologic studies show increased breast cancer risk for carriers of the Val-allele at codon 655 of the HER2 gene. We conducted additional analyses using data from three studies, including case-control analyses stratified on age and kin-cohort analyses using relatives of cases and controls. The results provide additional evidence that HER2 codon 655 genotype may predispose to early-onset breast cancer.

  15. Numerical simulations and analyses of temperature control loop heat pipe for space CCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qingliang; Yang, Tao; Li, Chunlin

    2016-10-01

    As one of the key units of space CCD camera, the temperature range and stability of CCD components affect the image's indexes. Reasonable thermal design and robust thermal control devices are needed. One kind of temperature control loop heat pipe (TCLHP) is designed, which highly meets the thermal control requirements of CCD components. In order to study the dynamic behaviors of heat and mass transfer of TCLHP, particularly in the orbital flight case, a transient numerical model is developed by using the well-established empirical correlations for flow models within three dimensional thermal modeling. The temperature control principle and details of mathematical model are presented. The model is used to study operating state, flow and heat characteristics based upon the analyses of variations of temperature, pressure and quality under different operating modes and external heat flux variations. The results indicate that TCLHP can satisfy the thermal control requirements of CCD components well, and always ensure good temperature stability and uniformity. By comparison between flight data and simulated results, it is found that the model is to be accurate to within 1°C. The model can be better used for predicting and understanding the transient performance of TCLHP.

  16. Error types and error positions in neglect dyslexia: comparative analyses in neglect patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Weinzierl, Christiane; Kerkhoff, Georg; van Eimeren, Lucia; Keller, Ingo; Stenneken, Prisca

    2012-10-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect frequently involves a lateralised reading disorder, neglect dyslexia (ND). Reading of single words in ND is characterised by left-sided omissions and substitutions of letters. However, it is unclear whether the distribution of error types and positions within a word shows a unique pattern of ND when directly compared to healthy controls. This question has been difficult to answer so far, given the usually low number of reading errors in healthy controls. Therefore, the present study compared single word reading of 18 patients with left-sided neglect, due to right-hemisphere stroke, and 11 age-matched healthy controls, and adjusted individual task difficulty (by varying stimulus presentation times in participants) in order to reach approximately equal error rates between neglect patients and controls. Results showed that, while both omission and substitution errors were frequently produced in neglect patients and controls, only omissions appeared neglect-specific when task difficulty was adapted between groups. Analyses of individual letter positions within words revealed that the spatial distribution of reading errors in the neglect dyslexic patients followed an almost linear increase from the end to the beginning of the word (right-to-left-gradient). Both, the gradient in error positions and the predominance of omission errors presented a neglect-specific pattern. Consistent with current models of visual word processing, these findings suggest that ND reflects sublexical, visuospatial attentional mechanisms in letter string encoding.

  17. Distributed joint power and access control algorithm for secondary spectrum sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongyan; Chen, Enqing; Fu, Hongliang

    2010-08-01

    Based on interference temperature model, the problem of efficient secondary spectrum sharing is formulated as a power optimization problem with some constraints at physical layer. These constraints and optimization objective limit a feasible power vector set which leads to the need of access control besides power control. In this paper, we consider the decentralized cognitive radio network scenario where short-term data service is required, and the problem of distributed joint power and access control is studied to maximize the total secondary system throughput, subject to Quality of Service (QoS) constraints from individual secondary users and interference temperature limit (ITL) from primary system. Firstly, a pricing-based game model was used to solve distributed power allocation optimization problem in both high and low signal to interference noise ratio (SINR) scenarios. Secondly, when not all the secondary links can be supported with their QoS requirement and ITL, a distributed joint power and access control algorithm was introduced to find the allowable links which results in maximum network throughput with all the constraints satisfied, and the convergence performance is tested by simulations.

  18. BARTER: Behavior Profile Exchange for Behavior-Based Admission and Access Control in MANETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frias-Martinez, Vanessa; Stolfo, Salvatore J.; Keromytis, Angelos D.

    Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) are very dynamic networks with devices continuously entering and leaving the group. The highly dynamic nature of MANETs renders the manual creation and update of policies associated with the initial incorporation of devices to the MANET (admission control) as well as with anomaly detection during communications among members (access control) a very difficult task. In this paper, we present BARTER, a mechanism that automatically creates and updates admission and access control policies for MANETs based on behavior profiles. BARTER is an adaptation for fully distributed environments of our previously introduced BB-NAC mechanism for NAC technologies. Rather than relying on a centralized NAC enforcer, MANET members initially exchange their behavior profiles and compute individual local definitions of normal network behavior. During admission or access control, each member issues an individual decision based on its definition of normalcy. Individual decisions are then aggregated via a threshold cryptographic infrastructure that requires an agreement among a fixed amount of MANET members to change the status of the network. We present experimental results using content and volumetric behavior profiles computed from the ENRON dataset. In particular, we show that the mechanism achieves true rejection rates of 95% with false rejection rates of 9%.

  19. Controlled Access Headings in EAD Finding Aids: Current Practices in Number of and Types of Headings Assigned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascaro, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings from a study of controlled access headings assigned to encoded archival description finding aids in the Ohio Library and Information Network Finding Aid Repository, focusing on the number of headings per finding aid and the category of terms assigned. Assigning multiple controlled access headings was widely…

  20. A Privacy Access Control Framework for Web Services Collaboration with Role Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Linyuan; Huang, Zhiqiu; Zhu, Haibin

    With the popularity of Internet technology, web services are becoming the most promising paradigm for distributed computing. This increased use of web services has meant that more and more personal information of consumers is being shared with web service providers, leading to the need to guarantee the privacy of consumers. This paper proposes a role-based privacy access control framework for Web services collaboration, it utilizes roles to specify the privacy privileges of services, and considers the impact on the reputation degree of the historic experience of services in playing roles. Comparing to the traditional privacy access control approaches, this framework can make the fine-grained authorization decision, thus efficiently protecting consumers' privacy.

  1. A threat intelligence framework for access control security in the oil industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaskandrani, Faisal T.

    The research investigates the problem raised by the rapid development in the technology industry giving security concerns in facilities built by the energy industry containing diverse platforms. The difficulty of continuous updates to network security architecture and assessment gave rise to the need to use threat intelligence frameworks to better assess and address networks security issues. Focusing on access control security to the ICS and SCADA systems that is being utilized to carry out mission critical and life threatening operations. The research evaluates different threat intelligence frameworks that can be implemented in the industry seeking the most suitable and applicable one that address the issue and provide more security measures. The validity of the result is limited to the same environment that was researched as well as the technologies being utilized. The research concludes that it is possible to utilize a Threat Intelligence framework to prioritize security in Access Control Measures in the Oil Industry.

  2. An Internet of Things Example: Classrooms Access Control over Near Field Communication

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Daniel; Agudo, Juan Enrique; Sánchez, Héctor; Macías, Miguel Macías

    2014-01-01

    The Internet of Things is one of the ideas that has become increasingly relevant in recent years. It involves connecting things to the Internet in order to retrieve information from them at any time and from anywhere. In the Internet of Things, sensor networks that exchange information wirelessly via Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Zigbee or RF are common. In this sense, our paper presents a way in which each classroom control is accessed through Near Field Communication (NFC) and the information is shared via radio frequency. These data are published on the Web and could easily be used for building applications from the data collected. As a result, our application collects information from the classroom to create a control classroom tool that displays access to and the status of all the classrooms graphically and also connects this data with social networks. PMID:24755520

  3. An internet of things example: classrooms access control over near field communication.

    PubMed

    Palma, Daniel; Agudo, Juan Enrique; Sánchez, Héctor; Macías, Miguel Macías

    2014-04-21

    The Internet of Things is one of the ideas that has become increasingly relevant in recent years. It involves connecting things to the Internet in order to retrieve information from them at any time and from anywhere. In the Internet of Things, sensor networks that exchange information wirelessly via Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Zigbee or RF are common. In this sense, our paper presents a way in which each classroom control is accessed through Near Field Communication (NFC) and the information is shared via radio frequency. These data are published on the Web and could easily be used for building applications from the data collected. As a result, our application collects information from the classroom to create a control classroom tool that displays access to and the status of all the classrooms graphically and also connects this data with social networks.

  4. Sub-Network Access Control Technology Demonstrator: Software Design of the Network Management System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    validdes. En d’autres mots, ce projet est une 6tape suppldmentaire dans le dessein de migrer ces technologies radio vers la Flotte Op ~ rationnelle ...Defence Research and Recherche et ddveloppement Development Canada pour la defense Canada DEFENCE • I7 DEFENSE Sub-Network Access Control...dans l’optique qu’ils op ~rent sur des liens avec une large bande passantes dont la topologie 6volue Tentement. Les produites con-nerciaux de gestion de

  5. Flight test and analyses of the B-1 structural mode control system at supersonic flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wykes, J. H.; Kelpl, M. J.; Brosnan, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    A practical structural mode control system (SMCS) that could be turned on at takeoff and be left on for the entire flight was demonstrated. The SMCS appears to be more effective in damping the key fuselage bending modes at supersonic speeds than at the design point of Mach 0.85 (for fixed gains). The SMCS has an adverse effect on high frequency symmetric modes; however, this adverse effect did not make the system unstable and does not appear to affect ride quality performance. The vertical ride quality analyses indicate that the basic configuration without active systems is satisfactory for long term exposure. If clear air turbulence were to be encountered, indications are that the SMCS would be very effective in reducing the adverse accelerations. On the other hand, lateral ride quality analyses indicate that the aircraft with the SMCS on does not quite meet the long term exposure criteria, but would be satisfactory for shot term exposure at altitude. Again, the lateral SMCS was shown to be very effective in reducing peak lateral accelerations.

  6. The influence of patriarchal behavior on birth control access and use among recent Hispanic immigrants.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Eleazar U; Sable, Marjorie R; Campbell, James D; Dannerbeck, Anne

    2010-08-01

    It is commonly assumed that Hispanic immigrants in the United States subscribe to a patriarchal ideology that keeps women subordinated to men, often through violence and exploitative reproductive behaviors. If this assumption is true, we might expect to find that in the Hispanic culture patriarchal males control decision-making about access to and use of birth control. Structured interviews of 100 Hispanic men and 100 Hispanic women who were recent immigrants to a Midwest community were conducted to examine this assumption. Results did not support this assumption among this study population. We found no patriarchal ideology supporting women's subordination to men, violence as a mechanism of control, reproduction as a way of exploitation, or cultural influences discouraging access to and use of birth control in the Hispanic community. Rather, these immigrants revealed adequate knowledge of birth control use and positive perceptions of gender equality. Gaining a better understanding of the limited influence of patriarchal ideology on the use of birth control and family planning services among this Hispanic community may inform the development of family planning services tailored for new Hispanic immigrants.

  7. A human rights view on access to controlled substances for medical purposes under the international drug control framework.

    PubMed

    Gispen, Marie Elske C

    2013-11-05

    The world is confronted with a major public health deficit caused by poor access to controlled essential medicines under the international drug control framework. This is affecting millions of patients on a daily basis and resulting in numerous human rights violations. The present review contextualises this deficit from a human rights perspective. Drug control efforts are informed by a twofold objective stemming from the double nature of scheduled substances: free access for medical purposes should be ensured, though non-medical use of substances such as opium should be restricted. The international drug control framework is, in theory, based on this twofold notion, however at the level of interpretation, monitoring, and implementation, a one-sided emphasis is demonstrated. By tracing a parallel between the obligations of states under the international drug control framework and those that derive from human rights law, the review shows that the two systems seem incoherent and conflicting in nature and flags the importance of cross-disciplinary research into drug control and human rights.

  8. Breaking and Fixing Origin-Based Access Control in Hybrid Web/Mobile Application Frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Georgiev, Martin; Jana, Suman; Shmatikov, Vitaly

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid mobile applications (apps) combine the features of Web applications and “native” mobile apps. Like Web applications, they are implemented in portable, platform-independent languages such as HTML and JavaScript. Like native apps, they have direct access to local device resources—file system, location, camera, contacts, etc. Hybrid apps are typically developed using hybrid application frameworks such as PhoneGap. The purpose of the framework is twofold. First, it provides an embedded Web browser (for example, WebView on Android) that executes the app's Web code. Second, it supplies “bridges” that allow Web code to escape the browser and access local resources on the device. We analyze the software stack created by hybrid frameworks and demonstrate that it does not properly compose the access-control policies governing Web code and local code, respectively. Web code is governed by the same origin policy, whereas local code is governed by the access-control policy of the operating system (for example, user-granted permissions in Android). The bridges added by the framework to the browser have the same local access rights as the entire application, but are not correctly protected by the same origin policy. This opens the door to fracking attacks, which allow foreign-origin Web content included into a hybrid app (e.g., ads confined in iframes) to drill through the layers and directly access device resources. Fracking vulnerabilities are generic: they affect all hybrid frameworks, all embedded Web browsers, all bridge mechanisms, and all platforms on which these frameworks are deployed. We study the prevalence of fracking vulnerabilities in free Android apps based on the PhoneGap framework. Each vulnerability exposes sensitive local resources—the ability to read and write contacts list, local files, etc.—to dozens of potentially malicious Web domains. We also analyze the defenses deployed by hybrid frameworks to prevent resource access by foreign

  9. Breaking and Fixing Origin-Based Access Control in Hybrid Web/Mobile Application Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Martin; Jana, Suman; Shmatikov, Vitaly

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid mobile applications (apps) combine the features of Web applications and "native" mobile apps. Like Web applications, they are implemented in portable, platform-independent languages such as HTML and JavaScript. Like native apps, they have direct access to local device resources-file system, location, camera, contacts, etc. Hybrid apps are typically developed using hybrid application frameworks such as PhoneGap. The purpose of the framework is twofold. First, it provides an embedded Web browser (for example, WebView on Android) that executes the app's Web code. Second, it supplies "bridges" that allow Web code to escape the browser and access local resources on the device. We analyze the software stack created by hybrid frameworks and demonstrate that it does not properly compose the access-control policies governing Web code and local code, respectively. Web code is governed by the same origin policy, whereas local code is governed by the access-control policy of the operating system (for example, user-granted permissions in Android). The bridges added by the framework to the browser have the same local access rights as the entire application, but are not correctly protected by the same origin policy. This opens the door to fracking attacks, which allow foreign-origin Web content included into a hybrid app (e.g., ads confined in iframes) to drill through the layers and directly access device resources. Fracking vulnerabilities are generic: they affect all hybrid frameworks, all embedded Web browsers, all bridge mechanisms, and all platforms on which these frameworks are deployed. We study the prevalence of fracking vulnerabilities in free Android apps based on the PhoneGap framework. Each vulnerability exposes sensitive local resources-the ability to read and write contacts list, local files, etc.-to dozens of potentially malicious Web domains. We also analyze the defenses deployed by hybrid frameworks to prevent resource access by foreign-origin Web content

  10. A low-complexity medium access control framework for body sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Lei; Huang, Bang-Yu; Wu, Dan; Lin, Shao-Jie; Gu, Jia; Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Chen, Wei

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposed a low-complexity medium access control (MAC) protocol tailored for body sensor networks (BSN) applications. The MAC protocol was designated to handle collision avoidance by reducing the numbers of the overhead packets for handshake control within the BSN. We also suggested a novel message recovery mechanism for getting back the lost physiological information. The adaptive synchronization scheme we have implemented exploited the features of multiple data-rate and adjustable precision design to support differentiated healthcare applications. The MAC protocol was fully implemented using our BSN development platform. The experimental results suggested the improved MAC design was compact and energy-efficient.

  11. BTG-AC: Break-The-Glass Access Control Model for Medical Data in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Maw, Htoo; Xiao, Hannan; Christianson, Bruce; Malcolm, James

    2015-12-22

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have recently attracted much interest in the research community because of their wide range of applications. An emerging application for WSNs involves their use in healthcare where they are generally termed Wireless Medical Sensor Networks (WMSNs). In a hospital, outfitting every patient with tiny, wearable, wireless vital sign sensors would allow doctors, nurses and other caregivers to continuously monitor the state of their patients. In such a scenario, patients are expected to be treated in reasonable time, so, an access control model is needed which will provide both real-time access to comprehensive medical records and detect unauthorised access to sensitive data. In emergency situations, a doctor or nurse needs to access data immediately. The loss in data availability can result in further decline in the patient's condition or can even lead to death. Therefore, the availability of data is more important than any security concern in emergency situations. To address that research issue for medical data in WSNs, we propose the Break-The-Glass Access Control (BTG-AC) model that is a modified and redesigned version of the Break-The-Glass Role-Based Access Control (BTG-RBAC) model to address data availability issue and to detect the security policy violations from both authorised and unauthorised users. Several changes within the access control engine are made in BTG-RBAC in order to make the new BTG-AC to apply and fit in WSNs. This paper presents the detailed design and development of the BTG-AC model based on a healthcare scenario. The evaluation results show that the concepts of BTG, prevention and detection mechanism, and obligation provide more flexible access than other current access control models in WSNs. Additionally, we compare the BTG-AC model with an adaptive access control model (A2C) which has similar properties, for further evaluation. Alongside with the comparison, the advantages and disadvantages of BTGAC over

  12. Environmental Viral Metagenomics Analyses in Aquaculture: Applications in Epidemiology and Disease Control

    PubMed Central

    Munang’andu, Hetron M.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the epidemiology of viral diseases in aquaculture have for a long time depended on isolation of viruses from infected aquatic organisms. The role of aquatic environments in the epidemiology of viral diseases in aquaculture has not been extensively expounded mainly because of the lack of appropriate tools for environmental studies on aquatic viruses. However, the upcoming of metagenomics analyses opens great avenues in which environmental samples can be used to study the epidemiology of viral diseases outside their host species. Hence, in this review I have shown that epidemiological factors that influence the composition of viruses in different aquatic environments include ecological factors, anthropogenic activities and stocking densities of cultured organisms based on environmental metagenomics studies carried out this far. Ballast water transportation and global trade of aquatic organisms are the most common virus dispersal process identified this far. In terms of disease control for outdoor aquaculture systems, baseline data on viruses found in different environments intended for aquaculture use can be obtained to enable the design of effective disease control strategies. And as such, high-risk areas having a high specter of pathogenic viruses can be identified as an early warning system. As for the control of viral diseases for indoor recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS), the most effective disinfection methods able to eliminate pathogenic viruses from water used in RAS can be identified. Overall, the synopsis I have put forth in this review shows that environmental samples can be used to study the epidemiology of viral diseases in aquaculture using viral metagenomics analysis as an overture for the design of rational disease control strategies. PMID:28018317

  13. Environmental Viral Metagenomics Analyses in Aquaculture: Applications in Epidemiology and Disease Control.

    PubMed

    Munang'andu, Hetron M

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the epidemiology of viral diseases in aquaculture have for a long time depended on isolation of viruses from infected aquatic organisms. The role of aquatic environments in the epidemiology of viral diseases in aquaculture has not been extensively expounded mainly because of the lack of appropriate tools for environmental studies on aquatic viruses. However, the upcoming of metagenomics analyses opens great avenues in which environmental samples can be used to study the epidemiology of viral diseases outside their host species. Hence, in this review I have shown that epidemiological factors that influence the composition of viruses in different aquatic environments include ecological factors, anthropogenic activities and stocking densities of cultured organisms based on environmental metagenomics studies carried out this far. Ballast water transportation and global trade of aquatic organisms are the most common virus dispersal process identified this far. In terms of disease control for outdoor aquaculture systems, baseline data on viruses found in different environments intended for aquaculture use can be obtained to enable the design of effective disease control strategies. And as such, high-risk areas having a high specter of pathogenic viruses can be identified as an early warning system. As for the control of viral diseases for indoor recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS), the most effective disinfection methods able to eliminate pathogenic viruses from water used in RAS can be identified. Overall, the synopsis I have put forth in this review shows that environmental samples can be used to study the epidemiology of viral diseases in aquaculture using viral metagenomics analysis as an overture for the design of rational disease control strategies.

  14. Targeting intensive versus conventional glycaemic control for type 1 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomised clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Kähler, Pernille; Grevstad, Berit; Almdal, Thomas; Gluud, Christian; Wetterslev, Jørn; Vaag, Allan; Hemmingsen, Bianca

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the benefits and harms of targeting intensive versus conventional glycaemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Design A systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomised clinical trials. Data sources The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded and LILACS to January 2013. Study selection Randomised clinical trials that prespecified different targets of glycaemic control in participants at any age with type 1 diabetes mellitus were included. Data extraction Two authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. Results 18 randomised clinical trials included 2254 participants with type 1 diabetes mellitus. All trials had high risk of bias. There was no statistically significant effect of targeting intensive glycaemic control on all-cause mortality (risk ratio 1.16, 95% CI 0.65 to 2.08) or cardiovascular mortality (0.49, 0.19 to 1.24). Targeting intensive glycaemic control reduced the relative risks for the composite macrovascular outcome (0.63, 0.41 to 0.96; p=0.03), and nephropathy (0.37, 0.27 to 0.50; p<0.00001. The effect estimates of retinopathy, ketoacidosis and retinal photocoagulation were not consistently statistically significant between random and fixed effects models. The risk of severe hypoglycaemia was significantly increased with intensive glycaemic targets (1.40, 1.01 to 1.94). Trial sequential analyses showed that the amount of data needed to demonstrate a relative risk reduction of 10% were, in general, inadequate. Conclusions There was no significant effect towards improved all-cause mortality when targeting intensive glycaemic control compared with conventional glycaemic control. However, there may be beneficial effects of targeting intensive glycaemic control on the composite macrovascular outcome and on nephropathy, and detrimental effects on severe hypoglycaemia. Notably, the data for retinopathy and ketoacidosis were inconsistent

  15. Multilevel Growth Curve Analyses of Treatment Effects of a Web-Based Intervention for Stress Reduction: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Raeder, Sabine; Kraft, Pål; Bjørkli, Cato Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Background Stress is commonly experienced by many people and it is a contributing factor to many mental and physical health conditions, However, few efforts have been made to develop and test the effects of interventions for stress. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a Web-based stress-reduction intervention on stress, investigate mindfulness and procrastination as potential mediators of any treatment effects, and test whether the intervention is equally effective for females as males, all ages, and all levels of education. Methods We employed a randomized controlled trial in this study. Participants were recruited online via Facebook and randomly assigned to either the stress intervention or a control condition. The Web-based stress intervention was fully automated and consisted of 13 sessions over 1 month. The controls were informed that they would get access to the intervention after the final data collection. Data were collected at baseline and at 1, 2, and 6 months after intervention onset by means of online questionnaires. Outcomes were stress, mindfulness, and procrastination, which were all measured at every measurement occasion. Results A total of 259 participants were included and were allocated to either the stress intervention (n=126) or the control condition (n=133). Participants in the intervention and control group were comparable at baseline; however, results revealed that participants in the stress intervention followed a statistically different (ie, cubic) developmental trajectory in stress levels over time compared to the controls. A growth curve analysis showed that participants in the stress intervention (unstandardized beta coefficient [B]=–3.45, P=.008) recovered more quickly compared to the control group (B=–0.81, P=.34) from baseline to 1 month. Although participants in the stress intervention did show increases in stress levels during the study period (B=2.23, P=.008), long-term stress levels did decrease

  16. 78 FR 63479 - Meta-Analyses of Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials (RCTs) for the Evaluation of Risk To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... scientific approaches for the conduct and assessment of meta-analyses of randomized controlled clinical... evidence from independent studies using appropriate statistical methods. The purpose of the public workshop... describes best practices for the conduct of meta-analyses and FDA's intended approach for the use of...

  17. Frequency-selective design of wireless power transfer systems for controlled access applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maschino, Tyler Stephen

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) has become a common way to charge or power many types of devices, ranging from cell phones to electric toothbrushes. WPT became popular through the introduction of a transmission mode known as strongly coupled magnetic resonance (SCMR). This means of transmission is non-radiative and enables mid-range WPT. Shortly after the development of WPT via SCMR, a group of researchers introduced the concept of resonant repeaters, which allows power to hop from the source to the device. These repeaters are in resonance with the WPT system, which enables them to propagate the power wirelessly with minimal losses to the environment. Resonant repeaters have rekindled the dream of ubiquitous wireless power. Inherent risks come with the realization of such a dream. One of the most prominent risks, which we set out in this thesis to address, is that of accessibility to the WPT system. We propose the incorporation of a controlled access schema within a WPT system to prevent unwarranted use of wireless power. Our thesis discusses the history of electromagnetism, examines the inception of WPT via SCMR, evaluates recent developments in WPT, and further elaborates on the controlled access schema we wish to contribute to the field.

  18. An interaction-based access control model (IBAC) for collaborative services

    SciTech Connect

    Altunay, Mine; Byrd, Gregory T.; Brown, Doug E.; Dean, Ralph A.; /North Carolina State U.

    2008-04-01

    A collaboration is a collection of services that work together to achieve a common goal. Although collaborations help when tackling difficult problems, they lead to security issues. First, a collaboration is often performed by services that are drawn from different security domains. Second, a service interacts with multiple peer services during the collaboration. These interactions are not isolated from one another--e.g., data may flow through a sequence of different services. As a result, a service is exposed to multiple peer services in varying degrees, leading to different security threats. We identify the types of interactions that can be present in collaborations, and discuss the security threats due to each type. We propose a model for representing the collaboration context so that a service can be made aware of the existing interactions. We provide an access control model for a service participating in a collaboration. We couple our access control model with a policy model, so that the access requirements from collaborations can be expressed and evaluated.

  19. A Network Access Control Framework for 6LoWPAN Networks

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Luís M. L.; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; de Sousa, Amaro F.; Lloret, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Low power over wireless personal area networks (LoWPAN), in particular wireless sensor networks, represent an emerging technology with high potential to be employed in critical situations like security surveillance, battlefields, smart-grids, and in e-health applications. The support of security services in LoWPAN is considered a challenge. First, this type of networks is usually deployed in unattended environments, making them vulnerable to security attacks. Second, the constraints inherent to LoWPAN, such as scarce resources and limited battery capacity, impose a careful planning on how and where the security services should be deployed. Besides protecting the network from some well-known threats, it is important that security mechanisms be able to withstand attacks that have not been identified before. One way of reaching this goal is to control, at the network access level, which nodes can be attached to the network and to enforce their security compliance. This paper presents a network access security framework that can be used to control the nodes that have access to the network, based on administrative approval, and to enforce security compliance to the authorized nodes. PMID:23334610

  20. A network access control framework for 6LoWPAN networks.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luís M L; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; de Sousa, Amaro F; Lloret, Jaime

    2013-01-18

    Low power over wireless personal area networks (LoWPAN), in particular wireless sensor networks, represent an emerging technology with high potential to be employed in critical situations like security surveillance, battlefields, smart-grids, and in e-health applications. The support of security services in LoWPAN is considered a challenge. First, this type of networks is usually deployed in unattended environments, making them vulnerable to security attacks. Second, the constraints inherent to LoWPAN, such as scarce resources and limited battery capacity, impose a careful planning on how and where the security services should be deployed. Besides protecting the network from some well-known threats, it is important that security mechanisms be able to withstand attacks that have not been identified before. One way of reaching this goal is to control, at the network access level, which nodes can be attached to the network and to enforce their security compliance. This paper presents a network access security framework that can be used to control the nodes that have access to the network, based on administrative approval, and to enforce security compliance to the authorized nodes.

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Mobile Clinical Decision Aid to Improve Access to Kidney Transplantation: iChoose Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Patzer, Rachel E.; Basu, Mohua; Mohan, Sumit; Smith, Kayla D.; Wolf, Michael; Ladner, Daniela; Friedewald, John J.; Chiles, Mariana; Russell, Allison; McPherson, Laura; Gander, Jennifer; Pastan, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease, as it substantially increases a patient's survival and is cost saving compared to a lifetime of dialysis. However, transplantation is not universally chosen by patients with renal failure, and limited knowledge about the survival benefit of transplantation vs. dialysis may play a role. We created a mobile application clinical decision aid called iChoose Kidney to improve access to individualized prognosis information comparing dialysis and transplantation outcomes. We describe the iChoose Kidney study, a randomized controlled trial designed to test the clinical efficacy of a mobile health decision aid among end-stage renal disease patients referred for kidney transplantation at three large, diverse transplant centers across the U.S. Approximately 450 patients will be randomized to receive either: (1) standard of care or “usual” transplantation education, or (2) standard of care plus iChoose Kidney. The primary outcome is change in knowledge about the survival benefit of kidney transplantation vs. dialysis from baseline to immediate follow-up; secondary outcomes include change in treatment preferences, improved decisional conflict, and increased access to kidney transplantation. Analyses are also planned to examine effectiveness across subgroups of race, socioeconomic status, health literacy and health numeracy. Engaging patients in health care choices can increase patient empowerment and improve knowledge and understanding of treatment choices. If the effectiveness of iChoose Kidney has a greater impact on patients with low health literacy, lower socioeconomic status, and minority race, this decision aid could help reduce disparities in access to kidney transplantation. PMID:27610423

  2. On the designing of a tamper resistant prescription RFID access control system.

    PubMed

    Safkhani, Masoumeh; Bagheri, Nasour; Naderi, Majid

    2012-12-01

    Recently, Chen et al. have proposed a novel tamper resistant prescription RFID access control system, published in the Journal of Medical Systems. In this paper we consider the security of the proposed protocol and identify some existing weaknesses. The main attack is a reader impersonation attack which allows an active adversary to impersonate a legitimate doctor, e.g. the patient's doctor, to access the patient's tag and change the patient prescription. The presented attack is quite efficient. To impersonate a doctor, the adversary should eavesdrop one session between the doctor and the patient's tag and then she can impersonate the doctor with the success probability of '1'. In addition, we present efficient reader-tag to back-end database impersonation, de-synchronization and traceability attacks against the protocol. Finally, we propose an improved version of protocol which is more efficient compared to the original protocol while provides the desired security against the presented attacks.

  3. Reporting of analyses from randomized controlled trials with multiple arms: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple-arm randomized trials can be more complex in their design, data analysis, and result reporting than two-arm trials. We conducted a systematic review to assess the reporting of analyses in reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with multiple arms. Methods The literature in the MEDLINE database was searched for reports of RCTs with multiple arms published in 2009 in the core clinical journals. Two reviewers extracted data using a standardized extraction form. Results In total, 298 reports were identified. Descriptions of the baseline characteristics and outcomes per group were missing in 45 reports (15.1%) and 48 reports (16.1%), respectively. More than half of the articles (n = 171, 57.4%) reported that a planned global test comparison was used (that is, assessment of the global differences between all groups), but 67 (39.2%) of these 171 articles did not report details of the planned analysis. Of the 116 articles reporting a global comparison test, 12 (10.3%) did not report the analysis as planned. In all, 60% of publications (n = 180) described planned pairwise test comparisons (that is, assessment of the difference between two groups), but 20 of these 180 articles (11.1%) did not report the pairwise test comparisons. Of the 204 articles reporting pairwise test comparisons, the comparisons were not planned for 44 (21.6%) of them. Less than half the reports (n = 137; 46%) provided baseline and outcome data per arm and reported the analysis as planned. Conclusions Our findings highlight discrepancies between the planning and reporting of analyses in reports of multiple-arm trials. PMID:23531230

  4. Randomized controlled trials in central vascular access devices: A scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Keogh, Samantha; Rickard, Claire M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Randomized controlled trials evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for central venous access devices, however, high complication rates remain. Scoping reviews map the available evidence and demonstrate evidence deficiencies to focus ongoing research priorities. Method A scoping review (January 2006–December 2015) of randomized controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of interventions to improve central venous access device outcomes; including peripherally inserted central catheters, non-tunneled, tunneled and totally implanted venous access catheters. MeSH terms were used to undertake a systematic search with data extracted by two independent researchers, using a standardized data extraction form. Results In total, 178 trials were included (78 non-tunneled [44%]; 40 peripherally inserted central catheters [22%]; 20 totally implanted [11%]; 12 tunneled [6%]; 6 non-specified [3%]; and 22 combined device trials [12%]). There were 119 trials (68%) involving adult participants only, with 18 (9%) pediatric and 20 (11%) neonatal trials. Insertion-related themes existed in 38% of trials (67 RCTs), 35 RCTs (20%) related to post-insertion patency, with fewer trials on infection prevention (15 RCTs, 8%), education (14RCTs, 8%), and dressing and securement (12 RCTs, 7%). There were 46 different study outcomes reported, with the most common being infection outcomes (161 outcomes; 37%), with divergent definitions used for catheter-related bloodstream and other infections. Conclusion More high quality randomized trials across central venous access device management are necessary, especially in dressing and securement and patency. These can be encouraged by having more studies with multidisciplinary team involvement and consumer engagement. Additionally, there were extensive gaps within population sub-groups, particularly in tunneled devices, and in pediatrics and neonates. Finally, outcome definitions need to be unified for results to be meaningful and

  5. Control of Echinococcus multilocularis: strategies, feasibility and cost-benefit analyses.

    PubMed

    Hegglin, Daniel; Deplazes, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis, the zoonotic agent of human alveolar echinococcosis, has considerably extended its range and became more prevalent in many parts of the endemic areas. Accordingly, there is an increasing demand for measures to prevent human infections. Rising public awareness of this zoonosis and individual protective actions should be part of every prevention program. Considering the high reproduction of E. multilocularis in domestic dogs which live in close contact to humans, a monthly deworming scheme for domestic dogs with access to rodents is likely to be of high importance. This holds true if only low prevalences in domestic dogs are recorded, as high densities of these pets can easily outweigh low infections rates. Thus, in central Europe their estimated contribution to environmental contamination with E. multilocularis eggs ranges between 4% and 19%. The estimated contribution of domestic cats is insignificant (<0.3%) due to low parasite reproduction in this species. Control of the parasite by reducing its main wildlife hosts (foxes, vole species) is barely achievable on a larger scale and is generally not well accepted due to ecological considerations and animal welfare concerns. In general, the frequency of the parasite sharply decreases when anthelmintic baits are regularly distributed to foxes. However, eradication of the parasite is unlikely and long-term baiting campaigns are actually the most effective tool to significantly lower the infection pressure with parasite eggs. Regarding the long latency of 5-15 years of alveolar echinococcosis, however, such measures can only be cost effective if they are pursued for several decades and concentrate on restricted areas which are most relevant for the transmission of alveolar echinococcosis such as highly endemic areas in densely populated zones. Thus, the implementation of this approach strongly depends on factors such as public attitude, available financial resources and priority setting of

  6. Operational, control and protective system transient analyses of the closed-cycle GT-HTGR power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Openshaw, F.L.; Chan, T.W.

    1980-07-01

    This paper presents a description of the analyses of the control/protective system preliminary designs for the gas turbine high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (GT-HTGR) power plant. The control system is designed to regulate reactor power, control electric load and turbine speed, control the temperature of the helium delivered to the turbines, and control thermal transients experienced by the system components. In addition, it provides the required control programming for startup, shutdown, load ramp, and other expected operations. The control system also handles conditions imposed on the system during upset and emergency conditions such as loop trip, reactor trip, or electrical load rejection.

  7. Controls on Yardang Morphology: Insights from Field Measurements, Lidar Topographic Analyses, and Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, J. D.; Kapp, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Yardangs are streamlined bedforms sculpted by the wind and wind-blown sand. They can form as relatively resistant exposed rocks erode more slowly than surrounding exposed rocks, thus causing the more resistant rocks to stand higher in the landscape and deflect the wind and wind-blown sand into adjacent troughs in a positive feedback. How this feedback gives rise to streamlined forms that locally have a consistent size is not well understood theoretically. In this study we combine field measurements in the yardangs of Ocotillo Wells SVRA with analyses of airborne and terrestrial lidar datasets and numerical modeling to quantify and understand the controls on yardang morphology. The classic model for yardang morphology is that they evolve to an ideal 4:1 length-to-width aspect ratio that minimizes aerodynamic drag. We show using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling that this model is incorrect: the 4:1 aspect ratio is the value corresponding to minimum drag for free bodies, i.e. obstacles around which air flows on all sides. Yardangs, in contrast, are embedded in Earth's surface. For such rough streamlined half-bodies, the aspect ratio corresponding to minimum drag is larger than 20:1. As an alternative to the minimum-drag model, we propose that the aspect ratio of yardangs not significantly influenced by structural controls is controlled by the angle of dispersion of the aerodynamic jet created as deflected wind and wind-blown sand exits the troughs between incipient yardang noses. Aerodynamic jets have a universal dispersion angle of 11.8 degrees, thus predicting a yardang aspect ratio of ~5:1. We developed a landscape evolution model that combines the physics of boundary layer flow with aeolian saltation and bedrock erosion to form yardangs with a range of sizes and aspect ratios similar to those observed in nature. Yardangs with aspect ratios both larger and smaller than 5:1 occur in the model since the strike and dip of the resistant rock unit also exerts

  8. Experimental Investigation on Transmission Control Protocol Throughput Behavior in Optical Fiber Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tego, Edion; Matera, Francesco; del Buono, Donato

    2016-03-01

    This article describes an experimental investigation on the behavior of transmission control protocol in throughput measurements to be used in the verification of the service-level agreement between the Internet service provider and user in terms of line capacity for ultra-broadband access networks typical of fiber-to-the-x architectures. It is experimentally shown different conditions in high bandwidth-delay product links where the estimation of the line capacity based on a single transmission control protocol session results are unreliable. Simple equations reported in this work, and experimentally verified, point out the conditions in terms of packet loss, time delay, and line capacity, that allow consideration of the reliability of the measurement carried out with a single transmission control protocol session test by adopting a suitable measurement time duration.

  9. Respiratory diseases among union carpenters: cohort and case-control analyses.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, H J; Dement, J M

    1998-02-01

    Lung diseases, defined by ICD-9 diagnoses on medical insurance claims, were studied through the combined use of administrative records, private health insurance, and workers' compensation claims for a cohort of 10,938 active union carpenters between 1989 and 1992. The cohort defined the study base for a nested case-control study, in which cases (n = 220) were initially identified by an ICD-9 code for asthma in private health insurance or workers' compensation files. A questionnaire was used to collect information on respiratory history and potential home and workplace exposures. Questions used by Burney et al. to define a discriminant function predictor (DFP) of a bronchial response to histamine were used to reclassify cases and controls for further exploratory analyses. Bronchitis accounted for over 50% of the lung disease cases among this cohort followed by asthma, chronic obstructive airway disease, and chronic bronchitis. Incidence density rates of asthma, chronic bronchitis, and chronic obstructive airway disease adjusted for age, sex, and time in the union increased with increasing age. Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program data to estimate expected lung cancer cases in our cohort, an elevated standardized incidence rate (SIR) was seen among male carpenters between the ages of 45-54. Smoking history was not available for the entire cohort. Using the ICD-9 or Burney case definition of asthma, odds ratios were significantly elevated for exposure to hay, epoxy paints, enzymes, animals, and molds. Additional exposures associated with asthma using Burney's definition, are ones to which a majority of these carpenters were exposed including cement, drywall, and demolition dusts.

  10. IMPROVING CONTROL ROOM DESIGN AND OPERATIONS BASED ON HUMAN FACTORS ANALYSES OR HOW MUCH HUMAN FACTORS UPGRADE IS ENOUGH ?

    SciTech Connect

    HIGGINS,J.C.; OHARA,J.M.; ALMEIDA,P.

    2002-09-19

    THE JOSE CABRERA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IS A ONE LOOP WESTINGHOUSE PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR. IN THE CONTROL ROOM, THE DISPLAYS AND CONTROLS USED BY OPERATORS FOR THE EMERGENCY OPERATING PROCEDURES ARE DISTRIBUTED ON FRONT AND BACK PANELS. THIS CONFIGURATION CONTRIBUTED TO RISK IN THE PROBABILISTIC SAFETY ASSESSMENT WHERE IMPORTANT OPERATOR ACTIONS ARE REQUIRED. THIS STUDY WAS UNDERTAKEN TO EVALUATE THE IMPACT OF THE DESIGN ON CREW PERFORMANCE AND PLANT SAFETY AND TO DEVELOP DESIGN IMPROVEMENTS.FIVE POTENTIAL EFFECTS WERE IDENTIFIED. THEN NUREG-0711 [1], PROGRAMMATIC, HUMAN FACTORS, ANALYSES WERE CONDUCTED TO SYSTEMATICALLY EVALUATE THE CR-LA YOUT TO DETERMINE IF THERE WAS EVIDENCE OF THE POTENTIAL EFFECTS. THESE ANALYSES INCLUDED OPERATING EXPERIENCE REVIEW, PSA REVIEW, TASK ANALYSES, AND WALKTHROUGH SIMULATIONS. BASED ON THE RESULTS OF THESE ANALYSES, A VARIETY OF CONTROL ROOM MODIFICATIONS WERE IDENTIFIED. FROM THE ALTERNATIVES, A SELECTION WAS MADE THAT PROVIDED A REASONABLEBALANCE BE TWEEN PERFORMANCE, RISK AND ECONOMICS, AND MODIFICATIONS WERE MADE TO THE PLANT.

  11. Development and process control of magnetic tunnel junctions for magnetic random access memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kula, Witold; Wolfman, Jerome; Ounadjela, Kamel; Chen, Eugene; Koutny, William

    2003-05-01

    We report on the development and process control of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) for magnetic random access memory (MRAM) devices. It is demonstrated that MTJs with high magnetoresistance ˜40% at 300 mV, resistance-area product (RA) ˜1-3 kΩ μm2, low intrinsic interlayer coupling (Hin) ˜2-3 Oe, and excellent bit switching characteristics can be developed and fully integrated with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuitry into MRAM devices. MTJ uniformity and repeatability level suitable for mass production has been demonstrated with the advanced processing and monitoring techniques.

  12. An Effective Massive Sensor Network Data Access Scheme Based on Topology Control for the Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Meng; Chen, Qingkui; Xiong, Neal N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the distributed access and control problem of massive wireless sensor networks’ data access center for the Internet of Things, which is an extension of wireless sensor networks and an element of its topology structure. In the context of the arrival of massive service access requests at a virtual data center, this paper designs a massive sensing data access and control mechanism to improve the access efficiency of service requests and makes full use of the available resources at the data access center for the Internet of things. Firstly, this paper proposes a synergistically distributed buffer access model, which separates the information of resource and location. Secondly, the paper divides the service access requests into multiple virtual groups based on their characteristics and locations using an optimized self-organizing feature map neural network. Furthermore, this paper designs an optimal scheduling algorithm of group migration based on the combination scheme between the artificial bee colony algorithm and chaos searching theory. Finally, the experimental results demonstrate that this mechanism outperforms the existing schemes in terms of enhancing the accessibility of service requests effectively, reducing network delay, and has higher load balancing capacity and higher resource utility rate. PMID:27827878

  13. An Effective Massive Sensor Network Data Access Scheme Based on Topology Control for the Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Yi, Meng; Chen, Qingkui; Xiong, Neal N

    2016-11-03

    This paper considers the distributed access and control problem of massive wireless sensor networks' data access center for the Internet of Things, which is an extension of wireless sensor networks and an element of its topology structure. In the context of the arrival of massive service access requests at a virtual data center, this paper designs a massive sensing data access and control mechanism to improve the access efficiency of service requests and makes full use of the available resources at the data access center for the Internet of things. Firstly, this paper proposes a synergistically distributed buffer access model, which separates the information of resource and location. Secondly, the paper divides the service access requests into multiple virtual groups based on their characteristics and locations using an optimized self-organizing feature map neural network. Furthermore, this paper designs an optimal scheduling algorithm of group migration based on the combination scheme between the artificial bee colony algorithm and chaos searching theory. Finally, the experimental results demonstrate that this mechanism outperforms the existing schemes in terms of enhancing the accessibility of service requests effectively, reducing network delay, and has higher load balancing capacity and higher resource utility rate.

  14. Ore controls in the Charters Towers goldfield, NE Australia: Constraints from geological, geophysical and numerical analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreuzer, O.P.; Blenkinsop, T.G.; Morrison, R.J.; Peters, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    The approach taken in this paper, namely synthesising a wealth of previous information with new data and a genetic model, in combination with integrated numerical analyses, led to new insights into the geological controls on the localisation of auriferous veins and residual prospectivity of the Charters Towers goldfield, NE Australia. The method also has implications for the assessment of other "mature" goldfields worldwide. Despite a number of different ore controls having operated within the Charters Towers goldfield, the controlling factors can be linked to a single genetic model for orogenic, granitoid-hosted lode-gold mineralisation in a brittle deformation regime (D4) of NE-SW to NNE-SSW shortening, under conditions of supralithostatic fluid pressure and low stress difference. Spatial autocorrelation results suggest district-scale alignment of the auriferous veins parallel to and overlapping with the ESE-WNW- to E-W-striking Charters Towers-Ravenswood lineament, a major crustal boundary in the basement to the Ravenswood batholith. At the camp-scale, auriferous veins have abundance and proximity relationships with NW-SE-, NNW-SSE-, NE-SW- and ENE-WSW-oriented lineaments, suggesting that structures that controlled gold deposition in one camp did not necessarily control mineralisation in other camps. Fractal dimensions obtained with the box-counting method range from 1.02 to 1.10, whereas veins in the Charters Towers City camp are characterised by a significantly higher fractal dimension of 1.28. This discrepancy may be taken to imply that most or all outcropping and near-surface deposits within the Charters Towers City camp have been found and that new discoveries are more likely to occur at greater levels of depth, or outside the boundaries of this camp. The new understanding has implications for the assessment of the residual prospectivity of the Charters Towers goldfield, where large areas of prospective rock types and structures (e.g., approximately 40% of

  15. Dynamic Key Management Schemes for Secure Group Access Control Using Hierarchical Clustering in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaur, Woei-Jiunn; Pai, Haw-Tyng

    2008-11-01

    The applications of group computing and communication motivate the requirement to provide group access control in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The operation in MANETs' groups performs a decentralized manner and accommodated membership dynamically. Moreover, due to lack of centralized control, MANETs' groups are inherently insecure and vulnerable to attacks from both within and outside the groups. Such features make access control more challenging in MANETs. Recently, several researchers have proposed group access control mechanisms in MANETs based on a variety of threshold signatures. However, these mechanisms cannot actually satisfy MANETs' dynamic environments. This is because the threshold-based mechanisms cannot be achieved when the number of members is not up to the threshold value. Hence, by combining the efficient elliptic curve cryptosystem, self-certified public key cryptosystem and secure filter technique, we construct dynamic key management schemes based on hierarchical clustering for securing group access control in MANETs. Specifically, the proposed schemes can constantly accomplish secure group access control only by renewing the secure filters of few cluster heads, when a cluster head joins or leaves a cross-cluster. In such a new way, we can find that the proposed group access control scheme can be very effective for securing practical applications in MANETs.

  16. Face Recognition for Access Control Systems Combining Image-Difference Features Based on a Probabilistic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miwa, Shotaro; Kage, Hiroshi; Hirai, Takashi; Sumi, Kazuhiko

    We propose a probabilistic face recognition algorithm for Access Control System(ACS)s. Comparing with existing ACSs using low cost IC-cards, face recognition has advantages in usability and security that it doesn't require people to hold cards over scanners and doesn't accept imposters with authorized cards. Therefore face recognition attracts more interests in security markets than IC-cards. But in security markets where low cost ACSs exist, price competition is important, and there is a limitation on the quality of available cameras and image control. Therefore ACSs using face recognition are required to handle much lower quality images, such as defocused and poor gain-controlled images than high security systems, such as immigration control. To tackle with such image quality problems we developed a face recognition algorithm based on a probabilistic model which combines a variety of image-difference features trained by Real AdaBoost with their prior probability distributions. It enables to evaluate and utilize only reliable features among trained ones during each authentication, and achieve high recognition performance rates. The field evaluation using a pseudo Access Control System installed in our office shows that the proposed system achieves a constant high recognition performance rate independent on face image qualities, that is about four times lower EER (Equal Error Rate) under a variety of image conditions than one without any prior probability distributions. On the other hand using image difference features without any prior probabilities are sensitive to image qualities. We also evaluated PCA, and it has worse, but constant performance rates because of its general optimization on overall data. Comparing with PCA, Real AdaBoost without any prior distribution performs twice better under good image conditions, but degrades to a performance as good as PCA under poor image conditions.

  17. Polymorphisms in the XPC gene affect urinary bladder cancer risk: a case-control study, meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses

    PubMed Central

    Sankhwar, Monica; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Bansal, Sandeep Kumar; Gupta, Gopal; Rajender, Singh

    2016-01-01

    Compromised activity of the DNA repair enzymes may raise the risk of a number of cancers. We analyzed polymorphisms in the Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Complementation Group C (XPC) gene for their correlation with urinary bladder cancer. Ala499Val and Lys939Gln polymorphisms were genotyped in 234 urinary bladder cancer cases and 258 control samples. A significant association between Ala499Val polymorphism and bladder cancer was observed (OR = 1.78, CI = 1.19–2.66, p = 0.005); however, Lys939Gln was unrelated (OR = 0.97, CI = 0.65–1.45, P = 0.89). Further analysis revealed that Ala499Val was a significant risk factor only in the presence of smoking (OR = 2.23, CI = 1.28–3.87, p < 0.004) or tobacco chewing (OR = 2.40, CI = 1.43–4.04, p = 0.0008). To further appraise the association, we undertook meta-analyses on seven studies (2893 cases and 3056 controls) on Ala499Val polymorphism and eleven studies (5064 cases and 5208 controls) on Lys939Gln polymorphism. Meta-analyses corroborated the above results, showing strong association of Ala499Val (OR = 1.54, CI = 1.21–1.97, p = 0.001) but not that of Lys939Gln (OR = 1.13, CI = 0.95–1.34, p = 0.171) with urinary bladder cancer risk. In conclusion, XPC Ala499Val substitution increases urinary bladder cancer risk, but Lys939Gln appears to be neutral. PMID:27246180

  18. Controls on microbial accessibility to soil organic carbon following woody plant encroachment into grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creamer, Courtney; Boutton, Thomas; Olk, Dan; Filley, Timothy

    2010-05-01

    Woody plant encroachment (WPE) into savannas and grasslands is a global phenomenon that alters soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics through changes in litter quality and quantity, soil structure, microbial ecology, and hydrology. To elucidate the controls on microbial accessibility to SOC, bulk soils from a chronosequence of progressive WPE into native grasslands at the Texas Agrilife La Copita Research Area were incubated for one year. The quantity and stable carbon isotope composition of respired CO2, and plant biopolymer chemistry in SOC were tracked. Respiration rates declined exponentially over the course of the experiment with 15-25% of the total CO2 respired released in the first month of incubation. Between 8 and 18% of the total SOC was mineralized to CO2 throughout the incubation. After day 84 a significantly (p<0.05) greater portion of SOC was mineralized from soils of older woody clusters (34-86 years) than from soils of younger woody clusters (14-23 years) and the native grassland. Invading woody stands of ≃≥35 years of age represent a transition point in WPE where respiration dynamics become distinct in wooded elements compared to grasslands; this distinction has been previously observed through changes in belowground SOC accrual, C input chemistry, and mycorrhizal productivity. Despite documented SOC accrual following WPE at La Copita, we observed no evidence of enhanced SOC stabilization in these respiration experiments. In fact, a greater proportion of total SOC was lost from the soil of mature woody stands than from young stands, suggesting SOC accumulation observed with WPE may be due to greater input rates or microbial dynamics not captured in the laboratory incubation. Compound-specific analyses indicated there was a significant (p<0.05) loss of C from carbohydrates, amino acids, and amino sugars during the incubation. Amino nitrogen tended to become more concentrated during the incubation, although the trend was not significant. Relatively

  19. Heartbeat-driven medium-access control for body sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Huaming; Tan, Jindong

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel time division multiple access based MAC protocol designed for body sensor networks (BSNs) is presented. H-medium-access control (MAC) aims to improve BSNs energy efficiency by exploiting heartbeat rhythm information, instead of using periodic synchronization beacons, to perform time synchronization. Heartbeat rhythm is inherent in every human body and observable in various biosignals. Biosensors in a BSN can extract the heartbeat rhythm from their own sensory data by detecting waveform peaks. All rhythms represented by peak sequences are naturally synchronized since they are driven by the same source, i.e., the heartbeat. Following the rhythm, biosensors can achieve time synchronization without having to turn on their radio to receive periodic timing information from a central controller, so that energy cost for time synchronization can be completely eliminated and the lifetime of the network can be prolonged. An active synchronization recovery scheme is also developed, including two resynchronization approaches. The algorithms are simulated using the discrete event simulator OMNet + + with real-world data from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Boston's Beth Israel Hospital multiparameter database Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring for Intensive Care. The results show that H-MAC can prolong the network life dramatically.

  20. Overview of the Altair Lunar Lander Thermal Control System Design and the Impacts of Global Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, Ryan A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program (CxP) was developed to successfully return humans to the Lunar surface prior to 2020. The CxP included several different project offices including Altair, which was planned to be the next generation Lunar Lander. The Altair missions were architected to be quite different than the Lunar missions accomplished during the Apollo era. These differences resulted in a significantly dissimilar Thermal Control System (TCS) design. The current paper will summarize the Altair mission architecture and the various operational phases associated with the planned mission. In addition, the derived thermal requirements and the TCS designed to meet these unique and challenging thermal requirements will be presented. During the past year, the design team has focused on developing a vehicle architecture capable of accessing the entire Lunar surface. Due to the widely varying Lunar thermal environment, this global access requirement resulted in major changes to the thermal control system architecture. These changes, and the rationale behind the changes, will be detailed throughout the current paper.

  1. Controllable quantized conductance for multilevel data storage applications using conductive bridge random access memory.

    PubMed

    Aga, Fekadu Gochole; Woo, Jiyong; Song, Jeonghwan; Park, Jaehyuk; Lim, Seokjae; Sung, Changhyuck; Hwang, Hyunsang

    2017-03-17

    In this paper, we investigate the quantized conduction behavior of conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM) with varied materials and ramping rates. We report stable and reproducible quantized conductance states with integer multiples of fundamental conductance obtained by optimizing the voltage ramping rate and the Ti-diffusion barrier (DB) at the Cu/HfO2 interface. Owing to controlled diffusion of Cu ions by the Ti-DB and the optimized ramping rate, through which it was possible to control the time delay of Cu ion reduction, more than seven levels of discrete conductance states were clearly observed. Analytical modeling was performed to determine the rate-limiting step in filament growth based on an electrochemical redox reaction. Our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of quantized conductance behaviors provide a promising future for the multi-bit CBRAM device.

  2. Analysis of the TDRS multiple access system for possible use as an attitude control system sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, Bruce Allyn; Sank, Victor J.

    1993-01-01

    A member of the constellation of TDR satellites (TDRS) has experienced a failure of its prime earth sensor. Failure of the remaining earth sensor could result in the inability of the satellite to control its attitude and provide user services. Loss of the satellite would be a serious event. The multiple access (MA) antenna array on the TDRS has been proposed for use as a backup sensor for the attitude control system. This paper describes our analysis of the performance of the MA array as an interferometer used for accurate attitude determination. A least squares fit of a plane to the MA phase information appears to represent the TDRS body roll and pitch within about 0.1 deg. This is sufficient for SGL pointing and MA and SSA user services. Analytic improvements that include ionospheric correction may yield sufficient accuracy for KSA user services.

  3. Controllable quantized conductance for multilevel data storage applications using conductive bridge random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gochole Aga, Fekadu; Woo, Jiyong; Song, Jeonghwan; Park, Jaehyuk; Lim, Seokjae; Sung, Changhyuck; Hwang, Hyunsang

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the quantized conduction behavior of conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM) with varied materials and ramping rates. We report stable and reproducible quantized conductance states with integer multiples of fundamental conductance obtained by optimizing the voltage ramping rate and the Ti-diffusion barrier (DB) at the Cu/HfO2 interface. Owing to controlled diffusion of Cu ions by the Ti-DB and the optimized ramping rate, through which it was possible to control the time delay of Cu ion reduction, more than seven levels of discrete conductance states were clearly observed. Analytical modeling was performed to determine the rate-limiting step in filament growth based on an electrochemical redox reaction. Our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of quantized conductance behaviors provide a promising future for the multi-bit CBRAM device.

  4. Preliminary assessment of Tongue Drive System in medium term usage for computer access and wheelchair control.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Behnaz; Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2011-01-01

    Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a wireless, wearable assistive technology that enables individuals with severe motor impairments access computers, drive wheelchairs, and control their environments using tongue motion. In this paper, we have evaluated the TDS performance as a computer input device using ISO9241-9 standard tasks for pointing and selecting, based on the well known Fitts' Law, and as a powered wheelchair controller through an obstacle course navigation task. Nine able-bodied subjects who already had tongue piercing participated in this trial over 5 sessions during 5 weeks, allowing us to study the TDS learning process and its current limiting factors. Subjects worn tongue rings made of titanium in the form of a barbell with a small rare earth magnetic tracer hermetically sealed inside the upper ball. Comparing the results between 1(st) and 5(th) sessions showed that subjects' performance improved in all the measures through 5 sessions, demonstrating the effects of learning.

  5. Using Controlled Landslide Initiation Experiments to Test Limit-Equilibrium Analyses of Slope Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, M. E.; Iverson, R. M.; Brien, D. L.; Iverson, N. R.; Lahusen, R. G.; Logan, M.

    2004-12-01

    Most studies of landslide initiation employ limit equilibrium analyses of slope stability. Owing to a lack of detailed data, however, few studies have tested limit-equilibrium predictions against physical measurements of slope failure. We have conducted a series of field-scale, highly controlled landslide initiation experiments at the USGS debris-flow flume in Oregon; these experiments provide exceptional data to test limit equilibrium methods. In each of seven experiments, we attempted to induce failure in a 0.65m thick, 2m wide, 6m3 prism of loamy sand placed behind a retaining wall in the 31° sloping flume. We systematically investigated triggering of sliding by groundwater injection, by prolonged moderate-intensity sprinkling, and by bursts of high intensity sprinkling. We also used vibratory compaction to control soil porosity and thereby investigate differences in failure behavior of dense and loose soils. About 50 sensors were monitored at 20 Hz during the experiments, including nests of tiltmeters buried at 7 cm spacing to define subsurface failure geometry, and nests of tensiometers and pore-pressure sensors to define evolving pore-pressure fields. In addition, we performed ancillary laboratory tests to measure soil porosity, shear strength, hydraulic conductivity, and compressibility. In loose soils (porosity of 0.52 to 0.55), abrupt failure typically occurred along the flume bed after substantial soil deformation. In denser soils (porosity of 0.41 to 0.44), gradual failure occurred within the soil prism. All failure surfaces had a maximum length to depth ratio of about 7. In even denser soil (porosity of 0.39), we could not induce failure by sprinkling. The internal friction angle of the soils varied from 28° to 40° with decreasing porosity. We analyzed stability at failure, given the observed pore-pressure conditions just prior to large movement, using a 1-D infinite-slope method and a more complete 2-D Janbu method. Each method provides a static

  6. 17 CFR 240.15c3-5 - Risk management controls for brokers or dealers with market access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Risk management controls for... Markets § 240.15c3-5 Risk management controls for brokers or dealers with market access. (a) For the... establish, document, and maintain a system of risk management controls and supervisory procedures...

  7. Disclosure of researcher allegiance in meta-analyses and randomised controlled trials of psychotherapy: a systematic appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Dragioti, Elena; Dimoliatis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Objective Psychotherapy research may suffer from factors such as a researcher’s own therapy allegiance. The aim of this study was to evaluate if researcher allegiance (RA) was reported in meta-analyses and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of psychotherapeutic treatments. Design Systematic approach using meta-analyses of different types of psychotherapies. Data sources Medline, PsycINFO and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Methods We evaluated meta-analyses of RCTs regarding various types of psychotherapies. Meta-analyses were eligible if they included at least one RCT with RA and they were published in journals in Medline, PsycINFO and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews with an impact factor larger than 5. Results We identified 146 eligible meta-analyses that synthesised data from a total of 1198 unique RCTs. Only 25 of the meta-analyses (17.2%) reported allegiance and only 6 (4.1%) used a proper method to control its effect. Of the 1198 eligible primary RCTs, 793 (66.3%) were allegiant. Authors in 25 of these 793 RCTs (3.2%) reported their allegiance while only one study (0.2%) controlled for its effect. Conclusions The vast majority among a group of published meta-analyses and RCTs of psychotherapeutic treatments seldom reported and evaluated the allegiance effect. The results of the present study highlight a major lack of this information in meta-analyses and their included studies, though meta-analyses perform slightly better than RCTs. Stringent guidelines should be adopted by journals in order to improve reporting and attenuate possible effects of RA in future research. PMID:26033943

  8. PANATIKI: a network access control implementation based on PANA for IoT devices.

    PubMed

    Moreno Sanchez, Pedro; Marin Lopez, Rafa; Gomez Skarmeta, Antonio F

    2013-11-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) networks are the pillar of recent novel scenarios, such as smart cities or e-healthcare applications. Among other challenges, these networks cover the deployment and interaction of small devices with constrained capabilities and Internet protocol (IP)-based networking connectivity. These constrained devices usually require connection to the Internet to exchange information (e.g., management or sensing data) or access network services. However, only authenticated and authorized devices can, in general, establish this connection. The so-called authentication, authorization and accounting (AAA) services are in charge of performing these tasks on the Internet. Thus, it is necessary to deploy protocols that allow constrained devices to verify their credentials against AAA infrastructures. The Protocol for Carrying Authentication for Network Access (PANA) has been standardized by the Internet engineering task force (IETF) to carry the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), which provides flexible authentication upon the presence of AAA. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first deep study of the feasibility of EAP/PANA for network access control in constrained devices. We provide light-weight versions and implementations of these protocols to fit them into constrained devices. These versions have been designed to reduce the impact in standard specifications. The goal of this work is two-fold: (1) to demonstrate the feasibility of EAP/PANA in IoT devices; (2) to provide the scientific community with the first light-weight interoperable implementation of EAP/PANA for constrained devices in the Contiki operating system (Contiki OS), called PANATIKI. The paper also shows a testbed, simulations and experimental results obtained from real and simulated constrained devices.

  9. PANATIKI: A Network Access Control Implementation Based on PANA for IoT Devices

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Pedro Moreno; Lopez, Rafa Marin; Gomez Skarmeta, Antonio F.

    2013-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) networks are the pillar of recent novel scenarios, such as smart cities or e-healthcare applications. Among other challenges, these networks cover the deployment and interaction of small devices with constrained capabilities and Internet protocol (IP)-based networking connectivity. These constrained devices usually require connection to the Internet to exchange information (e.g., management or sensing data) or access network services. However, only authenticated and authorized devices can, in general, establish this connection. The so-called authentication, authorization and accounting (AAA) services are in charge of performing these tasks on the Internet. Thus, it is necessary to deploy protocols that allow constrained devices to verify their credentials against AAA infrastructures. The Protocol for Carrying Authentication for Network Access (PANA) has been standardized by the Internet engineering task force (IETF) to carry the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), which provides flexible authentication upon the presence of AAA. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first deep study of the feasibility of EAP/PANA for network access control in constrained devices. We provide light-weight versions and implementations of these protocols to fit them into constrained devices. These versions have been designed to reduce the impact in standard specifications. The goal of this work is two-fold: (1) to demonstrate the feasibility of EAP/PANA in IoT devices; (2) to provide the scientific community with the first light-weight interoperable implementation of EAP/PANA for constrained devices in the Contiki operating system (Contiki OS), called PANATIKI. The paper also shows a testbed, simulations and experimental results obtained from real and simulated constrained devices. PMID:24189332

  10. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  11. Energy-Efficient Boarder Node Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN), which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS), which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM) model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS), which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi

  12. Energy-efficient boarder node medium access control protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M

    2014-03-12

    This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN), which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS), which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM) model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS), which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi

  13. Quantitative trait loci controlling light and hormone response in two accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Borevitz, Justin O; Maloof, Julin N; Lutes, Jason; Dabi, Tsegaye; Redfern, Joanna L; Trainer, Gabriel T; Werner, Jonathan D; Asami, Tadao; Berry, Charles C; Weigel, Detlef; Chory, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    We have mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for natural variation in light and hormone response between the Cape Verde Islands (Cvi) and Landsberg erecta (Ler) accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana using recombinant inbred lines (RILs). Hypocotyl length was measured in four light environments: white, blue, red, and far-red light and in the dark. In addition, white light plus gibberellin (GA) and dark plus the brassinosteroid biosynthesis inhibitor brassinazole (BRZ) were used to detect hormone effects. Twelve QTL were identified that map to loci not previously known to affect light response, as well as loci where candidate genes have been identified from known mutations. Some QTL act in all environments while others show genotype-by-environment interaction. A global threshold was established to identify a significant epistatic interaction between two loci that have few main effects of their own. LIGHT1, a major QTL, has been confirmed in a near isogenic line (NIL) and maps to a new locus with effects in all light environments. The erecta mutation can explain the effect of the HYP2 QTL in the blue, BRZ, and dark environments, but not in far-red. LIGHT2, also confirmed in an NIL, has effects in white and red light and shows interaction with GA. The phenotype and map position of LIGHT2 suggest the photoreceptor PHYB as a candidate gene. Natural variation in light and hormone response thus defines both new genes and known genes that control light response in wild accessions. PMID:11861571

  14. [Assessment of exposure to cancerogenic aromatic hydrocarbon during controlled-access highways management activities].

    PubMed

    Martinotti, I; Cirla, A M; Cottica, D; Cirla, P E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was an integrated assessment of exposure to benzene and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in 29 workers employed to manage a controlled-access highways. A campaign was performed in summertime by environmental monitoring (active and passive airborne personal sampler), as well as by biological monitoring (urine samples of the beginning and of the end of daily shift, baseline after two days of vacation). The measured environmental levels did not differ from background environmental concentrations found in a metropolitan area (i.e. benzo[a]pyrene < 1 ng/m3; benzene < 5 mcg/m3), and the results of biological monitoring were in agreement and were compatible with extra-professional habits of the investigated subjects (1-hydroxipyrene 50-990 ng/g creatinine; unmetabolized benzene 15-2010 ng/I; t-t muconic acid < 4-222 mcg/g creatinine).

  15. A time tree medium access control for energy efficiency and collision avoidance in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kilhung

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a medium access control and scheduling scheme for wireless sensor networks. It uses time trees for sending data from the sensor node to the base station. For an energy efficient operation of the sensor networks in a distributed manner, time trees are built in order to reduce the collision probability and to minimize the total energy required to send data to the base station. A time tree is a data gathering tree where the base station is the root and each sensor node is either a relaying or a leaf node of the tree. Each tree operates in a different time schedule with possibly different activation rates. Through the simulation, the proposed scheme that uses time trees shows better characteristics toward burst traffic than the previous energy and data arrival rate scheme.

  16. Thermal Control System Development to Support the Crew Exploration Vehicle and Lunar Surface Access Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly; Westheimer, David

    2006-01-01

    All space vehicles or habitats require thermal management to maintain a safe and operational environment for both crew and hardware. Active Thermal Control Systems (ATCS) perform the functions of acquiring heat from both crew and hardware within a vehicle, transporting that heat throughout the vehicle, and finally rejecting that energy into space. Almost all of the energy used in a space vehicle eventually turns into heat, which must be rejected in order to maintain an energy balance and temperature control of the vehicle. For crewed vehicles, Active Thermal Control Systems are pumped fluid loops that are made up of components designed to perform these functions. NASA has recently evaluated all of the agency s technology development work and identified key areas that must be addressed to aid in the successful development of a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and a Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM). The technologies that have been selected and are currently under development include: fluids that enable single loop ATCS architectures, a gravity insensitive vapor compression cycle heat pump, a sublimator with reduced sensitivity to feedwater contamination, an evaporative heat sink that can operate in multiple ambient pressure environments, a compact spray evaporator, and lightweight radiators that take advantage of carbon composites and advanced optical coatings.

  17. Study protocol for a cluster-randomised controlled trial of an NCD access to medicines initiative: evaluation of Novartis Access in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Rockers, Peter C; Wirtz, Veronika J; Vian, Taryn; Onyango, Monica A; Ashigbie, Paul G; Laing, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Novartis recently launched Novartis Access, an initiative to provide a basket of reduced price medicines for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) to be sold through the public and private non-profit sectors in programme countries. This study will evaluate the impact of Novartis Access on the availability and price of NCD medicines at health facilities and households in Kenya, the first country to receive the programme. Methods and analysis This study will be a cluster-randomised controlled trial. 8 counties in Kenya will be randomly assigned to the intervention or control group using a covariate constrained randomisation method to maximise balance on demographic and health characteristics. In intervention counties, public and private non-profit health facilities will be able to order Novartis Access NCD medicines from the Mission for Essential Drugs and Supplies (MEDS). Data will be collected from a random sample of 384 health facilities and 800 households at baseline, midline after 1-year of intervention, and end-line after 2 years. Quarterly surveillance data will also be collected from health facilities and a subsample of households through phone-based interviews. Households will be eligible if at least one resident has been previously diagnosed and prescribed a medicine for an NCD addressed by Novartis Access, including hypertension and diabetes. The primary outcomes will be availability and price of NCD medicines at health facilities, and availability, price, and expenditures on NCD medicines at households. Impacts will be estimated using intention-to-treat analysis. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Boards at Strathmore University and at Boston University. Informed consent will be obtained from all participants at the start of the trial. The findings of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, international conferences, and meetings and events organised with local stakeholders

  18. Time series analyses reveal environmental and fisheries controls on Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) catch rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Time-series models (Dynamic factorial analyses and; Min/max autocorrelation factor analysis) were used to explore the relative influences of environmental variables and fishing pressure of trawl, seine and artisanal fleets on catch rates on Trachurus trachurus in ICES IXa sub-divisions (IXaCN-North coast; IXa- CS-South coast; IXaS-Algarve, South coast, Algarve). Fishing effort influenced catch rates in all areas with a 2 year lag and fishing pressure for each area was related to specific fleet sectors effort. In IXaCN, winter upwelling (spawning peak) and both summer northerly wind and wind magnitude (outside of the spawning peak) were strongly correlated with catch rates. In IXaCS summer/autumn westerly winds were related with catch rates. Northerly winds in spring, upwelling and SST (winter and autumn) were related with catch rates in IXaS-Algarve. For species with a long spawning season such as horse mackerel, seasonal analyses at broad regional scales can detract from a better understanding of variability in short term sub-stock catch rates. Favorable environmental conditions, even during seasons with low spawning activity can positively affect catch rates. Ignoring the role of regional oceanographic features on the spatial distribution of the sub-stocks when analysing variability in catch rates can lead to poor inferences about the productivity of the populations.

  19. Controlling multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and access to expensive drugs: a rational framework.

    PubMed Central

    Pablos-Mendez, Ariel; Gowda, Deepthiman K.; Frieden, Thomas R.

    2002-01-01

    The emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), i.e. involving resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin, could threaten the control of TB globally. Controversy has emerged about the best way of confronting MDR-TB in settings with very limited resources. In 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO) created a working group on DOTS-Plus, an initiative exploring the programmatic feasibility and cost-effectiveness of treating MDR-TB in low-income and middle-income countries, in order to consider the management of MDR-TB under programme conditions. The challenges of implementation have proved more daunting than those of access to second-line drugs, the prices of which are dropping. Using data from the WHO/International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease surveillance project, we have grouped countries according to the proportion of TB patients completing treatment successfully and the level of MDR-TB among previously untreated patients. The resulting matrix provides a reasonable framework for deciding whether to use second-line drugs in a national programme. Countries in which the treatment success rate, i.e. the proportion of new patients who complete the scheduled treatment, irrespective of whether bacteriological cure is documented, is below 70% should give the highest priority to introducing or improving DOTS, the five-point TB control strategy recommended by WHO and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. A poorly functioning programme can create MDR-TB much faster than it can be treated, even if unlimited resources are available. There is no single prescription for controlling MDR-TB but the various tools available should be applied wisely. Firstly, good DOTS and infection control; then appropriate use of second-line drug treatment. The interval between the two depends on the local context and resources. As funds are allocated to treat MDR-TB, human and financial resources should be increased to expand

  20. A low power medium access control protocol for wireless medical sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Lamprinos, I; Prentza, A; Sakka, E; Koutsouris, D

    2004-01-01

    The concept of a wireless integrated network of sensors, already applied in several sectors of our everyday life, such as security, transportation and environment monitoring, can as well provide an advanced monitor and control resource for healthcare services. By networking medical sensors wirelessly, attaching them in patient's body, we create the appropriate infrastructure for continuous and real-time monitoring of patient without discomforting him. This infrastructure can improve healthcare by providing the means for flexible acquisition of vital signs, while at the same time it provides more convenience to the patient. Given the type of wireless network, traditional medium access control (MAC) protocols cannot take advantage of the application specific requirements and information characteristics occurring in medical sensor networks, such as the demand for low power consumption and the rather limited and asymmetric data traffic. In this paper, we present the architecture of a low power MAC protocol, designated to support wireless networks of medical sensors. This protocol aims to improve energy efficiency by exploiting the inherent application features and requirements. It is oriented towards the avoidance of main energy wastage sources, such as idle listening, collision and power outspending.

  1. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Drozda, M.; Marathe, A.; Marathe, M. V.

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.

  2. Leprosy and disability control in the Guéra prefecture of Chad, Africa: do women have access to leprosy control services?

    PubMed

    Schäfer, J

    1998-09-01

    In a retrospective study, data from the Guéra Leprosy and Disability Control Project in Chad, covering the years from 1992 to 1996, were analysed in order to determine whether there was any indication that the quality of care provided to female leprosy sufferers is inferior to the care provided for male patients. Data from a total of 741 patient registered for MDT, of whom 351 were newly diagnosed cases, are presented and discussed. The data indicate that women have access to diagnosis and treatment and health education. They do not present for treatment later than men, disability rates are lower and they have slightly higher treatment completion rates. Both women and men benefit from footwear and loan programs. More women than men are involved in patient self-help groups. The study shows that in this part of central Chad, there is no evidence of disadvantage for women with leprosy in either diagnosis, treatment or follow-up, but more qualitative data is needed to confirm these findings.

  3. Analysing Command Challenges Using the Command and Control Framework: Pilot Study Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-01

    capacit6 d’explication du cadre dans le contexte de situations r6elles dans lesquelles dui personnel militaire affrontait des d~fis op ~ rationnels . Les...E 1 • Defence Research and Recherche et d6veloppement Development Canada pour la d6fense Canada DEFENCE TD7 FENSE Analysing command challenges using...Yes E] : Chronic stress (e.g., extended acute stress, extended fatigue, op tempo, etc.) Explain: =No F1 Yes LI : Personal maturity (e.g., appropriate

  4. The IEO Data Center Management System: Tools for quality control, analysis and access marine data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, Antonia; Garcia, Maria Jesus; Nikouline, Andrei

    2010-05-01

    Since 1994 the Data Centre of the Spanish Oceanographic Institute develops system for archiving and quality control of oceanographic data. The work started in the frame of the European Marine Science & Technology Programme (MAST) when a consortium of several Mediterranean Data Centres began to work on the MEDATLAS project. Along the years, old software modules for MS DOS were rewritten, improved and migrated to Windows environment. Oceanographic data quality control includes now not only vertical profiles (mainly CTD and bottles observations) but also time series of currents and sea level observations. New powerful routines for analysis and for graphic visualization were added. Data presented originally in ASCII format were organized recently in an open source MySQL database. Nowadays, the IEO, as part of SeaDataNet Infrastructure, has designed and developed a new information system, consistent with the ISO 19115 and SeaDataNet standards, in order to manage the large and diverse marine data and information originated in Spain by different sources, and to interoperate with SeaDataNet. The system works with data stored in ASCII files (MEDATLAS, ODV) as well as data stored within the relational database. The components of the system are: 1.MEDATLAS Format and Quality Control - QCDAMAR: Quality Control of Marine Data. Main set of tools for working with data presented as text files. Includes extended quality control (searching for duplicated cruises and profiles, checking date, position, ship velocity, constant profiles, spikes, density inversion, sounding, acceptable data, impossible regional values,...) and input/output filters. - QCMareas: A set of procedures for the quality control of tide gauge data according to standard international Sea Level Observing System. These procedures include checking for unexpected anomalies in the time series, interpolation, filtering, computation of basic statistics and residuals. 2. DAMAR: A relational data base (MySql) designed to

  5. Explaining Variability in High School Students' Access to and Enrollment in Career Academies and Career Theme Clusters in Florida: Multi-Level Analyses of Student and School Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evan, Aimee J.; Burden, Frances F.; Gheen, Margaret H.; Smerdon, Becky A.

    2013-01-01

    Career academies have been effective in reducing the high school dropout rates and increasing academic course taking and course credit accumulation among students (Kemple & Willner, 2008; Kemple & Snipes, 2000). However, not all students have access to career academy programs as they are not universally implemented across the state of…

  6. High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) longitudinal controller: Design, analyses, and simulation resultss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostroff, Aaron J.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Proffitt, Melissa S.; Brown, Philip W.; Phillips, Michael R.; Rivers, Robert A.; Messina, Michael D.; Carzoo, Susan W.; Bacon, Barton J.; Foster, John F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the design, analysis, and nonlinear simulation results (batch and piloted) for a longitudinal controller which is scheduled to be flight-tested on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The HARV is an F-18 airplane modified for and equipped with multi-axis thrust vectoring. The paper includes a description of the facilities, a detailed review of the feedback controller design, linear analysis results of the feedback controller, a description of the feed-forward controller design, nonlinear batch simulation results, and piloted simulation results. Batch simulation results include maximum pitch stick agility responses, angle of attack alpha captures, and alpha regulation for full lateral stick rolls at several alpha's. Piloted simulation results include task descriptions for several types of maneuvers, task guidelines, the corresponding Cooper-Harper ratings from three test pilots, and some pilot comments. The ratings show that desirable criteria are achieved for almost all of the piloted simulation tasks.

  7. Special environmental control and life support equipment test analyses and hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, David M.

    1995-01-01

    This final report summarizes NAS8-38250 contract events, 'Special Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Test Analysis and Hardware'. This report is technical and includes programmatic development. Key to the success of this contract was the evaluation of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) test results via sophisticated laboratory analysis capabilities. The history of the contract, including all subcontracts, is followed by the support and development of each Task.

  8. Sequential analyses, multiple controlling stimuli, and temporal patterning in first-language transmission

    PubMed Central

    Moerk, Ernst L.

    1999-01-01

    Although inferences of causality from contingencies are problematic, as Hume argued, and are difficult to prove empirically, explanatory accounts of normal language acquisition and all remedial interventions rely on presumptions of environmental effectiveness. Careful sequential analyses of verbal behaviors can strongly corroborate dependencies by means of establishing either (a) contiguous contingencies or (b) topographical resemblances between antecedents and delayed consequences that could not be explained without assuming such dependencies. The promises, as well as the methodological and conceptual challenges, of such sequential analyses of verbal training and learning are exemplified on the basis of mother-child interactions. Concomitant variation over shorter and longer intervals, and immediate as well as lagged contingencies, are interpreted as indicators of dependency relationships. By focusing on behavioral evidence, extensive similarities or even homologies between first-language training and learning and basic behavioral principles established mostly through nonhuman research can be demonstrated. Nevertheless, expansions and innovations in the behavioral repertoire are suggested as conducive to mutual enrichment of the two fields of the experimental analysis of behavior and first-language acquisition. PMID:22477160

  9. Integrated analyses for genetic markers of polycystic ovary syndrome with 9 case-control studies of gene expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chenqi; Liu, Xiaoqin; Wang, Lin; Jiang, Ning; Yu, Jun; Zhao, Xiaobo; Hu, Hairong; Zheng, Saihua; Li, Xuelian; Wang, Guiying

    2017-01-10

    Due to genetic heterogeneity and variable diagnostic criteria, genetic studies of polycystic ovary syndrome are particularly challenging. Furthermore, lack of sufficiently large cohorts limits the identification of susceptibility genes contributing to polycystic ovary syndrome. Here, we carried out a systematic search of studies deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus database through August 31, 2016. The present analyses included studies with: 1) patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and normal controls, 2) gene expression profiling of messenger RNA, and 3) sufficient data for our analysis. Ultimately, a total of 9 studies with 13 datasets met the inclusion criteria and were performed for the subsequent integrated analyses. Through comprehensive analyses, there were 13 genetic factors overlapped in all datasets and identified as significant specific genes for polycystic ovary syndrome. After quality control assessment, there were six datasets remained. Further gene ontology enrichment and pathway analyses suggested that differentially expressed genes mainly enriched in oocyte pathways. These findings provide potential molecular markers for diagnosis and prognosis of polycystic ovary syndrome, and need in-depth studies on the exact function and mechanism in polycystic ovary syndrome.

  10. Multiple regression analyses in artificial-grammar learning: the importance of control groups.

    PubMed

    Lotz, Anja; Kinder, Annette; Lachnit, Harald

    2009-03-01

    In artificial-grammar learning, it is crucial to ensure that above-chance performance in the test stage is due to learning in the training stage but not due to judgemental biases. Here we argue that multiple regression analysis can be successfully combined with the use of control groups to assess whether participants were able to transfer knowledge acquired during training when making judgements about test stimuli. We compared the regression weights of judgements in a transfer condition (training and test strings were constructed by the same grammar but with different letters) with those in a control condition. Predictors were identical in both conditions-judgements of control participants were treated as if they were based on knowledge gained in a standard training stage. The results of this experiment as well as reanalyses of a former study support the usefulness of our approach.

  11. Controlling the taste receptor accessible structure of rebaudioside A via binding to bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Mudgal, Samriddh; Keresztes, Ivan; Feigenson, Gerald W; Rizvi, S S H

    2016-04-15

    We illustrate a method that uses bovine serum albumin (BSA) to control the receptor-accessible part of rebaudioside A (Reb A). The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of Reb A was found to be 4.5 mM and 5 mM at pH 3 and 6.7 respectively. NMR studies show that below its CMC, Reb A binds weakly to BSA to generate a Reb A-protein complex ("RPC"), which is only modestly stable under varying conditions of pH (3.0-6.7) and temperature (4-40°C) with its binding affinities determined to be in the range of 5-280 mM. Furthermore, saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR experiments confirm that the RPC has fast exchange of the bitterness-instigating diterpene of Reb A into the binding sites of BSA. Our method can be used to alter the strength of Reb A-receptor interaction, as a result of binding of Reb A to BSA, which may ultimately lead to moderation of its taste.

  12. Neurodynamics of executive control processes in bilinguals: evidence from ERP and source reconstruction analyses.

    PubMed

    Heidlmayr, Karin; Hemforth, Barbara; Moutier, Sylvain; Isel, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the impact of bilingualism on the neuronal activity in different executive control processes namely conflict monitoring, control implementation (i.e., interference suppression and conflict resolution) and overcoming of inhibition. Twenty-two highly proficient but non-balanced successive French-German bilingual adults and 22 monolingual adults performed a combined Stroop/Negative priming task while event-related potential (ERP) were recorded online. The data revealed that the ERP effects were reduced in bilinguals in comparison to monolinguals but only in the Stroop task and limited to the N400 and the sustained fronto-central negative-going potential time windows. This result suggests that bilingualism may impact the process of control implementation rather than the process of conflict monitoring (N200). Critically, our study revealed a differential time course of the involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in conflict processing. While the ACC showed major activation in the early time windows (N200 and N400) but not in the latest time window (late sustained negative-going potential), the PFC became unilaterally active in the left hemisphere in the N400 and the late sustained negative-going potential time windows. Taken together, the present electroencephalography data lend support to a cascading neurophysiological model of executive control processes, in which ACC and PFC may play a determining role.

  13. Effortful Control and Adaptive Functioning of Homeless Children: Variable-Focused and Person-Focused Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obradovic, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Homeless children show significant developmental delays across major domains of adaptation, yet research on protective processes that may contribute to resilient adaptation in this highly disadvantaged group of children is extremely rare. This study examined the role of effortful control for adaption in 58 homeless children, ages 5-6, during their…

  14. What Controls the Teaching of "Friluftsliv"? Analysing a Pedagogic Discourse within Swedish Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backman, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that outdoor teaching practices within a physical education (PE) context are controlled by several factors with the potential to weaken or strengthen PE teachers' communication of pedagogic messages. Drawing on 12 qualitative interviews with PE teachers in compulsory schools in Sweden, the findings in this study suggest that…

  15. Neurodynamics of executive control processes in bilinguals: evidence from ERP and source reconstruction analyses

    PubMed Central

    Heidlmayr, Karin; Hemforth, Barbara; Moutier, Sylvain; Isel, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the impact of bilingualism on the neuronal activity in different executive control processes namely conflict monitoring, control implementation (i.e., interference suppression and conflict resolution) and overcoming of inhibition. Twenty-two highly proficient but non-balanced successive French–German bilingual adults and 22 monolingual adults performed a combined Stroop/Negative priming task while event-related potential (ERP) were recorded online. The data revealed that the ERP effects were reduced in bilinguals in comparison to monolinguals but only in the Stroop task and limited to the N400 and the sustained fronto-central negative-going potential time windows. This result suggests that bilingualism may impact the process of control implementation rather than the process of conflict monitoring (N200). Critically, our study revealed a differential time course of the involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in conflict processing. While the ACC showed major activation in the early time windows (N200 and N400) but not in the latest time window (late sustained negative-going potential), the PFC became unilaterally active in the left hemisphere in the N400 and the late sustained negative-going potential time windows. Taken together, the present electroencephalography data lend support to a cascading neurophysiological model of executive control processes, in which ACC and PFC may play a determining role. PMID:26124740

  16. An Ounce of Prevention: Technologists Use Network-Access Control to Protect System Resources, Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolch, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Whether for an entire district, a single campus, or one classroom, allowing authorized access to a computer network can be fraught with challenges. The login process should be fairly seamless to approved users, giving them speedy access to approved Web sites, databases, and other sources of information. It also should be tough on unauthorized…

  17. Guaranteeing synchronous message deadlines with the timed token medium access control protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Gopal; Chen, Baio; Zhao, Wei; Davari, Sadegh

    1992-01-01

    We study the problem of guaranteeing synchronous message deadlines in token ring networks where the timed token medium access control protocol is employed. Synchronous capacity, defined as the maximum time for which a node can transmit its synchronous messages every time it receives the token, is a key parameter in the control of synchronous message transmission. To ensure the transmission of synchronous messages before their deadlines, synchronous capacities must be properly allocated to individual nodes. We address the issue of appropriate allocation of the synchronous capacities. Several synchronous capacity allocation schemes are analyzed in terms of their ability to satisfy deadline constraints of synchronous messages. We show that an inappropriate allocation of the synchronous capacities could cause message deadlines to be missed even if the synchronous traffic is extremely low. We propose a scheme called the normalized proportional allocation scheme which can guarantee the synchronous message deadlines for synchronous traffic of up to 33 percent of available utilization. To date, no other synchronous capacity allocation scheme has been reported to achieve such substantial performance. Another major contribution of this paper is an extension to the previous work on the bounded token rotation time. We prove that the time elapsed between any consecutive visits to a particular node is bounded by upsilon TTRT, where TTRT is the target token rotation time set up at system initialization time. The previous result by Johnson and Sevcik is a special case where upsilon = 2. We use this result in the analysis of various synchronous allocation schemes. It can also be applied in other similar studies.

  18. Analyses of geological and hydrodynamic controls on methane emissions experienced in a Lower Kittanning coal mine

    PubMed Central

    Karacan, C. Özgen; Goodman, Gerrit V.R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study assessing potential factors and migration paths of methane emissions experienced in a room-and-pillar mine in Lower Kittanning coal, Indiana County, Pennsylvania. Methane emissions were not excessive at idle mining areas, but significant methane was measured during coal mining and loading. Although methane concentrations in the mine did not exceed 1% limit during operation due to the presence of adequate dilution airflow, the source of methane and its migration into the mine was still a concern. In the course of this study, structural and depositional properties of the area were evaluated to assess complexity and sealing capacity of roof rocks. Composition, gas content, and permeability of Lower Kittanning coal, results of flotation tests, and geochemistry of groundwater obtained from observation boreholes were studied to understand the properties of coal and potential effects of old abandoned mines within the same area. These data were combined with the data obtained from exploration boreholes, such as depths, elevations, thicknesses, ash content, and heat value of coal. Univariate statistical and principal component analyses (PCA), as well as geostatistical simulations and co-simulations, were performed on various spatial attributes to reveal interrelationships and to establish area-wide distributions. These studies helped in analyzing groundwater quality and determining gas-in-place (GIP) of the Lower Kittanning seam. Furthermore, groundwater level and head on the Lower Kittanning coal were modeled and flow gradients within the study area were examined. Modeling results were interpreted with the structural geology of the Allegheny Group of formations above the Lower Kittanning coal to understand the potential source of gas and its migration paths. Analyses suggested that the source of methane was likely the overlying seams such as the Middle and Upper Kittanning coals and Freeport seams of the Allegheny Group. Simulated ground

  19. Analyses of geological and hydrodynamic controls on methane emissions experienced in a Lower Kittanning coal mine.

    PubMed

    Karacan, C Özgen; Goodman, Gerrit V R

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a study assessing potential factors and migration paths of methane emissions experienced in a room-and-pillar mine in Lower Kittanning coal, Indiana County, Pennsylvania. Methane emissions were not excessive at idle mining areas, but significant methane was measured during coal mining and loading. Although methane concentrations in the mine did not exceed 1% limit during operation due to the presence of adequate dilution airflow, the source of methane and its migration into the mine was still a concern. In the course of this study, structural and depositional properties of the area were evaluated to assess complexity and sealing capacity of roof rocks. Composition, gas content, and permeability of Lower Kittanning coal, results of flotation tests, and geochemistry of groundwater obtained from observation boreholes were studied to understand the properties of coal and potential effects of old abandoned mines within the same area. These data were combined with the data obtained from exploration boreholes, such as depths, elevations, thicknesses, ash content, and heat value of coal. Univariate statistical and principal component analyses (PCA), as well as geostatistical simulations and co-simulations, were performed on various spatial attributes to reveal interrelationships and to establish area-wide distributions. These studies helped in analyzing groundwater quality and determining gas-in-place (GIP) of the Lower Kittanning seam. Furthermore, groundwater level and head on the Lower Kittanning coal were modeled and flow gradients within the study area were examined. Modeling results were interpreted with the structural geology of the Allegheny Group of formations above the Lower Kittanning coal to understand the potential source of gas and its migration paths. Analyses suggested that the source of methane was likely the overlying seams such as the Middle and Upper Kittanning coals and Freeport seams of the Allegheny Group. Simulated ground

  20. Suppressing NOM access to controlled porous TiO2 particles enhances the decomposition of target water contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Suppressing access of natural organic matter (NOM) to TiO2 is a key to the successful photocatalytic decomposition of a target contaminant in water. This study first demonstrates simply controlling the porous structure of TiO2 can significantly improve the selective oxidation.

  1. Three key regions for supervisory attentional control: Evidence from neuroimaging meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Cieslik, Edna C.; Mueller, Veronika I.; Eickhoff, Claudia R.; Langner, Robert; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2014-01-01

    The supervisory attentional system has been proposed to mediate non-routine, goal-oriented behaviour by guiding the selection and maintenance of the goal-relevant task schema. Here, we aimed to delineate the brain regions that mediate these high-level control processes via neuroimaging meta-analysis. In particular, we investigated the core neural correlates of a wide range of tasks requiring supervisory control for the suppression of a routine action in favour of another, non-routine one. Our sample comprised n = 173 experiments employing go/no-go, stop-signal, Stroop or spatial interference tasks. Consistent convergence across all four paradigm classes was restricted to right anterior insula and inferior frontal junction, with anterior midcingulate cortex and pre-supplementary motor area being consistently involved in all but the go/no-go task. Taken together with lesion studies in patients, our findings suggest that the controlled activation and maintenance of adequate task schemata relies, across paradigms, on a right-dominant midcingulo-insular-inferior frontal core network. This also implies that the role of other prefrontal and parietal regions may be less domain-general than previously thought. PMID:25446951

  2. A Brief Survey of Media Access Control, Data Link Layer, and Protocol Technologies for Lunar Surface Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallett, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper surveys and describes some of the existing media access control and data link layer technologies for possible application in lunar surface communications and the advanced wideband Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DSCDMA) conceptual systems utilizing phased-array technology that will evolve in the next decade. Time Domain Multiple Access (TDMA) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) are standard Media Access Control (MAC) techniques that can be incorporated into lunar surface communications architectures. Another novel hybrid technique that is recently being developed for use with smart antenna technology combines the advantages of CDMA with those of TDMA. The relatively new and sundry wireless LAN data link layer protocols that are continually under development offer distinct advantages for lunar surface applications over the legacy protocols which are not wireless. Also several communication transport and routing protocols can be chosen with characteristics commensurate with smart antenna systems to provide spacecraft communications for links exhibiting high capacity on the surface of the Moon. The proper choices depend on the specific communication requirements.

  3. Report: EPA Could Improve Physical Access and Service Continuity/Contingency Controls for Financial and Mixed-Financial Systems Located at its Research Triangle Park Campus

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2006-P-00005, December 14, 2005. Controls needed to be improved in areas such as visitor access to facilities, use of contractor access badges, and general physical access to the NCC, computer rooms outside the NCC, and media storage rooms.

  4. [Genetic control of efficient leaf rust resistance in collection accessions of barley Hordeum vulgare L].

    PubMed

    Tyryshkin, L G

    2009-03-01

    Leaf rust resistance was studied in barley accessions from the worldwide collection of the All-Russia Institute of Plant Industry. Most accessions described as highly resistant in the literature proved susceptible. High resistance at the juvenile stage was observed only for the cultivars Henry, Cebada Capa, Forrajera Klein, and Scarlet. Hybrid analysis and phytopathological tests showed that the cultivar Scarlet had one dominant resistance gene, Rph7. Adult resistance was demonstrated for accession NB-3002 from Nepal, which proved to have one dominant gene on evidence of hybrid analysis.

  5. In vivo analyses of the internal control region in the 5S rRNA gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y; Erkine, A M; Van Ryk, D I; Nazar, R N

    1995-02-25

    The internal control region of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae 5S rRNA gene has been characterized in vivo by genomic DNase I footprinting and by mutational analyses using base substitutions, deletions or insertions. A high copy shuttle vector was used to efficiently express mutant 5S rRNA genes in vivo and isotope labelling kinetics were used to distinguish impeded gene expression from nascent RNA degradation. In contrast to mutational studies in reconstituted systems, the analyses describe promoter elements which closely resemble the three distinct sequence elements that have been observed in Xenopus laevis 5S rRNA. The results indicate a more highly conserved structure than previously reported with reconstituted systems and suggest that the saturated conditions which are used in reconstitution studies mask sequence dependence which may be physiologically significant. Footprint analyses support the extended region of protein interaction which has recently been observed in some reconstituted systems, but mutational analyses indicate that these interactions are not sequence specific. Periodicity in the footprint provides further detail regarding the in vivo topology of the interacting protein.

  6. Comprehensive Comparative Genomic and Transcriptomic Analyses of the Legume Genes Controlling the Nodulation Process

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Zhenzhen; Pingault, Lise; Nourbakhsh-Rey, Mehrnoush; Libault, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most essential plant nutrients and one of the major factors limiting crop productivity. Having the goal to perform a more sustainable agriculture, there is a need to maximize biological nitrogen fixation, a feature of legumes. To enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling the interaction between legumes and rhizobia, the symbiotic partner fixing and assimilating the atmospheric nitrogen for the plant, researchers took advantage of genetic and genomic resources developed across different legume models (e.g., Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Glycine max, and Phaseolus vulgaris) to identify key regulatory protein coding genes of the nodulation process. In this study, we are presenting the results of a comprehensive comparative genomic analysis to highlight orthologous and paralogous relationships between the legume genes controlling nodulation. Mining large transcriptomic datasets, we also identified several orthologous and paralogous genes characterized by the induction of their expression during nodulation across legume plant species. This comprehensive study prompts new insights into the evolution of the nodulation process in legume plant and will benefit the scientific community interested in the transfer of functional genomic information between species. PMID:26858743

  7. Occlusal plane determination using custom made broadrick occlusal plane analyser: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Manvi, Supriya; Miglani, Shaveta; Rajeswari, C L; Srivatsa, G; Arora, Sarvesh

    2012-01-01

    Proper occlusal plane is an essential consideration when multiple long span posterior restorations are designed. The determination of the occlusal plane can have a profound effect on the short and long term success of a restorative case. Purpose of Study. (1) To determine the appropriate occlusal curve for individual patients. (2) To compare the deviation of the clinical occlusal curve with the ideal ones. Materials and Methods. A total of 20 subjects were examined and study models were made of their maxillary and mandibular dentition. Inter-occlusal records were made and the casts were articulated in semiadjustable articulator. An ideal occlusal plane was created. The distance of the farthest cusp tip from the Broadrick curve was measured along the long axis of the tooth for each individual. Paired t-tests were used to compare the findings between subjects and controls. Results. A statistically significant difference P < 0.05 was found in the deviation from the Broadrick curve between patients who have lost posterior teeth and the control group who had a full dentition with no missing teeth. Conclusion. Proper utilization of the broadrick flag on a semi-adjustable articulator will allow for a correct determination of the occlusal plane.

  8. Local Control Strategy: Simple Analyses of Air Pollution Data Can Reveal Heterogeneity in Longevity Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Obenchain, Robert L; Young, S Stanley

    2017-02-23

    Claims from observational studies that use traditional model specification searches often fail to replicate, partially because the available data tend to be biased. There is an urgent need for an alternative statistical analysis strategy, that is not only simple and easily understood but also is more likely to give reliable insights when the available data have not been designed and balanced. The alternative strategy known as local control first generates local, nonparametric effect-size estimates (fair treatment comparisons) and only then asks whether the observed variation in these local estimates can be predicted from potential confounding factors. Here, we illustrate application of local control to a historical air pollution data set describing a "natural experiment" initiated by the federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1970. Our reanalysis reveals subgroup heterogeneity in the effects of air quality regulation on elderly longevity (one size does not fit all), and we show that this heterogeneity is largely explained by socioeconomic and environmental confounders other than air quality.

  9. Developmental Control of Stress Stimulons in Streptomyces coelicolor Revealed by Statistical Analyses of Global Gene Expression Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Vohradsky, J.; Li, X.-M.; Dale, G.; Folcher, M.; Nguyen, L.; Viollier, P. H.; Thompson, C. J.

    2000-01-01

    Stress-induced regulatory networks coordinated with a procaryotic developmental program were revealed by two-dimensional gel analyses of global gene expression. Four developmental stages were identified by their distinctive protein synthesis patterns using principal component analysis. Statistical analyses focused on five stress stimulons (induced by heat, cold, salt, ethanol, or antibiotic shock) and their synthesis during development. Unlike other bacteria, for which various stresses induce expression of similar sets of protein spots, in Streptomyces coelicolor heat, salt, and ethanol stimulons were composed of independent sets of proteins. This suggested independent control by different physiological stress signals and their corresponding regulatory systems. These stress proteins were also under developmental control. Cluster analysis of stress protein synthesis profiles identified 10 different developmental patterns or “synexpression groups.” Proteins induced by cold, heat, or salt shock were enriched in three developmental synexpression groups. In addition, certain proteins belonging to the heat and salt shock stimulons were coregulated during development. Thus, stress regulatory systems controlling these stimulons were implicated as integral parts of the developmental program. This correlation suggested that thermal shock and salt shock stress response regulatory systems either allow the cell to adapt to stresses associated with development or directly control the developmental program. PMID:10940043

  10. Autonomous and controlled motivational regulations for multiple health-related behaviors: between- and within-participants analyses.

    PubMed

    Hagger, M S; Hardcastle, S J; Chater, A; Mallett, C; Pal, S; Chatzisarantis, N L D

    2014-01-01

    Self-determination theory has been applied to the prediction of a number of health-related behaviors with self-determined or autonomous forms of motivation generally more effective in predicting health behavior than non-self-determined or controlled forms. Research has been confined to examining the motivational predictors in single health behaviors rather than comparing effects across multiple behaviors. The present study addressed this gap in the literature by testing the relative contribution of autonomous and controlling motivation to the prediction of a large number of health-related behaviors, and examining individual differences in self-determined motivation as a moderator of the effects of autonomous and controlling motivation on health behavior. Participants were undergraduate students (N = 140) who completed measures of autonomous and controlled motivational regulations and behavioral intention for 20 health-related behaviors at an initial occasion with follow-up behavioral measures taken four weeks later. Path analysis was used to test a process model for each behavior in which motivational regulations predicted behavior mediated by intentions. Some minor idiosyncratic findings aside, between-participants analyses revealed significant effects for autonomous motivational regulations on intentions and behavior across the 20 behaviors. Effects for controlled motivation on intentions and behavior were relatively modest by comparison. Intentions mediated the effect of autonomous motivation on behavior. Within-participants analyses were used to segregate the sample into individuals who based their intentions on autonomous motivation (autonomy-oriented) and controlled motivation (control-oriented). Replicating the between-participants path analyses for the process model in the autonomy- and control-oriented samples did not alter the relative effects of the motivational orientations on intention and behavior. Results provide evidence for consistent effects

  11. DOE`s nation-wide system for access control can solve problems for the federal government

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, S.; Tomes, D.; Davis, G.; Johnson, D.; Strait, S.

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) ongoing efforts to improve its physical and personnel security systems while reducing its costs, provide a model for federal government visitor processing. Through the careful use of standardized badges, computer databases, and networks of automated access control systems, the DOE is increasing the security associated with travel throughout the DOE complex, and at the same time, eliminating paperwork, special badging, and visitor delays. The DOE is also improving badge accountability, personnel identification assurance, and access authorization timeliness and accuracy. Like the federal government, the DOE has dozens of geographically dispersed locations run by many different contractors operating a wide range of security systems. The DOE has overcome these obstacles by providing data format standards, a complex-wide virtual network for security, the adoption of a standard high security system, and an open-systems-compatible link for any automated access control system. If the location`s level of security requires it, positive visitor identification is accomplished by personal identification number (PIN) and/or by biometrics. At sites with automated access control systems, this positive identification is integrated into the portals.

  12. Patterns and Prevalence of School Access, Transitions and Equity in South Africa: Secondary Analyses of BT20 Large-Scale Data Sources. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 27

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleisch, Brahm; Shindler, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This monograph looks at patterns and prevalence of initial school enrolment, late entry, attainment promotion, and repetition in urban South Africa. The paper pays special attention to the particular gender nature of the patterns of school participation. The study analyses data generated in the genuine representative cohort study, Birth-to-Twenty…

  13. Wavefront sensing and control performance modeling of the Thirty Meter telescope for systematic trade analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissly, Carl; Seo, Byoung-Joon; Troy, Mitchell; Chanan, Gary; Roberts, Scott; Rogers, John

    2014-08-01

    We have developed an integrated optical model of the semi-static performance of the Thirty Meter Telescope. The model includes surface and rigid body errors of all telescope optics as well as a model of the Alignment and Phasing System Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors and control algorithms. This integrated model allows for simulation of the correction of the telescope wavefront, including optical errors on the secondary and tertiary mirrors, using the primary mirror segment active degrees of freedom. This model provides the estimate of the predicted telescope performance for system engineering and error budget development. In this paper we present updated performance values for the TMT static optical errors in terms of Normalized Point Source Sensitivity and RMS wavefront error after Adaptive Optics correction. As an example of a system level trade, we present the results from an analysis optimizing the number of Shack-Hartmann lenslets per segment. We trade the number of lenslet rings over each primary mirror segment against the telescope performance metrics of PSSN and RMS wavefront error.

  14. Controls upon microbial accessibility to soil organic matter following woody plant encroachment into grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creamer, C. A.; Boutton, T. W.; Filley, T. R.

    2009-12-01

    Woody plant encroachment (WPE) into savannas and grasslands is a global phenomenon that alters soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics through changes in litter quality and quantity, soil structure, microbial ecology, and soil hydrology. To elucidate the controls upon microbial accessibility to SOM, bulk soils from a chronosequence of progressive WPE into native grasslands at the Texas A&M Agricultural Experimental Station La Copita Research Area were incubated for one year. The quantity and stable carbon isotope composition of respired CO2, plant biopolymer chemistry in SOM, and microbial community structure were tracked. Respiration rates declined steadily over the course of the experiment with 15-25% of the total CO2 respired released in the first month of incubation. Between 8 and 18% of the total carbon was mineralized to CO2 throughout the incubation. After day 84 a significantly (p < 0.05) greater portion of carbon was mineralized from soils of older woody clusters (34-86 years) than from soils of younger clusters (14-23 years) and the native grassland. Approximately 80% of patterns seen in cumulative CO2 loss could be explained by the proportions of macro- and micro-aggregates within each soil, suggesting soil structure is a major controlling factor of respiration rates. Despite documented carbon accrual within La Copita soils due to WPE, we observed no evidence of enhanced carbon stabilization in these respiration experiments. In fact, a greater proportion of total carbon was lost from the soil of mature woody stands than from young stands, suggesting carbon accumulation observed with WPE may be due to greater input rates or microbial dynamics not captured in the laboratory incubation. A cluster approximately 34 years in age represents a transition point in WPE where respiration dynamics become distinct between grassland and wooded elements. By day 84 of the incubation CO2 respired from all soils was depleted with respect to bulk SOM (1.5 to 5‰) and this

  15. To condition or not condition? Analysing ‘change’ in longitudinal randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Coffman, Cynthia J; Edelman, David; Woolson, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    Objective The statistical analysis for a 2-arm randomised controlled trial (RCT) with a baseline outcome followed by a few assessments at fixed follow-up times typically invokes traditional analytic methods (eg, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), longitudinal data analysis (LDA)). ‘Constrained’ longitudinal data analysis (cLDA) is a well-established unconditional technique that constrains means of baseline to be equal between arms. We use an analysis of fasting lipid profiles from the Group Medical Clinics (GMC) longitudinal RCT on patients with diabetes to illustrate applications of ANCOVA, LDA and cLDA to demonstrate theoretical concepts of these methods including the impact of missing data. Methods For the analysis of the illustrated example, all models were fit using linear mixed models to participants with only complete data and to participants using all available data. Results With complete data (n=195), 95% CI coverage are equivalent for ANCOVA and cLDA with an estimated 11.2 mg/dL (95% CI −19.2 to −3.3; p=0.006) lower mean low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in GMC compared with usual care. With all available data (n=233), applying the cLDA model yielded an LDL improvement of 8.9 mg/dL (95% CI −16.7 to −1.0; p=0.03) for GMC compared with usual care. The less efficient, LDA analysis yielded an LDL improvement of 7.2 mg/dL (95% CI −17.2 to 2.8; p=0.15) for GMC compared with usual care. Conclusions Under reasonable missing data assumptions, cLDA will yield efficient treatment effect estimates and robust inferential statistics. It may be regarded as the method of choice over ANCOVA and LDA. PMID:28039292

  16. Population and forensic genetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA control region variation from six major provinces in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung Beom; Kim, Ki Cheol; Kim, Wook

    2015-07-01

    We generated complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences from 704 unrelated individuals residing in six major provinces in Korea. In addition to our earlier survey of the distribution of mtDNA haplogroup variation, a total of 560 different haplotypes characterized by 271 polymorphic sites were identified, of which 473 haplotypes were unique. The gene diversity and random match probability were 0.9989 and 0.0025, respectively. According to the pairwise comparison of the 704 control region sequences, the mean number of pairwise differences between individuals was 13.47±6.06. Based on the result of mtDNA control region sequences, pairwise FST genetic distances revealed genetic homogeneity of the Korean provinces on a peninsular level, except in samples from Jeju Island. This result indicates there may be a need to formulate a local mtDNA database for Jeju Island, to avoid bias in forensic parameter estimates caused by genetic heterogeneity of the population. Thus, the present data may help not only in personal identification but also in determining maternal lineages to provide an expanded and reliable Korean mtDNA database. These data will be available on the EMPOP database via accession number EMP00661.

  17. Analysis and Simulation of Traffic Control for Resource Management in DVB-Based Broadband Satellite Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Impemba, Ernesto; Inzerilli, Tiziano

    2003-07-01

    Integration of satellite access networks with the Internet is seen as a strategic goal to achieve in order to provide ubiquitous broadband access to Internet services in Next Generation Networks (NGNs). One of the main interworking aspects which has been most studied is an efficient management of satellite resources, i.e. bandwidth and buffer space, in order to satisfy most demanding application requirements as to delay control and bandwidth assurance. In this context, resource management in DVB-S/DVB-RCS satellite technologies, emerging technologies for broadband satellite access and transport of IP applications, is a research issue largely investigated as a means to provide efficient bi-directional communications across satellites. This is in particular one of the principal goals of the SATIP6 project, sponsored within the 5th EU Research Programme Framework, i.e. IST. In this paper we present a possible approach to efficiently exploit bandwidth, the most critical resource in a broadband satellite access network, while pursuing satisfaction of delay and bandwidth requirements for applications with guaranteed QoS through a traffic control architecture to be implemented in ground terminals. Performance of this approach is assessed in terms of efficient exploitation of the uplink bandwidth and differentiation and minimization of queuing delays for most demanding applications over a time-varying capacity. Opnet simulations is used as analysis tool.

  18. State preemption of local tobacco control policies restricting smoking, advertising, and youth access--United States, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    2011-08-26

    Preemptive state tobacco control legislation prohibits localities from enacting tobacco control laws that are more stringent than state law. State preemption provisions can preclude any type of local tobacco control policy. The three broad types of state preemption tracked by CDC include preemption of local policies that restrict 1) smoking in workplaces and public places, 2) tobacco advertising, and 3) youth access to tobacco products. A Healthy People 2020 objective (TU-16) calls for eliminating state laws that preempt any type of local tobacco control law. A previous study reported that the number of states that preempt local smoking restrictions in one or more of three settings (government worksites, private-sector worksites, and restaurants) has decreased substantially in recent years. To measure progress toward achieving Healthy People 2020 objectives, this study expands on the previous analysis to track changes in state laws that preempt local advertising and youth access restrictions and to examine policy changes from December 31, 2000, to December 31, 2010. This new analysis found that, in contrast with the substantial progress achieved during the past decade in reducing the number of states that preempt local smoking restrictions, no progress has been made in reducing the number of states that preempt local advertising restrictions and youth access restrictions. Increased progress in removing state preemption provisions will be needed to achieve the relevant Healthy People 2020 objective.

  19. An efficient key-management scheme for hierarchical access control in e-medicine system.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuhua; Chen, Kefei

    2012-08-01

    In e-medicine system, the sharing of patients' medical histories scattered among medical institutions through the Internet is highly desirable. The most immediate cryptographic need certainly is an efficient key management method to solve dynamic access problems in a user hierarchy. In this paper, we propose a practical solution for dynamic access problem in a user hierarchy based on hybrid cryptosystems. When compared with Nikooghadam et al.'s scheme proposed most recently, the time complexity and the required storage space is reduced significantly. Moreover, it provides provable security, and is easy to implement. Therefore, our scheme is more suitable for e-medicine system.

  20. DoD Needs to Improve Screening and Access Controls for General Public Tenants Leasing Housing on Military Installations (REDACTED)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    have the actual signature of the authorizing official for your organization. We cannot accept the /Signed/ symbol in place of the actual signature...Introduction DODIG-2016-072 │ 1 Introduction Objective Our audit objective was to determine whether DoD had adequate security controls in place for the... working with installations without a direct connection to NCIC via a state terminal to provide access through OpenFox. In addition, procedures for

  1. Fluorination Enables a Ligand-Controlled Regiodivergent Palladium-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Allylation Reaction to Access α,α-Difluoroketones

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming–Hsiu; Orsi, Douglas L.

    2015-01-01

    α,α-Difluoroketones possess unique physicochemical properties that are useful for developing therapeutics and probes for chemical biology. In order to access the α-allyl-α,α-difluoroketone substructure, complementary Pd-catalyzed decarboxylative allylation reactions were developed to provide linear and branched α-allyl-α,α-difluoroketones. For these orthogonal processes, the regioselectivity was uniquely controlled by fluorination of the substrate and the structure of ligand. PMID:25581845

  2. An effective and secure key-management scheme for hierarchical access control in E-medicine system.

    PubMed

    Odelu, Vanga; Das, Ashok Kumar; Goswami, Adrijit

    2013-04-01

    Recently several hierarchical access control schemes are proposed in the literature to provide security of e-medicine systems. However, most of them are either insecure against 'man-in-the-middle attack' or they require high storage and computational overheads. Wu and Chen proposed a key management method to solve dynamic access control problems in a user hierarchy based on hybrid cryptosystem. Though their scheme improves computational efficiency over Nikooghadam et al.'s approach, it suffers from large storage space for public parameters in public domain and computational inefficiency due to costly elliptic curve point multiplication. Recently, Nikooghadam and Zakerolhosseini showed that Wu-Chen's scheme is vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attack. In order to remedy this security weakness in Wu-Chen's scheme, they proposed a secure scheme which is again based on ECC (elliptic curve cryptography) and efficient one-way hash function. However, their scheme incurs huge computational cost for providing verification of public information in the public domain as their scheme uses ECC digital signature which is costly when compared to symmetric-key cryptosystem. In this paper, we propose an effective access control scheme in user hierarchy which is only based on symmetric-key cryptosystem and efficient one-way hash function. We show that our scheme reduces significantly the storage space for both public and private domains, and computational complexity when compared to Wu-Chen's scheme, Nikooghadam-Zakerolhosseini's scheme, and other related schemes. Through the informal and formal security analysis, we further show that our scheme is secure against different attacks and also man-in-the-middle attack. Moreover, dynamic access control problems in our scheme are also solved efficiently compared to other related schemes, making our scheme is much suitable for practical applications of e-medicine systems.

  3. Classification of 'Chemlali' accessions according to the geographical area using chemometric methods of phenolic profiles analysed by HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Taamalli, Amani; Arráez Román, David; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2012-05-01

    The present work describes a classification method of Tunisian 'Chemlali' olive oils based on their phenolic composition and geographical area. For this purpose, the data obtained by HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS from 13 samples of extra virgin olive oils, obtained from different production area throughout the country, were used for this study focusing in 23 phenolics compounds detected. The quantitative results showed a significant variability among the analysed oil samples. Factor analysis method using principal component was applied to the data in order to reduce the number of factors which explain the variability of the selected compounds. The data matrix constructed was subjected to a canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) in order to classify the oil samples. These results showed that 100% of cross-validated original group cases were correctly classified, which proves the usefulness of the selected variables.

  4. Multi-component access to a commercially available weight loss program: A randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined weight loss between a community-based, intensive behavioral counseling program (Weight Watchers PointsPlus that included three treatment access modes and a self-help condition. A total of 292 participants were randomized to a Weight Watchers (WW; n=147) or a self-help condition (...

  5. 30 CFR 816.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... audible blast warning and all-clear signals that are in use, and which explain the marking of blasting... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings... STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access...

  6. The Use of a Computer-Controlled Random Access Slide Projector for Rapid Information Display.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Mark T.

    A 35mm random access slide projector operated in conjunction with a computer terminal was adapted to meet the need for a more rapid and complex graphic display mechanism than is currently available with teletypewriter terminals. The model projector can be operated manually to provide for a maintenance checkout of the electromechanical system.…

  7. 50 CFR 648.82 - Effort-control program for NE multispecies limited access vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...(a)(2), a vessel issued a limited access NE multispecies permit may not fish for, possess, or land.... (ii) A vessel may not fish for, possess, or land regulated species from March 1 through March 20 of... DAS may be used in the NE multispecies fishery to harvest and land stocks of regulated species...

  8. 50 CFR 648.82 - Effort-control program for NE multispecies limited access vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...(a)(2), a vessel issued a limited access NE multispecies permit may not fish for, possess, or land.... (ii) A vessel may not fish for, possess, or land regulated species from March 1 through March 20 of... DAS may be used in the NE multispecies fishery to harvest and land stocks of regulated species...

  9. Massive Access Control Aided by Knowledge-Extraction for Co-Existing Periodic and Random Services over Wireless Clinical Networks.

    PubMed

    Du, Qinghe; Zhao, Weidong; Li, Weimin; Zhang, Xuelin; Sun, Bo; Song, Houbing; Ren, Pinyi; Sun, Li; Wang, Yichen

    2016-07-01

    The prosperity of e-health is boosted by fast development of medical devices with wireless communications capability such as wearable devices, tiny sensors, monitoring equipments, etc., which are randomly distributed in clinic environments. The drastically-increasing population of such devices imposes new challenges on the limited wireless resources. To relieve this problem, key knowledge needs to be extracted from massive connection attempts dispersed in the air towards efficient access control. In this paper, a hybrid periodic-random massive access (HPRMA) scheme for wireless clinical networks employing ultra-narrow band (UNB) techniques is proposed. In particular, the proposed scheme towards accommodating a large population of devices include the following new features. On one hand, it can dynamically adjust the resource allocated for coexisting periodic and random services based on the traffic load learned from signal collision status. On the other hand, the resource allocation within periodic services is thoroughly designed to simultaneously align with the timing requests of differentiated services. Abundant simulation results are also presented to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed HPRMA scheme over baseline schemes including time-division multiple access (TDMA) and random access approach, in terms of channel utilization efficiency, packet drop ratio, etc., for the support of massive devices' services.

  10. Apparatus, method and system to control accessibility of platform resources based on an integrity level

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, Chris; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2016-10-25

    Techniques and mechanism to selectively provide resource access to a functional domain of a platform. In an embodiment, the platform includes both a report domain to monitor the functional domain and a policy domain to identify, based on such monitoring, a transition of the functional domain from a first integrity level to a second integrity level. In response to a change in integrity level, the policy domain may configure the enforcement domain to enforce against the functional domain one or more resource accessibility rules corresponding to the second integrity level. In another embodiment, the policy domain automatically initiates operations in aid of transitioning the platform from the second integrity level to a higher integrity level.

  11. Oversight Review: Quality Control Review of Naval Audit Service’s Special Access Program Audits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-02

    undergo an external peer review at least once every 3 years by reviewers independent of the audit organization being reviewed. As the organization that...has audit policy and oversight responsibilities for audits in the Department of Defense, we conducted this external peer review of the NAVAUDSVC audits...requiring special access in conjunction with the Army Audit Agency’s external peer review of NAVAUDSVC non-SAP audits.

  12. Composable Distributed Access Control and Integrity Policies for Query-Based Wireless Sensor Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    multiple WSN policies. The construction, hybridization, and composition of well–known models is demonstrated to preserve security, sustaining...confidentiality in Bell–LaPadula’s model , integrity in Biba’s strict integrity model , and conflict of interest avoidance in the Chinese Wall. Using WASL, a multi...as defined by the security model . It is also be more flexible in that a policy file update is all that is required to modify the accesses permitted

  13. Scalable Authorization in Role-Based Access Control Using Negative Permissions and Remote Authorization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    and Hongjie Xin for making this a rewarding team experience. Thanks to Mr. Michael Warres from Sun Microsystems for being prompt and meticulous in our...Windows NT), and security policies based on the Chinese wall model for separation of duties [8]. RBAC simplifies the administration of access...connection check is sort of a first wall of defense against illegitimate users, while the JavaSpace action is more specific to a particular object, known as

  14. Prevention of Relapse and Recurrence in Adults with Major Depressive Disorder: Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Wai Keat; Sim, Jordan; Sum, Min Yi; Baldessarini, Ross J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Findings of substantial remaining morbidity in treated major depressive disorder (MDD) led us to review controlled trials of treatments aimed at preventing early relapses or later recurrences in adults diagnosed with MDD to summarize available data and to guide further research. Methods: Reports (n = 97) were identified through systematic, computerized literature searching up to February 2015. Treatment versus control outcomes were summarized by random-effects meta-analyses. Results: In 45 reports of 72 trials (n = 14 450 subjects) lasting 33.4 weeks, antidepressants were more effective than placebos in preventing relapses (response rates [RR] = 1.90, confidence interval [CI]: 1.73–2.08; NNT = 4.4; p < 0.0001). In 35 reports of 37 trials (n = 7253) lasting 27.0 months, antidepressants were effective in preventing recurrences (RR = 2.03, CI 1.80–2.28; NNT = 3.8; p < 0.0001), with minor differences among drug types. In 17 reports of 22 trials (n = 1 969) lasting 23.7 months, psychosocial interventions yielded inconsistent or inconclusive results. Conclusions: Despite evidence of the efficacy of drug treatment compared to placebos or other controls, the findings further underscore the substantial, unresolved morbidity in treated MDD patients and strongly encourage further evaluations of specific, improved individual and combination therapies (pharmacological and psychological) conducted over longer times, as well as identifying clinical predictors of positive or unfavorable responses and of intolerability of long-term treatments in MDD. PMID:26152228

  15. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation: Control modules C4, C6

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This Manual represents Revision 5 of the user documentation for the modular code system referred to as SCALE. The history of the SCALE code system dates back to 1969 when the current Computational Physics and Engineering Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began providing the transportation package certification staff at the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission with computational support in the use of the new KENO code for performing criticality safety assessments with the statistical Monte Carlo method. From 1969 to 1976 the certification staff relied on the ORNL staff to assist them in the correct use of codes and data for criticality, shielding, and heat transfer analyses of transportation packages. However, the certification staff learned that, with only occasional use of the codes, it was difficult to become proficient in performing the calculations often needed for an independent safety review. Thus, shortly after the move of the certification staff to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the NRC staff proposed the development of an easy-to-use analysis system that provided the technical capabilities of the individual modules with which they were familiar. With this proposal, the concept of the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code system was born. This volume is part of the manual related to the control modules for the newest updated version of this computational package.

  16. Analysis of the Reconfigurable Control Capabilities of a Space Access Vehicle (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    based on dynamic inversion with a non-linear control allocator, is used to linearize the vehicle dynamics over its flight envelope and assign control ...backstepping method. Assessment of the vehicle’s ability to recover from control failures is conducted in this work for a nominal re-entry flight . 15...on dynamic inversion with a non-linear control allocator, is used to linearize the vehicle dynamics over its flight envelope and assign control tasks

  17. Control of depth of anesthesia using MUSMAR--exploring electromyography and the analgesic dose as accessible disturbances.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Catarina S; Mendonça, Teresa; Lemos, João M; Amorim, Pedro

    2007-01-01

    The problem of controlling the level of depth of anesthesia measured by the Bispectral Index (BIS) of the electroencephalogram of patients under general anesthesia, is considered. It is assumed that the manipulated variable is the infusion rate of the hypnotic drug propofol, while the drug remifentanil is also administered for analgesia. Since these two drugs interact, the administration rate of remifentanil is considered as an accessible disturbance in combination with the level of electromyography (EMG) that also interferes with the BIS signal. In order to tackle the high uncertainty present on the system, the predictive adaptive controller MUSMAR is used. The performance of the controller is illustrated by means of simulation with 45 patient individual adjusted models, which incorporate the effect of the drugs interaction on BIS. This controller structure proved to be robust to the EMG and remifentanil disturbances, patient variability, changing reference values and noise.

  18. Fingerprint authentication via joint transform correlator and its application in remote access control of a 3D microscopic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wenqi; Lai, Hongji; Wang, Meng; Liu, Zeyi; Yin, Yongkai; Peng, Xiang

    2014-05-01

    We present a fingerprint authentication scheme based on the optical joint transform correlator (JTC) and further describe its application to the remote access control of a Network-based Remote Laboratory (NRL). It is built to share a 3D microscopy system of our realistic laboratory in Shenzhen University with the remote co-researchers in Stuttgart University. In this article, we would like to focus on the involved security issues, mainly on the verification of various remote visitors to our NRL. By making use of the JTC-based optical pattern recognition technique as well as the Personal Identification Number (PIN), we are able to achieve the aim of authentication and access control for any remote visitors. Note that only the authorized remote visitors could be guided to the Virtual Network Computer (VNC), a cross-platform software, which allows the remote visitor to access the desktop applications and visually manipulate the instruments of our NRL through the internet. Specifically to say, when a remote visitor attempts to access to our NRL, a PIN is mandatory required in advance, which is followed by fingerprint capturing and verification. Only if both the PIN and the fingerprint are correct, can one be regarded as an authorized visitor, and then he/she would get the authority to visit our NRL by the VNC. It is also worth noting that the aforementioned "two-step verification" strategy could be further applied to verify the identity levels of various remote visitors, and therefore realize the purpose of diversified visitor management.

  19. Clinical utility of far-infrared therapy for improvement of vascular access blood flow and pain control in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Soo Jeong; Cho, Eun Hee; Jo, Hye Min; Min, Changwook; Ji, Young Sok; Park, Moo Yong; Kim, Jin Kuk; Hwang, Seung Duk

    2015-01-01

    Background Maintenance of a well-functioning vascular access and minimal needling pain are important goals for achieving adequate dialysis and improving the quality of life in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Far-infrared (FIR) therapy may improve endothelial function and increase access blood flow (Qa) and patency in HD patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of FIR therapy on Qa and patency, and needling pain in HD patients. Methods This prospective clinical trial enrolled 25 outpatients who maintained HD with arteriovenous fistula. The other 25 patients were matched as control with age, sex, and diabetes. FIR therapy was administered for 40 minutes during HD 3 times/wk and continued for 12 months. The Qa was measured by the ultrasound dilution method, whereas pain was measured by a numeric rating scale at baseline, then once per month. Results One patient was transferred to another facility, and 7 patients stopped FIR therapy because of an increased body temperature and discomfort. FIR therapy improved the needling pain score from 4 to 2 after 1 year. FIR therapy increased the Qa by 3 months and maintained this change until 1 year, whereas control patients showed the decrease in Qa. The 1-year unassisted patency with FIR therapy was not significantly different from control. Conclusion FIR therapy improved needling pain. Although FIR therapy improved Qa, the unassisted patency was not different compared with the control. A larger and multicenter study is needed to evaluate the effect of FIR therapy. PMID:27069856

  20. Wireless digital-ultrasonic sensors for proximity ID, access control, firearm control, and C3I in homeland security and law enforcement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forcier, Bob

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes a new patent-pending digital-ultrasonic sensor network technology, which provides a "security protection sphere" around the authorized user(s) and the infrastructure system or system(s) to achieve C3I in Homeland Security and Law Enforcement Applications. If the system device, such as a firearm, a secure computer, PDA, or vehicle is misplaced, stolen or removed from the security protective sphere, an alarm is activated. A digital-ultrasonic sensor/tag utilizes the system"s physical structure to form a 2 to 20 Meter programmable protection sphere around the device and the authorized user. In addition, the system allows only authorized users to utilize the system, thereby creating personalized weapons, secure vehicle access or secure computer hardware. If an unauthorized individual accesses the system device, the system becomes inoperative and an alarm is activated. As the command and control, the authorized individual is provided a secure wristwatch/PDA. Access control is provided by "touch" and is controlled through the wristwatch/PDA/smartcard with a unique digital-ultrasonic coding and matching protocol that provides a very high level of security for each wireless sensor.

  1. Quality Control Review of Air Force Audit Agency’s Special Access Program Audits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-09

    external quality control review of the AFAA SAP audits in conjunction with the Army Audit Agency’s review of the AFAA non- SAP audits. We conducted this...provide reasonable assurance of meeting the objectives of quality control. We tested the AFAA SAP system of quality control for audits to the extent...control for the audit function of AFAA SAP in effect for the period ended September 30, 2013, was designed in accordance with quality standards

  2. One electron-controlled multiple-valued dynamic random-access-memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kye, H. W.; Song, B. N.; Lee, S. E.; Kim, J. S.; Shin, S. J.; Choi, J. B.; Yu, Y.-S.; Takahashi, Y.

    2016-02-01

    We propose a new architecture for a dynamic random-access-memory (DRAM) capable of storing multiple values by using a single-electron transistor (SET). The gate of a SET is designed to be connected to a plurality of DRAM unit cells that are arrayed at intersections of word lines and bitlines. In this SET-DRAM hybrid scheme, the multiple switching characteristics of SET enables multiple value data stored in a DRAM unit cell, and this increases the storage functionality of the device. Moreover, since refreshing data requires only a small amount of SET driving current, this enables device operating with low standby power consumption.

  3. Accessibility Is the Mother of Invention: When It Comes to an Innovative Hand Control System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article features Sure Grip hand control, an innovative hand control system created by Keith Howell, the President and founder of Howell Ventures LTD. Howell was in his early teens when he experienced an accident that resulted in his quadriplegia. From that point on, Howell set about to manufacture a set of controls that would emulate the…

  4. Communication, Control, and Computer Access for Disabled and Elderly Individuals. ResourceBook 1: Communication Aids. Rehab/Education Technology ResourceBook Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandenburg, Sara A., Ed.; Vanderheiden, Gregg C., Ed.

    One of a series of three resource guides concerned with communication, control, and computer access for disabled and elderly individuals, the directory focuses on communication aids. The book's six chapters each cover products with the same primary function. Cross reference indexes allow access to listings of products by function, input/output…

  5. Practical considerations to guide development of access controls and decision support for genetic information in electronic medical records

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Genetic testing is increasingly used as a tool throughout the health care system. In 2011 the number of clinically available genetic tests is approaching 2,000, and wide variation exists between these tests in their sensitivity, specificity, and clinical implications, as well as the potential for discrimination based on the results. Discussion As health care systems increasingly implement electronic medical record systems (EMRs) they must carefully consider how to use information from this wide spectrum of genetic tests, with whom to share information, and how to provide decision support for clinicians to properly interpret the information. Although some characteristics of genetic tests overlap with other medical test results, there are reasons to make genetic test results widely available to health care providers and counterbalancing reasons to restrict access to these test results to honor patient preferences, and avoid distracting or confusing clinicians with irrelevant but complex information. Electronic medical records can facilitate and provide reasonable restrictions on access to genetic test results and deliver education and decision support tools to guide appropriate interpretation and use. Summary This paper will serve to review some of the key characteristics of genetic tests as they relate to design of access control and decision support of genetic test information in the EMR, emphasizing the clear need for health information technology (HIT) to be part of optimal implementation of genetic medicine, and the importance of understanding key characteristics of genetic tests when designing HIT applications. PMID:22047175

  6. Cancer control in developing countries: using health data and health services research to measure and improve access, quality and efficiency

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cancer is a rapidly increasing problem in developing countries. Access, quality and efficiency of cancer services in developing countries must be understood to advance effective cancer control programs. Health services research can provide insights into these areas. Discussion This article provides an overview of oncology health services in developing countries. We use selected examples from peer-reviewed literature in health services research and relevant publicly available documents. In spite of significant limitations in the available data, it is clear there are substantial barriers to access to cancer control in developing countries. This includes prevention, early detection, diagnosis/treatment and palliation. There are also substantial limitations in the quality of cancer control and a great need to improve economic efficiency. We describe how the application of health data may assist in optimizing (1) Structure: strengthening planning, collaboration, transparency, research development, education and capacity building. (2) Process: enabling follow-up, knowledge translation, patient safety and quality assurance. (3) Outcome: facilitating evaluation, monitoring and improvement of national cancer control efforts. There is currently limited data and capacity to use this data in developing countries for these purposes. Summary There is an urgent need to improve health services for cancer control in developing countries. Current resources and much-needed investments must be optimally managed. To achieve this, we would recommend investment in four key priorities: (1) Capacity building in oncology health services research, policy and planning relevant to developing countries. (2) Development of high-quality health data sources. (3) More oncology-related economic evaluations in developing countries. (4) Exploration of high-quality models of cancer control in developing countries. Meeting these needs will require national, regional and international

  7. Autonomous Information Unit for Fine-Grain Data Access Control and Information Protection in a Net-Centric System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, Edward T.; Woo, Simon S.; James, Mark; Paloulian, George K.

    2012-01-01

    As communication and networking technologies advance, networks will become highly complex and heterogeneous, interconnecting different network domains. There is a need to provide user authentication and data protection in order to further facilitate critical mission operations, especially in the tactical and mission-critical net-centric networking environment. The Autonomous Information Unit (AIU) technology was designed to provide the fine-grain data access and user control in a net-centric system-testing environment to meet these objectives. The AIU is a fundamental capability designed to enable fine-grain data access and user control in the cross-domain networking environments, where an AIU is composed of the mission data, metadata, and policy. An AIU provides a mechanism to establish trust among deployed AIUs based on recombining shared secrets, authentication and verify users with a username, X.509 certificate, enclave information, and classification level. AIU achieves data protection through (1) splitting data into multiple information pieces using the Shamir's secret sharing algorithm, (2) encrypting each individual information piece using military-grade AES-256 encryption, and (3) randomizing the position of the encrypted data based on the unbiased and memory efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Therefore, it becomes virtually impossible for attackers to compromise data since attackers need to obtain all distributed information as well as the encryption key and the random seeds to properly arrange the data. In addition, since policy can be associated with data in the AIU, different user access and data control strategies can be included. The AIU technology can greatly enhance information assurance and security management in the bandwidth-limited and ad hoc net-centric environments. In addition, AIU technology can be applicable to general complex network domains and applications where distributed user authentication and data protection are

  8. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water-quality investigation. 16. Quality assurance and quality control for water analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Naus, Cheryl A.

    2004-01-01

    The Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation has the main objective of inferring the ground-water chemistry at an active mine site. Hence, existing ground-water chemistry and its quality assurance and quality control is of crucial importance to this study and a substantial effort was spent on this activity. Analyses of seventy-two blanks demonstrated that contamination from processing, handling, and analyses were minimal. Blanks collected using water deionized with anion and cation exchange resins contained elevated concentrations of boron (0.17 milligrams per liter (mg/L)) and silica (3.90 mg/L), whereas double-distilled water did not. Boron and silica were not completely retained by the resins because they can exist as uncharged species in water. Chloride was detected in ten blanks, the highest being 3.9 mg/L, probably as the result of washing bottles, filter apparatuses, and tubing with hydrochloric acid. Sulfate was detected in seven blanks; the highest value was 3.0 mg/L, most likely because of carryover from the high sulfate waters sampled. With only a few exceptions, the remaining blank analyses were near or below method detection limits. Analyses of standard reference water samples by cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry, ion chromatography, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, FerroZine, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, hydride generation atomic spectrometry, and titration provided an accuracy check. For constituents greater than 10 times the detection limit, 95 percent of the samples had a percent error of less than 8.5. For constituents within 10 percent of the detection limit, the percent error often increased as a result of measurement imprecision. Charge imbalance was calculated using WATEQ4F and 251 out of 257 samples had a charge imbalance less than 11.8 percent. The charge imbalance for all samples ranged from -16 to 16 percent. Spike

  9. Suvorexant in Patients with Insomnia: Pooled Analyses of Three-Month Data from Phase-3 Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Herring, W. Joseph; Connor, Kathleen M.; Snyder, Ellen; Snavely, Duane B.; Zhang, Ying; Hutzelmann, Jill; Matzura-Wolfe, Deborah; Benca, Ruth M.; Krystal, Andrew D.; Walsh, James K.; Lines, Christopher; Roth, Thomas; Michelson, David

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Suvorexant is an orexin receptor antagonist approved for treating insomnia at a maximum dose of 20 mg. Phase-3 trials evaluated two age-adjusted (non-elderly/elderly) dose-regimes of 40/30 mg and 20/15 mg with the primary focus on 40/30 mg. We report here results from pooled analyses of the 20/15 mg dose-regime, which was evaluated as a secondary objective in the trials. Methods: Prespecified analysis of pooled data from two identical randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, 3-month trials in non-elderly (18–64 years) and elderly (≥ 65 years) patients with insomnia. Patients were randomized to suvorexant 20/15 mg (non-elderly/elderly), suvorexant 40/30 mg (non-elderly/elderly), or placebo; by design, fewer patients were randomized to 20/15 mg. Efficacy was assessed by self-reported and polysomnography (PSG; subset of patients) sleep maintenance and onset endpoints. Results: Suvorexant 20/15 mg (N = 493 treated) was effective compared to placebo (N = 767 treated) on patient-reported and PSG sleep maintenance and onset endpoints at Night-1 (PSG endpoints) / Week-1 (subjective endpoints), Month-1 and Month-3, except for effects on PSG sleep onset at Month-3. Suvorexant 20/15 mg was generally well tolerated, with 3% of patients discontinuing due to adverse events over 3 months vs. 5.2% on placebo. Somnolence was the most common adverse event (6.7% vs. 3.3% for placebo). There was no systematic evidence of rebound or withdrawal signs or symptoms when suvorexant was discontinued after 3 months of nightly use. Conclusions: Suvorexant 20/15 mg improved sleep onset and maintenance over 3 months of nightly treatment and was generally safe and well tolerated. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov trial registration numbers: NCT01097616, NCT01097629. Citation: Herring WJ, Connor KM, Snyder E, Snavely DB, Zhang Y, Hutzelmann J, Matzura-Wolfe D, Benca RM, Krystal AD, Walsh JK, Lines C, Roth T, Michelson D. Suvorexant in

  10. Exploring demographic and lifestyle associations with patient experience following telephone triage by a primary care doctor or nurse: secondary analyses from a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Fiona C; Calitri, Raff; Fletcher, Emily; Varley, Anna; Holt, Tim A; Lattimer, Valerie; Richards, David; Richards, Suzanne; Salisbury, Chris; Taylor, Rod S; Campbell, John L

    2015-01-01

    Background The ESTEEM trial was a cluster randomised controlled trial that compared two telephone triage management systems (general practitioner (GP) or a nurse supported by computer decision support software) with usual care, in response to a request for same-day consultation in general practice. Aim To investigate associations between trial patients’ demographic, health, and lifestyle characteristics, and their reported experiences of care. Setting Recruitment of 20 990 patients occurred between May 2011 and December 2012 in 42 GP practices in England (13 GP triage, 15 nurse triage, 14 usual care). Method Patients reported their experiences via a postal questionnaire issued 4 weeks after their initial request for a same-day consultation. Overall satisfaction, ease of accessing medical help/advice, and convenience of care were analysed using linear hierarchical modelling. Results Questionnaires were returned by 12 132 patients (58%). Older patients reported increased overall satisfaction compared with patients aged 25–59 years, but patients aged 16–24 years reported lower satisfaction. Compared with white patients, patients from ethnic minorities reported lower satisfaction in all three arms, although to a lesser degree in the GP triage arm. Patients from ethnic minorities reported higher satisfaction in the GP triage than in usual care, whereas white patients reported higher satisfaction with usual care. Patients unable to take time away from work or who could only do so with difficulty reported lower satisfaction across all three trial arms. Conclusions Patient characteristics, such as age, ethnicity and ability to attend their practice during work hours, were associated with their experiences of care following a same-day consultation request in general practice. Telephone triage did not increase satisfaction among patients who were unable to attend their practice during working hours. Trial registration number ISCRTN20687662. PMID:25986572

  11. Effective Simulation and Control Approaches for Alleviating the Access to High-Cost Manipulators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihali, Raul; Sobh, Tarek

    2005-01-01

    A problem that becomes increasingly obvious over time derives from purchasing and working with large scale, industrial type of manipulators. Primarily affected are higher level educational institutions, where manipulators are likely to be exposed to student projects that demand diversity in control strategies and various controlling software and…

  12. An Open-Access Educational Tool for Teaching Motion Dynamics in Multi-Axis Servomotor Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Guillen, J. R.; de Jesus Rangel-Magdaleno, J.; de Jesus Romero-Troncoso, R.; Osornio-Rios, R. A.; Guevara-Gonzalez, R. G.

    2012-01-01

    Servomotors are widely used in computerized numerically controlled (CNC) machines, hence motion control is a major topic covered in undergraduate/graduate engineering courses. Despite the fact that several syllabi include the motion dynamics topic in their courses, there are neither suitable tools available for designing and simulating multi-axis…

  13. The dbGaP data browser: a new tool for browsing dbGaP controlled-access genomic data

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kira M.; Langlais, Kristofor; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Fletcher-Hoppe, Colette; Krasnewich, Donna; Leeds, Hilary S.; Rodriguez, Laura Lyman; Godynskiy, Georgy; Schneider, Valerie A.; Ramos, Erin M.; Sherry, Stephen T.

    2017-01-01

    The database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP) Data Browser (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gap/ddb/) was developed in response to requests from the scientific community for a resource that enable view-only access to summary-level information and individual-level genotype and sequence data associated with phenotypic features maintained in the controlled-access tier of dbGaP. Until now, the dbGaP controlled-access environment required investigators to submit a data access request, wait for Data Access Committee review, download each data set and locally examine them for potentially relevant information. Existing unrestricted-access genomic data browsing resources (e.g. http://evs.gs.washington.edu/EVS/, http://exac.broadinstitute.org/) provide only summary statistics or aggregate allele frequencies. The dbGaP Data Browser serves as a third solution, providing researchers with view-only access to a compilation of individual-level data from general research use (GRU) studies through a simplified controlled-access process. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) will continue to improve the Browser in response to user feedback and believes that this tool may decrease unnecessary download requests, while still facilitating responsible genomic data-sharing. PMID:27899644

  14. Minding the gap: Frequency of indels in mtDNA control region sequence data and influence on population genetic analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearce, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Insertions and deletions (indels) result in sequences of various lengths when homologous gene regions are compared among individuals or species. Although indels are typically phylogenetically informative, occurrence and incorporation of these characters as gaps in intraspecific population genetic data sets are rarely discussed. Moreover, the impact of gaps on estimates of fixation indices, such as FST, has not been reviewed. Here, I summarize the occurrence and population genetic signal of indels among 60 published studies that involved alignments of multiple sequences from the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of vertebrate taxa. Among 30 studies observing indels, an average of 12% of both variable and parsimony-informative sites were composed of these sites. There was no consistent trend between levels of population differentiation and the number of gap characters in a data block. Across all studies, the average influence on estimates of ??ST was small, explaining only an additional 1.8% of among population variance (range 0.0-8.0%). Studies most likely to observe an increase in ??ST with the inclusion of gap characters were those with < 20 variable sites, but a near equal number of studies with few variable sites did not show an increase. In contrast to studies at interspecific levels, the influence of indels for intraspecific population genetic analyses of control region DNA appears small, dependent upon total number of variable sites in the data block, and related to species-specific characteristics and the spatial distribution of mtDNA lineages that contain indels. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. A sensitive fluorescence optosensor for analysing propranolol in pharmaceutical preparations and a test for its control in urine in sport.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Sánchez, J F; Carretero, A Segura; Cruces-Blanco, C; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A

    2003-04-01

    We describe a simple and selective method for analysing propranolol and a sensitive test for its control in urine. A flow-through fluorescence optosensor based on on-line immobilization in a non-ionic-exchanger (Amberlite XAD-7) solid support in a continuous flow was used in both cases. Determination was made in 5 mM H(2)PO(4)(-)/HPO(4)(2-) buffer solution at pH 6 at a working temperature of 20 degrees C. Fluorescence intensities were measured at lambda(ex/em) = 300/338 nm with a response time of 80 s, thus obtaining a linear concentration range of between 0 and 250.0 ng ml(-1) with a detection limit of 1.3 ng ml(-1), an analytical sensitivity of 6.0 ng ml(-1) and a standard deviation of 2.40% at a 150 ng ml(-1) concentration level for propranolol. We also propose a test to detect propranolol in urine with a linear concentration range between 0 and 100.0 ng ml(-1), a detection limit of 0.2 ng ml(-1), an analytical sensitivity of 1.0 ng ml(-1), and a standard deviation of 0.84% at a 75 ng ml(-1) concentration level. The effect of proteins presents in urine samples were evaluated. The two proposed methods were satisfactorily applied to commercial formulations and urine samples respectively.

  16. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation. Control modules -- Volume 1, Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, N.F.; Petrie, L.M.; Knight, J.R.

    1995-04-01

    SCALE--a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses Licensing Evaluation--has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The SCALE system utilizes well-established computer codes and methods within standard analysis sequences that (1) allow an input format designed for the occasional user and/or novice, (2) automate the data processing and coupling between modules, and (3) provide accurate and reliable results. System development has been directed at problem-dependent cross-section processing and analysis of criticality safety, shielding, heat transfer, and depletion/decay problems. Since the initial release of SCALE in 1980, the code system has been heavily used for evaluation of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. This revision documents Version 4.2 of the system. This manual is divided into three volumes: Volume 1--for the control module documentation, Volume 2--for the functional module documentation, and Volume 3 for the documentation of the data libraries and subroutine libraries.

  17. Performance of a Frequency-Hopped Real-Time Remote Control System in a Multiple Access Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes, Frank

    A recent trend is observed in the context of the radio-controlled aircrafts and automobiles within the hobby grade category and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) applications moving to the well-known Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. Based on this technological fact, the present thesis evaluates an individual user performance by featuring a multiple-user scenario where several point-to-point co-located real-time Remote Control (RC) applications operate using Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) as a medium access technique in order to handle interference efficiently. Commercial-off-the-shelf wireless transceivers ready to operate in the ISM band are considered as the operational platform supporting the above-mentioned applications. The impact of channel impairments and of different critical system engineering issues, such as working with real clock oscillators and variable packet duty cycle, are considered. Based on the previous, simulation results allowed us to evaluate the range of variation for those parameters for an acceptable system performance under Multiple Access (MA) environments.

  18. Access, Relevance, and Control in the Research Process: Lessons From Indian Country

    PubMed Central

    MANSON, SPERO M.; GARROUTTE, EVA; GOINS, R. TURNER; HENDERSON, PATRICIA NEZ

    2017-01-01

    Objective To illustrate successful strategies in working with American Indian (AI) and Alaska Native (AN) communities in aging and health research by emphasizing access, local relevance, and decision-making processes. Methods Case examples of health studies involving older AIs (≥50 years) among Eastern Band Cherokee Indians, a federally recognized reservation; the Cherokee Nation, a rural, nonreservation, tribal jurisdictional service area; and Lakota tribal members living in Rapid City, South Dakota. Results Local review and decision making reflect the unique legal and historical factors underpinning AI sovereignty. Although specific approval procedures vary, there are common expectations across these communities that can be anticipated in conceptualizing, designing, and implementing health research among native elders. Conclusions Most investigators are unprepared to address the demands of health research in AI communities. Community-based participatory research in this setting conflicts with investigators’ desire for academic freedom and scientific independence. Successful collaboration promises to enhance research efficiencies and move findings more quickly to clinical practice. PMID:15448287

  19. Mortality Risk Associated With Long-acting Injectable Antipsychotics: A Systematic Review and Meta-analyses of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Taro; Matsunaga, Shinji; Iwata, Nakao

    2016-11-01

    Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics (LAI-APs) have several advantages over oral medications, but deaths reported in Japan during the early post-marketing phase vigilance period have raised safety concerns. We conducted a series of meta-analyses to assess whether LAI-APs affect the mortality of patients with schizophrenia. Three categorical meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were performed to compare all-cause death (primary outcome) and death due to suicide: individual and pooled LAI-APs vs placebo, individual and pooled LAI-APs vs oral antipsychotics (OAPs), and head-to-head comparisons of LAI-APs. The risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were calculated. We identified 52 RCTs (53 comparisons; total participants = 17 416, LAI-APs = 11 360, OAP = 3910, and placebo = 2146; mean study duration [wk]: LAI-APs vs placebo = 28.9, LAI-APs vs OAPs = 64.5). Neither pooled nor individual LAI-APs (aripiprazole, fluphenazine, olanzapine, paliperidone, and risperidone) differed from the placebo regarding the incidences of all-cause death (pooled LAI-APs: RR = 0.64, P = .37) and death due to suicide (pooled LAI-APs: RR = 0.98, P = .98). However, in a subgroup meta-analysis of only short-duration RCTs (≤13wk), pooled LAI-APs exhibited a trend toward lower incidence of all-cause death than placebo (RR = 0.29, P = .08). Pooled LAI-APs (aripiprazole, fluphenazine, haloperidol, olanzapine, paliperidone, risperidone, and zuclopenthixol) did not differ from pooled OAPs regarding all-cause death (pooled LAI-APs: RR = 0.71, P = .30) and death due to suicide (pooled LAI-APs: RR = 0.94, P = .91). Individual LAI-APs and OAPs were associated with similar risks of death. Data for head-to-head comparisons of individual LAI-APs were insufficient. In conclusion, there was no significant difference between LAI-APs and placebo or OAPs regarding all-cause death and death due to suicide.

  20. Operation Request Gatekeeper: a software system for remote access control of diagnostic instruments in fusion experiments.

    PubMed

    Abla, G; Fredian, T W; Schissel, D P; Stillerman, J A; Greenwald, M J; Stepanov, D N; Ciarlette, D J

    2010-10-01

    Tokamak diagnostic settings are repeatedly modified to meet the changing needs of each experiment. Enabling the remote diagnostic control has significant challenges due to security and efficiency requirements. The Operation Request Gatekeeper (ORG) is a software system that addresses the challenges of remotely but securely submitting modification requests. The ORG provides a framework for screening all the requests before they enter the secure machine zone and are executed by performing user authentication and authorization, grammar validation, and validity checks. A prototype ORG was developed for the ITER CODAC that satisfies their initial requirements for remote request submission and has been tested with remote control of the KSTAR Plasma Control System. This paper describes the software design principles and implementation of ORG as well as worldwide test results.

  1. Environmental Assessment for Proposed Access Control and Traffic Improvements at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-08-23

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has assigned a continuing role to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in carrying out NNSA's national security mission. It is imperative that LANL continue this enduring responsibility and that NNSA adequately safeguard LANL capabilities. NNSA has identified the need to restrict vehicular access to certain areas within LANL for the purpose of permanently enhancing the physical security environment at LANL. It has also identified the need to change certain traffic flow patterns for the purpose of enhancing physical safety at LANL. The Proposed Action would include the construction of eastern and western bypass roads around the LANL Technical Area (TA) 3 area and the installation of vehicle access controls and related improvements to enhance security along Pajarito Road and in the LANL core area. This Proposed Action would modify the current roadway network and traffic patterns. It would also result in traversing Areas of Environmental Interest identified in the LANL Habitat Management Plan, demolition of part of an historic structure at Building 3-40, and traversing several potential release sites and part of the Los Alamos County landfill. The No Action Alternative was also considered. Under this alternative NNSA would not construct the eastern or western bypass roads, any access-control stations, or related improvements. Diamond Drive would continue to serve as the primary conduit for most vehicle traffic within the LANL core area regardless of actual trip destinations. The No Action Alternative does not meet NNSA's purpose and need for action. The proposed bypass road corridors traverse both developed and undeveloped areas. Several potential release sites are present. These would either be sampled and remediated in accordance with New Mexico Environment Department requirements before construction or avoided to allow for future remediation. In some cases, contaminant levels may fall below remediation thresholds

  2. Improving Access to Online Health Information With Conversational Agents: A Randomized Controlled Experiment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Conventional Web-based search engines may be unusable by individuals with low health literacy for finding health-related information, thus precluding their use by this population. Objective We describe a conversational search engine interface designed to allow individuals with low health and computer literacy identify and learn about clinical trials on the Internet. Methods A randomized trial involving 89 participants compared the conversational search engine interface (n=43) to the existing conventional keyword- and facet-based search engine interface (n=46) for the National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials database. Each participant performed 2 tasks: finding a clinical trial for themselves and finding a trial that met prespecified criteria. Results Results indicated that all participants were more satisfied with the conversational interface based on 7-point self-reported satisfaction ratings (task 1: mean 4.9, SD 1.8 vs mean 3.2, SD 1.8, P<.001; task 2: mean 4.8, SD 1.9 vs mean 3.2, SD 1.7, P<.001) compared to the conventional Web form-based interface. All participants also rated the trials they found as better meeting their search criteria, based on 7-point self-reported scales (task 1: mean 3.7, SD 1.6 vs mean 2.7, SD 1.8, P=.01; task 2: mean 4.8, SD 1.7 vs mean 3.4, SD 1.9, P<.01). Participants with low health literacy failed to find any trials that satisfied the prespecified criteria for task 2 using the conventional search engine interface, whereas 36% (5/14) were successful at this task using the conversational interface (P=.05). Conclusions Conversational agents can be used to improve accessibility to Web-based searches in general and clinical trials in particular, and can help decrease recruitment bias against disadvantaged populations. PMID:26728964

  3. Differences in Causal Estimates from Longitudinal Analyses of Residualized versus Simple Gain Scores: Contrasting Controls for Selection and Regression Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larzelere, Robert E.; Ferrer, Emilio; Kuhn, Brett R.; Danelia, Ketevan

    2010-01-01

    This study estimates the causal effects of six corrective actions for children's problem behaviors, comparing four types of longitudinal analyses that correct for pre-existing differences in a cohort of 1,464 4- and 5-year-olds from Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) data. Analyses of residualized gain scores found…

  4. Suicidal Behavior and Firearm Access: Results from the Second Injury Control and Risk Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Marian E.; Barber, Catherine; Miller, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The association between home firearms and the likelihood and nature of suicidal thoughts and plans was examined using the Second Injury Control and Risk Survey, a 2001-2003 representative telephone survey of U.S. households. Of 9,483 respondents, 7.4% reported past-year suicidal thoughts, 21.3% with a plan. Similar proportions of those with and…

  5. An Evaluation of the Latent Tuberculosis Control Program in the United States Military at Accession

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-15

    peripheral neuropathy .[58] Finally, the quality control, documentation, follow-up, and adherence to therapy for skin test reactors in military populations...for screening. The epidemiology of tuberculosis TB in the US military is similar to the general population with an incidence that is low and...1 TUBERCULOSIS EPIDEMIOLOGY ............................................................................ 2 The Global Burden and Epidemiology

  6. 21 CFR 1311.125 - Requirements for establishing logical access control-Individual practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... that the DEA registration and State authorization(s) to practice and, where applicable, State... must be a DEA registrant. (d) A registrant's permission to indicate that controlled substances...) The individual practitioner's DEA registration expires, unless the registration has been renewed....

  7. Access Point Analysis: What Do Adolescents in South Africa Say about Tobacco Control Programmes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swart, Dehran; Panday, Saadhna; Reddy, S Priscilla; Bergstrom, Erik; de Vries, Hein

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores adolescent preferences for the setting, timing, delivery format, provider and key elements of tobacco control programmes. The need for programme sensitivity towards urban/rural, gender and ethnic subgroups is also discussed. Schools were purposively selected from the Southern Cape-Karoo Region, South Africa. Twelve prevention…

  8. Oversight Review: Quality Control Review of Army Audit Agency’s Special Access Program Audits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-25

    external peer review at least once every three years by reviewers independent of the audit organization being reviewed. As the organization that has audit...policy and oversight responsibilities for audits in the DoD, we conducted this external peer review of the AAA SAP audits in conjunction with the Air...Force Audit Agency (AFAA) external peer review of AAA non-SAP audits. An audit organization’s quality control policies and procedures should be

  9. Oversight Review: Quality Control Review of Air Force Audit Agency’s Special Access Program Audits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-26

    external peer review at least once every 3 years by reviewers independent of the audit organization being reviewed. As the organization that has audit...policy and oversight responsibilities for audits in the Department of Defense, we conducted this external peer review of the AFAA SAP audits in...conjunction with the Naval Audit Service’s external peer review of AFAA non-SAP audits. An audit organization’s quality control policies and procedures

  10. Command and Control in the Anti-Access/Area Denial Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-13

    been the focus and source of rapid evolution in airpower concepts. Establishing the AOC as a weapon system enabled us to professionalize our theater C2...through; and it will be hard for them to create lasting effects. It is entirely possible that cyber warfare will see the evolution of offensive and...University, May 1987), 26. 39 Col Henry Cyr, “Describing the Elephant : Framing a Discussion on Command and Control,” Air and Space Power Journal 28, no. 4

  11. Low access to a highly effective therapy: a challenge for international tuberculosis control.

    PubMed Central

    Dye, Christopher; Watt, Catherine J.; Bleed, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the scale of the tuberculosis (TB) problem facing the international Stop TB Partnership by measuring the gap between present rates of case detection and treatment success, and the global targets (70% and 85%, respectively) to be reached by 2005 under the WHO DOTS strategy. METHODS: We analysed case notifications submitted annually to WHO from up to 202 (of 210) countries and territories between 1980 and 2000, and the results of treatment for patients registered between 1994 and 1999. FINDINGS: Many of the 148 national DOTS programmes in existence by the end of 2000 have shown that they can achieve high treatment success rates, close to or exceeding the target of 85%. However, we estimate that only 27% of all the new smear-positive cases that arose in 2000 were notified under DOTS, and only 19% were successfully treated. The increment in case-finding has been steady at about 133 000 additional smear-positive cases in each year since 1994. In the interval 1999- 2000, more than half of the extra cases notified under DOTS were in Ethiopia, India, Myanmar, the Philippines, and South Africa. CONCLUSION: With the current rate of progress in DOTS expansion, the target of 70% case detection will not be reached until 2013. To reach this target by 2005, DOTS programmes must find an additional 333 000 cases each year. The challenge now is to show that DOTS expansion in the major endemic countries can significantly accelerate case finding while maintaining high cure rates. PMID:12131999

  12. Performance Analysis of Control Signal Transmission Technique for Cognitive Radios in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Ren; Tomioka, Tazuko; Kobayashi, Takahiro

    When cognitive radio (CR) systems dynamically use the frequency band, a control signal is necessary to indicate which carrier frequencies are currently available in the network. In order to keep efficient spectrum utilization, this control signal also should be transmitted based on the channel conditions. If transmitters dynamically select carrier frequencies, receivers have to receive control signals without knowledge of their carrier frequencies. To enable such transmission and reception, this paper proposes a novel scheme called DCPT (Differential Code Parallel Transmission). With DCPT, receivers can receive low-rate information with no knowledge of the carrier frequencies. The transmitter transmits two signals whose carrier frequencies are spaced by a predefined value. The absolute values of the carrier frequencies can be varied. When the receiver acquires the DCPT signal, it multiplies the signal by a frequency-shifted version of the signal; this yields a DC component that represents the data signal which is then demodulated. The performance was evaluated by means of numerical analysis and computer simulation. We confirmed that DCPT operates successfully even under severe interference if its parameters are appropriately configured.

  13. Medical-Grade Channel Access and Admission Control in 802.11e EDCA for Healthcare Applications.

    PubMed

    Son, Sunghwa; Park, Kyung-Joon; Park, Eun-Chan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of assuring medical-grade quality of service (QoS) for real-time medical applications in wireless healthcare systems based on IEEE 802.11e. Firstly, we show that the differentiated channel access of IEEE 802.11e cannot effectively assure medical-grade QoS because of priority inversion. To resolve this problem, we propose an efficient channel access algorithm. The proposed algorithm adjusts arbitrary inter-frame space (AIFS) in the IEEE 802.11e protocol depending on the QoS measurement of medical traffic, to provide differentiated near-absolute priority for medical traffic. In addition, based on rigorous capacity analysis, we propose an admission control scheme that can avoid performance degradation due to network overload. Via extensive simulations, we show that the proposed mechanism strictly assures the medical-grade QoS and improves the throughput of low-priority traffic by more than several times compared to the conventional IEEE 802.11e.

  14. Medical-Grade Channel Access and Admission Control in 802.11e EDCA for Healthcare Applications

    PubMed Central

    Son, Sunghwa; Park, Kyung-Joon; Park, Eun-Chan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of assuring medical-grade quality of service (QoS) for real-time medical applications in wireless healthcare systems based on IEEE 802.11e. Firstly, we show that the differentiated channel access of IEEE 802.11e cannot effectively assure medical-grade QoS because of priority inversion. To resolve this problem, we propose an efficient channel access algorithm. The proposed algorithm adjusts arbitrary inter-frame space (AIFS) in the IEEE 802.11e protocol depending on the QoS measurement of medical traffic, to provide differentiated near-absolute priority for medical traffic. In addition, based on rigorous capacity analysis, we propose an admission control scheme that can avoid performance degradation due to network overload. Via extensive simulations, we show that the proposed mechanism strictly assures the medical-grade QoS and improves the throughput of low-priority traffic by more than several times compared to the conventional IEEE 802.11e. PMID:27490666

  15. Providing open access data online to advance malaria research and control

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To advance research on malaria, the outputs from existing studies and the data that fed into them need to be made freely available. This will ensure new studies can build on the work that has gone before. These data and results also need to be made available to groups who are developing public health policies based on up-to-date evidence. The Malaria Atlas Project (MAP) has collated and geopositioned over 50,000 parasite prevalence and vector occurrence survey records contributed by over 3,000 sources including research groups, government agencies and non-governmental organizations worldwide. This paper describes the results of a project set up to release data gathered, used and generated by MAP. Methods Requests for permission to release data online were sent to 236 groups who had contributed unpublished prevalence (parasite rate) surveys. An online explorer tool was developed so that users can visualize the spatial distribution of the vector and parasite survey data before downloading it. In addition, a consultation group was convened to provide advice on the mode and format of release for data generated by MAP’s modelling work. New software was developed to produce a suite of publication-quality map images for download from the internet for use in external publications. Conclusion More than 40,000 survey records can now be visualized on a set of dynamic maps and downloaded from the MAP website on a free and unrestricted basis. As new data are added and new permissions to release existing data come in, the volume of data available for download will increase. The modelled data output from MAP’s own analyses are also available online in a range of formats, including image files and GIS surface data, for use in advocacy, education, further research and to help parameterize or validate other mathematical models. PMID:23680401

  16. The choice of disease control strategies to secure international market access for aquaculture products.

    PubMed

    Chinabut, S; Puttinaowarat, S

    2005-01-01

    Since production from capture fisheries cannot meet the demands of exports, aquaculture has subsequently played a major role in securing the raw materials for the world's food industries. Aquaculture has rapidly developed from extensive systems to semi-intensive, intensive and super-intensive systems. This has introduced the use of chemicals and drugs into the systems, which cause residual problems in the products. In the developed world, food safety has become a major issue of concern. The world market now demands healthy aquaculture products from farm to table. To achieve these requirements and to keep their markets, countries involved in aquaculture have implemented control measures such as farm licensing, code of conduct for sustainable aquaculture, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) and good aquaculture practice. However, infectious diseases in aquaculture are of major concern to the industry and are typically controlled by eradication of the pathogen, treatment with antibiotic or chemotherapeutics, and/or by preventative measures such as the use of probiotics or vaccines. To limit the use of chemicals and antibiotics, good farm management is highly recommended. In terms of treatment, chemicals and antibiotics should be evaluated to establish recommended doses and withdrawal periods, otherwise alternative treatments should be developed. Environmentally-friendly probiotics have been introduced to aquaculture practice in the last decade to replace pathogenic bacteria with beneficial bacteria transient in the gut. Micro-organisms have also been prepared for the purpose of biocontrol and bioremediation. The application of probiotic, biocontrol and bioremediation seem promising; however considerable efforts of further research in terms of food and environmental safety are needed. Vaccination has proved highly effective in controlling diseases in the salmon industry mainly in Europe, America and Japan. In other Asian countries, this practice seem to

  17. Preserving Smart Objects Privacy through Anonymous and Accountable Access Control for a M2M-Enabled Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ramos, José L; Bernabe, Jorge Bernal; Moreno, M Victoria; Skarmeta, Antonio F

    2015-07-01

    As we get into the Internet of Things era, security and privacy concerns remain as the main obstacles in the development of innovative and valuable services to be exploited by society. Given the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) nature of these emerging scenarios, the application of current privacy-friendly technologies needs to be reconsidered and adapted to be deployed in such global ecosystem. This work proposes different privacy-preserving mechanisms through the application of anonymous credential systems and certificateless public key cryptography. The resulting alternatives are intended to enable an anonymous and accountable access control approach to be deployed on large-scale scenarios, such as Smart Cities. Furthermore, the proposed mechanisms have been deployed on constrained devices, in order to assess their suitability for a secure and privacy-preserving M2M-enabled Internet of Things.

  18. Preserving Smart Objects Privacy through Anonymous and Accountable Access Control for a M2M-Enabled Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ramos, José L.; Bernabe, Jorge Bernal; Moreno, M. Victoria; Skarmeta, Antonio F.

    2015-01-01

    As we get into the Internet of Things era, security and privacy concerns remain as the main obstacles in the development of innovative and valuable services to be exploited by society. Given the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) nature of these emerging scenarios, the application of current privacy-friendly technologies needs to be reconsidered and adapted to be deployed in such global ecosystem. This work proposes different privacy-preserving mechanisms through the application of anonymous credential systems and certificateless public key cryptography. The resulting alternatives are intended to enable an anonymous and accountable access control approach to be deployed on large-scale scenarios, such as Smart Cities. Furthermore, the proposed mechanisms have been deployed on constrained devices, in order to assess their suitability for a secure and privacy-preserving M2M-enabled Internet of Things. PMID:26140349

  19. Speaking Two Languages for the Price of One: Bypassing Language Control Mechanisms via Accessibility-Driven Switches.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Daniel; Gollan, Tamar H

    2016-05-01

    How do bilinguals switch easily between languages in everyday conversation, even though studies have consistently found that switching slows responses? In previous work, researchers have not considered that although switches may happen for different reasons, only some switches-including those typically studied in laboratory experiments-might be costly. Using a repeated picture-naming task, we found that bilinguals can maintain and use two languages as efficiently as a single language, switching between them frequently without any cost, if they switch only when a word is more accessible in the other language. These results suggest that language switch costs arise during lexical selection, that top-down language control mechanisms can be suspended, and that language-mixing efficiency can be strategically increased with instruction. Thus, bilinguals might switch languages spontaneously because doing so is not always costly, and there appears to be greater flexibility and efficiency in the cognitive mechanisms that enable switching than previously assumed.

  20. Suicidal behavior and firearm access: results from the second injury control and risk survey.

    PubMed

    Betz, Marian E; Barber, Catherine; Miller, Matthew

    2011-08-01

    The association between home firearms and the likelihood and nature of suicidal thoughts and plans was examined using the Second Injury Control and Risk Survey, a 2001-2003 representative telephone survey of U.S. households. Of 9,483 respondents, 7.4% reported past-year suicidal thoughts, 21.3% with a plan. Similar proportions of those with and without a home firearm reported suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts. Among respondents with suicidal plans, the odds of reporting a plan involving a firearm were over seven times greater among those with firearms at home, compared with those without firearms at home. The results suggest people with home firearms may not be more likely to be suicidal, but when suicidal they may be more likely to plan suicide by firearm.

  1. Impact of adolescent sucrose access on cognitive control, recognition memory, and parvalbumin immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Reichelt, Amy C; Killcross, Simon; Hambly, Luke D; Morris, Margaret J; Westbrook, R Fred

    2015-04-01

    In this study we sought to determine the effect of daily sucrose consumption in young rats on their subsequent performance in tasks that involve the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. High levels of sugar consumption have been associated with the development of obesity, however less is known about how sugar consumption influences behavioral control and high-order cognitive processes. Of particular concern is the fact that sugar intake is greatest in adolescence, an important neurodevelopmental period. We provided sucrose to rats when they were progressing through puberty and adolescence. Cognitive performance was assessed in adulthood on a task related to executive function, a rodent analog of the Stroop task. We found that sucrose-exposed rats failed to show context-appropriate responding during incongruent stimulus compounds presented at test, indicative of impairments in prefrontal cortex function. Sucrose exposed rats also showed deficits in an on object-in-place recognition memory task, indicating that both prefrontal and hippocampal function was impaired. Analysis of brains showed a reduction in expression of parvalbumin-immunoreactive GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, indicating that sucrose consumption during adolescence induced long-term pathology, potentially underpinning the cognitive deficits observed. These results suggest that consumption of high levels of sugar-sweetened beverages by adolescents may also impair neurocognitive functions affecting decision-making and memory, potentially rendering them at risk for developing mental health disorders.

  2. Access point analysis: what do adolescents in South Africa say about tobacco control programmes?

    PubMed

    Swart, Dehran; Panday, Saadhna; Reddy, S Priscilla; Bergström, Erik; de Vries, Hein

    2006-06-01

    This paper explores adolescent preferences for the setting, timing, delivery format, provider and key elements of tobacco control programmes. The need for programme sensitivity towards urban/rural, gender and ethnic subgroups is also discussed. Schools were purposively selected from the Southern Cape-Karoo Region, South Africa. Twelve prevention and nine cessation focus group discussions were conducted with Grade 6-8 students and Grade 8-9 smokers and ex-smokers, respectively. Adolescents reported similar preferences for prevention and cessation programmes. Although they were unaware of smoking prevention or cessation programmes, they reported a willingness to participate in such programmes. Programmes should include school-based activities that are supported by out-of-school activities held over weekends and holidays. Non-judgemental and empathetic teachers and peers, as well as ex-smokers were preferred as programme providers. School-based participatory delivery formats should be supported by community-based mass media approaches. Programmes can be jointly presented to boys and girls of diverse ethnic backgrounds with some gender-sensitive sessions. Programme participation and sustainability would be enhanced if it were exciting, fun filled and integrated into their daily lives. School-based programmes must be embedded within comprehensive approaches that involve community- and policy-level interventions.

  3. Association Between Vascular Access Dysfunction and Subsequent Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Patients on Hemodialysis: A Population-Based Nested Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Te-Hui; Tseng, Chien-Tzu; Lin, Wei-Hung; Chao, Jo-Yen; Wang, Wei-Ming; Li, Chung-Yi; Wang, Ming-Cheng

    2015-07-01

    The association between dialysis vascular access dysfunction and the risk of developing major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in hemodialysis patients is unclear and has not yet been investigated. We analyzed data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan to quantify this association. Adopting a case-control design nested within a cohort of patients who received hemodialysis from 2001 to 2010, we identified 9711 incident cases of MACE during the stage of stable maintenance dialysis and 19,422 randomly selected controls matched to cases on age, gender, and duration of dialysis. Events of vascular access dysfunction in the 6-month period before the date of MACE onset (ie, index date) for cases and before index dates for controls were evaluated retrospectively. The presence of vascular access dysfunction was associated with a 1.385-fold higher odds of developing MACE as estimated from the logistic regression analysis. This represents a significantly increased adjusted odds ratio (OR) at 1.268 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.186-1.355) after adjustment for comorbidities and calendar years of initiating dialysis. We also noted a significant exposure-response trend (P < 0.001) between the frequency of vascular access dysfunction and MACE, with the greatest risk (adjusted OR = 1.840, 95% CI = 1.549-2.186) noted in patients with ≥3 vascular access events. We concluded that dialysis vascular access dysfunction was significantly associated with an increased risk of MACE. Hence, vascular access failure can be an early sign for MACE in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis. Active monitoring and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors and related diseases, not merely managing vascular access dysfunction, would be required to reduce the risk of MACE.

  4. Access to a polymerase chain reaction assay method targeting 13 respiratory viruses can reduce antibiotics: a randomised, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Viral respiratory infections are common worldwide and range from completely benign disease to life-threatening illness. Symptoms can be unspecific, and an etiologic diagnosis is rarely established because of a lack of suitable diagnostic tools. Improper use of antibiotics is common in this setting, which is detrimental in light of the development of bacterial resistance. It has been suggested that the use of diagnostic tests could reduce antibiotic prescription rates. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether access to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay panel for etiologic diagnosis of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) would have an impact on antibiotic prescription rate in primary care clinical settings. Methods Adult patients with symptoms of ARTI were prospectively included. Nasopharyngeal and throat swabs were analysed by using a multiplex real-time PCR method targeting thirteen viruses and two bacteria. Patients were recruited at 12 outpatient units from October 2006 through April 2009, and samples were collected on the day of inclusion (initial visit) and after 10 days (follow-up visit). Patients were randomised in an open-label treatment protocol to receive a rapid or delayed result (on the following day or after eight to twelve days). The primary outcome measure was the antibiotic prescription rate at the initial visit, and the secondary outcome was the total antibiotic prescription rate during the study period. Results A total sample of 447 patients was randomised. Forty-one were excluded, leaving 406 patients for analysis. In the group of patients randomised for a rapid result, 4.5% (9 of 202) of patients received antibiotics at the initial visit, compared to 12.3% (25 of 204) (P = 0.005) of patients in the delayed result group. At follow-up, there was no significant difference between the groups: 13.9% (28 of 202) in the rapid result group and 17.2% (35 of 204) in the delayed result group (P = 0

  5. Energy Efficient Medium Access Control Protocol for Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks with Adaptive Cross-Layer Scheduling

    PubMed Central

    Sefuba, Maria; Walingo, Tom; Takawira, Fambirai

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an Energy Efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for clustered wireless sensor networks that aims to improve energy efficiency and delay performance. The proposed protocol employs an adaptive cross-layer intra-cluster scheduling and an inter-cluster relay selection diversity. The scheduling is based on available data packets and remaining energy level of the source node (SN). This helps to minimize idle listening on nodes without data to transmit as well as reducing control packet overhead. The relay selection diversity is carried out between clusters, by the cluster head (CH), and the base station (BS). The diversity helps to improve network reliability and prolong the network lifetime. Relay selection is determined based on the communication distance, the remaining energy and the channel quality indicator (CQI) for the relay cluster head (RCH). An analytical framework for energy consumption and transmission delay for the proposed MAC protocol is presented in this work. The performance of the proposed MAC protocol is evaluated based on transmission delay, energy consumption, and network lifetime. The results obtained indicate that the proposed MAC protocol provides improved performance than traditional cluster based MAC protocols. PMID:26393608

  6. Energy Efficient Medium Access Control Protocol for Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks with Adaptive Cross-Layer Scheduling.

    PubMed

    Sefuba, Maria; Walingo, Tom; Takawira, Fambirai

    2015-09-18

    This paper presents an Energy Efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for clustered wireless sensor networks that aims to improve energy efficiency and delay performance. The proposed protocol employs an adaptive cross-layer intra-cluster scheduling and an inter-cluster relay selection diversity. The scheduling is based on available data packets and remaining energy level of the source node (SN). This helps to minimize idle listening on nodes without data to transmit as well as reducing control packet overhead. The relay selection diversity is carried out between clusters, by the cluster head (CH), and the base station (BS). The diversity helps to improve network reliability and prolong the network lifetime. Relay selection is determined based on the communication distance, the remaining energy and the channel quality indicator (CQI) for the relay cluster head (RCH). An analytical framework for energy consumption and transmission delay for the proposed MAC protocol is presented in this work. The performance of the proposed MAC protocol is evaluated based on transmission delay, energy consumption, and network lifetime. The results obtained indicate that the proposed MAC protocol provides improved performance than traditional cluster based MAC protocols.

  7. Central venous Access device SeCurement And Dressing Effectiveness (CASCADE) in paediatrics: protocol for pilot randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Victoria; Long, Debbie A; Williams, Tara; Hallahan, Andrew; Mihala, Gabor; Cooke, Marie; Rickard, Claire M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Paediatric central venous access devices (CVADs) are associated with a 25% incidence of failure. Securement and dressing are strategies used to reduce failure and complication; however, innovative technologies have not been evaluated for their effectiveness across device types. The primary aim of this research is to evaluate the feasibility of launching a full-scale randomised controlled efficacy trial across three CVAD types regarding CVAD securement and dressing, using predefined feasibility criteria. Methods and analysis Three feasibility randomised, controlled trials are to be undertaken at the Royal Children's Hospital and the Lady Cilento Children's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia. CVAD securement and dressing interventions under examination compare current practice with sutureless securement devices, integrated securement dressings and tissue adhesive. In total, 328 paediatric patients requiring a peripherally inserted central catheter (n=100); non-tunnelled CVAD (n=180) and tunnelled CVAD (n=48) to be inserted will be recruited and randomly allocated to CVAD securement and dressing products. Primary outcomes will be study feasibility measured by eligibility, recruitment, retention, attrition, missing data, parent/staff satisfaction and effect size. CVAD failure and complication (catheter-associated bloodstream infection, local infection, venous thrombosis, occlusion, dislodgement and breakage) will be compared between groups. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval to conduct the research has been obtained. All dissemination will be undertaken using the CONSORT Statement recommendations. Additionally, the results will be sent to the relevant organisations which lead CVAD focused clinical practice guidelines development. Trial registration numbers ACTRN12614001327673; ACTRN12615000977572; ACTRN12614000280606. PMID:27259529

  8. Access Nets: Modeling Access to Physical Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohardt, Robert; Chang, Bor-Yuh Evan; Sankaranarayanan, Sriram

    Electronic, software-managed mechanisms using, for example, radio-frequency identification (RFID) cards, enable great flexibility in specifying access control policies to physical spaces. For example, access rights may vary based on time of day or could differ in normal versus emergency situations. With such fine-grained control, understanding and reasoning about what a policy permits becomes surprisingly difficult requiring knowledge of permission levels, spatial layout, and time. In this paper, we present a formal modeling framework, called AccessNets, suitable for describing a combination of access permissions, physical spaces, and temporal constraints. Furthermore, we provide evidence that model checking techniques are effective in reasoning about physical access control policies. We describe our results from a tool that uses reachability analysis to validate security policies.

  9. Multigenic Control of Pod Shattering Resistance in Chinese Rapeseed Germplasm Revealed by Genome-Wide Association and Linkage Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hui; Wang, Wenxiang; Zhou, Rijin; Mei, Desheng; Cheng, Hongtao; Yang, Juan; Raman, Harsh; Hu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    The majority of rapeseed cultivars shatter seeds upon maturity especially under hot-dry and windy conditions, reducing yield and gross margin return to growers. Here, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to pod shatter in an unstructured diverse panel of 143 rapeseed accessions, and two structured populations derived from bi-parental doubled haploid (DH) and inter-mated (IF2) crosses derived from R1 (resistant to pod shattering) and R2 (prone to pod shattering) accessions. Genome-wide association analysis identified six significant QTL for resistance to pod shatter located on chromosomes A01, A06, A07, A09, C02, and C05. Two of the QTL, qSRI.A09 delimited with the SNP marker Bn-A09-p30171993 (A09) and qSRI.A06 delimited with the SNP marker Bn-A06-p115948 (A06) could be repeatedly detected across environments in a diversity panel, DH and IF2 populations, suggesting that at least two loci on chromosomes A06 and A09 were the main contributors to pod shatter resistance in Chinese germplasm. Significant SNP markers identified in this study especially those that appeared repeatedly across environments provide a cost-effective and an efficient method for introgression and pyramiding of favorable alleles for pod shatter resistance via marker-assisted selection in rapeseed improvement programs. PMID:27493651

  10. MO-FG-BRB-02: Uniform Access to Radiation Therapy by 2035: Global Task Force on Radiotherapy for Cancer Control

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffray, D.

    2015-06-15

    The global burden of cancer is growing rapidly with an estimated 15 million new cases per year worldwide in 2015, growing to 19 million by 2025 and 24 million by 2035. The largest component of this growth will occur in low-to-middle income countries (LMICs). About half of these cases will require radiation treatment. The gap for available cancer treatment, including radiation therapy, between high-income countries (HICs) and LMICs is enormous. Accurate data and quantitative models to project the needs and the benefits of cancer treatment are a critical first step in closing the large cancer divide between LMICs and HICs. In this context, the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) has developed a Global Task Force on Radiotherapy for Cancer Control (GTFRCC) with a charge to answer the question as to what it will take to close the gap between what exists today and reasonable access to radiation therapy globally by 2035 and what the potential clinical and economic benefits are for doing this. The Task Force has determined the projections of cancer incidence and the infrastructure required to provide access to radiation therapy globally. Furthermore it has shown that appropriate investment not only yields improved clinical outcomes for millions of patients but that it also provides an overall economic gain throughout all the income settings where this investment is made. This symposium will summarize the facets associated with this global cancer challenge by reviewing the cancer burden, looking at the requirements for radiation therapy, reviewing the benefits of providing such therapy both from a clinical and economic perspective and finally by looking at what approaches can be used to aid in the alleviation of this global cancer challenge. The speakers are world renowned experts in global public health issues (R. Atun), medical physics (D. Jaffray) and radiation oncology (N. Coleman). Learning Objectives: To describe the global cancer challenge and the

  11. Assessing Controlled Access Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    extensive audit-processing capabilities in their products. For example, Prime Com- puter, Inc.’s Primos [24] and Unisys Corporation’s OS 1100 Security...SYSTEM INTEGRITY The System Integrity criterion, shown in Figure 5.2, is levied upon the hardware and firmware components of the TCB. "Integrity...Center, Ft. George G. Meade, MD, 23 July 1984. 61 BIBLIOGRAPHY [24] Final Evaluation Report, Prime Computer Corporation, Primos revision 21.0.1DODC2A

  12. A program for mass spectrometer control and data processing analyses in isotope geology; written in BASIC for an 8K Nova 1120 computer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stacey, J.S.; Hope, J.

    1975-01-01

    A system is described which uses a minicomputer to control a surface ionization mass spectrometer in the peak switching mode, with the object of computing isotopic abundance ratios of elements of geologic interest. The program uses the BASIC language and is sufficiently flexible to be used for multiblock analyses of any spectrum containing from two to five peaks. In the case of strontium analyses, ratios are corrected for rubidium content and normalized for mass spectrometer fractionation. Although almost any minicomputer would be suitable, the model used was the Data General Nova 1210 with 8K memory. Assembly language driver program and interface hardware-descriptions for the Nova 1210 are included.

  13. Redundant Flight-Critical Control System Evaluation: Analog and Digital Systems Failure Analyses and Preflight Test Designs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    systems. Specifically , the study evaluates analog and digital electronic designs for implementing a triplex fail-operational flight-critical control...SST Technology Follow-On, phase II) deals with the mechanization of redundant electronic subsystems. Specifically , the study compares analog and...electronics suppliers. Specific areas identified for examination during the FCD task were: • General control function operational performance • Sensor

  14. Flight Services and Aircraft Access: Active Flow Control Vertical Tail and Insect Accretion and Mitigation Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    This document serves as the final report for the Flight Services and Aircraft Access task order NNL14AA57T as part of NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project ITD12A+. It includes descriptions of flight test preparations and execution for the Active Flow Control (AFC) Vertical Tail and Insect Accretion and Mitigation (IAM) experiments conducted on the 757 ecoDemonstrator. For the AFC Vertical Tail, this is the culmination of efforts under two task orders. The task order was managed by Boeing Research & Technology and executed by an enterprise-wide Boeing team that included Boeing Research & Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Boeing Defense and Space and Boeing Test and Evaluation. Boeing BR&T in St. Louis was responsible for overall Boeing project management and coordination with NASA. The 757 flight test asset was provided and managed by the BCA ecoDemonstrator Program, in partnership with Stifel Aircraft Leasing and the TUI Group. With this report, all of the required deliverables related to management of this task order have been met and delivered to NASA as summarized in Table 1. In addition, this task order is part of a broader collaboration between NASA and Boeing.

  15. Giving High School Students a Research Grade Radio Telescope to Control; Motivational Results from Access to Real Scientific Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohrs, Russell; Langston, G.; Heatherly, S.

    2013-01-01

    Have you ever wondered what it might be like to place control of a six-story building in the hands of eager high school students? This past summer, the USNO 20m telescope at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, WV was brought back online for just such a purpose. This telescope is equipped with an X-band receiver, capable of observing center frequencies from 8-10 GHz and is the first radio telescope accessible by students and observers through the SKYNET telescope network. Operated remotely with a queue-based system, students can now collect real radio data for any range of projects. This past summer, five lessons were written that were tailor-made for student exploration of radio astronomy. Each lesson explores various radio objects in the context of an action-packed sci-fi adventure. Some of the work required to bring the 20m online for student use will be discussed here, but the main focus of this presentation will be how this work has been received by the author’s own students in its first classroom application. Topics that are normally difficult to discuss with students in an inquiry-based classroom setting, such as HII regions, synchrotron radiation, lunar temperature profiles, and galactic supermassive black holes were addressed in the classroom using the lessons developed by the author for the 20m as well as data collected by students using the telescope via SKYNET.

  16. ADAM17 is regulated by a rapid and reversible mechanism that controls access to its catalytic site

    PubMed Central

    Le Gall, Sylvain M.; Maretzky, Thorsten; Issuree, Priya D. A.; Niu, Xiao-Da; Reiss, Karina; Saftig, Paul; Khokha, Rama; Lundell, Daniel; Blobel, Carl P.

    2010-01-01

    Protein ectodomain shedding is crucial for cell–cell interactions because it controls the bioavailability of soluble tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and ligands of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, and the release of many other membrane proteins. Various stimuli can rapidly trigger ectodomain shedding, yet much remains to be learned about the identity of the enzymes that respond to these stimuli and the mechanisms underlying their activation. Here, we demonstrate that the membrane-anchored metalloproteinase ADAM17, but not ADAM10, is the sheddase that rapidly responds to the physiological signaling pathways stimulated by thrombin, EGF, lysophosphatidic acid and TNFα. Stimulation of ADAM17 is swift and quickly reversible, and does not depend on removal of its inhibitory pro-domain by pro-protein convertases, or on dissociation of an endogenous inhibitor, TIMP3. Moreover, activation of ADAM17 by physiological stimuli requires its transmembrane domain, but not its cytoplasmic domain, arguing against inside–out signaling via cytoplasmic phosphorylation as the underlying mechanism. Finally, experiments with the tight binding hydroxamate inhibitor DPC333, used here to probe the accessibility of the active site of ADAM17, demonstrate that this inhibitor can quickly bind to ADAM17 in stimulated, but not quiescent cells. These findings support the concept that activation of ADAM17 involves a rapid and reversible exposure of its catalytic site. PMID:20980382

  17. Pragmatic randomized controlled trial of providing access to a brief personalized alcohol feedback intervention in university students

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a growing body of evidence indicating that web-based personalized feedback interventions can reduce the amount of alcohol consumed in problem drinking college students. This study sought to evaluate whether providing voluntary access to such an intervention would have an impact on drinking. Methods College students responded to an email inviting them to participate in a short drinking survey. Those meeting criteria for risky drinking (and agreeing to participate in a follow-up) were randomized to an intervention condition where they were offered to participate in a web-based personalized feedback intervention or to a control condition (intervention not offered). Participants were followed-up at six weeks. Results A total of 425 participants were randomized to condition and 68% (n = 290) completed the six-week follow-up. No significant difference in drinking between conditions was observed. Conclusions Web-based personalized feedback interventions that are offered to students on a voluntary basis may not have a measurable impact on problem drinking. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01521078 PMID:23185985

  18. Energy-efficiency analysis of a distributed queuing medium access control protocol for biomedical wireless sensor networks in saturation conditions.

    PubMed

    Otal, Begonya; Alonso, Luis; Verikoukis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The aging population and the high quality of life expectations in our society lead to the need of more efficient and affordable healthcare solutions. For this reason, this paper aims for the optimization of Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols for biomedical wireless sensor networks or wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs). The hereby presented schemes always have in mind the efficient management of channel resources and the overall minimization of sensors' energy consumption in order to prolong sensors' battery life. The fact that the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC does not fully satisfy BSN requirements highlights the need for the design of new scalable MAC solutions, which guarantee low-power consumption to the maximum number of body sensors in high density areas (i.e., in saturation conditions). In order to emphasize IEEE 802.15.4 MAC limitations, this article presents a detailed overview of this de facto standard for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), which serves as a link for the introduction and initial description of our here proposed Distributed Queuing (DQ) MAC protocol for BSN scenarios. Within this framework, an extensive DQ MAC energy-consumption analysis in saturation conditions is presented to be able to evaluate its performance in relation to IEEE 802.5.4 MAC in highly dense BSNs. The obtained results show that the proposed scheme outperforms IEEE 802.15.4 MAC in average energy consumption per information bit, thus providing a better overall performance that scales appropriately to BSNs under high traffic conditions. These benefits are obtained by eliminating back-off periods and collisions in data packet transmissions, while minimizing the control overhead.

  19. Energy-Efficiency Analysis of a Distributed Queuing Medium Access Control Protocol for Biomedical Wireless Sensor Networks in Saturation Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Otal, Begonya; Alonso, Luis; Verikoukis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The aging population and the high quality of life expectations in our society lead to the need of more efficient and affordable healthcare solutions. For this reason, this paper aims for the optimization of Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols for biomedical wireless sensor networks or wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs). The hereby presented schemes always have in mind the efficient management of channel resources and the overall minimization of sensors’ energy consumption in order to prolong sensors’ battery life. The fact that the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC does not fully satisfy BSN requirements highlights the need for the design of new scalable MAC solutions, which guarantee low-power consumption to the maximum number of body sensors in high density areas (i.e., in saturation conditions). In order to emphasize IEEE 802.15.4 MAC limitations, this article presents a detailed overview of this de facto standard for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), which serves as a link for the introduction and initial description of our here proposed Distributed Queuing (DQ) MAC protocol for BSN scenarios. Within this framework, an extensive DQ MAC energy-consumption analysis in saturation conditions is presented to be able to evaluate its performance in relation to IEEE 802.5.4 MAC in highly dense BSNs. The obtained results show that the proposed scheme outperforms IEEE 802.15.4 MAC in average energy consumption per information bit, thus providing a better overall performance that scales appropriately to BSNs under high traffic conditions. These benefits are obtained by eliminating back-off periods and collisions in data packet transmissions, while minimizing the control overhead. PMID:22319351

  20. STEMS pilot trial: a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial to investigate the addition of patient direct access to physiotherapy to usual GP-led primary care for adults with musculoskeletal pain

    PubMed Central

    Ogollah, Reuben O; Jowett, Sue; Kigozi, Jesse; Tooth, Stephanie; Protheroe, Joanne; Hay, Elaine M; Salisbury, Chris; Foster, Nadine E

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Around 17% of general practitioner (GP) consultations are for musculoskeletal conditions, which will rise as the population ages. Patient direct access to physiotherapy provides one solution, yet adoption in the National Health Service (NHS) has been slow. Setting A pilot, pragmatic, non-inferiority, cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) in general practice and physiotherapy services in the UK. Objectives Investigate feasibility of a main RCT. Participants Adult patients registered in participating practices and consulting with a musculoskeletal problem. Interventions 4 general practices (clusters) randomised to provide GP-led care as usual or the addition of a patient direct access to physiotherapy pathway. Outcomes Process outcomes and exploratory analyses of clinical and cost outcomes. Data collection Participant-level data were collected via questionnaires at identification, 2, 6 and 12 months and through medical records. Blinding The study statistician and research nurses were blinded to practice allocation. Results Of 2696 patients invited to complete study questionnaires, 978 participated (intervention group n=425, control arm n=553) and were analysed. Participant recruitment was completed in 6 months. Follow-up rates were 78% (6 months) and 71% (12 months). No evidence of selection bias was observed. The direct access pathway was used by 90% of patients in intervention practices needing physiotherapy. Some increase in referrals to physiotherapy occurred from one practice, although waiting times for physiotherapy did not increase (28 days before, 26 days after introduction of direct access). No safety issues were identified. Clinical and cost outcomes were similar in both groups. Exploratory estimates of between group effect (using 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) Physical Component Summary (PCS)) at 6 months was −0.28 (95% CI −1.35 to 0.79) and at 12 months 0.12 (95% CI −1.27 to 1.51). Conclusions A full RCT is

  1. Communication, Control, and Computer Access for Disabled and Elderly Individuals. ResourceBook 4: Update to Books 1, 2, and 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Peter A., Ed.; Vanderheiden, Gregg C., Ed.

    This update to the three-volume first edition of the "Rehab/Education ResourceBook Series" describes special software and products pertaining to communication, control, and computer access, designed specifically for the needs of disabled and elderly people. The 22 chapters cover: speech aids; pointing and typing aids; training and communication…

  2. Controlling resistant bacteria with a novel class of β-lactamase inhibitor peptides: from rational design to in vivo analyses

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Santi M.; Migliolo, Ludovico; Silva, Osmar N.; Fensterseifer, Isabel C. M.; Faria-Junior, Celio; Dias, Simoni C.; Basak, Amit; Hazra, Tapas K.; Franco, Octávio L.

    2014-01-01

    Peptide rational design was used here to guide the creation of two novel short β-lactamase inhibitors, here named dBLIP-1 and -2, with length of five amino acid residues. Molecular modeling associated with peptide synthesis improved bactericidal efficacy in addition to amoxicillin, ampicillin and cefotaxime. Docked structures were consistent with calorimetric analyses against bacterial β-lactamases. These two compounds were further tested in mice. Whereas commercial antibiotics alone failed to cure mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli expressing β-lactamases, infection was cleared when treated with antibiotics in combination with dBLIPs, clearly suggesting that peptides were able to neutralize bacterial resistance. Moreover, immunological assays were also performed showing that dBLIPs were unable to modify mammalian immune response in both models, reducing the risks of collateral effects. In summary, the unusual peptides here described provide leads to overcome β-lactamase-based resistance, a remarkable clinical challenge. PMID:25109311

  3. Arteriovenous Access

    PubMed Central

    MacRae, Jennifer M.; Dipchand, Christine; Oliver, Matthew; Moist, Louise; Yilmaz, Serdar; Lok, Charmaine; Leung, Kelvin; Clark, Edward; Hiremath, Swapnil; Kappel, Joanne; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Luscombe, Rick; Miller, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Complications of vascular access lead to morbidity and may reduce quality of life. In this module, we review both infectious and noninfectious arteriovenous access complications including neuropathy, aneurysm, and high-output access. For the challenging patients who have developed many complications and are now nearing their last vascular access, we highlight some potentially novel approaches. PMID:28270919

  4. Sociopolitical Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Galen, Jane, Ed.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue of the serial "Educational Foundations" contains four articles devoted to the topic of "Sociopolitical Analyses." In "An Interview with Peter L. McLaren," Mary Leach presented the views of Peter L. McLaren on topics of local and national discourses, values, and the politics of difference. Landon E.…

  5. Health Access Livelihood Framework Reveals Potential Barriers in the Control of Schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake Area of Hunan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Donald P.; Raso, Giovanna; Utzinger, Jürg; Xiao, Shui-Yuan; Yu, Dong-Bao; Zhao, Zheng-Yuan; Li, Yue-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Access to health care is a major requirement in improving health and fostering socioeconomic development. In the People's Republic of China (P.R. China), considerable changes have occurred in the social, economic, and health systems with a shift from a centrally planned to a socialist market economy. This brought about great benefits and new challenges, particularly for vertical disease control programs, including schistosomiasis. We explored systemic barriers in access to equitable and effective control of schistosomiasis. Methodology Between August 2002 and February 2003, 66 interviews with staff from anti-schistosomiasis control stations and six focus group discussions with health personnel were conducted in the Dongting Lake area, Hunan Province. Additionally, 79 patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica were interviewed. The health access livelihood framework was utilized to examine availability, accessibility, affordability, adequacy, and acceptability of schistosomiasis-related health care. Principal Findings We found sufficient availability of infrastructure and human resources at most control stations. Many patients with advanced schistosomiasis resided in non-endemic or moderately endemic areas, however, with poor accessibility to disease-specific knowledge and specialized health services. Moreover, none of the patients interviewed had any form of health insurance, resulting in high out-of-pocket expenditure or unaffordable care. Reports on the adequacy and acceptability of care were mixed. Conclusions/Significance There is a need to strengthen health awareness and schistosomiasis surveillance in post-transmission control settings, as well as to reduce diagnostic and treatment costs. Further studies are needed to gain a multi-layered, in-depth understanding of remaining barriers, so that the ultimate goal of schistosomiasis elimination in P.R. China can be reached. PMID:23936580

  6. Acceptance and commitment therapy - Do we know enough? Cumulative and sequential meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Thomas; Stone, Paul; MacBeth, Angus

    2016-01-15

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has accrued a substantial evidence base. Recent systematic and meta-analytic reviews suggest that ACT is effective compared to control conditions. However, these reviews appraise the efficacy of ACT across a broad range of presenting problems, rather than addressing specific common mental health difficulties. Focussing on depression and anxiety we performed a meta-analysis of trials of ACT. We incorporated sequential meta-analysis (SMA) techniques to critically appraise the sufficiency of the existing evidence base. Findings suggest that ACT demonstrates at least moderate group and pre-post effects for symptom reductions for both anxiety and depression. However using SMA findings are more qualified. There is currently insufficient evidence to confidently conclude that ACT for anxiety is efficacious when compared to active control conditions or as primary treatment for anxiety. Similarly, using SMA, there is currently insufficient evidence to suggest a moderate efficacy of ACT for depression compared to active control conditions. To stimulate further research we offer specific estimates of additional numbers of participants required to reach sufficiency to help inform future studies. We also discuss the appropriate strategies for future research into ACT for anxiety given the current evidence suggests no differential efficacy of ACT in the treatment of anxiety compared to active control conditions.

  7. Mutuality Meets the Market: Analysing Changes in the Control of Quality Assurance in United Kingdom Higher Education 1992-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Roger

    2013-01-01

    There has been a tendency in the literature to see changes in quality assurance as part of a process of increased state control. This article suggests a more nuanced approach that also takes account of the different trajectories of the pre- and post-1992 sectors. It finds that whilst there have been increases in both state oversight and market…

  8. Cryogenic propellant thermal control system design considerations, analyses, and concepts applied to a Mars human exploration mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plachta, David W.; Tucker, Stephen; Hoffman, David J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes, defines, and sizes cryogenic storage thermal control systems that meet the requirements of future NASA Mars human exploration missions. The design issues of this system include the projection of the existing Multilayer Insulation data base for cryogenic storage to much thicker (10 cm or more) insulation systems, the unknown heat leak from mechanical interfaces, and the thermal and structural performance effects of the large tank sizes required for a Mars mission. Acknowledging these unknown effects, heat loss projections are made based on extrapolation of the existing data base. The results indicate that hydrogen, methane, and oxygen are feasible propellants, and that the best suited thermal control sytems are 'thick' MLI, thermodynamic vent sytems, cryocoolers, and vacuum jackets.

  9. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of Compound Danshen extract based on (1)H NMR method and its application for quality control.

    PubMed

    Yan, Kai-Jing; Chu, Yang; Huang, Jian-Hua; Jiang, Miao-Miao; Li, Wei; Wang, Yue-Fei; Huang, Hui-Yong; Qin, Yu-Hui; Ma, Xiao-Hui; Zhou, Shui-Ping; Sun, Henry; Wang, Wei

    2016-11-30

    In this study, a new approach using (1)H NMR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics method was developed for qualitative and quantitative analyses of extracts of Compound Danshen Dripping Pills (CDDP). For the qualitative analysis, some metabolites presented in Compound Danshen extract (CDE, extraction intermediate of CDDP) were detected, including phenolic acids, saponins, saccharides, organic acids and amino acids, by the proposed (1)H NMR method, and metabolites profiles were further analyzed by selected chemometrics algorithms to define the threshold values for product quality evaluation. Moreover, three main phenolic acids (danshensu, salvianolic acid B, and procatechuic aldehyde) in CDE were determined simultaneously, and method validation in terms of linearity, precision, repeatability, accuracy, and stability of the dissolved target compounds in solution was performed. The average recoveries varied between 84.20% and 110.75% while the RSDs were below 6.34% for the three phenolic acids. This (1)H NMR method offers an integral view of the extract composition, allows the qualitative and quantitative analysis of CDDP, and has the potential to be a supplementary tool to UPLC/HPLC for quality assessment of Chinese herbal medicines.

  10. Conceptual framework for analysing farm-specific economic effects of helminth infections in ruminants and control strategies.

    PubMed

    van der Voort, Mariska; Charlier, Johannes; Lauwers, Ludwig; Vercruysse, Jozef; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido; Van Meensel, Jef

    2013-05-01

    Helminth infections are considered to be an important constraint on livestock productivity worldwide. The economic impact of these infections or their control strategies has traditionally been assessed by their effect on animal performance indicators or traditional economic calculation methods (e.g. budgeting and cost-benefit analysis). Because the impact of helminth infections has become more subtle and is farm-specific, one needs more refined economic evaluations of actions meant to increase or maintain the health of livestock on individual farms. This paper proposes an interdisciplinary framework that combines the developments in the veterinary control of helminth infections with economic performance measurements to identify farm-specific and profitable anthelmintic management decisions. Our framework positions individual farms' performance against performance benchmarks and is based on the farms' efficiency in transforming input(s) into output(s). We show how this positioning makes it possible to establish a linkage between input and output transformation, helminth infection levels and effects of control strategies. Furthermore, the framework allows for the identification of improvement paths that are not necessarily related to the helminth infection, but which may lead to other management improvements. We discuss the epidemiological information required and which complementary methods (e.g. efficiency analysis and budgeting techniques) can be used to make the framework operational.

  11. Use of the venture wire-control catheter for accessing side branches during provisional stenting: an option for bifurcations with an unfavorable anatomy.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Soledad; Pan, Manuel; Mazuelos, Francisco; Romero, Miguel; Segura, José; Pavlovic, Djordje; Crespín, Manuel; Suárez de Lezo, José

    2010-12-01

    We report our experience with the Venture wire-control catheter in 20 patients with bifurcation lesions in which it was impossible to access the side branch using conventional techniques. This device was always used as a last resort and was employed during different stages in the treatment of the bifurcation lesions (i.e. initially, after stenting of the main vessel or both). In 17 patients (85%), use of the Venture catheter resulted in the success of the procedure. Only one complication associated with a monorail catheter was recorded. It was resolved successfully. One patient died from heart failure 10 days after the procedure and two patients, in whom it was impossible to access the side branch, had non-Q-wave myocardial infarctions. In conclusion, the Venture catheter was effective and safe, and enabled the side branches of complex bifurcation lesions to be accessed.

  12. Analysing Spatio-Temporal Clustering of Meningococcal Meningitis Outbreaks in Niger Reveals Opportunities for Improved Disease Control

    PubMed Central

    Paireau, Juliette; Girond, Florian; Collard, Jean-Marc; Maïnassara, Halima B.; Jusot, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Background Meningococcal meningitis is a major health problem in the “African Meningitis Belt” where recurrent epidemics occur during the hot, dry season. In Niger, a central country belonging to the Meningitis Belt, reported meningitis cases varied between 1,000 and 13,000 from 2003 to 2009, with a case-fatality rate of 5–15%. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to gain insight in the epidemiology of meningococcal meningitis in Niger and to improve control strategies, the emergence of the epidemics and their diffusion patterns at a fine spatial scale have been investigated. A statistical analysis of the spatio-temporal distribution of confirmed meningococcal meningitis cases was performed between 2002 and 2009, based on health centre catchment areas (HCCAs) as spatial units. Anselin's local Moran's I test for spatial autocorrelation and Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic were used to identify spatial and spatio-temporal clusters of cases. Spatial clusters were detected every year and most frequently occurred within nine southern districts. Clusters most often encompassed few HCCAs within a district, without expanding to the entire district. Besides, strong intra-district heterogeneity and inter-annual variability in the spatio-temporal epidemic patterns were observed. To further investigate the benefit of using a finer spatial scale for surveillance and disease control, we compared timeliness of epidemic detection at the HCCA level versus district level and showed that a decision based on threshold estimated at the HCCA level may lead to earlier detection of outbreaks. Conclusions/Significance Our findings provide an evidence-based approach to improve control of meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa. First, they can assist public health authorities in Niger to better adjust allocation of resources (antibiotics, rapid diagnostic tests and medical staff). Then, this spatio-temporal analysis showed that surveillance at a finer spatial scale (HCCA) would be more

  13. Initial Analyses and Demonstration of a Soil Moisture Smart Sensor Web Using Data Assimilation and Optimal Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam, M.; Entekhabi, D.; Liu, M.; Teneketzid, D.; Goykhman, Y.; Shuman, D.; Mahajan, A.; Nayyar, A.

    2007-12-01

    We have developed a new concept for a smart sensor web technology for measurements of soil moisture that include spaceborne and in-situ assets. The objective of the technology is to enable a guided/adaptive sampling strategy for the in-situ sensor network to meet the measurement validation objectives of the spaceborne sensors with respect to resolution and accuracy. The sensor nodes are guided to perform as a macro-instrument measuring processes at the scale of the satellite footprint, hence meeting the requirements for the difficult problem of validation of satellite measurements. The science measurement considered is the surface-to-depth profiles of soil moisture estimated from satellite radars and radiometers, with calibration and validation using in- situ sensors. Satellites allow global mapping but with coarse footprints. The total variability in soil-moisture fields comes from variability in processes on various scales. Installing an in-situ network to sample the field for all ranges of variability is impractical. However, a sparser but smarter network can provide the validation estimates by operating in a guided fashion with guidance from its own sparse measurements. The feedback and control take place in the context of a dynamic data assimilation system. The overall design of the smart sensor web including the control architecture, assimilation framework, and actuation hardware will be presented in this paper. The results of initial numerical and laboratory demonstrations of the sensor web concept, which includes a small number of soil moisture sensors and their physical measurement model, a dynamic soil moisture time-evolution model (SWAP), and an optimal control strategy will then be shown.

  14. Exploring the physical controls of regional patterns of flow duration curves - Part 1: Insights from statistical analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, L.; Yaeger, M.; Viglione, A.; Coopersmith, E.; Ye, S.; Sivapalan, M.

    2012-11-01

    The flow duration curve (FDC) is a classical method used to graphically represent the relationship between the frequency and magnitude of streamflow. In this sense it represents a compact signature of temporal runoff variability that can also be used to diagnose catchment rainfall-runoff responses, including similarity and differences between catchments. This paper is aimed at extracting regional patterns of the FDCs from observed daily flow data and elucidating the physical controls underlying these patterns, as a way to aid towards their regionalization and predictions in ungauged basins. The FDCs of total runoff (TFDC) using multi-decadal streamflow records for 197 catchments across the continental United States are separated into the FDCs of two runoff components, i.e., fast flow (FFDC) and slow flow (SFDC). In order to compactly display these regional patterns, the 3-parameter mixed gamma distribution is employed to characterize the shapes of the normalized FDCs (i.e., TFDC, FFDC and SFDC) over the entire data record. This is repeated to also characterize the between-year variability of "annual" FDCs for 8 representative catchments chosen across a climate gradient. Results show that the mixed gamma distribution can adequately capture the shapes of the FDCs and their variation between catchments and also between years. Comparison between the between-catchment and between-year variability of the FDCs revealed significant space-time symmetry. Possible relationships between the parameters of the fitted mixed gamma distribution and catchment climatic and physiographic characteristics are explored in order to decipher and point to the underlying physical controls. The baseflow index (a surrogate for the collective impact of geology, soils, topography and vegetation, as well as climate) is found to be the dominant control on the shapes of the normalized TFDC and SFDC, whereas the product of maximum daily precipitation and the fraction of non-rainy days was found to

  15. Exploring the physical controls of regional patterns of flow duration curves - Part 1: Insights from statistical analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, L.; Yaeger, M.; Viglione, A.; Coopersmith, E.; Ye, S.; Sivapalan, M.

    2012-06-01

    The Flow Duration Curve (FDC) is a classical method used to graphically represent the relationship between the frequency and magnitude of streamflow. In this sense it represents a compact signature of temporal runoff variability that can also be used to diagnose catchment rainfall-runoff responses, including similarity and differences between catchments. This paper is aimed at extracting regional patterns of the FDCs from observed daily flow data and elucidating the physical controls underlying these patterns, as a way to aid towards their regionalization and predictions in ungauged basins. The FDCs of total runoff (TFDC) using multi-decadal streamflow records for 197 catchments across the continental United States are separated into the FDCs of two runoff components, i.e., fast flow (FFDC) and slow flow (SFDC). In order to compactly display these regional patterns the 3-parameter mixed gamma distribution is employed to characterize the shapes of the normalized FDCs (i.e., TFDC, FFDC and SFDC) over the entire data record. This is repeated to also characterize the between-year variability of "annual" FDCs for 8 representative catchments chosen across a climate gradient. Results show that the mixed gamma distribution can adequately capture the shapes of the FDCs and their variation between catchments and also between years. Comparison between the between-catchment and between-year variability of the FDCs revealed significant space-time symmetry. Possible relationships between the parameters of the fitted mixed gamma distribution and catchment climatic and physiographic characteristics are explored in order to decipher and point to the underlying physical controls. The baseflow index (a surrogate for the collective impact of geology, soils, topology and vegetation, as well as climate) is found to be the dominant control on the shapes of the normalized TFDC and SFDC, whereas the product of maximum daily precipitation and the fraction of non-rainy days was found to

  16. INCORPORATION OF HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING ANALYSES AND TOOLS INTO THE DESIGN PROCESS FOR DIGITAL CONTROL ROOM UPGRADES.

    SciTech Connect

    O'HARA,J.M.; BROWN,W.

    2004-09-19

    Many nuclear power plants are modernizing with digital instrumentation and control systems and computer-based human-system interfaces (HSIs). The purpose of this paper is to summarize the human factors engineering (HFE) activities that can help to ensure that the design meets personnel needs. HFE activities should be integrated into the design process as a regular part of the engineering effort of a plant modification. The HFE activities will help ensure that human performance issues are addressed, that new technology supports task performance, and that the HSIs are designed in a manner that is compatible with human physiological, cognitive and social characteristics.

  17. Using IT to improve access, communication, and asthma in African American and Hispanic/Latino Adults: Rationale, design, and methods of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Apter, Andrea J; Bryant-Stephens, Tyra; Morales, Knashawn H; Wan, Fei; Hardy, Sharmaine; Reed-Wells, Shakira; Dominguez, Maria; Gonzalez, Rodalyn; Mak, NaDea; Nardi, Alyssa; Park, Hami; Howell, John T; Localio, Russell

    2015-08-08

    Asthma morbidity is high among inner-city minority adults. Improving access to care and patient-provider communication are believed essential for improving outcomes. Access and communication in turn increasingly rely on information technology including features of the Electronic Health Record. Its patient portal offers web-based communication with providers and practices. How patients with limited resources and educational opportunities can benefit from this portal is unclear. In contrast, home visits by community health workers (CHWs) have improved access to care for asthmatic children and promoted caretaker-clinician communication. We describe the planning, design, and methodology of an ongoing randomized controlled trial for 300 adults, predominantly African American and Hispanic/Latino, with uncontrolled asthma recruited from low income urban neighborhoods who are directed to the most convenient internet access and taught to use the portal, with and without home visits from a CHW. The study 1) compares the effects of the 1-year interventions on asthma outcomes (improved asthma control, quality of life; fewer ED visits and hospitalizations for asthma or any cause), 2) evaluates whether communication (portal use) and access (appointments made/kept) mediate the interventions' effects on asthma outcomes, and 3) investigates effect modification by literacy level, primary language, and convenience of internet access. In home visits, CHWs 1) train patients to competency in portal use, 2) enhance care coordination, 3) communicate the complex social circumstances of patients' lives to providers, and 4) compensate for differences in patients' health literacy skills. The practical challenges to design and implementation in the targeted population are presented.

  18. Quality Control of Biomedicinal Allergen Products - Highly Complex Isoallergen Composition Challenges Standard MS Database Search and Requires Manual Data Analyses.

    PubMed

    Spiric, Jelena; Engin, Anna M; Karas, Michael; Reuter, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Allergy against birch pollen is among the most common causes of spring pollinosis in Europe and is diagnosed and treated using extracts from natural sources. Quality control is crucial for safe and effective diagnosis and treatment. However, current methods are very difficult to standardize and do not address individual allergen or isoallergen composition. MS provides information regarding selected proteins or the entire proteome and could overcome the aforementioned limitations. We studied the proteome of birch pollen, focusing on allergens and isoallergens, to clarify which of the 93 published sequence variants of the major allergen, Bet v 1, are expressed as proteins within one source material in parallel. The unexpectedly complex Bet v 1 isoallergen composition required manual data interpretation and a specific design of databases, as current database search engines fail to unambiguously assign spectra to highly homologous, partially identical proteins. We identified 47 non-allergenic proteins and all 5 known birch pollen allergens, and unambiguously proved the existence of 18 Bet v 1 isoallergens and variants by manual data analysis. This highly complex isoallergen composition raises questions whether isoallergens can be ignored or must be included for the quality control of allergen products, and which data analysis strategies are to be applied.

  19. Quality control of cultured tissues requires tools for quantitative analyses of heterogeneous features developed in manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Kino-Oka, Masahiro; Takezawa, Yasunori; Taya, Masahito

    2009-02-01

    Tissue engineering and related technology have attracted a great deal of medical attention as promising fields for curing defective tissues in vivo. Nowadays, many companies have been established for supplying the reconstructed grafts of cultured tissues for transplantation. The manufacturing processes generally deals with the handlings of starter cells offered by patients (or donors) as raw materials to cultured tissues as products, requiring the construction of novel ex vivo methodologies based on principles different from conventional processes for chemical and pharmaceutical productions. In addition, the raw materials have heterogeneity depending on the state of patients and location of cell harvests, and the products possess spatial cell distribution in the three dimensional structure. These features request a unique strategy in manufacturing process accompanied with the quality control for raw materials and products. This review article describes the contribution of tissue bankers and biochemical engineers to the quality control of cultured tissues during manufacturing, introducing the advances in methodologies to evaluate spatial heterogeneity of cells (or aggregates) and matrices in cultured tissues.

  20. Exposure–Response Analyses of Asbestos and Lung Cancer Subtypes in a Pooled Analysis of Case–Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Roel; Schüz, Joachim; Kromhout, Hans; Pesch, Beate; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Portengen, Lützen; Mirabelli, Dario; Gustavsson, Per; Kendzia, Benjamin; Almansa, Josue; Luzon, Veronique; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Stücker, Isabelle; Guida, Florence; Consonni, Dario; Caporaso, Neil; Landi, Maria Teresa; Field, John; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Siemiatycki, Jack; Parent, Marie-Elise; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Merletti, Franco; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Plato, Nils; Tardón, Adonina; Zaridze, David; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Stanescu Dumitru, Rodica; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Boffetta, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Forastiere, Francesco; Brüning, Thomas; Straif, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Background: Evidence is limited regarding risk and the shape of the exposure–response curve at low asbestos exposure levels. We estimated the exposure–response for occupational asbestos exposure and assessed the joint effect of asbestos exposure and smoking by sex and lung cancer subtype in general population studies. Methods: We pooled 14 case–control studies conducted in 1985–2010 in Europe and Canada, including 17,705 lung cancer cases and 21,813 controls with detailed information on tobacco habits and lifetime occupations. We developed a quantitative job-exposure-matrix to estimate job-, time period-, and region-specific exposure levels. Fiber-years (ff/ml-years) were calculated for each subject by linking the matrix with individual occupational histories. We fit unconditional logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and trends. Results: The fully adjusted OR for ever-exposure to asbestos was 1.24 (95% CI, 1.18, 1.31) in men and 1.12 (95% CI, 0.95, 1.31) in women. In men, increasing lung cancer risk was observed with increasing exposure in all smoking categories and for all three major lung cancer subtypes. In women, lung cancer risk for all subtypes was increased in current smokers (ORs ~two-fold). The joint effect of asbestos exposure and smoking did not deviate from multiplicativity among men, and was more than additive among women. Conclusions: Our results in men showed an excess risk of lung cancer and its subtypes at low cumulative exposure levels, with a steeper exposure–response slope in this exposure range than at higher, previously studied levels. (See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B161.) PMID:28141674

  1. Generalized environmental control and life support system computer program (G189A) configuration control. [computer subroutine libraries for shuttle orbiter analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakely, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    A G189A simulation of the shuttle orbiter EC/lSS was prepared and used to study payload support capabilities. Two master program libraries of the G189A computer program were prepared for the NASA/JSC computer system. Several new component subroutines were added to the G189A program library and many existing subroutines were revised to improve their capabilities. A number of special analyses were performed in support of a NASA/JSC shuttle orbiter EC/LSS payload support capability study.

  2. Cost and quality effectiveness of objective-based and statistically-based quality control for volatile organic compounds analyses of gases

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, J.T.; Crowder, C.A.; Connolly, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    Gas samples from drums of radioactive waste at the Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Engineering Laboratory are being characterized for 29 volatile organic compounds to determine the feasibility of storing the waste in DOE`s Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. Quality requirements for the gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry chemical methods used to analyze the waste are specified in the Quality Assurance Program Plan for the WIPP Experimental Waste Characterization Program. Quality requirements consist of both objective criteria (data quality objectives, DQOs) and statistical criteria (process control). The DQOs apply to routine sample analyses, while the statistical criteria serve to determine and monitor precision and accuracy (P&A) of the analysis methods and are also used to assign upper confidence limits to measurement results close to action levels. After over two years and more than 1000 sample analyses there are two general conclusions concerning the two approaches to quality control: (1) Objective criteria (e.g., {+-} 25% precision, {+-} 30% accuracy) based on customer needs and the usually prescribed criteria for similar EPA- approved methods are consistently attained during routine analyses. (2) Statistical criteria based on short term method performance are almost an order of magnitude more stringent than objective criteria and are difficult to satisfy following the same routine laboratory procedures which satisfy the objective criteria. A more cost effective and representative approach to establishing statistical method performances criteria would be either to utilize a moving average of P&A from control samples over a several month time period or to determine within a sample variation by one-way analysis of variance of several months replicate sample analysis results or both. Confidence intervals for results near action levels could also be determined by replicate analysis of the sample in question.

  3. WE-F-304-04: Radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannomas: Tumor Control Probability Analyses and Recommended Reporting Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Soltys, S.

    2015-06-15

    Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) was introduced clinically more than twenty years ago, and many subsequent publications have reported safety and efficacy data. The AAPM Working Group on Biological Effects of Hypofractionated Radiotherapy/SBRT (WGSBRT) extracted published treatment outcomes data from extensive literature searches to summarize and construct tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models for six anatomical regions: Cranial, Head and Neck, Thoracic, Abdominal, Pelvic, and Spinal. In this session, we present the WGSBRT’s work for cranial sites, and recurrent head and neck cancer. From literature-based data and associated models, guidelines to aid with safe and effective hypofractionated radiotherapy treatment are being determined. Further, the ability of existing and proposed radiobiological models to fit these data is considered as to the ability to distinguish between the linear-quadratic and alternative radiobiological models such as secondary cell death from vascular damage, immunogenic, or bystander effects. Where appropriate, specific model parameters are estimated. As described in “The lessons of QUANTEC,” (1), lack of adequate reporting standards continues to limit the amount of useful quantitative information that can be extracted from peer-reviewed publications. Recommendations regarding reporting standards are considered, to enable such reviews to achieve more complete characterization of clinical outcomes. 1 Jackson A, Marks LB, Bentzen SM, Eisbruch A, Yorke ED, Ten Haken RK, Constine LS, Deasy JO. The lessons of QUANTEC: recommendations for reporting and gathering data on dose-volume dependencies of treatment outcome. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010 Mar 1;76(3 Suppl):S155–60. Learning Objectives: Describe the techniques, types of cancer and dose schedules used in treating recurrent H&N cancers with SBRT List the radiobiological models that compete with the linear-quadratic model

  4. Tectonic and lithological controls on fluvial landscape development in central-eastern Portugal: Insights from long profile tributary stream analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, António A.; Cabral, João; Cunha, Pedro P.; Stokes, Martin; Borges, José; Caldeira, Bento; Martins, A. Cardoso

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the long profiles of tributaries of the Tagus and Zêzere rivers in Portugal (West Iberia) in order to provide new insights into patterns, timing, and controls on drainage development during the Quaternary incision stage. The studied streams are incised into a relict culminant fluvial surface, abandoned at the beginning of the incision stage. The streams flow through a landscape with bedrock variations in lithology (mainly granites and metasediments) and faulted blocks with distinct uplift rates. The long profiles of the analyzed streams record an older transitory knickpoint/knickzone separating (1) an upstream relict graded profile, with lower steepness and higher concavity, that reflects a long period of quasi-equilibrium conditions reached after the beginning of the incision stage, and (2) a downstream rejuvenated long profile, with steeper gradient and lower concavity, particularly for the final reach, which is often convex. The rejuvenated reaches testify to the upstream propagation of several incision waves, interpreted as the response of each stream to increasing crustal uplift and prolonged periods of base-level lowering by the trunk drainages, coeval with low sea level conditions. The morphological configurations of the long profiles enabled spatial and relative temporal patterns of incisions to be quantified. The incision values of streams flowing on the Portuguese Central Range (PCR; ca. 380-150 m) are variable but generally higher than the incision values of streams flowing on the adjacent South Portugal Planation Surface (SPPS; ca. 220-110 m), corroborating differential uplift of the PCR relative to the SPPS. Owing to the fact that the relict graded profiles can be correlated with the Tagus River T1 terrace (1.1-0.9 My) present in the study area, incision rates can be estimated (1) for the streams located in the PCR, 0.38-0.15 m/ky and (2) for the streams flowing on the SPPS, 0.22-0.12 m/ky. The differential uplift inferred in the

  5. Self management, joint protection and exercises in hand osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial with cost effectiveness analyses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of occupational therapy (OT) approaches in the management of hand osteoarthritis (OA). Joint protection and hand exercises have been proposed by European guidelines, however the clinical and cost effectiveness of each intervention is unknown. This multicentre two-by-two factorial randomised controlled trial aims to address the following questions: • Is joint protection delivered by an OT more effective in reducing hand pain and disability than no joint protection in people with hand OA in primary care? • Are hand exercises delivered by an OT more effective in reducing hand pain and disability than no hand exercises in people with hand OA in primary care? • Which of the four management approaches explored within the study (leaflet and advice, joint protection, hand exercise, or joint protection and hand exercise combined) provides the most cost-effective use of health care resources Methods/Design Participants aged 50 years and over registered at three general practices in North Staffordshire and Cheshire will be mailed a health survey questionnaire (estimated mailing sample n = 9,500). Those fulfilling the eligibility criteria on the health survey questionnaire will be invited to attend a clinical assessment to assess for the presence of hand or thumb base OA using the ACR criteria. Eligible participants will be randomised to one of four groups: leaflet and advice; joint protection (looking after your joints); hand exercises; or joint protection and hand exercises combined (estimated n = 252). The primary outcome measure will be the OARSI/OMERACT responder criteria combining hand pain and disability (measured using the AUSCAN) and global improvement, 6 months post-randomisation. Secondary outcomes will also be collected for example pain, functional limitation and quality of life. Outcomes will be collected at baseline and 3, 6 and 12 months post-randomisation. The main analysis will

  6. Channel Access in Erlang

    SciTech Connect

    Nicklaus, Dennis J.

    2013-10-13

    We have developed an Erlang language implementation of the Channel Access protocol. Included are low-level functions for encoding and decoding Channel Access protocol network packets as well as higher level functions for monitoring or setting EPICS process variables. This provides access to EPICS process variables for the Fermilab Acnet control system via our Erlang-based front-end architecture without having to interface to C/C++ programs and libraries. Erlang is a functional programming language originally developed for real-time telecommunications applications. Its network programming features and list management functions make it particularly well-suited for the task of managing multiple Channel Access circuits and PV monitors.

  7. The effect of cold priming on the fitness of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions under natural and controlled conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cvetkovic, Jelena; Müller, Klaus; Baier, Margarete

    2017-01-01

    Priming improves an organism's performance upon a future stress. To test whether cold priming supports protection in spring and how it is affected by cold acclimation, we compared seven Arabidopsis accessions with different cold acclimation potentials in the field and in the greenhouse for growth, photosynthetic performance and reproductive fitness in March and May after a 14 day long cold-pretreatment at 4 °C. In the plants transferred to the field in May, the effect of the cold pretreatment on the seed yield correlated with the cold acclimation potential of the accessions. In the March transferred plants, the reproductive fitness was most supported by the cold pretreatment in the accessions with the weakest cold acclimation potential. The fitness effect was linked to long-term effects of the cold pretreatment on photosystem II activity stabilization and leaf blade expansion. The study demonstrated that cold priming stronger impacts on plant fitness than cold acclimation in spring in accessions with intermediate and low cold acclimation potential. PMID:28276450

  8. EPA GHG certification of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles: Development of road grade profiles representative of US controlled access highways

    DOE PAGES

    Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-09-27

    In collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has conducted a national analysis of road grade characteristics experienced by U.S. medium- and heavy-duty trucks on controlled access highways. These characteristics have been developed using TomTom's commercially available street map and road grade database. Using the TomTom national road grade database, national statistics on road grade and hill distances were generated for the U.S. network of controlled access highways. These statistical distributions were then weighted using data provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for activity of medium- and heavy-dutymore » trucks on controlled access highways. Here, the national activity-weighted road grade and hill distance distributions were then used as targets for development of a handful of sample grade profiles potentially to be used in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model certification tool as well as in dynamometer testing of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles and their powertrains.« less

  9. EPA GHG certification of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles: Development of road grade profiles representative of US controlled access highways

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-09-27

    In collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has conducted a national analysis of road grade characteristics experienced by U.S. medium- and heavy-duty trucks on controlled access highways. These characteristics have been developed using TomTom's commercially available street map and road grade database. Using the TomTom national road grade database, national statistics on road grade and hill distances were generated for the U.S. network of controlled access highways. These statistical distributions were then weighted using data provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for activity of medium- and heavy-duty trucks on controlled access highways. Here, the national activity-weighted road grade and hill distance distributions were then used as targets for development of a handful of sample grade profiles potentially to be used in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model certification tool as well as in dynamometer testing of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles and their powertrains.

  10. Web Accessibility and Accessibility Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities. While schools of library and information science (SLIS*) and university libraries should model accessible Web sites, this may not be the case. This article examines previous studies about the Web accessibility of…

  11. Steady-state and transient-state analyses of TCP and TCP-friendly rate control mechanism using a control theoretic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisamatsu, Hiroyuki; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Murata, Masayuki

    2004-09-01

    In recent years, various real-time applications in the Internet have been emerging with rapid increase of the network bandwidth. A real-time application traditionally uses either UDP (User Datagram Protocol) or TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) as its transport layer protocol. However, using either UDP or TCP is insufficient for most real-time applications because of lacking a smooth rate control mechanism or suffering a significant transfer delay. In the literature, several transport-layer communication protocols for real-time applications have been proposed. In this paper, among these transport-layer communication protocols, we focus on TFRC (TCP-Friendly Rate Control). Steady state performances of TCP and TFRC connections such as throughput and fairness have been throughly investigated by many researchers using simulation experiments. However, transient state properties of TCP and TFRC connections such as stability and responsiveness have not been investigated. In this paper, we therefore analyze both steady state and transient state performances of TCP and TFRC connections using a control theoretic approach. We frist model TFRC and TCP connections with different propagation delays and the active queue management mechanism of RED (Random Early Detection) router as independent discrete-time systems. By combining these discrete-time systems, we analyze steady state performance of TCP and TFRC connections such as throughput, transfer delay, and packet loss probability. We also analyze transient state performance of TCP and TFRC connections using linearization of discrete-time systems around their equilibrium points.

  12. Breast cancer risk factor associations differ for pure versus invasive carcinoma with an in situ component in case-control and case-case analyses

    PubMed Central

    Ruszczyk, Melanie; Zirpoli, Gary; Kumar, Shicha; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.; Jandorf, Lina; Khoury, Thaer; Hwang, Helena; Ciupak, Gregory; Pawlish, Karen; Schedin, Pepper; Masso-Welch, Patricia; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Hong, Chi-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) is diagnosed with or without a ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) component. Previous analyses have found significant differences in tumor characteristics between pure IDC lacking DCIS and mixed IDC with DCIS. We will test our hypothesis that pure IDC represents a form of breast cancer with etiology and risk factors distinct from mixed IDC/DCIS. Methods We compared reproductive risk factors for breast cancer risk, as well as family and smoking history between 831 women with mixed IDC/DCIS (n=650) or pure IDC (n=181), and 1,620 controls, in the context of the Women's Circle of Health Study (WCHS), a case-control study of breast cancer in African-American and European-American women. Data on reproductive and lifestyle factors were collected during interviews, and tumor characteristics were abstracted from pathology reports. Case-control and case-case analyses were conducted using unconditional logistic regression. Results Most risk factors were similarly associated with pure IDC and mixed IDC/DCIS. However, among postmenopausal women, risk for pure IDC was lower in women with body mass index (BMI) 25 to <30 kg/m2 (Odds Ratio (OR)=0.66; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.35-1.23) and BMI≥30 kg/m2 (OR=0.33; 95% CI, 0.18-0.67) compared to women with BMI<25 kg/m2, with no associations with mixed IDC/DCIS. In case-case analyses, women who breastfed up to 12 months (OR=0.55; 95% CI, 0.32-0.94) or longer (OR=0.47; 95% CI, 0.26-0.87) showed decreased odds of pure IDC than mixed IDC/DCIS compared to those who did not breastfeed. Conclusions Associations with some breast cancer risk factors differed between mixed IDC/DCIS and pure IDC, potentially suggesting differential developmental pathways. These findings, if confirmed in a larger study, will provide a better understanding of the development patterns of breast cancer and the influence of modifiable risk factors, which in turn could lead to better preventive measures for pure IDC, which

  13. Association between CYP1A1 Ile462Val Variation and Acute Leukemia Risk: Meta-Analyses Including 2164 Cases and 4160 Controls

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Wenlei; Zhang, Liang; Zhu, Bo; Qiu, Zhiqun; Chen, Zhengtang

    2012-01-01

    Background Previously, CYP1A1 Ile462Val polymorphism has been indicated to be a risk factor for several malignancies. Increasing reports have focused on the association of CYP1A1 Ile462Val polymorphisms with susceptibility to acute leukemia and have generated controversial results. The goal of the present study was to derive a more precise estimation of the relationship. Methods Relevant literature has been rigorously searched and screened. Eligible studies were identified for the period up to Apr 2012. Meta-analyses evaluating the association of CYP1A1 Ile462Val variation with acute leukemia were carried out. Subgroup analyses on ethnicity, clinical types and source of controls were further performed. Results A total of thirteen publications including fourteen case-control studies with 2164 cases and 4160 controls were selected for analysis. The overall data indicated a significant association of CYP1A1 Ile462Val polymorphism with acute leukemia risk (Val/Val vs Ile/Ile OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.11–1.98; dominant model: OR = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.05–1.51; recessive model: OR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.04–1.83). In subgroup analysis on ethnicity, increased risk was shown among mixed ethnicities (Val/Val vs Ile/Ile: OR = 2.36; 95% CI = 1.46–3.82; dominant model: OR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.01–1.86; recessive model: OR = 2.20; 95% CI = 1.37–3.53) but not Asians or Caucasians. In subgroup analysis on clinical types, increased risk was observed in the acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) subgroup (Val/Val vs Ile/Ile: OR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.42–3.01; recessive model: OR = 1.91; 95% CI = 1.32–2.76) but not in the acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subgroup. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that CYP1A1 Ile462Val polymorphism might be a low-penetrant risk factor for acute leukemia. Subgroup analyses suggest that homozygous Val/Val alleles might modify the susceptibility to ALL. PMID:23056546

  14. Access and benefit sharing (ABS) under the convention on biological diversity (CBD): implications for microbial biological control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers and implementers of biological control are confronted with a variety of scientific, regulatory and administrative challenges to their biological control programs. One developing challenge will arise from the implementation of provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) co...

  15. 10 CFR 1017.21 - Limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limited access. 1017.21 Section 1017.21 Energy DEPARTMENT... INFORMATION Access to Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.21 Limited access. (a) A person who is not eligible for routine access to specific UCNI under § 1017.20 may request limited access...

  16. 10 CFR 1017.19 - Access limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Access limitations. 1017.19 Section 1017.19 Energy... INFORMATION Access to Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.19 Access limitations. A person may only have access to UCNI if he or she has been granted routine access by an Authorized Individual...

  17. Ultrasound-Assisted Peripheral Venous Access in Young Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial and Pilot Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Bair, Aaron E.; Rose, John S.; Vance, Cheryl W.; Andrada-Brown, Emily; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Intravenous (IV) access in children treated in the emergency department (ED) is frequently required and often difficult to obtain. While it has been shown that ultrasound can be useful in adults for both central and peripheral venous access, research regarding children has been limited. We sought to determine if the use of a static ultrasound technique could, a) allow clinicians to visualize peripheral veins and b) improve success rates of peripheral venous cannulation in young children in the ED. Methods We performed a randomized clinical trial of children < 7 years in an academic pediatric ED who required IV access and who had failed the first IV attempt. We randomized patients to either continued standard IV attempts or ultrasound-assisted attempts. Clinicians involved in the study received one hour of training in ultrasound localization of peripheral veins. In the ultrasound group, vein localization was performed by an ED physician who marked the skin overlying the target vessel. Intravenous cannulation attempts were then immediately performed by a pediatric ED nurse who relied on the skin mark for vessel location. We allowed for technique cross-over after two failed IV attempts. We recorded success rate and location of access attempts. We compared group success rates using differences in 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results We enrolled 44 children over a one-year period. The median age of enrollees was 9.5 months. We visualized peripheral veins in all patients in the ultrasound group (n=23) and in those who crossed over to ultrasound after failed standard technique attempts (n= 8). Venipuncture was successful on the first attempt in the ultrasound group in 13/23 (57%, CI, 35% to 77%), versus 12/21 (57%, CI, 34% to 78%) in the standard group, difference between groups 0.6% (95% CI −30% to 29%). First attempt cannulation success in the ultrasound group was 8/23 (35%, CI, 16% to 57%), versus 6/21 (29%, CI, 11% to 52%) in the standard group

  18. Tuning resistance states by thickness control in an electroforming-free nanometallic complementary resistance random access memory

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiang; Lu, Yang; Lee, Jongho; Chen, I-Wei

    2016-01-04

    Tuning low resistance state is crucial for resistance random access memory (RRAM) that aims to achieve optimal read margin and design flexibility. By back-to-back stacking two nanometallic bipolar RRAMs with different thickness into a complementary structure, we have found that its low resistance can be reliably tuned over several orders of magnitude. Such high tunability originates from the exponential thickness dependence of the high resistance state of nanometallic RRAM, in which electron wave localization in a random network gives rise to the unique scaling behavior. The complementary nanometallic RRAM provides electroforming-free, multi-resistance-state, sub-100 ns switching capability with advantageous characteristics for memory arrays.

  19. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  20. Usage and Effectiveness of a Fully Automated, Open-Access, Spanish Web-Based Smoking Cessation Program: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Internet is an optimal setting to provide massive access to tobacco treatments. To evaluate open-access Web-based smoking cessation programs in a real-world setting, adherence and retention data should be taken into account as much as abstinence rate. Objective The objective was to analyze the usage and effectiveness of a fully automated, open-access, Web-based smoking cessation program by comparing interactive versus noninteractive versions. Methods Participants were randomly assigned either to the interactive or noninteractive version of the program, both with identical content divided into 4 interdependent modules. At baseline, we collected demographic, psychological, and smoking characteristics of the smokers self-enrolled in the Web-based program of Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (National Distance Education University; UNED) in Madrid, Spain. The following questionnaires were administered: the anxiety and depression subscales from the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, the 4-item Perceived Stress Scale, and the Heaviness of Smoking Index. At 3 months, we analyzed dropout rates, module completion, user satisfaction, follow-up response rate, and self-assessed smoking abstinence. Results A total of 23,213 smokers were registered, 50.06% (11,620/23,213) women and 49.94% (11,593/23,213) men, with a mean age of 39.5 years (SD 10.3). Of these, 46.10% (10,701/23,213) were married and 34.43% (7992/23,213) were single, 46.03% (10,686/23,213) had university education, and 78.73% (18,275/23,213) were employed. Participants smoked an average of 19.4 cigarettes per day (SD 10.3). Of the 11,861 smokers randomly assigned to the interactive version, 2720 (22.93%) completed the first module, 1052 (8.87%) the second, 624 (5.26%) the third, and 355 (2.99%) the fourth. Completion data was not available for the noninteractive version (no way to record it automatically). The 3-month follow-up questionnaire was completed by 1085 of 23,213 enrolled smokers

  1. Effect of supervised exercise training during pregnancy on neonatal and maternal outcomes among overweight and obese women. Secondary analyses of the ETIP trial: A randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Garnæs, Kirsti Krohn; Nyrnes, Siri Ann; Salvesen, Kjell Åsmund; Salvesen, Øyvind; Mørkved, Siv

    2017-01-01

    Background Maternal obesity associates with complications during pregnancy and childbirth. Our aim was to investigate if exercise during pregnancy in overweight/obese women could influence birth weight or other neonatal and maternal outcomes at delivery. Material and methods This is a secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial of exercise training in pregnancy for women with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 28 kg/m2. Ninety-one women (31.3 ± 4.3 years, BMI 34.5 ± 4.2 kg/m2) were allocated 1:1 to supervised exercise during pregnancy or to standard care. The exercise group was offered three weekly training sessions consisting of 35 minutes of moderate intensity walking/running followed by 25 minutes of strength training. Data from 74 women (exercise 38, control 36) were analysed at delivery. Results Birth weight was 3719 ± 695 g in the exercise group and 3912 ± 413 g in the control group (CI -460.96, 74.89, p = 0.16). Birth weight > 4000 g was 35% in the exercise group and 52% in the control group (p = 0.16). Mean gestational age at delivery was 39.1 weeks in the exercise group and 39.5 weeks in the control group (CI -1.33, 0.43, p = 0.31). No significant between-group differences were found in neonatal body size, skinfold thickness, placental weight ratio, or Apgar score. The prevalence of caesarean section was 24% in the exercise group and 17% in the control group (CI 0.20, 2.05, p = 0.57). Mean length of hospital stay was 4.8 days in the exercise group and 4.5 days in the control group (CI -0.45, 1.00, p = 0.45). Conclusions Offering supervised exercise during pregnancy for overweight and obese women did not influence birth weight or other neonatal and maternal outcomes at delivery. However our trial was limited by low sample size and poor adherence to the exercise protocol, and further research is needed. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01243554 PMID:28323893

  2. UK Renal Registry 18th Annual Report: Chapter 11 2014 Multisite Dialysis Access Audit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales and 2013 PD One Year Follow-up: National and Centre-specific Analyses.

    PubMed

    Rao, Anirudh; Evans, Rebecca; Wilkie, Martin; Fluck, Richard; Kumwenda, Mick

    2016-01-01

    Data are presented from the third combined vascular and peritoneal dialysis access audit. In 2014, 53 centres in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (out of 62) returned data on first access from 4,339 incident haemodialysis (HD) patients and 1,090 incident peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Of the 5,429 incident patients, 20.1% started dialysis on PD, 27.8% started with an arteriovenous fistula (AVF), 1.0% with an arteriovenous graft (AVG), 27.1% on a tunnelled line (TL) and 24.0% on a non-tunnelled line (NTL). Older patients (565 years) were more likely to start haemodialysis using AVF compared to their younger counterparts (36.2% vs. 32.8%). Thirteen of the nineteen centres (68%) using the physician led percutaneous insertion technique had over 20% of their incident patients starting on PD when compared to only seven out of fourteen centres (50%) which used single technique (open surgical or laparoscopic) for their PD catheter insertion. Wide variations were apparent between centres for use of AVF as the first haemodialysis access ranging from 10–54%. Eight of the 49 centres were achieving close to the 65% target for AV fistula in their incident patients. Length of time known to nephrology services and likelihood of commencing dialysis using either an AVF or a PD catheter are strongly associated. Patients who were known to a nephrologist for over one year were more likely to start dialysis with AVF, as compared to those who were referred between 90–365 days (39.2% vs. 24.6%). Similarly, patients who were known to a nephrologist between 90 days and one year were more likely to start on PD when compared to patients who were referred <90 days prior to dialysis start (26.9% vs. 9.1%). By comparison, amongst the late presenters, only 3.5% had first access documented as an AVF and 87.3% started dialysis on either a tunnelled line or a non-tunnelled line. Initial surgical assessment was a key determinant of the likelihood of AVF formation. Of the incident patients

  3. Combined Current Profile and βN Control to Facilitate Accessibility and Reproducibility Testing of High-qmin Steady-State Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, W.; Barton, J. M.; Lauret, M. E.; Schuster, E.; Holcomb, C. T.; Victor, B.; Ferron, J. R.; Luce, T. C.; La Haye, R.; Turco, F.; Solomon, W.

    2015-11-01

    The capability of combined current profile and βN control to enable access and repeatability of steady-state scenarios for high qmin > 1 . 5 discharges is studied in both nonlinear simulations and experiments. The presentation focuses on model-predicted q-profile+βN control, which numerically solves successive optimal control problems over a receding time horizon by exploiting efficiently solvable quadratic programming techniques. One of the key advantages of this control approach is that it allows for explicit incorporation of state/input constraints to prevent the controller from driving the plasma outside of stability/performance limits and obtain, as closely as possible, steady state conditions in the q profile. To characterize the q profile+βN response, empirical correlations are combined with first-principles laws to arrive at a control-oriented model, which captures the dominant physics that is necessary for model-based optimal control design. Supported by US DOE under DE-SC0010661 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  4. Accessibility and Reproducibility of Stable High-qmin Steady-State Scenarios by q-profile+βN Model Predictive Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, E.; Wehner, W.; Holcomb, C. T.; Victor, B.; Ferron, J. R.; Luce, T. C.

    2016-10-01

    The capability of combined q-profile and βN control to enable access to and repeatability of steady-state scenarios for qmin > 1.4 discharges has been assessed in DIII-D experiments. To steer the plasma to the desired state, model predictive control (MPC) of both the q-profile and βN numerically solves successive optimization problems in real time over a receding time horizon by exploiting efficient quadratic programming techniques. A key advantage of this control approach is that it allows for explicit incorporation of state/input constraints to prevent the controller from driving the plasma outside of stability/performance limits and obtain, as closely as possible, steady state conditions. The enabler of this feedback-control approach is a control-oriented model capturing the dominant physics of the q-profile and βN responses to the available actuators. Experiments suggest that control-oriented model-based scenario planning in combination with MPC can play a crucial role in exploring stability limits of scenarios of interest. Supported by the US DOE under DE-SC0010661.

  5. Improving Post-Hospitalization Transition Outcomes through Accessible Health Information Technology and Caregiver Support: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Piette, John D; Striplin, Dana; Marinec, Nicolle; Chen, Jenny; Gregory, Lynn A; Sumerlin, Denise L; DeSantis, Angela M; Gibson, Carolyn; Crause, Ingrid; Rouse, Marylena; Aikens, James E

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of this trial is to evaluate a novel intervention designed to improve post-hospitalization support for older adults with chronic conditions via: (a) direct tailored communication to patients using regular automated calls post discharge, (b) support for informal caregivers outside of the patient’s household via structured automated feedback about the patient’s status plus advice about how caregivers can help, and (c) support for care management including a web-based disease management tool and alerts about potential problems. Methods 846 older adults with common chronic conditions are being identified upon hospital admission. Patients are asked to identify a “CarePartner” (CP) living outside their household, i.e., an adult child or other social network member willing to play an active role in their post-discharge transition support. Patient-CP pairs are randomized to the intervention or usual care. Intervention patients receive automated assessment and behavior change calls, and their CPs receives structured feedback and advice via email and automated calls following each assessment. Clinical teams have access to assessment results via the web and receive automated reports about urgent health problems. Patients complete surveys at baseline, 30 days, and 90 days post discharge; utilization data is obtained from hospital records. CPs, other caregivers, and clinicians are interviewed to evaluate intervention effects on processes of self-care support, caregiver stress and communication, and the intervention’s potential for broader implementation. The primary outcome is 30-day readmission rates; other outcomes measured at 30 days and 90 days include functional status, self-care behaviors, and mortality risk. Conclusion This trial uses accessible health technologies and coordinated communication among informal caregivers and clinicians to fill the growing gap between what discharged patients need and available resources. A unique feature of

  6. World Ocean Database online: Access and use of quality controlled oceanographic profile data for oceanographic and climate change studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, T.; Levitus, S.; Baranova, O.; Locarnini, R.; Garcia, H.; Johnson, D.; Antonov, J.; Gelfeld, B.; Tatusko, R.

    2004-12-01

    The World Ocean Database 2001 (WOD01) was released in 2001 on CD and online as part of the IOC "Global Ocean Data Archeology and Rescue" (GODAR) and "World Ocean Database projects". The goal of these projects is to make available the largest possible database of quality controlled historical and modern oceanographic profile data to be used in scientific studies. The database contains nearly 7 million temperature profiles, more than 2 million salinity profiles, as well as observations of oxygen content, nutrient levels, and plankton counts. To help users of the data who want to work with only a subset of the data, the online WODselect system was developed to select, view, and download user specified subsets of the WOD01. All data undergo rigorous quality control procedures. The results of the quality control do not result in elimination of data from the database. Rather, flags are attached to each measurement leaving the decision to the user on whether to follow the underlying quality control decisions. The most important quality control is the use of the data in-house for scientific research. This research reveals quality control problems which have eluded all previous steps in the quality control procedure. The online version of the WOD01 is updated monthly based on ongoing quality control through scientific research.

  7. Intervention effects on college performance and retention as mediated by motivational, emotional, and social control factors: integrated meta-analytic path analyses.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Steven B; Oh, In-Sue; Le, Huy; Button, Christopher

    2009-09-01

    Using both organizational and educational perspectives, the authors proposed and tested theoretical models on the mediating roles that psychosocial factors (PSFs; motivational, emotional, and social control factors) play between college interventions (academic skill, self-management, socialization, and First-Year-Experience interventions) and college outcomes (academic performance and retention). They first determined through meta-analysis of 404 data points the effects of college interventions on college outcomes and on PSFs. These meta-analytic findings were then combined with results from S. B. Robbins et al.'s (2004) meta-analysis to test the proposed models. Integrated meta-analytic path analyses showed the direct and indirect effects (via PSFs) of intervention strategies on both performance and retention outcomes. The authors highlight the importance of both academic skill and self-management-based interventions; they also note the salience of motivational and emotional control mediators across both performance and retention outcomes. Implications from organizational and educational perspectives, limitations, and future directions are addressed.

  8. Is grey literature essential for a better control of publication bias in psychiatry? An example from three meta-analyses of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Martin, José Luis R; Pérez, Víctor; Sacristán, Montse; Alvarez, Enric

    2005-12-01

    Systematic reviews in mental health have become useful tools for health professionals in view of the massive amount and heterogeneous nature of biomedical information available today. In order to determine the risk of bias in the studies evaluated and to avoid bias in generalizing conclusions from the reviews it is therefore important to use a very strict methodology in systematic reviews. One bias which may affect the generalization of results is publication bias, which is determined by the nature and direction of the study results. To control or minimize this type of bias, the authors of systematic reviews undertake comprehensive searches of medical databases and expand on the findings, often undertaking searches of grey literature (material which is not formally published). This paper attempts to show the consequences (and risk) of generalizing the implications of grey literature in the control of publication bias, as was proposed in a recent systematic work. By repeating the analyses for the same outcome from three different systematic reviews that included both published and grey literature our results showed that confusion between grey literature and publication bias may affect the results of a concrete meta-analysis.

  9. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-05-01

    are now underway this hot area. The purpose of this feature issue is to expose the networking community to the latest research breakthroughs and progresses in the area of optical access networks. This feature issue aims to present a collection of papers that focus on the state-of-the-art research in various networking aspects of optical access networks. Original papers are solicited from all researchers involved in area of optical access networks. Topics of interest include but not limited to: Optical access network architectures and protocols Passive optical networks (BPON, EPON, GPON, etc.) Active optical networks Multiple access control Multiservices and QoS provisioning Network survivability Field trials and standards Performance modeling and analysis

  10. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan; Jersey Inst Ansari, New; Jersey Inst, New

    2005-04-01

    are now underway this hot area. The purpose of this feature issue is to expose the networking community to the latest research breakthroughs and progresses in the area of optical access networks. This feature issue aims to present a collection of papers that focus on the state-of-the-art research in various networking aspects of optical access networks. Original papers are solicited from all researchers involved in area of optical access networks. Topics of interest include but not limited to: Optical access network architectures and protocols Passive optical networks (BPON, EPON, GPON, etc.) Active optical networks Multiple access control Multiservices and QoS provisioning Network survivability Field trials and standards Performance modeling and analysis

  11. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-06-01

    are now underway this hot area. The purpose of this feature issue is to expose the networking community to the latest research breakthroughs and progresses in the area of optical access networks. This feature issue aims to present a collection of papers that focus on the state-of-the-art research in various networking aspects of optical access networks. Original papers are solicited from all researchers involved in area of optical access networks. Topics of interest include but not limited to: Optical access network architectures and protocols Passive optical networks (BPON, EPON, GPON, etc.) Active optical networks Multiple access control Multiservices and QoS provisioning Network survivability Field trials and standards Performance modeling and analysis

  12. Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics for Prevention of Relapse in Bipolar Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Oya, Kazuto; Iwata, Nakao

    2016-01-01

    Background: This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials aimed to examine the advantages of long-acting injectable antipsychotics over placebo or oral medications regarding efficacy and safety for patients with bipolar disorder. Methods: Two categorical meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials were performed to compare study-defined relapse rate (primary), discontinuation rates, and individual adverse events: (1) risperidone-long-acting injectable vs placebo, and (2) long-acting injectable antipsychotics vs oral medications. Results: We identified 7 randomized controlled trials (n=1016; long-acting injectable antipsychotics [flupenthixol (1 randomized controlled trial) and risperidone (6 randomized controlled trials)=449]; oral medications [mood stabilizers, antidepressants, antipsychotic, or any combination of these agents=283]; and placebo=284). Risperidone-long-acting injectable antipsychotic was superior to placebo for study-defined relapse rate (risk ratio=0.63, P<.0001), relapse of manic symptoms (risk ratio=0.42, P<.00001), and all-cause discontinuation (risk ratio=0.75, P=.007). Risperidone-long-acting injectable was associated with higher incidence of prolactin-related adverse events (risk ratio=4.82, P=.001) and weight gain (risk ratio=3.80, P<.0001) than placebo. The pooled long-acting injectable antipsychotics did not outperform oral medications regarding primary outcome but with significant heterogeneity (I2=74%). Sensitivity analysis, including only studies with rapid cycling or high frequency of relapse patients, revealed that long-acting injectable antipsychotics were superior compared to oral medications (I2=0%, RR=0.58, P=.0004). However, the comparators in this sensitivity analysis did not include second-generation antipsychotic monotherapy. In sensitivity analysis, including only studies with second-generation antipsychotic monotherapy as the comparator, long-acting injectable antipsychotics did not outperform second

  13. Spacelab Charcoal Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slivon, L. E.; Hernon-Kenny, L. A.; Katona, V. R.; Dejarme, L. E.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes analytical methods and results obtained from chemical analysis of 31 charcoal samples in five sets. Each set was obtained from a single scrubber used to filter ambient air on board a Spacelab mission. Analysis of the charcoal samples was conducted by thermal desorption followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). All samples were analyzed using identical methods. The method used for these analyses was able to detect compounds independent of their polarity or volatility. In addition to the charcoal samples, analyses of three Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) water samples were conducted specifically for trimethylamine.

  14. Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Presents an interview with Stephen McCarthy, co-partner and president of Equal Access ADA Consulting Architects of San Diego, California, about designing schools to naturally integrate compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). (EV)

  15. Development of a generic system for real-time data access and remote control of multiple in-situ water quality monitoring instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, S. A.; Bennett, G. E.; Andrews, T.; Melis, T. S.; Topping, D. J.

    2005-05-01

    Currently, in-situ monitoring of water quality parameters (e.g. water temperature, conductivity, turbidity) in the Colorado River ecosystem typically consists of deploying instruments in the river, retrieving them at a later date, downloading the datalogger, then examining the data; an arduous process in the remote settings of Grand Canyon. Under this protocol, data is not available real-time and there is no way to detect problems with the instrumentation until after retrieval. The next obvious stage in the development of in-situ monitoring in Grand Canyon was the advent of one-way telemetry, i.e. streaming data in real-time from the instrument to the office and/or the world-wide-web. This protocol allows for real-time access to data and the identification of instrumentation problems, but still requires a site visit to address instrument malfunctions, i.e. the user does not have the ability to remotely control the instrument. At some field sites, such as the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, site visitation is restricted by remoteness and lack of traditional access routes (i.e. roads). Even at less remote sites, it may still be desirable to have two-way communication with instruments in order to, for example, diagnose and potentially fix instrumentation problems, change sampling parameters to save battery power, etc., without having to visit the site. To this end, the U.S. Geological Survey, Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, is currently developing and testing a high-speed, two-way communication system that allows for real-time data access and remote control of instrumentation. The approach tested relies on internet access and may be especially useful in areas where land-line or cellular connections are unavailable. The system is composed of off-the-shelf products, uses a commercial broadband satellite service, and is designed in a generic way such that any instrument that communicates through RS-232 communication (i.e. a serial port) is compatible with

  16. A Review of Existing Studies Reporting the Negative Effects of Alcohol Access and Positive Effects of Alcohol Control Policies on Interpersonal Violence

    PubMed Central

    Fitterer, Jessica L.; Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Stockwell, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption often leads to elevated rates of violence yet alcohol access policies continue to relax across the globe. Our review establishes the extent alcohol policy can moderate violent crime through alcohol availability restrictions. Results were informed from comprehensive selection of peer-reviewed journals from 1950 to October 2015. Our search identified 87 relevant studies on alcohol access and violence conducted across 12 countries. Seventeen studies included quasi-control design, and 23 conducted intervention analysis. Seventy-one (82%) reported a significant relationship between alcohol access and violent offenses. Alcohol outlet studies reported the greatest percentage of significant results (93%), with trading hours (63%), and alcohol price following (58%). Results from baseline studies indicated the effectiveness of increasing the price of commonly consumed alcohol, restricting the hours of alcohol trading, and limiting the number of alcohol outlets per region to prevent violent offenses. Unclear are the effects of tax reductions, restriction of on-premises re-entry, and different outlet types on violent crime. Further, the generalization of statistics over broad areas and the low number of control/intervention studies poses some concern for confounding or correlated effects on study results, and amount of information for local-level prevention of interpersonal violence. Future studies should focus on gathering longitudinal data, validating models, limiting crime data to peak drinking days and times, and wherever possible collecting the joint distribution between violent crime, intoxication, and place. A greater uptake of local-level analysis will benefit studies comparing the influence of multiple alcohol establishment types by relating the location of a crime to establishment proximity. Despite, some uncertainties particular studies showed that even modest policy changes, such as 1% increases in alcohol price, 1 h changes to closing times

  17. A Robust and Powerful Set-Valued Approach to Rare Variant Association Analyses of Secondary Traits in Case-Control Sequencing Studies.

    PubMed

    Kang, Guolian; Bi, Wenjian; Zhang, Hang; Pounds, Stanley; Cheng, Cheng; Shete, Sanjay; Zou, Fei; Zhao, Yanlong; Zhang, Ji-Feng; Yue, Weihua

    2017-03-01

    In many case-control designs of genome-wide association (GWAS) or next generation sequencing (NGS) studies, extensive data on secondary traits that may correlate and share the common genetic variants with the primary disease are available. Investigating these secondary traits can provide critical insights into the disease etiology or pathology, and enhance the GWAS or NGS results. Methods based on logistic regression (LG) were developed for this purpose. However, for the identification of rare variants (RVs), certain inadequacies in the LG models and algorithmic instability can cause severely inflated type I error, and significant loss of power, when the two traits are correlated and the RV is associated with the disease, especially at stringent significance levels. To address this issue, we propose a novel set-valued (SV) method that models a binary trait by dichotomization of an underlying continuous variable, and incorporate this into the genetic association model as a critical component. Extensive simulations and an analysis of seven secondary traits in a GWAS of benign ethnic neutropenia show that the SV method consistently controls type I error well at stringent significance levels, has larger power than the LG-based methods, and is robust in performance to effect pattern of the genetic variant (risk or protective), rare or common variants, rare or common diseases, and trait distributions. Because of the SV method's striking and profound advantage, we strongly recommend the SV method be employed instead of the LG-based methods for secondary traits analyses in case-control sequencing studies.

  18. Molecular- and cultivation-based analyses of microbial communities in oil field water and in microcosms amended with nitrate to control H2S production.

    PubMed

    Kumaraswamy, Raji; Ebert, Sara; Gray, Murray R; Fedorak, Phillip M; Foght, Julia M

    2011-03-01

    Nitrate injection into oil fields is an alternative to biocide addition for controlling sulfide production ('souring') caused by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). This study examined the suitability of several cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent methods to assess potential microbial activities (sulfidogenesis and nitrate reduction) and the impact of nitrate amendment on oil field microbiota. Microcosms containing produced waters from two Western Canadian oil fields exhibited sulfidogenesis that was inhibited by nitrate amendment. Most probable number (MPN) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of uncultivated produced waters showed low cell numbers (≤10(3) MPN/ml) dominated by SRB (>95% relative abundance). MPN analysis also detected nitrate-reducing sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NRSOB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (HNRB) at numbers too low to be detected by FISH or denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). In microcosms containing produced water fortified with sulfate, near-stoichiometric concentrations of sulfide were produced. FISH analyses of the microcosms after 55 days of incubation revealed that Gammaproteobacteria increased from undetectable levels to 5-20% abundance, resulting in a decreased proportion of Deltaproteobacteria (50-60% abundance). DGGE analysis confirmed the presence of Delta- and Gammaproteobacteria and also detected Bacteroidetes. When sulfate-fortified produced waters were amended with nitrate, sulfidogenesis was inhibited and Deltaproteobacteria decreased to levels undetectable by FISH, with a concomitant increase in Gammaproteobacteria from below detection to 50-60% abundance. DGGE analysis of these microcosms yielded sequences of Gamma- and Epsilonproteobacteria related to presumptive HNRB and NRSOB (Halomonas, Marinobacterium, Marinobacter, Pseudomonas and Arcobacter), thus supporting chemical data indicating that nitrate-reducing bacteria out-compete SRB when nitrate is added.

  19. Comparison of mitochondrial DNA control region sequence and microsatellite DNA analyses in estimating population structure and gene flow rates in Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wirgin, I.; Waldman, J.; Stabile, J.; Lubinski, B.; King, T.

    2002-01-01

    Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus is large, long-lived, and anadromous with subspecies distributed along the Atlantic (A. oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) and Gulf of Mexico (A. o. desotoi) coasts of North America. Although it is not certain if extirpation of some population units has occurred, because of anthropogenic influences abundances of all populations are low compared with historical levels. Informed management of A. oxyrinchus demands a detailed knowledge of its population structure, levels of genetic diversity, and likelihood to home to natal rivers. We compared the use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequence and microsatellite nuclear DNA (nDNA) analyses in identifying the stock structure and homing fidelity of Atlantic and Gulf coast populations of A. oxyrinchus. The approaches were concordant in that they revealed moderate to high levels of genetic diversity and suggested that populations of Atlantic sturgeon are highly structured. At least six genetically distinct management units were detected using the two approaches among the rivers surveyed. Mitochondrial DNA sequences revealed a significant cline in haplotype diversity along the Atlantic coast with monomorphism observed in Canadian populations. High levels of nDNA diversity were also observed among populations along the Atlantic coast, including the two Canadian populations, probably resulting from the more rapid rate of mutational and evolutionary change at microsatellite loci. Estimates of gene flow among populations were similar between both approaches with the exception that because of mtDNA monomorphism in Canadian populations, gene flow estimates between them were unobtainable. Analyses of both genomes provided high resolution and confidence in characterizing the population structure of Atlantic sturgeon. Microsatellite analysis was particularly informative in delineating population structure in rivers that were recently glaciated and may prove diagnostic in rivers that are

  20. Palynology as an age-control tool for ice cores. First results of PAMOGIS - Pollen Analyses of the Mt. Ortles Glacier Ice Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Festi, Daniela; Kofler, Werner; Gabrielli, Paolo; Oeggl, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Glacier ice cores from the mid latitude are capable of retaining essential information on past climate, environmental and human activities on a seasonal/annual time resolution. However, for a correct interpretation of the ice record a good chronological control is essential. Absolute time markers such as 3H peaks and Sahara dust horizons, together with radiometric methods such as 210Pb, radiocarbon from carbonaceous aerosol particles and AMS-dating are commonly used to obtain the age depth model of ice cores. In this frame we present the first pollen-based chronology from the Eastern Alps. Results of pollen analyses performed on a 10 m firn core taken on the top of Alto dell'Ortles Glacier (3905 m a.s.l.) will be discussed. Palynological data are compared and complemented with stable isotopes, major ions and trace elements analyses. Based on the single species flowering periods, our results show that the pollen spectrum presents seasonal and inter-annual variability that enables to distinguish snow accumulated in the three different flowering seasons and winter snow. According to these four components a seasonal and annual chronology was established, proving that the 10 m firn core encompasses four years of snow accumulation and presents a clear seasonal palynological signal. These first results reveal the potential of pollen content of glacier snow and ice as a chronological tool that can contribute to the construction of a robust chronological model with a seasonal to annual resolution. This study is the first step and the base for future research on deeper ice cores on the Alto dell'Ortles Glacier (Ortles project: www.ortles.org).

  1. Mortality, cardiovascular risk, and androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer: A systematic review with direct and network meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials and observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Scailteux, Lucie-Marie; Naudet, Florian; Alimi, Quentin; Vincendeau, Sébastien; Oger, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a cornerstone therapy for advanced prostate cancer (PCa). We hypothesized that cardiovascular (CV) risk is different across the various ADT modalities to compare their effects on CV morbidity and mortality, and all-cause mortality in patients with PCa. To investigate more in depth potential CV risk heterogeneity focusing on coronary (main outcome) and cerebrovascular risk, CV, and overall mortality. We performed a Medline and Embase query, without language restriction, since 1950 up to July 2014. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies providing that they compared at least 1 ADT modality to another one or to placebo and they gave data on CV event or all-cause mortality. Sixty-eight studies out of 3419 met our eligibility criteria. Eleven observational studies were analyzed. Direct meta-analyses showed that antiandrogen was associated with a 30% decrease risk for myocardial infarction (MI) compared to GnRH agonists (RR, 0.70 [0.54–0.91]); combined androgen blockade (CAB) was associated with a 10% increase risk for stroke when compared to antiandrogen (RR, 1.10 [1.02–1.19]). With regard to RCTs, 57 were included: direct meta-analyses suggested that CAB was associated with a 10% decrease of all-cause mortality when compared to GnRH agonist (RR, 0.90 [0.82–1.00]). Network analysis could only be performed for all-cause mortality and it remains difficult to disentangle benefit (positive impact on cancer survival) and risk (including CV risk). The impact of the ADT modalities on CV morbidity remains difficult to quantify and more detailed prospective collection is required. Registration: PROSPERO, CRD42014010598. PMID:27310974

  2. Automated Quality Assurance of Online NIR Analysers

    PubMed Central

    Aaljoki, Kari

    2005-01-01

    Modern NIR analysers produce valuable data for closed-loop process control and optimisation practically in real time. Thus it is highly important to keep them in the best possible shape. Quality assurance (QA) of NIR analysers is an interesting and complex issue because it is not only the instrument and sample handling that has to be monitored. At the same time, validity of prediction models has to be assured. A system for fully automated QA of NIR analysers is described. The system takes care of collecting and organising spectra from various instruments, relevant laboratory, and process management system (PMS) data. Validation of spectra is based on simple diagnostics values derived from the spectra. Predictions are validated against laboratory (LIMS) or other online analyser results (collected from PMS). The system features automated alarming, reporting, trending, and charting functions for major key variables for easy visual inspection. Various textual and graphical reports are sent to maintenance people through email. The software was written with Borland Delphi 7 Enterprise. Oracle and PMS ODBC interfaces were used for accessing LIMS and PMS data using appropriate SQL queries. It will be shown that it is possible to take actions even before the quality of predictions is seriously affected, thus maximising the overall uptime of the instrument. PMID:18924628

  3. Automated Quality Assurance of Online NIR Analysers.

    PubMed

    Aaljoki, Kari

    2005-01-01

    Modern NIR analysers produce valuable data for closed-loop process control and optimisation practically in real time. Thus it is highly important to keep them in the best possible shape. Quality assurance (QA) of NIR analysers is an interesting and complex issue because it is not only the instrument and sample handling that has to be monitored. At the same time, validity of prediction models has to be assured. A system for fully automated QA of NIR analysers is described. The system takes care of collecting and organising spectra from various instruments, relevant laboratory, and process management system (PMS) data. Validation of spectra is based on simple diagnostics values derived from the spectra. Predictions are validated against laboratory (LIMS) or other online analyser results (collected from PMS). The system features automated alarming, reporting, trending, and charting functions for major key variables for easy visual inspection. Various textual and graphical reports are sent to maintenance people through email. The software was written with Borland Delphi 7 Enterprise. Oracle and PMS ODBC interfaces were used for accessing LIMS and PMS data using appropriate SQL queries. It will be shown that it is possible to take actions even before the quality of predictions is seriously affected, thus maximising the overall uptime of the instrument.

  4. Information system and geographic information system tools in the data analyses of the control program for visceral leishmaniases from 2006 to 2010 in the sanitary district of venda nova, belo horizonte, minas gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Lara; Leite, Camila Gonçalves; de Carvalho, Luiz Otávio Alves; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; de Menezes, Fernanda Carvalho; Fiúza, Vanessa de Oliveira Pires

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report a brief history of control actions for Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) from 2006 to 2010 in the Sanitary District (DS) of Venda Nova, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, focusing on the use of information systems and Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. The analyses showed that the use of an automated database allied with geoprocessing tools may favor control measures of VL, especially with regard to the evaluation of control actions carried out. Descriptive analyses of control measures allowed to evaluating that the information system and GIS tools promoted greater efficiency in making decisions and planning activities. These analyses also pointed to the necessity of new approaches to the control of VL in large urban centers.

  5. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Confidential Business Information Records Access System for the Toxic Control Substances Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This system collects submission data from the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and contact information for EPA contractors and employees who are CBI cleared. Learn how this data is collected, how it will be used, and the purpose of data collection.

  6. Pterional or Subfrontal Access for Proximal Vascular Control in Anterior Interhemispheric Approach for Ruptured Pericallosal Artery Aneurysms at Risk of Premature Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaechan

    2017-01-01

    Objective Cases of a ruptured pericallosal artery aneurysm with a high risk of intraoperative premature rupture and technical difficulties for proximal vascular control require a technique for the early and safe establishment of proximal vascular control. Methods A combined pterional or subfrontal approach exposes the bilateral A1 segments or the origin of the ipsilateral A2 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) for proximal vascular control. Proximal control far from the ruptured aneurysm facilitates tentative clipping of the rupture point of the aneurysm without a catastrophic premature rupture. The proximal control is then switched to the pericallosal artery just proximal to the aneurysm and its intermittent clipping facilitates complete aneurysm dissection and neck clipping. Results Three such cases are reported: a ruptured pericallosal artery aneurysm with a contained leak of the contrast from the proximal side of the aneurysm, a low-lying ruptured pericallosal artery aneurysm with irregularities on its proximal wall, and a multilobulated ruptured pericallosal artery aneurysm with the parasagittal bridging veins hindering surgical access to the proximal parent artery. In each case, the proposed combined pterional-interhemispheric or subfrontal-interhemispheric approach was successfully performed to establish proximal vascular control far from the ruptured aneurysm and facilitated aneurysm clipping via the interhemispheric approach. Conclusion When using an anterior interhemispheric approach for a ruptured pericallosal artery aneurysm with a high risk of premature rupture, a pterional or subfrontal approach can be combined to establish early proximal vascular control at the bilateral A1 segments or the origin of the A2 segment. PMID:28264247

  7. Feasibility randomized controlled trial of cognitive and behavioral interventions for depression symptoms in patients accessing drug and alcohol treatment.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo, Jaime; Gore, Stuart; Ali, Shehzad; Ekers, David; Gilbody, Simon; Gilchrist, Gail; McMillan, Dean; Hughes, Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Depressed mood often co-exists with frequent drug and alcohol use. This trial examined the feasibility of screening, recruitment, randomization and engagement of drug and alcohol users in psychological interventions for depression symptoms. A total of 50 patients involved in community drugs and alcohol treatment (CDAT) were randomly allocated to behavioral activation delivered by psychological therapists (n = 23) or to cognitive behavioral therapy based self-help introduced by CDAT workers (n = 27). We examined recruitment and engagement rates, as well as changes in depression (PHQ-9) symptoms and changes in percent days abstinent (PDA within last month) at 24 weeks follow-up. The ratio of screened to recruited participants was 4 to 1, and the randomization schedule successfully generated 2 groups with comparable characteristics. Follow-up was possible with 78% of participants post-treatment. Overall engagement in psychological interventions was low; only 42% of randomized participants attended at least 1 therapy session. Patients offered therapy appointments co-located in CDAT clinics were more likely to engage with treatment (odds ratio = 7.14, p = .04) compared to those offered appointments in community psychological care clinics. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated no significant between-group differences at follow-up in mean PHQ-9 change scores (p = .59) or in PDA (p = .08). Overall, it was feasible to conduct a pragmatic trial within busy CDAT services, maximizing external validity of study results. Moderate and comparable improvements in depression symptoms over time were observed for participants in both treatment groups.

  8. Long term maintenance of weight loss with non-surgical interventions in obese adults: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Dombrowski, S U; Knittle, K; Avenell, A; Araújo-Soares, V

    2014-01-01

    Objective To systematically review and describe currently available approaches to supporting maintenance of weight loss in obese adults and to assess the evidence for the effectiveness of these interventions. Design Systematic review with meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Study selection Studies were identified through to January 2014. Randomised trials of interventions to maintain weight loss provided to initially obese adults (aged ≥18) after weight loss of ≥5% body weight with long term (≥12 months) follow-up of weight change (main outcome) were included. Study appraisal and synthesis Potential studies were screened independently and in duplicate; study characteristics and outcomes were extracted. Meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the effects of interventions on weight loss maintenance with the inverse variance method and a random effects model. Results are presented as mean differences in weight change, with 95% confidence intervals. Results 45 trials involving 7788 individuals were included. Behavioural interventions focusing on both food intake and physical activity resulted in an average difference of −1.56 kg (95% confidence interval −2.27 to −0.86 kg; 25 comparisons, 2949 participants) in weight regain compared with controls at 12 months. Orlistat combined with behavioural interventions resulted in a −1.80 kg (−2.54 to −1.06; eight comparisons, 1738 participants) difference compared with placebo at 12 months. All orlistat studies reported higher frequencies of adverse gastrointestinal events in the experimental compared with placebo control groups. A dose-response relation for orlistat treatment was found, with 120 mg doses three times a day leading to greater weight loss maintenance (−2.34 kg, −3.03 to −1.65) compared with 60 mg and 30 mg three times a day (−0.70 kg, 95% confidence interval −1.92 to 0.52), P=0.02. Conclusions Behavioural

  9. The Quik Fix study: a randomised controlled trial of brief interventions for young people with alcohol-related injuries and illnesses accessing emergency department and crisis support care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol is a major preventable cause of injury, disability and death in young people. Large numbers of young people with alcohol-related injuries and medical conditions present to hospital emergency departments (EDs). Access to brief, efficacious, accessible and cost effective treatment is an international health priority within this age group. While there is growing evidence for the efficacy of brief motivational interviewing (MI) for reducing alcohol use in young people, there is significant scope to increase its impact, and determine if it is the most efficacious and cost effective type of brief intervention available. The efficacy of personality-targeted interventions (PIs) for alcohol misuse delivered individually to young people is yet to be determined or compared to MI, despite growing evidence for school-based PIs. This study protocol describes a randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of telephone-delivered MI, PI and an Assessment Feedback/Information (AF/I) only control for reducing alcohol use and related harm in young people. Methods/design Participants will be 390 young people aged 16 to 25 years presenting to a crisis support service or ED with alcohol-related injuries and illnesses (including severe alcohol intoxication). This single blinded superiority trial randomized young people to (i) 2 sessions of MI; (ii) 2 sessions of a new PI or (iii) a 1 session AF/I only control. Participants are reassessed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months on the primary outcomes of alcohol use and related problems and secondary outcomes of mental health symptoms, functioning, severity of problematic alcohol use, alcohol injuries, alcohol-related knowledge, coping self-efficacy to resist using alcohol, and cost effectiveness. Discussion This study will identify the most efficacious and cost-effective telephone-delivered brief intervention for reducing alcohol misuse and related problems in young people presenting to crisis support

  10. An Optimal Mobile Service for Telecare Data Synchronization using a Role-based Access Control Model and Mobile Peer-to-Peer Technology.

    PubMed

    Ke, Chih-Kun; Lin, Zheng-Hua

    2015-09-01

    The progress of information and communication technologies (ICT) has promoted the development of healthcare which has enabled the exchange of resources and services between organizations. Organizations want to integrate mobile devices into their hospital information systems (HIS) due to the convenience to employees who are then able to perform specific healthcare processes from any location. The collection and merage of healthcare data from discrete mobile devices are worth exploring possible ways for further use, especially in remote districts without public data network (PDN) to connect the HIS. In this study, we propose an optimal mobile service which automatically synchronizes the telecare file resources among discrete mobile devices. The proposed service enforces some technical methods. The role-based access control model defines the telecare file resources accessing mechanism; the symmetric data encryption method protects telecare file resources transmitted over a mobile peer-to-peer network. The multi-criteria decision analysis method, ELECTRE (Elimination Et Choice Translating Reality), evaluates multiple criteria of the candidates' mobile devices to determine a ranking order. This optimizes the synchronization of telecare file resources among discrete mobile devices. A prototype system is implemented to examine the proposed mobile service. The results of the experiment show that the proposed mobile service can automatically and effectively synchronize telecare file resources among discrete mobile devices. The contribution of this experiment is to provide an optimal mobile service that enhances the security of telecare file resource synchronization and strengthens an organization's mobility.

  11. Expanding Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    There is no question that the United States lags behind most industrialized nations in consumer access to broadband Internet service. For many policy makers and activists, this shortfall marks the latest phase in the struggle to overcome the digital divide. To remedy this lack of broadband affordability and availability, one start-up firm--with…

  12. Easy Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    School and university restrooms, locker and shower rooms have specific ADA accessibility requirements that serve the needs of staff, students and campus visitors who are disabled as a result of injury, illness or age. Taking good care of them is good for the reputation of a sensitive community institution, and fosters positive public relations.…

  13. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    As faculty members add online and multimedia elements to their courses, colleges and universities across the country are realizing that there is a lot of work to be done to ensure that disabled students (and employees) have equal access to course material and university websites. Unfortunately, far too few schools consider the task a top priority.…

  14. The Human Proteome Organization-Proteomics Standards Initiative Quality Control Working Group: Making Quality Control More Accessible for Biological Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bittremieux, Wout; Walzer, Mathias; Tenzer, Stefan; Zhu, Weimin; Salek, Reza M; Eisenacher, Martin; Tabb, David L

    2017-03-30

    To have confidence in results acquired during biological mass spectrometry experiments, a systematic approach to quality control is of vital importance. Nonetheless, until now, only scattered initiatives have been undertaken to this end, and these individual efforts have often not been complementary. To address this issue, the Human Proteome Organization-Proteomics Standards Initiative has established a new working group on quality control at its meeting in the spring of 2016. The goal of this working group is to provide a unifying framework for quality control data. The initial focus will be on providing a community-driven standardized file format for quality control. For this purpose, the previously proposed qcML format will be adapted to support a variety of use cases for both proteomics and metabolomics applications, and it will be established as an official PSI format. An important consideration is to avoid enforcing restrictive requirements on quality control but instead provide the basic technical necessities required to support extensive quality control for any type of mass spectrometry-based workflow. We want to emphasize that this is an open community effort, and we seek participation from all scientists with an interest in this field.

  15. 10 CFR 1017.20 - Routine access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Routine access. 1017.20 Section 1017.20 Energy DEPARTMENT... INFORMATION Access to Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.20 Routine access. (a) Authorized... access to the UCNI, subject to limitations in paragraph (b) of this section, and who may...

  16. The most appropriate primary outcomes to design clinical trials on Huntington's disease: meta-analyses of cohort studies and randomized placebo-controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Salem, Linda; Saleh, Nadine; Youssov, Katia; Olivier, Audrey; Charles, Perrine; Scherer, Clarisse; Verny, Christophe; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine; Maison, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a rare multifactorial neurodegenerative disease. Both its natural course and any placebo effect are poorly known. All are obstacles to design randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We conducted meta-analyses of RCTs and cohorts on all parameters of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale to determine the most appropriate outcomes and to minimize the number of patients required to design RCTs in HD. Twenty-four RCTs were included, involving 838 patients with a mean age of 50.0 ± 2.3 years and a mean total functional capacity (TFC) score of 9.8 ± 0.6. Nineteen cohorts were included involving 1939 patients with a mean age of 48.9 ± 2.3 years and a mean TFC of 10.1 ± 0.7. Significant deterioration was observed in RCTs for all scores except behavioral score. Effect sizes were comparable between RCTs and cohorts for each test except that there was a significant difference for TFC. The weighted mean deterioration per year on the TFC scale was -0.5 (0.2) in RCTs and -0.8 (0.2) in cohorts. The lowest number of patients required per group in a RCT was for TFC (19 per group), whereas 30 patients would be required per group for the total motor score (TMS). For cognition, the verbal fluency test required the smallest number of patients: 104 per group. In conclusion, TMS and TFC are the most appropriate outcomes to design RCTs on HD likewise the verbal fluency test for cognition. Our results suggest an effect of placebo administration on the total functional capacity.

  17. An ultra low-power and traffic-adaptive medium access control protocol for wireless body area network.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2012-06-01

    Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) consists of low-power, miniaturized, and autonomous wireless sensor nodes that enable physicians to remotely monitor vital signs of patients and provide real-time feedback with medical diagnosis and consultations. It is the most reliable and cheaper way to take care of patients suffering from chronic diseases such as asthma, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Some of the most important attributes of WBAN is low-power consumption and delay. This can be achieved by introducing flexible duty cycling techniques on the energy constraint sensor nodes. Stated otherwise, low duty cycle nodes should not receive frequent synchronization and control packets if they have no data to send/receive. In this paper, we introduce a Traffic-adaptive MAC protocol (TaMAC) by taking into account the traffic information of the sensor nodes. The protocol dynamically adjusts the duty cycle of the sensor nodes according to their traffic-patterns, thus solving the idle listening and overhearing problems. The traffic-patterns of all sensor nodes are organized and maintained by the coordinator. The TaMAC protocol is supported by a wakeup radio that is used to accommodate emergency and on-demand events in a reliable manner. The wakeup radio uses a separate control channel along with the data channel and therefore it has considerably low power consumption requirements. Analytical expressions are derived to analyze and compare the performance of the TaMAC protocol with the well-known beacon-enabled IEEE 802.15.4 MAC, WiseMAC, and SMAC protocols. The analytical derivations are further validated by simulation results. It is shown that the TaMAC protocol outperforms all other protocols in terms of power consumption and delay.

  18. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-01-01

    economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or are now underway this hot area. The purpose of this feature issue is to expose the networking community to the latest research breakthroughs and progresses in the area of optical access networks.

    Scope of Contributions

    This feature issue aims to present a collection of papers that focus on the state-of-the-art research in various networking aspects of optical access networks. Original papers are solicited from all researchers involved in area of optical access networks. Topics of interest include but not limited to:
    • Optical access network architectures and protocols
    • Passive optical networks (BPON, EPON, GPON, etc.)
    • Active optical networks
    • Multiple access control
    • Multiservices and QoS provisioning
    • Network survivability
    • Field trials and standards
    • Performance modeling and analysis

    Manuscript Submission

    To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON, indicating ``Optical Access Networks feature' in the ``Comments' field of the online submission form. For all other questions relating to this feature issue, please send an e-mail to jon@osa.org, subject line ``Optical Access Networks' Additional information can be found on the JON website: http://www.osa-jon.org/submission/. Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005

  19. Dynamic Information Management and Exchange for Command and Control Applications, Modelling and Enforcing Category-Based Access Control via Term Rewriting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2015-0026 Dynamic Information Management and Exchange for Command and Control Applications Maribel...Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 24 August 2010 – 28 February 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dynamic Information Management and Exchange for...specified by individual members of the federation). 15. SUBJECT TERMS EOARD, Information Management , Distributed

  20. Intron-less RNA injected into the nucleus of Xenopus oocytes accesses a regulated translation control pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Braddock, M; Muckenthaler, M; White, M R; Thorburn, A M; Sommerville, J; Kingsman, A J; Kingsman, S M

    1994-01-01

    The translation of a capped, polyadenylated RNA after injection into the nucleus of Xenopus oocytes occurs only if the RNA contains an intron. A single point mutation in the splice donor site prevents translation. Intron-less RNA is exported efficiently to the cytoplasm and is held, undegraded, in a translationally inert state for several days. Translation can be activated by treating the oocytes with progesterone or by injecting antibodies that bind the FRGY2 class of messenger RNA binding proteins, p56 and p60, but these antibodies are only effective if delivered to the nucleus. Inhibitors of casein kinase II also activate translation whereas phosphatase inhibitors block progesterone-mediated activation of translation. These data suggest the presence of an RNA handling pathway in the nucleus of Xenopus oocytes which is regulated by casein kinase type II phosphorylation and which directs transcripts to be sequestered by p56/p60 or by closely related proteins. This pathway can be bypassed if the RNA contains an intron and it can be reversed by progesterone treatment. These data may have implications for understanding translational control during early development. Images PMID:7816614