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Sample records for analysing access control

  1. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

  2. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

  3. Improving School Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Few things are more important for school safety and security than controlling access to buildings and grounds. It is relatively easy to incorporate effective access control measures in new school designs but more difficult in existing schools, where most building and site features cannot be readily altered or reconfigured. The National…

  4. ACCESS Pointing Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James; Trauger, John; Moody, Dwight; Egerman, Robert; Vallone, Phillip; Elias, Jason; Hejal, Reem; Camelo, Vanessa; Bronowicki, Allen; O'Connor, David; Partrick, Richard; Orzechowski, Pawel; Spitter, Connie; Lillie, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    ACCESS (Actively-Corrected Coronograph for Exoplanet System Studies) was one of four medium-class exoplanet concepts selected for the NASA Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study (ASMCS) program in 2008/2009. The ACCESS study evaluated four major coronograph concepts under a common space observatory. This paper describes the high precision pointing control system (PCS) baselined for this observatory.

  5. ACCESS Pointing Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James; Trauger, John; Moody, Dwight; Egerman, Robert; Vallone, Phillip; Elias, Jason; Hejal, Reem; Camelo, Vanessa; Bronowicki, Allen; hide

    2010-01-01

    ACCESS (Actively-Corrected Coronograph for Exoplanet System Studies) was one of four medium-class exoplanet concepts selected for the NASA Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study (ASMCS) program in 2008/2009. The ACCESS study evaluated four major coronograph concepts under a common space observatory. This paper describes the high precision pointing control system (PCS) baselined for this observatory.

  6. CAS. Controlled Access Security

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, B.; Pomeroy, G.

    1989-12-01

    The Security Alarm System is a data acquisition and control system which collects data from intrusion sensors and displays the information in a real-time environment for operators. The Access Control System monitors and controls the movement of personnel with the use of card readers and biometrics hand readers.

  7. Mobile access control vestibule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DePoy, Jennifer M.

    1998-12-01

    The mobile access control vestibule (MACV) is an adaptation of techniques developed for mobile military command centers. The overall configuration of modules acts as an entry control/screening facility or transportable command center. The system would provide the following capabilities: (1) A key element for force protection, rapid deployment units sent to areas having no prepositioned equipment or where there has been a degradation of that equipment as a result of natural disasters or civil unrest. (2) A rapidly deployable security control center to upgrade the security at nonmilitary sites (e.g., diplomatic or humanitarian organizations). (3) Personnel screening, package screening, badge/identification card production for authorized personnel, centralized monitoring of deployed perimeter sensors, and centralized communications for law enforcement personnel. (4) Self-contained screening and threat detection systems, including explosives detection using the system developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the FAA. When coupled with transportable electric generators, the system is self-sufficient. The communication system for the MACV would be a combination of physically wired and wireless communication units that supports by ad hoc networking.

  8. Bibliographic Access and Control System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Betsy; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Presents a brief summary of the functions of the Bibliographic Access & Control System (BACS) implemented at the Washington University School of Medicine Library, and outlines the design, development, and uses of the system. Bibliographic control of books and serials and user access to the system are also discussed. (Author/JL)

  9. Network Access Control List Situation Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reifers, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Network security is a large and complex problem being addressed by multiple communities. Nevertheless, current theories in networking security appear to overestimate network administrators' ability to understand network access control lists (NACLs), providing few context specific user analyses. Consequently, the current research generally seems to…

  10. Network Access Control List Situation Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reifers, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Network security is a large and complex problem being addressed by multiple communities. Nevertheless, current theories in networking security appear to overestimate network administrators' ability to understand network access control lists (NACLs), providing few context specific user analyses. Consequently, the current research generally seems to…

  11. Service-Oriented Access Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    several advanced networking courses. Through his knowledge and teaching style, I gained critical knowledge and skills that will certainly help me in my...information contained in a datagram that is pertinent to access control. The following pseudo- grammar specifies the values used in this thesis: A ::= HTTP_RQ

  12. LANSCE personnel access control system

    SciTech Connect

    Sturrock, J.C.; Gallegos, F.R.; Hall, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. The Personnel Access Control System (PACS) is a component of the RSS that is designed to prevent personnel access to areas where prompt radiation is a hazard. PACS was designed to replace several older personnel safety systems (PSS) with a single modem unified design. Lessons learned from the operation over the last 20 years were incorporated into a redundant sensor, single-point failure safe, fault tolerant, and tamper-resistant system that prevents access to the beam areas by controlling the access keys and beam stoppers. PACS uses a layered philosophy to the physical and electronic design. The most critical assemblies are battery backed up, relay logic circuits; less critical devices use Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) for timing functions and communications. Outside reviewers have reviewed the operational safety of the design. The design philosophy, lessons learned, hardware design, software design, operation, and limitations of the device are described.

  13. ACCESS: Detector Control and Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Matthew J.; Kaiser, M.; McCandliss, S. R.; Rauscher, B. J.; Kimble, R. A.; Kruk, J. W.; Wright, E. L.; Bohlin, R.; Kurucz, R. L.; Riess, A. G.; Pelton, R.; Deustua, S. E.; Dixon, W. V.; Sahnow, D. J.; Mott, D. B.; Wen, Y.; Benford, D. J.; Gardner, J. P.; Feldman, P. D.; Moos, H. W.; Lampton, M.; Perlmutter, S.; Woodgate, B. E.

    2014-01-01

    ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments that will enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 to 1.7 micron bandpass (companion poster, Kaiser et al.). The flight detector and detector spare have been selected and integrated with their electronics and flight mount. The controller electronics have been flight qualified. Vibration testing to launch loads and thermal vacuum testing of the detector, mount, and housing have been successfully performed. Further improvements to the flight controller housing have been made. A cryogenic ground test system has been built. Dark current and read noise tests have been performed, yielding results consistent with the initial characterization tests of the detector performed by Goddard Space Flight Center’s Detector Characterization Lab (DCL). Detector control software has been developed and implemented for ground testing. Performance and integration of the detector and controller with the flight software will be presented. NASA APRA sounding rocket grant NNX08AI65G supports this work.

  14. Efficient Access Control in Multimedia Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachan, Amit; Emmanuel, Sabu

    Multimedia social networks (MMSNs) have provided a convenient way to share multimedia contents such as images, videos, blogs, etc. Contents shared by a person can be easily accessed by anybody else over the Internet. However, due to various privacy, security, and legal concerns people often want to selectively share the contents only with their friends, family, colleagues, etc. Access control mechanisms play an important role in this situation. With access control mechanisms one can decide the persons who can access a shared content and who cannot. But continuously growing content uploads and accesses, fine grained access control requirements (e.g. different access control parameters for different parts in a picture), and specific access control requirements for multimedia contents can make the time complexity of access control to be very large. So, it is important to study an efficient access control mechanism suitable for MMSNs. In this chapter we present an efficient bit-vector transform based access control mechanism for MMSNs. The proposed approach is also compatible with other requirements of MMSNs, such as access rights modification, content deletion, etc. Mathematical analysis and experimental results show the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed approach.

  15. Logical Access Control Mechanisms in Computer Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, David K.

    The subject of access control mechanisms in computer systems is concerned with effective means to protect the anonymity of private information on the one hand, and to regulate the access to shareable information on the other hand. Effective means for access control may be considered on three levels: memory, process and logical. This report is a…

  16. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dischinger, Portia

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation presents NASA's Common Badging and Access Control System. NASA began a Smart Card implementation in January 2004. Following site surveys, it was determined that NASA's badging and access control systems required upgrades to common infrastructure in order to provide flexibly, usability, and return on investment prior to a smart card implantation. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS) provides the common infrastructure from which FIPS-201 compliant processes, systems, and credentials can be developed and used.

  17. 47 CFR 95.645 - Control accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Control accessibility. 95.645 Section 95.645 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.645 Control accessibility. (a) No control...

  18. 47 CFR 95.645 - Control accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Control accessibility. 95.645 Section 95.645 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.645 Control accessibility. (a) No control...

  19. 47 CFR 95.645 - Control accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Control accessibility. 95.645 Section 95.645 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.645 Control accessibility. (a) No control...

  20. 47 CFR 95.645 - Control accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control accessibility. 95.645 Section 95.645 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.645 Control accessibility. (a) No...

  1. 10 CFR 36.23 - Access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Access control. 36.23 Section 36.23 Energy NUCLEAR... activation of the control. (g) Each entrance to the radiation room of a panoramic irradiator and each... unauthorized entry when the personnel access barrier is locked. Activation of the intrusion alarm must alert an...

  2. Proximity Displays for Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaniea, Kami

    2012-01-01

    Managing access to shared digital information, such as photographs and documents. is difficult for end users who are accumulating an increasingly large and diverse collection of data that they want to share with others. Current policy-management solutions require a user to proactively seek out and open a separate policy-management interface when…

  3. Proximity Displays for Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaniea, Kami

    2012-01-01

    Managing access to shared digital information, such as photographs and documents. is difficult for end users who are accumulating an increasingly large and diverse collection of data that they want to share with others. Current policy-management solutions require a user to proactively seek out and open a separate policy-management interface when…

  4. Evaluation of a random access analyser: BM/Hitachi 911

    PubMed Central

    Kanluan, Taweesook; Tangvarasittichai, Surapon; Tangvarasittichai, Orathai

    1995-01-01

    The performance of Boehringer Mannheim's BM/Hitachi 911 was evaluated for three months. The mean coeffcient of variation (CV) of the within-run and between-run imprecision of the 16 analytes were less than 1.16% (range 0.47-2.38%) and 1.35% (range 0.62-2.93,%), respectively. A linearity study for the various assays covered clinically important levels. No relevant drift was observed during an eight-hour assay nor was any sample-related carry-over detected. In all cases, the regression analyses (slopes) of the results obtainedfrom BM/Hitachi 911 and 717 were between the extreme values of 0.94 and 1.05. During the three months of operation, no major problem was encountered. The BM/Hitachi 911 was found to be easily operated, to require minimal attention and simple daily maintenance during operation. PMID:18925048

  5. Role-based access control permissions

    DOEpatents

    Staggs, Kevin P.; Markham, Thomas R.; Hull Roskos, Julie J.; Chernoguzov, Alexander

    2017-04-25

    Devices, systems, and methods for role-based access control permissions are disclosed. One method includes a policy decision point that receives up-to-date security context information from one or more outside sources to determine whether to grant access for a data client to a portion of the system and creates an access vector including the determination; receiving, via a policy agent, a request by the data client for access to the portion of the computing system by the data client, wherein the policy agent checks to ensure there is a session established with communications and user/application enforcement points; receiving, via communications policy enforcement point, the request from the policy agent, wherein the communications policy enforcement point determines whether the data client is an authorized node, based upon the access vector received from the policy decision point; and receiving, via the user/application policy enforcement point, the request from the communications policy enforcement point.

  6. Access Control Management for SCADA Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seng-Phil; Ahn, Gail-Joon; Xu, Wenjuan

    The information technology revolution has transformed all aspects of our society including critical infrastructures and led a significant shift from their old and disparate business models based on proprietary and legacy environments to more open and consolidated ones. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems have been widely used not only for industrial processes but also for some experimental facilities. Due to the nature of open environments, managing SCADA systems should meet various security requirements since system administrators need to deal with a large number of entities and functions involved in critical infrastructures. In this paper, we identify necessary access control requirements in SCADA systems and articulate access control policies for the simulated SCADA systems. We also attempt to analyze and realize those requirements and policies in the context of role-based access control that is suitable for simplifying administrative tasks in large scale enterprises.

  7. The Ins and Outs of Access Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longworth, David

    1999-01-01

    Presents basic considerations when school districts plan to acquire an access-control system for their education facilities. Topics cover cards and readers, controllers, software, automation, card technology, expandability, price, specification of needs beyond the canned specifications already supplied, and proper usage training to cardholders.…

  8. The linked medical data access control framework.

    PubMed

    Kamateri, Eleni; Kalampokis, Evangelos; Tambouris, Efthimios; Tarabanis, Konstantinos

    2014-08-01

    The integration of medical data coming from multiple sources is important in clinical research. Amongst others, it enables the discovery of appropriate subjects in patient-oriented research and the identification of innovative results in epidemiological studies. At the same time, the integration of medical data faces significant ethical and legal challenges that impose access constraints. Some of these issues can be addressed by making available aggregated instead of raw record-level data. In many cases however, there is still a need for controlling access even to the resulting aggregated data, e.g., due to data provider's policies. In this paper we present the Linked Medical Data Access Control (LiMDAC) framework that capitalizes on Linked Data technologies to enable controlling access to medical data across distributed sources with diverse access constraints. The LiMDAC framework consists of three Linked Data models, namely the LiMDAC metadata model, the LiMDAC user profile model, and the LiMDAC access policy model. It also includes an architecture that exploits these models. Based on the framework, a proof-of-concept platform is developed and its performance and functionality are evaluated by employing two usage scenarios.

  9. Access control for electronic patient records.

    PubMed

    Glagola, M J

    1998-01-01

    The transition from hardcopy records to electronic records is in the forefront for healthcare today. For healthcare facilities, a major issue is determining who can access patients' medical information and how access to this information can be controlled. There are three components to access control: identification, authentication and authorization. Checking proof of identity is a means of authenticating someone--through a driver's license, passport or their fingerprints. Similar processes are needed in a computer environment, through the use of passwords, one-time passwords or smartcards, encryption and kerberos, and call-back procedures. New in the area of access control are biometric devices, which are hardware/software combinations that digitize a physical characteristic and compare the sample with previously stored samples. Fingerprints, voiceprints and facial features are examples. Their cost is currently prohibitive, but in time, they may become more common. Digital certificates and certification authorities are other means used to authenticate identify. When a system challenges a user's identity at log on, the user provides a certification that tells the system to go to the issuing certification authority and find proof the user's claim is valid. Low-level certifications offer little value for sensitive data, but high-level certification is now being introduced. It requires more specific, detailed information on the applicant. Authorization, the final component of access control, establishes what a specific user can and cannot access. To have effective access control, transaction logging and system monitoring are needed to ensure the various techniques are being used and performing properly.

  10. Access control mechanisms for distributed healthcare environments.

    PubMed

    Sergl-Pommerening, Marita

    2004-01-01

    Today's IT-infrastructure provides more and more possibilities to share electronic patient data across several healthcare organizations and hospital departments. A strong requirement is sufficient data protection and security measures complying with the medical confidentiality and the data protection laws of each state or country like the European directive on data protection or the U.S. HIPAA privacy rule. In essence, the access control mechanisms and authorization structures of information systems must be able to realize the Need-To-Access principle. This principle can be understood as a set of context-sensitive access rules, regarding the patient's path across the organizations. The access control mechanisms of today's health information systems do not sufficiently satisfy this requirement, because information about participation of persons or organizations is not available within each system in a distributed environment. This problem could be solved by appropriate security services. The CORBA healthcare domain standard contains such a service for obtaining authorization decisions and administrating access decision policies (RAD). At the university hospital of Mainz we have developed an access control system (MACS), which includes the main functionality of the RAD specification and the access control logic that is needed for such a service. The basic design principles of our approach are role-based authorization, user rights with static and dynamic authorization data, context rules and the separation of three cooperating servers that provide up-to-date knowledge about users, roles and responsibilities. This paper introduces the design principles and the system design and critically evaluates the concepts based on practical experience.

  11. 50 CFR 216.47 - Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses, and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.47 Access to marine mammal tissue...

  12. 50 CFR 216.47 - Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses, and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.47 Access to marine mammal tissue...

  13. Access control mechanism of wireless gateway based on open flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Rong; Ding, Lei

    2017-08-01

    In order to realize the access control of wireless gateway and improve the access control of wireless gateway devices, an access control mechanism of SDN architecture which is based on Open vSwitch is proposed. The mechanism utilizes the features of the controller--centralized control and programmable. Controller send access control flow table based on the business logic. Open vSwitch helps achieve a specific access control strategy based on the flow table.

  14. Speed control system for an access gate

    DOEpatents

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M [Knoxville, TN

    2012-03-20

    An access control apparatus for an access gate. The access gate typically has a rotator that is configured to rotate around a rotator axis at a first variable speed in a forward direction. The access control apparatus may include a transmission that typically has an input element that is operatively connected to the rotator. The input element is generally configured to rotate at an input speed that is proportional to the first variable speed. The transmission typically also has an output element that has an output speed that is higher than the input speed. The input element and the output element may rotate around a common transmission axis. A retardation mechanism may be employed. The retardation mechanism is typically configured to rotate around a retardation mechanism axis. Generally the retardation mechanism is operatively connected to the output element of the transmission and is configured to retard motion of the access gate in the forward direction when the first variable speed is above a control-limit speed. In many embodiments the transmission axis and the retardation mechanism axis are substantially co-axial. Some embodiments include a freewheel/catch mechanism that has an input connection that is operatively connected to the rotator. The input connection may be configured to engage an output connection when the rotator is rotated at the first variable speed in a forward direction and configured for substantially unrestricted rotation when the rotator is rotated in a reverse direction opposite the forward direction. The input element of the transmission is typically operatively connected to the output connection of the freewheel/catch mechanism.

  15. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldridge, Tim

    2005-01-01

    The goals of the project are: Achieve high business value through a common badging and access control system that integrates with smart cards. Provide physical (versus logical) deployment of smart cards initially. Provides a common consistent and reliable environment into which to release the smart card. Gives opportunity to develop agency-wide consistent processes, practices and policies. Enables enterprise data capture and management. Promotes data validation prior to SC issuance.

  16. Social Network Privacy via Evolving Access Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Crescenzo, Giovanni; Lipton, Richard J.

    We study the problem of limiting privacy loss due to data shared in a social network, where the basic underlying assumptions are that users are interested in sharing data and cannot be assumed to constantly follow appropriate privacy policies. Note that if these two assumptions do not hold, social network privacy is theoretically very easy to achieve; for instance, via some form of access control and confidentiality transformation on the data.

  17. External access to ALICE controls conditions data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadlovský, J.; Jadlovská, A.; Sarnovský, J.; Jajčišin, Š.; Čopík, M.; Jadlovská, S.; Papcun, P.; Bielek, R.; Čerkala, J.; Kopčík, M.; Chochula, P.; Augustinus, A.

    2014-06-01

    ALICE Controls data produced by commercial SCADA system WINCCOA is stored in ORACLE database on the private experiment network. The SCADA system allows for basic access and processing of the historical data. More advanced analysis requires tools like ROOT and needs therefore a separate access method to the archives. The present scenario expects that detector experts create simple WINCCOA scripts, which retrieves and stores data in a form usable for further studies. This relatively simple procedure generates a lot of administrative overhead - users have to request the data, experts needed to run the script, the results have to be exported outside of the experiment network. The new mechanism profits from database replica, which is running on the CERN campus network. Access to this database is not restricted and there is no risk of generating a heavy load affecting the operation of the experiment. The developed tools presented in this paper allow for access to this data. The users can use web-based tools to generate the requests, consisting of the data identifiers and period of time of interest. The administrators maintain full control over the data - an authorization and authentication mechanism helps to assign privileges to selected users and restrict access to certain groups of data. Advanced caching mechanism allows the user to profit from the presence of already processed data sets. This feature significantly reduces the time required for debugging as the retrieval of raw data can last tens of minutes. A highly configurable client allows for information retrieval bypassing the interactive interface. This method is for example used by ALICE Offline to extract operational conditions after a run is completed. Last but not least, the software can be easily adopted to any underlying database structure and is therefore not limited to WINCCOA.

  18. Access control and confidentiality in radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noumeir, Rita; Chafik, Adil

    2005-04-01

    A medical record contains a large amount of data about the patient such as height, weight and blood pressure. It also contains sensitive information such as fertility, abortion, psychiatric data, sexually transmitted diseases and diagnostic results. Access to this information must be carefully controlled. Information technology has greatly improved patient care. The recent extensive deployment of digital medical images made diagnostic images promptly available to healthcare decision makers, regardless of their geographic location. Medical images are digitally archived, transferred on telecommunication networks, and visualized on computer screens. However, with the widespread use of computing and communication technologies in healthcare, the issue of data security has become increasingly important. Most of the work until now has focused on the security of data communication to ensure its integrity, authentication, confidentiality and user accountability. The mechanisms that have been proposed to achieve the security of data communication are not specific to healthcare. Data integrity can be achieved with data signature. Data authentication can be achieved with certificate exchange. Data confidentiality can be achieved with encryption. User accountability can be achieved with audits. Although these mechanisms are essential to ensure data security during its transfer on the network, access control is needed in order to ensure data confidentiality and privacy within the information system application. In this paper, we present and discuss an access control mechanism that takes into account the notion of a care process. Radiology information is categorized and a model to enforce data privacy is proposed.

  19. Quality control considerations in performing washability analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.D.

    1984-10-01

    The author describes, in considerable detail, the procedures for carrying out washability analyses as laid down in ASTM Standard Test Method D4371. These include sampling, sample preparation, hydrometer standardisation, washability testing, and analysis of specific gravity fractions.

  20. A service-oriented data access control model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Wei; Li, Fengmin; Pan, Juchen; Song, Song; Bian, Jiali

    2017-01-01

    The development of mobile computing, cloud computing and distributed computing meets the growing individual service needs. Facing with complex application system, it's an urgent problem to ensure real-time, dynamic, and fine-grained data access control. By analyzing common data access control models, on the basis of mandatory access control model, the paper proposes a service-oriented access control model. By regarding system services as subject and data of databases as object, the model defines access levels and access identification of subject and object, and ensures system services securely to access databases.

  1. Secure Dynamic access control scheme of PHR in cloud computing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Liu, Chia-Hui; Chen, Tzer-Long; Chen, Chin-Sheng; Bau, Jian-Guo; Lin, Tzu-Ching

    2012-12-01

    With the development of information technology and medical technology, medical information has been developed from traditional paper records into electronic medical records, which have now been widely applied. The new-style medical information exchange system "personal health records (PHR)" is gradually developed. PHR is a kind of health records maintained and recorded by individuals. An ideal personal health record could integrate personal medical information from different sources and provide complete and correct personal health and medical summary through the Internet or portable media under the requirements of security and privacy. A lot of personal health records are being utilized. The patient-centered PHR information exchange system allows the public autonomously maintain and manage personal health records. Such management is convenient for storing, accessing, and sharing personal medical records. With the emergence of Cloud computing, PHR service has been transferred to storing data into Cloud servers that the resources could be flexibly utilized and the operation cost can be reduced. Nevertheless, patients would face privacy problem when storing PHR data into Cloud. Besides, it requires a secure protection scheme to encrypt the medical records of each patient for storing PHR into Cloud server. In the encryption process, it would be a challenge to achieve accurately accessing to medical records and corresponding to flexibility and efficiency. A new PHR access control scheme under Cloud computing environments is proposed in this study. With Lagrange interpolation polynomial to establish a secure and effective PHR information access scheme, it allows to accurately access to PHR with security and is suitable for enormous multi-users. Moreover, this scheme also dynamically supports multi-users in Cloud computing environments with personal privacy and offers legal authorities to access to PHR. From security and effectiveness analyses, the proposed PHR access

  2. Modelling privilege management and access control.

    PubMed

    Blobel, Bernd; Nordberg, Ragnar; Davis, John Mike; Pharow, Peter

    2006-08-01

    For establishing trustworthiness in advanced architectures for future-proof health information systems being open, flexible, scaleable, portable, and semantically interoperable, security and privacy services needed must be designed as an inherent part of the architecture. Such architecture has to meet the paradigms of distribution, component orientation, formal modelling, separation of logical and technological aspects, etc. In model-driven architectures components providing security and privacy services have to be specified using the same methodology of formal models with meta-languages as expression means, as deployed in computational, technical, or medical domains. The resulting approach must be based on the ISO Reference Model-Open Distributed Processing. Currently, standards developing organisation are defining emerging tasks and standards for semantic interoperability and trustworthy collaboration for advanced health information systems. Communication security issues have been specified and implemented, while application security challenges such as privilege management and access control are still under development. Therefore, a series of formal models have been developed by the authors covering, e.g. domains, service delegation, claims control, policies, roles, authorisations, and access control. The required models are introduced and interpreted in a generic way. The crucial concept of security policy and its relationship to the other concepts has been considered in detail. Based on formal models, security services can be integrated into advanced systems architectures enabling semantic interoperability in the context of trustworthiness of communication and co-operation.

  3. Cardea: Dynamic Access Control in Distributed Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepro, Rebekah

    2004-01-01

    Modern authorization systems span domains of administration, rely on many different authentication sources, and manage complex attributes as part of the authorization process. This . paper presents Cardea, a distributed system that facilitates dynamic access control, as a valuable piece of an inter-operable authorization framework. First, the authorization model employed in Cardea and its functionality goals are examined. Next, critical features of the system architecture and its handling of the authorization process are then examined. Then the S A M L and XACML standards, as incorporated into the system, are analyzed. Finally, the future directions of this project are outlined and connection points with general components of an authorization system are highlighted.

  4. Application-Defined Decentralized Access Control

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuanzhong; Dunn, Alan M.; Hofmann, Owen S.; Lee, Michael Z.; Mehdi, Syed Akbar; Witchel, Emmett

    2014-01-01

    DCAC is a practical OS-level access control system that supports application-defined principals. It allows normal users to perform administrative operations within their privilege, enabling isolation and privilege separation for applications. It does not require centralized policy specification or management, giving applications freedom to manage their principals while the policies are still enforced by the OS. DCAC uses hierarchically-named attributes as a generic framework for user-defined policies such as groups defined by normal users. For both local and networked file systems, its execution time overhead is between 0%–9% on file system microbenchmarks, and under 1% on applications. This paper shows the design and implementation of DCAC, as well as several real-world use cases, including sandboxing applications, enforcing server applications’ security policies, supporting NFS, and authenticating user-defined sub-principals in SSH, all with minimal code changes. PMID:25426493

  5. Rural providers' access to online resources: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Laura J.; McElfresh, Karen R.; Warner, Teddy D.; Stromberg, Tiffany L.; Trost, Jaren; Jelinek, Devin A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The research determined the usage and satisfaction levels with one of two point-of-care (PoC) resources among health care providers in a rural state. Methods In this randomized controlled trial, twenty-eight health care providers in rural areas were stratified by occupation and region, then randomized into either the DynaMed or the AccessMedicine study arm. Study participants were physicians, physician assistants, and nurses. A pre- and post-study survey measured participants' attitudes toward different information resources and their information-seeking activities. Medical student investigators provided training and technical support for participants. Data analyses consisted of analysis of variance (ANOVA), paired t tests, and Cohen's d statistic to compare pre- and post-study effects sizes. Results Participants in both the DynaMed and the AccessMedicine arms of the study reported increased satisfaction with their respective PoC resource, as expected. Participants in both arms also reported that they saved time in finding needed information. At baseline, both arms reported too little information available, which increased to “about right amounts of information” at the completion of the study. DynaMed users reported a Cohen's d increase of +1.50 compared to AccessMedicine users' reported use of 0.82. DynaMed users reported d2 satisfaction increases of 9.48 versus AccessMedicine satisfaction increases of 0.59 using a Cohen's d. Conclusion Participants in the DynaMed arm of the study used this clinically oriented PoC more heavily than the users of the textbook-based AccessMedicine. In terms of user satisfaction, DynaMed users reported higher levels of satisfaction than the users of AccessMedicine. PMID:26807050

  6. Modeling mandatory access control in role-based security systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nyanchama, M.; Osborn, S.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the realization of mandatory access control in role-based protection systems. Starting from the basic definitions of roles, their application in security and the basics of the concept of mandatory access control, we develop a scheme of role-based protection that realizes mandatory access control. The basis of this formulation develops from the recognition that roles can be seen as facilitating access to some given information context. By handling each of the role contexts as independent security levels of information, we simulate mandatory access by imposing the requirements of mandatory access control. Among the key considerations, we propose a means of taming Trojan horses by imposing acyclic information flow among contexts in role-based protection systems. The acyclic information flows and suitable access rules incorporate secrecy which is an essential component of mandatory access control.

  7. The Galaxy platform for accessible, reproducible and collaborative biomedical analyses: 2016 update

    PubMed Central

    Afgan, Enis; Baker, Dannon; van den Beek, Marius; Blankenberg, Daniel; Bouvier, Dave; Čech, Martin; Chilton, John; Clements, Dave; Coraor, Nate; Eberhard, Carl; Grüning, Björn; Guerler, Aysam; Hillman-Jackson, Jennifer; Von Kuster, Greg; Rasche, Eric; Soranzo, Nicola; Turaga, Nitesh; Taylor, James; Nekrutenko, Anton; Goecks, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput data production technologies, particularly ‘next-generation’ DNA sequencing, have ushered in widespread and disruptive changes to biomedical research. Making sense of the large datasets produced by these technologies requires sophisticated statistical and computational methods, as well as substantial computational power. This has led to an acute crisis in life sciences, as researchers without informatics training attempt to perform computation-dependent analyses. Since 2005, the Galaxy project has worked to address this problem by providing a framework that makes advanced computational tools usable by non experts. Galaxy seeks to make data-intensive research more accessible, transparent and reproducible by providing a Web-based environment in which users can perform computational analyses and have all of the details automatically tracked for later inspection, publication, or reuse. In this report we highlight recently added features enabling biomedical analyses on a large scale. PMID:27137889

  8. Access Control based on Attribute Certificates for Medical Intranet Applications

    PubMed Central

    Georgiadis, Christos; Pangalos, George; Khair, Marie

    2001-01-01

    Background Clinical information systems frequently use intranet and Internet technologies. However these technologies have emphasized sharing and not security, despite the sensitive and private nature of much health information. Digital certificates (electronic documents which recognize an entity or its attributes) can be used to control access in clinical intranet applications. Objectives To outline the need for access control in distributed clinical database systems, to describe the use of digital certificates and security policies, and to propose the architecture for a system using digital certificates, cryptography and security policy to control access to clinical intranet applications. Methods We have previously developed a security policy, DIMEDAC (Distributed Medical Database Access Control), which is compatible with emerging public key and privilege management infrastructure. In our implementation approach we propose the use of digital certificates, to be used in conjunction with DIMEDAC. Results Our proposed access control system consists of two phases: the ways users gain their security credentials; and how these credentials are used to access medical data. Three types of digital certificates are used: identity certificates for authentication; attribute certificates for authorization; and access-rule certificates for propagation of access control policy. Once a user is identified and authenticated, subsequent access decisions are based on a combination of identity and attribute certificates, with access-rule certificates providing the policy framework. Conclusions Access control in clinical intranet applications can be successfully and securely managed through the use of digital certificates and the DIMEDAC security policy. PMID:11720951

  9. Linear Time Algorithms to Restrict Insider Access using Multi-Policy Access Control Systems.

    PubMed

    Mell, Peter; Shook, James; Harang, Richard; Gavrila, Serban

    2017-03-01

    An important way to limit malicious insiders from distributing sensitive information is to as tightly as possible limit their access to information. This has always been the goal of access control mechanisms, but individual approaches have been shown to be inadequate. Ensemble approaches of multiple methods instantiated simultaneously have been shown to more tightly restrict access, but approaches to do so have had limited scalability (resulting in exponential calculations in some cases). In this work, we take the Next Generation Access Control (NGAC) approach standardized by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and demonstrate its scalability. The existing publicly available reference implementations all use cubic algorithms and thus NGAC was widely viewed as not scalable. The primary NGAC reference implementation took, for example, several minutes to simply display the set of files accessible to a user on a moderately sized system. In our approach, we take these cubic algorithms and make them linear. We do this by reformulating the set theoretic approach of the NGAC standard into a graph theoretic approach and then apply standard graph algorithms. We thus can answer important access control decision questions (e.g., which files are available to a user and which users can access a file) using linear time graph algorithms. We also provide a default linear time mechanism to visualize and review user access rights for an ensemble of access control mechanisms. Our visualization appears to be a simple file directory hierarchy but in reality is an automatically generated structure abstracted from the underlying access control graph that works with any set of simultaneously instantiated access control policies. It also provide an implicit mechanism for symbolic linking that provides a powerful access capability. Our work thus provides the first efficient implementation of NGAC while enabling user privilege review through a novel visualization approach. This

  10. Linear Time Algorithms to Restrict Insider Access using Multi-Policy Access Control Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mell, Peter; Shook, James; Harang, Richard; Gavrila, Serban

    2017-01-01

    An important way to limit malicious insiders from distributing sensitive information is to as tightly as possible limit their access to information. This has always been the goal of access control mechanisms, but individual approaches have been shown to be inadequate. Ensemble approaches of multiple methods instantiated simultaneously have been shown to more tightly restrict access, but approaches to do so have had limited scalability (resulting in exponential calculations in some cases). In this work, we take the Next Generation Access Control (NGAC) approach standardized by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and demonstrate its scalability. The existing publicly available reference implementations all use cubic algorithms and thus NGAC was widely viewed as not scalable. The primary NGAC reference implementation took, for example, several minutes to simply display the set of files accessible to a user on a moderately sized system. In our approach, we take these cubic algorithms and make them linear. We do this by reformulating the set theoretic approach of the NGAC standard into a graph theoretic approach and then apply standard graph algorithms. We thus can answer important access control decision questions (e.g., which files are available to a user and which users can access a file) using linear time graph algorithms. We also provide a default linear time mechanism to visualize and review user access rights for an ensemble of access control mechanisms. Our visualization appears to be a simple file directory hierarchy but in reality is an automatically generated structure abstracted from the underlying access control graph that works with any set of simultaneously instantiated access control policies. It also provide an implicit mechanism for symbolic linking that provides a powerful access capability. Our work thus provides the first efficient implementation of NGAC while enabling user privilege review through a novel visualization approach. This

  11. 33 CFR 106.260 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.260 Security measures for access control. (a)...

  12. 33 CFR 106.260 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.260 Security measures for access control. (a)...

  13. 33 CFR 106.260 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.260 Security measures for access control. (a)...

  14. Inappropriate mealtime behavior: the effects of noncontingent access to preferred tangibles on responding in functional analyses.

    PubMed

    González, Melissa L; Rubio, Emily Kate; Taylor, Tessa

    2014-12-01

    An understanding of the functional variables associated with inappropriate mealtime behavior (IMB) is critical to developing an effective and efficient treatment for food refusal. To this aim, functional analysis methodology has been modified for the meal context, and previous research has shown that multiple sources of reinforcement maintain IMB. Functional analysis literature, related to severe problem behavior, suggests that access to preferred stimuli may abolish or compete with social reinforcers in some cases. The role of noncontingent access to preferred stimuli during the assessment of IMB has not been evaluated. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects noncontingent access to preferred toys/activities on IMB in the presence and absence of social consequences. The specific aims were to evaluate: (1) levels of IMB when the spoon is held stationary at the child's lips when preferred tangible stimuli are present noncontingently vs. absent; (2) levels of IMB when social consequences were provided contingent upon IMB when preferred tangible stimuli are present noncontingently vs. absent. For many participants, levels of IMB were reduced with the inclusion of preferred toys/activities; while for one, levels of IMB increased. Possible implications of these findings on functional analyses of IMB will be discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. MATISSE: A novel tool to access, visualize and analyse data from planetary exploration missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinzi, A.; Capria, M. T.; Palomba, E.; Giommi, P.; Antonelli, L. A.

    2016-04-01

    The increasing number and complexity of planetary exploration space missions require new tools to access, visualize and analyse data to improve their scientific return. ASI Science Data Center (ASDC) addresses this request with the web-tool MATISSE (Multi-purpose Advanced Tool for the Instruments of the Solar System Exploration), allowing the visualization of single observation or real-time computed high-order products, directly projected on the three-dimensional model of the selected target body. Using MATISSE it will be no longer needed to download huge quantity of data or to write down a specific code for every instrument analysed, greatly encouraging studies based on joint analysis of different datasets. In addition the extremely high-resolution output, to be used offline with a Python-based free software, together with the files to be read with specific GIS software, makes it a valuable tool to further process the data at the best spatial accuracy available. MATISSE modular structure permits addition of new missions or tasks and, thanks to dedicated future developments, it would be possible to make it compliant to the Planetary Virtual Observatory standards currently under definition. In this context the recent development of an interface to the NASA ODE REST API by which it is possible to access to public repositories is set.

  16. Open versus Controlled-Access Data | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    OCG employs stringent human subjects’ protection and data access policies to protect the privacy and confidentiality of the research participants. Depending on the risk of patient identification, OCG programs data are available to the scientific community in two tiers: open or controlled access. Both types of data can be accessed through its corresponding OCG program-specific data matrix or portal. Open-access Data

  17. Permission to Speak: A Novel Formal Foundation for Access Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-21

    NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Pennsylvania,Computer and Information Science ,Philadelphia,PA,19104 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER... science • Uniform treatment of access control and conformance – Access control is verification of permissions – Conformance is satisfaction of

  18. Analysis of Access Control Policies in Operating Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Operating systems rely heavily on access control mechanisms to achieve security goals and defend against remote and local attacks. The complexities of modern access control mechanisms and the scale of policy configurations are often overwhelming to system administrators and software developers. Therefore, mis-configurations are common, and the…

  19. 33 CFR 104.265 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... each Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level, including those points where TWIC access control provisions will... control, particularly if these security measures are applied on a random or occasional basis. (f) MARSEC... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security measures for access...

  20. 33 CFR 104.265 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... each Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level, including those points where TWIC access control provisions will... control, particularly if these security measures are applied on a random or occasional basis. (f) MARSEC... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security measures for access...

  1. Analysis of Access Control Policies in Operating Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Operating systems rely heavily on access control mechanisms to achieve security goals and defend against remote and local attacks. The complexities of modern access control mechanisms and the scale of policy configurations are often overwhelming to system administrators and software developers. Therefore, mis-configurations are common, and the…

  2. 33 CFR 105.255 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... each MARSEC Level, including those points where TWIC access control provisions will be applied. Each... escorting them; (4) Procedures for identifying authorized and unauthorized persons at any MARSEC level; and... access controls, particularly if they are to be applied on a random or occasional basis. (f) MARSEC...

  3. An accessible, scalable ecosystem for enabling and sharing diverse mass spectrometry imaging analyses.

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, CR; Ruebel, O; Bowen, BP

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is used in an increasing number of biological applications. Typical MSI datasets contain unique, high-resolution mass spectra from tens of thousands of spatial locations, resulting in raw data sizes of tens of gigabytes per sample. In this paper, we review technical progress that is enabling new biological applications and that is driving an increase in the complexity and size of MSI data. Handling such data often requires specialized computational infrastructure, software, and expertise. OpenMSI, our recently described platform, makes it easy to explore and share MSI datasets via the web - even when larger than 50 GB. Here we describe the integration of OpenMSI with IPython notebooks for transparent, sharable, and replicable MSI research. An advantage of this approach is that users do not have to share raw data along with analyses; instead, data is retrieved via OpenMSI's web API. The IPython notebook interface provides a low-barrier entry point for data manipulation that is accessible for scientists without extensive computational training. Via these notebooks, analyses can be easily shared without requiring any data movement. We provide example notebooks for several common MSI analysis types including data normalization, plotting, clustering, and classification, and image registration.

  4. An accessible, scalable ecosystem for enabling and sharing diverse mass spectrometry imaging analyses.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Curt R; Ruebel, Oliver; Bowen, Benjamin P

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is used in an increasing number of biological applications. Typical MSI datasets contain unique, high-resolution mass spectra from tens of thousands of spatial locations, resulting in raw data sizes of tens of gigabytes per sample. In this paper, we review technical progress that is enabling new biological applications and that is driving an increase in the complexity and size of MSI data. Handling such data often requires specialized computational infrastructure, software, and expertise. OpenMSI, our recently described platform, makes it easy to explore and share MSI datasets via the web - even when larger than 50 GB. Here we describe the integration of OpenMSI with IPython notebooks for transparent, sharable, and replicable MSI research. An advantage of this approach is that users do not have to share raw data along with analyses; instead, data is retrieved via OpenMSI's web API. The IPython notebook interface provides a low-barrier entry point for data manipulation that is accessible for scientists without extensive computational training. Via these notebooks, analyses can be easily shared without requiring any data movement. We provide example notebooks for several common MSI analysis types including data normalization, plotting, clustering, and classification, and image registration.

  5. A design of tamper resistant prescription RFID access control system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Yi; Huang, Der-Chen; Tsai, Meng-Lin; Jan, Jinn-Ke

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a tamper resistant prescription RFID access control protocol for different authorized readers. Not only the authentication mechanism but also the access right authorization mechanism is designed in our scheme. Only the specific doctor, usually the patient's doctor, can access the tag. Moreover, some related information of patient's prescription is attached to a RFID tag for tamper resistance. The patients' rights will be guaranteed.

  6. Test-specific control conditions for functional analyses.

    PubMed

    Fahmie, Tara A; Iwata, Brian A; Querim, Angie C; Harper, Jill M

    2013-01-01

    Most functional analyses of problem behavior include a common condition (play or noncontingent reinforcement) as a control for both positive and negative reinforcement. However, test-specific conditions that control for each potential source of reinforcement may be beneficial occasionally. We compared responding during alone, ignore, play, and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) control conditions for individuals whose problem behavior was maintained by positive or negative reinforcement. Results showed that all of the conditions were effective controls for problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement; however, the DRO condition was consistently ineffective as a control for problem behavior maintained by negative reinforcement. Implications for the design of functional analyses and future research are discussed. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  7. Managed Access by Controlled Sensing (MACS)

    SciTech Connect

    Curtiss, J.A.; Indusi, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    During chemical weapons challenge inspections, the CWC treaty allows ``alternate means`` of access to be proposed by the nation challenged. BNL`s Safeguards, Safety and Nonproliferation Division is funded by the Defense Nuclear Agency to develop a system to provide the challenge inspection team with a ``virtual presence`` within the facility while denying personal access. A general purpose configuration of a mobile station manned by site personnel and a base station manned by the challenge inspector, supported by a flexible communication system, will allow facility personnel to tailor the basic model to their site. Design of the MACS system is based on maximum use of commercial equipment that is available on the international market. Design requirements for the MACS system include methods of establishing geographical position, distance measuring equipment for use in verifying dimensions on floor plans, video and two-way audio links between the mobile unit and the base station, and portability and versatility of the equipment. The MACS platform will also support deployment of selected instrumentation which the site may offer to the challenge inspection team. This paper describes the design and construction of the prototype MACS system.

  8. Urban Studies: A Study of Bibliographic Access and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Barbara E.

    This paper analyzes: (1) the bibliographic access to publications in urban studies via printed secondary sources; (2) development and scope of classification systems and of vocabulary control for urban studies; and (3) currently accessible automated collections of bibliographic citations. Urban studies is defined as "an agglomeration of…

  9. 49 CFR 1542.207 - Access control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Access control systems. 1542.207 Section 1542.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.207 Access...

  10. 49 CFR 1542.207 - Access control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Access control systems. 1542.207 Section 1542.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.207 Access...

  11. 49 CFR 1542.207 - Access control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Access control systems. 1542.207 Section 1542.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.207 Access...

  12. 49 CFR 1542.207 - Access control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access control systems. 1542.207 Section 1542.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.207 Access...

  13. 49 CFR 1542.207 - Access control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Access control systems. 1542.207 Section 1542.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.207 Access...

  14. 14 CFR 420.53 - Control of public access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Responsibilities of a Licensee § 420.53 Control of public access. (a) A licensee shall prevent unauthorized access to the launch site, and... the launch site of safety rules and emergency and evacuation procedures prior to that person's...

  15. Role Based Access Control system in the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valsan, M. L.; Dobson, M.; Lehmann Miotto, G.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Schlenker, S.; Filimonov, V.; Khomoutnikov, V.; Dumitru, I.; Zaytsev, A. S.; Korol, A. A.; Bogdantchikov, A.; Avolio, G.; Caramarcu, C.; Ballestrero, S.; Darlea, G. L.; Twomey, M.; Bujor, F.

    2011-12-01

    The complexity of the ATLAS experiment motivated the deployment of an integrated Access Control System in order to guarantee safe and optimal access for a large number of users to the various software and hardware resources. Such an integrated system was foreseen since the design of the infrastructure and is now central to the operations model. In order to cope with the ever growing needs of restricting access to all resources used within the experiment, the Roles Based Access Control (RBAC) previously developed has been extended and improved. The paper starts with a short presentation of the RBAC design, implementation and the changes made to the system to allow the management and usage of roles to control access to the vast and diverse set of resources. The RBAC implementation uses a directory service based on Lightweight Directory Access Protocol to store the users (~3000), roles (~320), groups (~80) and access policies. The information is kept in sync with various other databases and directory services: human resources, central CERN IT, CERN Active Directory and the Access Control Database used by DCS. The paper concludes with a detailed description of the integration across all areas of the system.

  16. Access Control of Web- and Java-Based Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tso, Kam S.; Pajevski, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Cybersecurity has become a great concern as threats of service interruption, unauthorized access, stealing and altering of information, and spreading of viruses have become more prevalent and serious. Application layer access control of applications is a critical component in the overall security solution that also includes encryption, firewalls, virtual private networks, antivirus, and intrusion detection. An access control solution, based on an open-source access manager augmented with custom software components, was developed to provide protection to both Web-based and Javabased client and server applications. The DISA Security Service (DISA-SS) provides common access control capabilities for AMMOS software applications through a set of application programming interfaces (APIs) and network- accessible security services for authentication, single sign-on, authorization checking, and authorization policy management. The OpenAM access management technology designed for Web applications can be extended to meet the needs of Java thick clients and stand alone servers that are commonly used in the JPL AMMOS environment. The DISA-SS reusable components have greatly reduced the effort for each AMMOS subsystem to develop its own access control strategy. The novelty of this work is that it leverages an open-source access management product that was designed for Webbased applications to provide access control for Java thick clients and Java standalone servers. Thick clients and standalone servers are still commonly used in businesses and government, especially for applications that require rich graphical user interfaces and high-performance visualization that cannot be met by thin clients running on Web browsers

  17. Access control within military C4ISR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maschino, Mike

    2003-07-01

    Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) tactical battlefield systems must provide the right information and resources to the right individuals at the right time. At the same time, the C4ISR system must enforce access controls to prevent the wrong individuals from obtaining sensitive information, or consuming scarce resources. Because lives, missions and property depend upon them, these access control mechanisms must be effective, reliable, efficient and flexible. The mechanisms employed must suit the nature of the items that are to be protected, as well as the varieties of access policies that must be enforced, and the types of access that will be made to these items. Some access control technologies are inherently centralized, while others are suitable for distributed implementation. The C4ISR architect must select from among the available technologies a combination of mechanisms that eases the burden of policy administration, but is inherently survivable, accurate, resource efficient, and which provides low latency. This paper explores various alternative access enforcement mechanisms, and assesses their effectiveness in managing policy-driven access control within the battlespace.

  18. Personnel Access Control System Evaluation for National Ignition Facility Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Altenbach, T; Brereton, S.; Hermes, G.; Singh, M.

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to analyze the baseline Access Control System for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and to assess its effectiveness at controlling access to hazardous locations during full NIF operations. It reviews the various hazards present during a NIF shot sequence, and evaluates the effectiveness of the applicable set of controls at preventing access while the hazards are present. It considers only those hazards that could potentially be lethal. In addition, various types of technologies that might be applicable at NIF are reviewed, as are systems currently in use at other facilities requiring access control for safety reasons. Recommendations on how this system might be modified to reduce risk are made.

  19. Regulatory Accessibility and Social Influences on State Self-Control

    PubMed Central

    vanDellen, Michelle R.; Hoyle, Rick H.

    2013-01-01

    The current work examined how social factors influence self-control. Current conceptions of state self-control treat it largely as a function of regulatory capacity. The authors propose that state self-control might also be influenced by social factors because of regulatory accessibility. Studies 1 through 4 provide evidence that individuals’ state self-control is influenced by the trait and state self-control of salient others such that thinking of others with good trait or state self-control leads to increases in state self-control and thinking of others with bad trait or state self-control leads to decreases in state self-control. Study 5 provides evidence that the salience of significant others influences both regulatory accessibility and state self-control. Combined, these studies suggest that the effects of social influences on state self-control occur through multiple mechanisms. PMID:20008967

  20. Authenticated IGMP for Controlling Access to Multicast Distribution Tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chang-Seop; Kang, Hyun-Sun

    A receiver access control scheme is proposed to protect the multicast distribution tree from DoS attack induced by unauthorized use of IGMP, by extending the security-related functionality of IGMP. Based on a specific network and business model adopted for commercial deployment of IP multicast applications, a key management scheme is also presented for bootstrapping the proposed access control as well as accounting and billing for CP (Content Provider), NSP (Network Service Provider), and group members.

  1. Testing Efficiency Improved by Addition of Remote Access Control Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center's Remote Access Control Room (RACR) uses off-the-shelf video conferencing software integrated with existing facility data systems to provide access to the test data by networking from virtually anywhere in the country. The system allows research engineers in remote locations to participate in tests and monitor data in real time just as if they were present in the control room.

  2. RANDOM ACCESS CONTROL OF ELECTROLUMINESCENT ELEMENTS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Cadmium selenide (CdSe) switches were devised to control the luminous emittance of electroluminescent cells in a solid-state display. The technique...purpose of this contract was to establish the feasibility of utilizing the hysteretic effect in cadmium selenide to provide switching and storage to an...array of electroluminescent cells by investigating the cadmium selenide material, by studying panel structure, and by investigating the addressing of

  3. Context-aware access control for pervasive access to process-based healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Koufi, Vassiliki; Vassilacopoulos, George

    2008-01-01

    Healthcare is an increasingly collaborative enterprise involving a broad range of healthcare services provided by many individuals and organizations. Grid technology has been widely recognized as a means for integrating disparate computing resources in the healthcare field. Moreover, Grid portal applications can be developed on a wireless and mobile infrastructure to execute healthcare processes which, in turn, can provide remote access to Grid database services. Such an environment provides ubiquitous and pervasive access to integrated healthcare services at the point of care, thus improving healthcare quality. In such environments, the ability to provide an effective access control mechanism that meets the requirement of the least privilege principle is essential. Adherence to the least privilege principle requires continuous adjustments of user permissions in order to adapt to the current situation. This paper presents a context-aware access control mechanism for HDGPortal, a Grid portal application which provides access to workflow-based healthcare processes using wireless Personal Digital Assistants. The proposed mechanism builds upon and enhances security mechanisms provided by the Grid Security Infrastructure. It provides tight, just-in-time permissions so that authorized users get access to specific objects according to the current context. These permissions are subject to continuous adjustments triggered by the changing context. Thus, the risk of compromising information integrity during task executions is reduced.

  4. Accessible Gaming through Mainstreaming Kinetic Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido, Yolanda; Marco, Álvaro; Segura, Joaquín; Blanco, Teresa; Casas, Roberto

    Leisure is a very important aspect in our everyday life; and gaming is one of the main ways to it. Depending on the particular situation of each person, the way of playing could be very different. Motivation, preferences, skills, knowledge are some of the factors that influences this experience. When the person has a disability, additional agents come to scene such as cognitive level and mobility. Besides the design of the game, these factors clearly affect how the person interacts with the game; its user interface. In this paper we present a tool that allows people with disabilities to play games with a normalized user interface. This tool a) manages several wireless kinetic remote controllers, e.g. the Wiimotes; b) can be configured to capture any voluntary movements users could do and c) convert them into the specific inputs required by existing adapted games. As a result, users with disabilities can experience and enjoy games that were previously inaccessible to them.

  5. Control with a random access protocol and packet dropouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liyuan; Guo, Ge

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates networked control systems whose actuators communicate with the controller via a limited number of unreliable channels. The access to the channels is decided by a so-called group random access protocol, which is modelled as a binary Markov sequence. Data packet dropouts in the channels are modelled as independent Bernoulli processes. For such systems, a systematic characterisation for controller synthesis is established and stated in terms of the transition probabilities of the Markov protocol and the packet dropout probabilities. The results are illustrated via a numerical example.

  6. Access Control to Information in Pervasive Computing Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    The latter techniques intro- 138 duce some modification to the data stored in a database or to the requested statistics during the processing of a...for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of...access to Carol’s cal- endar information. Access control to information has been well investigated in the context of informa- tion stored in distributed

  7. 33 CFR 105.255 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... restricted area and maintain security control during transfers between the facility and a vessel. (g) MARSEC... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security measures for access control. 105.255 Section 105.255 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  8. 33 CFR 105.255 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... restricted area and maintain security control during transfers between the facility and a vessel. (g) MARSEC... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security measures for access control. 105.255 Section 105.255 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  9. Subgroup analyses in randomised controlled trials: cohort study on trial protocols and journal publications.

    PubMed

    Kasenda, Benjamin; Schandelmaier, Stefan; Sun, Xin; von Elm, Erik; You, John; Blümle, Anette; Tomonaga, Yuki; Saccilotto, Ramon; Amstutz, Alain; Bengough, Theresa; Meerpohl, Joerg J; Stegert, Mihaela; Olu, Kelechi K; Tikkinen, Kari A O; Neumann, Ignacio; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Faulhaber, Markus; Mulla, Sohail M; Mertz, Dominik; Akl, Elie A; Bassler, Dirk; Busse, Jason W; Ferreira-González, Ignacio; Lamontagne, Francois; Nordmann, Alain; Gloy, Viktoria; Raatz, Heike; Moja, Lorenzo; Rosenthal, Rachel; Ebrahim, Shanil; Vandvik, Per O; Johnston, Bradley C; Walter, Martin A; Burnand, Bernard; Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Hemkens, Lars G; Bucher, Heiner C; Guyatt, Gordon H; Briel, Matthias

    2014-07-16

    To investigate the planning of subgroup analyses in protocols of randomised controlled trials and the agreement with corresponding full journal publications. Cohort of protocols of randomised controlled trial and subsequent full journal publications. Six research ethics committees in Switzerland, Germany, and Canada. 894 protocols of randomised controlled trial involving patients approved by participating research ethics committees between 2000 and 2003 and 515 subsequent full journal publications. Of 894 protocols of randomised controlled trials, 252 (28.2%) included one or more planned subgroup analyses. Of those, 17 (6.7%) provided a clear hypothesis for at least one subgroup analysis, 10 (4.0%) anticipated the direction of a subgroup effect, and 87 (34.5%) planned a statistical test for interaction. Industry sponsored trials more often planned subgroup analyses compared with investigator sponsored trials (195/551 (35.4%) v 57/343 (16.6%), P<0.001). Of 515 identified journal publications, 246 (47.8%) reported at least one subgroup analysis. In 81 (32.9%) of the 246 publications reporting subgroup analyses, authors stated that subgroup analyses were prespecified, but this was not supported by 28 (34.6%) corresponding protocols. In 86 publications, authors claimed a subgroup effect, but only 36 (41.9%) corresponding protocols reported a planned subgroup analysis. Subgroup analyses are insufficiently described in the protocols of randomised controlled trials submitted to research ethics committees, and investigators rarely specify the anticipated direction of subgroup effects. More than one third of statements in publications of randomised controlled trials about subgroup prespecification had no documentation in the corresponding protocols. Definitive judgments regarding credibility of claimed subgroup effects are not possible without access to protocols and analysis plans of randomised controlled trials. © The DISCO study group 2014.

  10. Towards an Access-Control Framework for Countering Insider Threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crampton, Jason; Huth, Michael

    As insider threats pose very significant security risks to IT systems, we ask what policy-based approaches to access control can do for the detection, mitigation or countering of insider threats and insider attacks. Answering this question is difficult: little public data about insider-threat cases is available; there is not much consensus about what the insider problem actually is; and previous research in access control has by-and-large not dealt with this issue. We explore existing notions of insiderness in order to identify the relevant research issues. We then formulate a set of requirements for next-generation access-control systems, whose realization might form part of an overall strategy to address the insider problem.

  11. Doping control analyses in horseracing: a clinician's guide.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jenny K Y; Wan, Terence S M

    2014-04-01

    Doping(1) in sports is highly detrimental, not only to the athletes involved but to the sport itself as well as to the confidence of the spectators and other participants. To protect the integrity of any sport, there must be in place an effective doping control program. In human sports, a 'top-down' and generally unified approach is taken where the rules and regulations against doping for the majority of elite sport events held in any country are governed by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). However, in horseracing, there is no single organisation regulating this form of equestrian sport; instead, the rules and regulations are provided by individual racing authorities and so huge variations exist in the doping control programs currently in force around the world. This review summarises the current status of doping control analyses in horseracing, from sample collection, to the analyses of the samples, and to the need for harmonisation as well as exploring some of the difficulties currently faced by racing authorities, racing chemists and regulatory veterinarians worldwide.

  12. Emergency access authorization for personally controlled online health care data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tingting; Zhong, Sheng

    2012-02-01

    Personally controlled health records (PCHR) systems have emerged to allow patients to control their own medical data. In a PCHR system, all the access privileges to a patient's data are granted by the patient. However, in many emergency cases, it is impossible for the patient to participate in access authorization on site when immediate medical treatment is needed. To solve the emergency access authorization problem in the absence of patients, we consider two cases: a) the requester is already in the PCHR system but has not obtained the access privilege of the patient's health records, and b) the requester does not even have an account in the PCHR system to submit its request. For each of the two cases, we present a method for emergency access authorization, utilizing the weighted voting and source authentication cryptographic techniques. Our methods provide an effective, secure and private solution for emergency access authorization, that makes the existing PCHR system frameworks more practical and thus improves the patients' experiences of health care when using PCHR systems. We have implemented a prototype system as a proof of concept.

  13. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  14. Access and control of information and intellectual property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Gerald S.

    1996-03-01

    This paper introduces the technology of two pioneering patents for the secure distribution of information and intellectual property. The seminal technology has been used in the control of sensitive material such as medical records and imagery in distributed networks. It lends itself to the implementation of an open architecture access control system that provides local or remote user selective access to digital information stored on any computer system or storage medium, down to the data element, pixel, and sub-pixel levels. Use of this technology is especially suited for electronic publishing, health care records, MIS, and auditing.

  15. Secondary retention of rubber dam: effective moisture control access considerations.

    PubMed

    Liebenberg, W H

    1995-04-01

    Primary rubber dam retention affects attachment of the latex sheet to the anchor teeth bordering the isolated working field. Secondary rubber dam retention is the provision of an effective seal at the dam-tooth junction, which is essential to the maintenance of adequate access and moisture control within the working field. Practical hints are offered to optimize access and moisture control through well-planned and properly executed secondary retention of classic rubber dam applications. In addition, innovative solutions to the limitations of general field isolation, which pertain mostly to secondary retention of the unrestrained buccal and lingual curtains of the slit dam, are introduced.

  16. Joint Access Control Based on Access Ratio and Resource Utilization for High-Speed Railway Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuzhe; Ai, Bo

    2015-05-01

    The fast development of high-speed rails makes people's life more and more convenient. However, provisioning of quality of service of multimedia applications for users on the high-speed train is a critical task for wireless communications. Therefore, new solutions are desirable to be found to address this kind of problem. Current researches mainly focus on providing seamless broadband wireless access for high-speed mobile terminals. In this paper, an algorithm to calculate the optimal resource reservation fraction of handovers is proposed. A joint access control scheme for high-speed railway communication handover scenario is proposed. Metrics of access ratio and resource utilization ratio are considered jointly in the analysis and the performance evaluation. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm and the scheme improve quality of service compared with other conventional schemes.

  17. Access Control of Web and Java Based Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tso, Kam S.; Pajevski, Michael J.; Johnson, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Cyber security has gained national and international attention as a result of near continuous headlines from financial institutions, retail stores, government offices and universities reporting compromised systems and stolen data. Concerns continue to rise as threats of service interruption, and spreading of viruses become ever more prevalent and serious. Controlling access to application layer resources is a critical component in a layered security solution that includes encryption, firewalls, virtual private networks, antivirus, and intrusion detection. In this paper we discuss the development of an application-level access control solution, based on an open-source access manager augmented with custom software components, to provide protection to both Web-based and Java-based client and server applications.

  18. Access Control of Web and Java Based Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tso, Kam S.; Pajevski, Michael J.; Johnson, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Cyber security has gained national and international attention as a result of near continuous headlines from financial institutions, retail stores, government offices and universities reporting compromised systems and stolen data. Concerns continue to rise as threats of service interruption, and spreading of viruses become ever more prevalent and serious. Controlling access to application layer resources is a critical component in a layered security solution that includes encryption, firewalls, virtual private networks, antivirus, and intrusion detection. In this paper we discuss the development of an application-level access control solution, based on an open-source access manager augmented with custom software components, to provide protection to both Web-based and Java-based client and server applications.

  19. Access Control for Agent-based Computing: A Distributed Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonopoulos, Nick; Koukoumpetsos, Kyriakos; Shafarenko, Alex

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the mobile software agent paradigm that provides a foundation for the development of high performance distributed applications and presents a simple, distributed access control architecture based on the concept of distributed, active authorization entities (lock cells), any combination of which can be referenced by an agent to provide…

  20. Fine-Grained Access Control for Electronic Health Record Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hue, Pham Thi Bach; Wohlgemuth, Sven; Echizen, Isao; Thuy, Dong Thi Bich; Thuc, Nguyen Dinh

    There needs to be a strategy for securing the privacy of patients when exchanging health records between various entities over the Internet. Despite the fact that health care providers such as Google Health and Microsoft Corp.'s Health Vault comply with the U.S Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), the privacy of patients is still at risk. Several encryption schemes and access control mechanisms have been suggested to protect the disclosure of a patient's health record especially from unauthorized entities. However, by implementing these approaches, data owners are not capable of controlling and protecting the disclosure of the individual sensitive attributes of their health records. This raises the need to adopt a secure mechanism to protect personal information against unauthorized disclosure. Therefore, we propose a new Fine-grained Access Control (FGAC) mechanism that is based on subkeys, which would allow a data owner to further control the access to his data at the column-level. We also propose a new mechanism to efficiently reduce the number of keys maintained by a data owner in cases when the users have different access privileges to different columns of the data being shared.

  1. SAFE: SPARQL Federation over RDF Data Cubes with Access Control.

    PubMed

    Khan, Yasar; Saleem, Muhammad; Mehdi, Muntazir; Hogan, Aidan; Mehmood, Qaiser; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Sahay, Ratnesh

    2017-02-01

    Several query federation engines have been proposed for accessing public Linked Open Data sources. However, in many domains, resources are sensitive and access to these resources is tightly controlled by stakeholders; consequently, privacy is a major concern when federating queries over such datasets. In the Healthcare and Life Sciences (HCLS) domain real-world datasets contain sensitive statistical information: strict ownership is granted to individuals working in hospitals, research labs, clinical trial organisers, etc. Therefore, the legal and ethical concerns on (i) preserving the anonymity of patients (or clinical subjects); and (ii) respecting data ownership through access control; are key challenges faced by the data analytics community working within the HCLS domain. Likewise statistical data play a key role in the domain, where the RDF Data Cube Vocabulary has been proposed as a standard format to enable the exchange of such data. However, to the best of our knowledge, no existing approach has looked to optimise federated queries over such statistical data. We present SAFE: a query federation engine that enables policy-aware access to sensitive statistical datasets represented as RDF data cubes. SAFE is designed specifically to query statistical RDF data cubes in a distributed setting, where access control is coupled with source selection, user profiles and their access rights. SAFE proposes a join-aware source selection method that avoids wasteful requests to irrelevant and unauthorised data sources. In order to preserve anonymity and enforce stricter access control, SAFE's indexing system does not hold any data instances-it stores only predicates and endpoints. The resulting data summary has a significantly lower index generation time and size compared to existing engines, which allows for faster updates when sources change. We validate the performance of the system with experiments over real-world datasets provided by three clinical organisations as

  2. Access control and interlock system at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Forrestal, J.; Hogrefe, R.; Knott, M.; McDowell, W.; Reigle, D.; Solita, L.; Koldenhoven, R.; Haid, D.

    1997-08-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) consists of a linac, position accumulator ring (PAR), booster synchrotron, storage ring, and up to 70 experimental beamlines. The Access Control and Interlock System (ACIS) utilizes redundant programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and a third hard-wired chain to protect personnel from prompt radiation generated by the linac, PAR, synchrotron, and storage ring. This paper describes the ACIS`s design philosophy, configuration, hardware, functionality, validation requirements, and operational experience.

  3. Comparative Analyses of Physiological Responses of Cynodon dactylon Accessions from Southwest China to Sulfur Dioxide Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Li, Yiqiao; Cai, Shizhen

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2), a major air pollutant in developing countries, is highly toxic to plants. To achieve better air quality and landscape, planting appropriate grass species in severe SO2 polluted areas is very critical. Cynodon dactylon, a widely used warm season turfgrass species, has good SO2-tolerant ability. In this study, we selected 9 out of 38 C. dactylon accessions from Southwest China as representatives of high, intermediate SO2-tolerant and SO2-sensitive accessions to comparatively analyze their physiological differences in leaves under SO2 untreated and treated conditions. Our results revealed that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions showed higher soluble sugar, proline, and chlorophyll a contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions; higher chlorophyll b and carotenoid under SO2 treated condition; lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, oxidative damages, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities under SO2 treated condition; and higher peroxidase (POD) activities under SO2 untreated condition. Further results indicated that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions had higher sulfur contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, consistent with higher SO activities under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, and higher SiR activities under SO2 treated condition. Taken together, our results indicated that SO2 tolerance of C. dactylon might be largely related to soluble sugar, proline and chlorophyll a contents, and SO enzyme activity. PMID:25097893

  4. Nationwide citizen access to their health data: analysing and comparing experiences in Denmark, Estonia and Australia.

    PubMed

    Nøhr, Christian; Parv, Liisa; Kink, Pille; Cummings, Elizabeth; Almond, Helen; Nørgaard, Jens Rahbek; Turner, Paul

    2017-08-07

    Most countries face an ageing population, increasing chronic diseased, and constrictions on budget for providing health services. Involving patients in their own care by allowing them access to their patient data is a trend seen in many places. Data on the type and level of access citizens have to their own health data in three countries was gathered from public sources. Data from each individual country is presented and the experiences of Denmark, Estonia and Australia are examined whilst similarities and differences explored. The discussion adopts a citizen-centred perspective to consider how the different e-portal systems support, protect and structure citizen interactions with their own health data in three key areas: Security, privacy and data protection; User support; and Citizen adoption and use. The paper highlights the impact of opt-in/opt-out approaches on citizen access and the lack of a structured approach to addressing differences in citizen health and e-health literacy. This research also confirms while current data provides detail on the availability and use of personal health data by citizens, questions still remain over the ultimate impact on patient outcomes of these initiatives. It is anticipated the insights generated from the three countries experiences, supporting citizen access to their health data will be useful to improve these initiatives and guide other countries aspiring to support similar initiatives.

  5. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2017-08-22

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  6. Project W-320 SAR and process control thermal analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Sathyanarayana, K.

    1997-06-19

    This report summarizes the results of thermal hydraulic computer modeling supporting Project W-320 for process control and SAR documentation. Parametric analyses were performed for the maximum steady state waste temperature. The parameters included heat load distribution, tank heat load, fluffing factor and thermal conductivity. Uncertainties in the fluffing factor and heat load distribution had the largest effect on maximum waste temperature. Safety analyses were performed for off normal events including loss of ventilation, loss of evaporation and loss of secondary chiller. The loss of both the primary and secondary ventilation was found to be the most limiting event with saturation temperature in the bottom waste reaching in just over 30 days. An evaluation was performed for the potential lowering of the supernatant level in tank 241-AY-102. The evaluation included a loss of ventilation and steam bump analysis. The reduced supernatant level decreased the time to reach saturation temperature in the waste for the loss of ventilation by about one week. However, the consequence of a steam bump were dramatically reduced.

  7. PGA: power calculator for case-control genetic association analyses

    PubMed Central

    Menashe, Idan; Rosenberg, Philip S; Chen, Bingshu E

    2008-01-01

    Background Statistical power calculations inform the design and interpretation of genetic association studies, but few programs are tailored to case-control studies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in unrelated subjects. Results We have developed the "Power for Genetic Association analyses" (PGA) package which comprises algorithms and graphical user interfaces for sample size and minimum detectable risk calculations using SNP or haplotype effects under different genetic models and study constrains. The software accounts for linkage disequilibrium and statistical multiple comparisons. The results are presented in graphs or tables and can be printed or exported in standard file formats. Conclusion PGA is user friendly software that can facilitate decision making for association studies of candidate genes, fine-mapping studies, and whole-genome scans. Stand-alone executable files and a Matlab toolbox are available for download at: PMID:18477402

  8. Distributed reservation control protocols for random access broadcasting channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, E. P.; Ephremides, A.

    1981-05-01

    Attention is given to a communication network consisting of an arbitrary number of nodes which can communicate with each other via a time-division multiple access (TDMA) broadcast channel. The reported investigation is concerned with the development of efficient distributed multiple access protocols for traffic consisting primarily of single packet messages in a datagram mode of operation. The motivation for the design of the protocols came from the consideration of efficient multiple access utilization of moderate to high bandwidth (4-40 Mbit/s capacity) communication satellite channels used for the transmission of short (1000-10,000 bits) fixed length packets. Under these circumstances, the ratio of roundtrip propagation time to packet transmission time is between 100 to 10,000. It is shown how a TDMA channel can be adaptively shared by datagram traffic and constant bandwidth users such as in digital voice applications. The distributed reservation control protocols described are a hybrid between contention and reservation protocols.

  9. Distributed reservation control protocols for random access broadcasting channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, E. P.; Ephremides, A.

    1981-01-01

    Attention is given to a communication network consisting of an arbitrary number of nodes which can communicate with each other via a time-division multiple access (TDMA) broadcast channel. The reported investigation is concerned with the development of efficient distributed multiple access protocols for traffic consisting primarily of single packet messages in a datagram mode of operation. The motivation for the design of the protocols came from the consideration of efficient multiple access utilization of moderate to high bandwidth (4-40 Mbit/s capacity) communication satellite channels used for the transmission of short (1000-10,000 bits) fixed length packets. Under these circumstances, the ratio of roundtrip propagation time to packet transmission time is between 100 to 10,000. It is shown how a TDMA channel can be adaptively shared by datagram traffic and constant bandwidth users such as in digital voice applications. The distributed reservation control protocols described are a hybrid between contention and reservation protocols.

  10. Access control and privacy in large distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiner, B. M.; Bishop, M.

    1986-01-01

    Large scale distributed systems consists of workstations, mainframe computers, supercomputers and other types of servers, all connected by a computer network. These systems are being used in a variety of applications including the support of collaborative scientific research. In such an environment, issues of access control and privacy arise. Access control is required for several reasons, including the protection of sensitive resources and cost control. Privacy is also required for similar reasons, including the protection of a researcher's proprietary results. A possible architecture for integrating available computer and communications security technologies into a system that meet these requirements is described. This architecture is meant as a starting point for discussion, rather that the final answer.

  11. Designing optimized industrial process analysers for closed loop control

    PubMed Central

    Grevesmuehl, Bernard; Kradjel, Cynthia; Kellner, Hanno

    1991-01-01

    Manufacturers are now looking closely at ways of optimizing ‘quality’ and increasing process efficiency while reducing manufacturing costs. Near infra-red (NIR) technology is a popular solution to this challenge: it provides manufacturers with rapid and reliable in-process analysis and thousands of systems have already been installed in the food, chemical, pharmaceutical and agricultural markets. For over 10 years, NIR has been successfully applied to at-line process analysis. Rugged and easy-to-operate filter analysers are traditionally located in the control room–process operators can then ‘grab samples’ and obtain results in less than a minute. There are many practical advantages to using at-line filter systems. Products from many lines can be run on one system, and, since there is no direct process interface, installation, operation and maintenance are quite simple. Many manufacturers, however, are now striving to achieve on-line closed loop control, in these cases the benefit of obtaining continuous measurement is well worth the effort required to automate the analysis. PMID:18924898

  12. Tag Content Access Control with Identity-based Key Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Liang; Rong, Chunming

    2010-09-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology that used to identify objects and users has been applied to many applications such retail and supply chain recently. How to prevent tag content from unauthorized readout is a core problem of RFID privacy issues. Hash-lock access control protocol can make tag to release its content only to reader who knows the secret key shared between them. However, in order to get this shared secret key required by this protocol, reader needs to communicate with a back end database. In this paper, we propose to use identity-based secret key exchange approach to generate the secret key required for hash-lock access control protocol. With this approach, not only back end database connection is not needed anymore, but also tag cloning problem can be eliminated at the same time.

  13. Authorisation and access control for electronic health record systems.

    PubMed

    Blobel, Bernd

    2004-03-31

    Enabling the shared care paradigm, centralised or even decentralised electronic health record (EHR) systems increasingly become core applications in hospital information systems and health networks. For realising multipurpose use and reuse as well as inter-operability at knowledge level, EHR have to meet special architectural requirements. The component-oriented and model-based architecture should meet international standards. Especially in extended health networks realising inter-organisational communication and co-operation, authorisation cannot be organised at user level anymore. Therefore, models, methods and tools must be established to allow formal and structured policy definition, policy agreements, role definition, authorisation and access control. Based on the author's international engagement in EHR architecture and security standards referring to the revision of CEN ENV 13606, the GEHR/open EHR approach, HL7 and CORBA, models for health-specific and EHR-related roles, for authorisation management and access control have been developed. The basic concept is the separation of structural roles defining organisational entity-to-entity relationships and enabling specific acts on the one hand, and functional roles bound to specific activities and realising rights and duties on the other hand. Aggregation of organisational, functional, informational and technological components follows specific rules. Using UML and XML, the principles as well as some examples for analysis, design, implementation and maintenance of policy and authorisation management as well as access control have been practically implemented.

  14. An approach to access control in electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Sucurovic, Snezana

    2010-08-01

    OASIS is a non-for-profit consortium that drives the development convergence and adoption of open standards for the global information society. It involves more than 600 organizations and individuals as well as IT leaders Sun, Microsoft, IBM and Oracle. One of its standards is XACML which appeared a few years ago and now there are about 150,000 hits on Google. XACML (eXtensible Access Control Markup Language) is not technology related. Sun published in 2004 open source Sun XACML which is in compliance with XACML 1.0. specification and now works to make it comply with XACML 2.0. The heart of XACML are attributes values of defined type and name that is to be attached to a subject, a resource, an action and an environment in which a subject request action on resource. In that way XACML is to replace Role Based Access Control which dominated for years. The paper examines performances in CEN 13 606 and ISO 22 600 based healthcare system which uses XACML for access control.

  15. Integration of access control and ancillary information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Ahrens, J.S.

    1995-07-01

    The DOE has identified the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ARGUS system as the standard entry control system for the DOE Complex. ARGUS integrates several key functions, specifically, badging, entry control, and verification of clearance status. Not all sites need or can afford an ARGUS system. Such sites are therefore limited to commercial equipment which provide ARGUS like features. In this project an alternative way to integrate commercial equipment into an integrated system to include badging, access control, property control, and automated verification of clearance status has been investigated. Such a system would provide smaller sites the same functionality as is provided by ARGUS. Further, it would allow sites to fully participate in the DOE`s concept of Complex wide access control. This multi-year task is comprised of three phases. Phase 1, system requirements and definitions, and phase 2, software and hardware development, were completed during fiscal year 1994. This report covers these two phases and the demonstration system which resulted. Phase three would employ the demonstration system to evaluate system performance, identify operational limits and to integrate additional features. The demonstration system includes a badging station, a database server, a managers workstation, an entry control system, and a property protection system. The functions have been integrated through the use of custom interfaces and operator screens which greatly increase ease of use.

  16. 30 CFR 816.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... schedule. (c) Access control. Access within the blasting area shall be controlled to prevent presence of..., and access control. 816.66 Section 816.66 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access...

  17. Hand geometry biometric device for secure access control

    SciTech Connect

    Colbert, C.; Moles, D.R. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the authors developed for the Air Force the Mark VI Personal Identity Verifier (PIV) for controlling access to a fixed or mobile ICBM site, a computer terminal, or mainframe. The Mark VI records the digitized silhouettes of four fingers of each hand on an AT and T smart card. Like fingerprints, finger shapes, lengths, and widths constitute an unguessable biometric password. A Security Officer enrolls an authorized person who places each hand, in turn, on a backlighted panel. An overhead scanning camera records the right and left hand reference templates on the smart card. The Security Officer adds to the card: name, personal identification number (PIN), and access restrictions such as permitted days of the week, times of day, and doors. To gain access, cardowner inserts card into a reader slot and places either hand on the panel. Resulting access template is matched to the reference template by three sameness algorithms. The final match score is an average of 12 scores (each of the four fingers, matched for shape, length, and width), expressing the degree of sameness. (A perfect match would score 100.00.) The final match score is compared to a predetermined score (threshold), generating an accept or reject decision.

  18. Global Access-controlled Transfer e-frame (GATe)

    SciTech Connect

    2012-05-30

    Global Access-controlled Transfer e-frame (GATe) was designed to take advantage of the patterns that occur during an electronic record transfer process. The e-frame (or electronic framework or platform) is the foundation for developing secure information transfer to meet classified and unclassified business processes and is particularly useful when there is a need to share information with various entities in a controlled and secure environment. It can share, search, upload, download and retrieve sensitive information, as well as provides reporting capabilities.

  19. A study of multiple access schemes in satellite control network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Zijian; Wang, Zhonghai; Xiang, Xingyu; Wang, Gang; Chen, Genshe; Nguyen, Tien; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik

    2016-05-01

    Satellite Control Networks (SCN) have provided launch control for space lift vehicles; tracking, telemetry and commanding (TTC) for on-orbit satellites; and, test support for space experiments since the 1960s. Currently, SCNs encounter a new challenge: how to maintain the high reliability of services when sharing the spectrum with emerging commercial services. To achieve this goal, the capability of multiple satellites reception is deserved as an update/modernization of SCN in the future. In this paper, we conducts an investigation of multiple access techniques in SCN scenario, e.g., frequency division multiple access (FDMA) and coded division multiple access (CDMA). First, we introduce two upgrade options of SCN based on FDMA and CDMA techniques. Correspondingly, we also provide their performance analysis, especially the system improvement in spectrum efficiency and interference mitigation. Finally, to determine the optimum upgrade option, this work uses CRISP, i.e., Cost, Risk, Installation, Supportability and Performance, as the baseline approach for a comprehensive trade study of these two options. Extensive numerical and simulation results are presented to illustrate the theoretical development.

  20. Osiris: accessible and reproducible phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses within the Galaxy workflow management system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic tools and ‘tree-thinking’ approaches increasingly permeate all biological research. At the same time, phylogenetic data sets are expanding at breakneck pace, facilitated by increasingly economical sequencing technologies. Therefore, there is an urgent need for accessible, modular, and sharable tools for phylogenetic analysis. Results We developed a suite of wrappers for new and existing phylogenetics tools for the Galaxy workflow management system that we call Osiris. Osiris and Galaxy provide a sharable, standardized, modular user interface, and the ability to easily create complex workflows using a graphical interface. Osiris enables all aspects of phylogenetic analysis within Galaxy, including de novo assembly of high throughput sequencing reads, ortholog identification, multiple sequence alignment, concatenation, phylogenetic tree estimation, and post-tree comparative analysis. The open source files are available on in the Bitbucket public repository and many of the tools are demonstrated on a public web server (http://galaxy-dev.cnsi.ucsb.edu/osiris/). Conclusions Osiris can serve as a foundation for other phylogenomic and phylogenetic tool development within the Galaxy platform. PMID:24990571

  1. Access Control Model for Sharing Composite Electronic Health Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jing; Ahn, Gail-Joon; Covington, Michael J.; Zhang, Xinwen

    The adoption of electronically formatted medical records, so called Electronic Health Records (EHRs), has become extremely important in healthcare systems to enable the exchange of medical information among stakeholders. An EHR generally consists of data with different types and sensitivity degrees which must be selectively shared based on the need-to-know principle. Security mechanisms are required to guarantee that only authorized users have access to specific portions of such critical record for legitimate purposes. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for modelling access control scheme for composite EHRs. Our model formulates the semantics and structural composition of an EHR document, from which we introduce a notion of authorized zones of the composite EHR at different granularity levels, taking into consideration of several important criteria such as data types, intended purposes and information sensitivities.

  2. Control packet signaling mechanism using electronic code division multiple access for packet-based networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadarajah, Nishaanthan

    2008-10-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of a control packet signaling technique using electronic code division multiple access for a wavelength division multiplexing packet-based network, whereby each wavelength channel is assigned a unique electronic code based label on a radio frequency subcarrier. Such a technique allows each wavelength channel to be electronically identified without requiring the use of a WDM demultiplexer. We experimentally demonstrate this technique with two wavelength channels each with 1.25 Gb/s baseband payload data and 10 Mb/s header coded onto an electronic code at 160 Mb/s. A performance study of the electronic code division multiple access based control signaling scheme in a wavelength division multiplexed packet-based access network is also performed in terms of the required power budget to monitor the electronic code division multiple access control signals in the presence of several sources of noise for error-free transmission of both payload data and electronic code division multiple access based control signals. It is shown that the modulation depth of each signal impacts the amount of required optical tap power. As the modulation depth of the electronic code division multiple access based control signal is increased, the required optical tap power is reduced. However, this increases the bit-error-rate for the payload data. Therefore, there lies a maximum and a minimum of the required tap optical power for the successful recovery of both signals. The lower bound of this range is usually determined by the successful recovery of electronic code division multiple access based control signal while the upper bound is determined by the successful recovery of payload data. The required optical tap power is analyzed for different transmission bit rates of the payload data for various receiver architecture scenarios without an optical amplifier at the receiver. The scalability analyses were repeated with an optical

  3. 50 CFR 216.47 - Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses, and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... mammal populations in the wild; to correlate the health of marine mammals and marine mammal populations... interlaboratory comparisons and the development of control materials and standard reference materials for marine... animal; and (ix) Agreement that credit and acknowledgment will be given to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service...

  4. 50 CFR 216.47 - Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses, and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... mammal populations in the wild; to correlate the health of marine mammals and marine mammal populations... interlaboratory comparisons and the development of control materials and standard reference materials for marine... animal; and (ix) Agreement that credit and acknowledgment will be given to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service...

  5. 50 CFR 216.47 - Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses, and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... mammal populations in the wild; to correlate the health of marine mammals and marine mammal populations... interlaboratory comparisons and the development of control materials and standard reference materials for marine... animal; and (ix) Agreement that credit and acknowledgment will be given to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service...

  6. Efficient identity management and access control in cloud environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloster, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    As more enterprises are enticed to move data to a cloud environment to enhance data sharing and reduce operating costs by exploiting shared resources, concerns have risen over the ability to secure information within the cloud. This paper examines how a traditional Identity and Access Control (IDAM) architecture can be adapted to address security concerns of a cloud environment. We propose changing the paradigm of IDAM form a pure trust model to a risk based model will enable information to be protected securely in a cloud environment without impacting efficiencies of cloud environments.

  7. Privacy and Access Control for IHE-Based Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katt, Basel; Breu, Ruth; Hafner, Micahel; Schabetsberger, Thomas; Mair, Richard; Wozak, Florian

    Electronic Health Record (EHR) is the heart element of any e-health system, which aims at improving the quality and efficiency of healthcare through the use of information and communication technologies. The sensitivity of the data contained in the health record poses a great challenge to security. In this paper we propose a security architecture for EHR systems that are conform with IHE profiles. In this architecture we are tackling the problems of access control and privacy. Furthermore, a prototypical implementation of the proposed model is presented.

  8. 30 CFR 817.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... notification required in § 817.64(a). (c) Access control. Access within the blasting areas shall be controlled..., and access control. 817.66 Section 817.66 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting signs shall meet the specifications of § 817.11. The operator...

  9. Accessibility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Federal laws, including Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, mandate that people with disabilities have access to the same information that someone without a disability would have. 508 standards cover electronic and information technology (EIT) products.

  10. Metabolomics Analyses of Cancer Cells in Controlled Microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Gravel, Simon-Pierre; Avizonis, Daina; St-Pierre, Julie

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is a complex and heterogeneous milieu in which cancer cells undergo metabolic reprogramming to fuel their growth. Cancer cell lines grown in vitro using traditional culture methods represent key experimental models to gain a mechanistic understanding of tumor biology. This protocol describes the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to assess metabolic changes in cancer cells grown under varied levels of oxygen and nutrients that may better mimic the tumor microenvironment. Intracellular metabolite changes, metabolite uptake and release, as well as stable isotope ((13)C) tracer analyses are done in a single experimental setup to provide an integrated understanding of metabolic adaptation. Overall, this chapter describes some essential tools and methods to perform comprehensive metabolomics analyses.

  11. 75 FR 80886 - Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control... meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control...

  12. 76 FR 9632 - Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control... meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control...

  13. 76 FR 67019 - Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control... RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control. DATES: The...

  14. Birth Control Pills and Nonprofessional Voice: Acoustic Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Ofer; Biron-Shental, Tal; Shabtai, Esther

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies are presented here. Study 1 was aimed at evaluating whether the voice characteristics of women who use birth control pills that contain different progestins differ from the voice characteristics of a control group. Study 2 presents a meta-analysis that combined the results of Study 1 with those from 3 recent studies that…

  15. Birth Control Pills and Nonprofessional Voice: Acoustic Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Ofer; Biron-Shental, Tal; Shabtai, Esther

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies are presented here. Study 1 was aimed at evaluating whether the voice characteristics of women who use birth control pills that contain different progestins differ from the voice characteristics of a control group. Study 2 presents a meta-analysis that combined the results of Study 1 with those from 3 recent studies that…

  16. BIOPACK: the ground controlled late access biological research facility.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Jack J W A

    2004-03-01

    Future Space Shuttle flights shall be characterized by activities necessary to further build the International Space Station, ISS. During these missions limited resources are available to conduct biological experiments in space. The Shuttles' Middeck is a very suitable place to conduct science during the ISS assembly missions or dedicated science missions. The BIOPACK, which flew its first mission during the STS-107, provides a versatile Middeck Locker based research tool for gravitational biology studies. The core facility occupies the space of only two Middeck Lockers. Experiment temperatures are controlled for bacteria, plant, invertebrate and mammalian cultures. Gravity levels and profiles can be set ranging from 0 to 2.0 x g on three independent centrifuges. This provides the experimenter with a 1.0 x g on-board reference and intermediate hypogravity and hypergravity data points to investigate e.g. threshold levels in biological responses. Temperature sensitive items can be stored in the facilities' -10 degrees C and +4 degrees C stowage areas. During STS-107 the facility also included a small glovebox (GBX) and passive temperature controlled units (PTCU). The GBX provides the experimenter with two extra levels of containment for safe sample handling. This biological research facility is a late access (L-10 hrs) laboratory, which, when reaching orbit, could automatically be starting up reducing important experiment lag-time and valuable crew time. The system is completely telecommanded when needed. During flight system parameters like temperatures, centrifuge speeds, experiment commanding or sensor readouts can be monitored and changed when needed. Although ISS provides a wide range of research facilities there is still need for an STS-based late access facility such as the BIOPACK providing experimenters with a very versatile research cabinet for biological experiments under microgravity and in-flight control conditions.

  17. First Experiences Using XACML for Access Control in Distributed Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorch, Marcus; Proctor, Seth; Lepro, Rebekah; Kafura, Dennis; Shah, Sumit

    2003-01-01

    Authorization systems today are increasingly complex. They span domains of administration, rely on many different authentication sources, and manage permissions that can be as complex as the system itself. Worse still, while there are many standards that define authentication mechanisms, the standards that address authorization are less well defined and tend to work only within homogeneous systems. This paper presents XACML, a standard access control language, as one component of a distributed and inter-operable authorization framework. Several emerging systems which incorporate XACML are discussed. These discussions illustrate how authorization can be deployed in distributed, decentralized systems. Finally, some new and future topics are presented to show where this work is heading and how it will help connect the general components of an authorization system.

  18. Birth control pills and nonprofessional voice: acoustic analyses.

    PubMed

    Amir, Ofer; Biron-Shental, Tal; Shabtai, Esther

    2006-10-01

    Two studies are presented here. Study 1 was aimed at evaluating whether the voice characteristics of women who use birth control pills that contain different progestins differ from the voice characteristics of a control group. Study 2 presents a meta-analysis that combined the results of Study 1 with those from 3 recent studies that compared voices of women who use and do not use birth control pills. In Study 1, voice samples from 30 women with no history of voice training, who use pills with different progestins (drospirenone, desogestrel, gestodene), and 10 women who do not use the pill were recorded at specific time points across the menstrual cycle and were analyzed acoustically. In Study 2, results from Study 1 were analyzed jointly with results from three recent studies, which used similar methodologies. Results of Study 1 did not reveal acoustic differences in sustained phonation of vowels across the pill groups and controls. Results of the meta-analysis performed in Study 2 indicated that pill users exhibited lower jitter and shimmer values on sustained vowels, whereas no difference of fundamental frequency was observed among women who use the pill. These results support findings from previous studies, which suggested that no adverse effect on voice was detected among nonprofessional speakers who use new-generation monophasic birth control pills, for the measures studied. Furthermore, results of the meta-analysis suggested that some acoustic properties of the voice, which are reflected in perturbation measures in sustained vowels, may be improved among women who use the pill.

  19. A Framework for Context Sensitive Risk-Based Access Control in Medical Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Choi, Donghee; Kim, Dohoon; Park, Seog

    2015-01-01

    Since the access control environment has changed and the threat of insider information leakage has come to the fore, studies on risk-based access control models that decide access permissions dynamically have been conducted vigorously. Medical information systems should protect sensitive data such as medical information from insider threat and enable dynamic access control depending on the context such as life-threatening emergencies. In this paper, we suggest an approach and framework for context sensitive risk-based access control suitable for medical information systems. This approach categorizes context information, estimating and applying risk through context- and treatment-based permission profiling and specifications by expanding the eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML) to apply risk. The proposed framework supports quick responses to medical situations and prevents unnecessary insider data access through dynamic access authorization decisions in accordance with the severity of the context and treatment.

  20. Dynamic access control model for privacy preserving personalized healthcare in cloud environment.

    PubMed

    Son, Jiseong; Kim, Jeong-Dong; Na, Hong-Seok; Baik, Doo-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    When sharing and storing healthcare data in a cloud environment, access control is a central issue for preserving data privacy as a patient's personal health data may be accessed without permission from many stakeholders. Specifically, dynamic authorization for the access of data is required because personal health data is stored in cloud storage via wearable devices. Therefore, we propose a dynamic access control model for preserving the privacy of personal healthcare data in a cloud environment. The proposed model considers context information for dynamic access. According to the proposed model, access control can be dynamically determined by changing the context information; this means that even for a subject with the same role in the cloud, access permission is defined differently depending on the context information and access condition. Furthermore, we experiment the ability of the proposed model to provide correct responses by representing a dynamic access decision with real-life personalized healthcare system scenarios.

  1. 75 FR 69791 - Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... CFR Part 240 Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access; Final Rule #0;#0... 3235-AK53 Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access AGENCY: Securities and... alternative trading system (``ATS''), including those providing sponsored or direct market access to customers...

  2. 77 FR 71474 - Seventeenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Seventeenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held December 13, 2012...

  3. 77 FR 15448 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Notice of meeting RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems DATES: The meeting will be held April 5, 2012, from 10 a...

  4. 78 FR 22025 - Twenty First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held April 9-10, 2013...

  5. 77 FR 2343 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA..., Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held February 9, 2012, from 10 a.m.-4...

  6. 78 FR 43963 - Twenty-Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty-Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held on June 20, 2013...

  7. 77 FR 55894 - Fifteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fifteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems DATES: The meeting will be held September 27-28, 2012...

  8. 78 FR 16757 - Twentieth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twentieth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held April 4, 2013 from 9...

  9. 77 FR 64838 - Sixteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Sixteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held November 15, 2012...

  10. 78 FR 31627 - Twenty-Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ...: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation... 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the twenty-second meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...

  11. 36 CFR 1256.70 - What controls access to national security-classified information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... controls access to national security-classified information? (a) The declassification of and public access... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What controls access to national security-classified information? 1256.70 Section 1256.70 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...

  12. 36 CFR 1256.70 - What controls access to national security-classified information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... controls access to national security-classified information? (a) The declassification of and public access... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What controls access to national security-classified information? 1256.70 Section 1256.70 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...

  13. 76 FR 16470 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control... meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access...

  14. 76 FR 59481 - Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access... Committee 224 meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems...

  15. Hypertension Detection, Management, Control and Associated Factors Among Residents Accessing Community Health Services In Beijing

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, Bin; LIU, Hongmei; RU, Xiaojuan; ZHANG, Hui; WU, Shengping; WANG, Wenzhi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse high blood pressure detection, management, control and associated factors among residents accessing community health services (CHSs) in Beijing. We screened for HBP in 9524 individuals aged 50 years or older who accessed care in four Beijing CHSs. Among the 9397 residents with questionnaire responses that qualified them for inclusion in the study, 5029 patients with HBP were identified, 1510 (i.e., 30% of the HBP patient group) of whom were newly identified cases. The rate of hypertension detection was 53.5%. Among the 5029 HBP patients, the rates of awareness, treatment and control of hypertension were 70.0%, 62.1% and 29.6%, respectively. In general, the rate of hypertension control was higher when the rates of hypertension awareness and treatment were higher in subgroups stratified by different sociodemographic and risk factors, except for the overweight and obesity subgroups. In conclusion, suboptimal HBP awareness, treatment, and control are still major problems confronting CHSs in Beijing. Control of hypertension in the population may be improved by increasing awareness and improving the treatment of hypertension in CHSs. PMID:24784167

  16. Hypertension detection, management, control and associated factors among residents accessing community health services in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bin; Liu, Hongmei; Ru, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Hui; Wu, Shengping; Wang, Wenzhi

    2014-05-02

    The aim of this study was to analyse high blood pressure detection, management, control and associated factors among residents accessing community health services (CHSs) in Beijing. We screened for HBP in 9524 individuals aged 50 years or older who accessed care in four Beijing CHSs. Among the 9397 residents with questionnaire responses that qualified them for inclusion in the study, 5029 patients with HBP were identified, 1510 (i.e., 30% of the HBP patient group) of whom were newly identified cases. The rate of hypertension detection was 53.5%. Among the 5029 HBP patients, the rates of awareness, treatment and control of hypertension were 70.0%, 62.1% and 29.6%, respectively. In general, the rate of hypertension control was higher when the rates of hypertension awareness and treatment were higher in subgroups stratified by different sociodemographic and risk factors, except for the overweight and obesity subgroups. In conclusion, suboptimal HBP awareness, treatment, and control are still major problems confronting CHSs in Beijing. Control of hypertension in the population may be improved by increasing awareness and improving the treatment of hypertension in CHSs.

  17. Suction catheter for enhanced control and accuracy of transseptal access.

    PubMed

    Sulkin, Matthew S; Berwick, Zachary C; Hermiller, James B; Navia, Jose A; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2016-12-20

    Percutaneous structural heart therapies, such as mitral value repair, require site-specific transseptal access (TSA). This can be challenging for interventional cardiologists. We describe a TSA catheter (TSAC) that utilises suction for enhanced control and puncture accuracy. Here, we aim to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the device. Ex vivo interatrial septum preparations were dissected from swine (n=8) and diseased human hearts (n=6) to quantify TSAC suction and needle puncture force. TSAC suction was 6.5-fold greater than the opposing needle puncture force, and thus provides sufficient stabilisation for punctures. The safety and efficacy of TSAC was evaluated in a chronic mitral regurgitation swine model (n=10) and compared to a conventional TSA device. MR was induced by disrupting one to three mitral chordae tendineae, and the progression of heart disease was followed for three weeks. During device testing, procedure time and fluoroscopy exposure were not statistically different between devices. TSAC reduced septal displacement from 8.7±0.30 mm to 3.60±0.19 mm (p<0.05) and improved puncture accuracy 1.75-fold. TSAC provides controlled TSA and improves puncture accuracy, while maintaining procedure time and workflow. These findings provide a strong rationale for a first-in-man study to demonstrate the clinical utility of the device.

  18. A stochastic control approach to Slotted-ALOHA random access protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrabissa, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    ALOHA random access protocols are distributed protocols based on transmission probabilities, that is, each node decides upon packet transmissions according to a transmission probability value. In the literature, ALOHA protocols are analysed by giving necessary and sufficient conditions for the stability of the queues of the node buffers under a control vector (whose elements are the transmission probabilities assigned to the nodes), given an arrival rate vector (whose elements represent the rates of the packets arriving in the node buffers). The innovation of this work is that, given an arrival rate vector, it computes the optimal control vector by defining and solving a stochastic control problem aimed at maximising the overall transmission efficiency, while keeping a grade of fairness among the nodes. Furthermore, a more general case in which the arrival rate vector changes in time is considered. The increased efficiency of the proposed solution with respect to the standard ALOHA approach is evaluated by means of numerical simulations.

  19. Information dynamics in cardiorespiratory analyses: application to controlled breathing.

    PubMed

    Widjaja, Devy; Faes, Luca; Montalto, Alessandro; Van Diest, Ilse; Marinazzo, Daniele; Van Huffel, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Voluntary adjustment of the breathing pattern is widely used to deal with stress-related conditions. In this study, effects of slow and fast breathing with a low and high inspiratory to expiratory time on heart rate variability (HRV) are evaluated by means of information dynamics. Information transfer is quantified both as the traditional transfer entropy as well as the cross entropy, where the latter does not condition on the past of HRV, thereby taking the highly unidirectional relation between respiration and heart rate into account. The results show that the cross entropy is more suited to quantify cardiorespiratory information transfer as this measure increases during slow breathing, indicating the increased cardiorespiratory coupling and suggesting the shift towards vagal activation during slow breathing. Additionally we found that controlled breathing, either slow or fast, results as well in an increase in cardiorespiratory coupling, compared to spontaneous breathing, which demonstrates the beneficial effects of instructed breathing.

  20. Service Independent Access Control Architecture for User Generated Content (UGC) and Its Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Akira; Kubota, Ayumu; Miyake, Yutaka; Hashimoto, Kazuo

    Using Web-based content management systems such as Blog, an end user can easily publish User Generated Content (UGC). Although publishing of UGCs is easy, controlling access to them is a difficult problem for end users. Currently, most of Blog sites offer no access control mechanism, and even when it is available to users, it is not sufficient to control users who do not have an account at the site, not to mention that it cannot control accesses to content hosted by other UGC sites. In this paper, we propose new access control architecture for UGC, in which third party entities can offer access control mechanism to users independently of UGC hosting sites. With this architecture, a user can control accesses to his content that might be spread over many different UGC sites, regardless of whether those sites have access control mechanism or not. The key idea to separate access control mechanism from UGC sites is to apply cryptographic access control and we implemented the idea in such a way that it requires no modification to UGC sites and Web browsers. Our prototype implementation shows that the proposed access control architecture can be easily deployed in the current Web-based communication environment and it works quite well with popular Blog sites.

  1. Data Access, Ownership, and Control: Toward Empirical Studies of Access Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgartner, Stephen; Brandt-Rauf, Sherry I.

    1994-01-01

    Examines how the new sociology of science can approach data access issues. A perspective is developed based on an analysis of the process of scientific production, data streams, and intellectual policy issues. (Contains 55 references.) (JLB)

  2. How Drug Control Policy and Practice Undermine Access to Controlled Medicines.

    PubMed

    Burke-Shyne, Naomi; Csete, Joanne; Wilson, Duncan; Fox, Edward; Wolfe, Daniel; Rasanathan, Jennifer J K

    2017-06-01

    Drug conventions serve as the cornerstone for domestic drug laws and impose a dual obligation upon states to prevent the misuse of controlled substances while ensuring their adequate availability for medical and scientific purposes. Despite the mandate that these obligations be enforced equally, the dominant paradigm enshrined in the drug conventions is an enforcement-heavy criminal justice response to controlled substances that prohibits and penalizes their misuse. Prioritizing restrictive control is to the detriment of ensuring adequate availability of and access to controlled medicines, thereby violating the rights of people who need them. This paper argues that the drug conventions' prioritization of criminal justice measures-including efforts to prevent non-medical use of controlled substances-undermines access to medicines and infringes upon the right to health and the right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress. While the effects of criminalization under drug policy limit the right to health in multiple ways, we draw on research and documented examples to highlight the impact of drug control and criminalization on access to medicines. The prioritization and protection of human rights-specifically the right to health and the right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress-are critical to rebalancing drug policy.

  3. How Drug Control Policy and Practice Undermine Access to Controlled Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Csete, Joanne; Wilson, Duncan; Fox, Edward; Wolfe, Daniel; Rasanathan, Jennifer J. K.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Drug conventions serve as the cornerstone for domestic drug laws and impose a dual obligation upon states to prevent the misuse of controlled substances while ensuring their adequate availability for medical and scientific purposes. Despite the mandate that these obligations be enforced equally, the dominant paradigm enshrined in the drug conventions is an enforcement-heavy criminal justice response to controlled substances that prohibits and penalizes their misuse. Prioritizing restrictive control is to the detriment of ensuring adequate availability of and access to controlled medicines, thereby violating the rights of people who need them. This paper argues that the drug conventions’ prioritization of criminal justice measures—including efforts to prevent non-medical use of controlled substances—undermines access to medicines and infringes upon the right to health and the right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress. While the effects of criminalization under drug policy limit the right to health in multiple ways, we draw on research and documented examples to highlight the impact of drug control and criminalization on access to medicines. The prioritization and protection of human rights—specifically the right to health and the right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress—are critical to rebalancing drug policy. PMID:28630556

  4. CADDIS Volume 4. Data Analysis: Advanced Analyses - Controlling for Natural Variability: SSD Plot Diagrams

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Methods for controlling natural variability, predicting environmental conditions from biological observations method, biological trait data, species sensitivity distributions, propensity scores, Advanced Analyses of Data Analysis references.

  5. CADDIS Volume 4. Data Analysis: Advanced Analyses - Controlling for Natural Variability

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Methods for controlling natural variability, predicting environmental conditions from biological observations method, biological trait data, species sensitivity distributions, propensity scores, Advanced Analyses of Data Analysis references.

  6. Toward an Open-Access Global Database for Mapping, Control, and Surveillance of Neglected Tropical Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hürlimann, Eveline; Schur, Nadine; Boutsika, Konstantina; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Laserna de Himpsl, Maiti; Ziegelbauer, Kathrin; Laizer, Nassor; Camenzind, Lukas; Di Pasquale, Aurelio; Ekpo, Uwem F.; Simoonga, Christopher; Mushinge, Gabriel; Saarnak, Christopher F. L.; Utzinger, Jürg; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2011-01-01

    Background After many years of general neglect, interest has grown and efforts came under way for the mapping, control, surveillance, and eventual elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Disease risk estimates are a key feature to target control interventions, and serve as a benchmark for monitoring and evaluation. What is currently missing is a georeferenced global database for NTDs providing open-access to the available survey data that is constantly updated and can be utilized by researchers and disease control managers to support other relevant stakeholders. We describe the steps taken toward the development of such a database that can be employed for spatial disease risk modeling and control of NTDs. Methodology With an emphasis on schistosomiasis in Africa, we systematically searched the literature (peer-reviewed journals and ‘grey literature’), contacted Ministries of Health and research institutions in schistosomiasis-endemic countries for location-specific prevalence data and survey details (e.g., study population, year of survey and diagnostic techniques). The data were extracted, georeferenced, and stored in a MySQL database with a web interface allowing free database access and data management. Principal Findings At the beginning of 2011, our database contained more than 12,000 georeferenced schistosomiasis survey locations from 35 African countries available under http://www.gntd.org. Currently, the database is expanded to a global repository, including a host of other NTDs, e.g. soil-transmitted helminthiasis and leishmaniasis. Conclusions An open-access, spatially explicit NTD database offers unique opportunities for disease risk modeling, targeting control interventions, disease monitoring, and surveillance. Moreover, it allows for detailed geostatistical analyses of disease distribution in space and time. With an initial focus on schistosomiasis in Africa, we demonstrate the proof-of-concept that the establishment and running of a

  7. Bureau of Prisons access control system: functional and operational requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janus, Michael; Carlson, Peter M.; Kane, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) operates 86 correctional institutions nationwide. The BOP has grown dramatically, the size of its inmate population growing from just over 41,000 inmates in 1987 to over 100,000 today. The number of BOP staff managing these facilities has grown correspondingly, more than doubling in number in the same ten year period. Technology has paid a major role in keeping up with this growth while maintaining high standards of security in BOP institutions. In an attempt to further enhance security in its institutions, the BOP has recently begun pilot testing an access control and entry system (ACES). ACES is intended to provide an automated record of very entry and exit to a correctional institution. ACES takes advantage of several methods of identifying an individual (inmate, staff or visitor) to assure that the individual exiting the institution is the same as the individual entering. The pilot test has raised a number of questions regarding the implementation of a technologically sophisticated system in a correctional institution. Questions of training, support, 'ownership,' cost effectiveness, and future potential all influence the deployment of this system. Preliminary results indicate that an adequate training and support system is essential to the performance of any sophisticated system and that other organizational issues need to be addressed before the decision to implement is made.

  8. Everywhere Access: Remote Control Software for the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, George

    1994-01-01

    Describes a new software program called "Everywhere Access" that provides remote access to libraries' networked personal computers and that is suitable for use with the Internet. Highlights include installation; operation; security; standards issues; documentation and technical support; and potential uses and applications. (LRW)

  9. Broadband passive optical network media access control protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quayle, Alan

    1996-11-01

    Most telecommunication operators are currently deciding on how to respond to customers' needs stimulated by the synergy between compression coding of multimedia and the emergence of broadband digital networks. This paper describes a range of broadband access architectures under consideration in the full services access network initiative. All architectures have a common requirement for a broadband ATM PON. A common broadband PON applicable to many operators increases the world-wide market for the product. With greater production volumes manufacturers' costs reduce because of the experience curve effect making broadband access systems economic.

  10. 76 FR 38293 - Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 240 RIN 3235-AK53 Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access... sponsored or direct market access to customers or other persons, and broker-dealer operators of an ATS that...-dealer that could arise as a result of market access, and ensure compliance with all regulatory...

  11. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas. (a...

  12. 78 FR 7850 - Nineteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held February 21,...

  13. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation areas...

  14. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas. (a...

  15. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation areas...

  16. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas. (a...

  17. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation areas...

  18. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas. (a...

  19. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation areas...

  20. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation areas...

  1. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas. (a...

  2. The Model and Control Methods of Access to Information and Technology Resources of Automated Control Systems in Water Supply Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rytov, M. Yu; Spichyack, S. A.; Fedorov, V. P.; Petreshin, D. I.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes a formalized control model of access to information and technological resources of automated control systems at water supply enterprises. The given model considers the availability of various communication links with information systems and technological equipment. There are also studied control methods of access to information and technological resources of automated control systems at water supply enterprises. On the basis of the formalized control model and appropriate methods there was developed a software-hardware complex for rapid access to information and technological resources of automated control systems, which contains an administrator’s automated workplace and ultimate users.

  3. Security Analysis and Improvements of Authentication and Access Control in the Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Ndibanje, Bruce; Lee, Hoon-Jae; Lee, Sang-Gon

    2014-01-01

    Internet of Things is a ubiquitous concept where physical objects are connected over the internet and are provided with unique identifiers to enable their self-identification to other devices and the ability to continuously generate data and transmit it over a network. Hence, the security of the network, data and sensor devices is a paramount concern in the IoT network as it grows very fast in terms of exchanged data and interconnected sensor nodes. This paper analyses the authentication and access control method using in the Internet of Things presented by Jing et al (Authentication and Access Control in the Internet of Things. In Proceedings of the 2012 32nd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, Macau, China, 18–21 June 2012, pp. 588–592). According to our analysis, Jing et al.'s protocol is costly in the message exchange and the security assessment is not strong enough for such a protocol. Therefore, we propose improvements to the protocol to fill the discovered weakness gaps. The protocol enhancements facilitate many services to the users such as user anonymity, mutual authentication, and secure session key establishment. Finally, the performance and security analysis show that the improved protocol possesses many advantages against popular attacks, and achieves better efficiency at low communication cost. PMID:25123464

  4. Security analysis and improvements of authentication and access control in the Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Ndibanje, Bruce; Lee, Hoon-Jae; Lee, Sang-Gon

    2014-08-13

    Internet of Things is a ubiquitous concept where physical objects are connected over the internet and are provided with unique identifiers to enable their self-identification to other devices and the ability to continuously generate data and transmit it over a network. Hence, the security of the network, data and sensor devices is a paramount concern in the IoT network as it grows very fast in terms of exchanged data and interconnected sensor nodes. This paper analyses the authentication and access control method using in the Internet of Things presented by Jing et al. (Authentication and Access Control in the Internet of Things. In Proceedings of the 2012 32nd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, Macau, China, 18-21 June 2012, pp. 588-592). According to our analysis, Jing et al.'s protocol is costly in the message exchange and the security assessment is not strong enough for such a protocol. Therefore, we propose improvements to the protocol to fill the discovered weakness gaps. The protocol enhancements facilitate many services to the users such as user anonymity, mutual authentication, and secure session key establishment. Finally, the performance and security analysis show that the improved protocol possesses many advantages against popular attacks, and achieves better efficiency at low communication cost.

  5. An effective access control approach to support mobility in IPv6 networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xue-hai; Lin, Chuang

    2005-11-01

    Access control is an important method to improve network security and prevent protected resources from being used by some nodes without authority. Moreover, mobility is an important trend of internet. In this paper, based on the architecture of hierarchical mobile IPv6, we proposed an effective access control approach to support mobility in IPv6 networks, which can ensure the operation of access control when a mobile node roams in these domains with different polices, with decreased delay of access negotiation and cost of delivering messages.

  6. Open access, readership, citations: a randomized controlled trial of scientific journal publishing.

    PubMed

    Davis, Philip M

    2011-07-01

    Does free access to journal articles result in greater diffusion of scientific knowledge? Using a randomized controlled trial of open access publishing, involving 36 participating journals in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities, we report on the effects of free access on article downloads and citations. Articles placed in the open access condition (n=712) received significantly more downloads and reached a broader audience within the first year, yet were cited no more frequently, nor earlier, than subscription-access control articles (n=2533) within 3 yr. These results may be explained by social stratification, a process that concentrates scientific authors at a small number of elite research universities with excellent access to the scientific literature. The real beneficiaries of open access publishing may not be the research community but communities of practice that consume, but rarely contribute to, the corpus of literature.

  7. Access control and privilege management in electronic health record: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Jayabalan, Manoj; O'Daniel, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    This study presents a systematic literature review of access control for electronic health record systems to protect patient's privacy. Articles from 2006 to 2016 were extracted from the ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore Digital Library, Science Direct, MEDLINE, and MetaPress using broad eligibility criteria, and chosen for inclusion based on analysis of ISO22600. Cryptographic standards and methods were left outside the scope of this review. Three broad classes of models are being actively investigated and developed: access control for electronic health records, access control for interoperability, and access control for risk analysis. Traditional role-based access control models are extended with spatial, temporal, probabilistic, dynamic, and semantic aspects to capture contextual information and provide granular access control. Maintenance of audit trails and facilities for overriding normal roles to allow full access in emergency cases are common features. Access privilege frameworks utilizing ontology-based knowledge representation for defining the rules have attracted considerable interest, due to the higher level of abstraction that makes it possible to model domain knowledge and validate access requests efficiently.

  8. 33 CFR 150.604 - Who controls access to medical monitoring and exposure records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who controls access to medical... Health Safety and Health (general) § 150.604 Who controls access to medical monitoring and exposure records? If medical monitoring is performed or exposure records are maintained by an employer, the...

  9. 78 FR 51810 - Twenty-Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control... RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held on... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Twenty-Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport...

  10. 33 CFR 150.604 - Who controls access to medical monitoring and exposure records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Who controls access to medical monitoring and exposure records? 150.604 Section 150.604 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Health Safety and Health (general) § 150.604 Who controls access to medical monitoring and...

  11. 77 FR 25525 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security... (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems DATES: The meeting will be held May 30, 2012, from 10...

  12. 76 FR 50811 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security... Committee 224 meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems...

  13. 33 CFR 104.265 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cooperation with the facility. (h) MARSEC Level 3. In addition to the security measures required for MARSEC... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security measures for access... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.265...

  14. 33 CFR 104.265 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cooperation with the facility. (h) MARSEC Level 3. In addition to the security measures required for MARSEC... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security measures for access... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.265...

  15. Scalable Machine Learning Framework for Behavior-Based Access Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    rules. Dynamic events, such as subversion of credentials (e.g., theft of a Smart Card [3] such as the Common Access Card [4]) or changes in actor... Smart card handbook. Wiley, 2010. [4] DoD ID Card Reference Center, 2013, http://www.cac.mil/ [5] Hearst, Marti A., et al. "Support vector machines

  16. Computer Control of a Random Access Slide Projector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Philip G.

    1982-01-01

    A description of a simple interface to enable the interconnection of a random access slide projector and a microcomputer is provided, as well as summaries of the role of slide images as a means of implementing graphic communication and the new activity in graphics as an area of information processing. The microcomputer interface is then detailed,…

  17. 33 CFR 104.265 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... unattended spaces that adjoin areas to which passengers and visitors have access; (9) Provide a designated... government personnel present identification credentials for entry; (2) X-ray screening of all unaccompanied... baggage more extensively, for example, x-raying from two or more angles; (ii) Prepare to restrict or...

  18. Regulation of the nucleosome unwrapping rate controls DNA accessibility

    PubMed Central

    North, Justin A.; Shimko, John C.; Javaid, Sarah; Mooney, Alex M.; Shoffner, Matthew A.; Rose, Sean D.; Bundschuh, Ralf; Fishel, Richard; Ottesen, Jennifer J.; Poirier, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are repetitively wrapped into nucleosomes that then regulate access of transcription and DNA repair complexes to DNA. The mechanisms that regulate extrinsic protein interactions within nucleosomes are unresolved. We demonstrate that modulation of the nucleosome unwrapping rate regulates protein binding within nucleosomes. Histone H3 acetyl-lysine 56 [H3(K56ac)] and DNA sequence within the nucleosome entry-exit region additively influence nucleosomal DNA accessibility by increasing the unwrapping rate without impacting rewrapping. These combined epigenetic and genetic factors influence transcription factor (TF) occupancy within the nucleosome by at least one order of magnitude and enhance nucleosome disassembly by the DNA mismatch repair complex, hMSH2–hMSH6. Our results combined with the observation that ∼30% of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TF-binding sites reside in the nucleosome entry–exit region suggest that modulation of nucleosome unwrapping is a mechanism for regulating transcription and DNA repair. PMID:22965129

  19. Secure Remote Access Issues in a Control Center Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Lee; McNair, Ann R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The ISS finally reached an operational state and exists for local and remote users. Onboard payload systems are managed by the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC). Users access HOSC systems by internet protocols in support of daily operations, preflight simulation, and test. In support of this diverse user community, a modem security architecture has been implemented. The architecture has evolved over time from an isolated but open system to a system which supports local and remote access to the ISS over broad geographic regions. This has been accomplished through the use of an evolved security strategy, PKI, and custom design. Through this paper, descriptions of the migration process and the lessons learned are presented. This will include product decision criteria, rationale, and the use of commodity products in the end architecture. This paper will also stress the need for interoperability of various products and the effects of seemingly insignificant details.

  20. Controls Over the Contractor Common Access Card Life Cycle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-10

    Identification System SES Senior Executive Service SPOC Service Point of Contact TASM Trusted Agent Security Manager USD (AT&L) Under...the final report by October 31, 2008. 53 Finding D. Oversight of Common Access Card Sponsors DoD CVS Service Points of Contact ( SPOCs ...authorization to approve contractor CACs. Organization of CAC Application Sites Each Service agency has an SPOC who is responsible for coordinating with

  1. Worktime control access, need and use in relation to work-home interference, fatigue, and job motivation.

    PubMed

    Nijp, Hylco H; Beckers, Debby G J; Kompier, Michiel A J; van den Bossche, Seth N J; Geurts, Sabine A E

    2015-07-01

    Worktime control (WTC) has been suggested as a tool to reduce employees' work-home interference and fatigue and improve job motivation. The purpose of this study was twofold: (i) to examine the prevalence of employees' need for, access to, and use of WTC, as well as the incongruence between need for and access to WTC (ie, mismatch); and (ii) to examine the associations of this mismatch and the use of WTC with employees' work-home interference (WHI), fatigue and job motivation. Questionnaire data were collected among a large (N=2420) quasi-representative sample of Dutch employees. The prevalence of WTC need, access, use, and mismatch was assessed by means of descriptive statistics. Associations with employees' outcomes were assessed by analyses of covariance. The need for WTC was highly prevalent. For many employees, we observed a negative mismatch between access to and need for WTC (ie, accessaccess to WTC and assess employees' (mis)match between components of WTC. For practice, we recommend to introduce WTC on an organizational level and assess employees' need for WTC on an individual basis.

  2. Proximity-based access control for context-sensitive information provision in SOA-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajappan, Gowri; Wang, Xiaofei; Grant, Robert; Paulini, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) has enabled open-architecture integration of applications within an enterprise. For net-centric Command and Control (C2), this elucidates information sharing between applications and users, a critical requirement for mission success. The Information Technology (IT) access control schemes, which arbitrate who gets access to what information, do not yet have the contextual knowledge to dynamically allow this information sharing to happen dynamically. The access control might prevent legitimate users from accessing information relevant to the current mission context, since this context may be very different from the context for which the access privileges were configured. We evaluate a pair of data relevance measures - proximity and risk - and use these as the basis of dynamic access control. Proximity is a measure of the strength of connection between the user and the resource. However, proximity is not sufficient, since some data might have a negative impact, if leaked, which far outweighs importance to the subject's mission. For this, we use a risk measure to quantify the downside of data compromise. Given these contextual measures of proximity and risk, we investigate extending Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC), which is used by the Department of Defense, and Role-Based Access Control (RBAC), which is widely used in the civilian market, so that these standards-based access control models are given contextual knowledge to enable dynamic information sharing. Furthermore, we consider the use of such a contextual access control scheme in a SOA-based environment, in particular for net-centric C2.

  3. Using geographical information systems to analyse accessibility to health services in the West Bank, occupied Palestinian territory.

    PubMed

    Eklund, L; Mårtensson, U

    2012-08-01

    Accessibility to adequate health services is a basic human right. Israeli road blocks and checkpoints inhibit access to health care for the Palestinian population. While other studies have dealt with the impact of the barriers, few are based on actual measurements of transport times between locations. Geographical information systems (GIS) and network analysis were used to generate different estimations of accessibility based on the existing road network and transport barriers. The population negatively affected were mainly people living outside urban centres and in governorates with no general hospital. Quantitative measurements using GIS can be used to confirm qualitative studies based on interviews and questionnaires and improve the understanding of the results. Working with a spatial analysis tool also helps to pinpoint weaknesses in the current infrastructure, thus improving the efficiency of future investments to improve health care in the West Bank.

  4. Preliminary access routes and cost study analyses for seven potentially acceptable salt sites: Final report, October 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    This report analyzes highway and railroad access to seven potentially acceptable salt repository sites: Richton Dome and Cypress Creek Dome in Mississippi, Vacherie Dome in Louisiana, Swisher County and Deaf Smith County in Texas, and Davis Canyon and Lavender Canyon in utah. The objectives of the study were to investigate the routing of reasonable access corridors to the sites, describe major characteristics of each route, and estimate the costs for constructing or upgrading highways and railroads. The routes used in the analysis are not necessarily recommended or preferred over other routes, nor do they represent an implied final selection. Detailed engineering studies must be performed for the Davis Canyon and Lavender Canyon highway access before the analyzed routes can be considered to be viable. 20 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Fertility effects of abortion and birth control pill access for minors.

    PubMed

    Guldi, Melanie

    2008-11-01

    This article empirically assesses whether age-restricted access to abortion and the birth control pill influence minors' fertility in the United States. There is not a strong consensus in previous literature regarding the relationship between laws restricting minors' access to abortion and minors' birth rates. This is the first study to recognize that state laws in place prior to the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision enabled minors to legally consent to surgical treatment-including abortion-in some states but not in others, and to construct abortion access variables reflecting this. In this article, age-specific policy variables measure either a minor's legal ability to obtain an abortion or to obtain the birth control pill without parental involvement. I find fairly strong evidence that young women's birth rates dropped as a result of abortion access as well as evidence that birth control pill access led to a drop in birth rates among whites.

  6. The views of stakeholders on controlled access schemes for high-cost antirheumatic biological medicines in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Christine Y; Ritchie, Jan; Williams, Ken; Day, Ric

    2007-01-01

    Background In Australia, government-subsidised access to high-cost medicines is "targeted" to particular sub-sets of patients under the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme to achieve cost-effective use. In order to determine how this access system could be improved, the opinions of key stakeholders on access to biological agents for rheumatoid arthritis were explored. Methods Thirty-six semi-structured interviews were conducted with persons from relevant stakeholder groups. These were transcribed verbatim, and analysed thematically. Results Controlled access to expensive medicines was considered to be equitable and practical; however, there was disagreement as to the method of defining the target patient populations. Other concerns included timeliness of access, excessive bureaucracy, and the need for additional resources to facilitate the scheme. Collaboration between stakeholders was deemed important because it allows more equitable distribution of limited resources. The majority considered that stakeholder consultation should have been broader. Most wanted increased transparency of the decision-making process, ongoing and timely review of access criteria, and an increased provision of information for patients. More structured communication between stakeholders was proposed. Conclusion The Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme is adapting to meet the changing needs of patients. Provision of subsidised access to high-cost medicines in a manner that is affordable for individuals and society, and that is equitable and efficiently managed is challenging. The views of stakeholders on targeted access to anti-rheumatic biological medicines in Australia acknowledged this challenge and provided a number of suggestions for modifications. These could serve as a basis to inform the debate on how to change the processes and policies so as to improve the scheme. PMID:18096055

  7. Play versus Alone Conditions as Controls during Functional Analyses of Self-Injurious Escape Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahng, SungWoo; Iwata, Brian A.

    1998-01-01

    A study compared effects of continuous reinforcement (play) and alone conditions as controls during functional analyses for 66 individuals whose self-injurious behavior (SIB) was maintained by escape. SIB was lower during both control conditions than it was during the test (demand) condition. SIB was lowest during the alone condition. (Author/CR)

  8. Leisure Items as Controls in the Attention Condition of Functional Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCord, Brandon E.; Neef, Nancy A.

    2005-01-01

    Leisure items (e.g., games, toys) are commonly made available as controls during attention conditions of functional analyses (Ringdahl, Winborn, Andelman, & Kitsukawa, 2002). However, Ringdahl et al. raised questions about this practice. This paper reviews research that supports and conflicts with the inclusion of leisure items as controls,…

  9. 76 FR 38742 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access... Committee 224 meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security...

  10. 76 FR 3931 - Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access... Committee 224 Meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security...

  11. 36 CFR 1256.70 - What controls access to national security-classified information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... national security-classified information? 1256.70 Section 1256.70 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... HISTORICAL MATERIALS Access to Materials Containing National Security-Classified Information § 1256.70 What controls access to national security-classified information? (a) The declassification of and public...

  12. 36 CFR 1256.70 - What controls access to national security-classified information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... national security-classified information? 1256.70 Section 1256.70 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... HISTORICAL MATERIALS Access to Materials Containing National Security-Classified Information § 1256.70 What controls access to national security-classified information? (a) The declassification of and public...

  13. 36 CFR 1256.70 - What controls access to national security-classified information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... national security-classified information? 1256.70 Section 1256.70 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... HISTORICAL MATERIALS Access to Materials Containing National Security-Classified Information § 1256.70 What controls access to national security-classified information? (a) The declassification of and public...

  14. 75 FR 71790 - Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access... Committee 224 meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security...

  15. Modeling of Control Costs, Emissions, and Control Retrofits for Cost Effectiveness and Feasibility Analyses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about EPA’s use of the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) to develop estimates of SO2 and NOx emission control costs, projections of futureemissions, and projections of capacity of future control retrofits, assuming controls on EGUs.

  16. The Smart Card concept applied to access control

    SciTech Connect

    Seidman, S.

    1986-01-01

    Passwords tend to be handled carelessly, and so are easily lost or stolen. Because they are intangible, their loss or theft generally goes unnoticed. Because they are constant, they may be used by anyone for as long as they remain in active use by a legitimate user. A step up in password security is offered by a new range of products which generate a new code each time the device is used. Devices are being produced in packages as small as a standard plastic credit card, including internal battery power, integral keyboard and LCD display. Security features of the Smart Card are reviewed, and several random access code generators currently available in the commercial marketplace are described.

  17. Enhancing Subject Access to OPACs: Controlled Vocabulary vs. Natural Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, Shirley Anne

    1992-01-01

    Investigation of retrieval performance of controlled vocabulary derived from natural language terms in tables of contents and book indexes assumed that controlled vocabulary representative of users' queries should adequately represent documents' contents. Queries were indexed using Library of Congress Subject Headings (LSCH), Dewey Decimal…

  18. Increasing software testability with standard access and control interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikora, Allen P; Some, Raphael R.; Tamir, Yuval

    2003-01-01

    We describe an approach to improving the testability of complex software systems with software constructs modeled after the hardware JTAG bus, used to provide visibility and controlability in testing digital circuits.

  19. 75 FR 61819 - First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224... Overview RTCA Functional Overview Previous Committee History Current Committee Scope, Terms of Reference...

  20. 75 FR 43825 - Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ...The Librarian of Congress announces that the prohibition against circumvention of technological measures that effectively control access to copyrighted works shall not apply to persons who engage in noninfringing uses of six classes of copyrighted works.

  1. 75 FR 47464 - Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Office 37 CFR Part 201 Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies AGENCY: Copyright Office, Library of Congress. ACTION: Final...

  2. 77 FR 26789 - Certain Semiconductor Chips Having Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory Controllers and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Chips Having Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory Controllers and Products Containing Same; Determination Rescinding the Exclusion Order and Cease and Desist Orders AGENCY...

  3. A controlled trial of an advanced access appointment system in a residency family medicine center.

    PubMed

    Belardi, Francis G; Weir, Sam; Craig, Francis W

    2004-05-01

    The implementation of advanced access appointment systems has improved continuity of care, patient and physician satisfaction, physician productivity, and average physician panel size in private practice and group-model HMO settings. This study's purpose was to document the patient care benefits, practice management benefits, and educational outcomes from the controlled implementation of an advanced access appointment system in a residency family medicine center. Two faculty-resident teams were created. One team adopted the advanced access system while the other team continued using a traditional access system. Outcome measures included length of time needed to obtain an appointment (days to third available appointment), continuity (percentage of visits with the patient's designated provider), no-show rates, productivity, visits lost to outside providers, panel sizes, and patient satisfaction. Outcomes were measured at baseline and quarterly for 1 year after initial implementation. After implementation, the "days to third available appointment" for the advanced access group was 5 days, compared to 21 days for the traditional access group. A significant improvement in continuity (ie, a match between the primary care physician and patient) for the advanced access team was found. Comparison of no-show rates between the advanced access and traditional access teams revealed significant between-subjects effect, but controlling for within-subject variation using repeated measures ANOVA eliminated this effect. Advanced access residents increased their continuity above 50% while increasing provider satisfaction with office practice and scope of practice. Faculty and residents can successfully use advanced access. Advanced access can enhance residency education by reducing appointment delays and significantly increasing the patient-primary care physician match.

  4. A contextual role-based access control authorization model for electronic patient record.

    PubMed

    Motta, Gustavo H M B; Furuie, Sergio S

    2003-09-01

    The design of proper models for authorization and access control for electronic patient record (EPR) is essential to a wide scale use of EPR in large health organizations. In this paper, we propose a contextual role-based access control authorization model aiming to increase the patient privacy and the confidentiality of patient data, whereas being flexible enough to consider specific cases. This model regulates user's access to EPR based on organizational roles. It supports a role-tree hierarchy with authorization inheritance; positive and negative authorizations; static and dynamic separation of duties based on weak and strong role conflicts. Contextual authorizations use environmental information available at access time, like user/patient relationship, in order to decide whether a user is allowed to access an EPR resource. This enables the specification of a more flexible and precise authorization policy, where permission is granted or denied according to the right and the need of the user to carry out a particular job function.

  5. Distributed Medium Access Control with SDMA Support for WLANs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Sheng; Niu, Zhisheng

    With simultaneous multi-user transmissions, spatial division multiple access (SDMA) provides substantial throughput gain over the single user transmission. However, its implementation in WLANs with contention-based IEEE 802.11 MAC remains challenging. Problems such as coordinating and synchronizing the multiple users need to be solved in a distributed way. In this paper, we propose a distributed MAC protocol for WLANs with SDMA support. A dual-mode CTS responding mechanism is designed to accomplish the channel estimation and user synchronization required for SDMA. We analytically study the throughput performance of the proposed MAC, and dynamic parameter adjustment is designed to enhance the protocol efficiency. In addition, the proposed MAC protocol does not rely on specific physical layer realizations, and can work on legacy IEEE 802.11 equipment with slight software updates. Simulation results show that the proposed MAC outperforms IEEE 802.11 significantly, and that the dynamic parameter adjustment can effectively track the load variation in the network.

  6. Simulation and Modeling of a New Medium Access Control Scheme for Multi-Beam Directional Networking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-03

    Simulation and Modeling of a New Medium Access Control Scheme for Multi-Beam Directional Networking Brian Proulx, Greg Kuperman, Nathaniel M. Jones...paper, we analyze a new medium access control (MAC) protocol for multi-beam directional network via high- fidelity simulation using a real-time emulator...implement our protocol in both simula- tion and a new Extendable Mobile Ad-hoc Network Emula- tor (EMANE) model that allows for real-time, high fidelity

  7. Springfield Processing Plant* (A Hypothetical Facility) SPP, Entry Control Point and Vehicle Gate Access Control Post Order

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, Gregory A.

    2014-06-01

    This hypothetical order provides the requirements and instructions for the Springfield Processing Plant (SPP) Vehicle Gate and Entry Control Point (ECP) in the perimeter access building. The purpose of this post is to prevent the theft, sabotage or diversion of nuclear material (NM), control access and exit at the protected area, and to respond to emergencies according the SPP Guard Force (GF) Contingency Plan and as directed by a Guard Force Supervisor.

  8. Performance analysis and overload control of an open service access (OSA) architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Jens K.; Nyberg, Christian; Kihl, Maria

    2003-08-01

    The trend of the service architectures developed in telecommunications today is that they should be open in the sense that they can communicate over the borders of different networks. Instead of each network having their own service architecture with their own applications, all networks should be able to use the same applications. 3GPP, the organization developing specifications for the 3G networks has specified the standard Open Service Access (OSA), as a part of the 3G specification. OSA offers different Application Protocol Interfaces that enable an application that resides outside a network to use the capabilities of the network. This paper analyses the performance of an OSA gateway. It is examined how the overload control can be dealt with in a way to best satisfy the operators and the 3'rd parties. There are some guiding principles in the specifications, but a lot of decisions have to be made by the implementors of application servers and OSA gateways. Proposals of different requirements for an OSA architecture exist such as, minimum amount of accepted calls per second and time constraint for the maximal total delay for an application. Maximal and fair throughput have to be prioritized from the 3'rd parties view, but profit is the main interest from the operators point of view. Therefore this paper examines a priority based proposal of an overload control mechanism taking these aspects and requirements into account.

  9. Advanced Techniques for Deploying Reliable and Efficient Access Control: Application to E-healthcare.

    PubMed

    Jaïdi, Faouzi; Labbene-Ayachi, Faten; Bouhoula, Adel

    2016-12-01

    Nowadays, e-healthcare is a main advancement and upcoming technology in healthcare industry that contributes to setting up automated and efficient healthcare infrastructures. Unfortunately, several security aspects remain as main challenges towards secure and privacy-preserving e-healthcare systems. From the access control perspective, e-healthcare systems face several issues due to the necessity of defining (at the same time) rigorous and flexible access control solutions. This delicate and irregular balance between flexibility and robustness has an immediate impact on the compliance of the deployed access control policy. To address this issue, the paper defines a general framework to organize thinking about verifying, validating and monitoring the compliance of access control policies in the context of e-healthcare databases. We study the problem of the conformity of low level policies within relational databases and we particularly focus on the case of a medical-records management database defined in the context of a Medical Information System. We propose an advanced solution for deploying reliable and efficient access control policies. Our solution extends the traditional lifecycle of an access control policy and allows mainly managing the compliance of the policy. We refer to an example to illustrate the relevance of our proposal.

  10. Cognitive Control and Lexical Access in Younger and Older Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialystok, Ellen; Craik, Fergus; Luk, Gigi

    2008-01-01

    Ninety-six participants, who were younger (20 years) or older (68 years) adults and either monolingual or bilingual, completed tasks assessing working memory, lexical retrieval, and executive control. Younger participants performed most of the tasks better than older participants, confirming the effect of aging on these processes. The effect of…

  11. 33 CFR 165.9 - Geographic application of limited and controlled access areas and regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and controlled access areas and regulated navigation areas. 165.9 Section 165.9 Navigation and... controlled access areas and regulated navigation areas. (a) General. The geographic application of the limited and controlled access areas and regulated navigation areas in this part are determined based...

  12. Generalized access control strategies for integrated services token passing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Joseph W. M.; Tobagi, Fouad A.; Boyd, Stephen

    1994-08-01

    The demand for integrated services local area networks is increasing at a rapid pace with the advent of many new and exciting applications: office and factory automation, distributed computing, and multimedia communications. To support these new applications, it is imperative to integrate traffic with diverse statistical characteristics and differing delay requirements on the same network. An attractive approach for integrating traffic has been adopted in two token passing local area network standards, the IEEE 802.4 token bus standard and FDDI. The idea is to control the transmissions of each station based on a distributed timing algorithm, so as to achieve the following goals: (1) to limit the token cycles so that time-critical traffic can be accommodated, and (2) to allocate pre-specified bandwidths to different stations when the network is overloaded. We have investigated the analysis and design of this protocol. In this paper, we generalize the transmission control algorithm used previously. The major advantages of the generalization over the original protocol are: (1) it provides a much expanded design space, (2) it guarantees convergent behavior, and (3) it gives meaningful insights into the dynamics of the basic control algorithm.

  13. Trust-based access control model from sociological approach in dynamic online social network environment.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seungsoo; Kim, Seungjoo

    2014-01-01

    There has been an explosive increase in the population of the OSN (online social network) in recent years. The OSN provides users with many opportunities to communicate among friends and family. Further, it facilitates developing new relationships with previously unknown people having similar beliefs or interests. However, the OSN can expose users to adverse effects such as privacy breaches, the disclosing of uncontrolled material, and the disseminating of false information. Traditional access control models such as MAC, DAC, and RBAC are applied to the OSN to address these problems. However, these models are not suitable for the dynamic OSN environment because user behavior in the OSN is unpredictable and static access control imposes a burden on the users to change the access control rules individually. We propose a dynamic trust-based access control for the OSN to address the problems of the traditional static access control. Moreover, we provide novel criteria to evaluate trust factors such as sociological approach and evaluate a method to calculate the dynamic trust values. The proposed method can monitor negative behavior and modify access permission levels dynamically to prevent the indiscriminate disclosure of information.

  14. Trust-Based Access Control Model from Sociological Approach in Dynamic Online Social Network Environment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seungjoo

    2014-01-01

    There has been an explosive increase in the population of the OSN (online social network) in recent years. The OSN provides users with many opportunities to communicate among friends and family. Further, it facilitates developing new relationships with previously unknown people having similar beliefs or interests. However, the OSN can expose users to adverse effects such as privacy breaches, the disclosing of uncontrolled material, and the disseminating of false information. Traditional access control models such as MAC, DAC, and RBAC are applied to the OSN to address these problems. However, these models are not suitable for the dynamic OSN environment because user behavior in the OSN is unpredictable and static access control imposes a burden on the users to change the access control rules individually. We propose a dynamic trust-based access control for the OSN to address the problems of the traditional static access control. Moreover, we provide novel criteria to evaluate trust factors such as sociological approach and evaluate a method to calculate the dynamic trust values. The proposed method can monitor negative behavior and modify access permission levels dynamically to prevent the indiscriminate disclosure of information. PMID:25374943

  15. Does psychotherapy work? An umbrella review of meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Dragioti, E; Karathanos, V; Gerdle, B; Evangelou, E

    2017-09-01

    To map and evaluate the evidence across meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of psychotherapies for various outcomes. We identified 173 eligible studies, including 247 meta-analyses that synthesized data from 5157 RCTs via a systematic search from inception to December 2016 in the PubMed, PsycINFO and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. We calculated summary effects using random-effects models, and we assessed between-study heterogeneity. We estimated whether large studies had significantly more conservative results compared to smaller studies (small-study effects) and whether the observed positive studies were more than expected by chance. Finally, we assessed the credibility of the evidence using several criteria. One hundred and ninety-nine meta-analyses were significant at P-value ≤ 0.05, and almost all (n = 196) favoured psychotherapy. Large and very large heterogeneity was observed in 130 meta-analyses. Evidence for small-study effects was found in 72 meta-analyses, while 95 had evidence of excess of significant findings. Only 16 (7%) provided convincing evidence that psychotherapy is effective. These pertained to cognitive behavioural therapy (n = 6), meditation therapy (n = 1), cognitive remediation (n = 1), counselling (n = 1) and mixed types of psychotherapies (n = 7). Although almost 80% meta-analyses reported a nominally statistically significant finding favouring psychotherapy, only a few meta-analyses provided convincing evidence without biases. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. An Action-Based Fine-Grained Access Control Mechanism for Structured Documents and Its Application

    PubMed Central

    Su, Mang; Li, Fenghua; Tang, Zhi; Yu, Yinyan; Zhou, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an action-based fine-grained access control mechanism for structured documents. Firstly, we define a describing model for structured documents and analyze the application scenarios. The describing model could support the permission management on chapters, pages, sections, words, and pictures of structured documents. Secondly, based on the action-based access control (ABAC) model, we propose a fine-grained control protocol for structured documents by introducing temporal state and environmental state. The protocol covering different stages from document creation, to permission specification and usage control are given by using the Z-notation. Finally, we give the implementation of our mechanism and make the comparisons between the existing methods and our mechanism. The result shows that our mechanism could provide the better solution of fine-grained access control for structured documents in complicated networks. Moreover, it is more flexible and practical. PMID:25136651

  17. Analysing the Trait Anxiety and Locus of Control of Undergraduates in Terms of Attachment Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilmac, Bulent; Hamarta, Erdal; Arslan, Coskun

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to analyse the trait anxiety and locus of control of undergraduates in terms of their attachment styles. This research has been conducted in accordance with general screening model. The target population of the research is constituted of 480 undergraduates. Pearson moments multiplication correlation coefficient…

  18. Advanced Guidance and Control for Hypersonics and Space Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Hall, Charles E.; Mulqueen, John A.; Jones, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Advanced guidance and control (AG&C) technologies are critical for meeting safety, reliability, and cost requirements for the next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV), whether it is fully rocket-powered or has air- breathing components. This becomes clear upon examining the number of expendable launch vehicle failures in the recent past where AG&C technologies could have saved a RLV with the same failure mode, the additional vehicle problems where t h i s technology applies, and the costs and time associated with mission design with or without all these failure issues. The state-of-the-art in guidance and control technology, as well as in computing technology, is the point where we can look to the possibility of being able to safely return a RLV in any situation where it can physically be recovered. This paper outlines reasons for AWC, current technology efforts, and the additional work needed for making this goal a reality. There are a number of approaches to AG&C that have the potential for achieving the desired goals. For some of these methods, we compare the results of tests designed to demonstrate the achievement of the goals. Tests up to now have been focused on rocket-powered vehicles; application to hypersonic air-breathers is planned. We list the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, briefly describe an automated test scoring method, and display results of the tests. Some of the technology components have reached the maturity level where they are ready for application to a new vehicle concept, while others are not far along in development.

  19. [Public control and equity of access to hospitals under non-State public administration].

    PubMed

    Carneiro Junior, Nivaldo; Elias, Paulo Eduardo

    2006-10-01

    To analyze social health organizations in the light of public control and the guarantee of equity of access to health services. Utilizing the case study technique, two social health organizations in the metropolitan region of São Paulo were selected. The analytical categories were equity of access and public control, and these were based on interviews with key informants and technical-administrative reports. It was observed that the overall funding and administrative control of the social health organizations are functions of the state administrator. The presence of a local administrator is important for ensuring equity of access. Public control is expressed through supervisory actions, by means of accounting and financial procedures. Equity of access and public control are not taken into consideration in the administration of these organizations. The central question lies in the capacity of the public authorities to have a presence in implementing this model at the local level, thereby ensuring equity of access and taking public control into consideration.

  20. Halloysite Nanotubes: Controlled Access and Release by Smart Gates

    PubMed Central

    Cavallaro, Giuseppe; Danilushkina, Anna A.; Evtugyn, Vladimir G.; Milioto, Stefana; Parisi, Filippo; Rozhina, Elvira V.; Fakhrullin, Rawil F.

    2017-01-01

    Hollow halloysite nanotubes have been used as nanocontainers for loading and for the triggered release of calcium hydroxide for paper preservation. A strategy for placing end-stoppers into the tubular nanocontainer is proposed and the sustained release from the cavity is reported. The incorporation of Ca(OH)2 into the nanotube lumen, as demonstrated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) mapping, retards the carbonatation, delaying the reaction with CO2 gas. This effect can be further controlled by placing the end-stoppers. The obtained material is tested for paper deacidification. We prove that adding halloysite filled with Ca(OH)2 to paper can reduce the impact of acid exposure on both the mechanical performance and pH alteration. The end-stoppers have a double effect: they preserve the calcium hydroxide from carbonation, and they prevent from the formation of highly basic pH and trigger the response to acid exposure minimizing the pH drop-down. These features are promising for a composite nanoadditive in the smart protection of cellulose-based materials. PMID:28788058

  1. The ribosome quality control pathway can access nascent polypeptides stalled at the Sec61 translocon.

    PubMed

    von der Malsburg, Karina; Shao, Sichen; Hegde, Ramanujan S

    2015-06-15

    Cytosolic ribosomes that stall during translation are split into subunits, and nascent polypeptides trapped in the 60S subunit are ubiquitinated by the ribosome quality control (RQC) pathway. Whether the RQC pathway can also target stalls during cotranslational translocation into the ER is not known. Here we report that listerin and NEMF, core RQC components, are bound to translocon-engaged 60S subunits on native ER membranes. RQC recruitment to the ER in cultured cells is stimulated by translation stalling. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that translocon-targeted nascent polypeptides that subsequently stall are polyubiquitinated in 60S complexes. Ubiquitination at the translocon requires cytosolic exposure of the polypeptide at the ribosome-Sec61 junction. This exposure can result from either failed insertion into the Sec61 channel or partial backsliding of translocating nascent chains. Only Sec61-engaged nascent chains early in their biogenesis were relatively refractory to ubiquitination. Modeling based on recent 60S-RQC and 80S-Sec61 structures suggests that the E3 ligase listerin accesses nascent polypeptides via a gap in the ribosome-translocon junction near the Sec61 lateral gate. Thus the RQC pathway can target stalled translocation intermediates for degradation from the Sec61 channel.

  2. The ribosome quality control pathway can access nascent polypeptides stalled at the Sec61 translocon

    PubMed Central

    von der Malsburg, Karina; Shao, Sichen; Hegde, Ramanujan S.

    2015-01-01

    Cytosolic ribosomes that stall during translation are split into subunits, and nascent polypeptides trapped in the 60S subunit are ubiquitinated by the ribosome quality control (RQC) pathway. Whether the RQC pathway can also target stalls during cotranslational translocation into the ER is not known. Here we report that listerin and NEMF, core RQC components, are bound to translocon-engaged 60S subunits on native ER membranes. RQC recruitment to the ER in cultured cells is stimulated by translation stalling. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that translocon-targeted nascent polypeptides that subsequently stall are polyubiquitinated in 60S complexes. Ubiquitination at the translocon requires cytosolic exposure of the polypeptide at the ribosome–Sec61 junction. This exposure can result from either failed insertion into the Sec61 channel or partial backsliding of translocating nascent chains. Only Sec61-engaged nascent chains early in their biogenesis were relatively refractory to ubiquitination. Modeling based on recent 60S–RQC and 80S–Sec61 structures suggests that the E3 ligase listerin accesses nascent polypeptides via a gap in the ribosome–translocon junction near the Sec61 lateral gate. Thus the RQC pathway can target stalled translocation intermediates for degradation from the Sec61 channel. PMID:25877867

  3. Steganography-based access control to medical data hidden in electrocardiogram.

    PubMed

    Mai, Vu; Khalil, Ibrahim; Ibaida, Ayman

    2013-01-01

    Steganographic techniques allow secret data to be embedded inside another host data such as an image or a text file without significant changes to the quality of the host data. In this research, we demonstrate how steganography can be used as the main mechanism to build an access control model that gives data owners complete control to their sensitive cardiac health information hidden in their own Electrocardiograms. Our access control model is able to protect the privacy of users, the confidentiality of medical data, reduce storage space and make it more efficient to upload and download large amount of data.

  4. Modelling of Medium Access Control (MAC) Protocols for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Slot IP Internet Protocol LAN Local Area Network MAC Medium Access Control MACAW Medium Access Protocol for Wireless LANs MANET Mobile Ad-hoc...Unforced state – It waits after entering the state until it is invoked by another process or an interrupt. It is in dark grey on this report, and red ... green in OPNET. A MAC process model is built for general initialisations of the MAC module, and to invoke the selected MAC protocol process model

  5. Towards a Secure Programming Language. An Access Control System for CommonLisp

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-25

    at the 2009 International Lisp Conference, Cambridge MA March 22-25, 2009. 14. ABSTRACT Computer security is becoming an increasingly important...flow and access that would limit the damage due to a penetration. In this paper, we present an access control system for Lisp -like languages that...language as dynamic as Common- lisp is a serious challenge; we present techniques based on use of the Meta- Object Protocol (MOP) that achieve this

  6. Sex based subgroup differences in randomized controlled trials: empirical evidence from Cochrane meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Wallach, Joshua D; Sullivan, Patrick G; Trepanowski, John F; Steyerberg, Ewout W

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the frequency, validity, and relevance of statistically significant (P<0.05) sex-treatment interactions in randomized controlled trials in Cochrane meta-analyses. Design Meta-epidemiological study. Data sources Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) and PubMed. Eligibility criteria for study selection Reviews published in the CDSR with sex-treatment subgroup analyses in the forest plots, using data from randomized controlled trials. Data extraction Information on the study design and sex subgroup data were extracted from reviews and forest plots that met inclusion criteria. For each statistically significant sex-treatment interaction, the potential for biological plausibility and clinical significance was considered. Results Among the 41 reviews with relevant data, there were 109 separate treatment-outcome analyses (“topics”). Among the 109 topics, eight (7%) had a statistically significant sex-treatment interaction. The 109 topics included 311 randomized controlled trials (162 with both sexes, 46 with males only, 103 with females only). Of the 162 individual randomized controlled trials that included both sexes, 15 (9%) had a statistically significant sex-treatment interaction. Of four topics where the first published randomized controlled trial had a statistically significant sex-treatment interaction, no meta-analyses that included other randomized controlled trials retained the statistical significance and no meta-analyses showed statistical significance when data from the first published randomized controlled trial were excluded. Of the eight statistically significant sex-treatment interactions from the overall analyses, only three were discussed by the CDSR reviewers for a potential impact on different clinical management for males compared with females. None of these topics had a sex-treatment interaction that influenced treatment recommendations in recent guidelines. UpToDate, an online physician-authored clinical

  7. 50 CFR 622.17 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false South Atlantic golden crab controlled... ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.17 South Atlantic golden crab controlled access. (a) General. In accordance with the procedures specified in the Fishery Management Plan for the Golden Crab Fishery of the...

  8. 50 CFR 622.17 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false South Atlantic golden crab controlled... ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.17 South Atlantic golden crab controlled access. (a) General. In accordance with the procedures specified in the Fishery Management Plan for the Golden Crab Fishery of the...

  9. 50 CFR 622.241 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false South Atlantic golden crab controlled..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.241 South Atlantic golden crab controlled access. (a) General. In accordance with the procedures specified in the Fishery...

  10. 50 CFR 622.241 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false South Atlantic golden crab controlled..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.241 South Atlantic golden crab controlled access. (a) General. In accordance with the procedures specified in the Fishery...

  11. Analysis of Decision Factors for the Application of Information Access Controls within the Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foerster, Carl A.

    2013-01-01

    The application of access controls on internal information necessarily impacts the availability of that information for sharing inside the enterprise. The decisions establishing the degree of control are a crucial first step to balance the requirements to protect and share. This research develops a set of basic decision factors and examines other…

  12. Analysis of Decision Factors for the Application of Information Access Controls within the Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foerster, Carl A.

    2013-01-01

    The application of access controls on internal information necessarily impacts the availability of that information for sharing inside the enterprise. The decisions establishing the degree of control are a crucial first step to balance the requirements to protect and share. This research develops a set of basic decision factors and examines other…

  13. Disturbance rejection performance analyses of closed loop control systems by reference to disturbance ratio.

    PubMed

    Alagoz, Baris Baykant; Deniz, Furkan Nur; Keles, Cemal; Tan, Nusret

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates disturbance rejection capacity of closed loop control systems by means of reference to disturbance ratio (RDR). The RDR analysis calculates the ratio of reference signal energy to disturbance signal energy at the system output and provides a quantitative evaluation of disturbance rejection performance of control systems on the bases of communication channel limitations. Essentially, RDR provides a straightforward analytical method for the comparison and improvement of implicit disturbance rejection capacity of closed loop control systems. Theoretical analyses demonstrate us that RDR of the negative feedback closed loop control systems are determined by energy spectral density of controller transfer function. In this manner, authors derived design criteria for specifications of disturbance rejection performances of PID and fractional order PID (FOPID) controller structures. RDR spectra are calculated for investigation of frequency dependence of disturbance rejection capacity and spectral RDR analyses are carried out for PID and FOPID controllers. For the validation of theoretical results, simulation examples are presented. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. MAAC: a software tool for user authentication and access control to the electronic patient record in an open distributed environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, Gustavo H.; Furuie, Sergio S.

    2004-04-01

    Designing proper models for authorization and access control for the electronic patient record (EPR) is essential to wide scale use of the EPR in large health organizations. This work presents MAAC (Middleware for Authentication and Access Control), a tool that implements a contextual role-based access control (RBAC) authorization model. RBAC regulates user"s access to computers resources based on their organizational roles. A contextual authorization uses environmental information available at access-request time, like user/patient relationship, in order to decide whether a user has the right to access an EPR resource. The software architecture where MAAC is implemented uses Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, Java programming language and the CORBA/OMG standards CORBA Security Service and Resource Access Decision Facility. With those open and distributed standards, heterogeneous EPR components can request user authentication and access authorization services in a unified and consistent fashion across multiple platforms.

  15. Guidelines for the quality control of population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analyses: an industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Bonate, P L; Strougo, A; Desai, A; Roy, M; Yassen, A; van der Walt, J S; Kaibara, A; Tannenbaum, S

    2012-12-01

    Quality population modeling and simulation analyses and reports are something every modeler desires. However, little attention in the literature has been paid to what constitutes quality regarding population analyses. Very rarely do published manuscripts contain any statement about quality assurance of the modeling results contained therein. The purpose of this manuscript is to present guidelines for the quality assurance of population analyses, particularly with regards to the use of NONMEM from an industrial perspective. Quality guidelines are developed for the NONMEM installation itself, NONMEM data sets, control streams, output listings, output data files and resultant post-processing, reporting of results, and the review processes. These guidelines were developed to be thorough yet practical, though are not meant to be completely comprehensive. It is our desire to ensure that what is reported accurately reflects the collected data, the modeling process, and model outputs for a modeling project.

  16. Effect of route of EPO administration on hemodialysis arteriovenous vascular access failure: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Ki; Koo, Ja-Ryong; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Park, In-Il; Joo, Min-Ha; Yoon, Jong-Woo; Noh, Jung-Woo; Vaziri, Nosratola D

    2009-05-01

    Vascular access failure is a major cause of morbidity and hospitalization in hemodialysis populations worldwide. Erythropoietin (EPO) potentially can contribute to vascular access stenosis and occlusion by promoting intimal hyperplasia and thrombosis. Intravenous administration of EPO results in a severe, but transient, increase in drug concentration within the vascular access, whereas subcutaneous administration leads to a mild, but sustained, increase in the systemic circulation. The effect of route of administration of EPO on vascular access outcomes is uncertain. Randomized controlled trial. 78 Korean hemodialysis patients were randomly assigned to receive either intravenous (n = 40) or subcutaneous (n = 38) EPO. EPO was administered during dialysis, and the dose was titrated to maintain hemoglobin levels between 9 to 12 g/dL. All patients received EPO 2 or 3 times/wk. Study duration was 4 to 77 months. The primary end point was time to vascular access failure. Analysis was performed using Cox regression analysis. The incidence of access failure was 4.7%/patient-year in the intravenous-therapy group and 12.0%/patient-year in the subcutaneous-therapy group, with an unadjusted hazard ratio of 3.24 (95% confidence interval, 1.31 to 8.00; P = 0.01). After adjustment for dialysis access type, vascular access age, previous intervention, serum phosphorus level, and diabetes mellitus, subcutaneous EPO administration was independently associated with increased vascular access failure (hazard ratio, 3.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.20 to 10.58; P = 0.02). There were no significant differences in either hemoglobin concentration or EPO dosage between the 2 groups during the study period. Relatively small sample size and lack of complete symmetry between the 2 groups with respect to some baseline characteristics. This study suggests that the risk of vascular access failure may be greater with subcutaneous compared with intravenous administration of EPO in hemodialysis

  17. Simulation study with minimised additional data requirements to analyse control and operation of WWTP Dorsten, Germany.

    PubMed

    Alex, J; Hetschel, M; Ogurek, M

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a method to decrease the additional measurement effort during a model calibration/verification to create reliable models for plant optimisation. The method is based on the deterministic processes creating the dry weather inflow to municipal treatment plants, which can be described by a simple influent composition model. This method was applied to two wastewater treatment plants of Lippeverband and the usability is indicated by the good correlation between routine online effluent measurements and simulation results. This paper presents one of these applications, the case study WWTP Dorsten. The resulting model is used to analyse the current plant performance, to analyse bottlenecks and to develop future improvements of operation and control of this plant. A selection of control options is demonstrated.

  18. [Statistical analyses in the Revista Clínica Española: their actual use and accessibility for the reader].

    PubMed

    Mora i Ripoll, R; Canela i Soler, J

    1997-01-01

    In the original articles published in Revista Clínica Española in 1994 and 1995, the use frequency of different statistical analyses is reported, the statistical repertoire necessary for the reader to interpret statistical methods determined, and results are compared with those found in similar studies. Ninety-one original articles were reviewed. Statistical procedures were classified into 18 hierarchical categories and the statistical accessibility to the reader was quantitated assuming the knowledge up to a determined category (basic course in biostatistics) as reference level. The five categories used most frequently were Bivariate contingency tables (56%), t and z tests (42%), at the most descriptive statistics (23%), Epidemiological statistics (22%) and Non parametric tests (20%). Sixty-eight percent of original articles in Revista Clínica Española were statistically accessible to the reader with a basic knowledge on statistics. To have access to a considerable percentage of originals in this and other similar medical journals, the reader of Revista Clínica Española does no need to manage a statistical repertoire higher than a basic course in biostatistics. On the other hand, the reader is advised to deepen his/her knowledge on the design of an investigational study.

  19. Measurement of electromagnetic fields generated by air traffic control radar systems with spectrum analysers.

    PubMed

    Barellini, A; Bogi, L; Licitra, G; Silvi, A M; Zari, A

    2009-12-01

    Air traffic control (ATC) primary radars are 'classical' radars that use echoes of radiofrequency (RF) pulses from aircraft to determine their position. High-power RF pulses radiated from radar antennas may produce high electromagnetic field levels in the surrounding area. Measurement of electromagnetic fields produced by RF-pulsed radar by means of a swept-tuned spectrum analyser are investigated here. Measurements have been carried out both in the laboratory and in situ on signals generated by an ATC primary radar.

  20. Analyses and tests of the B-1 aircraft structural mode control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wykes, J. H.; Byar, T. R.; Macmiller, C. J.; Greek, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    Analyses and flight tests of the B-1 structural mode control system (SMCS) are presented. Improvements in the total dynamic response of a flexible aircraft and the benefits to ride qualities, handling qualities, crew efficiency, and reduced dynamic loads on the primary structures, were investigated. The effectiveness and the performance of the SMCS, which uses small aerodynamic surfaces at the vehicle nose to provide damping to the structural modes, were evaluated.

  1. Virus spreading in wireless sensor networks with a medium access control mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya-Qi; Yang, Xiao-Yuan

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, an extended version of standard susceptible-infected (SI) model is proposed to consider the influence of a medium access control mechanism on virus spreading in wireless sensor networks. Theoretical analysis shows that the medium access control mechanism obviously reduces the density of infected nodes in the networks, which has been ignored in previous studies. It is also found that by increasing the network node density or node communication radius greatly increases the number of infected nodes. The theoretical results are confirmed by numerical simulations.

  2. Joint Random Access and Power Control Game in Ad Hoc Networks with Noncooperative Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Chengnian; Guan, Xinping

    We consider a distributed joint random access and power control scheme for interference management in wireless ad hoc networks. To derive decentralized solutions that do not require any cooperation among the users, we formulate this problem as non-cooperative joint random access and power control game, in which each user minimizes its average transmission cost with a given rate constraint. Using supermodular game theory, the existence and uniqueness of Nash equilibrium are established. Furthermore, we present an asynchronous distributed algorithm to compute the solution of the game based on myopic best response updates, which converges to Nash equilibrium globally.

  3. An incidence density sampling program for nested case-control analyses

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, D

    2004-01-01

    Methods: This paper presents a simple computer program for incidence density sampling. This program was evaluated using data derived from a cohort study of mortality among workers employed in the nuclear weapons industry. Controls were selected for cases via incidence density sampling; an estimate of the exposure-mortality association was obtained via conditional logistic regression. After 100 iterations of this procedure, the average effect estimate was compared to the risk estimate obtained via proportional hazards regression. The same methods were used to evaluate a program for incidence density sampling that was proposed previously by Pearce in 1989.5 Results: Relative risk estimates obtained from nested case-control analyses conducted using the incidence density sampling program reported in this paper are unbiased. In contrast, the program for incidence density sampling proposed by Pearce5 tended to produce biased relative risk estimates; the magnitude of bias increased with increasing numbers of controls selected per case. Conclusions: The computer program described in this paper offers a simple approach to incidence density sampling for nested case-control analyses with exact matching on attained age and appropriate enumeration of the pool of eligible controls for each case. This method overcomes problems of bias inherent in a previously proposed program for incidence density sampling. PMID:15550597

  4. Chroni - an Android Application for Geochronologists to Access Archived Sample Analyses from the NSF-Funded Geochron.Org Data Repository.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nettles, J. J.; Bowring, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    NSF requires data management plans as part of funding proposals and geochronologists, among other scientists, are archiving their data and results to the public cloud archives managed by the NSF-funded Integrated Earth Data Applications, or IEDA. GeoChron is a database for geochronology housed within IEDA. The software application U-Pb_Redux developed at the Cyber Infrastructure Research and Development Lab for the Earth Sciences (CIRDLES.org) at the College of Charleston provides seamless connectivity to GeoChron for uranium-lead (U-Pb) geochronologists to automatically upload and retrieve their data and results. U-Pb_Redux also manages publication-quality documents including report tables and graphs. CHRONI is a lightweight mobile application for Android devices that provides easy access to these archived data and results. With CHRONI, U-Pb geochronologists can view archived data and analyses downloaded from the Geochron database, or any other location, in a customizable format. CHRONI uses the same extensible markup language (XML) schema and documents used by U-Pb_Redux and GeoChron. Report Settings are special XML files that can be customized in U-Pb_Redux, stored in the cloud, and then accessed and used in CHRONI to create the same customized data display on the mobile device. In addition to providing geologists effortless and mobile access to archived data and analyses, CHRONI allows users to manage their GeoChron credentials, quickly download private and public files via a specified IEDA International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) or URL, and view specialized graphics associated with particular IGSNs. Future versions of CHRONI will be developed to support iOS compatible devices. CHRONI is an open source project under the Apache 2 license and is hosted at https://github.com/CIRDLES/CHRONI. We encourage community participation in its continued development.

  5. RiBAC: Role Interaction Based Access Control Model for Community Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Youna; Masoumzadeh, Amirreza; Joshi, James B. D.; Kim, Minkoo

    Community computing is an agent-based development paradigm for ubiquitous computing systems. In a community computing system, ubiquitous services are provided by cooperation among agents. While agents cooperate, they interact with each other continuously to access data of other agents and/or to execute other agent’s actions. However, in cases of security-critical ubiquitous services such as medical or military services, an access control mechanism is necessary to prevent unauthorized access to critical data or action. In this paper, we propose a family of Role interaction Based Access Control (RiBAC) models for Community Computing, by extending the existing RBAC model to consider role interactions. As a basic model, we propose the core RiBAC model. For the convenience of management and to provide more fine-grained access control, we propose Hierarchical RiBAC (H-RiBAC), Constrained RiBAC (C-RiBAC), and Constrained Hierarchical RiBAC (CH-RiBAC) models. Finally, we extend the existing community computing framework to accommodate the specification and enforcement of RiBAC policies.

  6. Performance Evaluation of Virtualization Techniques for Control and Access of Storage Systems in Data Center Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza

    2013-09-01

    Virtualization is a new technology that creates virtual environments based on the existing physical resources. This article evaluates effect of virtualization techniques on control servers and access method in storage systems [1, 2]. In control server virtualization, we have presented a tile based evaluation based on heterogeneous workloads to compare several key parameters and demonstrate effectiveness of virtualization techniques. Moreover, we have evaluated the virtualized model using VMotion techniques and maximum consolidation. In access method, we have prepared three different scenarios using direct, semi-virtual, and virtual attachment models. We have evaluated the proposed models with several workloads including OLTP database, data streaming, file server, web server, etc. Results of evaluation for different criteria confirm that server virtualization technique has high throughput and CPU usage as well as good performance with noticeable agility. Also virtual technique is a successful alternative for accessing to the storage systems especially in large capacity systems. This technique can therefore be an effective solution for expansion of storage area and reduction of access time. Results of different evaluation and measurements demonstrate that the virtualization in control server and full virtual access provide better performance and more agility as well as more utilization in the systems and improve business continuity plan.

  7. High-Alpha Research Vehicle Lateral-Directional Control Law Description, Analyses, and Simulation Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Lallman, Frederick J.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Bacon, Barton J.

    1998-01-01

    This report contains a description of a lateral-directional control law designed for the NASA High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The HARV is a F/A-18 aircraft modified to include a research flight computer, spin chute, and thrust-vectoring in the pitch and yaw axes. Two separate design tools, CRAFT and Pseudo Controls, were integrated to synthesize the lateral-directional control law. This report contains a description of the lateral-directional control law, analyses, and nonlinear simulation (batch and piloted) results. Linear analysis results include closed-loop eigenvalues, stability margins, robustness to changes in various plant parameters, and servo-elastic frequency responses. Step time responses from nonlinear batch simulation are presented and compared to design guidelines. Piloted simulation task scenarios, task guidelines, and pilot subjective ratings for the various maneuvers are discussed. Linear analysis shows that the control law meets the stability margin guidelines and is robust to stability and control parameter changes. Nonlinear batch simulation analysis shows the control law exhibits good performance and meets most of the design guidelines over the entire range of angle-of-attack. This control law (designated NASA-1A) was flight tested during the Summer of 1994 at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center.

  8. Automated biometric access control system for two-man-rule enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.P.; Maxwell, R.L. ); Henderson, R.W. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a limited access control system for nuclear facilities which makes use of the eye retinal identity verifier to control the passage of personnel into and out of one or a group of security controlled working areas. This access control system requires no keys, cards or credentials. The user simply enters his Personal Identification Number (PIN) and takes an eye reading to request passage. The PIN does not have to be kept secret. The system then relies on biometric identity verification of the user, along with other system information, to make the decision of whether or not to unlock the door. It also enforces multiple zones control with personnel tracking and the two-man-rule.

  9. Toward Federated Security and Data Access Control within a Services Oriented Architecture for Publishing Hydrologic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsburgh, J. S.; Tarboton, D. G.; Schreuders, K.; Patil, K. S.

    2010-12-01

    Academic researchers who manage experimental watersheds, observatories, and research sites need the ability to effectively collect, manage, and publish hydrologic data. This often requires the ability to control and document access to the data. One current mechanism for publishing data from experimental sites uses the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) Hydrologic Information System (HIS). The CUAHSI HIS Project has developed a software stack called HydroServer for publishing hydrologic data. HydroServer relies on a standard relational database schema for storing hydrologic observations, called the Observations Data Model (ODM), a standard set of web services for publishing observations stored in an ODM database, called WaterOneFlow, and a standard XML schema for exchanging hydrologic observations data, called Water Markup Language (WaterML). These standards make is possible for disparate investigators to publish their data as web services within a federated network of HydroServers. Once a HydroServer is operational, all Internet users can access all of the data on the server, with no requirement for users to identify themselves, or restriction on what can be accessed. There are a number of situations where data producers want to take advantage of the organization and functionality that ODM and the HydroServer software stack provides, but without providing unrestricted and unlogged access to all of the data that they are putting on their server. These include the desire of academic data collectors to: 1) control who can access/download data; 2) publish research results based on data before the data are released to the general public; 3) keep track of who is downloading and using their data to evaluate and document its impact on the community; 4) have and use a data use/access agreement and ensure that they get credit and appropriate citation for the data that they publish; 5) expose the best or highest quality data

  10. Accessibility to tuberculosis control services and tuberculosis programme performance in southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dangisso, Mesay Hailu; Datiko, Daniel Gemechu; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    Despite the expansion of health services and community-based interventions in Ethiopia, limited evidence exists about the distribution of and access to health facilities and their relationship with the performance of tuberculosis (TB) control programmes. We aim to assess the geographical distribution of and physical accessibility to TB control services and their relationship with TB case notification rates (CNRs) and treatment outcome in the Sidama Zone, southern Ethiopia. We carried out an ecological study to assess physical accessibility to TB control facilities and the association of physical accessibility with TB CNRs and treatment outcome. We collected smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) cases treated during 2003-2012 from unit TB registers and TB service data such as availability of basic supplies for TB control and geographic locations of health services. We used ArcGIS 10.2 to measure the distance from each enumeration location to the nearest TB control facilities. A linear regression analysis was employed to assess factors associated with TB CNRs and treatment outcome. Over a decade the health service coverage (the health facility-to-population ratio) increased by 36% and the accessibility to TB control facilities also improved. Thus, the mean distance from TB control services was 7.6 km in 2003 (ranging from 1.8 to 25.5 km) between kebeles (the smallest administrative units) and had decreased to 3.2 km in 2012 (ranging from 1.5 to 12.4 km). In multivariate linear regression, as distance from TB diagnostic facilities (b-estimate=-0.25, p<0.001) and altitude (b-estimate=-0.31, p<0.001) increased, the CNRs of TB decreased, whereas a higher population density was associated with increased TB CNRs. Similarly, distance to TB control facilities (b-estimate=-0.27, p<0.001) and altitude (b-estimate=-0.30, p<0.001) were inversely associated with treatment success (proportion of treatment completed or cured cases). Accessibility to TB control services improved despite

  11. Accessibility to tuberculosis control services and tuberculosis programme performance in southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Dangisso, Mesay Hailu; Datiko, Daniel Gemechu; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the expansion of health services and community-based interventions in Ethiopia, limited evidence exists about the distribution of and access to health facilities and their relationship with the performance of tuberculosis (TB) control programmes. We aim to assess the geographical distribution of and physical accessibility to TB control services and their relationship with TB case notification rates (CNRs) and treatment outcome in the Sidama Zone, southern Ethiopia. Design We carried out an ecological study to assess physical accessibility to TB control facilities and the association of physical accessibility with TB CNRs and treatment outcome. We collected smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) cases treated during 2003–2012 from unit TB registers and TB service data such as availability of basic supplies for TB control and geographic locations of health services. We used ArcGIS 10.2 to measure the distance from each enumeration location to the nearest TB control facilities. A linear regression analysis was employed to assess factors associated with TB CNRs and treatment outcome. Results Over a decade the health service coverage (the health facility–to-population ratio) increased by 36% and the accessibility to TB control facilities also improved. Thus, the mean distance from TB control services was 7.6 km in 2003 (ranging from 1.8 to 25.5 km) between kebeles (the smallest administrative units) and had decreased to 3.2 km in 2012 (ranging from 1.5 to 12.4 km). In multivariate linear regression, as distance from TB diagnostic facilities (b-estimate=−0.25, p<0.001) and altitude (b-estimate=−0.31, p<0.001) increased, the CNRs of TB decreased, whereas a higher population density was associated with increased TB CNRs. Similarly, distance to TB control facilities (b-estimate=−0.27, p<0.001) and altitude (b-estimate=−0.30, p<0.001) were inversely associated with treatment success (proportion of treatment completed or cured cases). Conclusions

  12. Pace: Privacy-Protection for Access Control Enforcement in P2P Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Artigas, Marc; García-López, Pedro

    In open environments such as peer-to-peer (P2P) systems, the decision to collaborate with multiple users — e.g., by granting access to a resource — is hard to achieve in practice due to extreme decentralization and the lack of trusted third parties. The literature contains a plethora of applications in which a scalable solution for distributed access control is crucial. This fact motivates us to propose a protocol to enforce access control, applicable to networks consisting entirely of untrusted nodes. The main feature of our protocol is that it protects both sensitive permissions and sensitive policies, and does not rely on any centralized authority. We analyze the efficiency (computational effort and communication overhead) as well as the security of our protocol.

  13. Developing Access Control Model of Web OLAP over Trusted and Collaborative Data Warehouses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fugkeaw, Somchart; Mitrpanont, Jarernsri L.; Manpanpanich, Piyawit; Juntapremjitt, Sekpon

    This paper proposes the design and development of Role- based Access Control (RBAC) model for the Single Sign-On (SSO) Web-OLAP query spanning over multiple data warehouses (DWs). The model is based on PKI Authentication and Privilege Management Infrastructure (PMI); it presents a binding model of RBAC authorization based on dimension privilege specified in attribute certificate (AC) and user identification. Particularly, the way of attribute mapping between DW user authentication and privilege of dimensional access is illustrated. In our approach, we apply the multi-agent system to automate flexible and effective management of user authentication, role delegation as well as system accountability. Finally, the paper culminates in the prototype system A-COLD (Access Control of web-OLAP over multiple DWs) that incorporates the OLAP features and authentication and authorization enforcement in the multi-user and multi-data warehouse environment.

  14. Empowering citizens with access control mechanisms to their personal health resources.

    PubMed

    Calvillo, J; Román, I; Roa, L M

    2013-01-01

    Advancements in information and communication technologies have allowed the development of new approaches to the management and use of healthcare resources. Nowadays it is possible to address complex issues such as meaningful access to distributed data or communication and understanding among heterogeneous systems. As a consequence, the discussion focuses on the administration of the whole set of resources providing knowledge about a single subject of care (SoC). New trends make the SoC administrator and responsible for all these elements (related to his/her demographic data, health, well-being, social conditions, etc.) and s/he is granted the ability of controlling access to them by third parties. The subject of care exchanges his/her passive role without any decision capacity for an active one allowing to control who accesses what. We study the necessary access control infrastructure to support this approach and develop mechanisms based on semantic tools to assist the subject of care with the specification of access control policies. This infrastructure is a building block of a wider scenario, the Person-Oriented Virtual Organization (POVO), aiming at integrating all the resources related to each citizen's health-related data. The POVO covers the wide range and heterogeneity of available healthcare resources (e.g., information sources, monitoring devices, or software simulation tools) and grants each SoC the access control to them. Several methodological issues are crucial for the design of the targeted infrastructure. The distributed system concept and focus are reviewed from the service oriented architecture (SOA) perspective. The main frameworks for the formalization of distributed system architectures (Reference Model-Open Distributed Processing, RM-ODP; and Model Driven Architecture, MDA) are introduced, as well as how the use of the Unified Modelling Language (UML) is standardized. The specification of access control policies and decision making mechanisms

  15. Dynamics, stability, and control analyses of flapping wing micro-air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlowski, Christopher T.; Girard, Anouck R.

    2012-05-01

    The paper presents an overview of the various analyses of flight dynamics, stability, and control of flapping wing micro-air vehicles available in the literature. The potential benefits of flapping wing micro-air vehicles for civil, military, and search and rescue operations are numerous. The majority of the flight dynamics research involves the standard aircraft (6DOF) equations of motion, although a growth is evident in examining the multibody flight dynamics models of flapping wing micro-air vehicles. The stability of flapping wing micro-air vehicles is largely studied in the vicinity of hover and forward flight. The majority of stability studies focus on linear, time-invariant stability in the vicinity of reference flight conditions, such as hover or forward flight. The consistent result is that flapping wing micro-air vehicles are unstable in an open loop setting. The unstable result is based on linear and nonlinear stability analyses. Control has been demonstrated for hovering and forward flight through various methods, both linear and nonlinear in nature. The entirety of reported research into the stability and control of flapping wing micro-air vehicles has neglected the mass effects of the wings on the position and orientation of the central body. Successful control of a flapping wing micro-air vehicle, with the wings' mass effects included, is still an open research area.

  16. ACCIDENT ANALYSES & CONTROL OPTIONS IN SUPPORT OF THE SLUDGE WATER SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIAMS, J.C.

    2003-11-15

    This report documents the accident analyses and nuclear safety control options for use in Revision 7 of HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, ''K Basins Safety Analysis Report'' and Revision 4 of HNF-SD-SNF-TSR-001, ''Technical Safety Requirements - 100 KE and 100 KW Fuel Storage Basins''. These documents will define the authorization basis for Sludge Water System (SWS) operations. This report follows the guidance of DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports'', for calculating onsite and offsite consequences. The accident analysis summary is shown in Table ES-1 below. While this document describes and discusses potential control options to either mitigate or prevent the accidents discussed herein, it should be made clear that the final control selection for any accident is determined and presented in HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062.

  17. Using an integrated methods approach to analyse the emergent properties of military command and control.

    PubMed

    Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Stewart, Rebecca; Jenkins, Daniel; Wells, Linda; Salmon, Paul; Baber, Chris

    2009-07-01

    This paper applies the event analysis for systemic teamwork (EAST) method to an example of military command and control. EAST offers a way to describe system level emergent properties that arise from the complex interactions of system components (human and technical). These are described using an integrated methods approach and modelled using Task, Social and Propositional networks. The current article is divided into three parts: a brief description of the military command and control context, a brief description of the EAST method, and a more in depth presentation of the analysis outcomes. The emergent properties of the military scenario relate to the degree of system reconfigurability, systems level situational awareness and the role of mediating technology. The findings are compared with similar analyses undertaken in civilian domains, in which the latest developments in command and control, under the aegis of Network Enabled Capability (NEC), are already in place.

  18. Trace ResourceBook: Assistive Technologies for Communication, Control and Computer Access, 1993-94 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Peter A.; And Others

    This volume lists and describes products pertaining to assistive and rehabilitative technologies in the areas of communication, control, and computer access, as well as special software. Part 1, covering communication for individuals with disabilities, includes products designed as aids to both electronic and nonelectronic communication. It…

  19. A Stateful Multicast Access Control Mechanism for Future Metro-Area-Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Wei-qiang; Li, Jin-sheng; Hong, Pei-lin

    2003-01-01

    Multicasting is a necessity for a broadband metro-area-network; however security problems exist with current multicast protocols. A stateful multicast access control mechanism, based on MAPE, is proposed. The architecture of MAPE is discussed, as well as the states maintained and messages exchanged. The scheme is flexible and scalable. (Author/AEF)

  20. 21 CFR 1311.125 - Requirements for establishing logical access control-Individual practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... least one of the individuals designated under paragraph (a) of this section must verify that the DEA... authentication credential to satisfy the logical access controls. The second individual must be a DEA registrant... practitioner's DEA registration expires, unless the registration has been renewed. (3) The...

  1. 21 CFR 1311.125 - Requirements for establishing logical access control-Individual practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... least one of the individuals designated under paragraph (a) of this section must verify that the DEA... authentication credential to satisfy the logical access controls. The second individual must be a DEA registrant... practitioner's DEA registration expires, unless the registration has been renewed. (3) The...

  2. 21 CFR 1311.125 - Requirements for establishing logical access control-Individual practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... least one of the individuals designated under paragraph (a) of this section must verify that the DEA... authentication credential to satisfy the logical access controls. The second individual must be a DEA registrant... practitioner's DEA registration expires, unless the registration has been renewed. (3) The...

  3. 21 CFR 1311.125 - Requirements for establishing logical access control-Individual practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... least one of the individuals designated under paragraph (a) of this section must verify that the DEA... authentication credential to satisfy the logical access controls. The second individual must be a DEA registrant... practitioner's DEA registration expires, unless the registration has been renewed. (3) The...

  4. An Access Control and Trust Management Framework for Loosely-Coupled Multidomain Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yue

    2010-01-01

    Multidomain environments where multiple organizations interoperate with each other are becoming a reality as can be seen in emerging Internet-based enterprise applications. Access control to ensure secure interoperation in such an environment is a crucial challenge. A multidomain environment can be categorized as "tightly-coupled" and…

  5. Functional requirements with survey results for integrated intrusion detection and access control annunciator systems

    SciTech Connect

    Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.

    1995-09-01

    This report contains the guidance Functional Requirements for an Integrated Intrusion Detection and Access Control Annunciator System, and survey results of selected commercial systems. The survey questions were based upon the functional requirements; therefore, the results reflect which and sometimes how the guidance recommendations were met.

  6. Secure Access Control and Large Scale Robust Representation for Online Multimedia Event Detection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changyu; Li, Huiling

    2014-01-01

    We developed an online multimedia event detection (MED) system. However, there are a secure access control issue and a large scale robust representation issue when we want to integrate traditional event detection algorithms into the online environment. For the first issue, we proposed a tree proxy-based and service-oriented access control (TPSAC) model based on the traditional role based access control model. Verification experiments were conducted on the CloudSim simulation platform, and the results showed that the TPSAC model is suitable for the access control of dynamic online environments. For the second issue, inspired by the object-bank scene descriptor, we proposed a 1000-object-bank (1000OBK) event descriptor. Feature vectors of the 1000OBK were extracted from response pyramids of 1000 generic object detectors which were trained on standard annotated image datasets, such as the ImageNet dataset. A spatial bag of words tiling approach was then adopted to encode these feature vectors for bridging the gap between the objects and events. Furthermore, we performed experiments in the context of event classification on the challenging TRECVID MED 2012 dataset, and the results showed that the robust 1000OBK event descriptor outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches. PMID:25147840

  7. The Role of Automatic Indexing in Access Control: A Modular View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartson, H. Rex

    1974-01-01

    A model which relates the access control and indexing functions. The model is based on concept protection which allows a practically unbounded number of levels (subsets) of protection without requiring a fixed hierarchy among the levels. This protection is offered independently for each of the user operations allowed. (Author)

  8. Predicting Health Care Utilization among Latinos: Health Locus of Control Beliefs or Access Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jesus, Maria; Xiao, Chenyang

    2014-01-01

    There are two competing research explanations to account for Latinos' underutilization of health services relative to non-Latino Whites in the United States. One hypothesis examines the impact of health locus of control (HLOC) beliefs, while the other focuses on the role of access factors on health care use. To date, the relative strength of…

  9. Mining Roles and Access Control for Relational Data under Privacy and Accuracy Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pervaiz, Zahid

    2013-01-01

    Access control mechanisms protect sensitive information from unauthorized users. However, when sensitive information is shared and a Privacy Protection Mechanism (PPM) is not in place, an authorized insider can still compromise the privacy of a person leading to identity disclosure. A PPM can use suppression and generalization to anonymize and…

  10. The Use of Passwords for Controlled Access to Computer Resources. Computer Science & Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Helen M.

    This paper considers the generation of passwords and their effective application to the problem of controlling access to computer resources. After describing the need for and uses of passwords, password schemes are categorized according to selection technique, lifetime, physical characteristics, and information content. Password protection, both…

  11. The Use of Passwords for Controlled Access to Computer Resources. Computer Science & Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Helen M.

    This paper considers the generation of passwords and their effective application to the problem of controlling access to computer resources. After describing the need for and uses of passwords, password schemes are categorized according to selection technique, lifetime, physical characteristics, and information content. Password protection, both…

  12. Prevention and Control of Dental Disease through Improved Access to Comprehensive Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Dental Association, Chicago, IL.

    Prevention of dental disease is the key to improving the nation's oral health. The American Dental Association (ADA) program of prevention and control of dental disease through improved access to comprehensive care concentrates on those who have special difficulties in receiving care: the poor, the elderly, the handicapped, the institutionalized…

  13. Predicting Health Care Utilization among Latinos: Health Locus of Control Beliefs or Access Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jesus, Maria; Xiao, Chenyang

    2014-01-01

    There are two competing research explanations to account for Latinos' underutilization of health services relative to non-Latino Whites in the United States. One hypothesis examines the impact of health locus of control (HLOC) beliefs, while the other focuses on the role of access factors on health care use. To date, the relative strength of…

  14. Prevention and Control of Dental Disease through Improved Access to Comprehensive Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Dental Association, Chicago, IL.

    Prevention of dental disease is the key to improving the nation's oral health. The American Dental Association (ADA) program of prevention and control of dental disease through improved access to comprehensive care concentrates on those who have special difficulties in receiving care: the poor, the elderly, the handicapped, the institutionalized…

  15. Mining Roles and Access Control for Relational Data under Privacy and Accuracy Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pervaiz, Zahid

    2013-01-01

    Access control mechanisms protect sensitive information from unauthorized users. However, when sensitive information is shared and a Privacy Protection Mechanism (PPM) is not in place, an authorized insider can still compromise the privacy of a person leading to identity disclosure. A PPM can use suppression and generalization to anonymize and…

  16. The need for the use of XACML access control policy in a distributed EHR and some performance considerations.

    PubMed

    Sucurovic, Snezana; Milutinovic, Veljko

    2008-01-01

    The Internet based distributed large scale information systems implements attribute based access control (ABAC) rather than Role Based Access Control (RBAC). The reason is that the Internet is identity less and that ABAC scales better. EXtensible Access Control Markup Language is standardized language for writing access control policies, access control requests and access control responses in ABAC. XACML can provide decentralized administration and credentials distribution. In year 2002 version of CEN ENV 13 606 attributes have been attached to EHCR components and in such a system ABAC and XACML have been easy to implement. This paper presents writing XACML policies in the case when attributes are in hierarchical structure. It is presented two possible solutions to write XACML policy in that case and that the solution when set functions are used is more compact and provides 10% better performances.

  17. Quality control and conduct of genome-wide association meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Thomas W; Day, Felix R; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Wood, Andrew R; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Ferreira, Teresa; Fall, Tove; Graff, Mariaelisa; Justice, Anne E; Luan, Jian'an; Gustafsson, Stefan; Randall, Joshua C; Vedantam, Sailaja; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Scherag, André; Esko, Tonu; Kutalik, Zoltán; Heid, Iris M; Loos, Ruth J F

    2014-05-01

    Rigorous organization and quality control (QC) are necessary to facilitate successful genome-wide association meta-analyses (GWAMAs) of statistics aggregated across multiple genome-wide association studies. This protocol provides guidelines for (i) organizational aspects of GWAMAs, and for (ii) QC at the study file level, the meta-level across studies and the meta-analysis output level. Real-world examples highlight issues experienced and solutions developed by the GIANT Consortium that has conducted meta-analyses including data from 125 studies comprising more than 330,000 individuals. We provide a general protocol for conducting GWAMAs and carrying out QC to minimize errors and to guarantee maximum use of the data. We also include details for the use of a powerful and flexible software package called EasyQC. Precise timings will be greatly influenced by consortium size. For consortia of comparable size to the GIANT Consortium, this protocol takes a minimum of about 10 months to complete.

  18. Quality control and conduct of genome-wide association meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Thomas W; Day, Felix R; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Wood, Andrew R; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Ferreira, Teresa; Fall, Tove; Graff, Mariaelisa; Justice, Anne E; Luan, Jian'an; Gustafsson, Stefan; Randall, Joshua C; Vedantam, Sailaja; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Scherag, André; Esko, Tonu; Kutalik, Zoltán; Heid, Iris M; Loos, Ruth JF

    2014-01-01

    Rigorous organization and quality control (QC) are necessary to facilitate successful genome-wide association meta-analyses (GWAMAs) of statistics aggregated across multiple genome-wide association studies. This protocol provides guidelines for [1] organizational aspects of GWAMAs, and for [2] QC at the study file level, the meta-level across studies, and the meta-analysis output level. Real–world examples highlight issues experienced and solutions developed by the GIANT Consortium that has conducted meta-analyses including data from 125 studies comprising more than 330,000 individuals. We provide a general protocol for conducting GWAMAs and carrying out QC to minimize errors and to guarantee maximum use of the data. We also include details for use of a powerful and flexible software package called EasyQC. For consortia of comparable size to the GIANT consortium, the present protocol takes a minimum of about 10 months to complete. PMID:24762786

  19. Towards equitable access to medicines for the rural poor: analyses of insurance claims reveal rural pharmacy initiative triggers price competition in Kyrgyzstan

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background A rural pharmacy initiative (RPI) designed to increase access to medicines in rural Kyrgyzstan created a network of 12 pharmacies using a revolving drug fund mechanism in 12 villages where no pharmacies previously existed. The objective of this study was to determine if the establishment of the RPI resulted in the unforeseen benefit of triggering medicine price competition in pre-existing (non-RPI) private pharmacies located in the region. Methods We conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses on medicine insurance claims data from Kyrgyzstan's Mandatory Health Insurance Fund for the Jumgal District of Naryn Province from October 2003 to December 2007. We compared average quarterly medicine prices in competitor pharmacies before and after the introduction of the rural pharmacy initiative in October 2004 to determine the RPI impact on price competition. Results Descriptive analyses suggest competitors reacted to RPI prices for 21 of 30 (70%) medicines. Competitor medicine prices from the quarter before RPI introduction to the end of the study period decreased for 17 of 30 (57%) medicines, increased for 4 of 30 (13%) medicines, and remained unchanged for 9 of 30 (30%) medicines. Among the 9 competitor medicines with unchanged prices, five initially decreased in price but later reverted back to baseline prices. Multivariate analyses on 19 medicines that met sample size criteria confirm these findings. Fourteen of these 19 (74%) competitor medicines changed significantly in price from the quarter before RPI introduction to the quarter after RPI introduction, with 9 of 19 (47%) decreasing in price and 5 of 19 (26%) increasing in price. Conclusions The RPI served as a market driver, spurring competition in medicine prices in competitor pharmacies, even when they were located in different villages. Initiatives designed to increase equitable access to medicines in rural regions of developing and transitional countries should consider the potential to

  20. Distributed data access in the LAMPF (Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility) control system

    SciTech Connect

    Schaller, S.C.; Bjorklund, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    We have extended the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) control system software to allow uniform access to data and controls throughout the control system network. Two aspects of this work are discussed here. Of primary interest is the use of standard interfaces and standard messages to allow uniform and easily expandable inter-node communication. A locally designed remote procedure call protocol will be described. Of further interest is the use of distributed databases to allow maximal hardware independence in the controls software. Application programs use local partial copies of the global device description database to resolve symbolic device names.

  1. Analyses of eigenvalue bias and control rod worths in FFTF (Fast Flux Test Facility)

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.V.; Dobbin, K.D.; Wootan, D.W.; Campbell, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) core loading during its ninth operating cycle was significantly different from that of previous cycles because of the presence of the Core Demonstration Experiment (CDE). The CDE consists of a number of axially blanketed fuel assemblies and internal blankets prototypic of advanced oxide cores in Liquid Metal Reactors (LMR). In preparation for the Cycle 9 reload design effort, a careful assessment of control rod worth and reactivity calculations for Cycles 1 through 8 was made. The goal of this study was to establish calculational biases and reduce uncertainties factored into the reload design calculations. These analyses helped assure that the operational objectives for Cycle 9 were met.

  2. Access Scheme for Controlling Mobile Agents and its Application to Share Medical Information.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yu-Ting; Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Chen, Tzer-Long; Chung, Yu-Fang; Chen, Yu- Xin; Hwang, Jen-Hung; Wang, Huihui; Wei, Wei

    2016-05-01

    This study is showing the advantage of mobile agents to conquer heterogeneous system environments and contribute to a virtual integrated sharing system. Mobile agents will collect medical information from each medical institution as a method to achieve the medical purpose of data sharing. Besides, this research also provides an access control and key management mechanism by adopting Public key cryptography and Lagrange interpolation. The safety analysis of the system is based on a network attacker's perspective. The achievement of this study tries to improve the medical quality, prevent wasting medical resources and make medical resources access to appropriate configuration.

  3. Accessibility of dog populations for rabies control in Kathmandu valley, Nepal.

    PubMed Central

    Bögel, K.; Joshi, D. D.

    1990-01-01

    The accessibility of dogs in urban areas of Kathmandu valley was measured using the following approaches: determination of the proportion of dogs that bore signs of having been the objects of religious worship and other signs of household association, supplemented by information obtained by interviewing people in the neighbourhood; and the vaccination coverage attained in a rabies control campaign that was preceded by intensive activities to encourage the community to participate. An accessibility rate of 90-95% was determined using the first of these approaches, whereas 75-80% of the total dog population was reached in the vaccination campaign. PMID:2289296

  4. Joint power and multiple access control for wireless mesh network with Rose projection method.

    PubMed

    Tang, Meiqin; Shang, Lili; Xin, Yalin; Liu, Xiaohua; Wei, Xinjiang

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the utility maximization problem for the downlink of the multi-interface multichannel wireless mesh network with orthogonal frequency division multiple access. A cross-layer joint power and multiple access control algorithm are proposed. Rosen projection matrix is combined with Solodov projection techniques to build a three-memory gradient Rosen projection method, which is applied to solve this optimization problem. The convergence analysis is given and simulations show that the proposed solution achieves significant throughput compared with existing approaches.

  5. Joint Power and Multiple Access Control for Wireless Mesh Network with Rose Projection Method

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Meiqin; Shang, Lili; Xin, Yalin; Liu, Xiaohua; Wei, Xinjiang

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the utility maximization problem for the downlink of the multi-interface multichannel wireless mesh network with orthogonal frequency division multiple access. A cross-layer joint power and multiple access control algorithm are proposed. Rosen projection matrix is combined with Solodov projection techniques to build a three-memory gradient Rosen projection method, which is applied to solve this optimization problem. The convergence analysis is given and simulations show that the proposed solution achieves significant throughput compared with existing approaches. PMID:24883384

  6. Implementation of a Cross-Layer Sensing Medium-Access Control Scheme.

    PubMed

    Su, Yishan; Fu, Xiaomei; Han, Guangyao; Xu, Naishen; Jin, Zhigang

    2017-04-10

    In this paper, compressed sensing (CS) theory is utilized in a medium-access control (MAC) scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We propose a new, cross-layer compressed sensing medium-access control (CL CS-MAC) scheme, combining the physical layer and data link layer, where the wireless transmission in physical layer is considered as a compress process of requested packets in a data link layer according to compressed sensing (CS) theory. We first introduced using compressive complex requests to identify the exact active sensor nodes, which makes the scheme more efficient. Moreover, because the reconstruction process is executed in a complex field of a physical layer, where no bit and frame synchronizations are needed, the asynchronous and random requests scheme can be implemented without synchronization payload. We set up a testbed based on software-defined radio (SDR) to implement the proposed CL CS-MAC scheme practically and to demonstrate the validation. For large-scale WSNs, the simulation results show that the proposed CL CS-MAC scheme provides higher throughput and robustness than the carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) and compressed sensing medium-access control (CS-MAC) schemes.

  7. Error types and error positions in neglect dyslexia: comparative analyses in neglect patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Weinzierl, Christiane; Kerkhoff, Georg; van Eimeren, Lucia; Keller, Ingo; Stenneken, Prisca

    2012-10-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect frequently involves a lateralised reading disorder, neglect dyslexia (ND). Reading of single words in ND is characterised by left-sided omissions and substitutions of letters. However, it is unclear whether the distribution of error types and positions within a word shows a unique pattern of ND when directly compared to healthy controls. This question has been difficult to answer so far, given the usually low number of reading errors in healthy controls. Therefore, the present study compared single word reading of 18 patients with left-sided neglect, due to right-hemisphere stroke, and 11 age-matched healthy controls, and adjusted individual task difficulty (by varying stimulus presentation times in participants) in order to reach approximately equal error rates between neglect patients and controls. Results showed that, while both omission and substitution errors were frequently produced in neglect patients and controls, only omissions appeared neglect-specific when task difficulty was adapted between groups. Analyses of individual letter positions within words revealed that the spatial distribution of reading errors in the neglect dyslexic patients followed an almost linear increase from the end to the beginning of the word (right-to-left-gradient). Both, the gradient in error positions and the predominance of omission errors presented a neglect-specific pattern. Consistent with current models of visual word processing, these findings suggest that ND reflects sublexical, visuospatial attentional mechanisms in letter string encoding.

  8. Numerical simulations and analyses of temperature control loop heat pipe for space CCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qingliang; Yang, Tao; Li, Chunlin

    2016-10-01

    As one of the key units of space CCD camera, the temperature range and stability of CCD components affect the image's indexes. Reasonable thermal design and robust thermal control devices are needed. One kind of temperature control loop heat pipe (TCLHP) is designed, which highly meets the thermal control requirements of CCD components. In order to study the dynamic behaviors of heat and mass transfer of TCLHP, particularly in the orbital flight case, a transient numerical model is developed by using the well-established empirical correlations for flow models within three dimensional thermal modeling. The temperature control principle and details of mathematical model are presented. The model is used to study operating state, flow and heat characteristics based upon the analyses of variations of temperature, pressure and quality under different operating modes and external heat flux variations. The results indicate that TCLHP can satisfy the thermal control requirements of CCD components well, and always ensure good temperature stability and uniformity. By comparison between flight data and simulated results, it is found that the model is to be accurate to within 1°C. The model can be better used for predicting and understanding the transient performance of TCLHP.

  9. Economic analyses of breast cancer control in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To support the development of global strategies against breast cancer, this study reviews available economic evidence on breast cancer control in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods A systematic article search was conducted through electronic scientific databases, and studies were included only if they concerned breast cancer, used original data, and originated from LMICs. Independent assessment of inclusion criteria yielded 24 studies that evaluated different kinds of screening, diagnostic, and therapeutic interventions in various age and risk groups. Studies were synthesized and appraised through the use of a checklist, designed for evaluating economic analyses. Results The majority of these studies were of poor quality, particularly in examining costs. Studies demonstrated the economic attractiveness of breast cancer screening strategies, and of novel treatment and diagnostic interventions. Conclusions This review shows that the evidence base to guide strategies for breast cancer control in LMICs is limited and of poor quality. The limited evidence base suggests that screening strategies may be economically attractive in LMICs – yet there is very little evidence to provide specific recommendations on screening by mammography versus clinical breast examination, the frequency of screening, or the target population. These results demonstrate the need for more economic analyses that are of better quality, cover a comprehensive set of interventions and result in clear policy recommendations. PMID:23566447

  10. When and how can real world data analyses substitute for randomized controlled trials?

    PubMed

    Franklin, Jessica M; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2017-08-24

    Regulators consider randomized controlled trials (RCTs) as the gold standard for evaluating the safety and effectiveness of medications, but their costs, duration, and limited generalizability have caused some to look for alternatives. Real world evidence based on data collected outside of RCTs, such as registries and longitudinal healthcare databases, can sometimes substitute for RCTs, but concerns about validity have limited their impact. Greater reliance on such real world data (RWD) in regulatory decision-making requires understanding why some studies fail while others succeed in producing results similar to RCTs. Key questions when considering whether RWD analyses can substitute for RCTs for regulatory decision-making are WHEN one can study drug effects without randomization and HOW to implement a valid RWD analysis if one has decided to pursue that option. The WHEN is primarily driven by externalities not controlled by investigators, while the HOW is focused on avoiding known mistakes in RWD analyses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  11. HER2 codon 655 polymorphism and breast cancer: results from kin-cohort and case-control analyses.

    PubMed

    Millikan, Robert C; Hummer, Amanda J; Wolff, Mary S; Hishida, Asahi; Begg, Colin B

    2005-02-01

    Several published epidemiologic studies show increased breast cancer risk for carriers of the Val-allele at codon 655 of the HER2 gene. We conducted additional analyses using data from three studies, including case-control analyses stratified on age and kin-cohort analyses using relatives of cases and controls. The results provide additional evidence that HER2 codon 655 genotype may predispose to early-onset breast cancer.

  12. BARTER: Behavior Profile Exchange for Behavior-Based Admission and Access Control in MANETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frias-Martinez, Vanessa; Stolfo, Salvatore J.; Keromytis, Angelos D.

    Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) are very dynamic networks with devices continuously entering and leaving the group. The highly dynamic nature of MANETs renders the manual creation and update of policies associated with the initial incorporation of devices to the MANET (admission control) as well as with anomaly detection during communications among members (access control) a very difficult task. In this paper, we present BARTER, a mechanism that automatically creates and updates admission and access control policies for MANETs based on behavior profiles. BARTER is an adaptation for fully distributed environments of our previously introduced BB-NAC mechanism for NAC technologies. Rather than relying on a centralized NAC enforcer, MANET members initially exchange their behavior profiles and compute individual local definitions of normal network behavior. During admission or access control, each member issues an individual decision based on its definition of normalcy. Individual decisions are then aggregated via a threshold cryptographic infrastructure that requires an agreement among a fixed amount of MANET members to change the status of the network. We present experimental results using content and volumetric behavior profiles computed from the ENRON dataset. In particular, we show that the mechanism achieves true rejection rates of 95% with false rejection rates of 9%.

  13. Distributed joint power and access control algorithm for secondary spectrum sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongyan; Chen, Enqing; Fu, Hongliang

    2010-08-01

    Based on interference temperature model, the problem of efficient secondary spectrum sharing is formulated as a power optimization problem with some constraints at physical layer. These constraints and optimization objective limit a feasible power vector set which leads to the need of access control besides power control. In this paper, we consider the decentralized cognitive radio network scenario where short-term data service is required, and the problem of distributed joint power and access control is studied to maximize the total secondary system throughput, subject to Quality of Service (QoS) constraints from individual secondary users and interference temperature limit (ITL) from primary system. Firstly, a pricing-based game model was used to solve distributed power allocation optimization problem in both high and low signal to interference noise ratio (SINR) scenarios. Secondly, when not all the secondary links can be supported with their QoS requirement and ITL, a distributed joint power and access control algorithm was introduced to find the allowable links which results in maximum network throughput with all the constraints satisfied, and the convergence performance is tested by simulations.

  14. A threat intelligence framework for access control security in the oil industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaskandrani, Faisal T.

    The research investigates the problem raised by the rapid development in the technology industry giving security concerns in facilities built by the energy industry containing diverse platforms. The difficulty of continuous updates to network security architecture and assessment gave rise to the need to use threat intelligence frameworks to better assess and address networks security issues. Focusing on access control security to the ICS and SCADA systems that is being utilized to carry out mission critical and life threatening operations. The research evaluates different threat intelligence frameworks that can be implemented in the industry seeking the most suitable and applicable one that address the issue and provide more security measures. The validity of the result is limited to the same environment that was researched as well as the technologies being utilized. The research concludes that it is possible to utilize a Threat Intelligence framework to prioritize security in Access Control Measures in the Oil Industry.

  15. A Secure and Verifiable Outsourced Access Control Scheme in Fog-Cloud Computing.

    PubMed

    Fan, Kai; Wang, Junxiong; Wang, Xin; Li, Hui; Yang, Yintang

    2017-07-24

    With the rapid development of big data and Internet of things (IOT), the number of networking devices and data volume are increasing dramatically. Fog computing, which extends cloud computing to the edge of the network can effectively solve the bottleneck problems of data transmission and data storage. However, security and privacy challenges are also arising in the fog-cloud computing environment. Ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) can be adopted to realize data access control in fog-cloud computing systems. In this paper, we propose a verifiable outsourced multi-authority access control scheme, named VO-MAACS. In our construction, most encryption and decryption computations are outsourced to fog devices and the computation results can be verified by using our verification method. Meanwhile, to address the revocation issue, we design an efficient user and attribute revocation method for it. Finally, analysis and simulation results show that our scheme is both secure and highly efficient.

  16. A Privacy Access Control Framework for Web Services Collaboration with Role Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Linyuan; Huang, Zhiqiu; Zhu, Haibin

    With the popularity of Internet technology, web services are becoming the most promising paradigm for distributed computing. This increased use of web services has meant that more and more personal information of consumers is being shared with web service providers, leading to the need to guarantee the privacy of consumers. This paper proposes a role-based privacy access control framework for Web services collaboration, it utilizes roles to specify the privacy privileges of services, and considers the impact on the reputation degree of the historic experience of services in playing roles. Comparing to the traditional privacy access control approaches, this framework can make the fine-grained authorization decision, thus efficiently protecting consumers' privacy.

  17. A Secure and Verifiable Outsourced Access Control Scheme in Fog-Cloud Computing

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Kai; Wang, Junxiong; Wang, Xin; Li, Hui; Yang, Yintang

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of big data and Internet of things (IOT), the number of networking devices and data volume are increasing dramatically. Fog computing, which extends cloud computing to the edge of the network can effectively solve the bottleneck problems of data transmission and data storage. However, security and privacy challenges are also arising in the fog-cloud computing environment. Ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) can be adopted to realize data access control in fog-cloud computing systems. In this paper, we propose a verifiable outsourced multi-authority access control scheme, named VO-MAACS. In our construction, most encryption and decryption computations are outsourced to fog devices and the computation results can be verified by using our verification method. Meanwhile, to address the revocation issue, we design an efficient user and attribute revocation method for it. Finally, analysis and simulation results show that our scheme is both secure and highly efficient. PMID:28737733

  18. An internet of things example: classrooms access control over near field communication.

    PubMed

    Palma, Daniel; Agudo, Juan Enrique; Sánchez, Héctor; Macías, Miguel Macías

    2014-04-21

    The Internet of Things is one of the ideas that has become increasingly relevant in recent years. It involves connecting things to the Internet in order to retrieve information from them at any time and from anywhere. In the Internet of Things, sensor networks that exchange information wirelessly via Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Zigbee or RF are common. In this sense, our paper presents a way in which each classroom control is accessed through Near Field Communication (NFC) and the information is shared via radio frequency. These data are published on the Web and could easily be used for building applications from the data collected. As a result, our application collects information from the classroom to create a control classroom tool that displays access to and the status of all the classrooms graphically and also connects this data with social networks.

  19. An Internet of Things Example: Classrooms Access Control over Near Field Communication

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Daniel; Agudo, Juan Enrique; Sánchez, Héctor; Macías, Miguel Macías

    2014-01-01

    The Internet of Things is one of the ideas that has become increasingly relevant in recent years. It involves connecting things to the Internet in order to retrieve information from them at any time and from anywhere. In the Internet of Things, sensor networks that exchange information wirelessly via Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Zigbee or RF are common. In this sense, our paper presents a way in which each classroom control is accessed through Near Field Communication (NFC) and the information is shared via radio frequency. These data are published on the Web and could easily be used for building applications from the data collected. As a result, our application collects information from the classroom to create a control classroom tool that displays access to and the status of all the classrooms graphically and also connects this data with social networks. PMID:24755520

  20. Design of access control methods for protecting the confidentiality of patient information in networked systems.

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, J. W.; Klimczak, J. C.; Ruiz, M.; Barnes, M.

    1997-01-01

    Public awareness of the potential for violation of personal privacy in clinical information systems is increasing. Much of this increase can be attributed to the popularity and publicity of the World Wide Web. Nightly news reports of intruder break-ins and flaws in Internet software security have stimulated public interest in the security of clinical information systems available over the web. As part of the development of systems designed to provide clinical narratives to physicians over the Internet, we are exploring designs that provide additional protection and security to these systems. Specifically, we are developing and testing automated access control measures based on provider-patient relationships for controlling access to personally identifiable patient information. PMID:9357586

  1. Information Leaks and Limitations of Role-Based Access Control Mechanisms: A Qualitative Exploratory Single Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antony, Laljith

    2016-01-01

    Failing to prevent leaks of confidential and proprietary information to unauthorized users from software applications is a major challenge that companies face. Access control policies defined in software applications with access control mechanisms are unable to prevent information leaks from software applications to unauthorized users. Role-based…

  2. Controlled Access Headings in EAD Finding Aids: Current Practices in Number of and Types of Headings Assigned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascaro, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings from a study of controlled access headings assigned to encoded archival description finding aids in the Ohio Library and Information Network Finding Aid Repository, focusing on the number of headings per finding aid and the category of terms assigned. Assigning multiple controlled access headings was widely…

  3. Traffic Control Algorithm Offering Multi-Class Fairness in PON Based Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Yasuyuki

    This letter proposes a dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm for access networks based PON (Passive Optical Network). It considers the mixture of transport layer protocols when responding to traffic congestion at the SNI (Service Node Interface). Simulations on a mixture of TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) traffic flows show that the algorithm increases the throughput of TCP, improves the fairness between the two protocols, and solves the congestion problem at the SNI.

  4. Sub-Network Access Control Technology Demonstrator: Software Design of the Network Management System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    validdes. En d’autres mots, ce projet est une 6tape suppldmentaire dans le dessein de migrer ces technologies radio vers la Flotte Op ~ rationnelle ...Defence Research and Recherche et ddveloppement Development Canada pour la defense Canada DEFENCE • I7 DEFENSE Sub-Network Access Control...dans l’optique qu’ils op ~rent sur des liens avec une large bande passantes dont la topologie 6volue Tentement. Les produites con-nerciaux de gestion de

  5. Flight test and analyses of the B-1 structural mode control system at supersonic flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wykes, J. H.; Kelpl, M. J.; Brosnan, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    A practical structural mode control system (SMCS) that could be turned on at takeoff and be left on for the entire flight was demonstrated. The SMCS appears to be more effective in damping the key fuselage bending modes at supersonic speeds than at the design point of Mach 0.85 (for fixed gains). The SMCS has an adverse effect on high frequency symmetric modes; however, this adverse effect did not make the system unstable and does not appear to affect ride quality performance. The vertical ride quality analyses indicate that the basic configuration without active systems is satisfactory for long term exposure. If clear air turbulence were to be encountered, indications are that the SMCS would be very effective in reducing the adverse accelerations. On the other hand, lateral ride quality analyses indicate that the aircraft with the SMCS on does not quite meet the long term exposure criteria, but would be satisfactory for shot term exposure at altitude. Again, the lateral SMCS was shown to be very effective in reducing peak lateral accelerations.

  6. Analysing and controlling the tax evasion dynamics via majority-vote model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, F. W. S.

    2010-09-01

    Within the context of agent-based Monte-Carlo simulations, we study the well-known majority-vote model (MVM) with noise applied to tax evasion on simple square lattices, Voronoi-Delaunay random lattices, Barabasi-Albert networks, and Erdös-Rényi random graphs. In the order to analyse and to control the fluctuations for tax evasion in the economics model proposed by Zaklan, MVM is applied in the neighborhod of the noise critical qc to evolve the Zaklan model. The Zaklan model had been studied recently using the equilibrium Ising model. Here we show that the Zaklan model is robust because this can be studied using equilibrium dynamics of Ising model also through the nonequilibrium MVM and on various topologies cited above giving the same behavior regardless of dynamic or topology used here.

  7. The influence of patriarchal behavior on birth control access and use among recent Hispanic immigrants.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Eleazar U; Sable, Marjorie R; Campbell, James D; Dannerbeck, Anne

    2010-08-01

    It is commonly assumed that Hispanic immigrants in the United States subscribe to a patriarchal ideology that keeps women subordinated to men, often through violence and exploitative reproductive behaviors. If this assumption is true, we might expect to find that in the Hispanic culture patriarchal males control decision-making about access to and use of birth control. Structured interviews of 100 Hispanic men and 100 Hispanic women who were recent immigrants to a Midwest community were conducted to examine this assumption. Results did not support this assumption among this study population. We found no patriarchal ideology supporting women's subordination to men, violence as a mechanism of control, reproduction as a way of exploitation, or cultural influences discouraging access to and use of birth control in the Hispanic community. Rather, these immigrants revealed adequate knowledge of birth control use and positive perceptions of gender equality. Gaining a better understanding of the limited influence of patriarchal ideology on the use of birth control and family planning services among this Hispanic community may inform the development of family planning services tailored for new Hispanic immigrants.

  8. Socio-economic status influences blood pressure control despite equal access to care.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, M S; Andersen, M; Munck, A P; Larsen, P V; Hansen, D G; Jacobsen, I A; Larsen, M L; Christensen, B; Sondergaard, J

    2012-10-01

    Denmark has a health care system with free and equal access to care irrespective of age and socio-economic status (SES). We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate a possible association between SES and blood pressure (BP) control of hypertensive patients treated in general practice. We enrolled 184 general practices and 5260 hypertensive patients. The general practitioners reported information about BP and diagnosis of diabetes. Information about education, income, antihypertensive drug treatment and other co-morbidity was retrieved from relevant registers from Statistics Denmark. The outcome measure was BP control defined as BP <140/90 mmHg in general and <130/80 mmHg in diabetics. Patients <65 years and with an educational level of 10-12 years had increased odds ratio (OR) of BP control compared to patients with an educational level <10 years. Patients ≥65 years had increased OR of BP control if they were married/cohabiting as compared to being single, whereas education and income had no impact in this age group. Diabetics had significantly reduced odds of BP control irrespective of age, educational or income level. Despite equal access to care for all patients, SES had significant impact on BP control in this survey. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease also had a substantial influence irrespective of age, educational and income level.

  9. A human rights view on access to controlled substances for medical purposes under the international drug control framework.

    PubMed

    Gispen, Marie Elske C

    2013-11-05

    The world is confronted with a major public health deficit caused by poor access to controlled essential medicines under the international drug control framework. This is affecting millions of patients on a daily basis and resulting in numerous human rights violations. The present review contextualises this deficit from a human rights perspective. Drug control efforts are informed by a twofold objective stemming from the double nature of scheduled substances: free access for medical purposes should be ensured, though non-medical use of substances such as opium should be restricted. The international drug control framework is, in theory, based on this twofold notion, however at the level of interpretation, monitoring, and implementation, a one-sided emphasis is demonstrated. By tracing a parallel between the obligations of states under the international drug control framework and those that derive from human rights law, the review shows that the two systems seem incoherent and conflicting in nature and flags the importance of cross-disciplinary research into drug control and human rights. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Breaking and Fixing Origin-Based Access Control in Hybrid Web/Mobile Application Frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Georgiev, Martin; Jana, Suman; Shmatikov, Vitaly

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid mobile applications (apps) combine the features of Web applications and “native” mobile apps. Like Web applications, they are implemented in portable, platform-independent languages such as HTML and JavaScript. Like native apps, they have direct access to local device resources—file system, location, camera, contacts, etc. Hybrid apps are typically developed using hybrid application frameworks such as PhoneGap. The purpose of the framework is twofold. First, it provides an embedded Web browser (for example, WebView on Android) that executes the app's Web code. Second, it supplies “bridges” that allow Web code to escape the browser and access local resources on the device. We analyze the software stack created by hybrid frameworks and demonstrate that it does not properly compose the access-control policies governing Web code and local code, respectively. Web code is governed by the same origin policy, whereas local code is governed by the access-control policy of the operating system (for example, user-granted permissions in Android). The bridges added by the framework to the browser have the same local access rights as the entire application, but are not correctly protected by the same origin policy. This opens the door to fracking attacks, which allow foreign-origin Web content included into a hybrid app (e.g., ads confined in iframes) to drill through the layers and directly access device resources. Fracking vulnerabilities are generic: they affect all hybrid frameworks, all embedded Web browsers, all bridge mechanisms, and all platforms on which these frameworks are deployed. We study the prevalence of fracking vulnerabilities in free Android apps based on the PhoneGap framework. Each vulnerability exposes sensitive local resources—the ability to read and write contacts list, local files, etc.—to dozens of potentially malicious Web domains. We also analyze the defenses deployed by hybrid frameworks to prevent resource access by foreign

  11. Breaking and Fixing Origin-Based Access Control in Hybrid Web/Mobile Application Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Martin; Jana, Suman; Shmatikov, Vitaly

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid mobile applications (apps) combine the features of Web applications and "native" mobile apps. Like Web applications, they are implemented in portable, platform-independent languages such as HTML and JavaScript. Like native apps, they have direct access to local device resources-file system, location, camera, contacts, etc. Hybrid apps are typically developed using hybrid application frameworks such as PhoneGap. The purpose of the framework is twofold. First, it provides an embedded Web browser (for example, WebView on Android) that executes the app's Web code. Second, it supplies "bridges" that allow Web code to escape the browser and access local resources on the device. We analyze the software stack created by hybrid frameworks and demonstrate that it does not properly compose the access-control policies governing Web code and local code, respectively. Web code is governed by the same origin policy, whereas local code is governed by the access-control policy of the operating system (for example, user-granted permissions in Android). The bridges added by the framework to the browser have the same local access rights as the entire application, but are not correctly protected by the same origin policy. This opens the door to fracking attacks, which allow foreign-origin Web content included into a hybrid app (e.g., ads confined in iframes) to drill through the layers and directly access device resources. Fracking vulnerabilities are generic: they affect all hybrid frameworks, all embedded Web browsers, all bridge mechanisms, and all platforms on which these frameworks are deployed. We study the prevalence of fracking vulnerabilities in free Android apps based on the PhoneGap framework. Each vulnerability exposes sensitive local resources-the ability to read and write contacts list, local files, etc.-to dozens of potentially malicious Web domains. We also analyze the defenses deployed by hybrid frameworks to prevent resource access by foreign-origin Web content

  12. Final Report-Object Approaches to Data Access, Controls and Remote and Distributed Computing.

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John R Cary

    2003-01-23

    We submitted a progress report covering the first year of work on this grant on October 10, 2000. Though originally envisioned as a three-year grant, this work was not, in fact, funded after the first year. Thus, we hereby submit a report that is basically the same as the report submitted on October 10, 2000. In the first year of this project we prepared the groundwork for moving to automatic discovery, secure access to data servers, applications and controls, and migration to object approaches to data storage. We built and installed the secure Apache web server. It can be accessed at https://fusion.txcorp.com. We are able to configure this web server so that access is limited to a set of persons based on their Public Key Infrastructure certificates. Secondly, we developed signed applets for the National Transport Code Collaboration Demonstration Code, as are needed for secure access to the data and physics servers being developed by that project. Signed applets assure the user that the applet is the official version, and so it will not corrupt their machine. The also assure the server that the commands that come over are from a valid applet. In addition we began working with the CORBA naming daemon for configuring it to provide automatic discovery of data and physics servers. Finally, we spent significant time working on the NTCC project to ensure that its components were robust and useful, so that the remainder of this project would have a valuable tool to implement.

  13. Environmental Viral Metagenomics Analyses in Aquaculture: Applications in Epidemiology and Disease Control.

    PubMed

    Munang'andu, Hetron M

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the epidemiology of viral diseases in aquaculture have for a long time depended on isolation of viruses from infected aquatic organisms. The role of aquatic environments in the epidemiology of viral diseases in aquaculture has not been extensively expounded mainly because of the lack of appropriate tools for environmental studies on aquatic viruses. However, the upcoming of metagenomics analyses opens great avenues in which environmental samples can be used to study the epidemiology of viral diseases outside their host species. Hence, in this review I have shown that epidemiological factors that influence the composition of viruses in different aquatic environments include ecological factors, anthropogenic activities and stocking densities of cultured organisms based on environmental metagenomics studies carried out this far. Ballast water transportation and global trade of aquatic organisms are the most common virus dispersal process identified this far. In terms of disease control for outdoor aquaculture systems, baseline data on viruses found in different environments intended for aquaculture use can be obtained to enable the design of effective disease control strategies. And as such, high-risk areas having a high specter of pathogenic viruses can be identified as an early warning system. As for the control of viral diseases for indoor recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS), the most effective disinfection methods able to eliminate pathogenic viruses from water used in RAS can be identified. Overall, the synopsis I have put forth in this review shows that environmental samples can be used to study the epidemiology of viral diseases in aquaculture using viral metagenomics analysis as an overture for the design of rational disease control strategies.

  14. Environmental Viral Metagenomics Analyses in Aquaculture: Applications in Epidemiology and Disease Control

    PubMed Central

    Munang’andu, Hetron M.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the epidemiology of viral diseases in aquaculture have for a long time depended on isolation of viruses from infected aquatic organisms. The role of aquatic environments in the epidemiology of viral diseases in aquaculture has not been extensively expounded mainly because of the lack of appropriate tools for environmental studies on aquatic viruses. However, the upcoming of metagenomics analyses opens great avenues in which environmental samples can be used to study the epidemiology of viral diseases outside their host species. Hence, in this review I have shown that epidemiological factors that influence the composition of viruses in different aquatic environments include ecological factors, anthropogenic activities and stocking densities of cultured organisms based on environmental metagenomics studies carried out this far. Ballast water transportation and global trade of aquatic organisms are the most common virus dispersal process identified this far. In terms of disease control for outdoor aquaculture systems, baseline data on viruses found in different environments intended for aquaculture use can be obtained to enable the design of effective disease control strategies. And as such, high-risk areas having a high specter of pathogenic viruses can be identified as an early warning system. As for the control of viral diseases for indoor recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS), the most effective disinfection methods able to eliminate pathogenic viruses from water used in RAS can be identified. Overall, the synopsis I have put forth in this review shows that environmental samples can be used to study the epidemiology of viral diseases in aquaculture using viral metagenomics analysis as an overture for the design of rational disease control strategies. PMID:28018317

  15. A low-complexity medium access control framework for body sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Lei; Huang, Bang-Yu; Wu, Dan; Lin, Shao-Jie; Gu, Jia; Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Chen, Wei

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposed a low-complexity medium access control (MAC) protocol tailored for body sensor networks (BSN) applications. The MAC protocol was designated to handle collision avoidance by reducing the numbers of the overhead packets for handshake control within the BSN. We also suggested a novel message recovery mechanism for getting back the lost physiological information. The adaptive synchronization scheme we have implemented exploited the features of multiple data-rate and adjustable precision design to support differentiated healthcare applications. The MAC protocol was fully implemented using our BSN development platform. The experimental results suggested the improved MAC design was compact and energy-efficient.

  16. Layered Multicast Encryption of Motion JPEG2000 Code Streams for Flexible Access Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakachi, Takayuki; Toyoshima, Kan; Tonomura, Yoshihide; Fujii, Tatsuya

    In this paper, we propose a layered multicast encryption scheme that provides flexible access control to motion JPEG2000 code streams. JPEG2000 generates layered code streams and offers flexible scalability in characteristics such as resolution and SNR. The layered multicast encryption proposal allows a sender to multicast the encrypted JPEG2000 code streams such that only designated groups of users can decrypt the layered code streams. While keeping the layering functionality, the proposed method offers useful properties such as 1) video quality control using only one private key, 2) guaranteed security, and 3) low computational complexity comparable to conventional non-layered encryption. Simulation results show the usefulness of the proposed method.

  17. Targeting intensive versus conventional glycaemic control for type 1 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomised clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Kähler, Pernille; Grevstad, Berit; Almdal, Thomas; Gluud, Christian; Wetterslev, Jørn; Vaag, Allan; Hemmingsen, Bianca

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the benefits and harms of targeting intensive versus conventional glycaemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Design A systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomised clinical trials. Data sources The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded and LILACS to January 2013. Study selection Randomised clinical trials that prespecified different targets of glycaemic control in participants at any age with type 1 diabetes mellitus were included. Data extraction Two authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. Results 18 randomised clinical trials included 2254 participants with type 1 diabetes mellitus. All trials had high risk of bias. There was no statistically significant effect of targeting intensive glycaemic control on all-cause mortality (risk ratio 1.16, 95% CI 0.65 to 2.08) or cardiovascular mortality (0.49, 0.19 to 1.24). Targeting intensive glycaemic control reduced the relative risks for the composite macrovascular outcome (0.63, 0.41 to 0.96; p=0.03), and nephropathy (0.37, 0.27 to 0.50; p<0.00001. The effect estimates of retinopathy, ketoacidosis and retinal photocoagulation were not consistently statistically significant between random and fixed effects models. The risk of severe hypoglycaemia was significantly increased with intensive glycaemic targets (1.40, 1.01 to 1.94). Trial sequential analyses showed that the amount of data needed to demonstrate a relative risk reduction of 10% were, in general, inadequate. Conclusions There was no significant effect towards improved all-cause mortality when targeting intensive glycaemic control compared with conventional glycaemic control. However, there may be beneficial effects of targeting intensive glycaemic control on the composite macrovascular outcome and on nephropathy, and detrimental effects on severe hypoglycaemia. Notably, the data for retinopathy and ketoacidosis were inconsistent

  18. BTG-AC: Break-The-Glass Access Control Model for Medical Data in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Maw, Htoo; Xiao, Hannan; Christianson, Bruce; Malcolm, James

    2015-12-22

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have recently attracted much interest in the research community because of their wide range of applications. An emerging application for WSNs involves their use in healthcare where they are generally termed Wireless Medical Sensor Networks (WMSNs). In a hospital, outfitting every patient with tiny, wearable, wireless vital sign sensors would allow doctors, nurses and other caregivers to continuously monitor the state of their patients. In such a scenario, patients are expected to be treated in reasonable time, so, an access control model is needed which will provide both real-time access to comprehensive medical records and detect unauthorised access to sensitive data. In emergency situations, a doctor or nurse needs to access data immediately. The loss in data availability can result in further decline in the patient's condition or can even lead to death. Therefore, the availability of data is more important than any security concern in emergency situations. To address that research issue for medical data in WSNs, we propose the Break-The-Glass Access Control (BTG-AC) model that is a modified and redesigned version of the Break-The-Glass Role-Based Access Control (BTG-RBAC) model to address data availability issue and to detect the security policy violations from both authorised and unauthorised users. Several changes within the access control engine are made in BTG-RBAC in order to make the new BTG-AC to apply and fit in WSNs. This paper presents the detailed design and development of the BTG-AC model based on a healthcare scenario. The evaluation results show that the concepts of BTG, prevention and detection mechanism, and obligation provide more flexible access than other current access control models in WSNs. Additionally, we compare the BTG-AC model with an adaptive access control model (A2C) which has similar properties, for further evaluation. Alongside with the comparison, the advantages and disadvantages of BTGAC over

  19. Biomedical Big Data: New Models of Control Over Access, Use and Governance.

    PubMed

    Vayena, Effy; Blasimme, Alessandro

    2017-10-05

    Empirical evidence suggests that while people hold the capacity to control their data in high regard, they increasingly experience a loss of control over their data in the online world. The capacity to exert control over the generation and flow of personal information is a fundamental premise to important values such as autonomy, privacy, and trust. In healthcare and clinical research this capacity is generally achieved indirectly, by agreeing to specific conditions of informational exposure. Such conditions can be openly stated in informed consent documents or be implicit in the norms of confidentiality that govern the relationships of patients and healthcare professionals. However, with medicine becoming a data-intense enterprise, informed consent and medical confidentiality, as mechanisms of control, are put under pressure. In this paper we explore emerging models of informational control in data-intense healthcare and clinical research, which can compensate for the limitations of currently available instruments. More specifically, we discuss three approaches that hold promise in increasing individual control: the emergence of data portability rights as means to control data access, new mechanisms of informed consent as tools to control data use, and finally, new participatory governance schemes that allow individuals to control their data through direct involvement in data governance. We conclude by suggesting that, despite the impression that biomedical big data diminish individual control, the synergistic effect of new data management models can in fact improve it.

  20. Preemptive Correction of Arteriovenous Access Stenosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Ravani, Pietro; Quinn, Robert R; Oliver, Matthew J; Karsanji, Divya J; James, Matthew T; MacRae, Jennifer M; Palmer, Suetonia C; Strippoli, Giovanni F M

    2016-03-01

    Preemptive correction of a stenosis in an arteriovenous (AV) access (fistula or graft) that is adequately providing hemodialysis (functional AV access) may prolong access survival as compared to waiting for signs of access dysfunction to intervene (deferred salvage). However, the evidence in support of preemptive intervention is controversial. We evaluated benefits and harms of preemptive versus deferred correction of AV access stenosis. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Adults receiving hemodialysis by a functional AV access. We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Specialised Register and EMBASE to October 15, 2015. Active access surveillance (flow measurement and Doppler or venous pressure) and preemptive correction of a newly identified stenosis versus routine clinical monitoring and deferred salvage, or preemptive correction of a known stenosis versus deferred salvage. Access loss (primary outcome) and thrombosis (overall and by access type), infection, mortality, hospitalization, and access-related procedures. We included 14 trials (1,390 participants; follow-up, 6-38 months). Relative to deferred salvage, preemptive correction of AV access stenosis had a nonsignificant effect on risk for access loss (risk ratio [RR], 0.81; 95% CI, 0.65-1.02; I(2)=0%) and a significant effect on risk for thrombosis (RR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.65-0.97; I(2)=30%). Treatment effects were larger in fistulas than in grafts for both risk for access loss (subgroup difference, P=0.05) and risk for thrombosis (subgroup difference, P=0.002). Results were heterogeneous or imprecise for mortality, rates of access-related infections or procedures, and hospitalization. Small number and size of primary studies limited analysis power. Preemptive stenosis correction in a functional AV access does not improve access longevity. Although preemptive stenosis correction may be promising in fistulas, existing evidence is insufficient to guide clinical practice and

  1. Electromagnetic interference-aware transmission scheduling and power control for dynamic wireless access in hospital environments.

    PubMed

    Phunchongharn, Phond; Hossain, Ekram; Camorlinga, Sergio

    2011-11-01

    We study the multiple access problem for e-Health applications (referred to as secondary users) coexisting with medical devices (referred to as primary or protected users) in a hospital environment. In particular, we focus on transmission scheduling and power control of secondary users in multiple spatial reuse time-division multiple access (STDMA) networks. The objective is to maximize the spectrum utilization of secondary users and minimize their power consumption subject to the electromagnetic interference (EMI) constraints for active and passive medical devices and minimum throughput guarantee for secondary users. The multiple access problem is formulated as a dual objective optimization problem which is shown to be NP-complete. We propose a joint scheduling and power control algorithm based on a greedy approach to solve the problem with much lower computational complexity. To this end, an enhanced greedy algorithm is proposed to improve the performance of the greedy algorithm by finding the optimal sequence of secondary users for scheduling. Using extensive simulations, the tradeoff in performance in terms of spectrum utilization, energy consumption, and computational complexity is evaluated for both the algorithms.

  2. A network access control framework for 6LoWPAN networks.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luís M L; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; de Sousa, Amaro F; Lloret, Jaime

    2013-01-18

    Low power over wireless personal area networks (LoWPAN), in particular wireless sensor networks, represent an emerging technology with high potential to be employed in critical situations like security surveillance, battlefields, smart-grids, and in e-health applications. The support of security services in LoWPAN is considered a challenge. First, this type of networks is usually deployed in unattended environments, making them vulnerable to security attacks. Second, the constraints inherent to LoWPAN, such as scarce resources and limited battery capacity, impose a careful planning on how and where the security services should be deployed. Besides protecting the network from some well-known threats, it is important that security mechanisms be able to withstand attacks that have not been identified before. One way of reaching this goal is to control, at the network access level, which nodes can be attached to the network and to enforce their security compliance. This paper presents a network access security framework that can be used to control the nodes that have access to the network, based on administrative approval, and to enforce security compliance to the authorized nodes.

  3. A Network Access Control Framework for 6LoWPAN Networks

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Luís M. L.; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; de Sousa, Amaro F.; Lloret, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Low power over wireless personal area networks (LoWPAN), in particular wireless sensor networks, represent an emerging technology with high potential to be employed in critical situations like security surveillance, battlefields, smart-grids, and in e-health applications. The support of security services in LoWPAN is considered a challenge. First, this type of networks is usually deployed in unattended environments, making them vulnerable to security attacks. Second, the constraints inherent to LoWPAN, such as scarce resources and limited battery capacity, impose a careful planning on how and where the security services should be deployed. Besides protecting the network from some well-known threats, it is important that security mechanisms be able to withstand attacks that have not been identified before. One way of reaching this goal is to control, at the network access level, which nodes can be attached to the network and to enforce their security compliance. This paper presents a network access security framework that can be used to control the nodes that have access to the network, based on administrative approval, and to enforce security compliance to the authorized nodes. PMID:23334610

  4. Frequency-selective design of wireless power transfer systems for controlled access applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maschino, Tyler Stephen

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) has become a common way to charge or power many types of devices, ranging from cell phones to electric toothbrushes. WPT became popular through the introduction of a transmission mode known as strongly coupled magnetic resonance (SCMR). This means of transmission is non-radiative and enables mid-range WPT. Shortly after the development of WPT via SCMR, a group of researchers introduced the concept of resonant repeaters, which allows power to hop from the source to the device. These repeaters are in resonance with the WPT system, which enables them to propagate the power wirelessly with minimal losses to the environment. Resonant repeaters have rekindled the dream of ubiquitous wireless power. Inherent risks come with the realization of such a dream. One of the most prominent risks, which we set out in this thesis to address, is that of accessibility to the WPT system. We propose the incorporation of a controlled access schema within a WPT system to prevent unwarranted use of wireless power. Our thesis discusses the history of electromagnetism, examines the inception of WPT via SCMR, evaluates recent developments in WPT, and further elaborates on the controlled access schema we wish to contribute to the field.

  5. An interaction-based access control model (IBAC) for collaborative services

    SciTech Connect

    Altunay, Mine; Byrd, Gregory T.; Brown, Doug E.; Dean, Ralph A.; /North Carolina State U.

    2008-04-01

    A collaboration is a collection of services that work together to achieve a common goal. Although collaborations help when tackling difficult problems, they lead to security issues. First, a collaboration is often performed by services that are drawn from different security domains. Second, a service interacts with multiple peer services during the collaboration. These interactions are not isolated from one another--e.g., data may flow through a sequence of different services. As a result, a service is exposed to multiple peer services in varying degrees, leading to different security threats. We identify the types of interactions that can be present in collaborations, and discuss the security threats due to each type. We propose a model for representing the collaboration context so that a service can be made aware of the existing interactions. We provide an access control model for a service participating in a collaboration. We couple our access control model with a policy model, so that the access requirements from collaborations can be expressed and evaluated.

  6. Multilevel Growth Curve Analyses of Treatment Effects of a Web-Based Intervention for Stress Reduction: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Raeder, Sabine; Kraft, Pål; Bjørkli, Cato Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Background Stress is commonly experienced by many people and it is a contributing factor to many mental and physical health conditions, However, few efforts have been made to develop and test the effects of interventions for stress. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a Web-based stress-reduction intervention on stress, investigate mindfulness and procrastination as potential mediators of any treatment effects, and test whether the intervention is equally effective for females as males, all ages, and all levels of education. Methods We employed a randomized controlled trial in this study. Participants were recruited online via Facebook and randomly assigned to either the stress intervention or a control condition. The Web-based stress intervention was fully automated and consisted of 13 sessions over 1 month. The controls were informed that they would get access to the intervention after the final data collection. Data were collected at baseline and at 1, 2, and 6 months after intervention onset by means of online questionnaires. Outcomes were stress, mindfulness, and procrastination, which were all measured at every measurement occasion. Results A total of 259 participants were included and were allocated to either the stress intervention (n=126) or the control condition (n=133). Participants in the intervention and control group were comparable at baseline; however, results revealed that participants in the stress intervention followed a statistically different (ie, cubic) developmental trajectory in stress levels over time compared to the controls. A growth curve analysis showed that participants in the stress intervention (unstandardized beta coefficient [B]=–3.45, P=.008) recovered more quickly compared to the control group (B=–0.81, P=.34) from baseline to 1 month. Although participants in the stress intervention did show increases in stress levels during the study period (B=2.23, P=.008), long-term stress levels did decrease

  7. Multilevel growth curve analyses of treatment effects of a Web-based intervention for stress reduction: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Drozd, Filip; Raeder, Sabine; Kraft, Pål; Bjørkli, Cato Alexander

    2013-04-22

    Stress is commonly experienced by many people and it is a contributing factor to many mental and physical health conditions, However, few efforts have been made to develop and test the effects of interventions for stress. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a Web-based stress-reduction intervention on stress, investigate mindfulness and procrastination as potential mediators of any treatment effects, and test whether the intervention is equally effective for females as males, all ages, and all levels of education. We employed a randomized controlled trial in this study. Participants were recruited online via Facebook and randomly assigned to either the stress intervention or a control condition. The Web-based stress intervention was fully automated and consisted of 13 sessions over 1 month. The controls were informed that they would get access to the intervention after the final data collection. Data were collected at baseline and at 1, 2, and 6 months after intervention onset by means of online questionnaires. Outcomes were stress, mindfulness, and procrastination, which were all measured at every measurement occasion. A total of 259 participants were included and were allocated to either the stress intervention (n=126) or the control condition (n=133). Participants in the intervention and control group were comparable at baseline; however, results revealed that participants in the stress intervention followed a statistically different (ie, cubic) developmental trajectory in stress levels over time compared to the controls. A growth curve analysis showed that participants in the stress intervention (unstandardized beta coefficient [B]=-3.45, P=.008) recovered more quickly compared to the control group (B=-0.81, P=.34) from baseline to 1 month. Although participants in the stress intervention did show increases in stress levels during the study period (B=2.23, P=.008), long-term stress levels did decrease again toward study end at 6 months (B=-0

  8. Reporting of analyses from randomized controlled trials with multiple arms: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple-arm randomized trials can be more complex in their design, data analysis, and result reporting than two-arm trials. We conducted a systematic review to assess the reporting of analyses in reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with multiple arms. Methods The literature in the MEDLINE database was searched for reports of RCTs with multiple arms published in 2009 in the core clinical journals. Two reviewers extracted data using a standardized extraction form. Results In total, 298 reports were identified. Descriptions of the baseline characteristics and outcomes per group were missing in 45 reports (15.1%) and 48 reports (16.1%), respectively. More than half of the articles (n = 171, 57.4%) reported that a planned global test comparison was used (that is, assessment of the global differences between all groups), but 67 (39.2%) of these 171 articles did not report details of the planned analysis. Of the 116 articles reporting a global comparison test, 12 (10.3%) did not report the analysis as planned. In all, 60% of publications (n = 180) described planned pairwise test comparisons (that is, assessment of the difference between two groups), but 20 of these 180 articles (11.1%) did not report the pairwise test comparisons. Of the 204 articles reporting pairwise test comparisons, the comparisons were not planned for 44 (21.6%) of them. Less than half the reports (n = 137; 46%) provided baseline and outcome data per arm and reported the analysis as planned. Conclusions Our findings highlight discrepancies between the planning and reporting of analyses in reports of multiple-arm trials. PMID:23531230

  9. On the designing of a tamper resistant prescription RFID access control system.

    PubMed

    Safkhani, Masoumeh; Bagheri, Nasour; Naderi, Majid

    2012-12-01

    Recently, Chen et al. have proposed a novel tamper resistant prescription RFID access control system, published in the Journal of Medical Systems. In this paper we consider the security of the proposed protocol and identify some existing weaknesses. The main attack is a reader impersonation attack which allows an active adversary to impersonate a legitimate doctor, e.g. the patient's doctor, to access the patient's tag and change the patient prescription. The presented attack is quite efficient. To impersonate a doctor, the adversary should eavesdrop one session between the doctor and the patient's tag and then she can impersonate the doctor with the success probability of '1'. In addition, we present efficient reader-tag to back-end database impersonation, de-synchronization and traceability attacks against the protocol. Finally, we propose an improved version of protocol which is more efficient compared to the original protocol while provides the desired security against the presented attacks.

  10. Randomized controlled trials in central vascular access devices: A scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Keogh, Samantha; Rickard, Claire M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Randomized controlled trials evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for central venous access devices, however, high complication rates remain. Scoping reviews map the available evidence and demonstrate evidence deficiencies to focus ongoing research priorities. Method A scoping review (January 2006–December 2015) of randomized controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of interventions to improve central venous access device outcomes; including peripherally inserted central catheters, non-tunneled, tunneled and totally implanted venous access catheters. MeSH terms were used to undertake a systematic search with data extracted by two independent researchers, using a standardized data extraction form. Results In total, 178 trials were included (78 non-tunneled [44%]; 40 peripherally inserted central catheters [22%]; 20 totally implanted [11%]; 12 tunneled [6%]; 6 non-specified [3%]; and 22 combined device trials [12%]). There were 119 trials (68%) involving adult participants only, with 18 (9%) pediatric and 20 (11%) neonatal trials. Insertion-related themes existed in 38% of trials (67 RCTs), 35 RCTs (20%) related to post-insertion patency, with fewer trials on infection prevention (15 RCTs, 8%), education (14RCTs, 8%), and dressing and securement (12 RCTs, 7%). There were 46 different study outcomes reported, with the most common being infection outcomes (161 outcomes; 37%), with divergent definitions used for catheter-related bloodstream and other infections. Conclusion More high quality randomized trials across central venous access device management are necessary, especially in dressing and securement and patency. These can be encouraged by having more studies with multidisciplinary team involvement and consumer engagement. Additionally, there were extensive gaps within population sub-groups, particularly in tunneled devices, and in pediatrics and neonates. Finally, outcome definitions need to be unified for results to be meaningful and

  11. Control of Echinococcus multilocularis: strategies, feasibility and cost-benefit analyses.

    PubMed

    Hegglin, Daniel; Deplazes, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis, the zoonotic agent of human alveolar echinococcosis, has considerably extended its range and became more prevalent in many parts of the endemic areas. Accordingly, there is an increasing demand for measures to prevent human infections. Rising public awareness of this zoonosis and individual protective actions should be part of every prevention program. Considering the high reproduction of E. multilocularis in domestic dogs which live in close contact to humans, a monthly deworming scheme for domestic dogs with access to rodents is likely to be of high importance. This holds true if only low prevalences in domestic dogs are recorded, as high densities of these pets can easily outweigh low infections rates. Thus, in central Europe their estimated contribution to environmental contamination with E. multilocularis eggs ranges between 4% and 19%. The estimated contribution of domestic cats is insignificant (<0.3%) due to low parasite reproduction in this species. Control of the parasite by reducing its main wildlife hosts (foxes, vole species) is barely achievable on a larger scale and is generally not well accepted due to ecological considerations and animal welfare concerns. In general, the frequency of the parasite sharply decreases when anthelmintic baits are regularly distributed to foxes. However, eradication of the parasite is unlikely and long-term baiting campaigns are actually the most effective tool to significantly lower the infection pressure with parasite eggs. Regarding the long latency of 5-15 years of alveolar echinococcosis, however, such measures can only be cost effective if they are pursued for several decades and concentrate on restricted areas which are most relevant for the transmission of alveolar echinococcosis such as highly endemic areas in densely populated zones. Thus, the implementation of this approach strongly depends on factors such as public attitude, available financial resources and priority setting of

  12. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Mobile Clinical Decision Aid to Improve Access to Kidney Transplantation: iChoose Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Patzer, Rachel E.; Basu, Mohua; Mohan, Sumit; Smith, Kayla D.; Wolf, Michael; Ladner, Daniela; Friedewald, John J.; Chiles, Mariana; Russell, Allison; McPherson, Laura; Gander, Jennifer; Pastan, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease, as it substantially increases a patient's survival and is cost saving compared to a lifetime of dialysis. However, transplantation is not universally chosen by patients with renal failure, and limited knowledge about the survival benefit of transplantation vs. dialysis may play a role. We created a mobile application clinical decision aid called iChoose Kidney to improve access to individualized prognosis information comparing dialysis and transplantation outcomes. We describe the iChoose Kidney study, a randomized controlled trial designed to test the clinical efficacy of a mobile health decision aid among end-stage renal disease patients referred for kidney transplantation at three large, diverse transplant centers across the U.S. Approximately 450 patients will be randomized to receive either: (1) standard of care or “usual” transplantation education, or (2) standard of care plus iChoose Kidney. The primary outcome is change in knowledge about the survival benefit of kidney transplantation vs. dialysis from baseline to immediate follow-up; secondary outcomes include change in treatment preferences, improved decisional conflict, and increased access to kidney transplantation. Analyses are also planned to examine effectiveness across subgroups of race, socioeconomic status, health literacy and health numeracy. Engaging patients in health care choices can increase patient empowerment and improve knowledge and understanding of treatment choices. If the effectiveness of iChoose Kidney has a greater impact on patients with low health literacy, lower socioeconomic status, and minority race, this decision aid could help reduce disparities in access to kidney transplantation. PMID:27610423

  13. Integrating end-user feedback in the concept stage of development of a novel sensor access system for environmental control.

    PubMed

    Fager, Susan Koch; Sorenson, Tabatha; Butte, Susanne; Nelson, Alexander; Banerjee, Nilanjan; Robucci, Ryan

    2017-05-19

    This article illustrates user-centred design of a novel sensor access system for environmental control in the concept stage of development. Focus groups of individuals with disabilities and rehabilitation healthcare professionals were provided with video illustration of the technology and asked to provide quantitative and qualitative feedback through a semistructured interview process. Qualitative methods were employed to analyse transcribed comments to develop themes supporting ongoing development of the technology. Both end-user streams rated the original design features of the sensor access system (alternative interface to assistive technologies, having wireless capabilities and not requiring batteries) as having high potential value. Both groups identified a need for the future design of the sensor technology to be able to capture minimal/reduced movements for those with severe physical impairments. Themes included (1) the sensor technology could be individualized/customized to accommodate the user, (2) minimal positioning and set-up requirement and (3) technology that alleviated problems encountered with touch-based solutions. Inclusion of end-user feedback provided the research team with valuable information that supported the initial conceptualization of the design features of the technology and provided valuable data to support development of a new prototype that can capture more reduced/minimal movements. Implication for Rehabilitation User-centered design of assistive technology is essential to the development of technology that can meet the unique needs of those with the most severe physical impairments. New sensor technology may alleviate some of the access challenges faced by individuals with severe physical impairments. Collaboration between all key stakeholders (individuals with disabilities, rehabilitation professionals, researchers, and developers) is an essential component in the iterative assistive technology design process.

  14. Controls on Yardang Morphology: Insights from Field Measurements, Lidar Topographic Analyses, and Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, J. D.; Kapp, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Yardangs are streamlined bedforms sculpted by the wind and wind-blown sand. They can form as relatively resistant exposed rocks erode more slowly than surrounding exposed rocks, thus causing the more resistant rocks to stand higher in the landscape and deflect the wind and wind-blown sand into adjacent troughs in a positive feedback. How this feedback gives rise to streamlined forms that locally have a consistent size is not well understood theoretically. In this study we combine field measurements in the yardangs of Ocotillo Wells SVRA with analyses of airborne and terrestrial lidar datasets and numerical modeling to quantify and understand the controls on yardang morphology. The classic model for yardang morphology is that they evolve to an ideal 4:1 length-to-width aspect ratio that minimizes aerodynamic drag. We show using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling that this model is incorrect: the 4:1 aspect ratio is the value corresponding to minimum drag for free bodies, i.e. obstacles around which air flows on all sides. Yardangs, in contrast, are embedded in Earth's surface. For such rough streamlined half-bodies, the aspect ratio corresponding to minimum drag is larger than 20:1. As an alternative to the minimum-drag model, we propose that the aspect ratio of yardangs not significantly influenced by structural controls is controlled by the angle of dispersion of the aerodynamic jet created as deflected wind and wind-blown sand exits the troughs between incipient yardang noses. Aerodynamic jets have a universal dispersion angle of 11.8 degrees, thus predicting a yardang aspect ratio of ~5:1. We developed a landscape evolution model that combines the physics of boundary layer flow with aeolian saltation and bedrock erosion to form yardangs with a range of sizes and aspect ratios similar to those observed in nature. Yardangs with aspect ratios both larger and smaller than 5:1 occur in the model since the strike and dip of the resistant rock unit also exerts

  15. Surveillance in easy to access population subgroups as a tool for evaluating malaria control progress: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sesay, Sanie S S; Giorgi, Emanuele; Diggle, Peter J; Schellenberg, David; Lalloo, David G; Terlouw, Dianne J

    2017-01-01

    The need for surveillance systems generating targeted, data-driven, responsive control efforts to accelerate and sustain malaria transmission reduction has been emphasized by programme managers, policy makers and scientists. Surveillance using easy-to-access population subgroups (EAGs) may result in considerable cost saving compared to household surveys as the identification and selection of individuals to be surveyed is simplified, fewer personnel are needed, and logistics are simpler. We reviewed available literature on the validation of estimates of key indicators of malaria control progress derived from EAGs, and describe the options to deal with the context specific bias that may occur. A literature search was conducted of all documents reporting validation of estimates of malaria control indicators from EAG surveys before the 31st of December 2016. Additional records were identified through cross-reference from selected records, other applicable policy documents and grey literature. After removal of duplicates, 13, 180 abstracts were evaluated and 2,653 eligible abstracts were identified mentioning surveillance in EAGs, of which 29 full text articles were selected for detailed review. The nine articles selected for systematic review compared estimates from health facility and school surveys with those of a contemporaneous sample of the same population in the same geographic area. Review of the available literature on EAGs suitable for surveillance of malaria control progress revealed that little effort has been made to explore the potential approach and settings for use of EAGs; and that there was wide variation in the precision of estimates of control progress between and within studies, particularly for estimates of control intervention coverage. Only one of the studies evaluated the geospatial representativeness of EAG samples, or carried out geospatial analyses to assess or control for lack of geospatial representativeness. Two studies attempted to

  16. Respiratory diseases among union carpenters: cohort and case-control analyses.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, H J; Dement, J M

    1998-02-01

    Lung diseases, defined by ICD-9 diagnoses on medical insurance claims, were studied through the combined use of administrative records, private health insurance, and workers' compensation claims for a cohort of 10,938 active union carpenters between 1989 and 1992. The cohort defined the study base for a nested case-control study, in which cases (n = 220) were initially identified by an ICD-9 code for asthma in private health insurance or workers' compensation files. A questionnaire was used to collect information on respiratory history and potential home and workplace exposures. Questions used by Burney et al. to define a discriminant function predictor (DFP) of a bronchial response to histamine were used to reclassify cases and controls for further exploratory analyses. Bronchitis accounted for over 50% of the lung disease cases among this cohort followed by asthma, chronic obstructive airway disease, and chronic bronchitis. Incidence density rates of asthma, chronic bronchitis, and chronic obstructive airway disease adjusted for age, sex, and time in the union increased with increasing age. Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program data to estimate expected lung cancer cases in our cohort, an elevated standardized incidence rate (SIR) was seen among male carpenters between the ages of 45-54. Smoking history was not available for the entire cohort. Using the ICD-9 or Burney case definition of asthma, odds ratios were significantly elevated for exposure to hay, epoxy paints, enzymes, animals, and molds. Additional exposures associated with asthma using Burney's definition, are ones to which a majority of these carpenters were exposed including cement, drywall, and demolition dusts.

  17. Experimental Investigation on Transmission Control Protocol Throughput Behavior in Optical Fiber Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tego, Edion; Matera, Francesco; del Buono, Donato

    2016-03-01

    This article describes an experimental investigation on the behavior of transmission control protocol in throughput measurements to be used in the verification of the service-level agreement between the Internet service provider and user in terms of line capacity for ultra-broadband access networks typical of fiber-to-the-x architectures. It is experimentally shown different conditions in high bandwidth-delay product links where the estimation of the line capacity based on a single transmission control protocol session results are unreliable. Simple equations reported in this work, and experimentally verified, point out the conditions in terms of packet loss, time delay, and line capacity, that allow consideration of the reliability of the measurement carried out with a single transmission control protocol session test by adopting a suitable measurement time duration.

  18. Operational, control and protective system transient analyses of the closed-cycle GT-HTGR power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Openshaw, F.L.; Chan, T.W.

    1980-07-01

    This paper presents a description of the analyses of the control/protective system preliminary designs for the gas turbine high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (GT-HTGR) power plant. The control system is designed to regulate reactor power, control electric load and turbine speed, control the temperature of the helium delivered to the turbines, and control thermal transients experienced by the system components. In addition, it provides the required control programming for startup, shutdown, load ramp, and other expected operations. The control system also handles conditions imposed on the system during upset and emergency conditions such as loop trip, reactor trip, or electrical load rejection.

  19. Medium Access Control Protocols for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks: A Survey.

    PubMed

    Zareei, Mahdi; Islam, A K M Muzahidul; Baharun, Sabariah; Vargas-Rosales, Cesar; Azpilicueta, Leyre; Mansoor, Nafees

    2017-09-16

    New wireless network paradigms will demand higher spectrum use and availability to cope with emerging data-hungry devices. Traditional static spectrum allocation policies cause spectrum scarcity, and new paradigms such as Cognitive Radio (CR) and new protocols and techniques need to be developed in order to have efficient spectrum usage. Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols are accountable for recognizing free spectrum, scheduling available resources and coordinating the coexistence of heterogeneous systems and users. This paper provides an ample review of the state-of-the-art MAC protocols, which mainly focuses on Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks (CRAHN). First, a description of the cognitive radio fundamental functions is presented. Next, MAC protocols are divided into three groups, which are based on their channel access mechanism, namely time-slotted protocol, random access protocol and hybrid protocol. In each group, a detailed and comprehensive explanation of the latest MAC protocols is presented, as well as the pros and cons of each protocol. A discussion on future challenges for CRAHN MAC protocols is included with a comparison of the protocols from a functional perspective.

  20. Medium Access Control Protocols for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Islam, A. K. M. Muzahidul; Baharun, Sabariah; Mansoor, Nafees

    2017-01-01

    New wireless network paradigms will demand higher spectrum use and availability to cope with emerging data-hungry devices. Traditional static spectrum allocation policies cause spectrum scarcity, and new paradigms such as Cognitive Radio (CR) and new protocols and techniques need to be developed in order to have efficient spectrum usage. Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols are accountable for recognizing free spectrum, scheduling available resources and coordinating the coexistence of heterogeneous systems and users. This paper provides an ample review of the state-of-the-art MAC protocols, which mainly focuses on Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks (CRAHN). First, a description of the cognitive radio fundamental functions is presented. Next, MAC protocols are divided into three groups, which are based on their channel access mechanism, namely time-slotted protocol, random access protocol and hybrid protocol. In each group, a detailed and comprehensive explanation of the latest MAC protocols is presented, as well as the pros and cons of each protocol. A discussion on future challenges for CRAHN MAC protocols is included with a comparison of the protocols from a functional perspective. PMID:28926952

  1. Minor access control of Hong Kong under the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Kan, Ming-yue; Lau, Maggie

    2010-05-01

    Asia's tobacco control movement was strengthened owing to the need to fulfill the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). The present study aims to assess the compliance rates of tobacco retailers to the law forbidding the sales of tobacco to minors in Hong Kong before and after the growth of the tobacco control movement brought by the enactment of the newly amended tobacco control law with effect from 2007. The legislation was enacted to fulfill the FCTC. Two waves of territory-wide compliance checks conducted in 2006 and 2008 were compared. The compliance check was conducted using Standard Protocol. The overall compliance rate was still low though it increased from 18.9% in 2006 to 27.0% in 2008. The compliance rate of convenience stores and newspaper stands improved whereas the rate for restaurants, grocery stores and petrol stations worsened. Less tobacco retailing outlets displayed a specified warning sign required in 2008 (33.7%) comparing to 2006 (41.4%). The indoor smoking ban of the FCTC unintentionally changed the cigarette retailing landscape and finally improved the compliance rate. The case study also demonstrated that the Asia region still has much room for improvement in fulfilling the FCTC in term of effective implementation and enforcement. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Standards for Access Control Enabling PHR-S Federation.

    PubMed

    Mense, Alexander; Urbauer, Philipp; Sauermann, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The adoption of the Internet of Things (IoT) and mobile applications in the healthcare may transform the healthcare industry by offering better disease tracking and management as well as patient empowerment. Unfortunately, almost all of these new systems set up their own ecosystem and to be really valuable for the care process they need to be integrated or federated with user managed access control services based on international standards and profiles to enable interoperability. Thus, this work presents the results of an evaluation of available specifications for federated authorization, based on a set of basic requirements.

  3. Development and process control of magnetic tunnel junctions for magnetic random access memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kula, Witold; Wolfman, Jerome; Ounadjela, Kamel; Chen, Eugene; Koutny, William

    2003-05-01

    We report on the development and process control of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) for magnetic random access memory (MRAM) devices. It is demonstrated that MTJs with high magnetoresistance ˜40% at 300 mV, resistance-area product (RA) ˜1-3 kΩ μm2, low intrinsic interlayer coupling (Hin) ˜2-3 Oe, and excellent bit switching characteristics can be developed and fully integrated with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuitry into MRAM devices. MTJ uniformity and repeatability level suitable for mass production has been demonstrated with the advanced processing and monitoring techniques.

  4. A Flexible Component based Access Control Architecture for OPeNDAP Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kershaw, Philip; Ananthakrishnan, Rachana; Cinquini, Luca; Lawrence, Bryan; Pascoe, Stephen; Siebenlist, Frank

    2010-05-01

    Network data access services such as OPeNDAP enable widespread access to data across user communities. However, without ready means to restrict access to data for such services, data providers and data owners are constrained from making their data more widely available. Even with such capability, the range of different security technologies available can make interoperability between services and user client tools a challenge. OPeNDAP is a key data access service in the infrastructure under development to support the CMIP5 (Couple Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5). The work is being carried out as part of an international collaboration including the US Earth System Grid and Curator projects and the EU funded IS-ENES and Metafor projects. This infrastructure will bring together Petabytes of climate model data and associated metadata from over twenty modelling centres around the world in a federation with a core archive mirrored at three data centres. A security system is needed to meet the requirements of organisations responsible for model data including the ability to restrict data access to registered users, keep them up to date with changes to data and services, audit access and protect finite computing resources. Individual organisations have existing tools and services such as OPeNDAP with which users in the climate research community are already familiar. The security system should overlay access control in a way which maintains the usability and ease of access to these services. The BADC (British Atmospheric Data Centre) has been working in collaboration with the Earth System Grid development team and partner organisations to develop the security architecture. OpenID and MyProxy were selected at an early stage in the ESG project to provide single sign-on capability across the federation of participating organisations. Building on the existing OPeNDAP specification an architecture based on pluggable server side components has been developed at the BADC

  5. Ore controls in the Charters Towers goldfield, NE Australia: Constraints from geological, geophysical and numerical analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreuzer, O.P.; Blenkinsop, T.G.; Morrison, R.J.; Peters, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    The approach taken in this paper, namely synthesising a wealth of previous information with new data and a genetic model, in combination with integrated numerical analyses, led to new insights into the geological controls on the localisation of auriferous veins and residual prospectivity of the Charters Towers goldfield, NE Australia. The method also has implications for the assessment of other "mature" goldfields worldwide. Despite a number of different ore controls having operated within the Charters Towers goldfield, the controlling factors can be linked to a single genetic model for orogenic, granitoid-hosted lode-gold mineralisation in a brittle deformation regime (D4) of NE-SW to NNE-SSW shortening, under conditions of supralithostatic fluid pressure and low stress difference. Spatial autocorrelation results suggest district-scale alignment of the auriferous veins parallel to and overlapping with the ESE-WNW- to E-W-striking Charters Towers-Ravenswood lineament, a major crustal boundary in the basement to the Ravenswood batholith. At the camp-scale, auriferous veins have abundance and proximity relationships with NW-SE-, NNW-SSE-, NE-SW- and ENE-WSW-oriented lineaments, suggesting that structures that controlled gold deposition in one camp did not necessarily control mineralisation in other camps. Fractal dimensions obtained with the box-counting method range from 1.02 to 1.10, whereas veins in the Charters Towers City camp are characterised by a significantly higher fractal dimension of 1.28. This discrepancy may be taken to imply that most or all outcropping and near-surface deposits within the Charters Towers City camp have been found and that new discoveries are more likely to occur at greater levels of depth, or outside the boundaries of this camp. The new understanding has implications for the assessment of the residual prospectivity of the Charters Towers goldfield, where large areas of prospective rock types and structures (e.g., approximately 40% of

  6. IMPROVING CONTROL ROOM DESIGN AND OPERATIONS BASED ON HUMAN FACTORS ANALYSES OR HOW MUCH HUMAN FACTORS UPGRADE IS ENOUGH ?

    SciTech Connect

    HIGGINS,J.C.; OHARA,J.M.; ALMEIDA,P.

    2002-09-19

    THE JOSE CABRERA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IS A ONE LOOP WESTINGHOUSE PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR. IN THE CONTROL ROOM, THE DISPLAYS AND CONTROLS USED BY OPERATORS FOR THE EMERGENCY OPERATING PROCEDURES ARE DISTRIBUTED ON FRONT AND BACK PANELS. THIS CONFIGURATION CONTRIBUTED TO RISK IN THE PROBABILISTIC SAFETY ASSESSMENT WHERE IMPORTANT OPERATOR ACTIONS ARE REQUIRED. THIS STUDY WAS UNDERTAKEN TO EVALUATE THE IMPACT OF THE DESIGN ON CREW PERFORMANCE AND PLANT SAFETY AND TO DEVELOP DESIGN IMPROVEMENTS.FIVE POTENTIAL EFFECTS WERE IDENTIFIED. THEN NUREG-0711 [1], PROGRAMMATIC, HUMAN FACTORS, ANALYSES WERE CONDUCTED TO SYSTEMATICALLY EVALUATE THE CR-LA YOUT TO DETERMINE IF THERE WAS EVIDENCE OF THE POTENTIAL EFFECTS. THESE ANALYSES INCLUDED OPERATING EXPERIENCE REVIEW, PSA REVIEW, TASK ANALYSES, AND WALKTHROUGH SIMULATIONS. BASED ON THE RESULTS OF THESE ANALYSES, A VARIETY OF CONTROL ROOM MODIFICATIONS WERE IDENTIFIED. FROM THE ALTERNATIVES, A SELECTION WAS MADE THAT PROVIDED A REASONABLEBALANCE BE TWEEN PERFORMANCE, RISK AND ECONOMICS, AND MODIFICATIONS WERE MADE TO THE PLANT.

  7. An Effective Massive Sensor Network Data Access Scheme Based on Topology Control for the Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Meng; Chen, Qingkui; Xiong, Neal N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the distributed access and control problem of massive wireless sensor networks’ data access center for the Internet of Things, which is an extension of wireless sensor networks and an element of its topology structure. In the context of the arrival of massive service access requests at a virtual data center, this paper designs a massive sensing data access and control mechanism to improve the access efficiency of service requests and makes full use of the available resources at the data access center for the Internet of things. Firstly, this paper proposes a synergistically distributed buffer access model, which separates the information of resource and location. Secondly, the paper divides the service access requests into multiple virtual groups based on their characteristics and locations using an optimized self-organizing feature map neural network. Furthermore, this paper designs an optimal scheduling algorithm of group migration based on the combination scheme between the artificial bee colony algorithm and chaos searching theory. Finally, the experimental results demonstrate that this mechanism outperforms the existing schemes in terms of enhancing the accessibility of service requests effectively, reducing network delay, and has higher load balancing capacity and higher resource utility rate. PMID:27827878

  8. An Effective Massive Sensor Network Data Access Scheme Based on Topology Control for the Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Yi, Meng; Chen, Qingkui; Xiong, Neal N

    2016-11-03

    This paper considers the distributed access and control problem of massive wireless sensor networks' data access center for the Internet of Things, which is an extension of wireless sensor networks and an element of its topology structure. In the context of the arrival of massive service access requests at a virtual data center, this paper designs a massive sensing data access and control mechanism to improve the access efficiency of service requests and makes full use of the available resources at the data access center for the Internet of things. Firstly, this paper proposes a synergistically distributed buffer access model, which separates the information of resource and location. Secondly, the paper divides the service access requests into multiple virtual groups based on their characteristics and locations using an optimized self-organizing feature map neural network. Furthermore, this paper designs an optimal scheduling algorithm of group migration based on the combination scheme between the artificial bee colony algorithm and chaos searching theory. Finally, the experimental results demonstrate that this mechanism outperforms the existing schemes in terms of enhancing the accessibility of service requests effectively, reducing network delay, and has higher load balancing capacity and higher resource utility rate.

  9. Polymorphisms in the XPC gene affect urinary bladder cancer risk: a case-control study, meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses

    PubMed Central

    Sankhwar, Monica; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Bansal, Sandeep Kumar; Gupta, Gopal; Rajender, Singh

    2016-01-01

    Compromised activity of the DNA repair enzymes may raise the risk of a number of cancers. We analyzed polymorphisms in the Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Complementation Group C (XPC) gene for their correlation with urinary bladder cancer. Ala499Val and Lys939Gln polymorphisms were genotyped in 234 urinary bladder cancer cases and 258 control samples. A significant association between Ala499Val polymorphism and bladder cancer was observed (OR = 1.78, CI = 1.19–2.66, p = 0.005); however, Lys939Gln was unrelated (OR = 0.97, CI = 0.65–1.45, P = 0.89). Further analysis revealed that Ala499Val was a significant risk factor only in the presence of smoking (OR = 2.23, CI = 1.28–3.87, p < 0.004) or tobacco chewing (OR = 2.40, CI = 1.43–4.04, p = 0.0008). To further appraise the association, we undertook meta-analyses on seven studies (2893 cases and 3056 controls) on Ala499Val polymorphism and eleven studies (5064 cases and 5208 controls) on Lys939Gln polymorphism. Meta-analyses corroborated the above results, showing strong association of Ala499Val (OR = 1.54, CI = 1.21–1.97, p = 0.001) but not that of Lys939Gln (OR = 1.13, CI = 0.95–1.34, p = 0.171) with urinary bladder cancer risk. In conclusion, XPC Ala499Val substitution increases urinary bladder cancer risk, but Lys939Gln appears to be neutral. PMID:27246180

  10. Face Recognition for Access Control Systems Combining Image-Difference Features Based on a Probabilistic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miwa, Shotaro; Kage, Hiroshi; Hirai, Takashi; Sumi, Kazuhiko

    We propose a probabilistic face recognition algorithm for Access Control System(ACS)s. Comparing with existing ACSs using low cost IC-cards, face recognition has advantages in usability and security that it doesn't require people to hold cards over scanners and doesn't accept imposters with authorized cards. Therefore face recognition attracts more interests in security markets than IC-cards. But in security markets where low cost ACSs exist, price competition is important, and there is a limitation on the quality of available cameras and image control. Therefore ACSs using face recognition are required to handle much lower quality images, such as defocused and poor gain-controlled images than high security systems, such as immigration control. To tackle with such image quality problems we developed a face recognition algorithm based on a probabilistic model which combines a variety of image-difference features trained by Real AdaBoost with their prior probability distributions. It enables to evaluate and utilize only reliable features among trained ones during each authentication, and achieve high recognition performance rates. The field evaluation using a pseudo Access Control System installed in our office shows that the proposed system achieves a constant high recognition performance rate independent on face image qualities, that is about four times lower EER (Equal Error Rate) under a variety of image conditions than one without any prior probability distributions. On the other hand using image difference features without any prior probabilities are sensitive to image qualities. We also evaluated PCA, and it has worse, but constant performance rates because of its general optimization on overall data. Comparing with PCA, Real AdaBoost without any prior distribution performs twice better under good image conditions, but degrades to a performance as good as PCA under poor image conditions.

  11. Dynamic Key Management Schemes for Secure Group Access Control Using Hierarchical Clustering in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaur, Woei-Jiunn; Pai, Haw-Tyng

    2008-11-01

    The applications of group computing and communication motivate the requirement to provide group access control in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The operation in MANETs' groups performs a decentralized manner and accommodated membership dynamically. Moreover, due to lack of centralized control, MANETs' groups are inherently insecure and vulnerable to attacks from both within and outside the groups. Such features make access control more challenging in MANETs. Recently, several researchers have proposed group access control mechanisms in MANETs based on a variety of threshold signatures. However, these mechanisms cannot actually satisfy MANETs' dynamic environments. This is because the threshold-based mechanisms cannot be achieved when the number of members is not up to the threshold value. Hence, by combining the efficient elliptic curve cryptosystem, self-certified public key cryptosystem and secure filter technique, we construct dynamic key management schemes based on hierarchical clustering for securing group access control in MANETs. Specifically, the proposed schemes can constantly accomplish secure group access control only by renewing the secure filters of few cluster heads, when a cluster head joins or leaves a cross-cluster. In such a new way, we can find that the proposed group access control scheme can be very effective for securing practical applications in MANETs.

  12. Whole genome annotation and comparative genomic analyses of bio-control fungus Purpureocillium lilacinum.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Pushplata; Varshney, Deepti; Adholeya, Alok

    2015-11-25

    The fungus Purpureocillium lilacinum is widely known as a biological control agent against plant parasitic nematodes. This research article consists of genomic annotation of the first draft of whole genome sequence of P. lilacinum. The study aims to decipher the putative genetic components of the fungus involved in nematode pathogenesis by performing comparative genomic analysis with nine closely related fungal species in Hypocreales. de novo genomic assembly was done and a total of 301 scaffolds were constructed for P. lilacinum genomic DNA. By employing structural genome prediction models, 13, 266 genes coding for proteins were predicted in the genome. Approximately 73% of the predicted genes were functionally annotated using Blastp, InterProScan and Gene Ontology. A 14.7% fraction of the predicted genes shared significant homology with genes in the Pathogen Host Interactions (PHI) database. The phylogenomic analysis carried out using maximum likelihood RAxML algorithm provided insight into the evolutionary relationship of P. lilacinum. In congruence with other closely related species in the Hypocreales namely, Metarhizium spp., Pochonia chlamydosporia, Cordyceps militaris, Trichoderma reesei and Fusarium spp., P. lilacinum has large gene sets coding for G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), proteases, glycoside hydrolases and carbohydrate esterases that are required for degradation of nematode-egg shell components. Screening of the genome by Antibiotics & Secondary Metabolite Analysis Shell (AntiSMASH) pipeline indicated that the genome potentially codes for a variety of secondary metabolites, possibly required for adaptation to heterogeneous lifestyles reported for P. lilacinum. Significant up-regulation of subtilisin-like serine protease genes in presence of nematode eggs in quantitative real-time analyses suggested potential role of serine proteases in nematode pathogenesis. The data offer a better understanding of Purpureocillium lilacinum genome and will

  13. Using Controlled Landslide Initiation Experiments to Test Limit-Equilibrium Analyses of Slope Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, M. E.; Iverson, R. M.; Brien, D. L.; Iverson, N. R.; Lahusen, R. G.; Logan, M.

    2004-12-01

    Most studies of landslide initiation employ limit equilibrium analyses of slope stability. Owing to a lack of detailed data, however, few studies have tested limit-equilibrium predictions against physical measurements of slope failure. We have conducted a series of field-scale, highly controlled landslide initiation experiments at the USGS debris-flow flume in Oregon; these experiments provide exceptional data to test limit equilibrium methods. In each of seven experiments, we attempted to induce failure in a 0.65m thick, 2m wide, 6m3 prism of loamy sand placed behind a retaining wall in the 31° sloping flume. We systematically investigated triggering of sliding by groundwater injection, by prolonged moderate-intensity sprinkling, and by bursts of high intensity sprinkling. We also used vibratory compaction to control soil porosity and thereby investigate differences in failure behavior of dense and loose soils. About 50 sensors were monitored at 20 Hz during the experiments, including nests of tiltmeters buried at 7 cm spacing to define subsurface failure geometry, and nests of tensiometers and pore-pressure sensors to define evolving pore-pressure fields. In addition, we performed ancillary laboratory tests to measure soil porosity, shear strength, hydraulic conductivity, and compressibility. In loose soils (porosity of 0.52 to 0.55), abrupt failure typically occurred along the flume bed after substantial soil deformation. In denser soils (porosity of 0.41 to 0.44), gradual failure occurred within the soil prism. All failure surfaces had a maximum length to depth ratio of about 7. In even denser soil (porosity of 0.39), we could not induce failure by sprinkling. The internal friction angle of the soils varied from 28° to 40° with decreasing porosity. We analyzed stability at failure, given the observed pore-pressure conditions just prior to large movement, using a 1-D infinite-slope method and a more complete 2-D Janbu method. Each method provides a static

  14. Effectiveness of pharmacotherapy for severe personality disorders: meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Ingenhoven, Theo; Lafay, Patricia; Rinne, Thomas; Passchier, Jan; Duivenvoorden, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    There has been little systematic attempt to validate current pharmacologic treatment algorithms and guidelines for severe personality disorder. We evaluated studies on the effectiveness of psychoactive drugs on specific symptom domains for borderline and/or schizotypal personality disorder. The literature was searched for placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials (PC-RCTs) on the effectiveness of psychopharmacologic drugs in personality disorder patients. The PubMed, PsychINFO, PiCarta, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases were searched using the search terms borderline personality, schizotypal personality, personality disorder, cluster A, cluster B, treatment, drug, pharmacotherapy, antipsychotic, antidepressant, mood stabilizer, effect, outcome, review, and meta-analysis for studies published between 1980 and December 2007, and references were identified from bibliographies from articles and books. Placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials on the efficacy of antipsychotics, antidepressants, and mood stabilizers regarding cognitive-perceptual symptoms, impulsive-behavioral dyscontrol, and affective dysregulation (with subdomains depressed mood, anxiety, anger, and mood lability) were selected in patients with well defined borderline and/or schizotypal personality disorder. Studies whose primary emphasis was on the treatment of Axis I disorders were excluded. Meta-analyses were conducted using 21 retrieved studies. Antipsychotics have a moderate effect on cognitive-perceptual symptoms (5 PC-RCTs; standardized mean difference [SMD]=0.56) and a moderate to large effect on anger (4 PC-RCTs; SMD=0.69). Antidepressants have no significant effect on impulsive-behavioral dyscontrol and depressed mood. They have a small but significant effect on anxiety (5 PC-RCTs; SMD=0.30) and anger (4 PC-RCTs; SMD=0.34). Mood stabilizers have a very large effect on impulsive-behavioral dyscontrol (6 PC-RCTs; SMD=1.51) and anger (7 PC-RCTs; SMD=1.33), a large effect on anxiety

  15. Controls on microbial accessibility to soil organic carbon following woody plant encroachment into grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creamer, Courtney; Boutton, Thomas; Olk, Dan; Filley, Timothy

    2010-05-01

    Woody plant encroachment (WPE) into savannas and grasslands is a global phenomenon that alters soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics through changes in litter quality and quantity, soil structure, microbial ecology, and hydrology. To elucidate the controls on microbial accessibility to SOC, bulk soils from a chronosequence of progressive WPE into native grasslands at the Texas Agrilife La Copita Research Area were incubated for one year. The quantity and stable carbon isotope composition of respired CO2, and plant biopolymer chemistry in SOC were tracked. Respiration rates declined exponentially over the course of the experiment with 15-25% of the total CO2 respired released in the first month of incubation. Between 8 and 18% of the total SOC was mineralized to CO2 throughout the incubation. After day 84 a significantly (p<0.05) greater portion of SOC was mineralized from soils of older woody clusters (34-86 years) than from soils of younger woody clusters (14-23 years) and the native grassland. Invading woody stands of ≃≥35 years of age represent a transition point in WPE where respiration dynamics become distinct in wooded elements compared to grasslands; this distinction has been previously observed through changes in belowground SOC accrual, C input chemistry, and mycorrhizal productivity. Despite documented SOC accrual following WPE at La Copita, we observed no evidence of enhanced SOC stabilization in these respiration experiments. In fact, a greater proportion of total SOC was lost from the soil of mature woody stands than from young stands, suggesting SOC accumulation observed with WPE may be due to greater input rates or microbial dynamics not captured in the laboratory incubation. Compound-specific analyses indicated there was a significant (p<0.05) loss of C from carbohydrates, amino acids, and amino sugars during the incubation. Amino nitrogen tended to become more concentrated during the incubation, although the trend was not significant. Relatively

  16. Overview of the Altair Lunar Lander Thermal Control System Design and the Impacts of Global Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, Ryan A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program (CxP) was developed to successfully return humans to the Lunar surface prior to 2020. The CxP included several different project offices including Altair, which was planned to be the next generation Lunar Lander. The Altair missions were architected to be quite different than the Lunar missions accomplished during the Apollo era. These differences resulted in a significantly dissimilar Thermal Control System (TCS) design. The current paper will summarize the Altair mission architecture and the various operational phases associated with the planned mission. In addition, the derived thermal requirements and the TCS designed to meet these unique and challenging thermal requirements will be presented. During the past year, the design team has focused on developing a vehicle architecture capable of accessing the entire Lunar surface. Due to the widely varying Lunar thermal environment, this global access requirement resulted in major changes to the thermal control system architecture. These changes, and the rationale behind the changes, will be detailed throughout the current paper.

  17. Distributed Fair Auto Rate Medium Access Control for IEEE 802.11 Based WLANs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yanfeng; Niu, Zhisheng

    Much research has shown that a carefully designed auto rate medium access control can utilize the underlying physical multi-rate capability to exploit the time-variation of the channel. In this paper, we develop a simple analytical model to elucidate the rule that maximizes the throughput of RTS/CTS based multi-rate wireless local area networks. Based on the discovered rule, we propose two distributed fair auto rate medium access control schemes called FARM and FARM+ from the view-point of throughput fairness and time-share fairness, respectively. With the proposed schemes, after receiving a RTS frame, the receiver selectively returns the CTS frame to inform the transmitter the maximum feasible rate probed by the signal-to-noise ratio of the received RTS frame. The key feature of the proposed schemes is that they are capable of maintaining throughput/time-share fairness in asymmetric situation where the distribution of SNR varies with stations. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed schemes outperform the existing throughput/time-share fair auto rate schemes in time-varying channel conditions.

  18. Patient preferences in controlling access to their electronic health records: a prospective cohort study in primary care.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Peter H; Caine, Kelly; Alpert, Sheri A; Meslin, Eric M; Carroll, Aaron E; Tierney, William M

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have measured individuals' willingness to share personal information stored in electronic health records (EHRs) with health care providers, but none has measured preferences among patients when they are allowed to determine the parameters of provider access. Patients were given the ability to control access by doctors, nurses, and other staff in a primary care clinic to personal information stored in an EHR. Patients could restrict access to all personal data or to specific types of sensitive information, and could restrict access for a specific time period. Patients also completed a survey regarding their understanding of and opinions regarding the process. Of 139 eligible patients who were approached, 105 (75.5 %) were enrolled, and preferences were collected from all 105 (100 %). Sixty patients (57 %) did not restrict access for any providers. Of the 45 patients (43 %) who chose to limit the access of at least one provider, 36 restricted access only to all personal information in the EHR, while nine restricted access of some providers to a subset of the their personal information. Thirty-four (32.3 %) patients blocked access to all personal information by all doctors, nurses, and/or other staff, 26 (24.8 %) blocked access by all doctors and/or nurses, and five (4.8 %) denied access to all doctors, nurses, and staff. A significant minority of patients chose to restrict access by their primary care providers to personal information contained in an EHR, and few chose to restrict access to specific types of information. More research is needed to identify patient goals and understanding of the implications when facing decisions of this sort, and to identify the impact of patient education regarding information contained in EHRs and their use in the clinical care setting.

  19. Controllable quantized conductance for multilevel data storage applications using conductive bridge random access memory.

    PubMed

    Aga, Fekadu Gochole; Woo, Jiyong; Song, Jeonghwan; Park, Jaehyuk; Lim, Seokjae; Sung, Changhyuck; Hwang, Hyunsang

    2017-03-17

    In this paper, we investigate the quantized conduction behavior of conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM) with varied materials and ramping rates. We report stable and reproducible quantized conductance states with integer multiples of fundamental conductance obtained by optimizing the voltage ramping rate and the Ti-diffusion barrier (DB) at the Cu/HfO2 interface. Owing to controlled diffusion of Cu ions by the Ti-DB and the optimized ramping rate, through which it was possible to control the time delay of Cu ion reduction, more than seven levels of discrete conductance states were clearly observed. Analytical modeling was performed to determine the rate-limiting step in filament growth based on an electrochemical redox reaction. Our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of quantized conductance behaviors provide a promising future for the multi-bit CBRAM device.

  20. Controllable quantized conductance for multilevel data storage applications using conductive bridge random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gochole Aga, Fekadu; Woo, Jiyong; Song, Jeonghwan; Park, Jaehyuk; Lim, Seokjae; Sung, Changhyuck; Hwang, Hyunsang

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the quantized conduction behavior of conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM) with varied materials and ramping rates. We report stable and reproducible quantized conductance states with integer multiples of fundamental conductance obtained by optimizing the voltage ramping rate and the Ti-diffusion barrier (DB) at the Cu/HfO2 interface. Owing to controlled diffusion of Cu ions by the Ti-DB and the optimized ramping rate, through which it was possible to control the time delay of Cu ion reduction, more than seven levels of discrete conductance states were clearly observed. Analytical modeling was performed to determine the rate-limiting step in filament growth based on an electrochemical redox reaction. Our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of quantized conductance behaviors provide a promising future for the multi-bit CBRAM device.

  1. Analysis of the TDRS multiple access system for possible use as an attitude control system sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, Bruce Allyn; Sank, Victor J.

    1993-01-01

    A member of the constellation of TDR satellites (TDRS) has experienced a failure of its prime earth sensor. Failure of the remaining earth sensor could result in the inability of the satellite to control its attitude and provide user services. Loss of the satellite would be a serious event. The multiple access (MA) antenna array on the TDRS has been proposed for use as a backup sensor for the attitude control system. This paper describes our analysis of the performance of the MA array as an interferometer used for accurate attitude determination. A least squares fit of a plane to the MA phase information appears to represent the TDRS body roll and pitch within about 0.1 deg. This is sufficient for SGL pointing and MA and SSA user services. Analytic improvements that include ionospheric correction may yield sufficient accuracy for KSA user services.

  2. Preliminary assessment of Tongue Drive System in medium term usage for computer access and wheelchair control.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Behnaz; Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2011-01-01

    Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a wireless, wearable assistive technology that enables individuals with severe motor impairments access computers, drive wheelchairs, and control their environments using tongue motion. In this paper, we have evaluated the TDS performance as a computer input device using ISO9241-9 standard tasks for pointing and selecting, based on the well known Fitts' Law, and as a powered wheelchair controller through an obstacle course navigation task. Nine able-bodied subjects who already had tongue piercing participated in this trial over 5 sessions during 5 weeks, allowing us to study the TDS learning process and its current limiting factors. Subjects worn tongue rings made of titanium in the form of a barbell with a small rare earth magnetic tracer hermetically sealed inside the upper ball. Comparing the results between 1(st) and 5(th) sessions showed that subjects' performance improved in all the measures through 5 sessions, demonstrating the effects of learning.

  3. Infection control in hemodialysis units: a quick access to essential elements.

    PubMed

    Karkar, Ayman; Bouhaha, Betty Mandin; Dammang, Mienalyn Lim

    2014-05-01

    Infection is the most common cause of hospitalization and the second most common cause of mortality among hemodialysis (HD) patients, after cardiovascular disease. HD patients as well as the dialysis staff are vulnerable to contracting health-care-associated infections (HAIs) due to frequent and prolonged exposure to many possible contaminants in the dialysis environment. The extracorporeal nature of the therapy, the associated common environmental conditions and the immune compromised status of HD patients are major predisposing factors. The evident increased potential for transmission of infections in the HD settings led to the creation and implementation of specific and stricter infection prevention and control measures in addition to the usual standard precautions. Different international organizations have generated guidelines and recommendations on infection prevention and control for implementation in the HD settings. These include the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Association of Professionals in Infection Control (APIC), the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI), the European Best Practice Guidelines/European Renal Best Practice (EBPG/ERBP) and the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). However, these guidelines are extensive and sometimes vary among different guideline-producing bodies. Our aim in this review is to facilitate the access, increase the awareness and encourage implementation among dialysis providers by reviewing, extracting and comparing the essential elements of guidelines and recommendations on infection prevention and control in HD units.

  4. Disclosure of researcher allegiance in meta-analyses and randomised controlled trials of psychotherapy: a systematic appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Dragioti, Elena; Dimoliatis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Objective Psychotherapy research may suffer from factors such as a researcher’s own therapy allegiance. The aim of this study was to evaluate if researcher allegiance (RA) was reported in meta-analyses and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of psychotherapeutic treatments. Design Systematic approach using meta-analyses of different types of psychotherapies. Data sources Medline, PsycINFO and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Methods We evaluated meta-analyses of RCTs regarding various types of psychotherapies. Meta-analyses were eligible if they included at least one RCT with RA and they were published in journals in Medline, PsycINFO and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews with an impact factor larger than 5. Results We identified 146 eligible meta-analyses that synthesised data from a total of 1198 unique RCTs. Only 25 of the meta-analyses (17.2%) reported allegiance and only 6 (4.1%) used a proper method to control its effect. Of the 1198 eligible primary RCTs, 793 (66.3%) were allegiant. Authors in 25 of these 793 RCTs (3.2%) reported their allegiance while only one study (0.2%) controlled for its effect. Conclusions The vast majority among a group of published meta-analyses and RCTs of psychotherapeutic treatments seldom reported and evaluated the allegiance effect. The results of the present study highlight a major lack of this information in meta-analyses and their included studies, though meta-analyses perform slightly better than RCTs. Stringent guidelines should be adopted by journals in order to improve reporting and attenuate possible effects of RA in future research. PMID:26033943

  5. PANATIKI: A Network Access Control Implementation Based on PANA for IoT Devices

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Pedro Moreno; Lopez, Rafa Marin; Gomez Skarmeta, Antonio F.

    2013-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) networks are the pillar of recent novel scenarios, such as smart cities or e-healthcare applications. Among other challenges, these networks cover the deployment and interaction of small devices with constrained capabilities and Internet protocol (IP)-based networking connectivity. These constrained devices usually require connection to the Internet to exchange information (e.g., management or sensing data) or access network services. However, only authenticated and authorized devices can, in general, establish this connection. The so-called authentication, authorization and accounting (AAA) services are in charge of performing these tasks on the Internet. Thus, it is necessary to deploy protocols that allow constrained devices to verify their credentials against AAA infrastructures. The Protocol for Carrying Authentication for Network Access (PANA) has been standardized by the Internet engineering task force (IETF) to carry the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), which provides flexible authentication upon the presence of AAA. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first deep study of the feasibility of EAP/PANA for network access control in constrained devices. We provide light-weight versions and implementations of these protocols to fit them into constrained devices. These versions have been designed to reduce the impact in standard specifications. The goal of this work is two-fold: (1) to demonstrate the feasibility of EAP/PANA in IoT devices; (2) to provide the scientific community with the first light-weight interoperable implementation of EAP/PANA for constrained devices in the Contiki operating system (Contiki OS), called PANATIKI. The paper also shows a testbed, simulations and experimental results obtained from real and simulated constrained devices. PMID:24189332

  6. A method for protecting and controlling access to JPEG2000 images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrão, Carlos; Serra, Antonio; Fonseca, Pedro; Salles Dias, Jose M.

    2003-11-01

    The image compression standard JPEG2000 brings not only powerful compression performance but also new functionality unavailable in previous standards (such as region of interest, scalability and random access to image data, through flexible code stream description of the image). ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG1, which is the ISO Committee working group for JPEG2000 standardization is currently defining additional parts to the standard that will allow extended functionalities. One of these extensions is Part 8 JPSEC - JPEG2000 security, which deals with the protection and access control of JPEG2000 code-stream. This paper reports the JPSEC activities detailing with the three core experiments which are in progress to supply the JPEG2000 ISO Committee, with the appropriate protection technology. These core experiments are focusing on the protection of the code-stream itself and on the overall security infrastructure that is needed to manage the access rights of users and applications to that protected code-stream. Regarding the encryption/scrambling process, this one deals with the JPEG2000 code stream in such a way that only the packets, which contain image data information are encrypted. All the other code-stream data will be in clear mode. This paper will also advance details of one of the JPSEC proposed solutions for the security infrastructure - OpenSDRM (Open and Secure Digital Rights Management), which provides security and rights management from the content provider to the content final user. A use case where this security infrastructure was successfully used will also be provided.

  7. PANATIKI: a network access control implementation based on PANA for IoT devices.

    PubMed

    Moreno Sanchez, Pedro; Marin Lopez, Rafa; Gomez Skarmeta, Antonio F

    2013-11-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) networks are the pillar of recent novel scenarios, such as smart cities or e-healthcare applications. Among other challenges, these networks cover the deployment and interaction of small devices with constrained capabilities and Internet protocol (IP)-based networking connectivity. These constrained devices usually require connection to the Internet to exchange information (e.g., management or sensing data) or access network services. However, only authenticated and authorized devices can, in general, establish this connection. The so-called authentication, authorization and accounting (AAA) services are in charge of performing these tasks on the Internet. Thus, it is necessary to deploy protocols that allow constrained devices to verify their credentials against AAA infrastructures. The Protocol for Carrying Authentication for Network Access (PANA) has been standardized by the Internet engineering task force (IETF) to carry the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), which provides flexible authentication upon the presence of AAA. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first deep study of the feasibility of EAP/PANA for network access control in constrained devices. We provide light-weight versions and implementations of these protocols to fit them into constrained devices. These versions have been designed to reduce the impact in standard specifications. The goal of this work is two-fold: (1) to demonstrate the feasibility of EAP/PANA in IoT devices; (2) to provide the scientific community with the first light-weight interoperable implementation of EAP/PANA for constrained devices in the Contiki operating system (Contiki OS), called PANATIKI. The paper also shows a testbed, simulations and experimental results obtained from real and simulated constrained devices.

  8. A highly efficient SDRAM controller supporting variable-length burst access and batch process for discrete reads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nan; Wang, Junzheng

    2016-03-01

    A highly efficient Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM) controller supporting variable-length burst access and batch process for discrete reads is proposed in this paper. Based on the Principle of Locality, command First In First Out (FIFO) and address range detector are designed within this controller to accelerate its responses to discrete read requests, which dramatically improves the average Effective Bus Utilization Ratio (EBUR) of SDRAM. Our controller is finally verified by driving the Micron 256-Mb SDRAM MT48LC16M16A2. Successful simulation and verification results show that our controller exhibits much higher EBUR than do most existing designs in case of discrete reads.

  9. Utilization of Ceramic Inlays for Sealing Implant Prostheses Screw Access Holes: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Mihali, Sorin; Canjau, Silvana; Bratu, Emanuel; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a case control study, the esthetic and functional clinical performance of ceramic inlays used for covering the screw access hole in single monolithic lithium disilicate full-contour crowns bonded on computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) prefabricated titanium abutments in order to eliminate the drawbacks of alternative restorative methods. Twenty-eight patients with missing teeth in the lateral areas (premolars and molars) received screw-retained implant restorations. In half of the restorations (n = 14), composite fillings were used to seal the access hole (control group), while the other half was sealed with ceramic inlays (test group). To determine the restoration occlusal wear, impressions were obtained after the restorations were finalized, at 1 year, and at 2 years follow-up. The casts were scanned with a 3D Scanner Design System recording the anatomical surfaces of the white model replicates. Wear amounts (μm) were calculated as the maximum loss in height of the occlusal surface. The clinical evaluation was carried out using a kit specifically designed for assessing the FDI criteria. Statistics were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). A total of 58 restorations were delivered, and after 2 years of follow-up, the wear values were 228.20 ± 54.68 μm for the control group and 65.20 ± 7.24 μm for the ceramic inlay group. One-way ANOVA showed significant differences among the vertical loss between these two groups (P < .001). Clinical outcomes according to the FDI score for assessing dental restorations revealed substantial deterioration within 2 years of follow-up. The use of ceramic inlays appears to be a predictable, esthetic, and successful method of sealing the screw holes of the screw-retained implant restorations.

  10. Survey of infection control practices in hemodialysis units: preventing vascular access-associated bloodstream infections.

    PubMed

    Trépanier, Pascale; Quach, Caroline; Gonzales, Milagros; Fortin, Elise; Kaouache, Mohammed; Desmeules, Simon; Rocher, Isabelle; Ngenda-Muadi, Muleka; Frenette, Charles; Tremblay, Claude

    2014-07-01

    Despite surveillance, the Quebec Healthcare-Associated Infections Surveillance Program saw no improvement in vascular access-associated bloodstream infections in hemodialysis (HD). We aimed to determine the infection control measures recommended and implemented in Quebec's HD units, compliance of local protocols to infection control practice guidelines, and reasons behind the low prevalence of arteriovenous fistulas. An online survey was elaborated on the basis of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines. The questionnaire was validated (construct, content, face validity, and reliability) and sent to all HD units in Quebec (n = 40). Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, linear regression, and Poisson regression. Thirty-seven (93%) of 40 HD units participated. Thirty (94%) of the 32 centers where central catheters are inserted have written insertion protocols. Compliance with practice guidelines is good, except for full-body draping during catheter insertion (79%) and ointment use at insertion site (3%). Prevention measures for catheter maintenance are in accordance with guidelines, except for skin disinfection with at least 0.5% chlorhexidine and 70% alcohol (67% compliance) and regular antiseptic ointment use at the insertion site (3%). Before fistula cannulation, skin preparation is suboptimal; forearm hygiene is performed in only 61% of cases. Several factors explain the low rate of fistulas, including patient preference (69%) and lack of surgical resources (39%; P = .01). Improvement in standardization of care according to practice guidelines is necessary. Fistula rate could be increased by improving access to surgical resources and patient education. Strategies are now being elaborated to address these findings.

  11. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  12. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  13. Privacy aware access controls for medical data disclosure on European healthgrids.

    PubMed

    Rahmouni, Hanene Boussi; Solomonides, Tony; Mont, Marco Casassa; Shiu, Simon

    2010-01-01

    To be processed within a healthgrid environment, medical data goes through a complete lifecycle and several stages until it is finally used for the primary reason it has been collected for. This stage is not always the final occurrence of when the data would have been manipulated. The data could rather continue to be needed for secondary purposes of legitimate or non legitimate nature. Although other privacy issues are related to the processing of patient data while it is residing on a healthgrid environment, the control of data disclosure is our primary interest. When sharing medical data between different Healthcare and biomedical research organizations in Europe, it is important that the different parties involved in the sharing handle the data in the same way indicated by the legislation of the member state where the data was originally collected as the requirements might differ from one state to another. Privacy requirements, such as patient consent, may be subject to conflicting conditions between different national frameworks as well as between different legal and ethical frameworks within a single member state. These circumstances have made the compliance management process in European healthgrid very challenging. In this paper we are presenting an approach to tackle these issues by relying on several technologies contained in the semantic web stack. Our work suggests a direct mapping from high level legislation on privacy and data protection to operational level privacy aware controls. Additionally we suggest an architecture for the enforcement of these controls on access control models adopted by healthgrids security infrastructures.

  14. Energy-efficient boarder node medium access control protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M

    2014-03-12

    This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN), which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS), which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM) model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS), which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi

  15. Energy-Efficient Boarder Node Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN), which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS), which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM) model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS), which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi

  16. Quantitative trait loci controlling light and hormone response in two accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Borevitz, Justin O; Maloof, Julin N; Lutes, Jason; Dabi, Tsegaye; Redfern, Joanna L; Trainer, Gabriel T; Werner, Jonathan D; Asami, Tadao; Berry, Charles C; Weigel, Detlef; Chory, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    We have mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for natural variation in light and hormone response between the Cape Verde Islands (Cvi) and Landsberg erecta (Ler) accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana using recombinant inbred lines (RILs). Hypocotyl length was measured in four light environments: white, blue, red, and far-red light and in the dark. In addition, white light plus gibberellin (GA) and dark plus the brassinosteroid biosynthesis inhibitor brassinazole (BRZ) were used to detect hormone effects. Twelve QTL were identified that map to loci not previously known to affect light response, as well as loci where candidate genes have been identified from known mutations. Some QTL act in all environments while others show genotype-by-environment interaction. A global threshold was established to identify a significant epistatic interaction between two loci that have few main effects of their own. LIGHT1, a major QTL, has been confirmed in a near isogenic line (NIL) and maps to a new locus with effects in all light environments. The erecta mutation can explain the effect of the HYP2 QTL in the blue, BRZ, and dark environments, but not in far-red. LIGHT2, also confirmed in an NIL, has effects in white and red light and shows interaction with GA. The phenotype and map position of LIGHT2 suggest the photoreceptor PHYB as a candidate gene. Natural variation in light and hormone response thus defines both new genes and known genes that control light response in wild accessions. PMID:11861571

  17. A method to implement fine-grained access control for personal health records through standard relational database queries.

    PubMed

    Sujansky, Walter V; Faus, Sam A; Stone, Ethan; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2010-10-01

    Online personal health records (PHRs) enable patients to access, manage, and share certain of their own health information electronically. This capability creates the need for precise access-controls mechanisms that restrict the sharing of data to that intended by the patient. The authors describe the design and implementation of an access-control mechanism for PHR repositories that is modeled on the eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML) standard, but intended to reduce the cognitive and computational complexity of XACML. The authors implemented the mechanism entirely in a relational database system using ANSI-standard SQL statements. Based on a set of access-control rules encoded as relational table rows, the mechanism determines via a single SQL query whether a user who accesses patient data from a specific application is authorized to perform a requested operation on a specified data object. Testing of this query on a moderately large database has demonstrated execution times consistently below 100ms. The authors include the details of the implementation, including algorithms, examples, and a test database as Supplementary materials. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of totally percutaneous access versus open femoral exposure for endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (the PEVAR trial).

    PubMed

    Nelson, Peter R; Kracjer, Zvonimir; Kansal, Nikhil; Rao, Vikram; Bianchi, Christian; Hashemi, Homayoun; Jones, Paul; Bacharach, J Michael

    2014-05-01

    The first multicenter randomized controlled trial was designed and conducted to assess the safety and effectiveness of totally percutaneous endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (PEVAR) with use of a 21F endovascular stent graft system and either an 8 F or 10 F suture-mediated closure system (the PEVAR trial, NCT01070069). A noninferiority trial design was chosen to compare percutaneous access with standard open femoral exposure. Between 2010 and 2012, 20 U.S. institutions participated in a prospective, Food and Drug Administration-approved randomized trial to evaluate percutaneous femoral artery access and closure by a "preclose" technique in conjunction with endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. A total of 151 patients were allocated by a 2:1 design to percutaneous access/closure (n = 101) or open femoral exposure (n = 50 [FE]). PEVAR procedures were performed with either the 8 F Perclose ProGlide (n = 50 [PG]) or the 10 F Prostar XL (n = 51 [PS]) closure devices. All endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair procedures were performed with the Endologix 21 F profile (outer diameter) sheath-based system. Patients were screened by computed tomography with three-dimensional reconstruction and independent physician review for anatomic suitability and adequate femoral artery anatomy for percutaneous access. The primary trial end point (treatment success) was defined as procedural technical success and absence of major adverse events and vascular complications at 30 days. An independent access closure substudy evaluated major access-related complications. Clinical utility and procedural outcomes, ankle-brachial index, blood laboratory analyses, and quality of life were also evaluated with continuing follow-up to 6 months. Baseline characteristics were similar among groups. Procedural technical success was 94% (PG), 88% (PS), and 98% (FE). One-month primary treatment success was 88% (PG), 78% (PS), and 78% (FE), demonstrating noninferiority vs FE for PG (P

  19. A Time Tree Medium Access Control for Energy Efficiency and Collision Avoidance in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kilhung

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a medium access control and scheduling scheme for wireless sensor networks. It uses time trees for sending data from the sensor node to the base station. For an energy efficient operation of the sensor networks in a distributed manner, time trees are built in order to reduce the collision probability and to minimize the total energy required to send data to the base station. A time tree is a data gathering tree where the base station is the root and each sensor node is either a relaying or a leaf node of the tree. Each tree operates in a different time schedule with possibly different activation rates. Through the simulation, the proposed scheme that uses time trees shows better characteristics toward burst traffic than the previous energy and data arrival rate scheme. PMID:22319270

  20. A time tree medium access control for energy efficiency and collision avoidance in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kilhung

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a medium access control and scheduling scheme for wireless sensor networks. It uses time trees for sending data from the sensor node to the base station. For an energy efficient operation of the sensor networks in a distributed manner, time trees are built in order to reduce the collision probability and to minimize the total energy required to send data to the base station. A time tree is a data gathering tree where the base station is the root and each sensor node is either a relaying or a leaf node of the tree. Each tree operates in a different time schedule with possibly different activation rates. Through the simulation, the proposed scheme that uses time trees shows better characteristics toward burst traffic than the previous energy and data arrival rate scheme.

  1. [Assessment of exposure to cancerogenic aromatic hydrocarbon during controlled-access highways management activities].

    PubMed

    Martinotti, I; Cirla, A M; Cottica, D; Cirla, P E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was an integrated assessment of exposure to benzene and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in 29 workers employed to manage a controlled-access highways. A campaign was performed in summertime by environmental monitoring (active and passive airborne personal sampler), as well as by biological monitoring (urine samples of the beginning and of the end of daily shift, baseline after two days of vacation). The measured environmental levels did not differ from background environmental concentrations found in a metropolitan area (i.e. benzo[a]pyrene < 1 ng/m3; benzene < 5 mcg/m3), and the results of biological monitoring were in agreement and were compatible with extra-professional habits of the investigated subjects (1-hydroxipyrene 50-990 ng/g creatinine; unmetabolized benzene 15-2010 ng/I; t-t muconic acid < 4-222 mcg/g creatinine).

  2. A comparison of Percutaneous femoral access in Endovascular Repair versus Open femoral access (PiERO): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vierhout, Bastiaan P; Saleem, Ben R; Ott, Alewijn; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; de Kempenaer, Ties D van Andringa; Pierie, Maurice E N; Bottema, Jan T; Zeebregts, Clark J

    2015-09-14

    Access for endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR) is obtained through surgical cutdown or percutaneously. The only devices suitable for percutaneous closure of the 20 French arteriotomies of the common femoral artery (CFA) are the Prostar(™) and Proglide(™) devices (Abbott Vascular). Positive effects of these devices seem to consist of a lower infection rate, and shorter operation time and hospital stay. This conclusion was published in previous reports comparing techniques in patients in two different groups (cohort or randomized). Access techniques were never compared in one and the same patient; this research simplifies comparison because patient characteristics will be similar in both groups. Percutaneous access of the CFA is compared to surgical cutdown in a single patient; in EVAR surgery, access is necessary in both groins in each patient. Randomization is performed on the introduction site of the larger main device of the endoprosthesis. The contralateral device of the endoprosthesis is smaller. When we use this type of randomization, both groups will contain a similar number of main and contralateral devices. Preoperative nose cultures and perineal cultures are obtained, to compare colonization with postoperative wound cultures (in case of a surgical site infection). Furthermore, patient comfort will be considered, using VAS-scores (Visual analog scale). Punch biopsies of the groin will be harvested to retrospectively compare skin of patients who suffered a surgical site infection (SSI) to patients who did not have an SSI. The PiERO trial is a multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial designed to show the consequences of using percutaneous access in EVAR surgery and focuses on the occurrence of surgical site infections. NTR4257 10 November 2013, NL44578.042.13.

  3. Thermal Control System Development to Support the Crew Exploration Vehicle and Lunar Surface Access Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly; Westheimer, David

    2006-01-01

    All space vehicles or habitats require thermal management to maintain a safe and operational environment for both crew and hardware. Active Thermal Control Systems (ATCS) perform the functions of acquiring heat from both crew and hardware within a vehicle, transporting that heat throughout the vehicle, and finally rejecting that energy into space. Almost all of the energy used in a space vehicle eventually turns into heat, which must be rejected in order to maintain an energy balance and temperature control of the vehicle. For crewed vehicles, Active Thermal Control Systems are pumped fluid loops that are made up of components designed to perform these functions. NASA has recently evaluated all of the agency s technology development work and identified key areas that must be addressed to aid in the successful development of a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and a Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM). The technologies that have been selected and are currently under development include: fluids that enable single loop ATCS architectures, a gravity insensitive vapor compression cycle heat pump, a sublimator with reduced sensitivity to feedwater contamination, an evaporative heat sink that can operate in multiple ambient pressure environments, a compact spray evaporator, and lightweight radiators that take advantage of carbon composites and advanced optical coatings.

  4. Study protocol for a cluster-randomised controlled trial of an NCD access to medicines initiative: evaluation of Novartis Access in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Rockers, Peter C; Wirtz, Veronika J; Vian, Taryn; Onyango, Monica A; Ashigbie, Paul G; Laing, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Novartis recently launched Novartis Access, an initiative to provide a basket of reduced price medicines for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) to be sold through the public and private non-profit sectors in programme countries. This study will evaluate the impact of Novartis Access on the availability and price of NCD medicines at health facilities and households in Kenya, the first country to receive the programme. Methods and analysis This study will be a cluster-randomised controlled trial. 8 counties in Kenya will be randomly assigned to the intervention or control group using a covariate constrained randomisation method to maximise balance on demographic and health characteristics. In intervention counties, public and private non-profit health facilities will be able to order Novartis Access NCD medicines from the Mission for Essential Drugs and Supplies (MEDS). Data will be collected from a random sample of 384 health facilities and 800 households at baseline, midline after 1-year of intervention, and end-line after 2 years. Quarterly surveillance data will also be collected from health facilities and a subsample of households through phone-based interviews. Households will be eligible if at least one resident has been previously diagnosed and prescribed a medicine for an NCD addressed by Novartis Access, including hypertension and diabetes. The primary outcomes will be availability and price of NCD medicines at health facilities, and availability, price, and expenditures on NCD medicines at households. Impacts will be estimated using intention-to-treat analysis. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Boards at Strathmore University and at Boston University. Informed consent will be obtained from all participants at the start of the trial. The findings of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, international conferences, and meetings and events organised with local stakeholders

  5. Spatial Accessibility of Drug Treatment Facilities and the Effects on Locus of Control, Drug Abuse, and Service Use among Heroin-Injecting Mexican American Men

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Dennis; Torres, Luis R.; Guerrero, Erick G.; Mauldin, Rebecca; Bordnick, Patrick S.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study explores the spatial accessibility of outpatient drug treatment facilities and the potential relationship with drug abuse-related outcomes among Mexican American heroin users. Methods Secondary data on 219 current and former heroin-injecting Mexican American men aged 45 and older were drawn from a research study in Houston, Texas. We used geographic information systems (GIS) to derive two spatial accessibility measures: distance from one’s place of residence to the closest drug treatment facility (in minutes); and the number of facilities within a 10-minute driving distance from one’s place of residence. Exploratory logistic regression analyses examined the association between the spatial accessibility of drug treatment facilities and several drug abuse-related outcomes: internal locus of control (LOC); perceived chances and worries of injecting in the next six months; treatment utilization; and location of last heroin purchase. Results Participants with greater spatial access to treatment programs were more likely to report a higher chance of injecting in the near future. However, while current heroin users were more worried about injecting in the next six months, greater spatial access to treatment programs seemed to have a buffering effect. Finally, those who lived closer to a treatment programs were more likely to have last purchased heroin inside the neighborhood versus outside the neighborhood. Spatial accessibility was not associated with internal LOC or treatment utilization. Conclusion The findings showed that the presence of outpatient treatment facilities—particularly services in Spanish—may influence perceived risk of future heroin use and purchasing behaviors among Mexican American men. Implications for future spatially-informed drug abuse research and the planning of culturally and linguistically responsive drug treatment programs are discussed. PMID:24440123

  6. Spatial accessibility of drug treatment facilities and the effects on locus of control, drug use, and service use among heroin-injecting Mexican American men.

    PubMed

    Kao, Dennis; Torres, Luis R; Guerrero, Erick G; Mauldin, Rebecca L; Bordnick, Patrick S

    2014-05-01

    This study explores the spatial accessibility of outpatient drug treatment facilities and the potential relationship with drug use-related outcomes among Mexican American heroin users. Secondary data on 219 current and former heroin-injecting Mexican American men aged 45 and older were drawn from a research study in Houston, Texas. We used geographic information systems (GIS) to derive two spatial accessibility measures: distance from one's place of residence to the closest drug treatment facility (in minutes); and the number of facilities within a 10-minute driving distance from one's place of residence. Exploratory logistic regression analyses examined the association between the spatial accessibility of drug treatment facilities and several drug use-related outcomes: internal locus of control (LOC); perceived chances and worries of injecting in the next six months; treatment utilization; and location of last heroin purchase. Participants with greater spatial access to treatment programs were more likely to report a higher chance of injecting in the near future. However, while current heroin users were more worried about injecting in the next six months, greater spatial access to treatment programs seemed to have a buffering effect. Finally, those who lived closer to a treatment programs were more likely to have last purchased heroin inside the neighborhood versus outside the neighborhood. Spatial accessibility was not associated with internal LOC or treatment utilization. The findings showed that the presence of outpatient treatment facilities-particularly services in Spanish-may influence perceived risk of future heroin use and purchasing behaviors among Mexican American men. Implications for future spatially-informed drug use research and the planning of culturally and linguistically responsive drug treatment programs are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Exercise therapy for functional capacity in chronic diseases: an overview of meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Pasanen, Tero; Tolvanen, Samppa; Heinonen, Ari; Kujala, Urho M

    2017-10-01

    To summarise all meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials that have evaluated the effects of exercise therapy on functional capacity in patients with chronic diseases. Umbrella review of meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials. We systematically searched the CENTRAL, CINAHL, DARE, Medline, OTSeeker, PEDro, SPORTDiscus, ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Database, Web of Science, Scopus, OpenGrey and BMC Proceedings from database inception to 1 September 2016. We included meta-analyses that compared the effects of exercise therapy with no treatment or usual care in adults with non-communicable chronic diseases and included outcomes related to functional capacity. We excluded meta-analyses with less than 100 patients. Eighty-five meta-analyses with 22 different chronic diseases were included. The exercise interventions resulted in statistically significant (p<0.05) improvements for 126 of 146 (86%) functional capacity outcomes, compared with the control group. The standardised mean differences were small in 64 (44%), moderate in 54 (37%) and large in 28 (19%) of the 146 functional capacity outcomes. The results were similar for aerobic exercise, resistance training, and aerobic and resistance training combined. There were no significant differences in serious adverse effects between the intervention and control groups in any of the meta-analyses. Exercise therapy appears to be a safe way to improve functional capacity and reduce disability in individuals with chronic disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. A functional approach for research on cognitive control: Analysing cognitive control tasks and their effects in terms of operant conditioning.

    PubMed

    Liefooghe, Baptist; De Houwer, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive control is an important mental ability that is examined using a multitude of cognitive control tasks and effects. The present paper presents the first steps in the elaboration of a functional approach, which aims to uncover the communalities and differences between different cognitive control tasks and their effects. Based on the idea that responses in cognitive control tasks qualify as operant behaviour, we propose to reinterpret cognitive control tasks in terms of operant contingencies and cognitive control effects as instances of moderated stimulus control. We illustrate how our approach can be used to uncover communalities between topographically different cognitive control tasks and can lead to novel questions about the processes underlying cognitive control. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  9. Time series analyses reveal environmental and fisheries controls on Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) catch rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Time-series models (Dynamic factorial analyses and; Min/max autocorrelation factor analysis) were used to explore the relative influences of environmental variables and fishing pressure of trawl, seine and artisanal fleets on catch rates on Trachurus trachurus in ICES IXa sub-divisions (IXaCN-North coast; IXa- CS-South coast; IXaS-Algarve, South coast, Algarve). Fishing effort influenced catch rates in all areas with a 2 year lag and fishing pressure for each area was related to specific fleet sectors effort. In IXaCN, winter upwelling (spawning peak) and both summer northerly wind and wind magnitude (outside of the spawning peak) were strongly correlated with catch rates. In IXaCS summer/autumn westerly winds were related with catch rates. Northerly winds in spring, upwelling and SST (winter and autumn) were related with catch rates in IXaS-Algarve. For species with a long spawning season such as horse mackerel, seasonal analyses at broad regional scales can detract from a better understanding of variability in short term sub-stock catch rates. Favorable environmental conditions, even during seasons with low spawning activity can positively affect catch rates. Ignoring the role of regional oceanographic features on the spatial distribution of the sub-stocks when analysing variability in catch rates can lead to poor inferences about the productivity of the populations.

  10. Using routinely recorded data in the UK to assess outcomes in a randomised controlled trial: The Trials of Access.

    PubMed

    Powell, G A; Bonnett, L J; Tudur-Smith, C; Hughes, D A; Williamson, P R; Marson, A G

    2017-08-23

    In the UK, routinely recorded data may benefit prospective studies including randomised controlled trials (RCTs). In an on-going study, we aim to assess the feasibility of access and agreement of routinely recorded clinical and non-clinical data compared to data collected during a RCT using standard prospective methods. This paper will summarise available UK routinely recorded data sources and discuss our experience with the feasibility of accessing routinely recorded data for participants of a RCT before finally proposing recommendations for improving the access and implementation of routinely recorded data in RCTs. Setting: the case study RCT is the Standard and New Antiepileptic Drugs II (SANAD II) trial, a pragmatic, UK, multicentre, phase IV RCT assessing the clinical and cost-effectiveness of antiepileptic drug treatments for newly diagnosed epilepsy. 98 participants have provided written consent to permit the request of routinely recorded data. Study procedures: routinely recorded clinical and non-clinical data were identified and data requested through formal applications from available data holders for the duration that participants have been recruited into SANAD II. The feasibility of accessing routinely recorded data during a RCT is assessed and recommendations for improving access proposed. Secondary-care clinical and socioeconomic data is recorded on a national basis and can be accessed, although there are limitations in the application process. Primary-care data are recorded by a number of organisations on a de-identified basis but access for specific individuals has not been feasible. Access to data recorded by non-clinical sources, including The Department for Work and Pensions and The Driving and Vehicle Licensing Agency, was not successful. Recommendations discussed include further research to assess the attributes of routinely recorded data, an assessment of public perceptions and the development of strategies to collaboratively improve access to

  11. Controlling multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and access to expensive drugs: a rational framework.

    PubMed Central

    Pablos-Mendez, Ariel; Gowda, Deepthiman K.; Frieden, Thomas R.

    2002-01-01

    The emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), i.e. involving resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin, could threaten the control of TB globally. Controversy has emerged about the best way of confronting MDR-TB in settings with very limited resources. In 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO) created a working group on DOTS-Plus, an initiative exploring the programmatic feasibility and cost-effectiveness of treating MDR-TB in low-income and middle-income countries, in order to consider the management of MDR-TB under programme conditions. The challenges of implementation have proved more daunting than those of access to second-line drugs, the prices of which are dropping. Using data from the WHO/International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease surveillance project, we have grouped countries according to the proportion of TB patients completing treatment successfully and the level of MDR-TB among previously untreated patients. The resulting matrix provides a reasonable framework for deciding whether to use second-line drugs in a national programme. Countries in which the treatment success rate, i.e. the proportion of new patients who complete the scheduled treatment, irrespective of whether bacteriological cure is documented, is below 70% should give the highest priority to introducing or improving DOTS, the five-point TB control strategy recommended by WHO and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. A poorly functioning programme can create MDR-TB much faster than it can be treated, even if unlimited resources are available. There is no single prescription for controlling MDR-TB but the various tools available should be applied wisely. Firstly, good DOTS and infection control; then appropriate use of second-line drug treatment. The interval between the two depends on the local context and resources. As funds are allocated to treat MDR-TB, human and financial resources should be increased to expand

  12. A low power medium access control protocol for wireless medical sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Lamprinos, I; Prentza, A; Sakka, E; Koutsouris, D

    2004-01-01

    The concept of a wireless integrated network of sensors, already applied in several sectors of our everyday life, such as security, transportation and environment monitoring, can as well provide an advanced monitor and control resource for healthcare services. By networking medical sensors wirelessly, attaching them in patient's body, we create the appropriate infrastructure for continuous and real-time monitoring of patient without discomforting him. This infrastructure can improve healthcare by providing the means for flexible acquisition of vital signs, while at the same time it provides more convenience to the patient. Given the type of wireless network, traditional medium access control (MAC) protocols cannot take advantage of the application specific requirements and information characteristics occurring in medical sensor networks, such as the demand for low power consumption and the rather limited and asymmetric data traffic. In this paper, we present the architecture of a low power MAC protocol, designated to support wireless networks of medical sensors. This protocol aims to improve energy efficiency by exploiting the inherent application features and requirements. It is oriented towards the avoidance of main energy wastage sources, such as idle listening, collision and power outspending.

  13. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Drozda, M.; Marathe, A.; Marathe, M. V.

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.

  14. Explaining Variability in High School Students' Access to and Enrollment in Career Academies and Career Theme Clusters in Florida: Multi-Level Analyses of Student and School Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evan, Aimee J.; Burden, Frances F.; Gheen, Margaret H.; Smerdon, Becky A.

    2013-01-01

    Career academies have been effective in reducing the high school dropout rates and increasing academic course taking and course credit accumulation among students (Kemple & Willner, 2008; Kemple & Snipes, 2000). However, not all students have access to career academy programs as they are not universally implemented across the state of…

  15. Explaining Variability in High School Students' Access to and Enrollment in Career Academies and Career Theme Clusters in Florida: Multi-Level Analyses of Student and School Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evan, Aimee J.; Burden, Frances F.; Gheen, Margaret H.; Smerdon, Becky A.

    2013-01-01

    Career academies have been effective in reducing the high school dropout rates and increasing academic course taking and course credit accumulation among students (Kemple & Willner, 2008; Kemple & Snipes, 2000). However, not all students have access to career academy programs as they are not universally implemented across the state of…

  16. Surveillance in easy to access population subgroups as a tool for evaluating malaria control progress: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi, Emanuele; Diggle, Peter J.; Schellenberg, David; Lalloo, David G.; Terlouw, Dianne J.

    2017-01-01

    Background The need for surveillance systems generating targeted, data-driven, responsive control efforts to accelerate and sustain malaria transmission reduction has been emphasized by programme managers, policy makers and scientists. Surveillance using easy-to-access population subgroups (EAGs) may result in considerable cost saving compared to household surveys as the identification and selection of individuals to be surveyed is simplified, fewer personnel are needed, and logistics are simpler. We reviewed available literature on the validation of estimates of key indicators of malaria control progress derived from EAGs, and describe the options to deal with the context specific bias that may occur. Methods A literature search was conducted of all documents reporting validation of estimates of malaria control indicators from EAG surveys before the 31st of December 2016. Additional records were identified through cross-reference from selected records, other applicable policy documents and grey literature. After removal of duplicates, 13, 180 abstracts were evaluated and 2,653 eligible abstracts were identified mentioning surveillance in EAGs, of which 29 full text articles were selected for detailed review. The nine articles selected for systematic review compared estimates from health facility and school surveys with those of a contemporaneous sample of the same population in the same geographic area. Results Review of the available literature on EAGs suitable for surveillance of malaria control progress revealed that little effort has been made to explore the potential approach and settings for use of EAGs; and that there was wide variation in the precision of estimates of control progress between and within studies, particularly for estimates of control intervention coverage. Only one of the studies evaluated the geospatial representativeness of EAG samples, or carried out geospatial analyses to assess or control for lack of geospatial representativeness. Two

  17. Analysing Command Challenges Using the Command and Control Framework: Pilot Study Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-01

    capacit6 d’explication du cadre dans le contexte de situations r6elles dans lesquelles dui personnel militaire affrontait des d~fis op ~ rationnels . Les...E 1 • Defence Research and Recherche et d6veloppement Development Canada pour la d6fense Canada DEFENCE TD7 FENSE Analysing command challenges using...Yes E] : Chronic stress (e.g., extended acute stress, extended fatigue, op tempo, etc.) Explain: =No F1 Yes LI : Personal maturity (e.g., appropriate

  18. High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) longitudinal controller: Design, analyses, and simulation resultss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostroff, Aaron J.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Proffitt, Melissa S.; Brown, Philip W.; Phillips, Michael R.; Rivers, Robert A.; Messina, Michael D.; Carzoo, Susan W.; Bacon, Barton J.; Foster, John F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the design, analysis, and nonlinear simulation results (batch and piloted) for a longitudinal controller which is scheduled to be flight-tested on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The HARV is an F-18 airplane modified for and equipped with multi-axis thrust vectoring. The paper includes a description of the facilities, a detailed review of the feedback controller design, linear analysis results of the feedback controller, a description of the feed-forward controller design, nonlinear batch simulation results, and piloted simulation results. Batch simulation results include maximum pitch stick agility responses, angle of attack alpha captures, and alpha regulation for full lateral stick rolls at several alpha's. Piloted simulation results include task descriptions for several types of maneuvers, task guidelines, the corresponding Cooper-Harper ratings from three test pilots, and some pilot comments. The ratings show that desirable criteria are achieved for almost all of the piloted simulation tasks.

  19. Special environmental control and life support equipment test analyses and hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, David M.

    1995-01-01

    This final report summarizes NAS8-38250 contract events, 'Special Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Test Analysis and Hardware'. This report is technical and includes programmatic development. Key to the success of this contract was the evaluation of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) test results via sophisticated laboratory analysis capabilities. The history of the contract, including all subcontracts, is followed by the support and development of each Task.

  20. Sequential analyses, multiple controlling stimuli, and temporal patterning in first-language transmission.

    PubMed

    Moerk, E L

    1999-01-01

    Although inferences of causality from contingencies are problematic, as Hume argued, and are difficult to prove empirically, explanatory accounts of normal language acquisition and all remedial interventions rely on presumptions of environmental effectiveness. Careful sequential analyses of verbal behaviors can strongly corroborate dependencies by means of establishing either (a) contiguous contingencies or (b) topographical resemblances between antecedents and delayed consequences that could not be explained without assuming such dependencies. The promises, as well as the methodological and conceptual challenges, of such sequential analyses of verbal training and learning are exemplified on the basis of mother-child interactions. Concomitant variation over shorter and longer intervals, and immediate as well as lagged contingencies, are interpreted as indicators of dependency relationships. By focusing on behavioral evidence, extensive similarities or even homologies between first-language training and learning and basic behavioral principles established mostly through nonhuman research can be demonstrated. Nevertheless, expansions and innovations in the behavioral repertoire are suggested as conducive to mutual enrichment of the two fields of the experimental analysis of behavior and first-language acquisition.

  1. Sequential analyses, multiple controlling stimuli, and temporal patterning in first-language transmission

    PubMed Central

    Moerk, Ernst L.

    1999-01-01

    Although inferences of causality from contingencies are problematic, as Hume argued, and are difficult to prove empirically, explanatory accounts of normal language acquisition and all remedial interventions rely on presumptions of environmental effectiveness. Careful sequential analyses of verbal behaviors can strongly corroborate dependencies by means of establishing either (a) contiguous contingencies or (b) topographical resemblances between antecedents and delayed consequences that could not be explained without assuming such dependencies. The promises, as well as the methodological and conceptual challenges, of such sequential analyses of verbal training and learning are exemplified on the basis of mother-child interactions. Concomitant variation over shorter and longer intervals, and immediate as well as lagged contingencies, are interpreted as indicators of dependency relationships. By focusing on behavioral evidence, extensive similarities or even homologies between first-language training and learning and basic behavioral principles established mostly through nonhuman research can be demonstrated. Nevertheless, expansions and innovations in the behavioral repertoire are suggested as conducive to mutual enrichment of the two fields of the experimental analysis of behavior and first-language acquisition. PMID:22477160

  2. The IEO Data Center Management System: Tools for quality control, analysis and access marine data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, Antonia; Garcia, Maria Jesus; Nikouline, Andrei

    2010-05-01

    Since 1994 the Data Centre of the Spanish Oceanographic Institute develops system for archiving and quality control of oceanographic data. The work started in the frame of the European Marine Science & Technology Programme (MAST) when a consortium of several Mediterranean Data Centres began to work on the MEDATLAS project. Along the years, old software modules for MS DOS were rewritten, improved and migrated to Windows environment. Oceanographic data quality control includes now not only vertical profiles (mainly CTD and bottles observations) but also time series of currents and sea level observations. New powerful routines for analysis and for graphic visualization were added. Data presented originally in ASCII format were organized recently in an open source MySQL database. Nowadays, the IEO, as part of SeaDataNet Infrastructure, has designed and developed a new information system, consistent with the ISO 19115 and SeaDataNet standards, in order to manage the large and diverse marine data and information originated in Spain by different sources, and to interoperate with SeaDataNet. The system works with data stored in ASCII files (MEDATLAS, ODV) as well as data stored within the relational database. The components of the system are: 1.MEDATLAS Format and Quality Control - QCDAMAR: Quality Control of Marine Data. Main set of tools for working with data presented as text files. Includes extended quality control (searching for duplicated cruises and profiles, checking date, position, ship velocity, constant profiles, spikes, density inversion, sounding, acceptable data, impossible regional values,...) and input/output filters. - QCMareas: A set of procedures for the quality control of tide gauge data according to standard international Sea Level Observing System. These procedures include checking for unexpected anomalies in the time series, interpolation, filtering, computation of basic statistics and residuals. 2. DAMAR: A relational data base (MySql) designed to

  3. Access roads for RAG-ged terrains: control of T cell receptor gene rearrangement at multiple levels.

    PubMed

    Livák, Ferenc; Petrie, Howard T

    2002-10-01

    Antigen-specific immune response requires the generation of a diverse antigen (Ag)-receptor repertoire. The primary repertoire is generated through somatic gene rearrangement and molded by subsequent cellular selection. Constraints during gene recombination influence the ultimate shape of the repertoire. One major control mechanism of gene rearrangement, investigated for many years, is exerted through regulated chromosomal accessibility of the recombinase to the antigen receptor loci. More recent studies began to explore the role of interactions between the recombinase and its cognate recognition DNA sequences. The emerging results suggest that formation of the primary repertoire is controlled by two, partially independent factors: chromosomal accessibility and direct recombinase-DNA interactions.

  4. Prevention and control of neglected tropical diseases: overview of randomized trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Kappagoda, Shanthi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To analyse evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the prevention and control of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and to identify areas where evidence is lacking. Methods The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and PubMed were searched for RCTs and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and PubMed were searched for meta-analyses and systematic reviews, both from inception to 31 December 2012. Findings Overall, 258 RCTs were found on American trypanosomiasis, Buruli ulcer, dengue, geohelminth infection, leishmaniasis, leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, rabies, schistosomiasis or trachoma. No RCTs were found on cysticercosis, dracunculiasis, echinococcosis, foodborne trematodes, or human African trypanosomiasis. The most studied diseases were geohelminth infection (51 RCTs) and leishmaniasis (46 RCTs). Vaccines, chemoprophylaxis and interventions targeting insect vectors were evaluated in 113, 99 and 39 RCTs, respectively. Few addressed how best to deliver preventive chemotherapy, such as the choice of dosing interval (10) or target population (4), the population coverage needed to reduce transmission (2) or the method of drug distribution (1). Thirty-one publications containing 32 systematic reviews (16 with and 16 without meta-analyses) were found on American trypanosomiasis, dengue, geohelminths, leishmaniasis, leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis or trachoma. Together, they included only 79 of the 258 published RCTs (30.6%). Of 36 interventions assessed, 8 were judged effective in more than one review. Conclusion Few RCTs on the prevention or control of the principal NTDs were found. Trials on how best to deliver preventive chemotherapy were particularly rare. PMID:24839325

  5. Leprosy and disability control in the Guéra prefecture of Chad, Africa: do women have access to leprosy control services?

    PubMed

    Schäfer, J

    1998-09-01

    In a retrospective study, data from the Guéra Leprosy and Disability Control Project in Chad, covering the years from 1992 to 1996, were analysed in order to determine whether there was any indication that the quality of care provided to female leprosy sufferers is inferior to the care provided for male patients. Data from a total of 741 patient registered for MDT, of whom 351 were newly diagnosed cases, are presented and discussed. The data indicate that women have access to diagnosis and treatment and health education. They do not present for treatment later than men, disability rates are lower and they have slightly higher treatment completion rates. Both women and men benefit from footwear and loan programs. More women than men are involved in patient self-help groups. The study shows that in this part of central Chad, there is no evidence of disadvantage for women with leprosy in either diagnosis, treatment or follow-up, but more qualitative data is needed to confirm these findings.

  6. Multiple regression analyses in artificial-grammar learning: the importance of control groups.

    PubMed

    Lotz, Anja; Kinder, Annette; Lachnit, Harald

    2009-03-01

    In artificial-grammar learning, it is crucial to ensure that above-chance performance in the test stage is due to learning in the training stage but not due to judgemental biases. Here we argue that multiple regression analysis can be successfully combined with the use of control groups to assess whether participants were able to transfer knowledge acquired during training when making judgements about test stimuli. We compared the regression weights of judgements in a transfer condition (training and test strings were constructed by the same grammar but with different letters) with those in a control condition. Predictors were identical in both conditions-judgements of control participants were treated as if they were based on knowledge gained in a standard training stage. The results of this experiment as well as reanalyses of a former study support the usefulness of our approach.

  7. Model-based analyses: Promises, pitfalls, and example applications to the study of cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Mars, Rogier B.; Shea, Nicholas J.; Kolling, Nils; Rushworth, Matthew F. S.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss a recent approach to investigating cognitive control, which has the potential to deal with some of the challenges inherent in this endeavour. In a model-based approach, the researcher defines a formal, computational model that performs the task at hand and whose performance matches that of a research participant. The internal variables in such a model might then be taken as proxies for latent variables computed in the brain. We discuss the potential advantages of such an approach for the study of the neural underpinnings of cognitive control and its pitfalls, and we make explicit the assumptions underlying the interpretation of data obtained using this approach. PMID:20437297

  8. Model-based analyses: Promises, pitfalls, and example applications to the study of cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Mars, Rogier B; Shea, Nicholas J; Kolling, Nils; Rushworth, Matthew F S

    2012-01-01

    We discuss a recent approach to investigating cognitive control, which has the potential to deal with some of the challenges inherent in this endeavour. In a model-based approach, the researcher defines a formal, computational model that performs the task at hand and whose performance matches that of a research participant. The internal variables in such a model might then be taken as proxies for latent variables computed in the brain. We discuss the potential advantages of such an approach for the study of the neural underpinnings of cognitive control and its pitfalls, and we make explicit the assumptions underlying the interpretation of data obtained using this approach.

  9. Access to controlled medicines for anesthesia and surgical care in low-income countries: a narrative review of international drug control systems and policies.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Jason W; Pettus, Katherine; Wheeler, Kathleen E; Hallam, Christopher; Bewley-Taylor, David R; Attaran, Amir; Gelb, Adrian W

    2017-03-01

    This article describes the functioning of the international drug control system, its integration into national legislation and policy, and the collective impact on access to medicines. We conducted a review of the three international drug control conventions, peer-reviewed articles, and grey literature known to the authors that describes national and international drug control systems and their impact on access to controlled medicines. This review was supplemented with literature derived from a structured search of MEDLINE(®) for articles relating to medical uses of ketamine in low- and middle-income countries conducted to strengthen an advocacy campaign. We illustrate the impact of the drug control system on access to medicines through an analysis of current levels of availability of opioids in many countries as well as through a description of the ongoing advocacy work to ensure the availability of ketamine for medical care in low-income countries. The complexity of the international drug control system, along with health providers' lack of knowledge regarding key provisions, presents a barrier to improving access to safe anesthesia care in low- and middle-income countries. Fifteen of the 46 essential medicines of potential relevance to perioperative care are listed under one or more of the schedules of the three international drug control conventions and, subsequently, are required to be under national controls, potentially decreasing their availability for medical use. Improving the capacity and quality of anesthesia care in low- and middle-income countries requires attention to improving access to controlled medicines. Anesthesiologists and others involved in global health work should collaborate with policymakers and others to improve national and international drug control legislation to ensure that attempts to thwart illicit drug trafficking and use do not compromise availability of controlled medicines.

  10. Neurodynamics of executive control processes in bilinguals: evidence from ERP and source reconstruction analyses.

    PubMed

    Heidlmayr, Karin; Hemforth, Barbara; Moutier, Sylvain; Isel, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the impact of bilingualism on the neuronal activity in different executive control processes namely conflict monitoring, control implementation (i.e., interference suppression and conflict resolution) and overcoming of inhibition. Twenty-two highly proficient but non-balanced successive French-German bilingual adults and 22 monolingual adults performed a combined Stroop/Negative priming task while event-related potential (ERP) were recorded online. The data revealed that the ERP effects were reduced in bilinguals in comparison to monolinguals but only in the Stroop task and limited to the N400 and the sustained fronto-central negative-going potential time windows. This result suggests that bilingualism may impact the process of control implementation rather than the process of conflict monitoring (N200). Critically, our study revealed a differential time course of the involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in conflict processing. While the ACC showed major activation in the early time windows (N200 and N400) but not in the latest time window (late sustained negative-going potential), the PFC became unilaterally active in the left hemisphere in the N400 and the late sustained negative-going potential time windows. Taken together, the present electroencephalography data lend support to a cascading neurophysiological model of executive control processes, in which ACC and PFC may play a determining role.

  11. Estimating feedforward vs. feedback control of speech production through kinematic analyses of unperturbed articulatory movements

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang S.; Max, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the contributions of feedforward vs. feedback control systems in speech articulation, we analyzed the correspondence between initial and final kinematics in unperturbed tongue and jaw movements for consonant-vowel (CV) and vowel-consonant (VC) syllables. If movement extents and endpoints are highly predictable from early kinematic information, then the movements were most likely completed without substantial online corrections (feedforward control); if the correspondence between early kinematics and final amplitude or position is low, online adjustments may have altered the planned trajectory (feedback control) (Messier and Kalaska, 1999). Five adult speakers produced CV and VC syllables with high, mid, or low vowels while movements of the tongue and jaw were tracked electromagnetically. The correspondence between the kinematic parameters peak acceleration or peak velocity and movement extent as well as between the articulators' spatial coordinates at those kinematic landmarks and movement endpoint was examined both for movements across different target distances (i.e., across vowel height) and within target distances (i.e., within vowel height). Taken together, results suggest that jaw and tongue movements for these CV and VC syllables are mostly under feedforward control but with feedback-based contributions. One type of feedback-driven compensatory adjustment appears to regulate movement duration based on variation in peak acceleration. Results from a statistical model based on multiple regression are presented to illustrate how the relative strength of these feedback contributions can be estimated. PMID:25426056

  12. Effortful Control and Adaptive Functioning of Homeless Children: Variable-Focused and Person-Focused Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obradovic, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Homeless children show significant developmental delays across major domains of adaptation, yet research on protective processes that may contribute to resilient adaptation in this highly disadvantaged group of children is extremely rare. This study examined the role of effortful control for adaption in 58 homeless children, ages 5-6, during their…

  13. What Controls the Teaching of "Friluftsliv"? Analysing a Pedagogic Discourse within Swedish Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backman, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that outdoor teaching practices within a physical education (PE) context are controlled by several factors with the potential to weaken or strengthen PE teachers' communication of pedagogic messages. Drawing on 12 qualitative interviews with PE teachers in compulsory schools in Sweden, the findings in this study suggest that…

  14. Effortful Control and Adaptive Functioning of Homeless Children: Variable-Focused and Person-Focused Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obradovic, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Homeless children show significant developmental delays across major domains of adaptation, yet research on protective processes that may contribute to resilient adaptation in this highly disadvantaged group of children is extremely rare. This study examined the role of effortful control for adaption in 58 homeless children, ages 5-6, during their…

  15. What Controls the Teaching of "Friluftsliv"? Analysing a Pedagogic Discourse within Swedish Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backman, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that outdoor teaching practices within a physical education (PE) context are controlled by several factors with the potential to weaken or strengthen PE teachers' communication of pedagogic messages. Drawing on 12 qualitative interviews with PE teachers in compulsory schools in Sweden, the findings in this study suggest that…

  16. Evaluation of strength-controlling defects in paper by stress concentration analyses

    Treesearch

    John M. Considine; David W. Vahey; James W. Evans; Kevin T. Turner; Robert E. Rowlands

    2011-01-01

    Cellulosic webs, such as paper materials, are composed of an interwoven, bonded network of cellulose fibers. Strength-controlling parameters in these webs are influenced by constituent fibers and method of processing and manufacture. Instead of estimating the effect on tensile strength of each processing/manufacturing variable, this study modifies and compares the...

  17. Neurodynamics of executive control processes in bilinguals: evidence from ERP and source reconstruction analyses

    PubMed Central

    Heidlmayr, Karin; Hemforth, Barbara; Moutier, Sylvain; Isel, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the impact of bilingualism on the neuronal activity in different executive control processes namely conflict monitoring, control implementation (i.e., interference suppression and conflict resolution) and overcoming of inhibition. Twenty-two highly proficient but non-balanced successive French–German bilingual adults and 22 monolingual adults performed a combined Stroop/Negative priming task while event-related potential (ERP) were recorded online. The data revealed that the ERP effects were reduced in bilinguals in comparison to monolinguals but only in the Stroop task and limited to the N400 and the sustained fronto-central negative-going potential time windows. This result suggests that bilingualism may impact the process of control implementation rather than the process of conflict monitoring (N200). Critically, our study revealed a differential time course of the involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in conflict processing. While the ACC showed major activation in the early time windows (N200 and N400) but not in the latest time window (late sustained negative-going potential), the PFC became unilaterally active in the left hemisphere in the N400 and the late sustained negative-going potential time windows. Taken together, the present electroencephalography data lend support to a cascading neurophysiological model of executive control processes, in which ACC and PFC may play a determining role. PMID:26124740

  18. Integrated analyses for genetic markers of polycystic ovary syndrome with 9 case-control studies of gene expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chenqi; Liu, Xiaoqin; Wang, Lin; Jiang, Ning; Yu, Jun; Zhao, Xiaobo; Hu, Hairong; Zheng, Saihua; Li, Xuelian; Wang, Guiying

    2017-01-10

    Due to genetic heterogeneity and variable diagnostic criteria, genetic studies of polycystic ovary syndrome are particularly challenging. Furthermore, lack of sufficiently large cohorts limits the identification of susceptibility genes contributing to polycystic ovary syndrome. Here, we carried out a systematic search of studies deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus database through August 31, 2016. The present analyses included studies with: 1) patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and normal controls, 2) gene expression profiling of messenger RNA, and 3) sufficient data for our analysis. Ultimately, a total of 9 studies with 13 datasets met the inclusion criteria and were performed for the subsequent integrated analyses. Through comprehensive analyses, there were 13 genetic factors overlapped in all datasets and identified as significant specific genes for polycystic ovary syndrome. After quality control assessment, there were six datasets remained. Further gene ontology enrichment and pathway analyses suggested that differentially expressed genes mainly enriched in oocyte pathways. These findings provide potential molecular markers for diagnosis and prognosis of polycystic ovary syndrome, and need in-depth studies on the exact function and mechanism in polycystic ovary syndrome.

  19. Controlling the taste receptor accessible structure of rebaudioside A via binding to bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Mudgal, Samriddh; Keresztes, Ivan; Feigenson, Gerald W; Rizvi, S S H

    2016-04-15

    We illustrate a method that uses bovine serum albumin (BSA) to control the receptor-accessible part of rebaudioside A (Reb A). The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of Reb A was found to be 4.5 mM and 5 mM at pH 3 and 6.7 respectively. NMR studies show that below its CMC, Reb A binds weakly to BSA to generate a Reb A-protein complex ("RPC"), which is only modestly stable under varying conditions of pH (3.0-6.7) and temperature (4-40°C) with its binding affinities determined to be in the range of 5-280 mM. Furthermore, saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR experiments confirm that the RPC has fast exchange of the bitterness-instigating diterpene of Reb A into the binding sites of BSA. Our method can be used to alter the strength of Reb A-receptor interaction, as a result of binding of Reb A to BSA, which may ultimately lead to moderation of its taste.

  20. Ongoing Spontaneous Activity Controls Access to Consciousness: A Neuronal Model for Inattentional Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Changeux, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Even in the absence of sensory inputs, cortical and thalamic neurons can show structured patterns of ongoing spontaneous activity, whose origins and functional significance are not well understood. We use computer simulations to explore the conditions under which spontaneous activity emerges from a simplified model of multiple interconnected thalamocortical columns linked by long-range, top-down excitatory axons, and to examine its interactions with stimulus-induced activation. Simulations help characterize two main states of activity. First, spontaneous gamma-band oscillations emerge at a precise threshold controlled by ascending neuromodulator systems. Second, within a spontaneously active network, we observe the sudden “ignition” of one out of many possible coherent states of high-level activity amidst cortical neurons with long-distance projections. During such an ignited state, spontaneous activity can block external sensory processing. We relate those properties to experimental observations on the neural bases of endogenous states of consciousness, and particularly the blocking of access to consciousness that occurs in the psychophysical phenomenon of “inattentional blindness,” in which normal subjects intensely engaged in mental activity fail to notice salient but irrelevant sensory stimuli. Although highly simplified, the generic properties of a minimal network may help clarify some of the basic cerebral phenomena underlying the autonomy of consciousness. PMID:15819609

  1. Ongoing spontaneous activity controls access to consciousness: a neuronal model for inattentional blindness.

    PubMed

    Dehaene, Stanislas; Changeux, Jean-Pierre

    2005-05-01

    Even in the absence of sensory inputs, cortical and thalamic neurons can show structured patterns of ongoing spontaneous activity, whose origins and functional significance are not well understood. We use computer simulations to explore the conditions under which spontaneous activity emerges from a simplified model of multiple interconnected thalamocortical columns linked by long-range, top-down excitatory axons, and to examine its interactions with stimulus-induced activation. Simulations help characterize two main states of activity. First, spontaneous gamma-band oscillations emerge at a precise threshold controlled by ascending neuromodulator systems. Second, within a spontaneously active network, we observe the sudden "ignition" of one out of many possible coherent states of high-level activity amidst cortical neurons with long-distance projections. During such an ignited state, spontaneous activity can block external sensory processing. We relate those properties to experimental observations on the neural bases of endogenous states of consciousness, and particularly the blocking of access to consciousness that occurs in the psychophysical phenomenon of "inattentional blindness," in which normal subjects intensely engaged in mental activity fail to notice salient but irrelevant sensory stimuli. Although highly simplified, the generic properties of a minimal network may help clarify some of the basic cerebral phenomena underlying the autonomy of consciousness.

  2. Peptide-controlled access to the interior surface of empty virus nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sainsbury, Frank; Saunders, Keith; Aljabali, Alaa A A; Evans, David J; Lomonossoff, George P

    2011-11-04

    The structure of Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is known to high resolution, thereby enabling the rational use of the particles in diverse applications, from vaccine design to nanotechnology. A recently devised method for the production of empty virus-like particles (eVLPs) has opened up new possibilities for CPMV capsid-based technologies, such as internal mineralisation of the particle. We have investigated the role of the carboxyl (C) terminus of the small coat (S) protein in controlling access to the interior of CPMV eVLPs by determining the efficiency of internal mineralisation. The presence of the C-terminal 24-amino acid peptide of the S protein was found to inhibit internal mineralisation, an effect that could be eliminated by enzymatic removal of this region. We have also demonstrated the amenability of the C terminus to genetic modification. Substitution with six histidine residues generated stable particles and facilitated external mineralisation by cobalt. These findings demonstrate consistent internal and external mineralisation of CPMV, and will aid the further exploration and development of the use of eVLPs for bionanotechnological and medical applications. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Analysis of driver injury severity in wrong-way driving crashes on controlled-access highways.

    PubMed

    Pour-Rouholamin, Mahdi; Zhou, Huaguo

    2016-09-01

    For more than five decades, wrong-way driving (WWD) has been notorious as a traffic safety issue for controlled-access highways. Numerous studies and efforts have tried to identify factors that contribute to WWD occurrences at these sites in order to delineate between WWD and non-WWD crashes. However, none of the studies investigate the effect of various confounding variables on the injury severity being sustained by the at-fault drivers in a WWD crash. This study tries to fill this gap in the existing literature by considering possible variables and taking into account the ordinal nature of injury severity using three different ordered-response models: ordered logit or proportional odds (PO), generalized ordered logit (GOL), and partial proportional odds (PPO) model. The findings of this study reveal that a set of variables, including driver's age, condition (i.e., intoxication), seatbelt use, time of day, airbag deployment, type of setting, surface condition, lighting condition, and type of crash, has a significant effect on the severity of a WWD crash. Additionally, a comparison was made between the three proposed methods. The results corroborate that the PPO model outperforms the other two models in terms of modeling injury severity using our database. Based on the findings, several countermeasures at the engineering, education, and enforcement levels are recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An Ounce of Prevention: Technologists Use Network-Access Control to Protect System Resources, Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolch, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Whether for an entire district, a single campus, or one classroom, allowing authorized access to a computer network can be fraught with challenges. The login process should be fairly seamless to approved users, giving them speedy access to approved Web sites, databases, and other sources of information. It also should be tough on unauthorized…

  5. An Ounce of Prevention: Technologists Use Network-Access Control to Protect System Resources, Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolch, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Whether for an entire district, a single campus, or one classroom, allowing authorized access to a computer network can be fraught with challenges. The login process should be fairly seamless to approved users, giving them speedy access to approved Web sites, databases, and other sources of information. It also should be tough on unauthorized…

  6. Analyses of geological and hydrodynamic controls on methane emissions experienced in a Lower Kittanning coal mine

    PubMed Central

    Karacan, C. Özgen; Goodman, Gerrit V.R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study assessing potential factors and migration paths of methane emissions experienced in a room-and-pillar mine in Lower Kittanning coal, Indiana County, Pennsylvania. Methane emissions were not excessive at idle mining areas, but significant methane was measured during coal mining and loading. Although methane concentrations in the mine did not exceed 1% limit during operation due to the presence of adequate dilution airflow, the source of methane and its migration into the mine was still a concern. In the course of this study, structural and depositional properties of the area were evaluated to assess complexity and sealing capacity of roof rocks. Composition, gas content, and permeability of Lower Kittanning coal, results of flotation tests, and geochemistry of groundwater obtained from observation boreholes were studied to understand the properties of coal and potential effects of old abandoned mines within the same area. These data were combined with the data obtained from exploration boreholes, such as depths, elevations, thicknesses, ash content, and heat value of coal. Univariate statistical and principal component analyses (PCA), as well as geostatistical simulations and co-simulations, were performed on various spatial attributes to reveal interrelationships and to establish area-wide distributions. These studies helped in analyzing groundwater quality and determining gas-in-place (GIP) of the Lower Kittanning seam. Furthermore, groundwater level and head on the Lower Kittanning coal were modeled and flow gradients within the study area were examined. Modeling results were interpreted with the structural geology of the Allegheny Group of formations above the Lower Kittanning coal to understand the potential source of gas and its migration paths. Analyses suggested that the source of methane was likely the overlying seams such as the Middle and Upper Kittanning coals and Freeport seams of the Allegheny Group. Simulated ground

  7. Analyses of geological and hydrodynamic controls on methane emissions experienced in a Lower Kittanning coal mine.

    PubMed

    Karacan, C Özgen; Goodman, Gerrit V R

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a study assessing potential factors and migration paths of methane emissions experienced in a room-and-pillar mine in Lower Kittanning coal, Indiana County, Pennsylvania. Methane emissions were not excessive at idle mining areas, but significant methane was measured during coal mining and loading. Although methane concentrations in the mine did not exceed 1% limit during operation due to the presence of adequate dilution airflow, the source of methane and its migration into the mine was still a concern. In the course of this study, structural and depositional properties of the area were evaluated to assess complexity and sealing capacity of roof rocks. Composition, gas content, and permeability of Lower Kittanning coal, results of flotation tests, and geochemistry of groundwater obtained from observation boreholes were studied to understand the properties of coal and potential effects of old abandoned mines within the same area. These data were combined with the data obtained from exploration boreholes, such as depths, elevations, thicknesses, ash content, and heat value of coal. Univariate statistical and principal component analyses (PCA), as well as geostatistical simulations and co-simulations, were performed on various spatial attributes to reveal interrelationships and to establish area-wide distributions. These studies helped in analyzing groundwater quality and determining gas-in-place (GIP) of the Lower Kittanning seam. Furthermore, groundwater level and head on the Lower Kittanning coal were modeled and flow gradients within the study area were examined. Modeling results were interpreted with the structural geology of the Allegheny Group of formations above the Lower Kittanning coal to understand the potential source of gas and its migration paths. Analyses suggested that the source of methane was likely the overlying seams such as the Middle and Upper Kittanning coals and Freeport seams of the Allegheny Group. Simulated ground

  8. Unified Information Access in Product Creation with an Integrated Control Desk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrasse, Kevin; Diener, Holger; Hayka, Haygazun; Stark, Rainer

    2017-06-01

    Customers demand for individualized products leads to a large variety of different products in small series and single-unit production. A high flexibility pressure in product creation is one result of this trend. In order to counteract the pressure, the information steadily increasing by Industry 4.0 must be made available at the workplace. Additionally, a better exchange of information between product development, production planning and production is necessary. The improvement of individual systems, like CAD, PDM, ERP and MES, can only achieve this to a limited extent. Since they mostly use systems from different manufacturers, the necessary deeper integration of information is only feasible for SMEs to a limited extend. The presented control desk helps to ensure a more flexible product creation as well as information exchange. It captures information from different IT systems in the production process and presents them integrated, task-oriented and oriented to the user’s mental model, e.g. information of the production combined with the 3D model of product parts, or information about product development on the 3D model of the production. The solution is a digital 3D model of the manufacturing environment, which is enriched by billboards for a quick information overview and web service windows to access detailed MES and PDM information. By this, the level of abstraction can be reduced and reacts to changed requirements in the short term, making informed decisions. The interaction with the control stands utilizes the touch skills of mobile and fixed systems such as smartphones, tablets and multitouch tables.

  9. Guaranteeing synchronous message deadlines with the timed token medium access control protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Gopal; Chen, Baio; Zhao, Wei; Davari, Sadegh

    1992-01-01

    We study the problem of guaranteeing synchronous message deadlines in token ring networks where the timed token medium access control protocol is employed. Synchronous capacity, defined as the maximum time for which a node can transmit its synchronous messages every time it receives the token, is a key parameter in the control of synchronous message transmission. To ensure the transmission of synchronous messages before their deadlines, synchronous capacities must be properly allocated to individual nodes. We address the issue of appropriate allocation of the synchronous capacities. Several synchronous capacity allocation schemes are analyzed in terms of their ability to satisfy deadline constraints of synchronous messages. We show that an inappropriate allocation of the synchronous capacities could cause message deadlines to be missed even if the synchronous traffic is extremely low. We propose a scheme called the normalized proportional allocation scheme which can guarantee the synchronous message deadlines for synchronous traffic of up to 33 percent of available utilization. To date, no other synchronous capacity allocation scheme has been reported to achieve such substantial performance. Another major contribution of this paper is an extension to the previous work on the bounded token rotation time. We prove that the time elapsed between any consecutive visits to a particular node is bounded by upsilon TTRT, where TTRT is the target token rotation time set up at system initialization time. The previous result by Johnson and Sevcik is a special case where upsilon = 2. We use this result in the analysis of various synchronous allocation schemes. It can also be applied in other similar studies.

  10. Improving cancer patients' knowledge about totally implantable access port: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Piredda, Michela; Biagioli, Valentina; Giannarelli, Diana; Incletoli, Daniele; Grieco, Francesca; Carassiti, Massimiliano; De Marinis, Maria Grazia

    2016-02-01

    Providing patients with written information about totally implantable access ports (TIAPs) is recommended during the pre-implantation period to reduce anxiety and to help recalling information. No study tested the effectiveness of information about TIAP neither with oral communication nor with booklets. This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of an information booklet, alone or together with answers to clarification questions, both in improving patients' short- and long-time knowledge about TIAP and in decreasing patients' physiological indicators of anxiety immediately after TIAP implantation. This is a randomized controlled trial with three parallel groups: group A (n = 34) receiving only the booklet, group B (n = 34) receiving the booklet with answers to clarification questions, and group C (n = 37) receiving routine care. After 3 months, pair comparisons revealed a significant improvement in knowledge of TIAP in each group (p < 0.001), together with a significant difference in group C compared with groups A (p < 0.001) and B (p < 0.001), similar to each other. Physiological indicators of anxiety decreased in the intervention groups compared to control group immediately after TIAP implantation. The interventions provided resulted effective in decreasing patients' physiological indicators of anxiety immediately after TIAP implantation and improving patients' knowledge about TIAP immediately and at 3 months. Adding answers to clarification questions to the booklet was not more effective than the booklet alone. A well-designed booklet with attention both to scientific content and to communication techniques is useful in improving patients' knowledge about TIAP and reducing anxiety.

  11. Optimal design and experimental analyses of a new micro-vibration control payload-platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoqing; Yang, Bintang; Zhao, Long; Sun, Xiaofen

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a new payload-platform, for precision devices, which possesses the capability of isolating the complex space micro-vibration in low frequency range below 5 Hz. The novel payload-platform equipped with smart material actuators is investigated and designed through optimization strategy based on the minimum energy loss rate, for the aim of achieving high drive efficiency and reducing the effect of the magnetic circuit nonlinearity. Then, the dynamic model of the driving element is established by using the Lagrange method and the performance of the designed payload-platform is further discussed through the combination of the controlled auto regressive moving average (CARMA) model with modified generalized prediction control (MGPC) algorithm. Finally, an experimental prototype is developed and tested. The experimental results demonstrate that the payload-platform has an impressive potential of micro-vibration isolation.

  12. Analysing the Low Quality of the Data in Lighting Control Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villar, Jose R.; de La Cal, Enrique; Sedano, Javier; García-Tamargo, Marco

    Energy efficiency represents one of the main challenges in the engineering field, i.e., by means of decreasing the energy consumption due to a better design minimising the energy losses. This is particularly true in real world processes in the industry or in business, where the elements involved generate data full of noise and biases. In other fields as lighting control systems, the emergence of new technologies, as the Ambient Intelligence can be, degrades the quality data introducing linguistic values. The presence of low quality data in Lighting Control Systems is introduced through an experimentation step, in order to realise the improvement in energy efficiency that its of managing could afford. In this contribution we propose, as a future work, the use of the novel genetic fuzzy system approach to obtain classifiers and models able to deal with the above mentioned problems.

  13. Statistical issues in quality control of proteomic analyses: good experimental design and planning.

    PubMed

    Cairns, David A

    2011-03-01

    Quality control is becoming increasingly important in proteomic investigations as experiments become more multivariate and quantitative. Quality control applies to all stages of an investigation and statistics can play a key role. In this review, the role of statistical ideas in the design and planning of an investigation is described. This involves the design of unbiased experiments using key concepts from statistical experimental design, the understanding of the biological and analytical variation in a system using variance components analysis and the determination of a required sample size to perform a statistically powerful investigation. These concepts are described through simple examples and an example data set from a 2-D DIGE pilot experiment. Each of these concepts can prove useful in producing better and more reproducible data. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Three key regions for supervisory attentional control: Evidence from neuroimaging meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Cieslik, Edna C.; Mueller, Veronika I.; Eickhoff, Claudia R.; Langner, Robert; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2014-01-01

    The supervisory attentional system has been proposed to mediate non-routine, goal-oriented behaviour by guiding the selection and maintenance of the goal-relevant task schema. Here, we aimed to delineate the brain regions that mediate these high-level control processes via neuroimaging meta-analysis. In particular, we investigated the core neural correlates of a wide range of tasks requiring supervisory control for the suppression of a routine action in favour of another, non-routine one. Our sample comprised n = 173 experiments employing go/no-go, stop-signal, Stroop or spatial interference tasks. Consistent convergence across all four paradigm classes was restricted to right anterior insula and inferior frontal junction, with anterior midcingulate cortex and pre-supplementary motor area being consistently involved in all but the go/no-go task. Taken together with lesion studies in patients, our findings suggest that the controlled activation and maintenance of adequate task schemata relies, across paradigms, on a right-dominant midcingulo-insular-inferior frontal core network. This also implies that the role of other prefrontal and parietal regions may be less domain-general than previously thought. PMID:25446951

  15. Choice of Appropriate Control Values for Effective Analyses of Damage Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venglár, Michal; Sokol, Milan

    2017-03-01

    The article is devoted to a suitable choice of input parameters for the efficient running of a self-developed code used for damage detection. The code was prepared in Office Excel VBA, which used a non-destructive vibration-based method. The primary aim of the code is to determine the change in bending stiffness by using the FE model updating method, and the aim of the paper is to determine the effect of the input data on the bending stiffness calculations. The code was applied for a numerical model of a steel bar. The steel bar was a simply supported beam with a span of 3.5 m. The time of the calculations and precision of the identification were investigated. The values of the time consumption depend on the input values, the desired limit of the accepted error, and the length of the step in every iteration. Data from an experimental model was analysed. The model was made of wooden and plaster boards. The calculations were done in accordance with suitable input data from a parametric study.

  16. Comparative analyses of different variants of standard ground for automatic control systems of technical processes of oil and gas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromakov, E. I.; Gazizov, A. T.; Lukin, V. P.; Chimrov, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The paper analyses efficiency (interference resistance) of standard TT, TN, IT networks in control links of automatic control systems (ACS) of technical processes (TP) of oil and gas production. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is a standard term used to describe the interference in grounding circuits. Improved EMC of ACS TP can significantly reduce risks and costs of malfunction of equipment that could have serious consequences. It has been proved that an IT network is the best type of grounds for protection of ACS TP in real life conditions. It allows reducing the interference down to the level that is stated in standards of oil and gas companies.

  17. Understanding behavior under nonverbal transitive-inference procedures: Stimulus-control-topography analyses.

    PubMed

    Galizio, Ann; Doughty, Adam H; Williams, Dean C; Saunders, Kathryn J

    2017-07-01

    Following training with verbal stimulus relations involving A is greater than B and B is greater than C, verbally-competent individuals reliably select A>C when asked "which is greater, A or C?" (i.e., verbal transitive inference). This result is easy to interpret. Nonhuman animals and humans with and without intellectual disabilities have been exposed to nonverbal transitive-inference procedures involving trained arbitrary stimulus relations. Following the training of A+B-, B+C-, C+D-, and D+E-, B reliably is selected over D (i.e., nonverbal transitive inference). Such findings are more challenging to interpret. The present research explored accounts of nonverbal transitive inference based in transitive inference per se, reinforcement, such as value-transfer theory, and operant stimulus control. In Experiment 1, college students selected B>G following the training of A+B-, B+C-, C+D-///E+F-, F+G-, and G+H- (where///signifies the omission of D+E-). In Experiment 2, college students selected B>G following the training of A+B-, B+C-, C+D-///E+F-, F+G-, and G+X- (where X refers to 10 stimuli that alternated across trials). In Experiment 3, college students selected G>B following the training of Y+B-, B+C-, C+D-///E+F-, F+G-, and G+X- (where Y and X refer to 10 stimuli, respectively, that alternated across trials). These findings are discussed in the context of operant stimulus control by offering an approach based in stimulus B typically acquiring only a select stimulus control topography. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Using Machine Learning for Behavior-Based Access Control: Scalable Anomaly Detection on TCP Connections and HTTP Requests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    Behavior-Based Access Control (BBAC). The work described in this paper focuses on the statistical machine learning techniques used in BBAC to make...and describe current plans for transitioning BBAC capabilities into the Department of Defense together with lessons learned for the machine learning community.

  19. 48 CFR 1552.235-75 - Access to Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Access to Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996). 1552.235-75 Section 1552.235-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND...

  20. 48 CFR 1552.235-75 - Access to Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Access to Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996). 1552.235-75 Section 1552.235-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND...

  1. 17 CFR 240.15c3-5 - Risk management controls for brokers or dealers with market access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... designed to manage the financial, regulatory, and other risks of this business activity. Such broker or... by paragraph (b) of this section shall include the following elements: (1) Financial risk management... access. (d) The financial and regulatory risk management controls and supervisory procedures described in...

  2. Suppressing NOM access to controlled porous TiO2 particles enhances the decomposition of target water contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Suppressing access of natural organic matter (NOM) to TiO2 is a key to the successful photocatalytic decomposition of a target contaminant in water. This study first demonstrates simply controlling the porous structure of TiO2 can significantly improve the selective oxidation.

  3. Suppressing NOM access to controlled porous TiO2 particles enhances the decomposition of target water contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Suppressing access of natural organic matter (NOM) to TiO2 is a key to the successful photocatalytic decomposition of a target contaminant in water. This study first demonstrates simply controlling the porous structure of TiO2 can significantly improve the selective oxidation.

  4. Occlusal plane determination using custom made broadrick occlusal plane analyser: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Manvi, Supriya; Miglani, Shaveta; Rajeswari, C L; Srivatsa, G; Arora, Sarvesh

    2012-01-01

    Proper occlusal plane is an essential consideration when multiple long span posterior restorations are designed. The determination of the occlusal plane can have a profound effect on the short and long term success of a restorative case. Purpose of Study. (1) To determine the appropriate occlusal curve for individual patients. (2) To compare the deviation of the clinical occlusal curve with the ideal ones. Materials and Methods. A total of 20 subjects were examined and study models were made of their maxillary and mandibular dentition. Inter-occlusal records were made and the casts were articulated in semiadjustable articulator. An ideal occlusal plane was created. The distance of the farthest cusp tip from the Broadrick curve was measured along the long axis of the tooth for each individual. Paired t-tests were used to compare the findings between subjects and controls. Results. A statistically significant difference P < 0.05 was found in the deviation from the Broadrick curve between patients who have lost posterior teeth and the control group who had a full dentition with no missing teeth. Conclusion. Proper utilization of the broadrick flag on a semi-adjustable articulator will allow for a correct determination of the occlusal plane.

  5. Comprehensive Comparative Genomic and Transcriptomic Analyses of the Legume Genes Controlling the Nodulation Process

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Zhenzhen; Pingault, Lise; Nourbakhsh-Rey, Mehrnoush; Libault, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most essential plant nutrients and one of the major factors limiting crop productivity. Having the goal to perform a more sustainable agriculture, there is a need to maximize biological nitrogen fixation, a feature of legumes. To enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling the interaction between legumes and rhizobia, the symbiotic partner fixing and assimilating the atmospheric nitrogen for the plant, researchers took advantage of genetic and genomic resources developed across different legume models (e.g., Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Glycine max, and Phaseolus vulgaris) to identify key regulatory protein coding genes of the nodulation process. In this study, we are presenting the results of a comprehensive comparative genomic analysis to highlight orthologous and paralogous relationships between the legume genes controlling nodulation. Mining large transcriptomic datasets, we also identified several orthologous and paralogous genes characterized by the induction of their expression during nodulation across legume plant species. This comprehensive study prompts new insights into the evolution of the nodulation process in legume plant and will benefit the scientific community interested in the transfer of functional genomic information between species. PMID:26858743

  6. Comprehensive Comparative Genomic and Transcriptomic Analyses of the Legume Genes Controlling the Nodulation Process.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Zhenzhen; Pingault, Lise; Nourbakhsh-Rey, Mehrnoush; Libault, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most essential plant nutrients and one of the major factors limiting crop productivity. Having the goal to perform a more sustainable agriculture, there is a need to maximize biological nitrogen fixation, a feature of legumes. To enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling the interaction between legumes and rhizobia, the symbiotic partner fixing and assimilating the atmospheric nitrogen for the plant, researchers took advantage of genetic and genomic resources developed across different legume models (e.g., Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Glycine max, and Phaseolus vulgaris) to identify key regulatory protein coding genes of the nodulation process. In this study, we are presenting the results of a comprehensive comparative genomic analysis to highlight orthologous and paralogous relationships between the legume genes controlling nodulation. Mining large transcriptomic datasets, we also identified several orthologous and paralogous genes characterized by the induction of their expression during nodulation across legume plant species. This comprehensive study prompts new insights into the evolution of the nodulation process in legume plant and will benefit the scientific community interested in the transfer of functional genomic information between species.

  7. Local Control Strategy: Simple Analyses of Air Pollution Data Can Reveal Heterogeneity in Longevity Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Obenchain, Robert L; Young, S Stanley

    2017-02-23

    Claims from observational studies that use traditional model specification searches often fail to replicate, partially because the available data tend to be biased. There is an urgent need for an alternative statistical analysis strategy, that is not only simple and easily understood but also is more likely to give reliable insights when the available data have not been designed and balanced. The alternative strategy known as local control first generates local, nonparametric effect-size estimates (fair treatment comparisons) and only then asks whether the observed variation in these local estimates can be predicted from potential confounding factors. Here, we illustrate application of local control to a historical air pollution data set describing a "natural experiment" initiated by the federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1970. Our reanalysis reveals subgroup heterogeneity in the effects of air quality regulation on elderly longevity (one size does not fit all), and we show that this heterogeneity is largely explained by socioeconomic and environmental confounders other than air quality.

  8. Provider responses to patients controlling access to their electronic health records: a prospective cohort study in primary care.

    PubMed

    Tierney, William M; Alpert, Sheri A; Byrket, Amy; Caine, Kelly; Leventhal, Jeremy C; Meslin, Eric M; Schwartz, Peter H

    2015-01-01

    Applying Fair Information Practice principles to electronic health records (EHRs) requires allowing patient control over who views their data. We designed a program that captures patients' preferences for provider access to an urban health system's EHR. Patients could allow or restrict providers' access to all data (diagnoses, medications, test results, reports, etc.) or only highly sensitive data (sexually transmitted infections, HIV/AIDS, drugs/alcohol, mental or reproductive health). Except for information in free-text reports, we redacted EHR data shown to providers according to patients' preferences. Providers could "break the glass" to display redacted information. We prospectively studied this system in one primary care clinic, noting redactions and when users "broke the glass," and surveyed providers about their experiences and opinions. Eight of nine eligible clinic physicians and all 23 clinic staff participated. All 105 patients who enrolled completed the preference program. Providers did not know which of their patients were enrolled, nor their preferences for accessing their EHRs. During the 6-month prospective study, 92 study patients (88 %) returned 261 times, during which providers viewed their EHRs 126 times (48 %). Providers "broke the glass" 102 times, 92 times for patients not in the study and ten times for six returning study patients, all of whom had restricted EHR access. Providers "broke the glass" for six (14 %) of 43 returning study patients with redacted data vs. zero among 49 study patients without redactions (p = 0.01). Although 54 % of providers agreed that patients should have control over who sees their EHR information, 58 % believed restricting EHR access could harm provider-patient relationships and 71 % felt quality of care would suffer. Patients frequently preferred restricting provider access to their EHRs. Providers infrequently overrode patients' preferences to view hidden data. Providers believed that restricting EHR access

  9. A Brief Survey of Media Access Control, Data Link Layer, and Protocol Technologies for Lunar Surface Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallett, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper surveys and describes some of the existing media access control and data link layer technologies for possible application in lunar surface communications and the advanced wideband Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DSCDMA) conceptual systems utilizing phased-array technology that will evolve in the next decade. Time Domain Multiple Access (TDMA) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) are standard Media Access Control (MAC) techniques that can be incorporated into lunar surface communications architectures. Another novel hybrid technique that is recently being developed for use with smart antenna technology combines the advantages of CDMA with those of TDMA. The relatively new and sundry wireless LAN data link layer protocols that are continually under development offer distinct advantages for lunar surface applications over the legacy protocols which are not wireless. Also several communication transport and routing protocols can be chosen with characteristics commensurate with smart antenna systems to provide spacecraft communications for links exhibiting high capacity on the surface of the Moon. The proper choices depend on the specific communication requirements.

  10. [Genetic control of efficient leaf rust resistance in collection accessions of barley Hordeum vulgare L].

    PubMed

    Tyryshkin, L G

    2009-03-01

    Leaf rust resistance was studied in barley accessions from the worldwide collection of the All-Russia Institute of Plant Industry. Most accessions described as highly resistant in the literature proved susceptible. High resistance at the juvenile stage was observed only for the cultivars Henry, Cebada Capa, Forrajera Klein, and Scarlet. Hybrid analysis and phytopathological tests showed that the cultivar Scarlet had one dominant resistance gene, Rph7. Adult resistance was demonstrated for accession NB-3002 from Nepal, which proved to have one dominant gene on evidence of hybrid analysis.

  11. Optimization algorithm performance in determining optimal controls in human movement analyses.

    PubMed

    Neptune, R R

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of different multivariate optimization algorithms by solving a "tracking" problem using a forward dynamic model of pedaling. The tracking problem was defined as solving for the muscle controls (muscle stimulation onset, offset, and magnitude) that minimized the error between experimentally collected kinetic and kinematic data and the simulation results of pedaling at 90 rpm and 250 W. Three different algorithms were evaluated: a downhill simplex method, a gradient-based sequential quadratic programming algorithm, and a simulated annealing global optimization routine. The results showed that the simulated annealing algorithm performed for superior to the conventional routines by converging more rapidly and avoiding local minima.

  12. Nutraceuticals and Blood Pressure Control: Results from Clinical Trials and Meta-Analyses.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Colletti, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    Beyond the well-known effects on blood pressure (BP) of the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) and the Mediterranean diets, a large number of studies has investigated the possible BP lowering effect of different dietary supplements and nutraceuticals, the most part of them being antioxidant agents with a high tolerability and safety profile. In particular relatively large body of evidence support the use of potassium, L-arginine, vitamin C, cocoa flavonoids, beetroot juice, coenzyme Q10, controlled-release melatonin, and aged garlic extract. However there is a need for data about the long-term safety of a large part of the above discussed products. Moreover further clinical research is advisable to identify between the available active nutraceuticals those with the best cost-effectiveness and risk-benefit ratio for a large use in general population with low-added cardiovascular risk related to uncomplicated hypertension.

  13. Safety Assessment and Power Analyses in Published Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Esen, Fehim; Alhan, Ozlem; Kuru, Pinar; Sahin, Ozlem

    2016-09-01

    To investigate a certain set of methodological limitations in published anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Descriptive methodological study. We did a PubMed search with the terms "bevacizumab OR ranibizumab OR pegaptanib OR aflibercept" and the limitations "humans" and "randomized controlled trials" in 15 of the highest-impact-factor general medicine and ophthalmology journals. We included only RCTs published as original articles, where an anti-VEGF agent was used to treat eye disease. Two independent observers (O.A., P.K.) read through each article and classified the articles according to a predefined set of criteria. The PubMed search yielded 209 articles, and 93 were classified as eligible. In most of the studies, the study drug was bevacizumab (52.6%, n = 49), followed by ranibizumab (44.1%, n = 41), pegaptanib (7.5%, n = 7), and aflibercept (5.4%, n = 5). Basic epidemiologic data, including sex distribution (2.2%, n = 2) and mean age (3.2%, n = 3), were missing in 3.2% of the published RCTs. The power calculation for efficacy was mentioned in 48% (n = 45) of the published work, and a power calculation for safety was considered in only 1 study (1.1%). Only 6 RCTs (6.5%) reported negative results. Power calculations for efficacy, an important component of an RCT, were missing in 51% of the RCTs we surveyed, while a power calculation for safety was only present in 1.1%. Around 60% of the published RCTs were labeled as an "efficacy and safety trial," and none of those studies had a power calculation for safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Omega-3 Supplementation and Loneliness-Related Memory Problems: Secondary Analyses Of A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jaremka, Lisa M.; Derry, Heather M.; Bornstein, Robert; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Peng, Juan; Belury, Martha A.; Andridge, Rebecca R.; Malarkey, William B.; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Loneliness enhances risk for episodic memory declines over time. Omega-3 supplementation can improve cognitive function for people experiencing mild cognitive difficulties. Accordingly, we explored whether omega-3 supplementation would attenuate loneliness-related episodic memory problems. Methods Participants (N=138) from a parent randomized controlled trial (RCT) were randomized to the placebo, 1.25 grams/day of omega-3, or 2.50 grams/day of omega-3 conditions for a 4-month period. They completed a baseline loneliness questionnaire and a battery of cognitive tests both at baseline and at the end of the RCT. Results Controlling for baseline verbal episodic memory scores, lonelier people within the placebo condition had poorer verbal episodic memory post-supplementation, as measured by immediate (b = −0.28, t(117) = −2.62, p = .010) and long-delay (b = −.06, t(116) = −2.07, p = .040) free recall, than their less lonely counterparts. This effect was not observed in the 1.25 grams/day and 2.50 grams/day supplementation groups, all p values > .10. The plasma omega-6:omega-3 ratio data mirrored these results. There were no loneliness-related effects of omega-3 supplementation on short-delay recall or the other cognitive tests, all p values > .32. Conclusion These results suggest that omega-3 supplementation attenuates loneliness-related verbal episodic memory declines over time and support the utility of exploring novel interventions for treating episodic memory problems among lonely people. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00385723 PMID:25264972

  15. Report: EPA Could Improve Physical Access and Service Continuity/Contingency Controls for Financial and Mixed-Financial Systems Located at its Research Triangle Park Campus

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2006-P-00005, December 14, 2005. Controls needed to be improved in areas such as visitor access to facilities, use of contractor access badges, and general physical access to the NCC, computer rooms outside the NCC, and media storage rooms.

  16. Patterns and Prevalence of School Access, Transitions and Equity in South Africa: Secondary Analyses of BT20 Large-Scale Data Sources. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 27

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleisch, Brahm; Shindler, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This monograph looks at patterns and prevalence of initial school enrolment, late entry, attainment promotion, and repetition in urban South Africa. The paper pays special attention to the particular gender nature of the patterns of school participation. The study analyses data generated in the genuine representative cohort study, Birth-to-Twenty…

  17. Developmental Control of Stress Stimulons in Streptomyces coelicolor Revealed by Statistical Analyses of Global Gene Expression Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Vohradsky, J.; Li, X.-M.; Dale, G.; Folcher, M.; Nguyen, L.; Viollier, P. H.; Thompson, C. J.

    2000-01-01

    Stress-induced regulatory networks coordinated with a procaryotic developmental program were revealed by two-dimensional gel analyses of global gene expression. Four developmental stages were identified by their distinctive protein synthesis patterns using principal component analysis. Statistical analyses focused on five stress stimulons (induced by heat, cold, salt, ethanol, or antibiotic shock) and their synthesis during development. Unlike other bacteria, for which various stresses induce expression of similar sets of protein spots, in Streptomyces coelicolor heat, salt, and ethanol stimulons were composed of independent sets of proteins. This suggested independent control by different physiological stress signals and their corresponding regulatory systems. These stress proteins were also under developmental control. Cluster analysis of stress protein synthesis profiles identified 10 different developmental patterns or “synexpression groups.” Proteins induced by cold, heat, or salt shock were enriched in three developmental synexpression groups. In addition, certain proteins belonging to the heat and salt shock stimulons were coregulated during development. Thus, stress regulatory systems controlling these stimulons were implicated as integral parts of the developmental program. This correlation suggested that thermal shock and salt shock stress response regulatory systems either allow the cell to adapt to stresses associated with development or directly control the developmental program. PMID:10940043

  18. In vivo analyses of the internal control region in the 5S rRNA gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y; Erkine, A M; Van Ryk, D I; Nazar, R N

    1995-02-25

    The internal control region of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae 5S rRNA gene has been characterized in vivo by genomic DNase I footprinting and by mutational analyses using base substitutions, deletions or insertions. A high copy shuttle vector was used to efficiently express mutant 5S rRNA genes in vivo and isotope labelling kinetics were used to distinguish impeded gene expression from nascent RNA degradation. In contrast to mutational studies in reconstituted systems, the analyses describe promoter elements which closely resemble the three distinct sequence elements that have been observed in Xenopus laevis 5S rRNA. The results indicate a more highly conserved structure than previously reported with reconstituted systems and suggest that the saturated conditions which are used in reconstitution studies mask sequence dependence which may be physiologically significant. Footprint analyses support the extended region of protein interaction which has recently been observed in some reconstituted systems, but mutational analyses indicate that these interactions are not sequence specific. Periodicity in the footprint provides further detail regarding the in vivo topology of the interacting protein.

  19. TraPy-MAC: Traffic Priority Aware Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Body Area Network.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Fasee; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Kaiwartya, Omprakash; Cao, Yue

    2017-06-01

    Recently, Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) has witnessed significant attentions in research and product development due to the growing number of sensor-based applications in healthcare domain. Design of efficient and effective Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is one of the fundamental research themes in WBAN. Static on-demand slot allocation to patient data is the main approach adopted in the design of MAC protocol in literature, without considering the type of patient data specifically the level of severity on patient data. This leads to the degradation of the performance of MAC protocols considering effectiveness and traffic adjustability in realistic medical environments. In this context, this paper proposes a Traffic Priority-Aware MAC (TraPy-MAC) protocol for WBAN. It classifies patient data into emergency and non-emergency categories based on the severity of patient data. The threshold value aided classification considers a number of parameters including type of sensor, body placement location, and data transmission time for allocating dedicated slots patient data. Emergency data are not required to carry out contention and slots are allocated by giving the due importance to threshold value of vital sign data. The contention for slots is made efficient in case of non-emergency data considering threshold value in slot allocation. Moreover, the slot allocation to emergency and non-emergency data are performed parallel resulting in performance gain in channel assignment. Two algorithms namely, Detection of Severity on Vital Sign data (DSVS), and ETS Slots allocation based on the Severity on Vital Sign (ETS-SVS) are developed for calculating threshold value and resolving the conflicts of channel assignment, respectively. Simulations are performed in ns2 and results are compared with the state-of-the-art MAC techniques. Analysis of results attests the benefit of TraPy-MAC in comparison with the state-of-the-art MAC in channel assignment in realistic medical

  20. Arteriovenous access banding revisited.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Gabriela; Almeida, Paulo; Sousa, Clemente N; Teles, Paulo; De Sousa, Paulo; Loureiro, Luís; Teixeira, Sérgio; Rego, Duarte; Almeida, Rui; Norton de Matos, António

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this study is to validate the current applicability of arteriovenous access banding in high flow access (HFA) and/or haemodialysis access-induced distal ischaemia (HAIDI). This retrospective study was conducted at the GEV (Grupo de Estudos Vasculares) vascular access centre. The clinical records of consecutive patients undergoing banding for HAIDI and HFA symptoms, between June 2011 and January 2015, were reviewed until April 2015. All vascular access patients' consultation records and surgical notes were reviewed. We analysed and compared patients' age, gender, comorbidities, symptoms and intraoperative ultrasound control. We defined technical failure as recurrence of symptoms, requiring new banding. Excessive banding, access thrombosis, rupture and false aneurysm development were registered as complications. Primary clinical success was defined as improvement of symptoms or effective flow reduction after banding, with no need for reintervention. If one reintervention was necessary, we have defined it as secondary clinical success. Overall, 119 patients underwent banding: 64 (54%) with HAIDI and 55 (46%) with HFA. The HAIDI group was significantly older (65 ± 13 years compared with 56 ± 22 years, p = 0.001) and had significantly greater number of patients with diabetes (56% vs 24%, p = 0.004). Primary success was achieved in 85 patients (71.4%) and the secondary success rate was 84.9%. Older age (p = 0.016) and intraoperative ultrasound control (p = 0.012) were significantly associated with primary success. Our results do not corroborate the high incidence of thrombosis previously reported as associated with AV access banding and suggest that ultrasound control is crucial for preventing technical failure. The procedure was effective on both compared groups.

  1. Wavefront sensing and control performance modeling of the Thirty Meter telescope for systematic trade analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissly, Carl; Seo, Byoung-Joon; Troy, Mitchell; Chanan, Gary; Roberts, Scott; Rogers, John

    2014-08-01

    We have developed an integrated optical model of the semi-static performance of the Thirty Meter Telescope. The model includes surface and rigid body errors of all telescope optics as well as a model of the Alignment and Phasing System Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors and control algorithms. This integrated model allows for simulation of the correction of the telescope wavefront, including optical errors on the secondary and tertiary mirrors, using the primary mirror segment active degrees of freedom. This model provides the estimate of the predicted telescope performance for system engineering and error budget development. In this paper we present updated performance values for the TMT static optical errors in terms of Normalized Point Source Sensitivity and RMS wavefront error after Adaptive Optics correction. As an example of a system level trade, we present the results from an analysis optimizing the number of Shack-Hartmann lenslets per segment. We trade the number of lenslet rings over each primary mirror segment against the telescope performance metrics of PSSN and RMS wavefront error.

  2. Autonomous and controlled motivational regulations for multiple health-related behaviors: between- and within-participants analyses.

    PubMed

    Hagger, M S; Hardcastle, S J; Chater, A; Mallett, C; Pal, S; Chatzisarantis, N L D

    2014-01-01

    Self-determination theory has been applied to the prediction of a number of health-related behaviors with self-determined or autonomous forms of motivation generally more effective in predicting health behavior than non-self-determined or controlled forms. Research has been confined to examining the motivational predictors in single health behaviors rather than comparing effects across multiple behaviors. The present study addressed this gap in the literature by testing the relative contribution of autonomous and controlling motivation to the prediction of a large number of health-related behaviors, and examining individual differences in self-determined motivation as a moderator of the effects of autonomous and controlling motivation on health behavior. Participants were undergraduate students (N = 140) who completed measures of autonomous and controlled motivational regulations and behavioral intention for 20 health-related behaviors at an initial occasion with follow-up behavioral measures taken four weeks later. Path analysis was used to test a process model for each behavior in which motivational regulations predicted behavior mediated by intentions. Some minor idiosyncratic findings aside, between-participants analyses revealed significant effects for autonomous motivational regulations on intentions and behavior across the 20 behaviors. Effects for controlled motivation on intentions and behavior were relatively modest by comparison. Intentions mediated the effect of autonomous motivation on behavior. Within-participants analyses were used to segregate the sample into individuals who based their intentions on autonomous motivation (autonomy-oriented) and controlled motivation (control-oriented). Replicating the between-participants path analyses for the process model in the autonomy- and control-oriented samples did not alter the relative effects of the motivational orientations on intention and behavior. Results provide evidence for consistent effects

  3. Autonomous and controlled motivational regulations for multiple health-related behaviors: between- and within-participants analyses

    PubMed Central

    Hagger, M.S.; Hardcastle, S.J.; Chater, A.; Mallett, C.; Pal, S.; Chatzisarantis, N.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    Self-determination theory has been applied to the prediction of a number of health-related behaviors with self-determined or autonomous forms of motivation generally more effective in predicting health behavior than non-self-determined or controlled forms. Research has been confined to examining the motivational predictors in single health behaviors rather than comparing effects across multiple behaviors. The present study addressed this gap in the literature by testing the relative contribution of autonomous and controlling motivation to the prediction of a large number of health-related behaviors, and examining individual differences in self-determined motivation as a moderator of the effects of autonomous and controlling motivation on health behavior. Participants were undergraduate students (N = 140) who completed measures of autonomous and controlled motivational regulations and behavioral intention for 20 health-related behaviors at an initial occasion with follow-up behavioral measures taken four weeks later. Path analysis was used to test a process model for each behavior in which motivational regulations predicted behavior mediated by intentions. Some minor idiosyncratic findings aside, between-participants analyses revealed significant effects for autonomous motivational regulations on intentions and behavior across the 20 behaviors. Effects for controlled motivation on intentions and behavior were relatively modest by comparison. Intentions mediated the effect of autonomous motivation on behavior. Within-participants analyses were used to segregate the sample into individuals who based their intentions on autonomous motivation (autonomy-oriented) and controlled motivation (control-oriented). Replicating the between-participants path analyses for the process model in the autonomy- and control-oriented samples did not alter the relative effects of the motivational orientations on intention and behavior. Results provide evidence for consistent effects

  4. DOE`s nation-wide system for access control can solve problems for the federal government

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, S.; Tomes, D.; Davis, G.; Johnson, D.; Strait, S.

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) ongoing efforts to improve its physical and personnel security systems while reducing its costs, provide a model for federal government visitor processing. Through the careful use of standardized badges, computer databases, and networks of automated access control systems, the DOE is increasing the security associated with travel throughout the DOE complex, and at the same time, eliminating paperwork, special badging, and visitor delays. The DOE is also improving badge accountability, personnel identification assurance, and access authorization timeliness and accuracy. Like the federal government, the DOE has dozens of geographically dispersed locations run by many different contractors operating a wide range of security systems. The DOE has overcome these obstacles by providing data format standards, a complex-wide virtual network for security, the adoption of a standard high security system, and an open-systems-compatible link for any automated access control system. If the location`s level of security requires it, positive visitor identification is accomplished by personal identification number (PIN) and/or by biometrics. At sites with automated access control systems, this positive identification is integrated into the portals.

  5. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of the Aspergillus fumigatus hypoxia response using an oxygen-controlled fermenter

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Aspergillus fumigatus is a mold responsible for the majority of cases of aspergillosis in humans. To survive in the human body, A. fumigatus must adapt to microenvironments that are often characterized by low nutrient and oxygen availability. Recent research suggests that the ability of A. fumigatus and other pathogenic fungi to adapt to hypoxia contributes to their virulence. However, molecular mechanisms of A. fumigatus hypoxia adaptation are poorly understood. Thus, to better understand how A. fumigatus adapts to hypoxic microenvironments found in vivo during human fungal pathogenesis, the dynamic changes of the fungal transcriptome and proteome in hypoxia were investigated over a period of 24 hours utilizing an oxygen-controlled fermenter system. Results Significant increases in transcripts associated with iron and sterol metabolism, the cell wall, the GABA shunt, and transcriptional regulators were observed in response to hypoxia. A concomitant reduction in transcripts was observed with ribosome and terpenoid backbone biosynthesis, TCA cycle, amino acid metabolism and RNA degradation. Analysis of changes in transcription factor mRNA abundance shows that hypoxia induces significant positive and negative changes that may be important for regulating the hypoxia response in this pathogenic mold. Growth in hypoxia resulted in changes in the protein levels of several glycolytic enzymes, but these changes were not always reflected by the corresponding transcriptional profiling data. However, a good correlation overall (R2 = 0.2, p < 0.05) existed between the transcriptomic and proteomics datasets for all time points. The lack of correlation between some transcript levels and their subsequent protein levels suggests another regulatory layer of the hypoxia response in A. fumigatus. Conclusions Taken together, our data suggest a robust cellular response that is likely regulated both at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level in response to hypoxia

  6. To condition or not condition? Analysing ‘change’ in longitudinal randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Coffman, Cynthia J; Edelman, David; Woolson, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    Objective The statistical analysis for a 2-arm randomised controlled trial (RCT) with a baseline outcome followed by a few assessments at fixed follow-up times typically invokes traditional analytic methods (eg, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), longitudinal data analysis (LDA)). ‘Constrained’ longitudinal data analysis (cLDA) is a well-established unconditional technique that constrains means of baseline to be equal between arms. We use an analysis of fasting lipid profiles from the Group Medical Clinics (GMC) longitudinal RCT on patients with diabetes to illustrate applications of ANCOVA, LDA and cLDA to demonstrate theoretical concepts of these methods including the impact of missing data. Methods For the analysis of the illustrated example, all models were fit using linear mixed models to participants with only complete data and to participants using all available data. Results With complete data (n=195), 95% CI coverage are equivalent for ANCOVA and cLDA with an estimated 11.2 mg/dL (95% CI −19.2 to −3.3; p=0.006) lower mean low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in GMC compared with usual care. With all available data (n=233), applying the cLDA model yielded an LDL improvement of 8.9 mg/dL (95% CI −16.7 to −1.0; p=0.03) for GMC compared with usual care. The less efficient, LDA analysis yielded an LDL improvement of 7.2 mg/dL (95% CI −17.2 to 2.8; p=0.15) for GMC compared with usual care. Conclusions Under reasonable missing data assumptions, cLDA will yield efficient treatment effect estimates and robust inferential statistics. It may be regarded as the method of choice over ANCOVA and LDA. PMID:28039292

  7. Controls upon microbial accessibility to soil organic matter following woody plant encroachment into grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creamer, C. A.; Boutton, T. W.; Filley, T. R.

    2009-12-01

    Woody plant encroachment (WPE) into savannas and grasslands is a global phenomenon that alters soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics through changes in litter quality and quantity, soil structure, microbial ecology, and soil hydrology. To elucidate the controls upon microbial accessibility to SOM, bulk soils from a chronosequence of progressive WPE into native grasslands at the Texas A&M Agricultural Experimental Station La Copita Research Area were incubated for one year. The quantity and stable carbon isotope composition of respired CO2, plant biopolymer chemistry in SOM, and microbial community structure were tracked. Respiration rates declined steadily over the course of the experiment with 15-25% of the total CO2 respired released in the first month of incubation. Between 8 and 18% of the total carbon was mineralized to CO2 throughout the incubation. After day 84 a significantly (p < 0.05) greater portion of carbon was mineralized from soils of older woody clusters (34-86 years) than from soils of younger clusters (14-23 years) and the native grassland. Approximately 80% of patterns seen in cumulative CO2 loss could be explained by the proportions of macro- and micro-aggregates within each soil, suggesting soil structure is a major controlling factor of respiration rates. Despite documented carbon accrual within La Copita soils due to WPE, we observed no evidence of enhanced carbon stabilization in these respiration experiments. In fact, a greater proportion of total carbon was lost from the soil of mature woody stands than from young stands, suggesting carbon accumulation observed with WPE may be due to greater input rates or microbial dynamics not captured in the laboratory incubation. A cluster approximately 34 years in age represents a transition point in WPE where respiration dynamics become distinct between grassland and wooded elements. By day 84 of the incubation CO2 respired from all soils was depleted with respect to bulk SOM (1.5 to 5‰) and this

  8. Cost-effectiveness analyses for mirtazapine and sertraline in dementia: randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Renee; Knapp, Martin; Hellier, Jennifer; Dewey, Michael; Ballard, Clive; Baldwin, Robert; Bentham, Peter; Burns, Alistair; Fox, Chris; Holmes, Clive; Katona, Cornelius; Lawton, Claire; Lindesay, James; Livingston, Gill; McCrae, Niall; Moniz-Cook, Esme; Murray, Joanna; Nurock, Shirley; O'Brien, John; Poppe, Michaela; Thomas, Alan; Walwyn, Rebecca; Wilson, Kenneth; Banerjee, Sube

    2013-02-01

    Depression is a common and costly comorbidity in dementia. There are very few data on the cost-effectiveness of antidepressants for depression in dementia and their effects on carer outcomes. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of sertraline and mirtazapine compared with placebo for depression in dementia. A pragmatic, multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial with a parallel cost-effectiveness analysis (trial registration: ISRCTN88882979 and EudraCT 2006-000105-38). The primary cost-effectiveness analysis compared differences in treatment costs for patients receiving sertraline, mirtazapine or placebo with differences in effectiveness measured by the primary outcome, total Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) score, over two time periods: 0-13 weeks and 0-39 weeks. The secondary evaluation was a cost-utility analysis using quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) computed from the Euro-Qual (EQ-5D) and societal weights over those same periods. There were 339 participants randomised and 326 with costs data (111 placebo, 107 sertraline, 108 mirtazapine). For the primary outcome, decrease in depression, mirtazapine and sertraline were not cost-effective compared with placebo. However, examining secondary outcomes, the time spent by unpaid carers caring for participants in the mirtazapine group was almost half that for patients receiving placebo (6.74 v. 12.27 hours per week) or sertraline (6.74 v. 12.32 hours per week). Informal care costs over 39 weeks were £1510 and £1522 less for the mirtazapine group compared with placebo and sertraline respectively. In terms of reducing depression, mirtazapine and sertraline were not cost-effective for treating depression in dementia. However, mirtazapine does appear likely to have been cost-effective if costing includes the impact on unpaid carers and with quality of life included in the outcome. Unpaid (family) carer costs were lower with mirtazapine than sertraline or placebo. This may have been mediated via the

  9. The effect of cariprazine on hostility associated with schizophrenia: post hoc analyses from 3 randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Citrome, Leslie; Durgam, Suresh; Lu, Kaifeng; Ferguson, Paul; Laszlovszky, István

    2016-01-01

    Although most patients with schizophrenia are not aggressive, individuals with the disorder have increased risk of hostile behavior. Cariprazine, a dopamine D3 and D2 receptor partial agonist antipsychotic with preferential binding to D3 receptors, was evaluated for antihostility effects in patients with schizophrenia. Post hoc analyses were conducted using pooled data from 3 positive randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 2/3 studies in inpatients (18-60 years) with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia according to DSM-IV-TR criteria; data were collected between 2008 and 2011. The principal post hoc outcome was mean change from baseline to week 6 on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) hostility item (P7); separate analyses adjusted for certain PANSS positive symptoms and sedation covariates. Analyses were based on the pooled intent-to-treat population (N = 1,466) using a mixed-effects model for repeated measures approach; separate analyses were conducted in subgroups categorized by baseline hostility item scores (P7: ≥ 2, ≥ 3, ≥ 4). The least squares mean difference (LSMD) in change from baseline to week 6 was statistically significant on all PANSS hostility item analyses in favor of cariprazine versus placebo: unadjusted (-0.28; P < .0001), adjusted for PANSS positive symptoms (-0.12; P < .05), adjusted for positive symptoms plus sedation (-0.12; P < .05). The magnitude of change for cariprazine increased with greater baseline hostility (LSMD vs placebo for ≥ 2, ≥ 3, ≥ 4 subgroups: -0.32, -0.37, -0.51, respectively; P < .01 all). Significant improvement on the hostility item was seen in cariprazine- versus placebo-treated patients with schizophrenia; the effect of cariprazine increased with greater levels of baseline hostility. ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00694707, NCT01104766, and NCT01104779. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  10. Population and forensic genetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA control region variation from six major provinces in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung Beom; Kim, Ki Cheol; Kim, Wook

    2015-07-01

    We generated complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences from 704 unrelated individuals residing in six major provinces in Korea. In addition to our earlier survey of the distribution of mtDNA haplogroup variation, a total of 560 different haplotypes characterized by 271 polymorphic sites were identified, of which 473 haplotypes were unique. The gene diversity and random match probability were 0.9989 and 0.0025, respectively. According to the pairwise comparison of the 704 control region sequences, the mean number of pairwise differences between individuals was 13.47±6.06. Based on the result of mtDNA control region sequences, pairwise FST genetic distances revealed genetic homogeneity of the Korean provinces on a peninsular level, except in samples from Jeju Island. This result indicates there may be a need to formulate a local mtDNA database for Jeju Island, to avoid bias in forensic parameter estimates caused by genetic heterogeneity of the population. Thus, the present data may help not only in personal identification but also in determining maternal lineages to provide an expanded and reliable Korean mtDNA database. These data will be available on the EMPOP database via accession number EMP00661.

  11. Mortality and operator experience with vascular access for percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute coronary syndromes: A pairwise and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rahman; Askari, Reza; Haji, Showkat A; Rashid, Abdul

    2017-12-01

    Recently, several meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that transradial access (TRA) reduces mortality compared to transfemoral access (TFA). However, a critical appraisal of these RCTs suggests that the findings could have resulted from a greater incidence of adverse events in the TFA groups rather than a beneficial effect of TRA. Scientific databases and websites were searched for RCTs. Patients were divided into groups based on access type and whether the operator was a radial expert (RE) or non-radial expert (NRE). The groups were TFA-RE, TFA-NRE, TRA-RE, and TRA-NRE. Both a traditional meta-analysis and a network meta-analysis using mixed-treatment comparison models were performed. Data from 13 trials including 15,615 patients were analyzed. The mortality rate for TFA-RE (3.54%) was more than double compared to TFA-NRE (1.61%). In pairwise meta-analysis, TFA-RE was associated with increased risk of mortality (RR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.13-2.62; p=0.011) compared to TFA-NRE. In subgroup analysis, TFA-RE was associated with increased mortality (RR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.24-2.34; p=0.001) compared to TRA, but TRA-NRE was not. Similarly, in mixed comparison models, TFA-RE was associated with increased mortality compared to TRA-NRE, TRA-RE, and TFA-NRE, but TFA-NRE was not, compared to TRA-RE and TRA-NRE. Recently-reported survival differences between TRA and TFA may have been driven by adverse events in the TFA groups of the RCTs rather than a beneficial effect of TRA. This issue needs further investigation before labeling radial access a lifesaving procedure in invasively-managed patients with ACS. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Analysis and Simulation of Traffic Control for Resource Management in DVB-Based Broadband Satellite Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Impemba, Ernesto; Inzerilli, Tiziano

    2003-07-01

    Integration of satellite access networks with the Internet is seen as a strategic goal to achieve in order to provide ubiquitous broadband access to Internet services in Next Generation Networks (NGNs). One of the main interworking aspects which has been most studied is an efficient management of satellite resources, i.e. bandwidth and buffer space, in order to satisfy most demanding application requirements as to delay control and bandwidth assurance. In this context, resource management in DVB-S/DVB-RCS satellite technologies, emerging technologies for broadband satellite access and transport of IP applications, is a research issue largely investigated as a means to provide efficient bi-directional communications across satellites. This is in particular one of the principal goals of the SATIP6 project, sponsored within the 5th EU Research Programme Framework, i.e. IST. In this paper we present a possible approach to efficiently exploit bandwidth, the most critical resource in a broadband satellite access network, while pursuing satisfaction of delay and bandwidth requirements for applications with guaranteed QoS through a traffic control architecture to be implemented in ground terminals. Performance of this approach is assessed in terms of efficient exploitation of the uplink bandwidth and differentiation and minimization of queuing delays for most demanding applications over a time-varying capacity. Opnet simulations is used as analysis tool.

  13. State preemption of local tobacco control policies restricting smoking, advertising, and youth access--United States, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    2011-08-26

    Preemptive state tobacco control legislation prohibits localities from enacting tobacco control laws that are more stringent than state law. State preemption provisions can preclude any type of local tobacco control policy. The three broad types of state preemption tracked by CDC include preemption of local policies that restrict 1) smoking in workplaces and public places, 2) tobacco advertising, and 3) youth access to tobacco products. A Healthy People 2020 objective (TU-16) calls for eliminating state laws that preempt any type of local tobacco control law. A previous study reported that the number of states that preempt local smoking restrictions in one or more of three settings (government worksites, private-sector worksites, and restaurants) has decreased substantially in recent years. To measure progress toward achieving Healthy People 2020 objectives, this study expands on the previous analysis to track changes in state laws that preempt local advertising and youth access restrictions and to examine policy changes from December 31, 2000, to December 31, 2010. This new analysis found that, in contrast with the substantial progress achieved during the past decade in reducing the number of states that preempt local smoking restrictions, no progress has been made in reducing the number of states that preempt local advertising restrictions and youth access restrictions. Increased progress in removing state preemption provisions will be needed to achieve the relevant Healthy People 2020 objective.

  14. An efficient key-management scheme for hierarchical access control in e-medicine system.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuhua; Chen, Kefei

    2012-08-01

    In e-medicine system, the sharing of patients' medical histories scattered among medical institutions through the Internet is highly desirable. The most immediate cryptographic need certainly is an efficient key management method to solve dynamic access problems in a user hierarchy. In this paper, we propose a practical solution for dynamic access problem in a user hierarchy based on hybrid cryptosystems. When compared with Nikooghadam et al.'s scheme proposed most recently, the time complexity and the required storage space is reduced significantly. Moreover, it provides provable security, and is easy to implement. Therefore, our scheme is more suitable for e-medicine system.

  15. Classification of 'Chemlali' accessions according to the geographical area using chemometric methods of phenolic profiles analysed by HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Taamalli, Amani; Arráez Román, David; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2012-05-01

    The present work describes a classification method of Tunisian 'Chemlali' olive oils based on their phenolic composition and geographical area. For this purpose, the data obtained by HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS from 13 samples of extra virgin olive oils, obtained from different production area throughout the country, were used for this study focusing in 23 phenolics compounds detected. The quantitative results showed a significant variability among the analysed oil samples. Factor analysis method using principal component was applied to the data in order to reduce the number of factors which explain the variability of the selected compounds. The data matrix constructed was subjected to a canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) in order to classify the oil samples. These results showed that 100% of cross-validated original group cases were correctly classified, which proves the usefulness of the selected variables.

  16. Costs and benefits of more learner freedom: meta-analyses of exploratory and learner control training methods.

    PubMed

    Carolan, Thomas F; Hutchins, Shaun D; Wickens, Christopher D; Cumming, John M

    2014-08-01

    Individual meta-analyses were conducted for six training methods as part of a U.S. Army basic research project. The objective was to identify evidence-based guidelines for the effectiveness of each training method, under different moderating conditions, for cognitive skill transfer in adult learning. Results and implications for two of these training methods, learner control (LC) and exploratory learning (EL), are discussed. LC provides learners with active control over training variables. EL requires learners to discover relationships and interactions between variables. There is mixed evidence on the effectiveness of both LC and EL learning methods on transfer relative to more guided training methods. Cognitive load theory (CLT) provides a basis for predicting that training strategies that manage intrinsic load of a task during training and minimize extraneous load will avail more resources that can be devoted to learning. Meta-analyses were conducted using a Hedges's g analysis of effect sizes. Control conditions with little to no learner freedom were contrasted with treatment conditions manipulating more learner freedom. Overall more LC was no different from training with limited or no learner control, and more EL was less effective than limited or no exploration; however, each can be effective under certain conditions. Both strategies have been more effective for cognitive skill learning than for knowledge recall tasks. LC exhibited more benefit to very near transfer, whereas EL's benefit was to far transfer. Task type, transfer test, and transfer distance moderate the overall transfer cost of more learner freedom. The findings are applicable to the development of instructional design guidelines for the use of LC and EL in adult skill training.

  17. 50 CFR 648.82 - Effort-control program for NE multispecies limited access vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...(a)(2), a vessel issued a limited access NE multispecies permit may not fish for, possess, or land.... (ii) A vessel may not fish for, possess, or land regulated species from March 1 through March 20 of... DAS may be used in the NE multispecies fishery to harvest and land stocks of regulated species...

  18. 50 CFR 648.82 - Effort-control program for NE multispecies limited access vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...(a)(2), a vessel issued a limited access NE multispecies permit may not fish for, possess, or land.... (ii) A vessel may not fish for, possess, or land regulated species from March 1 through March 20 of... DAS may be used in the NE multispecies fishery to harvest and land stocks of regulated species...

  19. 50 CFR 648.82 - Effort-control program for NE multispecies limited access vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2005 fishing years, Category A DAS are defined as 60 percent of the vessel's used DAS baseline... program described in this section, unless otherwise provided elsewhere in this part. (1) End-of-year carry...(a)(1)(i)(J), for the entire fishing year preceding the carry-over year, limited access vessels that...

  20. Multi-component access to a commercially available weight loss program: A randomized controlled trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study examined weight loss between a community-based, intensive behavioral counseling program (Weight Watchers PointsPlus that included three treatment access modes and a self-help condition. A total of 292 participants were randomized to a Weight Watchers (WW; n=147) or a self-help condition (...