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  1. A principal components analysis of the factors effecting personal exposure to air pollution in urban commuters in Dublin, Ireland.

    PubMed

    McNabola, Aonghus; Broderick, Brian M; Gill, Laurence W

    2009-10-01

    Principal component analysis was used to examine air pollution personal exposure data of four urban commuter transport modes for their interrelationships between pollutants and relationships with traffic and meteorological data. Air quality samples of PM2.5 and VOCs were recorded during peak traffic congestion for the car, bus, cyclist and pedestrian between January 2005 and June 2006 on a busy route in Dublin, Ireland. In total, 200 personal exposure samples were recorded each comprising 17 variables describing the personal exposure concentrations, meteorological conditions and traffic conditions. The data reduction technique, principal component analysis (PCA), was used to create weighted linear combinations of the data and these were subsequently examined for interrelationships between the many variables recorded. The results of the PCA found that personal exposure concentrations in non-motorised forms of transport were influenced to a higher degree by wind speed, whereas personal exposure concentrations in motorised forms of transport were influenced to a higher degree by traffic congestion. The findings of the investigation show that the most effective mechanisms of personal exposure reduction differ between motorised and non-motorised modes of commuter transport.

  2. "The Problem of Trinity College Dublin": A Historical Perspective on Rationalisation in Higher Education in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a historical perspective on government policies for the rationalisation of higher education (HE) in Ireland through a critical re-appraisal of the initiative for "merger" of Trinity College and University College Dublin. The initiative launched by Donogh O'Malley in 1967 was the first significant attempt by an Irish…

  3. Targeted intervention strategies to optimise diversion of BMW in the Dublin, Ireland region.

    PubMed

    Purcell, M; Magette, W L

    2011-01-01

    Urgent transformation is required in Ireland to divert biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) from landfill and prevent increases in overall waste generation. When BMW is optimally managed, it becomes a resource with value instead of an unwanted by-product requiring disposal. An analysis of survey responses from commercial and residential sectors for the Dublin region in previous research by the authors proved that attitudes towards and behaviour regarding municipal solid waste is spatially variable. This finding indicates that targeted intervention strategies designed for specific geographic areas should lead to improved diversion rates of BMW from landfill, a requirement of the Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC. In the research described in this paper, survey responses and GIS model predictions from previous research were the basis for goal setting, after which logic modelling and behavioural research were employed to develop site-specific waste management intervention strategies. The main strategies devised include (a) roll out of the Brown Bin (Organics) Collection and Community Workshops in Dún Laoghaire Rathdown, (b) initiation of a Community Composting Project in Dublin City (c) implementation of a Waste Promotion and Motivation Scheme in South Dublin (d) development and distribution of a Waste Booklet to promote waste reduction activities in Fingal (e) region wide distribution of a Waste Booklet to the commercial sector and (f) Greening Irish Pubs Initiative. Each of these strategies was devised after interviews with both the residential and commercial sectors to help make optimal waste management the norm for both sectors. Strategy (b), (e) and (f) are detailed in this paper. By integrating a human element into accepted waste management approaches, these strategies will make optimal waste behaviour easier to achieve. Ultimately this will help divert waste from landfill and improve waste management practice as a whole for the region. This method of devising

  4. Targeted intervention strategies to optimise diversion of BMW in the Dublin, Ireland region

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, M.; Magette, W.L.

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > Previous research indicates that targeted strategies designed for specific areas should lead to improved diversion. > Survey responses and GIS model predictions from previous research were the basis for goal setting. > Then logic modelling and behavioural research were employed to develop site-specific management intervention strategies. > Waste management initiatives can be tailored to specific needs of areas rather than one size fits all means currently used. - Abstract: Urgent transformation is required in Ireland to divert biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) from landfill and prevent increases in overall waste generation. When BMW is optimally managed, it becomes a resource with value instead of an unwanted by-product requiring disposal. An analysis of survey responses from commercial and residential sectors for the Dublin region in previous research by the authors proved that attitudes towards and behaviour regarding municipal solid waste is spatially variable. This finding indicates that targeted intervention strategies designed for specific geographic areas should lead to improved diversion rates of BMW from landfill, a requirement of the Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC. In the research described in this paper, survey responses and GIS model predictions from previous research were the basis for goal setting, after which logic modelling and behavioural research were employed to develop site-specific waste management intervention strategies. The main strategies devised include (a) roll out of the Brown Bin (Organics) Collection and Community Workshops in Dun Laoghaire Rathdown, (b) initiation of a Community Composting Project in Dublin City (c) implementation of a Waste Promotion and Motivation Scheme in South Dublin (d) development and distribution of a Waste Booklet to promote waste reduction activities in Fingal (e) region wide distribution of a Waste Booklet to the commercial sector and (f) Greening Irish Pubs Initiative. Each of these

  5. The Dublin SURGE Project: geochemical baseline for heavy metals in topsoils and spatial correlation with historical industry in Dublin, Ireland.

    PubMed

    Glennon, M M; Harris, P; Ottesen, R T; Scanlon, R P; O'Connor, P J

    2014-04-01

    The Dublin SURGE (Soil Urban Geochemistry) Project is Dublin's first baseline survey of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants in topsoils and is part of a Europe-wide initiative to map urban geochemical baselines in ten cities. 1,058 samples were collected as part of a stratified random sampling programme in the greater Dublin area to give an overview of baseline conditions in the city. Samples were analysed for 31 inorganic elements including heavy metals. Analysis of results indicates that the concentrations of lead, copper, zinc and mercury are strongly influenced by human activities, with elevated concentrations in the city docklands, inner city and heavy industry areas. Sources of heavy metals in these areas may include historical industry, coal burning, re-use of contaminated soil, modern traffic and leaded paint and petrol. Concentrations of other inorganic elements in topsoil show patterns which are strongly related to regional bedrock parent material. The spatial distributions of heavy metals, in particular Pb and As, are explored in detail with respect to regional geology and the influence of historical industry on soil quality. Exploratory data, geostatistical and correlation analyses suggest that the concentrations of heavy metals tend to increase as the intensity of historical industrial activity increases. In particular, drinks production, power generation, oil/gas/coal, metals and textile historical industries appear to be the contamination source for several heavy metals. The data provide a geochemical baseline relevant to the protection of human health, compliance with environmental legislation, land use planning and urban regeneration.

  6. Shell shock in Ireland: The Richmond War Hospital, Dublin (1916-19).

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brendan D

    2015-03-01

    The history of mental disorders occasioned by World War I is a complex and important history, indelibly linked with social, political and cultural circumstances, and the history of the war itself. The Richmond War Hospital was a 32-bed establishment on the grounds of the large Richmond District Asylum in Dublin which, from 16 June 1916 until 23 December 1919, treated 362 soldiers with shell shock and other mental disorders, of whom more than half were considered to have recovered. Despite the limitations of the Richmond War Hospital, it was a generally forward-looking institution that pointed the way for future reform of Ireland's asylum system and, along with the other war hospitals, brought significant changes to the practice of psychiatry.

  7. [Jonathan Swift's asylum in Dublin--Ireland's introduction to institutional psychiatry 250 years ago].

    PubMed

    Reuber, M

    1995-09-01

    250 years ago, the satirical writer and clergyman Jonathan Swift from Dublin (1667-1745) founded the first Irish lunatic asylum. Rejecting the theories put forward by the English philosopher Thomas Hobbes and the doctor Thomas Willis, he was influenced by the ideas of the Scottish doctor and the "enlightened" thinker John Locke. Swift's St. Patrick's Hospital did not, however, realise a new philosophical concept: architecture and therapeutic approach of the new institution were clearly modelled on the much older Hospital of St. Mary of Bethlehem ( = Bedlam). Despite its conservative conceptual basis, the first institution dedicated to the mentally ill and intellectually subnormal in Ireland became a starting point for the apparantly unstoppable expansion of the, at one time, most comprehensive asylum system in the world. After Swift's Hospital had been enlarged twice at the tax-payers' expense (1778, 1793), the administration decided to relieve the institution by erecting the Richmond Asylum (1810), the first public asylum in Ireland. When this establishment also became overcrowded, in 1817, legislation was passed which led to the establishment of the oldest system of public asylums in Europe.

  8. Attitudes and behaviour towards waste management in the Dublin, Ireland region.

    PubMed

    Purcell, M; Magette, W L

    2010-10-01

    The hypothesis of this research was that attitudes about the management of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) are spatially variable, even within a city of modest (1.2 million) population. For a select number of representative electoral districts in the Dublin, Ireland region, residents were surveyed regarding attitudes towards waste management in general, and BMW management in particular. A total of 850 survey responses were collected. Door-to-door interviews produced 688 responses in the residential sector; these were supplemented by 162 responses to a web-based survey. The surveys revealed that the majority of households use local authority, rather than private, waste collection services (both are available). The majority of residents, regardless of the local authority in which they live, were satisfied with their waste management service. "Reducing the quantity of waste generated" was regarded the most important future issue for 28% of residential respondents. Statistical analyses of the survey responses showed that the local authority in which respondents resided significantly influenced most responses (including waste collection service used, waste service satisfaction and backyard composting activity). Many responses (including waste service satisfaction, waste management influences) were also significantly related to the respondents' personal characteristics (e.g., education level, type of accommodation, age, etc.). These statistical results proved the hypothesis of the research and demonstrated that waste management initiatives designed for one area of the city (or, indeed, for uniform application to the city as a whole) could ignore the needs of other areas. The survey responses suggest that targeted intervention strategies would lead to improved diversion rates of BMW from landfill, a requirement of the Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC.

  9. Syphilis serology in pregnancy: an eight-year study (2005-2012) in a large teaching maternity hospital in Dublin, Ireland.

    PubMed

    McGettrick, Padraig; Ferguson, Wendy; Jackson, Valerie; Eogan, Maeve; Lawless, Mairead; Ciprike, Vaneta; Varughese, Alan; Coulter-Smith, Sam; Lambert, John S

    2016-03-01

    All cases of positive syphilis serology detected in antenatal and peripartum screening in a large teaching maternity hospital in inner city Dublin, Ireland over an eight-year period (2005-2012 inclusive) were reviewed and included in our study. Demographic, antenatal registration, laboratory (including co-infections), partner serology, treatment and delivery data were recorded in our database. Infant follow-up, treatment and outcome data were also collected. During this period, 194 women had positive syphilis serology, of which 182 completed their pregnancies at the institution. This accounts for 0.28% of the total number of women completing their pregnancies during this time (N = 66038); 79 had no previous diagnosis of infection. There was one case of re-infection during pregnancy. Thirty-two women were co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B or hepatitis C. There was one case suggestive of congenital syphilis infection. Our study is a comprehensive analysis of the diagnosis, management and clinical outcomes of women testing positive for syphilis infection in pregnancy. It reveals the relatively high prevalence of syphilis infection in the population utilising the maternity services in north inner-city Dublin. It re-enforces the importance of continued active surveillance to prevent morbidity and mortality associated with maternal syphilis infection. It also highlights the importance of strategies such as re-testing high-risk groups and definitive screening of spouse serology.

  10. Characterising the hydrothermal circulation patterns beneath thermal springs in the limestones of the Carboniferous Dublin Basin, Ireland: a geophysical and geochemical approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Sarah; Henry, Tiernan; Muller, Mark R.; Jones, Alan G.; Moore, John Paul; Murray, John; Campanyà, Joan; Vozár, Jan; Walsh, John; Rath, Volker

    2016-04-01

    A hydrogeological conceptual model of the sources, circulation pathways and temporal variations of two low-enthalpy thermal springs is derived from a multi-disciplinary approach. The springs are situated in the Carboniferous limestones of the Dublin Basin, in east-central Ireland. Kilbrook spring (Co. Kildare) has the highest recorded temperatures for any thermal spring in Ireland (maximum of 25.0 °C), and St. Gorman's Well (Co. Meath) has a complex and variable temperature profile (maximum of 21.8 °C). These temperatures are elevated with respect to average Irish groundwater temperatures (9.5 - 10.5 °C), and represent a geothermal energy potential, which is currently under evaluation. A multi-disciplinary investigation based upon audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) surveys, time-lapse temperature and chemistry measurements, and hydrochemical analysis, has been undertaken with the aims of investigating the provenance of the thermal groundwater and characterising the geological structures facilitating groundwater circulation in the bedrock. The hydrochemical analysis indicates that the thermal waters flow within the limestones of the Dublin Basin, and there is evidence that Kilbrook spring receives a contribution from deep-basinal fluids. The time-lapse temperature, electrical conductivity and water level records for St. Gorman's Well indicate a strongly non-linear response to recharge inputs to the system, suggestive of fluid flow in karst conduits. The 3-D electrical resistivity models of the subsurface revealed two types of geological structure beneath the springs; (1) Carboniferous normal faults, and (2) Cenozoic strike-slip faults. These structures are dissolutionally enhanced, particularly where they intersect. The karstification of these structures, which extend to depths of at least 500 m, has provided conduits that facilitate the operation of a relatively deep hydrothermal circulation pattern (likely estimated depths between 240 and 1,000 m) within the Dublin

  11. Reduced exposure to air pollution on the boardwalk in Dublin, Ireland. Measurement and prediction.

    PubMed

    McNabola, A; Broderick, B M; Gill, L W

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines an air pollution study carried out on Dublin city's recently completed boardwalk along the side of and overhanging the River Liffey. Air quality samples were taken along the length of the boardwalk to investigate whether pedestrians using the boardwalk would have a lower air pollution exposure than those using the adjoining footpath along the road. The results of the study show significant reductions in pedestrian exposure to both traffic derived particulates and hydrocarbons along the boardwalk as opposed to the footpath. Computational fluid dynamics was also used to model the outcome of these field measurements and shows the importance of the boundary wall between the footpath and boardwalk in reducing air pollution exposure for the pedestrian, the results of which are also presented herein.

  12. The passive control of air pollution exposure in Dublin, Ireland: a combined measurement and modelling case study.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, J; Gill, L W; McNabola, A

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the potential real world application of passive control systems to reduce personal pollutant exposure in an urban street canyon in Dublin, Ireland. The implementation of parked cars and/or low boundary walls as a passive control system has been shown to minimise personal exposure to pollutants on footpaths in previous investigations. However, previous research has been limited to generic numerical modelling studies. This study combines real-time traffic data, meteorological conditions and pollution concentrations, in a real world urban street canyon before and after the implementation of a passive control system. Using a combination of field measurements and numerical modelling this study assessed the potential impact of passive controls on personal exposure to nitric oxide (NO) concentrations in the street canyon in winter conditions. A calibrated numerical model of the urban street canyon was developed, taking into account the variability in traffic and meteorological conditions. The modelling system combined the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations and a semi-empirical equation, and demonstrated a good agreement with measured field data collected in the street canyon. The results indicated that lane distribution, fleet composition and vehicular turbulence all affected pollutant dispersion, in addition to the canyon geometry and local meteorological conditions. The introduction of passive controls displayed mixed results for improvements in air quality on the footpaths for different wind and traffic conditions. Parked cars demonstrated the most comprehensive passive control system with average improvements in air quality of up to 15% on the footpaths. This study highlights the potential of passive controls in a real street canyon to increase dispersion and improve air quality at street level.

  13. Threshold Concepts: From Personal Practice to Communities of Practice. Proceedings of the National Academy's Sixth Annual Conference and the Fourth Biennial Threshold Concepts Conference [E-publication] (Dublin, Ireland, June 27-29, 2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mahony, Catherine, Ed.; Buchanan, Avril, Ed.; O'Rourke, Mary, Ed.; Higgs, Bettie, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    The 6th Annual Conference of the National Academy for the Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning (NAIRTL) and the 4th Biennial Threshold Concepts Conference was held at Trinity College Dublin, Ireland, on June 27-29, 2012. The NAIRTL is a collaborative initiative between University College Cork, Cork Institute of Technology, National…

  14. Use of a geographic information system to map cases of measles in real-time during an outbreak in Dublin, Ireland, 2011.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, G; Ward, M; Ennis, O; Johnson, H; Cotter, S; Carr, M J; O Riordan, B; Waters, A; Hassan, J; Connell, J; Hall, W; Clarke, A; Murphy, H; Fitzgerald, M

    2012-12-06

    In 2011, there was a large measles outbreak in Dublin. Nationally 285 cases were notified to the end of December 2011, and 250 (88%) were located in the Dublin region. After the first case was notified in week 6, numbers gradually increased, with 25 notified in June and a peak of 53 cases in August. Following public health intervention including a measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination campaign, no cases were reported in the Dublin region in December 2011. Most cases (82%) were children aged between 6 months and 14 years, and 46 cases (18%) were under 12 months-old. This is the first outbreak in Dublin to utilise a geographic information system for plotting measles cases on a digital map in real time. This approach, in combination with the analysis of case notifications, assisted the department of public health in demonstrating the extent of the outbreak. The digital mapping documented the evolution of two distinct clusters of 87 (35%) cases. These measles cases were infected with genotype D4-Manchester recently associated with large outbreaks across Europe. The two clusters occurred in socio-economically disadvantaged areas and were attributable to inadequate measles vaccination coverage due in part to the interruption of a school-based MMR2 vaccination programme.

  15. OES-IA Annex IV: Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices - Report from the Experts’ Workshop September 27th – 28th 2010 Clontarf Castle, Dublin Ireland

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea E.; O'Toole, Michael J.

    2010-12-02

    An experts' workshop was convened in Dublin Ireland September 27th – 28th 2010 in support of IEA Ocean Energy Systems Implementing Agreement Annex IV. PNNL was responsible for organizing the content of the workshop, overseeing the contractors (Irish Marine Institute) hosting the event, presenting material on Annex IV and materials applicable to the workshop intent. PNNL is also overseeing a contractor (Wave Energy Center/University of Plymouth – WEC/UP) in the collection and analysis of the Annex IV data. Fifty-eight experts from 8 countries attended the workshop by invitation, spending two days discussing the needs of Annex IV. Presentations by DOE (background on Annex IV), PNNL (process for developing Annex IV; presentation of the draft database for PNNL project, plans for incorporating Annex IV data), WEC/UP on the environmental effect matrix, and four MHK developers (two from the UK, one from Ireland and one from Sweden; each discussing their own projects and lessons learned for measuring and mitigating environmental effects, as well as interactions with consenting [permitting] processes) helped provide background. The workshop participants worked part of the time in the large group and most of the time in four smaller breakout groups. Participants engaged in the process and provided a wealth of examples of MHK environmental work, particularly in the European nations. They provided practical and actionable advice on the following: • Developing the Annex IV database, with specific uses and audiences • Strong consensus that we should collect detailed metadata on available data sets, rather than attempting to draw in copious datasets. The participants felt there would then be an opportunity to then ask for specific set of data as needed, with specific uses and ownership of the data specified. This is particularly important as many data collected, particularly in Europe but also in Canada, are proprietary; developers were not comfortable with the idea of

  16. Perspectives on the English Language in Ireland. Proceedings of the Symposium on Hiberno-English (1st, Dublin, Ireland, September 16-17, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, John, Ed.; And Others

    This collection of symposium papers on varieties of the English language used in Ireland includes: "The Role of Irish English in the Formation of Colonial Englishes," by P. Trudgill; "Anglo-Irish Verse in Translation from Irish," by P. L. Henry; "The Methodology of Urban Language Studies," by J. Milroy;…

  17. Balancing health care needs in a changing context: nursing highlights from the 2016 European Oncology Nursing Society Congress (EONS10), 17–18 October 2016, Dublin, Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Lichosik, Danuta; Caruso, Rosario

    2017-01-01

    European cancer nurses have to face many challenges as a result of the rapidly changing economic and political context in which balancing health care needs has become strategic for healthcare delivery. Currently, cancer nurses must overcome many obstacles arising from clinical, organisational, and educational issues. Within this scenario, the European Oncology Nursing Society (EONS) shaped its tenth congress programme to boost discussion and reflections, to share experiences and research, and to see how cancer nurses try to anticipate and embrace changes. The aim of this was to promote innovative solutions and to address the many issues involved with cancer care. EONS10 was held on 17–18 October in Dublin, Ireland. The congress was attended by more than 500 delegates. The programme covered the following themes: caring for families and carers, inequalities and access to cancer care, caring for patients with haematological cancers, palliative care, communication and information exchange, community cancer care (i.e. parallel sessions), roles and responsibility for advanced nursing practice, International Psycho-Oncology Society (IPOS)-Academy workshops (i.e. workshops), cancer survivorship, clinical leadership and new roles, oncology nursing research, symptom experiences and management, palliative care (i.e. proffered papers), poster presentations, and satellite symposia. The aim of this paper is to highlight and discuss the contents of the EONS10 congress. PMID:28144284

  18. Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kail, Candice

    2010-01-01

    Ireland has a rich and long history. It is a land of fable and of strife, from the legendary warrior Fionn Mac Cumhaill (anglicized as Finn McCool) and the god-like Tuatha De Danann to the potato famine and the more recent Troubles. In the last decade, Ireland has experienced an economic boom and assumed a new place in the political landscape via…

  19. Injection of new psychoactive substance snow blow associated with recently acquired HIV infections among homeless people who inject drugs in Dublin, Ireland, 2015.

    PubMed

    Giese, Coralie; Igoe, Derval; Gibbons, Zorina; Hurley, Caroline; Stokes, Siobhan; McNamara, Sinead; Ennis, Orla; O'Donnell, Kate; Keenan, Eamon; De Gascun, Cillian; Lyons, Fiona; Ward, Mary; Danis, Kostas; Glynn, Ronan; Waters, Allison; Fitzgerald, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    In February 2015, an outbreak of recently acquired HIV infections among people who inject drugs (PWID) was identified in Dublin, following similar outbreaks in Greece and Romania in 2011. We compared drug and risk behaviours among 15 HIV cases and 39 controls. Injecting a synthetic cathinone, snow blow, was associated with recent HIV infection (AOR: 49; p=0.003). Prevention and control efforts are underway among PWID in Dublin, but may also be needed elsewhere in Europe.

  20. The Persistence of Sperm and the Development of Time Since Intercourse (TSI) Guidelines in Sexual Assault Cases at Forensic Science Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.

    PubMed

    Casey, David G; Domijan, Katarina; MacNeill, Sarah; Rizet, Damien; O'Connell, Declan; Ryan, Jennifer

    2016-12-23

    The persistence of sperm using confirmatory microscopic analysis, the persistence of sperm with tails, time since intercourse (TSI) analysis, and results from the acid phosphatase (AP) reaction from approximately 5581 swabs taken from circa 1450 sexual assault cases are presented. The observed proportions of sperm in the vagina and anus declines significantly after 48 h TSI, and sperm on oral swabs were observed up to 15 h TSI. The AP reaction as a predictor of sperm on intimate swabs is questioned. All AP reaction times gave a low true positive rate; 23% of sperm-positive swabs gave a negative AP reaction time. We show the AP reaction is an unsafe and an unreliable predictor of sperm on intimate swabs. We propose that TSI not AP informs precase assessment and the evaluative approach for sexual assault cases. To help inform an evaluative approach, TSI guidelines are presented.

  1. Ireland (2007)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Between 51.5 and 55.5 degrees north latitude, Ireland could easily find itself buried in snow during the winter, but the island's average temperature in January is 7 degrees Celsius (45 degrees Fahrenheit). Ireland's mild climate results from the influence of the ocean current known as the North Atlantic Drift, which extends the warm waters of the Gulf Stream northward. The island enjoys mild temperatures in the summertime as well; extreme heat and cold are virtually unknown. Precipitation ranges from 78.5 centimeters (31 inches) around Dublin to 300 centimeters (118 inches) along the west coast. The mild, rainy climate is good for vegetation. In this image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite on May 2, 2007, Ireland overwhelms the viewer with hues of green, particularly in the interior, where the vegetation overlies lowlands of limestone--the remains of marine animals from an ancient sea. Little of the island's famous greenness results from trees, however. Seventeenth-century clearing removed most of the country's forests, and despite replanting efforts, Ireland is Europe's least forested country, after Iceland. The island's mild temperatures and humidity have instead blanketed the landscape in abundant grasses. Along Ireland's west coast, bare brown rocks emerge from the plant cover. In the north, the rocks are primarily ancient, crystalline rocks deposited well over a billion years ago. In the south, the rocks are primarily sandstone deposited roughly 350 million years ago. Evidence of urbanization dots the landscape, especially along the east coast. The metropolitan area of Dublin appears as an uneven patch of gray, mingled with dots of green. Human habitation is also evident around Londonderry, Belfast, and Cork.

  2. Towards a new earthquake catalog for Ireland and its near offshore domains : a joint analysis of permanent and dense temporary seismic array data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroucau, Pierre; Lebedev, Sergei

    2016-04-01

    Ireland is located on the European North Atlantic margin, at the northwesternmost edge of the Eurasian continent, several hundred kilometers away from the closest plate boundaries, namely the North Atlantic ridge and the Nubia-Eurasia convergence front. Its low level of seismicity, according to the number of events and magnitudes given by the existing catalogs, is thus expected. However, it still appears surprisingly low compared to neighboring domains, including Great Britain and, more generally, the rest of the Atlantic margin. One explanation might be that the events reported in those catalogs do not reflect the actual seismic activity of Ireland due to a lack, until recently, of permanent seismological stations on the Irish territory. Although the Irish National seismic Network (INSN) now consists of 6 stations, and despite a good station coverage of Britain, to the east, by the British Geological survey (BGS) stations, most of the earthquakes occurring in Ireland may still be missed because of their low magnitude. Here, we combine the waveform data recorded at permanent (INSN, BGS) stations with that from dense temporary array deployed in the past 5 years by the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies (DIAS) and the University College Dublin (UCD). In addition to new arrival time data and new locations for already known catalog events, our analysis reveals newly detected earthquakes in Ireland, and sheds new light on the seismotectonics of this intraplate continental region. This sets the stage for joint earthquake relocation and 3D velocity model determination, which should lead to a better understanding of the relationships between the current seismic activity and the geological structure of the Irish lithosphere.

  3. Investigating the provenance of thermal groundwater using compositional multivariate statistical analysis: a hydrogeochemical study from Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Sarah; Henry, Tiernan; Murray, John; Flood, Rory; Muller, Mark R.; Jones, Alan G.; Rath, Volker

    2016-04-01

    The geothermal energy of thermal groundwater is currently being exploited for district-scale heating in many locations world-wide. The chemical compositions of these thermal waters reflect the provenance and hydrothermal circulation patterns of the groundwater, which are controlled by recharge, rock type and geological structure. Exploring the provenance of these waters using multivariate statistical analysis (MSA) techniques increases our understanding of the hydrothermal circulation systems, and provides a reliable tool for assessing these resources. Hydrochemical data from thermal springs situated in the Carboniferous Dublin Basin in east-central Ireland were explored using MSA, including hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), to investigate the source aquifers of the thermal groundwaters. To take into account the compositional nature of the hydrochemical data, compositional data analysis (CoDa) techniques were used to process the data prior to the MSA. The results of the MSA were examined alongside detailed time-lapse temperature measurements from several of the springs, and indicate the influence of three important hydrogeological processes on the hydrochemistry of the thermal waters: 1) increased salinity due to evaporite dissolution and increased water-rock-interaction; 2) dissolution of carbonates; and 3) dissolution of metal sulfides and oxides associated with mineral deposits. The use of MSA within the CoDa framework identified subtle temporal variations in the hydrochemistry of the thermal springs, which could not be identified with more traditional graphing methods (e.g., Piper diagrams), or with a standard statistical approach. The MSA was successful in distinguishing different geological settings and different annual behaviours within the group of springs. This study demonstrates the usefulness of the application of MSA within the CoDa framework in order to better understand the underlying controlling processes

  4. Two 18th Century Observatories of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambleton, Robert

    A visit to the two major observatories of Ireland, Armagh Observatory in Northern Ireland, and Dunsink Observatory in Dublin. Mentioned are Herschel, Thomas Grubb, Thomas Jones transit instrument, Howard Grubb, Kew Observatory, John Arnold & Sons clocks, Birr Castle, and the Earl of Rosse.

  5. Early medieval cattle remains from a Scandinavian settlement in Dublin: genetic analysis and comparison with extant breeds.

    PubMed Central

    MacHugh, D E; Troy, C S; McCormick, F; Olsaker, I; Eythórsdóttir, E; Bradley, D G

    1999-01-01

    A panel of cattle bones excavated from the 1000-year-old Viking Fishamble Street site in Dublin was assessed for the presence of surviving mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Eleven of these bones gave amplifiable mtDNA and a portion of the hypervariable control region was determined for each specimen. A comparative analysis was performed with control region sequences from five extant Nordic and Irish cattle breeds. The medieval population displayed similar levels of mtDNA diversity to modern European breeds. However, a number of novel mtDNA haplotypes were also detected in these bone samples. In addition, the presence of a putative ancestral sequence at high frequency in the medieval population supports an early post-domestication expansion of cattle in Europe. PMID:10091250

  6. Research-Teaching Linkages: Practice and Policy. Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference of the National Academy for the Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning (3rd, Dublin, Ireland, November 11-12, 2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Jennifer, Ed.; Griffin, Carrie, Ed.; Higgs, Bettie, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The third annual conference of the National Academy for Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning (NAIRTL) was held at Trinity College Dublin on 11-12 November 2009, and was attended by over 300 delegates. The theme--"Research-Teaching Linkages: Practice and Policy"--was timely and generated some fascinating papers, workshops and…

  7. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA) (12th, Maynooth, Greater Dublin, Ireland, October 24-26, 2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Demetrios G., Ed.; Spector, J. Michael, Ed.; Ifenthaler, Dirk, Ed.; Isaias, Pedro, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the 12th International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA 2015), October 24-26, 2015, which has been organized by the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS), co-organized by Maynooth University, Ireland, and endorsed by the…

  8. A Content Analysis of School Anti-Bullying Policies in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Noel; Smith, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    This original study presents a content analysis of 100 primary and post-primary school anti-bullying policies in Northern Ireland using a 36-item scoring scheme. Overall schools had 52% of the items in their policies. Most schools included reference to physical, verbal, relational, material and cyberbullying but a minority mentioned racist,…

  9. Technical Education in Northern Ireland after Partition: A Case Study of the Work of a Newly-Formed Local Education Authority, County Down 1925-1933

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, George

    2006-01-01

    On the partition of Ireland in 1921, the Northern Ireland Ministry of Education assumed control of the educational services which had been previously administered by four independent bodies in Dublin. The Education Act (Northern Ireland) 1923 created the county councils and county borough councils of the new devolved state the local education…

  10. Towards a For-Profit University in Dublin: Another Brick in the Wall of Neo-Liberalism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limond, David

    2010-01-01

    This article concerns the provision of for-profit higher education in the Republic of Ireland (RoI), particularly in Dublin. It briefly sketches the general development of university/college provision in the RoI and, more importantly, it describes certain aspects of the current state of play and makes a tentative prediction for the future--namely,…

  11. How did pygmy shrews colonize Ireland? Clues from a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Mascheretti, Silvia; Rogatcheva, Margarita B; Gündüz, Islam; Fredga, Karl; Searle, Jeremy B

    2003-01-01

    There is a long-standing debate as to how Ireland attained its present fauna; we help to inform this debate with a molecular study of one species. A 1110 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was sequenced in 74 specimens of the pygmy shrew, Sorex minutus, collected from throughout its western Palaearctic range. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences revealed several well-supported lineages. Most of the 65 haplotypes belonged to a northern lineage, which ranged from Britain in the west to Lake Baikal in the east. The other lineages were largely limited to Iberia, Italy and the Balkans. One exception, however, was a lineage found in both Ireland and Andorra. This affinity, and the large difference between the mitochondrial sequences of Irish and British individuals, suggest that pygmy shrews did not colonize Ireland via a land connection from Britain, as has been previously supposed, but instead were introduced by boat from southwest continental Europe. All the Irish pygmy shrews analysed were identical or very similar in cytochrome b sequence, suggesting an extreme founding event. PMID:12908980

  12. Validation of the Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ) in Ireland: a multi-group analysis.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Yvonne; Fitzgerald, Amanda; Dooley, Barbara

    2016-04-29

    Resilience is a process reflecting positive adaptation in the face of adversity. The Resilience Scale for Adolescence (READ) incorporates intrapersonal and interpersonal protective factors mapping onto the three salient domains of resilience, including individual, family and external environment. This study investigated the validity and reliability of the READ by means of factor analysis, multi-group analysis, inter-correlations and internal consistency measures. Participants were 6085 young people in Ireland aged 12-18 years. Participants completed the My World Survey - Second Level (MWS-SL), assessing risk and protective factors of mental health. Confirmatory factor analysis validated the original five-factor structure of the READ including Personal Competence, Social Competence, Structured Style, Family Cohesion, and Social Resources, χ(2) (340) = 6146.02, p < 0.001, RMSEA = 0.056 (90% CI = 0.054-0.057), CFI = 0.97; GFI = 0.93. Measurement invariance indicated that the five-factor structure was similar across gender, school cycle and distress levels. Construct validity was evident, by correlating the five factors of the READ with various social, psychological and behavioural variables. The findings suggest that the READ is a valid measure to assess resilience factors among adolescents in Ireland, demonstrating its applicability in a different cultural context and with a wider age range of adolescents. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Elastic structure and seismicity of Donegal (Ireland): insights from passive seismic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piana Agostinetti, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    Ireland's crust is the result of a complex geological history, which began in the Palaeozoic with the oblique closure of the Iapetus Ocean and, probably, it is still on-going. In the northwestern portion of the island, the geology of Donegal has been the subject of detailed geological investigation by many workers in the last century. The most widely represented rock types in Donegal are metasediments of Dalradian and Moinian age, invaded by several granites of Caledonian age (so called Donegal granite). Smaller and separate intrusions are present (e.g. Fanad Head). On the contrary, it is widely accepted that the the deep crustal structure of the northern portion of Ireland has been re-worked in more recent time. The several phases of lithospheric stretching associated to the opening of the Atlantic ocean interested such portion of Ireland, with the extrusion of flood basalts. Moreover, the presence of a hot, low-density asthenospheric plume spreading from Iceland has been suggested, with the formation of a thick high-velocity layer of magmatic underplated material at the base of the crust. Oddly, at present, Donegal is the only seismically active area in Ireland, with an average rate of one Mw=2-3 event every 3-4 years. In the last three years, passive seismic data have been recorded at 12 seismic stations deployed across the most seismically active area in Co. Donegal, with the aim of reconstructing the seismic structure down to the upper-mantle depth and of locating the microseismic activity within investigating volume. Both local and teleseismic events were recorded giving the opportunity of integrating results form different techniques for seismic data analysis, and jointly interpret them together with surface geology and mapped fault traces. Local events have been used to define constrain faulting volumes, focal mechanisms and to reconstruct a low-resolution 3D Vp and VpVs velocity models. Teleseismic events have been used to compute receiver function data

  14. Salmonella dublin abortion in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, M.

    1973-01-01

    The somatic and flagellar serum agglutinin titre were determined in paired samples obtained from seventy-seven cases of bovine abortion associated with Salmonella dublin infection. The cases could be divided into four serological groups with an active infection being demonstrated in most cases. The serum agglutination test was shown to be a relatively specific diagnostic test but was of more limited value in the retrospective identification of convalescent cases. PMID:4518345

  15. Children attending addiction treatment services in Dublin, 1990-1999.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Bobby P; O'Brien, Mary

    2004-01-01

    In Europe, adolescent substance misuse increased during the 1990s. Ireland has among the highest rates of substance misuse among schoolchildren in Europe. We sought to describe the socio-demographic and drug misuse profile of children presenting to addiction treatment services in Dublin during the 1990s. Of the 9,874 individuals who sought addiction treatment, 1,953 (20%) were aged less than 18 years. There was a sharp increase in the number of children after 1993. The main drug of abuse was an opiate in 48% of cases. Compared to adults, the children were more likely to be female and less likely to inject. As the decade progressed the proportion of girls increased, injecting was reported more frequently and there was a dramatic rise in heroin misuse. Child heroin users were more likely to be female and to be homeless compared to their adult counterparts. This study highlights the need for a dedicated service for child drug users in Dublin.

  16. "Click Here to Order This Book": A Case Study of Print and Electronic Patron-Driven Acquisition in University College Dublin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Mark; McCarney, Eoin

    2014-01-01

    University College Dublin became the first library in the Republic of Ireland to trial patron-driven acquisition (PDA) as a collection development tool in 2013. A total of 42% of UCD Library's book budget was allocated to the project, which included both electronic and print books. This article describes the twelve month project from the tender…

  17. Analysis of Primary School Curriculum of Turkey, Finland, and Ireland in Terms of Media Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanriverdi, Belgin; Apak, Ozlem

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the implications of Media Literacy Education (MLE) in Turkey by analyzing the Primary School Curricula in terms of MLE comparatively in Turkey, Ireland and Finland. In this study, the selection of Finland and Ireland curricula is related with those countries' being the pioneering countries in MLE and the…

  18. 9 CFR 113.123 - Salmonella Dublin Bacterin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Salmonella Dublin Bacterin. 113.123... Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.123 Salmonella Dublin Bacterin. Salmonella Dublin Bacterin shall be prepared from a culture of Salmonella dublin which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial...

  19. 9 CFR 113.123 - Salmonella Dublin Bacterin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Salmonella Dublin Bacterin. 113.123... Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.123 Salmonella Dublin Bacterin. Salmonella Dublin Bacterin shall be prepared from a culture of Salmonella dublin which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial...

  20. 9 CFR 113.123 - Salmonella Dublin Bacterin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Salmonella Dublin Bacterin. 113.123... Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.123 Salmonella Dublin Bacterin. Salmonella Dublin Bacterin shall be prepared from a culture of Salmonella dublin which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial...

  1. 9 CFR 113.123 - Salmonella Dublin Bacterin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salmonella Dublin Bacterin. 113.123... Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.123 Salmonella Dublin Bacterin. Salmonella Dublin Bacterin shall be prepared from a culture of Salmonella dublin which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial...

  2. 9 CFR 113.123 - Salmonella Dublin Bacterin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Salmonella Dublin Bacterin. 113.123... Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.123 Salmonella Dublin Bacterin. Salmonella Dublin Bacterin shall be prepared from a culture of Salmonella dublin which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial...

  3. Lucas and patriotism in mid-eighteenth century Ireland.

    PubMed

    Magennis, E

    2015-09-01

    This paper explores the extent to which Charles Lucas can be described as a typical patriot in mid-eighteenth century Ireland. The political ideas and practices of Irish patriots of the mid-eighteenth century belong to broad spectrum including opposition MPs, anti-Catholic rhetoricians and questioners of the usefulness of the penal laws, economic pamphleteers and individuals interested in recovering Ireland's history and antiquities. Lucas was significant in that he sometimes inhabited all of these political and cultural guises, but also mobilised the Dublin public in political campaigns and was striking in his voluminous output in newspapers and pamphlets.

  4. All-Irish Primary Schools in the Dublin Area. Report of a Sociological and Spatial Study of All-Irish-Medium Schools in the Greater Dublin Area, with Special Reference to Their Impact on Home and Social Network Use of Irish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Riagain, Padraig; O Gliasain, Micheal

    A study investigated the extent to which all-Irish primary schools in the Dublin (Ireland) area: (1) provide opportunities for parents not using Irish at home to send children to an all-Irish school; (2) provide impetus for an increase in Irish use in homes of attending children; (3) increase interaction among Irish-speaking families; (4) are…

  5. Straight Talking: Explorations on Homosexuality and Homophobia in Secondary Schools in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Higgins-Norman, James

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines research that was conducted among students, parents, teachers and senior management teams in six secondary schools in the Greater Dublin area of Ireland. The research involved semi-structured interviews and observations. The findings of this research are significant in that it was the first time any data had been gathered on…

  6. Developing Citizenship Through Supervised Play: The Civics Institute of Ireland Playgrounds, 1933-75

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    Prompted by a concern regarding the large numbers of unsupervised children playing on the streets of Dublin in the 1920s and 1930s, the Civics Institute of Ireland (referred to subsequently as the Civics Institute) established 10 playgrounds where children aged between four and 14 years could play after school hours and during school holidays.…

  7. Spatial Reflexivity and Undergraduate Transitions in the Republic of Ireland after the Celtic Tiger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairns, David; Growiec, Katarzyna; Smyth, Jim

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the geographical mobility intentions of students aged between 18 and 24 years in the Republic of Ireland after the end of the economic boom commonly referred to as the "Celtic Tiger". Focusing upon a sample of undergraduates in Dublin and Cork, the article looks at how many respondents intend to move abroad in the…

  8. Identifying past fire regimes throughout the Holocene in Ireland using new and established methods of charcoal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawthorne, Donna; Mitchell, Fraser J. G.

    2016-04-01

    Globally, in recent years there has been an increase in the scale, intensity and level of destruction caused by wildfires. This can be seen in Ireland where significant changes in vegetation, land use, agriculture and policy, have promoted an increase in fires in the Irish landscape. This study looks at wildfire throughout the Holocene and draws on lacustrine charcoal records from seven study sites spread across Ireland, to reconstruct the past fire regimes recorded at each site. This work utilises new and accepted methods of fire history reconstruction to provide a recommended analytical procedure for statistical charcoal analysis. Digital charcoal counting was used and fire regime reconstructions carried out via the CharAnalysis programme. To verify this record new techniques are employed; an Ensemble-Member strategy to remove the objectivity associated with parameter selection, a Signal to Noise Index to determine if the charcoal record is appropriate for peak detection, and a charcoal peak screening procedure to validate the identified fire events based on bootstrapped samples. This analysis represents the first study of its kind in Ireland, examining the past record of fire on a multi-site and paleoecological timescale, and will provide a baseline level of data which can be built on in the future when the frequency and intensity of fire is predicted to increase.

  9. A technical, economic, and environmental analysis of energy production from newspaper in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Murphy, J D; Power, N

    2007-01-01

    The production of newspaper corresponds to 37 kg per person per annum in Ireland. Newspaper becomes a waste product in a short period of time; only 13% of domestic waste paper is recycled (data on newspaper is not available). Four scenarios, which generate energy from newspaper, are analysed. These scenarios may be summarised as follows: lignocellulosic biomass conversion to ethanol (transport fuel); co-digestion with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and production of CH4-enriched biogas (transport fuel); co-firing with the residue of municipal solid waste in an incinerator; and gasification of newspaper as a sole fuel. Two of the scenarios involve transport fuel production; two involve the production of electricity and heat. Two of the scenarios involve newspaper as the sole ingredient; two involve co- utilisation of newspaper with another waste stream. Assuming no economic market for heat, then only the transport scenarios have the potential to be economic; indeed the biogas scenario is shown to be extremely competitive generating a potential profit of euro 227/t newspaper. A greenhouse-gas analysis indicates that the biogas scenario generated the best net greenhouse-gas savings. However when a market for heat is available, gasification was shown to be most advantageous.

  10. Detection of major climatic and environmental predictors of liver fluke exposure risk in Ireland using spatial cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Selemetas, Nikolaos; de Waal, Theo

    2015-04-30

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) can cause significant economic and production losses in dairy cow farms. The aim of the current study was to identify important weather and environmental predictors of the exposure risk to liver fluke by detecting clusters of fasciolosis in Ireland. During autumn 2012, bulk-tank milk samples from 4365 dairy farms were collected throughout Ireland. Using an in-house antibody-detection ELISA, the analysis of BTM samples showed that 83% (n=3602) of dairy farms had been exposed to liver fluke. The Getis-Ord Gi* statistic identified 74 high-risk and 130 low-risk significant (P<0.01) clusters of fasciolosis. The low-risk clusters were mostly located in the southern regions of Ireland, whereas the high-risk clusters were mainly situated in the western part. Several climatic variables (monthly and seasonal mean rainfall and temperatures, total wet days and rain days) and environmental datasets (soil types, enhanced vegetation index and normalised difference vegetation index) were used to investigate dissimilarities in the exposure to liver fluke between clusters. Rainfall, total wet days and rain days, and soil type were the significant classes of climatic and environmental variables explaining the differences between significant clusters. A discriminant function analysis was used to predict the exposure risk to liver fluke using 80% of data for modelling and the remaining subset of 20% for post hoc model validation. The most significant predictors of the model risk function were total rainfall in August and September and total wet days. The risk model presented 100% sensitivity and 91% specificity and an accuracy of 95% correctly classified cases. A risk map of exposure to liver fluke was constructed with higher probability of exposure in western and north-western regions. The results of this study identified differences between clusters of fasciolosis in Ireland regarding climatic and environmental variables and

  11. Sir Robert Stawell Ball (1840-1913): Royal Astronomer in Ireland and astronomy's public voice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Allan

    2007-11-01

    Nineteenth-century Ireland, and especially Dublin, had a vibrant scientific tradition. And astronomy in particular was seriously cultivated, being part of an Irish tradition extending back to early medieval times. This paper examines principally the career of Sir Robert Stawell Ball, who, while holding three prestigious posts in Ireland, namely those of Andrews Professor at Trinity College, Dublin, Royal Astronomer of Ireland, and Director of the Dunsink Observatory, became famous for his genius as a popular astronomical interpreter, lecturer, and writer. The paper looks at Ball's wider career, the circumstances that provided a receptive market for astronomical information across the English-speaking world, and his massive outreach as both a lecturer and a writer.

  12. High frequency Receiver Functions in the Dublin Basin: application to a potential geothermal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licciardi, Andrea; Piana Agostinetti, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    The Dublin Basin (DB) is a Carboniferous sedimentary basin located in the eastern part of Ireland, SW of Dublin. In the last years, the SW margin of the basin has been the object of interest for geothermal exploration, which led to the acquisition of two reflection seismic lines and the drilling of two ~ 1.4 km deep boreholes, from which a temperature of 130° C at ~4 km depth has been estimated. This deep geothermal potential of the DB is strictly related to SW basin-bounding Blackrock-Newcastle Fault (BNF) and the associated fault system. This fault runs in a NW-SE direction and separates the Carboniferous deposits that fill the basin from the Lower Paleozoic basement rocks which constitute the SW margin. In the framework of the SIM-CRUST project, four broadband seismic stations equipped with a Guralp CMG-6TD sensor have been deployed across the southwestern margin of the basin between July and August 2013, with an inter-station distance of about 1km. This closely spaced array has been designed to cross the BNF almost perpendicular. The main aim of this work is to recover the seismic stratigraphy of the shallow crust (0-8 km depth range) and determine the geometry of the BNF, by making use of the teleseismic Receiver Function (RF) method. This technique has been classically applied in seismology to image deep Earth's structure, but recent works have shown that it can also be used to retrieve information on the shallow part of the crust, just by increasing the frequency content in the analyzed RFs with little or no modifications to the preexisting analysis codes. We calculated a set of RFs for each station, progressively increasing the frequency from 0.5 up to 10 Hz. This is expected to dramatically increase the vertical resolution in the case of a good S/N ratio in the RFs. By stacking different RFs from a large set of epicentral distance and backazimuth incoherent signals are ruled out and true conversion are enhanced. Preliminary results show the presence of

  13. The letter from Dublin: climate change, colonialism, and the Royal Society in the seventeenth century.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Brant

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses an anonymous letter published in the Philosophical Transactions in 1676 that reports the theories of American colonists about the cause of their warming climate (cultivation and deforestation), and offers Ireland's colonial experience as a counterexample: Ireland was a colony with decreased cultivation, but the same perceived warming. That such an objection seemed necessary to the author shows that anthropogenic climate change could be a subject of debate and that the concept of climate was tied into theories of land use and to the colonial enterprise. Since he was liminal to both the Royal Society of London and the intellectual circles of Dublin, his skepticism, contextualized here, questions both the elite discourse and the discourse at the colonial periphery.

  14. Negotiating Difference in Post-Conflict Northern Ireland: An Analysis of Approaches to Integrated Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlynn, Claire

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author critically examines a variety of approaches to multicultural education noted in integrated (mixed Catholic and Protestant) schools in Northern Ireland and considers their implications in the context of the wider debate around multiculturalism. She argues that educators should challenge sectarianism, but should also…

  15. The Dublin Dashboard: Design and Development of a Real-Time Analytical Urban Dashboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McArdle, G.; Kitchin, R.

    2016-09-01

    As many cities increase in size across multiple dimensions such as population, economic output and physical size, new methods for understanding and managing cities are required. Data produced by and about urban environments offer insight into what is happening in cities. Real-time data from sensors within the city record current transport and environmental conditions such as noise levels, water levels, journey times and public transport delays. Similarly administrative data such as demographics, employment statistics, property prices and crime rates all provide insight into how a city is evolving. Traditionally, these data were maintained separately and managed by individual city departments. Advances in technology and a move to open-government have placed many of these data in the public domain. Urban dashboards have emerged as a technique to visualise these data in an accessible way. This paper describes the implementation of one such dashboard, the Dublin Dashboard, an interactive website which collects, analyses and visualises data from a variety of sources about Dublin in Ireland through a series of interactive maps, graphs and applications. This paper describes the approach, the data and the technology used to develop the Dublin Dashboard and acts as a guideline for developing urban dashboards in other cities.

  16. William Wilde and the early records of consumption in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Breathnach, C S; Moynihan, J B

    2011-01-01

    Absence of documentary or bony evidence before the seventeenth century in Ireland is not conclusive evidence of freedom from tuberculosis. Clear records begin with Bills of Mortality kept in Dublin, the city at the centre of English administration of Ireland, and they show that the basis for an epidemic was firmly established therein before 1700. In the middle of the nineteenth century the cataclysmic Famine opened the floodgates of poverty and urban overcrowding that resulted in an alarming death rate that continued to increase until the early years of the twentieth century. It is to William Wilde (1815-1876) we owe the nuanced investigation of the earliest numerical records of consumption and related disorders in Ireland.

  17. Diageo's 'Stop Out of Control Drinking' Campaign in Ireland: An Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Petticrew, Mark; Fitzgerald, Niamh; Durand, Mary Alison; Knai, Cécile; Davoren, Martin; Perry, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been argued that the alcohol industry uses corporate social responsibility activities to influence policy and undermine public health, and that every opportunity should be taken to scrutinise such activities. This study analyses a controversial Diageo-funded ‘responsible drinking’ campaign (“Stop out of Control Drinking”, or SOOCD) in Ireland. The study aims to identify how the campaign and its advisory board members frame and define (i) alcohol-related harms, and their causes, and (ii) possible solutions. Methods Documentary analysis of SOOCD campaign material. This includes newspaper articles (n = 9), media interviews (n = 11), Facebook posts (n = 92), and Tweets (n = 340) produced by the campaign and by board members. All material was coded inductively, and a thematic analysis undertaken, with codes aggregated into sub-themes. Results The SOOCD campaign utilises vague or self-defined concepts of ‘out of control’ and ‘moderate’ drinking, tending to present alcohol problems as behavioural rather than health issues. These are also unquantified with respect to actual drinking levels. It emphasises alcohol-related antisocial behaviour among young people, particularly young women. In discussing solutions to alcohol-related problems, it focuses on public opinion rather than on scientific evidence, and on educational approaches and information provision, misrepresenting these as effective. “Moderate drinking” is presented as a behavioural issue (“negative drinking behaviours”), rather than as a health issue. Conclusions The ‘Stop Out of Control Drinking’ campaign frames alcohol problems and solutions in ways unfavourable to public health, and closely reflects other Diageo Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activity, as well as alcohol and tobacco industry strategies more generally. This framing, and in particular the framing of alcohol harms as a behavioural issue, with the implication that consumption should be guided

  18. Genomic Comparison of the Closely-Related Salmonella enterica Serovars Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, T. David; Schmieder, Robert; Silva, Genivaldo G. Z.; Busch, Julia; Cassman, Noriko; Dutilh, Bas E.; Green, Dawn; Matlock, Brian; Heffernan, Brian; Olsen, Gary J.; Farris Hanna, Leigh; Schifferli, Dieter M.; Maloy, Stanley; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A.; Edwards, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    The Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Dublin, and Gallinarum are closely related but differ in virulence and host range. To identify the genetic elements responsible for these differences and to better understand how these serovars are evolving, we sequenced the genomes of Enteritidis strain LK5 and Dublin strain SARB12 and compared these genomes to the publicly available Enteritidis P125109, Dublin CT 02021853 and Dublin SD3246 genome sequences. We also compared the publicly available Gallinarum genome sequences from biotype Gallinarum 287/91 and Pullorum RKS5078. Using bioinformatic approaches, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions, deletions, and differences in prophage and pseudogene content between strains belonging to the same serovar. Through our analysis we also identified several prophage cargo genes and pseudogenes that affect virulence and may contribute to a host-specific, systemic lifestyle. These results strongly argue that the Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum serovars of Salmonella enterica evolve by acquiring new genes through horizontal gene transfer, followed by the formation of pseudogenes. The loss of genes necessary for a gastrointestinal lifestyle ultimately leads to a systemic lifestyle and niche exclusion in the host-specific serovars. PMID:26039056

  19. Genomic comparison of the closely-related Salmonella enterica serovars enteritidis, dublin and gallinarum

    DOE PAGES

    Matthews, T. David; Schmieder, Robert; Silva, Genivaldo G. Z.; ...

    2015-06-03

    The Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Dublin, and Gallinarum are closely related but differ in virulence and host range. To identify the genetic elements responsible for these differences and to better understand how these serovars are evolving, we sequenced the genomes of Enteritidis strain LK5 and Dublin strain SARB12 and compared these genomes to the publicly available Enteritidis P125109, Dublin CT 02021853 and Dublin SD3246 genome sequences. We also compared the publicly available Gallinarum genome sequences from biotype Gallinarum 287/91 and Pullorum RKS5078. Using bioinformatic approaches, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions, deletions, and differences in prophage and pseudogene content betweenmore » strains belonging to the same serovar. Through our analysis we also identified several prophage cargo genes and pseudogenes that affect virulence and may contribute to a host-specific, systemic lifestyle. These results strongly argue that the Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum serovars of Salmonella enterica evolve by acquiring new genes through horizontal gene transfer, followed by the formation of pseudogenes. The loss of genes necessary for a gastrointestinal lifestyle ultimately leads to a systemic lifestyle and niche exclusion in the host-specific serovars.« less

  20. Genomic Comparison of the Closely-Related Salmonella enterica Serovars Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum.

    PubMed

    Matthews, T David; Schmieder, Robert; Silva, Genivaldo G Z; Busch, Julia; Cassman, Noriko; Dutilh, Bas E; Green, Dawn; Matlock, Brian; Heffernan, Brian; Olsen, Gary J; Farris Hanna, Leigh; Schifferli, Dieter M; Maloy, Stanley; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Edwards, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    The Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Dublin, and Gallinarum are closely related but differ in virulence and host range. To identify the genetic elements responsible for these differences and to better understand how these serovars are evolving, we sequenced the genomes of Enteritidis strain LK5 and Dublin strain SARB12 and compared these genomes to the publicly available Enteritidis P125109, Dublin CT 02021853 and Dublin SD3246 genome sequences. We also compared the publicly available Gallinarum genome sequences from biotype Gallinarum 287/91 and Pullorum RKS5078. Using bioinformatic approaches, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions, deletions, and differences in prophage and pseudogene content between strains belonging to the same serovar. Through our analysis we also identified several prophage cargo genes and pseudogenes that affect virulence and may contribute to a host-specific, systemic lifestyle. These results strongly argue that the Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum serovars of Salmonella enterica evolve by acquiring new genes through horizontal gene transfer, followed by the formation of pseudogenes. The loss of genes necessary for a gastrointestinal lifestyle ultimately leads to a systemic lifestyle and niche exclusion in the host-specific serovars.

  1. Gold potential in the Dalradian rocks of NW Northern Ireland: GIS-based prospectivity analysis using Tellus data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusty, P. A. J.; McDonnell, P. M.; Gunn, A. G.; Chacksfield, B. C.; Cooper, M.

    2009-04-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are essential tools for the management and integration of the large amounts of multivariate spatial data used in mineral exploration. Prospectivity analysis combines these datasets, in the context of a mineral deposit model, to produce a map showing the distribution of potential for a particular type of mineral deposit. In this example Arc-Spatial Data Modeller software has been used to analyse the prospectivity for orogenic vein gold mineralisation in the Dalradian rocks of north-western Northern Ireland. A knowledge-driven (fuzzy logic) approach was used because of the small number of gold deposits within the area. Fuzzy logic is used in situations where information is inexact and the use of classical set theory is inappropriate. Fuzzy logic allows assignment of weightings to exploration data on a continuous scale from 1 (full membership) to 0 (full non-membership). This allows a level of uncertainty or 'fuzziness' to be incorporated into the modelling. The key stages of prospectivity analysis are: (1) analysis of the deposit model to determine key exploration indicators; (2) data processing, interpretation and analysis to extract key indicators; (3) assignment of weightings, zones and styles of influence to key indicators; and (4) calculation of prospectivity. This research is based largely on new geochemical and geophysical data resulting from the Tellus Project in Northern Ireland. The Tellus Project involved geochemical and airborne geophysical surveys over the whole of Northern Ireland carried out between 2004-6 with funding from the Government of Northern Ireland. The study area (3074 km2) is underlain mainly by Neoproterozoic rocks of the Dalradian Supergroup (ca. 590 Ma) which form part of the Caledonide orogenic belt. The Dalradian Supergroup comprises a thick succession of semi-pelites, psammites and pelites, with graphitic pelite horizons that host much of the known gold mineralisation. In the Sperrin Mountains two

  2. Monitoring harm reduction in European prisons via the Dublin Declaration.

    PubMed

    Lines, Rick; Stöver, Heino; Donochoe, Martin C; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2009-01-01

    The Dublin Declaration on Partnership to fight HIV/AIDS in Europe and Central Asia is the key policy document on HIV/AIDS in the European Region as a whole Among the Declaration's 33 actions for governments are many that apply to prison populations. Based upon an analysis of these commitments, and a review of the current status of states in meeting those targets, it is clear that the scale-up of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programmes and services in prisons lags far behind what is needed, what is available outside of prisons, and what is mandated within the Declaration itself.

  3. Web-Based Systems Development: Analysis and Comparison of Practices in Croatia and Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Michael; Vukovac, Dijana Plantak

    The “dot.com” hysteria which sparked fears of a “Web crisis” a decade ago has long subsided and firms established in the 1990 s now have mature development processes in place. This chapter presents a timely re-assessment of the state of Web development practices, comparing data gathered in Croatia and Ireland. Given the growth in popularity of “agile” methods in the past few years, a secondary objective of this research was to analyse the extent to which Web development practices are guided by or otherwise consistent with the underlying principles of agile development.

  4. Reporting the Rhetoric, Implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as Represented in Ireland's Second Report to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiersey, Rachel A.; Hayes, Noirin

    2010-01-01

    Ireland's second periodic report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC) presents the government's case that it is succeeding in protecting and promoting the rights of all children in Ireland. This article presents a critical discourse analysis of the government's Report to the CRC. Using a refined critical discourse…

  5. The Pied Piper of Neo Liberalism Calls the Tune in the Republic of Ireland: An Analysis of Education Policy Text from 2000-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmie, Geraldine Mooney

    2012-01-01

    This article offers an analysis of the rhetoric of education policy text during the timeframe from 2000 to 2012 in the Republic of Ireland. The study was framed within two different discourses of the role of the teacher: one discourse regards the teacher as a professional within a dynamic system of democratic relations (Anyon, 2011; Apple, 2012;…

  6. Seeing the Wood from the Trees: A Critical Policy Analysis of Intersections between Social Class Inequality and Education in Twenty-First Century Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a critical policy analysis of intersections between social class inequality and education policy in Ireland. The focus is upon contemporary policy and legislation such as The Irish Constitution and equality legislation; social inclusion policies such as the DEIS scheme; literacy and numeracy policy documents; as well as current…

  7. Suicide among Young People and Adults in Ireland: Method Characteristics, Toxicological Analysis and Substance Abuse Histories Compared

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, Celine; Wall, Amanda; McAuliffe, Carmel; McCarthy, Jacklyn; Williamson, Eileen; Perry, Ivan J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Information on factors associated with suicide among young individuals in Ireland is limited. The aim of this study was to identify socio-demographic characteristics and circumstances of death associated with age among individuals who died by suicide. Methods The study examined 121 consecutive suicides (2007–2012) occurring in the southern eastern part of Ireland (Cork city and county). Data were obtained from coroners, family informants, and health care professionals. A comparison was made between 15-24-year-old and 25-34-year-old individuals. Socio-demographic characteristics of the deceased, methods of suicide, history of alcohol and drug abuse, and findings from toxicological analysis of blood and urine samples taken at post mortem were included. Pearson’s χ2 tests and binary logistic regression analysis were performed. Results Alcohol and/or drugs were detected through toxicological analysis for the majority of the total sample (79.5%), which did not differentiate between 15-24-year-old and 25-34-year-old individuals (74.1% and 86.2% respectively). Compared to 25-34-year-old individuals, 15-24-year-old individuals were more likely to engage in suicide by hanging (88.5%). Younger individuals were less likely to die by intentional drug overdose and carbon monoxide poisoning compared to older individuals. Younger individuals who died between Saturday and Monday were more likely to have had alcohol before dying. Substance abuse histories were similar in the two age groups. Conclusion Based on this research it is recommended that strategies to reduce substance abuse be applied among 25-34-year-old individuals at risk of suicide. The wide use of hanging in young people should be taken into consideration for future means restriction strategies. PMID:27898722

  8. Arsenic contamination of drinking water in Ireland: A spatial analysis of occurrence and potential risk.

    PubMed

    McGrory, Ellen R; Brown, Colin; Bargary, Norma; Williams, Natalya Hunter; Mannix, Anthony; Zhang, Chaosheng; Henry, Tiernan; Daly, Eve; Nicholas, Sarah; Petrunic, Barbara M; Lee, Monica; Morrison, Liam

    2017-02-01

    The presence of arsenic in groundwater has become a global concern due to the health risks from drinking water with elevated concentrations. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) of the European Union calls for drinking water risk assessment for member states. The present study amalgamates readily available national and sub-national scale datasets on arsenic in groundwater in the Republic of Ireland. However, due to the presence of high levels of left censoring (i.e. arsenic values below an analytical detection limit) and changes in detection limits over time, the application of conventional statistical methods would inhibit the generation of meaningful results. In order to handle these issues several arsenic databases were integrated and the data modelled using statistical methods appropriate for non-detect data. In addition, geostatistical methods were used to assess principal risk components of elevated arsenic related to lithology, aquifer type and groundwater vulnerability. Geographic statistical methods were used to overcome some of the geographical limitations of the Irish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sample database. Nearest-neighbour inverse distance weighting (IDW) and local indicator of spatial association (LISA) methods were used to estimate risk in non-sampled areas. Significant differences were also noted between different aquifer lithologies, indicating that Rhyolite, Sandstone and Shale (Greywackes), and Impure Limestone potentially presented a greater risk of elevated arsenic in groundwaters. Significant differences also occurred among aquifer types with poorly productive aquifers, locally important fractured bedrock aquifers and regionally important fissured bedrock aquifers presenting the highest potential risk of elevated arsenic. No significant differences were detected among different groundwater vulnerability groups as defined by the Geological Survey of Ireland. This research will assist management and future policy directions of

  9. William Wilde in the West of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Coakley, D

    2016-05-01

    It is widely believed that Sir William Wilde's forebears were in Ireland for just two or three generations. This belief stems from a number of short biographies of Wilde which were published during his lifetime. These biographies gave different versions of the origin of the Wilde family and appear to have been generated by the creative imagination of Lady Jane Wilde or, as she was better known by her nom de plume, Speranza. She was equally imaginative in creating narratives about her own family background and in one she claimed descent from the Italian poet Dante Alighieri. So it was not a great challenge for her to invent biographies of her husband which she deemed suitable for a knight living at the prestigious address of 1 Merrion Square, leading many to believe that William and his son Oscar were more English than Irish. It was also important for Speranza to distance Sir William from any connection which the Wilde family might have had with trade. In this paper published and unpublished material are used, together with a careful examination of family deeds in the Registry of Deeds office, to elucidate the real roots of the Wilde family in Dublin and in the West of Ireland.

  10. AFLP analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Brassica oleracea in Ireland.

    PubMed

    El-Esawi, Mohamed A; Germaine, Kieran; Bourke, Paula; Malone, Renee

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea L. is one of the most economically important vegetable crop species of the genus Brassica L. This species is threatened in Ireland, without any prior reported genetic studies. The use of this species is being very limited due to its imprecise phylogeny and uncompleted genetic characterisation. The main objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of a set of 25 Irish B. oleracea accessions using the powerful amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique. A total of 471 fragments were scored across all the 11 AFLP primer sets used, out of which 423 (89.8%) were polymorphic and could differentiate the accessions analysed. The dendrogram showed that cauliflowers were more closely related to cabbages than kales were, and accessions of some cabbage types were distributed among different clusters within cabbage subgroups. Approximately 33.7% of the total genetic variation was found among accessions, and 66.3% of the variation resided within accessions. The total genetic diversity (HT) and the intra-accessional genetic diversity (HS) were 0.251 and 0.156, respectively. This high level of variation demonstrates that the Irish B. oleracea accessions studied should be managed and conserved for future utilisation and exploitation in food and agriculture. In conclusion, this study addressed important phylogenetic questions within this species, and provided a new insight into the inclusion of four accessions of cabbages and kales in future breeding programs for improving varieties. AFLP markers were efficient for assessing genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in Irish B. oleracea species.

  11. The perception of place and the 'origins of handedness' debate: towards a cognitive cartography of science in late-Victorian Dublin.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    In 1884, a medical paper entitled 'Consideration of the Structural and Acquisitional Elements in Dextral Pre-Eminence' penned by the Dublin physician George Sigerson, appeared in the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. A number of years later, the Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland presented a similar piece by Dublin anatomist Daniel John Cunningham, on the topic of 'Right-Handedness and Left-Brainedness'. For the late nineteenth-century scientific community, these articles represented two Dublin-based contributions to a long-running and wide-ranging debate on the origins of handedness. However, by building on the geographical premise that scientific knowledge bears the imprint of its location and that place matters in the way scientific claims come to be sanctioned, this paper probes, not merely an encounter with evolutionary science in the less well explored domain of fin de siècle Dublin, but more crucially, how these local reviews of manual dexterity were in part shaped by the scientists' differing perceptions of their city. By attending to the lives of Sigerson and Cunningham and focusing on the interplay between life-space, city-space and science, it underscores the critical role of place and space in the reception, circulation and mobilisation of scientific knowledge in the city.

  12. Highway runoff quality in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Berhanu Desta, Mesfin; Bruen, Michael; Higgins, Neil; Johnston, Paul

    2007-04-01

    Highway runoff has been identified as a significant source of contaminants that impact on the receiving aquatic environment. Several studies have been completed documenting the characteristics of highway runoff and its implication to the receiving water in the UK and elsewhere. However, very little information is available for Ireland. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of highway runoff from major Irish roads under the current road drainage design and maintenance practice. Four sites were selected from the M4 and the M7 motorways outside Dublin. Automatic samplers and continuous monitoring devices were deployed to sample and monitor the runoff quality and quantity. More than 42 storm events were sampled and analysed for the heavy metals Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, 16 US EPA specified PAHs, volatile organic compounds including MTBE, and a number of conventional pollutants. All samples were analysed based on the Standard Methods. Significant quantities of solids and heavy metals were detected at all sites. PAHs were not detected very often, but when detected the values were different from quantities observed in UK highways. The heavy metal concentrations were strongly related to the total suspended solids concentrations, which has a useful implication for runoff management strategies. No strong relationship was discovered between pollutant concentrations and event characteristics such as rainfall intensity, antecedent dry days (ADD), or rainfall depth (volume). This study has demonstrated that runoff from Irish motorways was not any cleaner than in the UK although the traffic volume at the monitored sites was relatively smaller. This calls for a site specific investigation of highway runoff quality before adopting a given management strategy.

  13. Genomic comparison of the closely-related Salmonella enterica serovars enteritidis, dublin and gallinarum

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, T. David; Schmieder, Robert; Silva, Genivaldo G. Z.; Busch, Julia; Cassman, Noriko; Dutilh, Bas E.; Green, Dawn; Matlock, Brian; Heffernan, Brian; Olsen, Gary J.; Hanna, Leigh Farris; Schifferli, Dieter M.; Maloy, Stanley; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A.; Edwards, Robert A.; Cloeckaert, Axel

    2015-06-03

    The Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Dublin, and Gallinarum are closely related but differ in virulence and host range. To identify the genetic elements responsible for these differences and to better understand how these serovars are evolving, we sequenced the genomes of Enteritidis strain LK5 and Dublin strain SARB12 and compared these genomes to the publicly available Enteritidis P125109, Dublin CT 02021853 and Dublin SD3246 genome sequences. We also compared the publicly available Gallinarum genome sequences from biotype Gallinarum 287/91 and Pullorum RKS5078. Using bioinformatic approaches, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions, deletions, and differences in prophage and pseudogene content between strains belonging to the same serovar. Through our analysis we also identified several prophage cargo genes and pseudogenes that affect virulence and may contribute to a host-specific, systemic lifestyle. These results strongly argue that the Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum serovars of Salmonella enterica evolve by acquiring new genes through horizontal gene transfer, followed by the formation of pseudogenes. The loss of genes necessary for a gastrointestinal lifestyle ultimately leads to a systemic lifestyle and niche exclusion in the host-specific serovars.

  14. Mathematics diagnostic testing in engineering: an international comparison between Ireland and Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, M.; Fidalgo, C.; Bigotte de Almeida, M. E.; Branco, J. R.; Santos, V.; Murphy, E.; Fhloinn, E. Ní

    2015-09-01

    Concern has been expressed throughout Europe about the significant deficiencies in the basic mathematical skills of many engineering undergraduates. Mathematics diagnostic tests in the UK, Ireland and Portugal have shown these shortcomings, which provide a challenge to those striving to introduce more innovative educational practices into engineering education, such as projects or real-world problems. Every year, in the Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland) and the Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Coimbra (Portugal), a diagnostic test is given to incoming first-year students. A comparison showed some potentially interesting differences between these students. In September 2013, a project was undertaken to compare mathematical competencies of incoming engineering students in both countries. A modified diagnostic test was devised and the results were then compared to ascertain if there are common areas of difficulty between students in Ireland and Portugal, or evidence of one group significantly outperforming the other in a particular area.

  15. 'Any style but gothic': Building a home for the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Wheelock, H

    2016-06-01

    On 15 July 1864 the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland held its first business meeting in its newly built home at 6 Kildare Street, Dublin. Although the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland had been in existence for over 200 years this was the first occasion that a College meeting had been held in a building owned by the College. This paper looks at the history behind the construction of a home for the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland. It will examine why it took over 200 years for the Physicians to find a permanent home, how they ended up with the building they did, and what they borrowed from the Royal College of Physicians in Edinburgh in the process.

  16. "Give Them Time" -- An Analysis of School Readiness in Ireland's Early Education System: A Steiner Waldorf Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Doireann; Angus, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a Steiner Waldorf Perspective to School Readiness and applies that international ideology to educational practice and curriculum policy in modern Ireland. The case for a later school start is championed with strong arguments underpinning the reasons why a later start is better in the long run for children's formal learning…

  17. Daedalus in Dublin: A Physicist's Labyrinth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Thomas C.

    2014-03-01

    I describe some of the rich physical and natural-philosophy heritage of the urban center of the Irish capital Dublin (first tour) and its environs (second tour), in a two-part excursion that could take between two and eight hours in toto. In terms of history, both tours center around the nineteenth century. The first tour is located in and around Trinity College, and we encounter such personages as William Rowan Hamilton, George Fitzgerald, Ernest Walton, and Erwin Schrödinger, among others. Moving away from Trinity College, the second tour explores some of the periphery of the city. I describe the role of politics, money, and religion in shaping the emergence and development of scientific talent among the Irish people, and consequently the footprint left by physics in the city today, with its numerous sites and names that put Irish physics in an honorable place among the nations.

  18. Lost in transition?: a discursive analysis of academic nursing in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Martin S

    2010-07-01

    A critical discourse analysis of Irish nurse academics' comments reveals a dependent, fragmented discipline with a weak academic infrastructure, prone to colonization by other discourses. Respondents lack a language that articulates an academic and professional nursing identity, the form and content of educational programs that are distinctively nursing, and lack the proper focus and scope of nursing research. These findings are discussed in light of the role of academic clinical practice and nursing discipline-specific discourses in providing the conditions of possibility for the establishment, maintenance, and reproduction of a critical mass of nurse scholars with both academic and clinical legitimacy.

  19. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Ireland and the role of local government

    SciTech Connect

    O'Mullane, Monica

    2012-01-15

    Background: Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Ireland has developed significantly since its endorsement in the health strategies of the Republic of Ireland (2001) and Northern Ireland (2002). Throughout 2007 and 2008, research was conducted to examine HIA as a policy-informing tool throughout both jurisdictions. One aspect of this research investigated the role of local government and its relationship in advancing HIA practise and use in Ireland. Methods: A case study research design was used which employed qualitative research methods, including semistructured interviewing and participant observation. In total 48 interviews were conducted with members of the HIA steering committees and individuals closely involved in the HIAs. Results: The relationship between local government and HIA in Northern Ireland is a positive one given the strong tradition of local government in the jurisdiction. The Review of Public Administration (RPA) negatively influenced the integration of HIA into local authority procedures. In the Republic of Ireland, the influence of social values and political will was found to be negatively present with the HIA on Traveller accommodation. Evidence from the HIA conducted on traffic and transport in Dublin was used to plan further health promotion and community planning activities in the area. Conclusion: Local government plays a vital role in HIA practise and development in both jurisdictions. The willingness to work with external partners (such as the health care services) was an important enabler or barrier to HIA operation. This will remain the case in the foreseeable future. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated influences on the use of HIA knowledge of four cases from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The engagement of the public authorities assists implementation of the findings of the HIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tension continues between positivist and incrementalist

  20. Family and Family Change in Ireland: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canavan, John

    2012-01-01

    In Ireland, historically and in the current era, family has been a central concern for society and the State. This article provides a descriptive overview of family life in Ireland and of major family-related changes over the past 40 years. It presents a general framework of analysis within which these changes can be understood, considers the…

  1. Creating the Social Foundations for Apprenticeship in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhan, Barry; Ayres, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss Irelands national apprenticeship programme, introduced in 1993, in the context of the country's evolving economic and social policies. Design/methodology/approach: A critical analysis is undertaken of the industrial climate in Ireland, which prevented the introduction of a national apprenticeship…

  2. The Economic Impact of Ulster University on the Northern Ireland Economy. Higher Education in Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Ursula; McNicoll, Iain; White, James

    2015-01-01

    This study provides an analysis of the economic impact of Ulster University and its students on the Northern Ireland economy. With over 26,000 students, Ulster University is Northern Ireland's largest university in terms of student numbers. With its headquarters based at the Coleraine Campus, it has three more campuses in Northern Ireland: the…

  3. Media Technologies and Language Learning. Proceedings of an IRAAL Seminar (Dublin, Ireland, November 25, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, David, Ed.; O Meadhra, Bebhinn, Ed.

    A seminar sponsored by the Irish Association for Applied Linguistics on the role of media and media technologies in second and foreign language learning is reported. The organization of this report reflects the program of the seminar. Four plenary papers established some broad applied linguistic perspectives and presented an overview of recent…

  4. The frustration of Lady Aberdeen in her crusade against tuberculosis in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Breathnach, Caoimhghín S; Moynihan, John B

    2012-01-01

    When in his Annual Report for 1905 the Registrar General for Ireland pointed out to the lately arrived Lord Lieutenant, The Earl of Aberdeen, that annually in every 100 deaths in Ireland 16 were victims of tuberculosis, Lady Aberdeen took notice. In March 1907 she founded the WNHA with the clear duty of taking part in the fight against the appalling ravages of that disease, and organised a Tuberculosis Exhibition the following October. And so began a campaign that led to the building of Peamount Sanatorium in county Dublin, the Allan Ryan Hospital at Ringsend, and the Collier Dispensary in the city centre. However, the Irish parliamentarians at Westminster emasculated the Tuberculosis Prevention (Ireland) Act 1908 by ensuring that notification was not made compulsory. Passage of the National Health Insurance Act (1911) necessitated changes that resulted in the Tuberculosis Prevention (Ireland) Act (1913), but the crucial shortcomings of the earlier Act were not rectified: notification was necessary but still not compulsory. Lady Aberdeen recognised this serious flaw she was powerless to correct, and turned to propaganda, editing Sláinte, a monthly magazine founded in January 1909 by the WNHA, and editing a three-volume account of Ireland's Crusade Against Tuberculosis (1908-1909).

  5. Triggering of tsunamigenic aftershocks from large strike-slip earthquakes: Analysis of the November 2000 New Ireland earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Tom

    2005-10-01

    The November 2000 New Ireland earthquake sequence started with a Mw = 8.0 left-lateral main shock on 16 November and was followed by a series of aftershocks with primarily thrust mechanisms. The earthquake sequence was associated with a locally damaging tsunami on the islands of New Ireland and nearby New Britain, Bougainville, and Buka. Results from numerical tsunami-propagation models of the main shock and two of the largest thrust aftershocks (Mw > 7.0) indicate that the largest tsunami was caused by an aftershock located near the southeastern termination of the main shock, off the southern tip of New Ireland (Aftershock 1). Numerical modeling and tide gauge records at regional and far-field distances indicate that the main shock also generated tsunami waves. Large horizontal displacements associated with the main shock in regions of steep bathymetry accentuated tsunami generation for this event. Most of the damage on Bougainville and Buka Islands was caused by focusing and amplification of tsunami energy from a ridge wave between the source region and these islands. Modeling of changes in the Coulomb failure stress field caused by the main shock indicate that Aftershock 1 was likely triggered by static stress changes, provided the fault was on or synthetic to the New Britain interplate thrust as specified by the Harvard CMT mechanism. For other possible focal mechanisms of Aftershock 1 and the regional occurrence of thrust aftershocks in general, evidence for static stress change triggering is not as clear. Other triggering mechanisms such as changes in dynamic stress may also have been important. The 2000 New Ireland earthquake sequence provides evidence that tsunamis caused by thrust aftershocks can be triggered by large strike-slip earthquakes. Similar tectonic regimes that include offshore accommodation structures near large strike-slip faults are found in southern California, the Sea of Marmara, Turkey, along the Queen Charlotte fault in British Columbia

  6. Impact of the smoking ban on the volume of bar sales in Ireland: evidence from time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Cornelsen, Laura; Normand, Charles

    2012-05-01

    This paper is the first to estimate the economic impact of a comprehensive smoking ban in all enclosed public places of work, on bars in Ireland. The demand in bars, represented by a monthly index of sales volume, is explained by relative prices in bars, prices of alcohol sold in off-licences and the aggregate retail sales (ARS) as a proxy for general economic activity and incomes. The smoking ban is included into the model as a step dummy and the modelling is done using ARIMAX strategy. The results show a reduction in the volume of sales in bars by -4.6% (p<0.01) following the ban.

  7. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Dublin and Midville aquifer systems at Waynesboro, Burke County, Georgia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gonthier, Gerard J.

    2013-01-01

    The hydrogeology and water quality of the Dublin and Midville aquifer systems were characterized in the City of Waynesboro area in Burke County, Georgia, based on geophysical and drillers’ logs, flowmeter surveys, a 24-houraquifer test, and the collection and chemical analysis of water samples in a newly constructed well. At the test site, the Dublin aquifer system consists of interlayered sands and clays between depths of 396 and 691 feet, and the Midville aquifer system consists of a sandy clay layer overlying a sand and gravel layer between depths of 728 and 936 feet. The new well was constructed with three screened intervals in the Dublin aquifer system and four screened intervals in the Midville aquifer system. Wellbore-flowmeter testing at a pumping rate of 1,000 gallons per minute indicated that 52.2 percent of the total flow was from the shallower Dublin aquifer system with the remaining 47.8 percent from the deeper Midville aquifer system. The lower part of the lower Midville aquifer (900 to 930 feet deep), contributed only 0.1 percent of the total flow. Hydraulic properties of the two aquifer systems were estimated using data from two wellbore-flowmeter surveys and a 24-hour aquifer test. Estimated values of transmissivity for the Dublin and Midville aquifer systems were 2,000 and 1,000 feet squared per day, respectively. The upper and lower Dublin aquifers have a combined thickness of about 150 feet and the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the Dublin aquifer system averages 10 feet per day. The upper Midville aquifer, lower Midville confining unit, and lower Midville aquifer have a combined thickness of about 210 feet, and the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the Midville aquifer system averages 6 feet per day. Storage coefficient of the Dublin aquifer system, computed using the Theis method on water-level data from one observation well, was estimated to be 0.0003. With a thickness of about 150 feet, the specific storage of the Dublin aquifer

  8. X-ray computerized tomography analysis and density estimation using a sediment core from the Challenger Mound area in the Porcupine Seabight, off Western Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Akiko; Nakano, Tsukasa; Ikehara, Ken

    2011-02-01

    X-ray computerized tomography (CT) analysis was used to image a half-round core sample of 50 cm long recovered from near Challenger Mound in the Porcupine Seabight, off western Ireland during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 307. This allowed three-dimensional examination of complex shapes of pebbles and ice-rafted debris in sedimentary sequences. X-ray CT analysis was also used for the determination of physical properties; a comparison between bulk density by the mass-volume method and estimated density based on linear attenuation coefficients of X-ray CT images provides insight into a spatially detailed and precise map of density variation in samples through the distribution of CT numbers.

  9. The Neo-Liberal Turn in Understanding Teachers' and School Leaders' Work Practices in Curriculum Innovation and Change: A Critical Discourse Analysis of a Newly Proposed Reform Policy in Lower Secondary Education in the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmie, Geraldine Mooney

    2014-01-01

    The study in this article involved a critical discourse analysis of five policy documents in relation to a curriculum reform proposed for lower secondary education in the Republic of Ireland. It examined the (re)positioning of governance in relation to curriculum and teacher education. Findings indicate a predominant clinical discourse closely…

  10. Community Development in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Anna

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade, community development in Ireland has emphasized social and economic inclusion, regeneration, and civic participation. Continuing challenges include designation of diverse community representatives, demand for increased administrative efficiency, and management of mandates and accountability. There are more community development…

  11. Vocational Training in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooney, Roy; Dunne, Paul

    This monograph, one of a series of studies of vocational education in the countries of the European Communities, describes the vocational training system in Ireland. The study was compiled from existing statistics and descriptions, and most figures cited refer to 1984. The report is organized in eight chapters. Chapter 1 covers population,…

  12. Palliative care research on the island of Ireland over the last decade: a systematic review and thematic analysis of peer reviewed publications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As palliative care research continues to expand across Europe, and the world, questions exist about the nature and type of research undertaken in addition to the research priorities for the future. This systematic review, which is the first stage of a larger scale study to identify the research priorities for palliative care on the island of Ireland, examined palliative care research conducted on the island over the last decade. Methods A comprehensive search strategy was implemented and strict eligibility criteria were applied in order to identify relevant peer-reviewed journal articles. Inclusion criteria were all of the palliative care studies undertaken on the island of Ireland and published between January 2002 and May 2012. These were assessed in relation to year, setting, sample size, research methodology, and relevant findings. Results 412 publications were identified for screening and their abstracts obtained. After eliminating articles that did not meet the inclusion criteria, 151 remained for further analysis. A thematic analysis of 128 studies published between 2006 and 2012 revealed eight core themes: (1) specific groups/populations; (2) services and settings; (3) management of symptoms (physical, psychological, social); (4) bereavement; (5) communication and education; (6) death and dying; (7) spirituality; and (8) complementary and alternative medicine/intervention (CAM). There was an upward trend in the number of publications in palliative care research over the last ten years with over 72% of studies being published within the previous four years. A slightly higher number of studies were quantitative in nature (surveys, questionnaires, standardised assessments) followed by qualitative (individual and focus group interviews, case studies, documentary analysis and retrospective case note reviews), mixed methods, and systematic reviews. Conclusions Whilst there has been a welcome growth in palliative care research across Ireland, this has

  13. Understanding hydrothermal circulation patterns at a low-enthalpy thermal spring using audio-magnetotelluric data: A case study from Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Sarah; Henry, Tiernan; Muller, Mark R.; Jones, Alan G.; Moore, John Paul; Murray, John; Campanyà, Joan; Vozar, Jan; Walsh, John; Rath, Volker

    2016-09-01

    Kilbrook spring is a thermal spring in east-central Ireland. The temperatures in the spring are the highest recorded for any thermal spring in Ireland (maximum of 25 °C). The temperature is elevated with respect to average Irish groundwater temperatures (9.5-10.5 °C), and represents a geothermal energy potential, which is currently under evaluation. A multi-disciplinary investigation based upon an audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) survey, and hydrochemical analysis including time-lapse temperature and chemistry measurements, has been undertaken with the aims of investigating the provenance of the thermal groundwater and characterising the geological structures facilitating groundwater circulation in the bedrock. The three-dimensional (3-D) electrical resistivity model of the subsurface at Kilbrook spring was obtained by the inversion of AMT impedances and vertical magnetic transfer functions. The model is interpreted alongside high resolution temperature and electrical conductivity measurements, and a previous hydrochemical analysis. The hydrochemical analysis and time-lapse measurements suggest that the thermal waters have a relatively stable temperature and major ion hydrochemistry, and flow within the limestones of the Carboniferous Dublin Basin at all times. The 3-D resistivity model of the subsurface reveals a prominent NNW aligned structure within a highly resistive limestone lithology that is interpreted as a dissolutionally enhanced strike-slip fault, of Cenozoic age. The karstification of this structure, which extends to depths of at least 500 m directly beneath the spring, has provided conduits that facilitate the operation of a relatively deep hydrothermal circulation pattern (likely estimated depths between 560 and 1000 m) within the limestone succession of the Dublin Basin. The results of this study support the hypothesis that the winter thermal maximum and simultaneous increased discharge at Kilbrook spring is the result of rapid infiltration, heating and

  14. Principle Paradigms Revisiting the Dublin Core 1:1 Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    The Dublin Core "1:1 Principle" asserts that "related but conceptually different entities, for example a painting and a digital image of the painting, are described by separate metadata records" (Woodley et al., 2005). While this seems to be a simple requirement, studies of metadata quality have found that cultural heritage…

  15. Occurrence of Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin in Austria.

    PubMed

    Allerberger, Franz; Liesegang, Almut; Grif, Katharina; Khaschabi, Daryusch; Prager, Rita; Danzl, Johann; Höck, Franz; Ottl, Josef; Dierich, Manfred P; Berghold, Christian; Neckstaller, Ingeborg; Tschäpe, Helmut; Fisher, Ian

    2003-01-01

    In Austria, Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin, a bovine-adapted serovar, rarely causes human infections. In the year 2000, Austria was within the European mean with an incidence of 0.1 per million inhabitants. Our data show that the vast majority of all Austrian serovar Dublin infections can be traced to two Tyrolian districts. This concentration of cases can be explained by a particularly traditional aspect of cattle farming in Tyrol, the alpine pasture. There is increased risk of cross-infection due to the communal keeping of animals from various farms. Infected cattle are a source of infection for people, and contagion usually occurs from eating beef and drinking cow's milk. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and automated ribotyping, 3 out of 5 available isolates from human infections could be traced to characteristic Tyrolian S. Dublin clones. Bacteriological screening of herds with a known history of S. Dublin infection would be a start to prevent future contamination of alpine pastures through latently infected cattle excreting potentially infectious feces. Bacteriological screening for fecal carriage before the return of cattle from pastures known to be connected with infections could prevent cross-contamination of large mixed herds.

  16. Alternatives to Industrial Work Placement at Dublin Institute of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Catherine; Gamble, Elena

    2011-01-01

    In the current economic crisis, higher education graduates need transferable professional skills more than ever. They need resourcefulness, an ability to work reflectively, a sense of civic awareness and an impressive curriculum vitae. This case study analyses how Dublin Institute of Technology's Programme for Students Learning With Communities…

  17. Quality of Family Life and Mortality in Seventeenth Century Dublin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Inquiry into the quality of family life in seventeenth century Dublin is an attempt to understand conditions in the second largest city in the British Isles; further, the era was one of convulsions in the body politic, social, and religious. The Scottish James I and VI (1556 1625) determined that the Irish province closest to Scotland, Ulster,…

  18. Dark interaction of haematoporphyrin and proflavine with Salmonella dublin cells.

    PubMed

    Veljanov, D; Kussovski, V; Radoucheva, T; Najdenski, H; Ilieva, L; Cherepova, N; Voivodov, K; Genov, N

    1994-01-01

    The influence of haematoporphyrin and proflavine on the virulence, survivability, respiratory activity and cell wall ultrastructure of Salmonella dublin cells was studied. There was a decrease in all biological properties investigated, especially when haematoporphyrin was used for dark incubation in comparison with proflavine. The possible clinical use of negatively charged photosensitizers is discussed.

  19. The State of the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative: April 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weibel, Stuart

    1999-01-01

    At the sixth Dublin Core Metadata Workshop convened in Washington, DC, in November 19998, a work plan was developed to address unresolved issues in resource description. This report summarizes that work plan, highlights the progress that has been made on it and identifies a few significant projects that exemplify this progress. (AEF)

  20. Jewish Education in Dublin: Organizational Development and Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, David

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to dwell on the trends in the development of Jewish education in Dublin. The discussion is based on books written about the Jewish community and central figures in it, on interviews with people who were involved in shaping the Jewish education and with others who were familiar with it, on community magazines and documents…

  1. An integrated pressure and pathway approach to the spatial analysis of groundwater nitrate: a case study from the southeast of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Tedd, K M; Coxon, C E; Misstear, B D R; Daly, D; Craig, M; Mannix, A; Williams, N H Hunter

    2014-04-01

    Excess nitrogen in soil, aquatic and atmospheric environments is an escalating global problem. Eutrophication is the principal threat to surface water quality in the Republic of Ireland. European Union Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) water quality status assessments found that 16% of Irish groundwater bodies were 'at risk' of poor status due to the potential deterioration of associated estuarine and coastal water quality by nitrate from groundwater. This paper presents a methodology for evaluating pressure and pathway parameters affecting the spatial distribution of groundwater nitrate, investigated at a regional scale using existing national spatial datasets. The potential for nitrate transfer to groundwater was rated based on the introduced concepts of Pressure Loading and Pathway Connectivity Rating, each based on a combination of selected pressure and pathway parameters respectively. In the region studied, the South Eastern River Basin District of Ireland, this methodology identified that pathway parameters were more important than pressure parameters in understanding the spatial distribution of groundwater nitrate. Statistical analyses supported these findings and further demonstrated that the proportion of poorly drained soils, arable land, karstic flow regimes, regionally important bedrock aquifers and high vulnerability groundwater within the zones of contribution of the monitoring points are statistically significantly related to groundwater nitrate concentrations. Soil type was found to be the most important parameter. Analysis of variance showed that a number of the pressure and pathway parameters are interrelated. The parameters identified by the presented methodology may provide useful insights into the best way to manage and mitigate the influence of nitrate contamination of groundwater in this region. It is suggested that the identification of critical source areas based on the identified parameters would be an appropriate management tool

  2. [Primary care in Ireland].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2017-03-27

    Spanish doctors are still leaving the country to look for quality work. Ireland is not a country with many Spanish professionals but it is interesting to know its particular Health care system. Ireland is one of the countries with a national health care system, although it has a mixture of private health care insurance schemes. People have a right to health care if they have been living in Ireland at least for a year. Access to the primary care health system depends on age and income: free of charge for Category 1 and co-payments for the rest. This division generates great inequalities among the population. Primary Care doctors are self-employed, and they work independently. However, since 2001 they have tended to work in multidisciplinary teams in order to strengthen the Primary Care practice. Salary is gained from a combination of public and private incomes which are not differentiated. The role of the General Practitioner consists in the treatment of acute and chronic diseases, minor surgery, child care, etc. There is no coordination between Primary and Secondary care. Access to specialised medicine is regulated by the price of consultation. Primary Care doctors are not gatekeepers. To be able to work here, doctors must have three years of training after medical school. After that, Continuing Medical Education is compulsory, and the college of general practitioners monitors it annually. The Irish health care system does not fit into the European model. Lack of a clear separation between public and private health care generates great inequalities. The non-existence of coordination between primary and specialised care leads to inefficiencies, which Ireland cannot allow itself after a decade of economic crisis.

  3. The Frustration of Lady Aberdeen in her Crusade against Tuberculosis in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Breathnach, Caoimhghín S; Moynihan, John B

    2012-01-01

    When in his Annual Report for 1905 the Registrar General for Ireland pointed out to the lately arrived Lord Lieutenant, The Earl of Aberdeen, that annually in every 100 deaths in Ireland 16 were victims of tuberculosis, Lady Aberdeen took notice. In March 1907 she founded the WNHA with the clear duty of taking part in the fight against the appalling ravages of that disease, and organised a Tuberculosis Exhibition the following October. And so began a campaign that led to the building of Peamount Sanatorium in county Dublin, the Allan Ryan Hospital at Ringsend, and the Collier Dispensary in the city centre. However, the Irish parliamentarians at Westminster emasculated the Tuberculosis Prevention (Ireland) Act 1908 by ensuring that notification was not made compulsory. Passage of the National Health Insurance Act (1911) necessitated changes that resulted in the Tuberculosis Prevention (Ireland) Act (1913), but the crucial shortcomings of the earlier Act were not rectified: notification was necessary but still not compulsory. Lady Aberdeen recognised this serious flaw she was powerless to correct, and turned to propaganda, editing Sláinte, a monthly magazine founded in January 1909 by the WNHA, and editing a three-volume account of Ireland’s Crusade Against Tuberculosis (1908-1909). PMID:23536737

  4. Repression of flagella is a common trait in field isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin and is associated with invasive human infections.

    PubMed

    Yim, Lucía; Sasías, Sebastián; Martínez, Arací; Betancor, Laura; Estevez, Verónica; Scavone, Paola; Bielli, Alejandro; Sirok, Alfredo; Chabalgoity, José Alejandro

    2014-04-01

    The nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin is adapted to cattle but infrequently infects humans, very often resulting in invasive infections with high levels of morbidity and mortality. A Salmonella-induced intestinal acute inflammatory response is postulated as a mechanism to prevent bacterial dissemination to systemic sites. In S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, flagella contribute to this response by providing motility and FliC-mediated activation of pattern recognition receptors. In this study, we found 4 Salmonella enterica isolates, with the antigenic formula 9,12:-:-, that, based on fliC sequence and multilocus sequence type (MLST) analyses, are aflagellate S. Dublin isolates. Interestingly, all were obtained from human bloodstream infections. Thus, we investigated the potential role of flagella in the unusual invasiveness exhibited by S. Dublin in humans by analyzing flagellation and proinflammatory properties of a collection of 10 S. Dublin human clinical isolates. We found that 4 of 7 blood isolates were aflagellate due to significantly reduced levels of fliC expression, whereas all 3 isolates from other sources were flagellated. Lack of flagella correlated with a reduced ability of triggering interleukin-8 (IL-8) and CCL20 chemokine expression in human intestinal Caco-2 cells and with reduced early inflammation in the ceca of streptomycin-pretreated C57/BL6 mice. These results indicate that flagella contribute to the host intestinal inflammatory response to Salmonella serovar Dublin and suggest that their absence may contribute to its systemic dissemination through dampening of the gut immune response. Analysis of FliC production in a collection of cattle isolates indicated that the aflagellate phenotype is widely distributed in field isolates of S. Dublin.

  5. Repression of Flagella Is a Common Trait in Field Isolates of Salmonella enterica Serovar Dublin and Is Associated with Invasive Human Infections

    PubMed Central

    Sasías, Sebastián; Martínez, Arací; Betancor, Laura; Estevez, Verónica; Scavone, Paola; Bielli, Alejandro; Sirok, Alfredo; Chabalgoity, José Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin is adapted to cattle but infrequently infects humans, very often resulting in invasive infections with high levels of morbidity and mortality. A Salmonella-induced intestinal acute inflammatory response is postulated as a mechanism to prevent bacterial dissemination to systemic sites. In S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, flagella contribute to this response by providing motility and FliC-mediated activation of pattern recognition receptors. In this study, we found 4 Salmonella enterica isolates, with the antigenic formula 9,12:−:−, that, based on fliC sequence and multilocus sequence type (MLST) analyses, are aflagellate S. Dublin isolates. Interestingly, all were obtained from human bloodstream infections. Thus, we investigated the potential role of flagella in the unusual invasiveness exhibited by S. Dublin in humans by analyzing flagellation and proinflammatory properties of a collection of 10 S. Dublin human clinical isolates. We found that 4 of 7 blood isolates were aflagellate due to significantly reduced levels of fliC expression, whereas all 3 isolates from other sources were flagellated. Lack of flagella correlated with a reduced ability of triggering interleukin-8 (IL-8) and CCL20 chemokine expression in human intestinal Caco-2 cells and with reduced early inflammation in the ceca of streptomycin-pretreated C57/BL6 mice. These results indicate that flagella contribute to the host intestinal inflammatory response to Salmonella serovar Dublin and suggest that their absence may contribute to its systemic dissemination through dampening of the gut immune response. Analysis of FliC production in a collection of cattle isolates indicated that the aflagellate phenotype is widely distributed in field isolates of S. Dublin. PMID:24421045

  6. Electrical Fatalities in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, James

    2009-01-01

    A review of autopsy reports in cases of electrocution in Northern Ireland revealed that there were 50 accidental electrocutions and 9 suicidal electrocutions over a 22 year period (1982 – 2003). No cases of homicidal electrocution were detected in this jurisdiction. Analysis of the cohort of accidental electrocutions showed that there was a clear skew towards young and middle-aged male adults with deaths occurring more frequently in the summer months. Almost 60% of individuals were engaged in occupational tasks when they were accidentally electrocuted. High and low voltage-related deaths occurred with similar frequency and electrical appliances were found to be responsible for approximately one third of accidental electrocutions. The potential hazards of electricity must continue to be stressed in public safety campaigns if these relatively uncommon but tragic deaths are to be prevented. PMID:19252729

  7. Genotyping of Mycobacterium bovis isolates from badgers in four areas of the Republic of Ireland by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed

    Costello, E; Flynn, O; Quigley, F; O'Grady, D; Griffin, J; Clegg, T; McGrath, G

    2006-11-04

    An analysis of the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis in badgers was made in four selected areas of the Republic of Ireland in which an intensive badger removal programme was being carried out over a period of five years. Tissue samples from 2310 badgers were cultured. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with IS6110, polymorphic GC-rich sequence (PGRS) and direct repeat sequence (DR) probes was applied to the isolates from 398 badgers, and 52 different rflp types were identified. Most of the isolates belonged to seven predominant types, and the other 45 types were represented by few isolates. An analysis suggests that some of these 45 types may have been introduced by the inward migration of badgers and others may have been the result of genetic changes to one of the prevalent types. The badgers were divided into groups on the basis of the sett at which they were captured, and RFLP typing was applied to isolates from two or more badgers from 85 groups. Multiple RFLP types were identified among isolates from 50 of these groups, suggesting that badgers probably moved frequently between group territories.

  8. Prediction of household and commercial BMW generation according to socio-economic and other factors for the Dublin region.

    PubMed

    Purcell, M; Magette, W L

    2009-04-01

    Both planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management systems require accurate prediction of waste generation. This research predicted the quantity and distribution of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) generation within a diverse 'landscape' of residential areas, as well as from a variety of commercial establishments (restaurants, hotels, hospitals, etc.) in the Dublin (Ireland) region. Socio-economic variables, housing types, and the sizes and main activities of commercial establishments were hypothesized as the key determinants contributing to the spatial variability of BMW generation. A geographical information system (GIS) 'model' of BMW generation was created using ArcMap, a component of ArcGIS 9. Statistical data including socio-economic status and household size were mapped on an electoral district basis. Historical research and data from scientific literature were used to assign BMW generation rates to residential and commercial establishments. These predictions were combined to give overall BMW estimates for the region, which can aid waste planning and policy decisions. This technique will also aid the design of future waste management strategies, leading to policy and practice alterations as a function of demographic changes and development. The household prediction technique gave a more accurate overall estimate of household waste generation than did the social class technique. Both techniques produced estimates that differed from the reported local authority data; however, given that local authority reported figures for the region are below the national average, with some of the waste generated from apartment complexes being reported as commercial waste, predictions arising from this research are believed to be closer to actual waste generation than a comparison to reported data would suggest. By changing the input data, this estimation tool can be adapted for use in other locations. Although focusing on waste in the Dublin region

  9. Forest Cover Estimation in Ireland Using Radar Remote Sensing: A Comparative Analysis of Forest Cover Assessment Methodologies.

    PubMed

    Devaney, John; Barrett, Brian; Barrett, Frank; Redmond, John; O Halloran, John

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of spatial and temporal changes in forest cover is an essential component of forest monitoring programs. Due to its cloud free capability, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an ideal source of information on forest dynamics in countries with near-constant cloud-cover. However, few studies have investigated the use of SAR for forest cover estimation in landscapes with highly sparse and fragmented forest cover. In this study, the potential use of L-band SAR for forest cover estimation in two regions (Longford and Sligo) in Ireland is investigated and compared to forest cover estimates derived from three national (Forestry2010, Prime2, National Forest Inventory), one pan-European (Forest Map 2006) and one global forest cover (Global Forest Change) product. Two machine-learning approaches (Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees) are evaluated. Both Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees classification accuracies were high (98.1-98.5%), with differences between the two classifiers being minimal (<0.5%). Increasing levels of post classification filtering led to a decrease in estimated forest area and an increase in overall accuracy of SAR-derived forest cover maps. All forest cover products were evaluated using an independent validation dataset. For the Longford region, the highest overall accuracy was recorded with the Forestry2010 dataset (97.42%) whereas in Sligo, highest overall accuracy was obtained for the Prime2 dataset (97.43%), although accuracies of SAR-derived forest maps were comparable. Our findings indicate that spaceborne radar could aid inventories in regions with low levels of forest cover in fragmented landscapes. The reduced accuracies observed for the global and pan-continental forest cover maps in comparison to national and SAR-derived forest maps indicate that caution should be exercised when applying these datasets for national reporting.

  10. Forest Cover Estimation in Ireland Using Radar Remote Sensing: A Comparative Analysis of Forest Cover Assessment Methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Devaney, John; Barrett, Brian; Barrett, Frank; Redmond, John; O`Halloran, John

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of spatial and temporal changes in forest cover is an essential component of forest monitoring programs. Due to its cloud free capability, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an ideal source of information on forest dynamics in countries with near-constant cloud-cover. However, few studies have investigated the use of SAR for forest cover estimation in landscapes with highly sparse and fragmented forest cover. In this study, the potential use of L-band SAR for forest cover estimation in two regions (Longford and Sligo) in Ireland is investigated and compared to forest cover estimates derived from three national (Forestry2010, Prime2, National Forest Inventory), one pan-European (Forest Map 2006) and one global forest cover (Global Forest Change) product. Two machine-learning approaches (Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees) are evaluated. Both Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees classification accuracies were high (98.1–98.5%), with differences between the two classifiers being minimal (<0.5%). Increasing levels of post classification filtering led to a decrease in estimated forest area and an increase in overall accuracy of SAR-derived forest cover maps. All forest cover products were evaluated using an independent validation dataset. For the Longford region, the highest overall accuracy was recorded with the Forestry2010 dataset (97.42%) whereas in Sligo, highest overall accuracy was obtained for the Prime2 dataset (97.43%), although accuracies of SAR-derived forest maps were comparable. Our findings indicate that spaceborne radar could aid inventories in regions with low levels of forest cover in fragmented landscapes. The reduced accuracies observed for the global and pan-continental forest cover maps in comparison to national and SAR-derived forest maps indicate that caution should be exercised when applying these datasets for national reporting. PMID:26262681

  11. Analysis of High Frequency Site-Specific Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide at Mace Head, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClellan, M. J.; Harris, E. J.; Olszewski, W.; Ono, S.; Prinn, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) significantly impacts Earth's climate due to its dual role as an inert potent greenhouse gas in the troposphere and as a reactive source of ozone-destroying nitrogen oxides in the stratosphere. However, there remain significant uncertainties in the global budget of this gas. The marked spatial divide in its reactivity means that all stages in the N2O life cycle—emission, transport, and destruction—must be examined to understand the overall effect of N2O on climate. Source and sink processes of N2O lead to varying concentrations of N2O isotopologues (14N14N16O, 14N15N16O, 15N14N16O, and 14N14N18O being measured) due to preferential isotopic production and elimination in different environments. Estimation of source and sink fluxes can be improved by combining isotopically resolved N2O observations with simulations using a chemical transport model with reanalysis meteorology and treatments of isotopic signatures of specific surface sources and stratospheric intrusions. We present the first few months of site-specific nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition data from the Stheno-TILDAS instrument (Harris et al, 2013) at Mace Head, Ireland and compare these to results from MOZART-4 (Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4) chemical transport model runs including N2O isotopic fractionation processes and reanalysis meterological fields (NCEP/NCAR, MERRA, and GEOS-5). This study forms the basis for future inverse modeling experiments that will improve the accuracy of isotopically differentiated N2O emission and loss estimates. Ref: Harris, E., D. Nelson, W. Olszewski, M. Zahniser, K. Potter, B. McManus, A. Whitehill, R. Prinn, and S. Ono, Development of a spectroscopic technique for continuous online monitoring of oxygen and site-specific nitrogen isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrous oxide, Analytical Chemistry, 2013; DOI: 10.1021/ac403606u.

  12. IRETHERM: Multidimensional geophysical modeling of the southern margin of the Dublin Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vozar, Jan; Jones, Alan G.; Rath, Volker; Campanya, Joan; Pasquali, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    Multi-dimensional magnetotelluric (MT) modelling of data from the Newcastle area west of Dublin, acquired as part of the geothermal potential of Ireland (IRETHERM) project, is presented. The Newcastle area, situated on the southern margin of the Carboniferous Dublin Basin, exhibits elevated geothermal gradient (>30 ° C/km) in the exploratory boreholes drilled by GT Energy. The MT soundings were carried out in the highly urbanized Dublin suburb and are heavily noise-contaminated and distorted due to EM noise from nearby industry and the DC tram system (LUAS). We obtained reliable and interpretable MT impedance and geomagnetic transfer functions at most sites by processing the 'quietest' 4-hour night time subsets of data using several robust codes and the ELICIT method. Tensor decomposition was applied at each site to ascertain if the data are suitable for 2-D modelling and to determine the appropriate geoelectric strike direction. The obtained 2-D models underwent examination using a new stability technique, and the final two 2-D profiles with reliability estimations, expressed through conductance and resistivity, were derived. 3-D models, including all usable MT data in the Newcastle area, have also been determined with and without resistivity constrains for shallow structures from resistivity measurements in one of the boreholes (borehole NGE1). The 3-D models exhibit structures with higher conductivity in comparison to the 2-D models, with similarly resistive background rocks. The shallow conductive structures, to a depth of 1 km, have north-south elongations correlated with the surface traces of faults that are perpendicular to the regional Blackrock to Newcastle Fault (BNF). Deeper structures become more oriented to a regional geoelectric strike similar to 2-D regional strike. To obtain superior characterization of the thermal transport properties of the investigated area, we used porosity and resistivity data from borehole NGE1 to estimate relation between

  13. Occurrence of Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin in Austria.

    PubMed

    Allerberger, F; Liesegang, A; Grif, K; Prager, R; Danzl, J; Höck, F; Ottl, J; Dierich, M P; Berghold, C; Neckstaller, I; Tschäpe, H; Fisher, I

    2002-04-01

    In Austria, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin, a bovine-adapted serovar, rarely causes infections in humans. In 2000, Austria was within the European mean with an incidence of 0.1 per million inhabitants. Our data show that the vast majority of all serovar Dublin infections (human and non-human) can be traced epidemiologically to two districts in the Tyrol. This concentration of cases can be explained by a particularly traditional aspect of cattle farming in this area, the alpine pasture. There is an increased risk of cross infection due to the communal keeping of animals from various farms. Infected cattle are a source of infection for humans, and transmission usually occurs from eating beef and drinking cows milk. Using pulsed field gel electrophoresis and automated ribotyping, three out of five isolates from human infections could be traced to characteristic Tyrolean Dublin clones. Bacteriological screening for faecal carriage before the transfer of cattle from risk-herds to the alpine pastures and before the return from risk-pastures to the farms would be a possible starting point to prevent cross-contamination of large mixed herds and contamination of pasture through latently infected cattle. Appropriate research is necessary.

  14. PREFACE: Kelvin and Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flood, Raymond; McCartney, Mark; Whitaker, Andrew

    2009-07-01

    Sir Joseph Larmor unveiling the Kelvin memorial in the Botanic Gardens, Belfast on a rainy day in 1913 Sir Joseph Larmor unveiling the Kelvin memorial in the Botanic Gardens, Belfast on a rainy day in 1913 © The Ulster Museum: Hogg collection William Thomson, later Lord Kelvin, was born in Belfast in 1824, and his family had lived near Ballynahinch in the north of Ireland, quite close to Belfast, from the seventeenth century. At the time of Kelvin's birth, James Thomson, his father, was Professor of Mathematics at the Belfast Royal Academical Institution (Inst). However, following the death of his wife in 1830, James took up a new position as Professor at the University of Glasgow, and he and his children moved there in 1832. Apart from three years studying at Cambridge, and a very brief period immediately afterwards travelling and teaching in Cambridge, Kelvin was to spend the rest of his life in Glasgow, where he occupied the Chair of Natural Philosophy (or Physics) for 53 years. The natural assumption might be that his birth in Ireland was irrelevant to Kelvin's life and work, and that the fine monument erected in his honour in Belfast's Botanic Gardens, which is pictured on the front cover of this volume, was more a demonstration of civic pride than a recognition of an aspect of Kelvin's life which was important to him. The purpose of the meeting was to demon strate that this was not the case, that, great Glaswegian as he undoubtedly became, Kelvin always delighted in the title of Irishman. The influence of his father, very much an Ulsterman, was immense, and Kelvin and his siblings were to follow his non-sectarian and reforming approach. Also important for Kelvin was his Christian upbringing, which began in Belfast, and his beliefs were to play a role of importance in his life and indeed in much of his most important work, in particular that on thermodynamics. Two of his siblings returned to Belfast and spent much of their lives there, and Kelvin was a

  15. Role of two-component sensory systems of Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin in the pathogenesis of systemic salmonellosis in cattle.

    PubMed

    Pullinger, Gillian D; van Diemen, Pauline M; Dziva, Francis; Stevens, Mark P

    2010-10-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin (S. Dublin) is associated with enteritis, typhoid and abortion in cattle. Infections are acquired by the oral route, and the bacteria transit through varied anatomical and cellular niches to elicit systemic disease. S. Dublin must therefore sense and respond to diverse extrinsic stimuli to control gene expression in a spatial and temporal manner. Two-component systems (TCSs) play key roles in such processes, and typically contain a membrane-associated sensor kinase (SK) that modifies a cognate response regulator. Analysis of the genome sequence of S. Dublin identified 31 conserved SK genes. Each SK gene was separately disrupted by lambda Red recombinase-mediated insertion of transposons harbouring unique sequence tags. Calves were challenged with a pool of the mutants together with control strains of defined virulence by the oral and intravenous routes. Quantification of tagged mutants in output pools derived from various tissues and cannulated lymphatic vessels allowed the assignment of spatial roles for each SK following oral inoculation or when the intestinal barrier was bypassed by intravenous delivery. Mutant phenotypes were also assigned in cultured intestinal epithelial cells. Mutants with insertions in barA, envZ, phoQ, ssrA or qseC were significantly negatively selected at all enteric and systemic sites sampled after oral dosing. Mutants lacking baeS, dpiB or citA were negatively selected at some but not all sites. After intravenous inoculation, only barA and phoQ mutants were significantly under-represented at systemic sites. The novel role of baeS in intestinal colonization was confirmed by oral co-infection studies, with a mutant exhibiting modest but significant attenuation at a number of enteric sites. This is the first systematic analysis of the role of all Salmonella TCSs in a highly relevant model of enteric fever. Spatial roles were assigned to eight S. Dublin SKs, but most were not essential for intestinal or

  16. Assessing the robustness of adaptation decisions in river flood defences to uncertainty in climate impact analysis: A case study on the River Suir, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, N.; Murphy, C.

    2009-12-01

    Climate change presents a challenging environment for policy makers and planners as future climate projections are fraught with uncertainty. From the formulation of emissions scenarios, through to the output from Global Climate Models to the regional and then the local scale, uncertainty propagates and increases leading to a cascade of uncertainty (Jones, 2001). The level of flood defences for rivers in Ireland has been built to withstand the 1 in 100 year event based on the historic record. However, stream flow due to climate change is likely to increase by 20% in winter by mid century. The Office of Public Works has therefore revised their projections by adding 20% to the 1 in 100 year event as a design feature of their new flood defences. This poster presents a sensitivity analysis of how various aspects of the climate impact assessment affect the revised level of the 1 in 100 year flood. The River Suir is used as a case study. This poster aims to quantify how different aspects of climate impact assessment uncertainty (GCM, Emissions scenario, impact model) affect the revised level of the 1 in 100 year flood and evaluates if the design of flood defences remains robust to the this uncertainty. Authors. Nuala Murphy Conor Murphy

  17. Examples of studies of solar and lunar cycles carried out in Ireland in Neolithic times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna McKenna-Lawlor, Susan

    2016-10-01

    Brứ na Bόinn (Newgrange) is the largest member of a group of Neolithic passage graves located in the Boyne Valley, Co. Meath, about 50 km from Dublin in Ireland. According to radio carbon dating, the monument was constructed between about 3200 and 3100 BC and it is thus s about five hundred years older than the current form of Stonehenge as well as older than the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt. Also, it predates the Mycenaean culture of ancient Greece. At the Winter Solstice, the rising sun shines through an external architectural feature called the roof box and traverses a 19m long passage to illuminate an inner chamber decorated by an elegant triple spiral and other carvings. This illumination lasts for about 17 minutes. Today, first light enters about four minutes after sunrise, but calculations based on the precession of the Earth show that, 5,000 years ago, first light would have entered exactly at sunrise. The poster presents drawings of the geometrical alignment concerned and places the monument in the context of other Neolithic monuments in Ireland oriented to key dates in the solar calendar. Evidence for the existence in the Boyne Valley of an interest in lunar as well as in solar cycles is discussed and a carving of a lunar cycle, deemed to be the earliest to be identified without serious ambiguity in either Ireland or Britain, is illustrated and described.

  18. 78 FR 53054 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Chillicothe, Dublin, Hillsboro, and Marion, Ohio

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Chillicothe, Dublin, Hillsboro, and Marion, Ohio... document denies an Application for Review filed by the Committee for Competitive Columbus Radio... argued that the reallotment to Dublin could not be implemented because it would violate the local...

  19. Coming to Journalism: A Comparative Case Study of Postgraduate Students in Dublin and Amman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Boyle, Neil; Knowlton, Steven

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from a pilot study of postgraduate journalism students in Dublin and Amman. The study compared professional outlooks and social characteristics of students in both contexts and examined institutional settings. The study finds that journalism students in Dublin and Amman have very similar views on the profession,…

  20. Report from the International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugimoto, Shigeo; Adachi, Jun; Baker, Thomas; Weibel, Stuart

    This paper describes the International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications 2001 (DC-2001), the ninth major workshop of the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI), which was held in Tokyo in October 2001. DC-2001 was a week-long event that included both a workshop and a conference. In the tradition of previous events, the workshop…

  1. Cluster analysis of fasciolosis in dairy cow herds in Munster province of Ireland and detection of major climatic and environmental predictors of the exposure risk.

    PubMed

    Selemetas, Nikolaos; Phelan, Paul; O'Kiely, Padraig; de Waal, Theo

    2015-03-19

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica is a widespread parasitic disease in cattle farms. The aim of this study was to detect clusters of fasciolosis in dairy cow herds in Munster Province, Ireland and to identify significant climatic and environmental predictors of the exposure risk. In total, 1,292 dairy herds across Munster was sampled in September 2012 providing a single bulk tank milk (BTM) sample. The analysis of samples by an in-house antibody-detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), showed that 65% of the dairy herds (n = 842) had been exposed to F. hepatica. Using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic, 16 high-risk and 24 low-risk (P <0.01) clusters of fasciolosis were identified. The spatial distribution of high-risk clusters was more dispersed and mainly located in the northern and western regions of Munster compared to the low-risk clusters that were mostly concentrated in the southern and eastern regions. The most significant classes of variables that could reflect the difference between high-risk and low-risk clusters were the total number of wet-days and rain-days, rainfall, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), temperature and soil type. There was a bigger proportion of well-drained soils among the low-risk clusters, whereas poorly drained soils were more common among the high-risk clusters. These results stress the role of precipitation, grazing, temperature and drainage on the life cycle of F. hepatica in the temperate Irish climate. The findings of this study highlight the importance of cluster analysis for identifying significant differences in climatic and environmental variables between high-risk and low-risk clusters of fasciolosis in Irish dairy herds.

  2. Acquisition, Loss or Multilingualism? Educational Planning for Speakers of Migrant Community Languages in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Debates surrounding linguistic heritage in Northern Ireland have primarily centred on Irish (Gaelic) and Ulster-Scots. However, closer analysis suggests that there have long been other languages spoken in the region. Cantonese, Mandarin, Polish, Lithuanian and Portuguese are all spoken throughout Northern Ireland as the region experiences…

  3. New Histories for a New State: A Study of History Textbook Content in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terra, Luke

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the changing content of history textbooks in Northern Ireland, drawing on a sample of 15 textbooks published from 1968 to 2010. Findings from the content and narrative analysis indicated that following the introduction of the Northern Ireland Curriculum in 1991, history textbooks shifted from a narrative to source-driven…

  4. Young Women's Positive and Negative Perceptions of Self in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlister, Siobhan; Neill, Gail

    2007-01-01

    This paper represents analysis of one aspect of a larger research project examining the everyday lives and experiences of young women in Northern Ireland. As an introductory exercise within focus groups, 48 young women considered and discussed the good and not so good things about being a young woman in Northern Ireland. Through these accounts…

  5. 100 Years of Primary Curriculum Development and Implementation in Ireland: A Tale of a Swinging Pendulum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    There are ongoing initiatives in curriculum development and implementation in Ireland and internationally in order to enhance the educational experiences and outcomes of learners. This article is the first historical longitudinal analysis of primary school curriculum development and implementation in Ireland from the 1890s to the 1990s. The…

  6. The Economic Impact of Queen's University Belfast on the Northern Ireland Economy. Higher Education in Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Ursula; McNicoll, Iain; White, James

    2015-01-01

    This study provides an analysis of the economic impact of Queen's University Belfast and its students on the Northern Ireland economy. Based in the City of Belfast, the university has over 22,500 students. Its turnover of nearly £290 million makes it Northern Ireland's largest university in terms of its financial standing. With origins going back…

  7. Seasonal, Diurnal and Vertical Variation of Chlorophyll Fluorescence on Phyllostachys humilis in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Van Goethem, Davina; De Smedt, Sebastiaan; Valcke, Roland; Potters, Geert; Samson, Roeland

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, temperate bamboo species have been introduced in Europe not only as an ornamental plant, but also as a new biomass crop. To measure adaptation stress of bamboo to the climate of Western Europe, chlorophyll fluorescence was measured on a diurnal and seasonal basis in Ballyboughal, Co. Dublin, Ireland. Measurements were attained on the leaves of each node of Phyllostachys humilis. The most frequently used parameter in chlorophyll fluorescence is the photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm). A seasonal dip - as well as a larger variation - of Fv/Fm in spring compared to the rest of the year was observed. Over the year, the upper leaves of the plant perform better than the bottom leaves. These findings were linked to environmental factors such as light intensity, air temperature and precipitation, as increased light intensities, decreasing air temperatures and their interactions, also with precipitation levels have an effect on the photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) in these plants. PMID:23967282

  8. Exploring the consistency, transparency and portability of dental technology education: benchmarking across Norway, Ireland and Australia.

    PubMed

    Myhrer, T; Evans, J L; Haugen, H K; Gorman, C; Kavanagh, Y; Cameron, A B

    2016-08-01

    Dental technology programmes of study must prepare students to practice in a broad range of contemporary workplaces. Currently, there is limited evidence to benchmark dental technology education - locally, nationally or internationally. This research aims to improve consistency, transparency and portability of dental technology qualifications across three countries. Data were accessed from open-source curriculum documents and five calibrated assessment items. Three institutions collaborated with Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway; Trinity College Dublin, Ireland; and Griffith University, Australia. From these, 29-44 students completed 174 assessments. The curricula reflect the community needs of each country and display common themes that underpin professional dental technology practice. Assessment results differed between institutions but no more than a normal distribution. Face-to-face assessment moderation was critical to achieve consistency. This collaborative research has led to the development of a set of guidelines for other dental technology education providers interested in developing or aligning courses internationally to enhance the portability of qualifications.

  9. Spatial Microsimulation for Rural Policy Analysis in Ireland: The Implications of CAP Reforms for the National Spatial Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballas, D.; Clarke, G. P.; Wiemers, E.

    2006-01-01

    Microsimulation attempts to describe economic and social events by modelling the behaviour of individual agents. These models have proved useful in evaluating the impact of policy changes at the micro level. Spatial microsimulation models contain geographic information and allow for a regional or local approach to policy analysis. This paper…

  10. Bullying in Schools: A Northern Ireland Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Katrina; McAleavy, Gerry; Adamson, Gary

    2004-01-01

    Northern Ireland, unlike the Republic of Ireland or England, has no province-wide information on bullying in schools. This study provided baseline information on this complex issue across 120 schools in all five Education and Library Boards in Northern Ireland, comprising 60 primary and 60 post-primary schools, 1079 primary pupils (Year 6) and…

  11. Mallow Springs, County Cork, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldwell, C. R.

    1996-03-01

    Because of its copious and reliable rainfall, Ireland has an abundance of springs. Many of the larger ones issue from the Carboniferous limestone that occurs in over 40% of the country. The spring water is mainly a calcium bicarbonate type with a temperature of about 10°C. In the 18th century, warm and cold springs were developed as spas in various parts of Ireland. The popularity of these springs was short and most were in major decline by 1850. Today only one cold spa at Lisdoonvarna, Co. Clare is still operating. Springs in Ireland were places of religious significance for the pre-Christian Druidic religion. In the Christian period they became holy wells, under the patronage of various saints. Cures for many different ailments were attributed to water from these wells.

  12. The welfare implications of disability for older people in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Cullinan, John; Gannon, Brenda; O'Shea, Eamon

    2013-04-01

    Recent data analysed for Ireland suggest a strong link between disability status and household poverty, while there exists substantial evidence to suggest that disability is highly prevalent among persons of older age. Within this context, this paper estimates the welfare implications of disability for older people in Ireland. We define and estimate models of the private costs borne by households with older persons who have a disability in Ireland, both in general and by severity of illness or condition. Our modelling framework is based on the standard of living approach to estimating the cost of disability. The model quantifies the extra costs of living associated with disability and is estimated by comparing the standard of living of households with and without disabled members at a given income, controlling for other sources of variation. The analysis suggests that the estimated economic cost of disability for older people in Ireland is significant and varies by severity of disability, as well as by household type. The results also suggest that the cost of disability increases in proportionate terms as the number of people in the household decreases. Our results are important when considering the effectiveness of policies that aim to address the economic problems associated with disability for older people, suggesting that current policy in Ireland does not go far enough. They indicate that older people face a double jeopardy through age and disability, which is not reflected in official poverty rates and support the case for the introduction of disability-adjusted poverty payments.

  13. Proflavine-mediated inactivation of Salmonella dublin exposed to visible sunlight in natural fresh water.

    PubMed

    Kussovski, V K; Hristov, A E; Radoucheva, T S

    2001-01-01

    The survival of Salmonella dublin exposed to visible sunlight, and heterotrophic bacteria in freshwater microcosms in the presence and absence of the photosensitizer proflavine, was studied. Enumeration of S. dublin and the heterotrophic bacteria showed that in both illuminated and nonilluminated systems (without proflavine) the bacteria remained viable and culturable for at least 6 days. The optimal proflavine concentration (no effect in the dark and a maximal photoinactivation of salmonellae after irradiation) was 2 mg l(-1). In contrast to S. dublin, the heterotrophic bacteria overcame the initial inhibitory effect of proflavine. The possible use of photosterilization against contamination with pathogenic bacteria in water model ecosystems, is discussed.

  14. Ireland: gender, psychological health, and attitudes toward emigration.

    PubMed

    Carlson, H M; Nilsen, E L

    1995-02-01

    Ireland is experiencing one of the highest periods of emigration in its history. The current study collected demographic and psychological data on 203 Irish men and women in Ireland and in Northern Ireland, including measures of self-esteem, depression, attitudes toward immigration, and expectancies of emigration. Analysis indicated that approximately 81% of this Irish sample are considering emigration; however, the prospect of emigration is psychologically experienced differently by men and women. While there were no significant differences over-all in scores on self-esteem between Irish men and women, men who contemplated emigration reported higher self-esteem scores, and women contemplating emigration reported lower self-esteem scores (relative to those who had no plan to emigrate). In addition, women who contemplated emigration had higher depression scores than women who did not contemplate emigration. This pattern was not evident for men. These results indicate that psychologically women view the prospect of emigration less positively than men.

  15. Diurnal, seasonal, and annual trends in atmospheric CO2 at southwest London during 2000-2012: Wind sector analysis and comparison with Mace Head, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Paniagua, Iván Y.; Lowry, David; Clemitshaw, Kevin C.; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Lanoisellé, Mathias; Ramonet, Michel; Nisbet, Euan G.

    2015-03-01

    In-situ measurements of atmospheric CO2 have been made at Royal Holloway University of London (RHUL) in Egham (EGH), Surrey, UK from 2000 to 2012. The data were linked to the global scale using NOAA-calibrated gases. Measured CO2 varies on time scales that range from minutes to inter-annual and annual cycles. Seasonality and pollution episodes occur each year. Diurnal cycles vary with daylight and temperature, which influence the biological cycle of CO2 and the degree of vertical mixing. Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 dominate the variability during weekdays when transport cycles are greater than at weekends. Seasonal cycles are driven by temporal variations in biological activity and changes in combustion emissions. Maximum mole fractions (μmol/mol) (henceforth referred to by parts per million, ppm) occur in winter, with minima in late summer. The smallest seasonal amplitude observed, peak to trough, was 17.0 ppm CO2 in 2003, whereas the largest amplitude observed was 27.1 ppm CO2 in 2008. Meteorology can strongly modify the CO2 mole fractions at different time scales. Analysis of eight 45° wind sectors shows that the highest CO2 mole fractions were recorded from the E and SE sectors. Lowest mole fractions were observed for air masses from the S and SW. Back-trajectory and meteorological analyses of the data confirm that the dominant sources of CO2 are anthropogenic emissions from London and SE England. The largest annual rate of increase in the annual average of CO2, 3.26 ppm yr-1 (p < 0.05), was for the W sector with a smaller increase, 2.56 ppm yr-1 (p < 0.05), for the E sector. Calm winds showed an annual growth rate of 1.16 ppm yr-1 CO2 (p < 0.05) implying declining local sources. The EGH site shows an average growth rate of 2.5 ppm yr-1 CO2 (p < 0.05) over the measured period, which exceeds the observed global trend and contrasts with the decrease in CO2 emissions reported in UK greenhouse gas inventories. This is presumably because the region has had

  16. Haematoporphyrin and proflavine-sensitized photoinactivation of Salmonella dublin.

    PubMed

    Kussovski, V; Radoucheva, T; Najdenski, H; Cherepova, N

    1995-01-01

    The photosensitive activity of haematoporphyrin (HP) and proflavine (PF) on some biological parameters of Salmonella dublin cells was assessed. The investigations showed a decreased respiratory activity of photosensitized PF bacterial cells, accompanied by lower virulence. HP-treatment and light irradiation of salmonellae did not influence their survival in vitro, which was in contrast to the PF-incubated and irradiated cells. Light irradiation of HP- and PF-treated bacteria did not change their phagocytosis from guinea pig alveolar macrophages. In the presence of visible light the PF-treatment considerably reduced the survival rate and multiplication in alveolar macrophages in comparison with HP-treated and light-exposed bacteria. Correlation was established between the degree of structural damage, as observed by electron microscopy and the level of diminution of the chosen biological parameters, which were more strongly expressed after PF-treatment. PF as a photosensitizer which influences the bacterial genomes and its possible practical use, is discussed.

  17. Hyper Text Mark-up Language and Dublin Core metadata element set usage in websites of Iranian State Universities’ libraries

    PubMed Central

    Zare-Farashbandi, Firoozeh; Ramezan-Shirazi, Mahtab; Ashrafi-Rizi, Hasan; Nouri, Rasool

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Recent progress in providing innovative solutions in the organization of electronic resources and research in this area shows a global trend in the use of new strategies such as metadata to facilitate description, place for, organization and retrieval of resources in the web environment. In this context, library metadata standards have a special place; therefore, the purpose of the present study has been a comparative study on the Central Libraries’ Websites of Iran State Universities for Hyper Text Mark-up Language (HTML) and Dublin Core metadata elements usage in 2011. Materials and Methods: The method of this study is applied-descriptive and data collection tool is the check lists created by the researchers. Statistical community includes 98 websites of the Iranian State Universities of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education and Ministry of Science, Research and Technology and method of sampling is the census. Information was collected through observation and direct visits to websites and data analysis was prepared by Microsoft Excel software, 2011. Results: The results of this study indicate that none of the websites use Dublin Core (DC) metadata and that only a few of them have used overlaps elements between HTML meta tags and Dublin Core (DC) elements. The percentage of overlaps of DC elements centralization in the Ministry of Health were 56% for both description and keywords and, in the Ministry of Science, were 45% for the keywords and 39% for the description. But, HTML meta tags have moderate presence in both Ministries, as the most-used elements were keywords and description (56%) and the least-used elements were date and formatter (0%). Conclusion: It was observed that the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Science follows the same path for using Dublin Core standard on their websites in the future. Because Central Library Websites are an example of scientific web pages, special attention in designing them can help the researchers

  18. Low Energy Schools in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffernan, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Out of a commitment to reducing carbon dioxide emissions, Ireland's Department of Education and Science has designed and constructed two low energy schools, in Tullamore, County Offaly, and Raheen, County Laois. With energy use in buildings responsible for approximately 55% of the CO[subscript 2] released into the atmosphere and a major…

  19. Primary Science in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Since 1990 the science curriculum in Northern Ireland has gone through three major changes. In the beginning, fifteen attainment targets were introduced to an unsuspecting and largely unprepared teaching population: these were eventually reduced to five in 1993 and then to the present two in 1996. Unlike in England, technology has never stood as…

  20. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Polymeric Materials: Proceedings of the Autumn Meeting of the British Radiofrequency Group Held at Dublin (Ireland).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    temperature means that Van der Waals or hydrogen bonds are now real bonds and all glasses are polymer networks in some sense; a glass made of polymer is...distance due to hydrogen bonding of the water molecules on their sites. Below 160K T1 increased monotonically and approximately linearly with successive...ae 20 A. Within a space domain defined by a3, dyna- mical fluctuations concern short chain segments, only (the number of skeletal bonds Ne is about

  1. The First Year Experience. Conference Proceedings of the International Conference (7th, Dublin, Ireland, July 18-22, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Univ., Columbia. Center for the Study of the Freshman Year Experience.

    These proceedings contain 68 author-prepared abstracts of presentations given at the Seventh International Conference on the First-Year Experience, a 5-day conference that focused on the foundations for improving the undergraduate experience. The majority of the one- to two-page abstracts report on specific programs undertaken by colleges or…

  2. EFFECT OF AIR-POLLUTION CONTROL ON DEATH RATES IN DUBLIN, IRELAND: AN INTERVENTION STUDY. (R827353C006)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Particulate air pollution episodes have been associated with increased daily death. However, there is little direct evidence that diminished particulate air pollution concentrations would lead to reductions in death rates. We assessed the effect of ...

  3. Language across Cultures. Proceedings of a Symposium (St. Patrick's College, Dublin, Ireland, July 8-9, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathuna, Liam Mac; Singleton, David

    Papers presented at the symposium on the relationship between language and culture include, in addition to an opening adress: "Sociosemiotics Across Cultures" (Wolfgang Kuhlwein); "Translation Across Languages or Across Cultures?" (Albrecht Neubert); "Grammatical Categories Across Cultures" (Olga Tomic); "On…

  4. Higher Education, Participation and Devolution: The Case of Northern Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, R. D.

    2001-01-01

    Outlines changes in higher education participation in Northern Ireland and considers effects of devolution in the United Kingdom. Draws on research conducted on participation and migration of students and graduates. Changes in student numbers are considered based on social class, religion, and gender; the analysis distinguishes between different…

  5. Paul Mills Ireland III Portrait of a Soldier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, John P.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the life and identity of Paul Mills Ireland, III. The qualitative study was conducted using the portraiture approach and was further developed by incorporating the holistic content approach of analysis in narrative research. This fifth generation soldier was the product of a strong military lineage, most of whom were…

  6. Youth in Northern Ireland: Introduction to the Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percy, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a collection of articles that represent some of the research and policy analysis of key issues affecting the lives of young people currently living in Northern Ireland, which is in the midst of an unparalleled political and social transformation. The articles focus on crime, drug use, criminal justice, families, divorce, and youth…

  7. MLVA for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Dublin: Development of a Method Suitable for Inter-Laboratory Surveillance and Application in the Context of a Raw Milk Cheese Outbreak in France in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Vignaud, Marie-Léone; Cherchame, Emeline; Marault, Muriel; Chaing, Emilie; Le Hello, Simon; Michel, Valerie; Jourdan-Da Silva, Nathalie; Lailler, Renaud; Brisabois, Anne; Cadel-Six, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Dublin (S. Dublin) figures among the most frequently isolated Salmonella strains in humans in France. This serovar may affect production and animal health mainly in cattle herds with corresponding high economic losses. Given that the current gold standard method, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), provides insufficient discrimination for epidemiological investigations, we propose a standard operating procedure in this study for multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) of S. Dublin, suitable for inter-laboratory surveillance. An in silico analysis on the genome of S. Dublin strains CT_02021853 was performed to identify appropriate microsatellite regions. Of 21 VNTR loci screened, six were selected and 401 epidemiologically unrelated and related strains, isolated from humans, food and animals were analyzed to assess performance criteria such as typeability, discriminatory power and epidemiological concordance. The MLVA scheme developed was applied to an outbreak involving Saint-Nectaire cheese for which investigations were conducted in France in 2012, making it possible to discriminate between epidemiologically related strains and sporadic case strains, while PFGE assigned only a single profile. The six loci selected were sequenced on a large set of strains to determine the sequence of the repeated units and flanking regions, and their stability was evaluated in vivo through the analysis of the strains investigated from humans, food and the farm environment during the outbreak. The six VNTR selected were found to be stable and the discriminatory power of the MLVA method developed was calculated to be 0.954 compared with that for PFGE, which was only 0.625. Twenty-four reference strains were selected from the 401 examined strains in order to represent most of the allele diversity observed for each locus. This reference set can be used to harmonize MLVA results and allow data exchange between

  8. MLVA for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Dublin: Development of a Method Suitable for Inter-Laboratory Surveillance and Application in the Context of a Raw Milk Cheese Outbreak in France in 2012.

    PubMed

    Vignaud, Marie-Léone; Cherchame, Emeline; Marault, Muriel; Chaing, Emilie; Le Hello, Simon; Michel, Valerie; Jourdan-Da Silva, Nathalie; Lailler, Renaud; Brisabois, Anne; Cadel-Six, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Dublin (S. Dublin) figures among the most frequently isolated Salmonella strains in humans in France. This serovar may affect production and animal health mainly in cattle herds with corresponding high economic losses. Given that the current gold standard method, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), provides insufficient discrimination for epidemiological investigations, we propose a standard operating procedure in this study for multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) of S. Dublin, suitable for inter-laboratory surveillance. An in silico analysis on the genome of S. Dublin strains CT_02021853 was performed to identify appropriate microsatellite regions. Of 21 VNTR loci screened, six were selected and 401 epidemiologically unrelated and related strains, isolated from humans, food and animals were analyzed to assess performance criteria such as typeability, discriminatory power and epidemiological concordance. The MLVA scheme developed was applied to an outbreak involving Saint-Nectaire cheese for which investigations were conducted in France in 2012, making it possible to discriminate between epidemiologically related strains and sporadic case strains, while PFGE assigned only a single profile. The six loci selected were sequenced on a large set of strains to determine the sequence of the repeated units and flanking regions, and their stability was evaluated in vivo through the analysis of the strains investigated from humans, food and the farm environment during the outbreak. The six VNTR selected were found to be stable and the discriminatory power of the MLVA method developed was calculated to be 0.954 compared with that for PFGE, which was only 0.625. Twenty-four reference strains were selected from the 401 examined strains in order to represent most of the allele diversity observed for each locus. This reference set can be used to harmonize MLVA results and allow data exchange between

  9. Population structure and genome-wide patterns of variation in Ireland and Britain

    PubMed Central

    O'Dushlaine, Colm T; Morris, Derek; Moskvina, Valentina; Kirov, George; Consortium, International Schizophrenia; Gill, Michael; Corvin, Aiden; Wilson, James F; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L

    2010-01-01

    Located off the northwestern coast of the European mainland, Britain and Ireland were among the last regions of Europe to be colonized by modern humans after the last glacial maximum. Further, the geographical location of Britain, and in particular of Ireland, is such that the impact of historical migration has been minimal. Genetic diversity studies applying the Y chromosome and mitochondrial systems have indicated reduced diversity and an increased population structure across Britain and Ireland relative to the European mainland. Such characteristics would have implications for genetic mapping studies of complex disease. We set out to further our understanding of the genetic architecture of the region from the perspective of (i) population structure, (ii) linkage disequilibrium (LD), (iii) homozygosity and (iv) haplotype diversity (HD). Analysis was conducted on 3654 individuals from Ireland, Britain (with regional sampling in Scotland), Bulgaria, Portugal, Sweden and the Utah HapMap collection. Our results indicate a subtle but clear genetic structure across Britain and Ireland, although levels of structure were reduced in comparison with average cross-European structure. We observed slightly elevated levels of LD and homozygosity in the Irish population compared with neighbouring European populations. We also report on a cline of HD across Europe with greatest levels in southern populations and lowest levels in Ireland and Scotland. These results are consistent with our understanding of the population history of Europe and promote Ireland and Scotland as relatively homogenous resources for genetic mapping of rare variants. PMID:20571510

  10. Cattle-derived Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin Infections in Red Foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) in Tyrol, Austria.

    PubMed

    Glawischnig, Walter; Lazar, Judit; Wallner, Alice; Kornschober, Christian

    2017-01-31

    Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin is endemic in the cattle population in some areas of the Austrian province Tyrol, and each year single dairy farms have experienced clinical infections. To ascertain if Tyrolean red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) act as a reservoir for Salmonella spp., we tested hepatic tissue and intestinal content from foxes hunted in the years 2015-2016 by using microbiological methods. In addition, we included several fox fecal samples collected on a mountain pasture near chamois carcasses in the investigation. Of 434 foxes tested, nine animals (2.1%) were positive for Salmonella spp. Serotyping revealed five foxes positive with S. Dublin, demonstrating that this serovar exists in the Tyrolean fox population. The fecal samples collected in the area surrounding skeletonized chamois ( Rupicapra rupicapra ) also tested positive for S. Dublin. These chamois were probably victims of a waterborne outbreak caused by S. Dublin-shedding cattle. Our results indicate that the S. Dublin infections in red foxes were primarily acquired through ingestion of infected cattle material such as abortion tissues, but also by feeding on dead chamois. The findings underline the importance of interspecies transmission in this domestic/wildlife interface.

  11. Comparison of midwife-led and consultant-led care of healthy women at low risk of childbirth complications in the Republic of Ireland: a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background No midwifery-led units existed in Ireland before 2004. The aim of this study was to compare midwife-led (MLU) versus consultant-led (CLU) care for healthy, pregnant women without risk factors for labour and delivery. Methods An unblinded, pragmatic randomised trial was designed, funded by the Health Service Executive (Dublin North-East). Following ethical approval, all women booking prior to 24 weeks of pregnancy at two maternity hospitals with 1,300-3,200 births annually in Ireland were assessed for trial eligibility.1,653 consenting women were centrally randomised on a 2:1 ratio to MLU or CLU care, (1101:552). 'Intention-to-treat' analysis was used to compare 9 key neonatal and maternal outcomes. Results No statistically significant difference was found between MLU and CLU in the seven key outcomes: caesarean birth (163 [14.8%] vs 84 [15.2%]; relative risk (RR) 0.97 [95% CI 0.76 to 1.24]), induction (248 [22.5%] vs 138 [25.0%]; RR 0.90 [0.75 to 1.08]), episiotomy (126 [11.4%] vs 68 [12.3%]; RR 0.93 [0.70 to 1.23]), instrumental birth (139 [12.6%] vs 79 [14.3%]; RR 0.88 [0.68 to 1.14]), Apgar scores < 8 (10 [0.9%] vs 9 [1.6%]; RR 0.56 [0.23 to 1.36]), postpartum haemorrhage (144 [13.1%] vs 75 [13.6%]; RR 0.96 [0.74 to 1.25]); breastfeeding initiation (616 [55.9%] vs 317 [57.4%]; RR 0.97 [0.89 to 1.06]). MLU women were significantly less likely to have continuous electronic fetal monitoring (397 [36.1%] vs 313 [56.7%]; RR 0.64 [0.57 to 0.71]), or augmentation of labour (436 [39.6%] vs 314 [56.9%]; RR 0.50 [0.40 to 0.61]). Conclusions Midwife-led care, as practised in this study, is as safe as consultant-led care and is associated with less intervention during labour and delivery. Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN14973283 PMID:22035427

  12. Cyber-Bullying: The Situation in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Moore, Mona

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the first major survey of cyber-bullying undertaken in Ireland. While preliminary results have been published they were based on a smaller and incomplete sample of 12-16 year olds living in Ireland. The preliminary results addressed the incidence level of cyber-bullying and that of the different subcategories of…

  13. Immigration and School Composition in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Delma; McGinnity, Frances; Smyth, Emer; Darmody, Merike

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade, Ireland has experienced a rapid increase in immigration on a scale previously unknown in the country's history. Over this time, Ireland has been transformed to an increasingly heterogeneous country in terms of nationality, language, ethnicity and religious affiliation. These changes have also impacted on the composition of…

  14. Overseas nurse recruitment: Ireland as an illustration of the dynamic nature of nurse migration.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Niamh; Brugha, Ruairí; McGee, Hannah

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents an analysis of Ireland's recent experience of overseas nurse recruitment. Ireland began actively recruiting nurses from overseas in 2000 and has recruited almost 10,000 nurses, primarily from India and the Philippines since that time. This paper takes a timely look at the Irish experience to date. It reviews the literature on the supply and demand factors that determine the need for, and the international migration of, nurses and presents working visa and nurse registration statistics. This enables the authors to quantify and discuss the trends and scale of recent nurse migration to Ireland from outside the European Union (EU). The paper discusses the data essential for national workforce planning and highlights the deficiencies in the Irish data currently available for that purpose. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of Ireland's heavy reliance on overseas nurse recruitment.

  15. Decomposing socioeconomic inequalities in childhood obesity: evidence from Ireland.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Brendan; Cullinan, John

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to quantify and decompose the socioeconomic gradient in childhood obesity in the Republic of Ireland. The analysis is performed using data from the first wave of the Growing Up in Ireland survey, a nationally representative survey of 8568 nine-year-old children conducted in 2007 and 2008. We estimate concentration indices to quantify the extent of the socioeconomic gradient in childhood obesity and undertake a subsequent decomposition analysis to pinpoint the key factors underpinning the observed inequalities. Overall the results confirm a strong socioeconomic gradient in childhood obesity in the Republic of Ireland. Concentration indices of obesity (CI=-0.168) and overweight/obese (CI=-0.057) show that the gradient is more pronounced in obese children, while results from the decomposition analysis suggest that the majority of the inequality in childhood obesity is explained by parental level variables. Our findings suggest that addressing childhood obesity inequalities requires coordinated policy responses at both the child and parental level.

  16. Molecular analysis of OXA-48-carrying conjugative IncL/M-like plasmids in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Power, Karen; Wang, Juan; Karczmarczyk, Maria; Crowley, Brendan; Cotter, Meaghan; Haughton, Pippa; Lynch, Maureen; Schaffer, Kirsten; Fanning, Séamus

    2014-08-01

    This study characterized an IncL/M-like plasmid containing a bla(OXA-48)-encoding gene from a clinical isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae, denoted as E71T. Investigation of this plasmid sequence identified unique regions of interest along with conserved regions detected in eight other clinical carbapenem-resistant isolates. A 63-kb plasmid (pE71T) from K. pneumoniae E71T was sequenced and found to be highly similar to the recently published K. pneumoniae pOXA-48a (JN626286). Two copies of the insertion sequence element IS1R were identified, one of which was located adjacent to the bla(OXA-48)-encoding gene forming part of a composite transposon Tn1999.2 and the second located 16-kb downstream. Plasmid profiling and PCR assays confirmed that the pE71T backbone was conserved among the eight other clinical bla(OXA-48)-positive isolates, and in all cases, the OXA-48 genes were part of the Tn1999.2 composite transposon. This is the first report of a bla(OXA-48) and IS1R arrangement-containing plasmid in Ireland.

  17. Emotional insecurity in the family and community and youth delinquency in Northern Ireland: a person-oriented analysis across five waves

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, E. Mark; Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Over one billion children are exposed worldwide to political violence and armed conflict. Currently, conclusions about bases for adjustment problems are qualified by limited longitudinal research from a process-oriented, social-ecological perspective. In this study, we examined a theoretically-based model for the impact of multiple levels of the social ecology (family, community) on adolescent delinquency. Specifically, this study explored the impact of children's emotional insecurity about both the family and community on youth delinquency in Northern Ireland. Methods In the context of a five-wave longitudinal research design, participants included 999 mother–child dyads in Belfast (482 boys, 517 girls), drawn from socially-deprived, ethnically-homogenous areas that had experienced political violence. Youth ranged in age from 10 to 20 and were 12.18 (SD = 1.82) years old on average at Time 1. Findings The longitudinal analyses were conducted in hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), allowing for the modeling of interindividual differences in intraindividual change. Intraindividual trajectories of emotional insecurity about the family related to children's delinquency. Greater insecurity about the community worsened the impact of family conflict on youth's insecurity about the family, consistent with the notion that youth's insecurity about the community sensitizes them to exposure to family conflict in the home. Conclusions The results suggest that ameliorating children's insecurity about family and community in contexts of political violence is an important goal toward improving adolescents' well-being, including reduced risk for delinquency. PMID:25981614

  18. Digital Libraries and the Problem of Purpose [and] On DigiPaper and the Dissemination of Electronic Documents [and] DFAS: The Distributed Finding Aid Search System [and] Best Practices for Digital Archiving: An Information Life Cycle Approach [and] Mapping and Converting Essential Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Metadata into MARC21 and Dublin Core: Towards an Alternative to the FGDC Clearinghouse [and] Evaluating Website Modifications at the National Library of Medicine through Search Log analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, David M.; Huttenlocher, Dan; Moll, Angela; Smith, MacKenzie; Hodge, Gail M.; Chandler, Adam; Foley, Dan; Hafez, Alaaeldin M.; Redalen, Aaron; Miller, Naomi

    2000-01-01

    Includes six articles focusing on the purpose of digital public libraries; encoding electronic documents through compression techniques; a distributed finding aid server; digital archiving practices in the framework of information life cycle management; converting metadata into MARC format and Dublin Core formats; and evaluating Web sites through…

  19. Ireland

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  An Irish Tale: One City, Two Asteroids     View Larger Image ... were recently commemorated by the official naming of two asteroids, "ArmaghObs" and "Ardmacha". The latter is the ancient Gaelic name ...

  20. Mapping and converting essential Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata into MARC21 and Dublin Core: towards an alternative to the FGDC Clearinghouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chandler, A.; Foley, D.; Hafez, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to raise and address a number of issues related to the conversion of Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata into MARC21 and Dublin Core. We present an analysis of 466 FGDC metadata records housed in the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) node of the FGDC Clearinghouse, with special emphasis on the length of fields and the total length of records in this set. One of our contributions is a 34 element crosswalk, a proposal that takes into consideration the constraints of the MARC21 standard as implemented in OCLC's World Cat and the realities of user behavior.

  1. "A Victim of Its Own Success"? The Diploma in Addiction Studies at Trinity College Dublin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Marguerite; Butler, Shane

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews and reflects on the Diploma in Addiction Studies: a 1-year, full-time programme taught at the School of Social Work and Social Policy in Trinity College Dublin since the academic year 1983/1984, which has recently had its external funding withdrawn. The programme was aimed at multidisciplinary classes, including students from…

  2. Dublin Institute of Technology's Programme for Students Learning with Communities: A Critical Account of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Elena; Bates, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on the process of critically evaluating Dublin Institute of Technology's Programme for Students Learning With Communities after its first year of operation. The programme supports and promotes community-based learning/service-learning across DIT. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is presented in the form of a…

  3. Farmer's lung in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, C F; Hall, G; Chivers, A; Martin, B; Nicholls, D P; Evans, J

    1990-01-01

    A total of 381 farmers in Northern Ireland were studied using a questionnaire, pulmonary function tests, and antibody levels to Micropolyspora faena to assess the incidence of farmer's lung. Twenty (4.9%) had a history of a previous diagnosis of farmer's lung by their doctor. Forty four (10.4%) had delayed onset symptoms compatible with farmer's lung, 32 (7.9%) had precipitant antibody, and 61 (15%) had raised antibody by the enzyme linked immunosorbent (ELISA) method. Restricted lungs were present physiologically in 40 (9.8%). A confirmation of delayed symptoms and precipitant antibody was present in seven (1.7%) whereas delayed symptoms and ELISA antibody was present in nine (2.2%). Using either antibody method only two (0.5%) had a combination of antibody to M faenae, delayed onset symptoms, and restricted pulmonary physiology. PMID:2357452

  4. Farmer's lung in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Stanford, C F; Hall, G; Chivers, A; Martin, B; Nicholls, D P; Evans, J

    1990-05-01

    A total of 381 farmers in Northern Ireland were studied using a questionnaire, pulmonary function tests, and antibody levels to Micropolyspora faena to assess the incidence of farmer's lung. Twenty (4.9%) had a history of a previous diagnosis of farmer's lung by their doctor. Forty four (10.4%) had delayed onset symptoms compatible with farmer's lung, 32 (7.9%) had precipitant antibody, and 61 (15%) had raised antibody by the enzyme linked immunosorbent (ELISA) method. Restricted lungs were present physiologically in 40 (9.8%). A confirmation of delayed symptoms and precipitant antibody was present in seven (1.7%) whereas delayed symptoms and ELISA antibody was present in nine (2.2%). Using either antibody method only two (0.5%) had a combination of antibody to M faenae, delayed onset symptoms, and restricted pulmonary physiology.

  5. Thank you for not flowering: conservation genetics and gene flow analysis of native and non-native populations of Fraxinus (Oleaceae) in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Thomasset, M; Hodkinson, T R; Restoux, G; Frascaria-Lacoste, N; Douglas, G C; Fernández-Manjarrés, J F

    2014-01-01

    The risks of gene flow between interfertile native and introduced plant populations are greatest when there is no spatial isolation of pollen clouds and phenological patterns overlap completely. Moreover, invasion probabilities are further increased if introduced populations are capable of producing seeds by selfing. Here we investigated the mating system and patterns of pollen-mediated gene flow among populations of native ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and mixed plantations of non-native ash (F. angustifolia and F. excelsior) as well as hybrid ash (F. excelsior × F. angustifolia) in Ireland. We analysed the flowering phenology of the mother trees and genotyped with six microsatellite loci in progeny arrays from 132 native and plantation trees (1493 seeds) and 444 potential parents. Paternity analyses suggested that plantation and native trees were pollinated by both native and introduced trees. No signs of significant selfing in the introduced trees were observed and no evidence of higher male reproductive success was found for introduced trees compared with native ones either. A small but significant genetic structure was found (φft=0.05) and did not correspond to an isolation-by-distance pattern. However, we observed a significant temporal genetic structure related to the different phenological groups, especially with early and late flowering native trees; each phenological group was pollinated with distinctive pollen sources. Implications of these results are discussed in relation to the conservation and invasiveness of ash and the spread of resistance genes against pathogens such as the fungus Chalara fraxinea that is destroying common ash forests in Europe. PMID:24424162

  6. Composition variability of spent mushroom compost in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Jordan, S N; Mullen, G J; Murphy, M C

    2008-01-01

    Spent mushroom compost (SMC) has proven to be an attractive material for improving soil structure in tilled soils and increasing dry matter production in grassland soils, owing to its high organic matter content and availability of essential plant nutrients. Because of this, it is important to identify the variability in composition of SMC in order to evaluate its merit as a fertilizer/soil conditioner. For this reason, a study was carried out involving the analysis of SMC samples obtained from five mushroom growers using compost from each of the 13 mushroom composting yards currently operating in both Northern Ireland (5 yd) and the Republic of Ireland (8 yd). The selected parameters measured include dry matter, organic matter, total N, P and K, C/N ratio; plant-available P and K, pH, EC, total Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb; and cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin constituents. Yield of mushroom data were also collected from the selected growers. There were significant differences (P<0.05) within two compost production yards for some parameters, therefore, for the most part, the uniformity of SMC within each yard is relatively consistent. However, significant differences (P<0.05) were evident when comparing SMC obtained from growers supplied with compost from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland independently, particularly among total and available phosphorus and potassium values. The results obtained show that, while SMC has fertilizer merit, its variability of composition must be taken into account when assessing this value. The variability of composition is also of particular interest in the context of recent emphasis on plant nutrient management in agriculture.

  7. Genetic drift and gene flow in post-famine Ireland.

    PubMed

    Relethford, J H; Crawford, M H; Blangero, J

    1997-08-01

    This study examines the genetic impact of the Great Famine (1846-1851) on the regional genetic structure of Ireland. The Great Famine resulted in a rapid decrease in population size throughout Ireland in a short period of time, increasing the possibility of genetic drift. Our study is based on migration and anthropometric data collected originally in the 1930s from 7211 adult Irish males. These data were subdivided into three time periods defined by year of birth: 1861-1880, 1881-1900, and 1901-1920. Within each time period the data were further subdivided into six geographic regions of Ireland. Estimates of Wright's FST were calculated from parent-offspring migration data and from 17 anthropometric variables (10 head measures, 7 body measures). Over time, the average population size decreased, but average rates of migration increased. The estimates of FST at equilibrium from migration matrix analysis suggest that the net effect of these opposite effects is a reduction in among-group variation. Closer examination shows that within each time period the rate of convergence to equilibrium is slow, meaning that the expected levels of genetic homogeneity revealed from migration matrix analysis are not likely to be seen over short intervals of time. Estimates of FST from anthropometric data show either relatively little change in microdifferentiation or some increase, depending on which variables are analyzed. Investigation of a simple model of demographic and genetic change shows that, given the demographic changes in post-Famine Ireland, FST could in theory increase, decrease, or remain the same over short intervals of time. Overall, the Great Famine appears to have had minimal impact on the genetic structure of Ireland on a regional level. Comparison with studies focusing on local genetic structure shows the opposite. It appears that the level of genetic impact depends strongly on the level of analysis; local populations are affected to a greater extent by demographic

  8. Ageing in Changing Community Contexts: Cross-Border Perspectives from Rural Ireland and Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kieran; O'Shea, Eamon; Scharf, Thomas; Murray, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Ongoing demographic, social, economic and cultural changes point to the dynamic and continually changing contexts of rural areas in Ireland and Northern Ireland. However, the influence of such changes on the lives of older people remains under-explored, particularly the question of how older people perceive, connect to and engage in their…

  9. Cyberbullying, Schools and the Law: A Comparative Study in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Noel; Mc Guckin, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study addresses the fast developing behavioural issue of cyberbullying in schools and its complex legal context. Purpose: This study set out to investigate teachers' perceptions of the extent of cyberbullying and the extent to which school leaders in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland feel knowledgeable and confident…

  10. Blooming Seas West of Ireland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    For several weeks in May and early June, daily satellite images of the North Atlantic Ocean west of Ireland have captured partial glimpses of luxuriant blooms of microscopic marine plants between patches of clouds. On June 4, 2007, the skies over the ocean cleared, displaying the sea's spring bloom in brilliant color. A bright blue bloom stretches north from the Mouth of the River Shannon and tapers off like a plume of blue smoke north of Clare Island. (In the large image, a second bloom is visible to the north, wrapping around County Donegal, on the island's northwestern tip.) The image was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite. Cold, nutrient-stocked water often wells up to the surface from the deeper ocean along coastal shelves and at the edges of ocean currents. When it does, it delivers a boost of nutrients that fuel large blooms of single-celled plants collectively known as phytoplankton. The plants are the foundation of the marine food web, and their proliferation in this area of the North Atlantic explains why the waters of western Ireland support myriad fisheries and populations of large mammals like seals, whales, and dolphins. Like plants on land, phytoplankton make their food through photosynthesis, harnessing sunlight for energy using chlorophyll and other light-capturing pigments. The pigments change the way light reflects off the surface water, appearing as colorful swirls of turquoise and green against the darker blue of the ocean. Though individually tiny, collectively these plants play a big role in Earth's carbon and climate cycles; worldwide, they remove about as much carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis as land plants do. Satellites are the only way to map the occurrence of phytoplankton blooms across the global oceans on a regular basis. That kind of information is important not only to scientists who model carbon and climate, but also to biologists and fisheries

  11. An evaluation of the appropriateness and effectiveness of structured reflection for midwifery students in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Louise; Lawler, Denise; Brady, Vivienne; OBoyle, Colm; Deasy, Anna; Muldoon, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Midwifery students undertaking the undergraduate midwifery education programme in Ireland participate in facilitated reflective sessions that aim to develop their skills of reflecting on and in clinical practice. This paper presents a qualitative evaluation of the appropriateness and effectiveness of the facilitated reflection sessions for pre and post-registration midwifery students in two large Dublin maternity teaching hospitals. The aim was to evaluate structured reflective practice sessions which sought to assist midwifery students to become competent reflective practitioners. Group reflection sessions were conducted weekly in a clinical practice area at the same time each week over one academic year. After the series of structured reflective sessions, midwifery students and facilitating staff were invited to evaluate the reflective process. This evaluation consisted of a self-completion survey to identify the factors that facilitated and impeded student participation in the sessions. Respondents answered a series of questions about the reflective practice sessions and were also invited to enter qualitative data regarding their subjective experiences of the process in free text boxes. The data were then collated into themes by an independent reviewer. The results of the evaluation clearly indicate that midwifery students and facilitators welcomed the opportunity to engage in group reflection sessions as a form of peer support and as a catalyst for learning from clinical practice. Findings suggest that reflective practice can contribute to the development of skilled, self-aware and engaged practitioners.

  12. Giant hydronephrosis and secondary pyelonephritis induced by Salmonella dublin in a Holstein calf

    PubMed Central

    Taghipur Bazargani, T; Khodakaram-Tafti, A; Ashrafi, I; Abbassi, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Hydronephrosis occurs as a congenital or an acquired condition following obstruction of the urinary tract. In this study, a four month old male Holstein calf with emaciation, growth retardation and a poor dry scruffy hair coat was examined because of remarkable distention of right abdomen. At necropsy, right kidney was hydronephrotic as a very big fluid-filled round pelvis with the presence of multilocular cysts bulged from the cortical surface. With sectioning, more than 10 L of bloody fluid poured out from this sac. Microscopic examination showed severe atrophy of cortical tissue and fibrosis of the medulla. Also, the dilated pelvis was composed of fibrinous exudate and necrosis of epithelium associated with multifocal aggregations of neutrophils and bacterial microcolonies. In a culture and serotyping of isolated bacteria, Salmonella dublin was determined. In conclusion, S. dublin induced pyelonephritis secondary to congenital giant hydronephrosis is the first report in cattle in the world. PMID:27175163

  13. Comparison of the environmental survival characteristics of Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Miranda J; Liebana, Ernesto; McLaren, Ian; Clifton-Hadley, Felicity A; Wales, Andrew D; Davies, Robert H

    2012-10-12

    To examine possible correlations in bovine Salmonella isolates between environmental survival and serovar-associated epidemiological patterns, bovine field isolates of Salmonella serovars Typhimurium and Dublin (two each) were inoculated into bovine faeces slurry and tested monthly by culture for survival during a six-month period of storage at a variable ambient temperature in a disused animal transporter. Low moisture conditions, where the slurry was dried onto wooden dowels, increased detectable survival of a low-level inoculum by up to five months, compared with wet slurry. A more modest increase of survival time was seen with storage of wet slurry under refrigeration at 4°C. Under both dry and wet conditions, the concentration of culturable Salmonella Typhimurium declined at a slower rate than did that of Salmonella Dublin. Salmonella that was naturally contaminating bovine faeces from farms with Salmonella Typhimurium did not show superior survival times compared with Salmonella Typhimurium that had been artificially inoculated into samples. The differing survival characteristics of the two serovars that was observed in environmental faeces may complement their different modes of infection in cattle. Salmonella Dublin, being a bovine host-adapted strain that establishes chronic infection in some animals, may have less need to survive for a prolonged period outside of its host than does Salmonella Typhimurium.

  14. A Brief History of the Potato in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on the potato in Ireland focusing on how the potato arrived in Ireland and the advantages and disadvantages of the potato as a food crop. Discusses the Irish potato famine in Ireland, effects of the famine, and the government's laissez-faire response. Includes a list of questions. (CMK)

  15. The development of counselling psychology in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Allison; O'Callaghan, Dermot; O'Brien, Owen; Broderick, John; Long, Catherine; O'Grady, Ian

    2014-03-01

    This paper discusses the distinctive nature of the specialism of counselling psychology and outlines the development of the discipline in Ireland in the context of international developments and its recognition as a professional branch of applied psychology. Today, counselling psychologists are employed in varied clinical and non-clinical settings including health and mental health services (statutory, private and voluntary sector) along with education, forensic, justice, industry and private practices. Counselling psychologist is the primary professional identity of many practising psychologists in Ireland and the Psychological Society of Ireland's Division of Counselling Psychology is the main affiliation of at least 179 members. With its focus on facilitating personal and interpersonal functioning across the life span and its emphasis on the therapeutic process, the specialism continues to bridge the disciplines of psychology, counselling and psychotherapy. In this article, some of the challenges still faced by counselling psychology are explored as it navigates its way through the changing landscape of further development and evolution.

  16. Polish women's experiences of breastfeeding in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Szafranska, Marcelina; Gallagher, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding among Polish mothers at three-four months (38.6 per cent) is in keeping with the low rates of breastfeeding in Ireland overall (Begley et al 2008), and suggests that Polish women have begun to adopt the infant feeding practices of Irish women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence Polish women's decisions to initiate and continue breastfeeding in Ireland. A descriptive qualitative approach was utilised to explore participants' perspectives of breastfeeding. Results showed that professional and family support are key to a successful breastfeeding experience for these mothers. Recommendations include further individualised support in order to meet the needs of Polish women breastfeeding in Ireland.

  17. Unmarried mothers in Ireland, 1880-1973.

    PubMed

    Luddy, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the changing experiences and representation of Ireland's unmarried mothers from 1880 to 1973. It focuses on the stigma of illegitimacy in political and cultural discourse and the representation of unmarried mothers as immoral and their children as a drain on resources. These remained constant themes within the discourse of unmarried motherhood in Ireland throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The article uses the records of philanthropic, government and religious organisations to chart the rising interest in the moral reformation of unmarried mothers at the end of the nineteenth century and rising tolerance towards them by the end of the twentieth century.

  18. Dietary quality in a sample of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Ireland; a cross-sectional case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A number of dietary quality indices (DQIs) have been developed to assess the quality of dietary intake. Analysis of the intake of individual nutrients does not reflect the complexity of dietary behaviours and their association with health and disease. The aim of this study was to determine the dietary quality of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using a variety of validated DQIs. Methods In this cross-sectional analysis of 111 Caucasian adults, 65 cases with T2DM were recruited from the Diabetes Day Care Services of St. Columcille’s and St. Vincent’s Hospitals, Dublin, Ireland. Forty-six controls did not have T2DM and were recruited from the general population. Data from 3-day estimated diet diaries were used to calculate 4 DQIs. Results Participants with T2DM had a significantly lower score for consumption of a Mediterranean dietary pattern compared to the control group, measured using the Mediterranean Diet Score (Range 0–9) and the Alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (Range 0–9) (mean ± SD) (3.4 ± 1.3 vs 4.8 ± 1.8, P < 0.001 and 3.3 ± 1.5 vs 4.2 ± 1.8, P = 0.02 respectively). Participants with T2DM also had lower dietary quality than the control population as assessed by the Healthy Diet Indicator (Range 0–9) (T2DM; 2.6 ± 2.3, control; 3.3 ± 1.1, P = 0.001). No differences between the two groups were found when dietary quality was assessed using the Alternate Healthy Eating Index. Micronutrient intake was assessed using the Micronutrient Adequacy Score (Range 0–8) and participants with T2DM had a significantly lower score than the control group (T2DM; 1.6 ± 1.4, control; 2.3 ± 1.4, P = 0.009). When individual nutrient intakes were assessed, no significant differences were observed in macronutrient intake. Conclusion Overall, these findings demonstrate that T2DM was associated with a lower score when dietary quality was assessed using a number of validated indices

  19. Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis Disease in Humans in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, 2002–2014

    PubMed Central

    Loutet, Miranda G.; O’Connor, Catherine; Kearns, Cathriona; Smith, Robert M.M.; Lalor, Maeve K.; Thomas, H. Lucy; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Zenner, Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Despite control efforts, Mycobacterium bovis incidence among cattle remains high in parts of England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, attracting political and public health interest in potential spread from animals to humans. To determine incidence among humans and to identify associated factors, we conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of human M. bovis cases in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland during 2002–2014. We identified 357 cases and observed increased annual case numbers (from 17 to 35) and rates. Most patients were >65 years of age and born in the United Kingdom. The median age of UK-born patients decreased over time. For 74% of patients, exposure to risk factors accounting for M. bovis acquisition, most frequently consumption of unpasteurized milk, was known. Despite the small increase in case numbers and reduction in patient age, M. bovis infection of humans in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland remains rare. PMID:28220748

  20. Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis Disease in Humans in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, 2002-2014.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Jennifer A; Loutet, Miranda G; O'Connor, Catherine; Kearns, Cathriona; Smith, Robert M M; Lalor, Maeve K; Thomas, H Lucy; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Zenner, Dominik

    2017-03-01

    Despite control efforts, Mycobacterium bovis incidence among cattle remains high in parts of England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, attracting political and public health interest in potential spread from animals to humans. To determine incidence among humans and to identify associated factors, we conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of human M. bovis cases in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland during 2002-2014. We identified 357 cases and observed increased annual case numbers (from 17 to 35) and rates. Most patients were >65 years of age and born in the United Kingdom. The median age of UK-born patients decreased over time. For 74% of patients, exposure to risk factors accounting for M. bovis acquisition, most frequently consumption of unpasteurized milk, was known. Despite the small increase in case numbers and reduction in patient age, M. bovis infection of humans in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland remains rare.

  1. Increasing HIV testing among African immigrants in ireland: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Adedimeji, Adebola A; Asibon, Aba; O'Connor, Gerard; Carson, Richard; Cowan, Ethan; McKinley, Philip; Leider, Jason; Mallon, Patrick; Calderon, Yvette

    2015-02-01

    In 2012, immigrants constitute 63% of new cases of heterosexually transmitted HIV among individuals born outside Ireland. Current strategies to encourage testing can be ineffective if immigrants perceive them as culturally insensitive. We obtained qualitative data to explore challenges to voluntary HIV-testing for immigrants in Ireland. Content analysis was undertaken to identify and describe pertinent themes. Widespread beliefs that HIV is primarily a disease of African immigrants were identified as challenges that constrain access to testing and care. The organization and location of testing services, attitude of health workers, and beliefs regarding mandatory HIV-testing for immigrants seeking access to welfare benefits were also identified. Immigrants in Ireland encounter a variety of structural, cultural and personal constraints to HIV testing. Opportunities exist in the Irish Health system to increase testing among immigrants through greater acknowledgement of cultural sensitivities of immigrant groups.

  2. Estimating the incidence, prevalence and true cost of asthma in the UK: secondary analysis of national stand-alone and linked databases in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales—a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Mome; Gupta, Ramyani; Farr, Angela; Heaven, Martin; Stoddart, Andrew; Nwaru, Bright I; Fitzsimmons, Deborah; Chamberlain, George; Bandyopadhyay, Amrita; Fischbacher, Colin; Dibben, Christopher; Shields, Michael; Phillips, Ceri; Strachan, David; Davies, Gwyneth; McKinstry, Brian; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Asthma is now one of the most common long-term conditions in the UK. It is therefore important to develop a comprehensive appreciation of the healthcare and societal costs in order to inform decisions on care provision and planning. We plan to build on our earlier estimates of national prevalence and costs from asthma by filling the data gaps previously identified in relation to healthcare and broadening the field of enquiry to include societal costs. This work will provide the first UK-wide estimates of the costs of asthma. In the context of asthma for the UK and its member countries (ie, England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales), we seek to: (1) produce a detailed overview of estimates of incidence, prevalence and healthcare utilisation; (2) estimate health and societal costs; (3) identify any remaining information gaps and explore the feasibility of filling these and (4) provide insights into future research that has the potential to inform changes in policy leading to the provision of more cost-effective care. Methods and analysis Secondary analyses of data from national health surveys, primary care, prescribing, emergency care, hospital, mortality and administrative data sources will be undertaken to estimate prevalence, healthcare utilisation and outcomes from asthma. Data linkages and economic modelling will be undertaken in an attempt to populate data gaps and estimate costs. Separate prevalence and cost estimates will be calculated for each of the UK-member countries and these will then be aggregated to generate UK-wide estimates. Ethics and dissemination Approvals have been obtained from the NHS Scotland Information Services Division's Privacy Advisory Committee, the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage Collaboration Review System, the NHS South-East Scotland Research Ethics Service and The University of Edinburgh's Centre for Population Health Sciences Research Ethics Committee. We will produce a report for Asthma-UK, submit papers to

  3. Many Voices: Building a Biblioblogosphere in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Michelle; Kouker, Alexander; O'Connor, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Blogging has been associated with the Library and Information Science (LIS) community for some time now. Libfocus.com is an online blog that was founded in 2011. Its goal was to create a communal communication space for LIS professionals in Ireland and beyond, to share and discuss issues and ideas. The content of the blog is curated by an…

  4. The National Maritime College of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greville, Eamonn

    2005-01-01

    The new National Maritime College of Ireland is regarded as the country's most exciting and innovative development in maritime training and education and is the first tertiary institution to be built and operated under the government's Public Private Partnership (PPP) model of procurement. The project is the outcome of a partnership between Cork…

  5. The Harp: The Symbol of Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Donna Dee

    The harp as a symbol of the Irish people is discussed. The first part of the paper discusses the early use of the harp in Irish society and how the magical powers of this instrument affected the natives and invaders of the small island for centuries. From the time of the Celtic occupation of Ireland in 500 BC, music played by harpers has been…

  6. Family SMEs in Ireland as Learning Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdthistle, Naomi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether small and medium-sized family businesses in Ireland have the potential to be classified as learning organizations. Design/methodology/approach: The research methodology adopted for this study is that of multiple-case studies. In this research, personal interviews were selected as the…

  7. United Kingdom (Northern Ireland): Health system review.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Ciaran; McGregor, Pat; Merkur, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    The political context within which Northern Irelands integrated health and social care system operates has changed since the establishment of a devolved administration (the Northern Ireland Assembly, set up in 1998 but suspended between 2002 and 2007). A locally elected Health Minister now leads the publicly financed system and has considerable power to set policy and, in principle, to determine the operation of other health and social care bodies. The system underwent major reform following the passing of the Health and Social Care (Reform) Act (Northern Ireland) in 2009. The reform maintained the quasi purchaser provider split already in place but reduced the number and increased the size of many of the bodies involved in purchasing (known locally as commissioning) and delivering services. Government policy has generally placed greater emphasis on consultation and cooperation among health and social care bodies (including the department, commissioners and care providers) than on competition. The small size of the population (1.8 million) and Northern Irelands geographical isolation from the rest of the United Kingdom provide a rationale for eschewing a more competitive model. Without competition, effective control over the system requires information and transparency to ensure provider challenge, and a body outside the system to hold it to account. The restoration of the locally elected Assembly in 2007 has created such a body, but it remains to be seen how effectively it will exercise accountability.

  8. Equality in Higher Education in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    The higher education sector in Northern Ireland has been fully involved in the public policies designed to enhance equality. Starting with measures designed to secure greater employment between Catholics and Protestants, known as fair employment, the policies are now designed to promote equality of opportunity across nine designated groups…

  9. Rabies in Ireland: a precarious freedom.

    PubMed

    Costello, J A

    1988-01-01

    The prolonged freedom from rabies enjoyed by Ireland is based on both its island location and the rigid enforcement of national legislation. The yachting tourist and the increased level of shipping activity in ports and harbours are a major threat of disease introduction. Mass media publicity and public awareness are the main safeguards necessary to protect the freedom of our island.

  10. Entrepreneurship Education: Ireland's Solution to Economic Regeneration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, John; Fenton, Mary; Barry, Almar

    2012-01-01

    The significance of entrepreneurship has come into sharper focus as enterprise and innovation are being flagged as solutions to regenerate the Irish economy. The Irish Innovation Task Force believes that Ireland could become an "innovation hub", attracting foreign risk capital and international and indigenous entrepreneurs to start and…

  11. Religion, Education and Conflict in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, L. Philip

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this article is to re-evaluate and reaffirm the contribution of the churches and of Christianity to the realization in Northern Ireland schools of legitimate and progressive educational values such as the cultivation of tolerance, moral integrity and civic virtue. Implicit in this is a critique of educational initiatives that seek to…

  12. Strategic Planning in Ireland's Institutes of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwood, Larry; Rainnie, Al

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses upon Ireland's institute of technology sector, which has been transformed from a 1970s technical orientation to its broader current role of research and higher education provision. The transformational shifts experienced by institutes over the previous three decades have been profound: increased autonomy, new managerial and…

  13. The Northern Ireland Resource File and Aspire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, David; Montgomery, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    The paper begins by identifying issues as to how initial teacher training and in-service training for teachers inadequately prepares them for teaching the pupils with special educational needs (SEN). The paper then provides a brief legislative background to SEN in the Northern Ireland context, before describing two elements of educational reform…

  14. Racism and Citizenship Education in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Eamonn

    2007-01-01

    Racist attitudes towards, and attacks on, the minority ethnic populations in Northern Ireland (NI) have increased dramatically over the last number of years. Despite the increased media attention regarding racist attacks, the fallacy that racism is not a major problem in NI is an enduring one. However, there is a growing recognition that minority…

  15. New OBS network deployment offshore Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pape, Florian; Bean, Chris; Craig, David; Jousset, Philippe; Horan, Clare; Hogg, Colin; Donne, Sarah; McCann, Hannah; Möllhoff, Martin; Kirk, Henning; Ploetz, Aline

    2016-04-01

    With the presence of the stormy NE Atlantic, Ireland is ideally located to investigate further our understanding of ocean generated microseisms and use noise correlation methods to develop seismic imaging in marine environments as well as time-lapse monitoring. In order to study the microseismic activity offshore Ireland, 10 Broad Band Ocean Bottom Seismographs (OBSs) units including hydrophones have been deployed in January 2016 across the shelf offshore Donegal and out into the Rockall Trough. This survey represents the first Broadband passive study in this part of the NE Atlantic. The instruments will be recovered in August 2016 providing 8 months worth of data to study microseisms but also the offshore seismic activity in the area. One of the main goal of the survey is to investigate the spatial and temporal distributions of dominant microseism source regions, close to the microseism sources. Additionally we will study the coupling of seismic and acoustic signals at the sea bed and its evolution in both the deep water and continental shelf areas. Furthermore, the survey also aims to investigate further the relationship between sea state conditions (e.g. wave height, period), seafloor pressure variations and seismic data recorded on both land and seafloor. Finally, the deployed OBS network is also the first ever attempt to closely monitor local offshore earthquakes in Ireland. Ireland seismicity although relatively low can reduce slope stability and poses the possibility of triggering large offshore landslides and local tsunamis.

  16. An early record of Meloidogyne fallax from Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Topalović, Olivera; Moore, John F.; Janssen, Toon; Bert, Wim; Karssen, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., cause huge economic losses worldwide. Currently, three Meloidogyne spp. are present on the quarantine A2 list of EPPO, Meloidogyne chitwoodi, Meloidogyne fallax and Meloidogyne enterolobii. As a quarantine organism, Meloidogyne fallax has been detected in England and Northern Ireland on sport turf in 2011, and in England on leek in 2013. However, its presence in Ireland has probably been overlooked since 1965, when Mr. John F. Moore and Dr. Mary T. Franklin had detected a new Meloidogyne species for that time. While the relevant data was recorded and a preliminary manuscript describing the species was prepared but never submitted for publication, and together with the original slides, pictures and drawings, it was restudied recently. We compared the population of Irish Meloidogyne sp. to other similar Meloidogyne spp. Careful observation and comparison shows that it belongs to Meloidogyne fallax. The characters found to be common for Irish Meloidogyne sp. and Meloidogyne fallax are female stylet length (14.6 μm) with oval to rounded basal knobs, oval shaped perineal pattern with moderately high dorsal arch, slender stylet in males (18.5 μm) with set off and rounded basal knobs, slightly set off male head with one post-labial annule and incomplete transverse incisures, and second-stage juveniles with large and rounded stylet basal knobs, and a gradually tapering tail (46.9 μm) with a broadly rounded tip and a clearly delimitated smooth hyaline part sometimes marked by constrictions (12.9 μm). The host test and gall formation also correspond to Meloidogyne fallax. The identification could not be additionally supported by molecular analysis, as we were unable to extract DNA from the old permanent slides. Nevertheless, our study reveals that the Meloidogyne species detected in Ireland in 1965 belongs to Meloidogyne fallax. PMID:28144174

  17. Ireland Array: A new broadband seismic network targets the structure, evolution and seismicity of Ireland and surroundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, S.; Horan, C.; Readman, P. W.; Schaeffer, A. J.; Agius, M. R.; Collins, L.; Hauser, F.; O'Reilly, B. M.; Blake, T.

    2012-04-01

    Ireland Array is a new array of broadband seismic stations deployed across Ireland. The backbone component of the array is formed by 20 stations, equipped with Trillium 120PA seismometers and distributed uniformly across Ireland. These 20 stations have been installed in 2010-2012 and will be deployed for 5 years. Deployments of additional 10 stations (each with a Guralp 40T seismometer) will be used to complement the backbone-component coverage and to target fine structure of the subsurface in specific target areas. Ireland Array is a major new geophysical facility, producing abundant seismic data. It will reveal Ireland's deep structure and evolution in unprecedented detail. Ireland Array will also underpin geothermal energy research by illuminating in detail the physical structure of Ireland's crust and entire lithosphere. New insight into 3-D regional lithospheric structure and evolution will also benefit basin-evolution research, relevant for hydrocarbon exploration. Yet another target of Ireland Array will be Ireland's seismicity, modest but insufficiently understood at present. Ireland Array is generating important new data for research on both regional and North-Atlantic scale problems and is aimed to benefit the entire Earth science community. Web: http://www.dias.ie/ireland_array

  18. Training in the Retail Trade in Ireland. Report for the FORCE Programme. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    An international team of researchers studied the following aspects of training in Ireland's retail sector: structure and characteristics, institutional and social context, employment and labor, changing conditions and their implications for skill requirements, and training and recruitment. Data were collected from an analysis of social and…

  19. Winning the Future: An Investigation into the Creativity Capacity across the Levels of Education in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Keelin

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the creativity capacity across the levels of education in Ireland, involving 702 participants. Creative capacity was investigated through a comparative analysis of creativity quotient (CQ). A divergent thinking task comprising the "how many uses" activity was assessed using the criteria for determining CQ;…

  20. Genetic structure of pike (Esox lucius) reveals a complex and previously unrecognized colonization history of Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Pedreschi, Debbi; Kelly-Quinn, Mary; Caffrey, Joe; O’Grady, Martin; Mariani, Stefano; Phillimore, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Aim We investigated genetic variation of Irish pike populations and their relationship with European outgroups, in order to elucidate the origin of this species to the island, which is largely assumed to have occurred as a human-mediated introduction over the past few hundred years. We aimed thereby to provide new insights into population structure to improve fisheries and biodiversity management in Irish freshwaters. Location Ireland, Britain and continental Europe. Methods A total of 752 pike (Esox lucius) were sampled from 15 locations around Ireland, and 9 continental European sites, and genotyped at six polymorphic microsatellite loci. Patterns and mechanisms of population genetic structure were assessed through a diverse array of methods, including Bayesian clustering, hierarchical analysis of molecular variance, and approximate Bayesian computation. Results Varying levels of genetic diversity and a high degree of population genetic differentiation were detected. Clear substructure within Ireland was identified, with two main groups being evident. One of the Irish populations showed high similarity with British populations. The other, more widespread, Irish strain did not group with any European population examined. Approximate Bayesian computation suggested that this widespread Irish strain is older, and may have colonized Ireland independently of humans. Main conclusions Population genetic substructure in Irish pike is high and comparable to the levels observed elsewhere in Europe. A comparison of evolutionary scenarios upholds the possibility that pike may have colonized Ireland in two ‘waves’, the first of which, being independent of human colonization, would represent the first evidence for natural colonization of a non-anadromous freshwater fish to the island of Ireland. Although further investigations using comprehensive genomic techniques will be necessary to confirm this, the present results warrant a reappraisal of current management strategies

  1. Economic analyses of pig manure treatment options in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Tereza; Troy, Shane M; Gilkinson, Stephen; Frost, Peter; Xie, Sihuang; Zhan, Xinmin; Harrington, Caolan; Healy, Mark G; Lawlor, Peadar G

    2012-02-01

    An economic analysis was performed on treatment options for pig manure in Ireland. Costs were based on a 500 sow integrated pig farm producing 10,500 m(3) of manure per year at 4.8% dry matter. The anaerobic digestion of pig manure and grass silage (1:1; volatile solids basis) was unviable under the proposed tariffs, with costs at € 5.2 m(-3) manure. Subsequent solid-liquid separation of the digestate would cost an additional € 12.8 m(-3) manure. The treatment of the separated solid fraction by composting and of the liquid fraction by integrated constructed wetlands, would add € 2.8 and € 4.6 m(-3) manure, respectively to the treatment costs. The cost analysis presented showed that the technologies investigated are currently not cost effective in Ireland. Transport and spreading of raw manure, at € 4.9 m(-3) manure (15 km maximum distance from farm) is the most cost effective option.

  2. Effect of air pollution control on mortality and hospital admissions in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Dockery, Douglas W; Rich, David Q; Goodman, Patrick G; Clancy, Luke; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; George, Prethibha; Kotlov, Tania

    2013-07-01

    During the 1980s the Republic of Ireland experienced repeated severe pollution episodes. Domestic coal burning was a major source of this pollution. In 1990 the Irish government introduced a ban on the marketing, sale, and distribution of coal in Dublin. The ban was extended to Cork in 1995 and to 10 other communities in 1998 and 2000. We previously reported decreases in particulate black smoke (BS*) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations, measured as total gaseous acidity, in Dublin after the 1990 coal ban (Clancy et al. 2002). In the current study we explored and compared the effectiveness of the sequential 1990, 1995, and 1998 bans in reducing community air pollution and in improving public health. We compiled records of daily BS, total gaseous acidity (SO2), and counts of cause-specific deaths from 1981 to 2004 for Dublin County Borough (1990 ban), county Cork (1995 ban), and counties Limerick, Louth, Wexford, and Wicklow (1998 ban). We also compiled daily counts of hospital admissions for cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive diagnoses for Cork County Borough (1991 to 2004) and counties Limerick, Louth, Wexford, and Wicklow (1993 to 2004). We compared pre-ban and post-ban BS and SO2 concentrations for each city. Using interrupted time-series methods, we estimated the change in cause-specific, directly standardized mortality rates in each city or county after the corresponding local coal ban. We regressed weekly age- and sex-standardized mortality rates against an indicator of the post- versus pre-ban period, adjusting for influenza epidemics, weekly mean temperature, and a season smooth of the standardized mortality rates in Coastal counties presumably not affected by the bans. We compared these results with similar analyses in Midlands counties also presumably unaffected by the bans. We also estimated the change in cause-specific, directly standardized, weekly hospital admissions rates normalized for underreporting in each city or county after the 1995

  3. C2-C6 background hydrocarbon concentrations monitored at a roof top and green park site, in Dublin City centre.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, R T; Broderick, B M

    2007-09-01

    A 5 week monitoring campaign was carried out in Dublin City centre, to establish which site gave a more accurate background city centre estimation: a roof-top or green field site. This background represented a conservative estimate of HC exposure in Dublin City centre, useful for quantifying health effects related to this form of pollution and also for establishing a local background relative to the four surrounding main roads when the wind direction is travelling towards each road with the background receptor upwind. Over the entire monitoring campaign, the lowest concentrations and relative standard deviations were observed at the green field site, regardless of time of day or meteorological effects.

  4. Development of stable isotope mixing models in ecology - Dublin

    EPA Science Inventory

    More than 40 years ago, stable isotope analysis methods used in geochemistry began to be applied to ecological studies. One common application is using mathematical mixing models to sort out the proportional contributions of various sources to a mixture. Examples include contri...

  5. Phytoplankton bloom off the coast of Ireland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Irish Sea (right) is full of phytoplankton in this true-color image from January 15, 2002. The Irish Sea separates Ireland (center) from the United Kingdom (right). In this image the water of both the Irish and Celtic (lower right) Seas appears quite turbid, being a milky blue-green compared to the clearer waters of the open Atlantic (left). This milky appearance is likely due to the growth of marine plants called phytoplankton. Despite the fact that Ireland is at the same latitude as southern Hudson Bay, Canada, it remains green year round, thanks to the moderating effect on temperatures of the Atlantic Ocean. The Gulf Stream bring warmer waters up from the tropics, and southwesterly winds bring warmer air to the country, thus moderating seasonal temperature extremes.

  6. Outbreak of Salmonella Dublin-associated abortion in Danish fur farms

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Hans Henrik; Chriél, Mariann; Andersen, Thomas Holmen; Jørgensen, Jens Christian; Torpdahl, Mia; Pedersen, Hans; Pedersen, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Outbreaks of Salmonella Dublin infections were recorded in 25 Danish mink and fox farms. All farms suffered extensive disease problems; clinical and pathological observations included abortion, stillbirths, necrotizing endometritis, and increased mortality. By genotyping with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and amplified fragment length polymorphism, all isolates of S. Dublin had indistinguishable patterns. The outbreaks took place during April and May, around the time of whelping. During this period, mink are particularly susceptible to Salmonella infections. All affected farms were served by the same feed factory and it was concluded that a batch of contaminated feed was responsible for the outbreaks, although repeated culture of feed samples collected during the same period were negative. No other likely source could be identified. The results emphasize the importance of strict hygiene measures at feed factories and the proper use of ingredients of known Salmonella status, in particular during the whelping season. Infected mink farms did not have a higher risk of outbreak of salmonellosis in the year following the outbreak. PMID:17217090

  7. Dietary proteins extend the survival of Salmonella Dublin in a gastric acid environment.

    PubMed

    Birk, Tina; Kristensen, Kim; Harboe, Anne; Hansen, Tina Beck; Ingmer, Hanne; De Jonge, Rob; Takumi, Katsuhisa; Aabo, Søren

    2012-02-01

    The pH of the human stomach is dynamic and changes over time, depending on the composition of the food ingested and a number of host-related factors such as age. To evaluate the number of bacteria surviving the gastric acid barrier, we have developed a simple gastric acid model, in which we mimicked the dynamic pH changes in the human stomach. In the present study, model gastric fluid was set up to imitate pH dynamics in the stomachs of young and elderly people after ingestion of a standard meal. To model a serious foodborne pathogen, we followed the survival of Salmonella enterica serotype Dublin, and found that the addition of proteins such as pepsin, ovalbumin, and blended turkey meat to the simple gastric acid model significantly delayed pathogen inactivation compared with the control, for which no proteins were added. In contrast, no delay in inactivation was observed in the presence of bovine serum albumin, indicating that protection could be protein specific. The simple gastric acid model was validated against a more laborious and complex fermenter model, and similar survival of Salmonella Dublin was observed in both models. Our gastric acid model allowed us to evaluate the influence of food components on survival of pathogens under gastric conditions, and the model could contribute to a broader understanding of the impact of specific food components on the inactivation of pathogens during gastric passage.

  8. Criminal insanity in 19th-century Ireland, Europe and the United States: cases, contexts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brendan D

    2009-01-01

    The insanity defence has a lengthy, complex history. This article provides a concise, comparative background to the evolution of criminal insanity legislation and institutions for the mentally ill in the nineteenth century, with particular reference to Ireland and the United States. Three key themes are identified and explored: (a) the emergence of the insanity defence in the nineteenth century (e.g. the McNaughtan Rules); (b) conditions in nineteenth-century asylums and institutions for the 'criminally insane' (with particular reference to overcrowding, physical illness and asylum deaths); and (c) nineteenth-century considerations of criminal responsibility in women with mental illness (with particular reference to medical and judicial views of the relevance of menstruation, pregnancy and child-birth). These themes are explored through review of historical literature (with particular reference to the work of Dr. Isaac Ray, founding father of forensic psychiatry in the United States) and examination of previously unpublished archival material from the Central Criminal Lunatic Asylum, Dublin.

  9. The sensitivity and specificity of the RSID-saliva kit for the detection of human salivary amylase in the Forensic Science Laboratory, Dublin, Ireland.

    PubMed

    Casey, David G; Price, Judy

    2010-01-30

    We demonstrate here that the RSID-saliva test can be used as a test for human salivary alpha-amylase on samples routinely examined in forensic casework. We show that the RSID-saliva test detects salivary alpha-amylase at lower concentrations than the Phadebas Quantitative test, that the RSID-saliva test does not cross-react with forensically important human fluids and that the RSID-saliva test can be successfully integrated into the whole swab semen extraction method.

  10. Flexible Learning: Proceedings of the National Academy for Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning Annual Conference (4th, Dublin, Ireland, October 6-7, 2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy for Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This volume presents 64 abstracts of keynote and parallel paper presentations of the Irish National Academy for Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning's (NAIRTL) conference on the theme of flexible learning. The Flexible Learning conference was a joint initiative by NAIRTL and the Learning Innovation Network. The keynote presentations can…

  11. The International Cytokine Conference (11th) Held in Dublin (Ireland) on September 20-24 2003 (European Cytokine Network, Volume 14, Number 3, September 2003)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    remission has depended upon both initial thrombopoietin ( TPO ) and FLT-3 ligand (FL). Both lytic and latent condition of cellular immunity and dynamic...protein responses (APR), are susceptible ously shown that pretreatment of mice with CpG-motifs of bacterial for acquiring pneumonia. In mice, turpentine...level. Pretreatment of A549 cells with IFN-a (100 IU/ml, 24 h) lead to a dramatic increase in influenza A virus-induced IFN, IL-28, IL-29 and chemokine

  12. A pragmatic assessment of government support for organic agriculture in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Duram, Leslie A

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on a pragmatic approach, this paper provides an analysis of government support for organic farming in Ireland. Varying levels of encouragement and programmes are provided to farmers in their conversion from conventional to organic production, and in their maintenance of organic production. As support policies vary across regions and are linked to European Union legislation, it is challenging to document the many types of support in place. This paper investigates relevant technical, financial, and policy support available to organic farmers in Ireland. As an exploratory study, it develops an assessment of Ireland within eight key categories of organic agricultural support: policy, leadership, technical support, financial support, research, education and information, marketing and promotion, and future outlook. Information and data from the Irish Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (DAFF), the Irish Agriculture and Food Development Authority (Teagasc), and other government and semi-governmental agencies were utilized to assess the level of support in each category. This assessment provides key findings which will allow policymakers, organizations and citizens to better understand the current situation and set a path for the future development of organic farming in Ireland.

  13. Devising and Implementing a Suitable Graduate Education Platform for Dublin's Institute of Technology (DIT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carton, Janet; Jerrams, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Graduate education platforms have received general acclaim as key components in the future structural development of third-level and fourth-level education in Europe. In Ireland the Higher Education Authority (HEA) has endorsed the restructuring of postgraduate education to incorporate the training of research students in key generic and…

  14. Supporting Parental Involvement in Children's Early Learning: Lessons from Community Childcare Centres in Dublin's Docklands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Share, Michelle; Kerrins, Liz

    2013-01-01

    Recently in Ireland attention has been placed on the importance of parental involvement in early childhood care and education settings as seen in the Síolta Quality Standards and Aistear Curriculum Framework. Yet there is little Irish empirical evidence on parental involvement in childcare settings; on the involvement models being used, or on the…

  15. Beta-glucan plus ascorbic acid in neonatal calves modulates immune functions with and without Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calves often succumb to Salmonella enterica, Dublin after maternal antibody protection has abated. Enhancement of innate immunity or earlier maturation of adaptive immunity to support vaccinations with dietary immune modulators may be the best option for protection during this vulnerable period. I...

  16. Developing Online Tutorials to Improve Information Literacy Skills for Second-Year Nursing Students of University College Dublin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Kirsteen; Bolich, Cecilia; Duffy, Daniel; Quinn, Ciarán; Walsh, Kathryn; Connolly, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the process of developing online tutorials for a specified student group, in this case Second-Year Nursing students in University College Dublin. The product was commissioned by the Health Sciences Library and the UCD School of Nursing, Midwifery, and Health Systems. It was developed as a "Capstone Project" for part…

  17. Gross margin losses due to Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy cattle herds estimated by simulation modelling.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T D; Kudahl, A B; Østergaard, S; Nielsen, L R

    2013-08-01

    Salmonella Dublin affects production and animal health in cattle herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the gross margin (GM) losses following introduction and spread of S. Dublin within dairy herds. The GM losses were estimated using an age-structured stochastic, mechanistic and dynamic simulation model. The model incorporated six age groups (neonatal, pre-weaned calves, weaned calves, growing heifers, breeding heifers and cows) and five infection stages (susceptible, acutely infected, carrier, super shedder and resistant). The effects of introducing one S. Dublin infectious heifer were estimated through 1000 simulation iterations for 12 scenarios. These 12 scenarios were combinations of three herd sizes (85, 200 and 400 cows) and four management levels (very good, good, poor and very poor). Input parameters for effects of S. Dublin on production and animal health were based on literature and calibrations to mimic real life observations. Mean annual GMs per cow stall were compared between herds experiencing within-herd spread of S. Dublin and non-infected reference herds over a 10-year period. The estimated GM losses were largest in the first year after infection, and increased with poorer management and herd size, e.g. average annual GM losses were estimated to 49 euros per stall for the first year after infection, and to 8 euros per stall annually averaged over the 10 years after herd infection for a 200 cow stall herd with very good management. In contrast, a 200 cow stall herd with very poor management lost on average 326 euros per stall during the first year, and 188 euros per stall annually averaged over the 10-year period following introduction of infection. The GM losses arose from both direct losses such as reduced milk yield, dead animals, treatment costs and abortions as well as indirect losses such as reduced income from sold heifers and calves, and lower milk yield of replacement animals. Through sensitivity analyses it was found that the

  18. Update of Ireland's national average indoor radon concentration - Application of a new survey protocol.

    PubMed

    Dowdall, A; Murphy, P; Pollard, D; Fenton, D

    2017-04-01

    In 2002, a National Radon Survey (NRS) in Ireland established that the geographically weighted national average indoor radon concentration was 89 Bq m(-3). Since then a number of developments have taken place which are likely to have impacted on the national average radon level. Key among these was the introduction of amending Building Regulations in 1998 requiring radon preventive measures in new buildings in High Radon Areas (HRAs). In 2014, the Irish Government adopted the National Radon Control Strategy (NRCS) for Ireland. A knowledge gap identified in the NRCS was to update the national average for Ireland given the developments since 2002. The updated national average would also be used as a baseline metric to assess the effectiveness of the NRCS over time. A new national survey protocol was required that would measure radon in a sample of homes representative of radon risk and geographical location. The design of the survey protocol took into account that it is not feasible to repeat the 11,319 measurements carried out for the 2002 NRS due to time and resource constraints. However, the existence of that comprehensive survey allowed for a new protocol to be developed, involving measurements carried out in unbiased randomly selected volunteer homes. This paper sets out the development and application of that survey protocol. The results of the 2015 survey showed that the current national average indoor radon concentration for homes in Ireland is 77 Bq m(-3), a decrease from the 89 Bq m(-3) reported in the 2002 NRS. Analysis of the results by build date demonstrate that the introduction of the amending Building Regulations in 1998 have led to a reduction in the average indoor radon level in Ireland.

  19. Management of dredge material in the Republic of Ireland - A review.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, C; Harrington, J

    2012-05-01

    As an island nation the Republic of Ireland's ports and harbours are key to the economic wellbeing of the country as they are the primary transport link to the United Kingdom, mainland Europe and beyond. This paper examines the main aspects of the Irish dredging industry with comparison to international practice and standards, including the source of the dredge material and volumes generated annually, the dredging plant employed and the management processes currently practised. Relevant European and Irish legislation governing dredging, disposal at sea and waste licensing are presented. The potential impacts of disposal at sea are discussed with the implications for the Irish dredging industry of recently introduced European Directives assessed. Beneficial use rates for dredge material and the techniques implemented in Ireland are examined and compared with international practice. Recent notable beneficial use projects for dredge material and proposed innovative dredge material management techniques for specific dredging projects in Ireland are presented. Proposals to encourage greater beneficial use of dredge material and minimise disposal at sea for Ireland are presented including the introduction of environmental credits, tax breaks and a grant system for pilot schemes. An alternative disposal at sea charge fee structure is also recommended to encourage alternative dredge material management practices. Ireland's management of contaminated sediment is also presented with recent projects described highlighting the current practice of primarily exporting contaminated sediment to mainland Europe. Alternative methods of treatment of contaminated sediment are assessed in an Irish context. Future issues and challenges facing the Irish dredging industry are assessed and a critical analysis of the current approaches to dredge material management is presented.

  20. ICT Policy and Implementation in Education: Cases in Canada, Northern Ireland and Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Roger; Hunter, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Countries with similar levels of economic development often implement different education ICT policies. Much of the existing research attributes such differences to economic and political factors. In this paper, we examine the development of ICT policy and implementation in the two parts of Ireland and in two Canadian provinces and find that…

  1. Estimating the economic and social costs of dementia in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Sheelah; Gillespie, Paddy; O'Shea, Eamon; Cahill, Suzanne; Pierce, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Dementia is a costly condition and one that differs from other conditions in the significant cost burden placed on informal caregivers. The aim of this analysis was to estimate the economic and social costs of dementia in Ireland in 2010. With an estimate of 41,470 people with dementia, the total baseline annual cost was found to be over €1.69 billion, 48% of which was attributable to the opportunity cost of informal care provided by family and friends and 43% to residential care. Due to the impact of demographic ageing in the coming decades and the expected increase in the number of people with dementia, family caregivers and the general health and social care system will come under increasing pressure to provide adequate levels of care. Without a significant increase in the amount of resources devoted to dementia, it is unclear how the system will cope in the future.

  2. The Association of Attitude to Reading and Reading Achievement among a Representative Sample of Nine Year Olds in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fives, Allyn

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the association between reading self-belief and reading achievement among a representative sample of nine year old children in the Republic of Ireland. Results from analysis of variance and simple effects analysis showed a positive linear association between reading achievement and "attitude to reading." The…

  3. Implementing E-Learning in Northern Ireland: Prospects and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhomoibhi, James O.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to examine trends in the development of e-learning in Northern Ireland, report on existing policies, practices and issues affecting its implementation across the sectors. Design/methodology/approach: The present study draws on e-learning policies and strategies that have been developed for Northern Ireland. Examples were drawn from…

  4. Suicide and Young People: The Case of Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Suicides in Northern Ireland are examined in the context of what is known about global and regional trends with respect to gender and age, and change over time. For Northern Ireland, suicide numbers and rates are plotted for 10-24 year olds from 1967 to 2005. Questions are raised about the validity of officially registered suicides in the light of…

  5. Telling Tales--Cruelty and Abuse in Schooling in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Gerry

    2016-01-01

    The report of the Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse (Government of Ireland, 2009)--the Ryan Report--shocked Ireland and the wider world with its chilling descriptions of abuse that was systemic, pervasive, chronic, excessive, arbitrary and endemic. Subsequent debate has, rightly, centred on the "religious" arena, highlighting the…

  6. Primary Languages in Northern Ireland: Too Little, Too Late?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Noel; Siberry, Laurence; Beale, George

    2010-01-01

    There has been much debate in recent years about the future of primary language teaching in England, Scotland and Wales but relatively little discussion about the situation in Northern Ireland. This paper seeks to set the policy context in Northern Ireland where the provision for primary languages lags behind other regions of the United Kingdom…

  7. Practical Work in Ireland: A Time of Reform and Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Declan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses the role of practical work in science education in Ireland. The 2002 report of a government Task Force on the Physical Sciences, set up to consider the problems facing the teaching of the physical sciences in second-level schools in Ireland, has resulted in rapid reform of the science curriculum at both junior…

  8. Geographic Accessibility to Higher Education on the Island of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Sharon; Flannery, Darragh; Cullinan, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents, for the first time, comprehensive measures of geographic accessibility to higher education both within and between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. Using geographic information system techniques, we find high levels of geographic accessibility to higher education in both jurisdictions. However, when we…

  9. Space Radar Image of County Kerry, Ireland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Iveragh Peninsula, one of the four peninsulas in southwestern Ireland, is shown in this spaceborne radar image. The lakes of Killarney National Park are the green patches on the left side of the image. The mountains to the right of the lakes include the highest peaks (1,036 meters or 3,400 feet) in Ireland. The patchwork patterns between the mountains are areas of farming and grazing. The delicate patterns in the water are caused by refraction of ocean waves around the peninsula edges and islands, including Skellig Rocks at the right edge of the image. The Skelligs are home to a 15th century monastery and flocks of puffins. The region is part of County Kerry and includes a road called the 'Ring of Kerry' that is one of the most famous tourist routes in Ireland. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on April 12, 1994. The image is 82 kilometers by 42 kilometers (51 miles by 26 miles) and is centered at 52.0 degrees north latitude, 9.9 degrees west longitude. North is toward the lower left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, vertically transmitted and received; and blue is C-band, vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  10. Radon monitoring and hazard prediction in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elio, Javier; Crowley, Quentin; Scanlon, Ray; Hodgson, Jim; Cooper, Mark; Long, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas which forms as a decay product from uranium. It is the largest source of natural ionizing radiation affecting the global population. When radon is inhaled, its short-lived decay products can interact with lung tissue leading to DNA damage and development of lung cancer. Ireland has among the highest levels of radon in Europe and eighth highest of an OECD survey of 29 countries. Every year some two hundred and fifty cases of lung cancer in Ireland are linked to radon exposure. This new research project will build upon previous efforts of radon monitoring in Ireland to construct a high-resolution radon hazard map. This will be achieved using recently available high-resolution airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (radiometric) and soil geochemistry data (http://www.tellus.ie/), indoor radon concentrations (http://www.epa.ie/radiation), and new direct measurement of soil radon. In this regard, legacy indoor radon concentrations will be correlated with soil U and Th concentrations and other geogenic data. This is a new approach since the vast majority of countries with a national radon monitoring programme rely on indoor radon measurements, or have a spatially limited dataset of soil radon measurements. Careful attention will be given to areas where an indicative high radon hazard based on geogenic factors does not match high indoor radon concentrations. Where such areas exist, it may imply that some parameter(s) in the predictive model does not match that of the environment. These areas will be subjected to measurement of radon soil gas using a combination of time averaged (passive) and time dependant (active) measurements in order to better understand factors affecting production, transport and accumulation of radon in the natural environment. Such mapping of radon-prone areas will ultimately help to inform when prevention and remediation measures are necessary, reducing the radon exposure of the population. Therefore, given

  11. EBM metadata based on Dublin Core better presenting validity of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Okada, Mihoko

    2007-10-01

    To help clinicians find better evidence, a metadata schema for Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) is developed. Dublin Core metadata standard (DC) was adopted to help build a metadata schema. An experimental system was developed to test the validity of the metadata and full text papers of clinical therapy on stomach ulcer extracted using PubMed. An EBM metadata schema was developed. Citations were created from original papers using the metadata schema. Three clinicians evaluated papers by utilizing metadata and full texts respectively. Agreement of evaluation was analyzed, and the result on weighted kappa was 0.55 (95% CI, 0.42-0.67). It reveals that there is moderate agreement between evaluation of metadata citations and full texts. It is possible to use the metadata to select papers before reading the full texts. A further study should be made to prove the applicability of the metadata in the real world setting.

  12. Young Adolescents' Positioning of Human Rights: Findings from Colombia, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Keith C.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how young adolescents thought about the location of human rights issues and the nature of violations in differing geographic regions. Open-ended, task-based interviews were conducted with 116 students in Colombia, Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and the United States. Although students in each location pointed to…

  13. Trends in Irish-Medium Education in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland since 1920: Shifting Agents and Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdory, Sara E.; Janmaat, Jan Germen

    2015-01-01

    Some recent studies have suggested a significant bottom-up or parental component to recent movements for autochthonous minority language-medium education (MLME). This study takes MLME as the outcome of interest and seeks to explain trends in Irish-medium education (IME) in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland since 1920--a unique…

  14. Antibody response and protection against challenge in mice vaccinated intraperitoneally with a live aroA O4-O9 hybrid Salmonella dublin strain.

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, A A; Segall, T; Weintraub, A; Stocker, B A

    1993-01-01

    An auxotrophic Salmonella dublin (O9,12) strain, SL5631, with a deletion affecting gene aroA, was made into a partial diploid expressing the rfb (O-antigen-repeat-unit-specifying) gene cluster of Salmonella typhimurium (O4,12). By use of O4- and O9-specific antisera in indirect immunofluorescence assays, the resulting hybrid SL7103 was shown to express both the O4- and O9-antigen epitopes in the same bacterium. Qualitative and quantitative sugar analyses by gas-liquid chromatography on peralditol acetates of phenol-water-extracted lipopolysaccharides showed that the S. dublin and S. typhimurium repeating units (estimated on the basis of their tyvelose and abequose contents, respectively) were present in approximately equimolar amounts. The SL7103 hybrid auxotroph was avirulent when given intraperitoneally to NMRI mice in a dose of 10(8) CFU and elicited a protective immunity against intraperitoneal challenge with either virulent S. dublin (50% lethal dose of ca. 1.5 x 10(4) CFU versus < 1 x 10(1) CFU in nonimmunized mice) or virulent S. typhimurium (50% lethal dose of ca. 1 x 10(5) versus < 1 x 10(1) CFU in nonimmunized mice). Compared with the protection elicited in homologous systems (S. dublin SL5631 against S. dublin and S. typhimurium SL1479 against S. typhimurium), the protective efficacy of the hybrid was reduced approximately 70-fold against S. dublin challenge and 100-fold against S. typhimurium challenge. Vaccination with S. typhimurium SL1479 conferred no protection against S. dublin challenge, and vaccination with S. dublin SL5631 conferred no protection against S. typhimurium challenge. The protection elicited by the hybrid strain SL7103 is supposed to be mainly a consequence of serum antibodies directed against the immunodominant O4 and O9 epitopes. PMID:7681041

  15. From biopolitics to bioethics: church, state, medicine and assisted reproductive technology in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Orla; Allison, Jill

    2006-09-01

    This paper examines the emerging bioethical debate on assisted reproductive technology (ART) in Ireland, which is shaped by the long-standing contentious issue of abortion and the constitutional protection afforded to the 'unborn'. The focus of the paper is on the way in which the terms of this debate are shaped and constrained by the historical relations of power between church, state and medicine. Since the representation of Ireland as a post-Catholic, plural republic is becoming increasingly mainstream to cultural and political discourse, we pay particular attention to how the Catholic Church embraces bioethics as a meta frame or code for refocusing questions of values, beliefs and meanings to sustain the ideal of Ireland as a 'pro-life' and essentially Catholic nation. The Catholic Church is not simply asserting its voice of dissent in the context of public debate as one voice amongst a plurality of other voices, but to shape the emerging debate as a powerful, institutional actor. The opportunity to do so is afforded by the lack of public debate on bioethical issues and the exceedingly slow pace at which bioethics is moving towards an institutionalised framework in Ireland. These events can be explained by the legacy of the social power of the Catholic Church in Ireland and the direct and indirect influence it has long exercised over public policy vis-à-vis the state and its institutions, including medicine. There are two interconnected threads to the contextual analysis presented in our case study: first, the legacy of the social power wielded by the Catholic Church, and its slow and incremental demise reflected in the pace of secularisation in Ireland and the privatisation of morality; second, the emergence of a bioethical regulatory debate on ART, which is mired in the abortion controversy. Our analysis focuses on a number of key contradictions and tensions in the way in which the key institutions of church, state and medicine navigate their own positions

  16. The Role of the Social Partners in Vocational Education and Training, Including Continuing Education and Training, in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Timothy; Coldrick, Arthur J.

    This document is the result of the analysis of reports and the conduct of interviews with representatives of the social partners (employers, employers' organizations, and unions), education and training agencies, and other relevant agencies in Ireland. The document consists of four parts and a bibliography. The first part describes vocational…

  17. Graduate Employment and Training in SMEs in Northern Ireland: An Overview Using the 2000 Labour Force Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Richard; Reid, Renee S.

    2005-01-01

    Using the UK Labour Force Survey, this paper considers whether graduate employment is more important in the small and medium-size enterprise (SME) sector in Northern Ireland than in other regions of the UK. The authors disaggregate their analysis by gender, occupation and industry to provide a detailed breakdown. The issue of whether graduates are…

  18. The Role of Parental Expectations in Understanding Social and Academic Well-Being among Children with Disabilities in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Selina; Maître, Bertrand; Watson, Dorothy; Banks, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws on longitudinal data to examine the extent to which parents' educational expectations shape academic development and changes in self-concept among young people with different types of disability. The analysis is based on the "Growing Up in Ireland" longitudinal study, which tracked 7423 children between the primary to…

  19. A Qualitative Study of the Lived Experiences of Disabled Post-Transition Students in Higher Education Institutions in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redpath, Jennifer; Kearney, Patricia; Nicholl, Peter; Mulvenna, Maurice; Wallace, Jonathan; Martin, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a systematic analysis of 13 in-depth interviews of disabled students from universities in Northern Ireland. Undertaken as part of the Uni4U initiative, the findings presented describe barriers experienced by students with disabilities to participation in higher education. The students provided comments concerning their…

  20. An outbreak of Salmonella dublin infection in England and Wales associated with a soft unpasteurized cows' milk cheese.

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, H.; Cowden, J.; Jacob, M.; Rowe, B.; Roberts, D.; Bruce, J.; Mitchell, E.

    1992-01-01

    An outbreak of Salmonella dublin infection occurred in England and Wales in October to December 1989. Forty-two people were affected, mainly adults, and most lived in south-east England. Microbiological and epidemiological investigations implicated an imported Irish soft unpasteurized cows' milk cheese as the vehicle of infection. A case-control study showed a statistically significant association between infection and consumption of the suspect cheese (p = 0.001). Salmonella dublin was subsequently isolated from cheeses obtained from the manufacturer's premises. Initial control measures included the withdrawal of the cheese from retail sale and a Food Hazard Warning to Environmental Health Departments, as well as a press release, from the Department of Health. Subsequently, a decision was taken by the manufacturer to pasteurize milk used in the production of cheese for the UK market and importation of the cheese resumed in June 1990. PMID:1468523

  1. The high cost of medicines in Ireland. Is it time to change the pricing mechanism?

    PubMed

    Tilson, Lesley; McGowan, Bernadette; Bennett, Kathleen; Barry, Michael

    2004-12-01

    This study compared the prices of prescription medicines in Ireland to those in other countries to determine potential cost savings on the largest community drug scheme if an alternative pricing mechanism were adopted. The analysis covered a sample of 39 drugs (44.8% of the total ingredient cost) selected from the top 70 drugs in order of total ingredient cost. Potential cost savings ranged from Euro 20.73 million if a Danish price were adopted, to Euro 16.23 million for the average European price, to Euro 6.82 million for the UK price. The estimated savings were statistically significant for the Danish and average European price but not for the UK price. This study demonstrates the high ex-wholesale price of prescription medications in Ireland.

  2. Policing, collective action and social movement theory: the case of the Northern Ireland civil rights campaign.

    PubMed

    Ellison, G; Martin, G

    2000-12-01

    In this paper we examine the relationship between social movements and the police through an analysis of the Civil Rights Movement (CRM) which emerged in the late 1960s in Northern Ireland. Following della Porta (1995) and Melucci (1996) we argue that the way in which episodes of collective action are policed can affect profoundly both levels of mobilization and the orientation of social movements. We also submit that the symbolic and representational dimensions of policing can be a significant trigger in the stimulation of identification processes and collective action. The paper concludes by questioning some of the assumptions contained within social movement theory, and their applicability to divided societies such as Northern Ireland.

  3. Continuous high-frequency monitoring of estuarine water quality as a decision support tool: a Dublin Port case study.

    PubMed

    Briciu-Burghina, Ciprian; Sullivan, Timothy; Chapman, James; Regan, Fiona

    2014-09-01

    High-frequency, continuous monitoring using in situ sensors offers a comprehensive and improved insight into the temporal and spatial variability of any water body. In this paper, we describe a 7-month exploratory monitoring programme in Dublin Port, demonstrating the value of high-frequency data in enhancing knowledge of processes, informing discrete sampling, and ultimately increasing the efficiency of port and environmental management. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to show that shipping operating in Dublin Port has a small-medium effect on turbidity readings collected by in situ sensors. Turbidity events are largely related to vessel activity in Dublin Port, caused by re-suspension of sediments by vessel propulsion systems. The magnitudes of such events are strongly related to water level and tidal state at vessel arrival times. Crucially, measurements of Escherichia coli and enterococci contamination from discrete samples taken at key periods related to detected turbidity events were up to nine times higher after vessel arrival than prior to disturbance. Daily in situ turbidity patterns revealed time-dependent water quality "hot spots" during a 24-h period. We demonstrate conclusively that if representative environmental assessment of water quality is to be performed at such sites, sampling times, informed by continous monitoring data, should take into account these daily variations. This work outlines the potential of sensor technologies and continuous monitoring, to act as a decision support tool in both environmental and port management.

  4. Wound botulism in the UK and Ireland.

    PubMed

    Brett, Moira M; Hallas, Gill; Mpamugo, Obioma

    2004-06-01

    There are three main, naturally occurring, epidemiological types of botulism: food-borne, intestinal colonization (infant botulism) and wound botulism. The neurological signs and symptoms are the same for all three epidemiological types and may include respiratory paralysis. Wound botulism is caused by growth of cells and release of toxin in vivo, is associated with traumatic wounds and abscesses and has been reported in drug users, such as those injecting heroin or sniffing cocaine. Up to the end of 1999 there were no confirmed cases of wound botulism in the UK. Between the beginning of 2000 and the end of December 2002, there were 33 clinically diagnosed cases of wound botulism in the UK and Ireland. All cases had injected heroin into muscle or by 'skin popping'. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by laboratory tests in 20 of these cases. Eighteen cases were caused by type A toxin and two by type B toxin.

  5. Indicators for managing biosolids in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Amajirionwu, Magnus; Connaughton, Noel; McCann, Brian; Moles, Richard; Bartlett, John; O'Regan, Bernadette

    2008-09-01

    Sustainable development indicators (SDIs) have emerged as a tool to measure progress towards sustainable development for a number of fields. However, no indicator initiative to date has been aimed at biosolids management at local authority, regional or national levels. This paper presents a study where stakeholders involved in the management of biosolids in Ireland participated in the development of SDIs for managing biosolids at the local/regional level. A significant 81% of participating stakeholders find SDIs either 'useful' or 'very useful' as a tool for managing biosolids. A suite of 22 indicators has been developed and arranged according to the driving force-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) indicator framework. The indicators address all the domains of biosolids management namely, production, quality, cost, legislation/regulation, training/research and recycling/disposal. The stakeholder approach is recognition that no effective indicator set can be developed without the input of stakeholders.

  6. Control strategies for wildlife tuberculosis in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Gormley, E; Corner, L A L

    2013-11-01

    The principal domestic maintenance host for Mycobacterium bovis is infected cattle. In countries where comprehensive surveillance schemes have been applied, tuberculosis rarely affects an animal to the extent that it presents with clinical disease. In the latter stages of an eradication campaign, the aim is to maintain the disease-free status of clear herds and eliminate foci of infection in herds as well as restricting movement of infected animals from these herds, other than to slaughter. However, the eradication of tuberculosis from cattle herds may be compromised if infected wildlife species, such as Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), share the same environment and contribute to transmission of infection. The options for dealing with tuberculosis in the wildlife reservoir hosts are limited to segregation of domestic animals from the wildlife, culling of the wildlife host or vaccination. Options are further limited by conservation and social reasons, particularly where culling is concerned. In Ireland and the UK, vaccination of badgers against M. bovis, if successfully employed, could directly facilitate the completion of bovine tuberculosis eradication. Programmes of research into vaccination of badgers are being undertaken in both countries, and there is clear evidence that vaccination induces protection. Vaccine trials in captive badgers have established that the M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine can induce a protective response that limits the distribution and severity of tuberculosis disease following experimental challenge. In Ireland, a large-scale field trial of oral BCG vaccination is being conducted to measure the protection generated in wild badgers subjected to natural transmission of infection and to estimate vaccine efficacy. The results will provide a framework for the development and implementation of a national strategy to address the disease in badger populations and if successful will remove this major impediment to tuberculosis

  7. Oral vaccination of calves with an aromatic-dependent Salmonella dublin (O9,12) hybrid expressing O4,12 protects against S. dublin (O9,12) but not against Salmonella typhimurium (O4,5,12).

    PubMed Central

    Segall, T; Lindberg, A A

    1993-01-01

    Three groups of six calves each, 5 to 7 weeks old, were orally vaccinated with the live aromatic-dependent delta aroA Salmonella dublin (O9,12) hybrid strain SL7103 with the O4,12-specifying rfb gene cluster from Salmonella typhimurium. SL7103 was given in three weekly doses, increasing from 2 x 10(9) to 1 x 10(11) bacteria per ml, was well tolerated, and caused mild, short-term temperature increases which diminished with each immunization. The strain was shed for up to 1 week. Strain SL7103 elicited significant (P < 0.001) and equal anti-S. dublin and -S. typhimurium lipopolysaccharide serum antibody responses and skin delayed-type hypersensitivity immune responses. Six vaccinated calves orally challenged with 10(10) CFU (equivalent to 1,000 50% lethal doses) of the virulent parent strain S. dublin SVA47 were protected and experienced only transient fever and mild mucoid diarrhea. However, six vaccinated calves orally challenged with 3 x 10(9) CFU and another six challenged with 3 x 10(8) CFU (equivalent to 1,000 50% lethal doses) of the virulent S. typhimurium SVA44 became bacteremic with a profuse hemorrhagic diarrhea and had to be sacrificed within 2 to 7 days. The results suggest that the S. typhimurium antilipopolysaccharide immunity was insufficient to provide a solid protective efficacy against oral S. typhimurium infection. The immunohistopathological examination revealed that S. typhimurium SVA44 could be found in all layers of the intestinal mucosa and the lymphatic tissues of the Peyer's patches. In contrast, S. dublin SVA47 was found predominantly in the columnar enterocytes of the jejunum and ileum and the follicle-associated epithelium over the Peyer's patches. In addition, SVA47 was found in the glandular tissues of the duodenal and tonsillar areas and in the lungs. This suggests that the S. typhimurium and S. dublin strains have different virulence traits determining their tissue localization and dissemination. Images PMID:7681042

  8. Trinity mysteries: university, elite schooling and sport in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Finn, Gerry P T

    2010-01-01

    The development of sport in Ireland was, contrary to some arguments, highly influenced by English examples and Anglo-Irish institutions. Trinity College and prestigious Irish schools did have an impact, as did the number of Irish students sent to England for public school or university education. Athleticism was evident in Ireland as it was in England. Although the development of soccer did follow a slightly different trajectory from other sports, as was also the case in both England and Scotland, this does not mean that it departed from this broad evolutionary model of Irish sport. Yet this was Ireland: and Ireland was different. As opposition to British rule intensified, forms of sporting participation took on more and more of a national symbolism. The outcome was the emergence of a very potent form of athleticism: an Irish athleticism for an Irish people.

  9. Ireland's Second TV Channel: Seeking National Culture and Viewer Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, W. J., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Examines the salient arguments posited by the pro-BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) and pro-RTE (Radio Telefis Eireann) sides during Ireland's second television channel debate and ultimate decision. (Author/GT)

  10. Interrogating medical tourism: Ireland, abortion, and mobility rights.

    PubMed

    Gilmartin, Mary; White, Allen

    2011-01-01

    Medical tourism in Ireland, like in many Western states, is built around assumptions about individual agency, choice, possibility, and mobility. One specific form of medical tourism—the flow of women from Ireland traveling in order to secure an abortion—disrupts and contradicts these assumptions. One legacy of the bitter, contentious political and legal battles surrounding abortion in Ireland in the 1980s and 1990s has been securing the right of mobility for all pregnant Irish citizens to cross international borders to secure an abortion. However, these mobility rights are contingent upon nationality, social class, and race, and they have enabled successive Irish governments to avoid any responsibility for providing safe, legal, and affordable abortion services in Ireland. Nearly twenty years after the X case discussed here, the pregnant female body moving over international borders—entering and leaving the state—is still interpreted as problematic and threatening to the Irish state.

  11. IRETHERM: Geophysical modeling of the southern margin of the Dublin Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vozar, J.; Jones, A. G.; Llovet, J. C.; Pasquali, R.

    2014-12-01

    Multi-dimensional magnetotelluric (MT) modelling of data collected in the Newcastle area are presented in the frame of the IRETHERM project. The Newcastle area, situated on the southern margin of the Dublin Basin, exhibits elevated geothermal gradient (>30 °C/km) in the exploratory boreholes drilled by GT Energy. The MT soundings were carried out in the highly urbanized Dublin suburb and are heavily noise-contaminated and distorted due to EM noise from nearby industry and the DC tram system. Processing the "quietest" 4-hour night time subsets of data using several robust codes and the ELICIT method we obtained reliable and interpretable MT impedance and geomagnetic transfer functions at most sites. Tensor decomposition was applied at each site to ascertain if the data are suitable for 2D modelling and to determine the appropriate geoelectric strike direction. The final 2-D models underwent examination using a new stability technique, and the final two 2-D profiles with reliability estimations, expressed through conductance and resistivity, were derived. 3-D models of all MT data in the Newcastle area have also been determined. The 3-D models exhibit higher conductive structures in comparison to the 2-D models, with similarly resistive background rocks. The shallow conductive structures, to the depth of 1 km, have north-south elongation correlated with surface traces of faults, which are perpendicular to the regional Blackrock to Newcastle Fault (BNF). Deeper structures become more oriented to regional geoelectric strike similar to 2-D regional strike. The 2-D and 3-D modeling reveal that the BNF is imaged as a conductive zone to depths of 4 km and is likely highly fractured. Generally, the area south of the BNF is more resistive and compact with a horizontal conductive layer at approximately 1 km depth and with a very thin surficial sedimentary layer. In contrast, the structures north of the BNF are more heterogeneous, with deeper conductive layers (2-3 km depth

  12. Evolution and Epidemiology of Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in the United Kingdom and Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Moradigaravand, Danesh; Martin, Veronique; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Klebsiella pneumoniae is a human commensal and opportunistic pathogen that has become a leading causative agent of hospital-based infections over the past few decades. The emergence and global expansion of hypervirulent and multidrug-resistant (MDR) clones of K. pneumoniae have been increasingly reported in community-acquired and nosocomial infections. Despite this, the population genomics and epidemiology of MDR K. pneumoniae at the national level are still poorly understood. To obtain insights into these, we analyzed a systematic large-scale collection of invasive MDR K. pneumoniae isolates from hospitals across the United Kingdom and Ireland. Using whole-genome phylogenetic analysis, we placed these in the context of previously sequenced K. pneumoniae populations from geographically diverse countries and identified their virulence and drug resistance determinants. Our results demonstrate that United Kingdom and Ireland MDR isolates are a highly diverse population drawn from across the global phylogenetic tree of K. pneumoniae and represent multiple recent international introductions that are mainly from Europe but in some cases from more distant countries. In addition, we identified novel genetic determinants underlying resistance to beta-lactams, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracyclines, indicating that both increased virulence and resistance have emerged independently multiple times throughout the population. Our data show that MDR K. pneumoniae isolates in the United Kingdom and Ireland have multiple distinct origins and appear to be part of a globally circulating K. pneumoniae population. PMID:28223459

  13. Temporal and spatial distribution of human cryptosporidiosis in the west of Ireland 2004-2007

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Cryptosporidiosis is increasingly recognised as a cause of gastrointestinal infection in Ireland and has been implicated in several outbreaks. This study aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of human cryptosporidiosis in the west of Ireland in order to identify high risk seasons and areas and to compare Classically Calculated (CC) and Empirical Bayesian (EB) incidence rates. Two spatial scales of analysis were used with a view to identifying the best one in assessing geographical patterns of infection. Global Moran's I and Local Moran's I tests of autocorrelation were used to test for evidence of global and local spatial clustering. Results There were statistically significant seasonal patterns of cryptosporidiosis with peaks in spring and an increasing temporal trend. Significant (p < 0.05) global spatial clustering was observed in CC rates at the Electoral Division (ED) level but not in EB rates at the same level. Despite variations in disease, ED level was found to provide the most accurate account of distribution of cryptosporidiosis in the West of Ireland but required spatial EB smoothing of cases. There were a number of areas identified with significant local clustering of cryptosporidiosis rates. Conclusion This study identified spatial and temporal patterns in cryptosporidiosis distribution. The study also showed benefit in performing spatial analyses at more than one spatial scale to assess geographical patterns in disease distribution and that smoothing of disease rates for mapping in small areas enhances visualisation of spatial patterns. These findings are relevant in guiding policy decisions on disease control strategies. PMID:19930685

  14. Eskers in Ireland, analogs for sinuous ridges on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicer, Xavier; Bourke, Mary

    2014-05-01

    Sinuous ridges on the surface of Mars are often inferred as putative esker ridges. Eskers cover several hundred kilometers of the Irish landscape and are one of the dominant landforms in the Irish Midlands. Well exposed stratigraphic sections and the body of existing knowledge due to extensive research carried out on these landforms make the Irish eskers an excellent analog for sinuous ridges on Mars. The Irish Eskers are sinuous ridges 0.1 - 80 km long, 20 - 500 m wide and 4 - 50 m high laid down by glacial meltwater in tunnels and crevasses in stationary or retreating ice sheets. They are commonly composed of sands and gravels with rounded boulders and cobbles. The gravels are usually bedded and the beds often slump towards the flank of the esker, indicating collapse as the confining ice walls melt. Four types of eskers have been identified in Ireland: (i) Continuous subglacial tunnel fill represents deposition within tunnels underneath or within an ice body originally used as water escape conduits; (ii) Continuous fluvial ice-channel fill deposit in channels cut into the ice on top of the glacier or down to the substrate subsequently infilled by sediments; (iii) Long beads - subglacial tunnel fill are segmented ridges, with a length-width ratio of 5:1 to 10:1, representing sequential deposition near or at the ice margin as the ice sheet retreats; (iv) Short beads are glaciolacustrine deposits interpreted as sequential deposition of ice-contact subaqueous outwash fans. Irish eskers have significant morphological similarities with those identified on Mars providing an opportunity for an insightful morphological and morphometric analysis to determine potential formative environments on Mars. Putative Martian eskers are 2-300 km long, 50-3000 m wide and 10-150 m high. The Irish eskers are similar in scale and present dimensions within these ranges. Eskers in Ireland are composed of sand and gravel with cobbles and boulders. Mars esker-like ridges observed in high

  15. Ensemble of regional climate model projections for Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Paul; McGrath, Ray

    2016-04-01

    of over 35 days per year. Results show significant projected decreases in mean annual, spring and summer precipitation amounts by mid-century. The projected decreases are largest for summer, with "likely" reductions ranging from 0% to 20%. The frequencies of heavy precipitation events show notable increases (approximately 20%) during the winter and autumn months. The number of extended dry periods is projected to increase substantially during autumn and summer. Regional variations of projected precipitation change remain statistically elusive. The energy content of the wind is projected to significantly decrease for the future spring, summer and autumn months. Projected increases for winter were found to be statistically insignificant. The projected decreases were largest for summer, with "likely" values ranging from 3% to 15%. Results suggest that the tracks of intense storms are projected to extend further south over Ireland relative to those in the reference simulation. As extreme storm events are rare, the storm-tracking research needs to be extended. Future work will focus on analysing a larger ensemble, thus allowing a robust statistical analysis of extreme storm track projections.

  16. Debendox and congenital malformations in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed Central

    Harron, D W; Griffiths, K; Shanks, R G

    1980-01-01

    An investigation was carried out in Northern Ireland into the alleged association between fetal abnormalities and Debendox, an antiemetic drug used in pregnancy. During the period 1966-78 the total number of births each year and the overall incidence of congenital malformations per 10 000 births fell. The incidences of cleft lip, cleft palate, reduction deformities, and defects of the heart and great vessels fell from 1966 to 1976 but increased in 1977 and 1978. During the same period (1966-78) the number of prescriptions for Debendox issued by general practitioners increased more than fourfold. These observations suggest that there is no relation between congenital malformations and the use of Debendox. This conclusion, however, does not take into account other drug- or environmental-related factors that may have resulted in a reduction in the number of congenital malformations and would hence have masked an increase associated with greater usage of Debendox. In particular, the amount of Debendox sold direct to the public without a prescription and the use of the drug by patients who were not pregnant could not be established. The amount of drug used in these ways is probably small, and it is difficult to see how it might influence the conclusions reached. PMID:7437804

  17. Debendox and congenital malformations in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Harron, D W; Griffiths, K; Shanks, R G

    1980-11-22

    An investigation was carried out in Northern Ireland into the alleged association between fetal abnormalities and Debendox, an antiemetic drug used in pregnancy. During the period 1966-78 the total number of births each year and the overall incidence of congenital malformations per 10 000 births fell. The incidences of cleft lip, cleft palate, reduction deformities, and defects of the heart and great vessels fell from 1966 to 1976 but increased in 1977 and 1978. During the same period (1966-78) the number of prescriptions for Debendox issued by general practitioners increased more than fourfold. These observations suggest that there is no relation between congenital malformations and the use of Debendox. This conclusion, however, does not take into account other drug- or environmental-related factors that may have resulted in a reduction in the number of congenital malformations and would hence have masked an increase associated with greater usage of Debendox. In particular, the amount of Debendox sold direct to the public without a prescription and the use of the drug by patients who were not pregnant could not be established. The amount of drug used in these ways is probably small, and it is difficult to see how it might influence the conclusions reached.

  18. Phylogeographic, ancient DNA, fossil and morphometric analyses reveal ancient and modern introductions of a large mammal: the complex case of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carden, Ruth F.; McDevitt, Allan D.; Zachos, Frank E.; Woodman, Peter C.; O'Toole, Peter; Rose, Hugh; Monaghan, Nigel T.; Campana, Michael G.; Bradley, Daniel G.; Edwards, Ceiridwen J.

    2012-05-01

    The problem of how and when the island of Ireland attained its contemporary fauna has remained a key question in understanding Quaternary faunal assemblages. We assessed the complex history and origins of the red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Ireland using a multi-disciplinary approach. Mitochondrial sequences of contemporary and ancient red deer (dating from c 30,000 to 1700 cal. yr BP) were compared to decipher possible source populations of red deer in Ireland, in addition to craniometric analyses of skulls from candidate regions to distinguish between different colonization scenarios. Radiocarbon dating was undertaken on all bone fragments that were previously undated. Finally, a comprehensive review of the scientific literature, unpublished reports and other sources of data were also searched for red deer remains within Irish palaeontological and archaeological contexts. Despite being present in Ireland prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), there is a notable scarcity of red deer from the Younger Dryas stadial period until the Neolithic. The presence of red deer in Irish archaeological sites then occurs more frequently relative to other species. One population in the southwest of Ireland (Co. Kerry) shared haplotypes with the ancient Irish specimens and molecular dating and craniometric analysis suggests its persistence in Ireland since the Neolithic period. The synthesis of the results from this multi-disciplinary study all indicate that red deer were introduced by humans during the Irish Neolithic period and that one of these populations persists today. In conjunction with recent results from other species, Neolithic people from Ireland's nearest landmass, Britain, played a vital role in establishing its contemporary fauna and flora.

  19. Cosmic Radiation and Aircrew Exposure: Implementation of European Requirements in Civil Aviation, Dublin, 1-3 July 1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, Lee

    1999-03-01

    The European Union's Basic Safety Standards Directive (96/29/Euratom) lays down safety standards for the protection of workers and the general public against the effects of ionising radiations. Article 42 of the Directive deals with the protection of aircrew. It states that for crew of jet aircraft who are likely to be subject to exposure to more than 1 mSv y-1 appropriate measures must be taken, in particular: to assess the exposure of the crew concerned, to take into account the assessed exposure when organising working schedules with a view to reducing the doses of highly exposed aircrew, to inform concerned workers of the health risks involved in their work, to apply Article 10 to female aircrew. (The unborn child shall be treated like a member of the public.) This Directive must be transformed into national law of the 15 member states of the European Union by 13 May 2000. The European Commission and the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland sponsored this International Conference. The objective of this conference was to assist both the airline industry and the national regulatory organisations in identifying the means available to comply with the requirements of the Directive. Over 200 delegates attended the conference from more than 25 countries. The welcoming addresses were made by Mary Upton (Director of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland), Joe Jacob (Minister for State responsible for Nuclear Safety) and James Currie (Director-General for the Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection). Mr Currie stated that there was a need for political decisions to be based on good science, and that technological trends will lead to higher and longer flights, and therefore higher radiation doses. The first day concentrated on the scientific basis of measurement, calculation and monitoring of cosmic radiation. The first speaker, Dr Heinrich from the University of Siegen, Germany, talked about the physics of cosmic radiation fields. He pointed

  20. Acute gastroenteritis in northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland: a telephone survey.

    PubMed

    Scallan, E; Fitzgerald, M; Collins, C; Crowley, D; Daly, L; Devine, M; Igoe, D; Quigley, T; Robinson, T; Smyth, B

    2004-03-01

    Most people with acute gastroenteritis do not seek medical care and are therefore not captured by routine surveillance. For this reason, population-based studies are needed to measure the burden of illness. A study of acute gastroenteritis in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland surveyed 9,903 people by telephone over the 12-month period from December 2000 to November 2001. The rate of acute gastroenteritis was 0.60 episodes per person per year. A general practitioner was consulted by 29.2% of those reporting illness, and 2.0% submitted a stool sample. The use of antibiotics was reported by 7.4% of ill respondents and 14.8% took anti-diarrhoeals. Taking days off work due to illness, was reported by 17.4% of respondents. Acute gastroenteritis causes a large amount of illness in the community. There are established and effective measures to prevent this condition and the challenge is to find new ways of promoting these precautions.

  1. Mental health legislation and human rights in England, Wales and the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brendan D

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the World Health Organization (WHO) published its Resource Book on Mental Health, Human Rights and Legislation (Geneva: WHO) presenting a detailed statement of human rights issues which need to be addressed in national legislation relating to mental health. The purpose of this paper is to determine the extent to which revised mental health legislation in England, Wales (2007) and Ireland (2001) accords with these standards (excluding standards relating solely to children or mentally-ill offenders). Legislation in England and Wales meets 90 (54.2%) of the 166 WHO standards examined, while legislation in Ireland meets 80 standards (48.2%). Areas of high compliance include definitions of mental disorder, relatively robust procedures for involuntary admission and treatment (although provision of information remains suboptimal) and clarity regarding offences and penalties Areas of medium compliance relate to competence, capacity and consent (with a particular deficit in capacity legislation in Ireland), oversight and review (which exclude long-term voluntary patients and require more robust complaints procedures), and rules governing special treatments, seclusion and restraint. Areas of low compliance relate to promoting rights (impacting on other areas within legislation, such as information management), voluntary patients (especially non-protesting, incapacitated patients), protection of vulnerable groups and emergency treatment. The greatest single deficit in both jurisdictions relates to economic and social rights. There are four key areas in need of rectification and clarification in relation to mental health legislation in England, Wales and Ireland; these relate to (1) measures to protect and promote the rights of voluntary patients; (2) issues relating to competence, capacity and consent (especially in Ireland); (3) the role of "common law" in relation to mental health law (especially in England and Wales); and (4) the extent to which each jurisdiction

  2. Probiotic effect on calves infected with Salmonella Dublin: haematological parameters and serum biochemical profile.

    PubMed

    Soto, L P; Astesana, D M; Zbrun, M V; Blajman, J E; Salvetti, N R; Berisvil, A P; Rosmini, M R; Signorini, M L; Frizzo, L S

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a probiotic/lactose inoculum on haematological and immunological parameters and renal and hepatic biochemical profiles before and during a Salmonella Dublin DSPV 595T challenge in young calves. Twenty eight calves, divided into a control and probiotic group were used. The probiotic group was supplemented with 100 g lactose/calf/d and 10(10) cfu/calf/d of each strain of a probiotic inoculum composed of Lactobacillus casei DSPV318T, Lactobacillus salivarius DSPV315T and Pediococcus acidilactici DSPV006T throughout the experiment. The pathogen was administered on day 11 of the experiment, at an oral dose of 10(9) cfu/animal (LD50). Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), urea, red blood cells, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cells, lymphocytes, neutrophils, band neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and the neutrophils/lymphocytes ratio were measured on days 1, 10, 20 and 27 of the experiment. In addition, animals were necropsied to evaluate immunoglobulin A (IgA) production in the jejunal mucosa. The most significant differences caused by the administration of the inoculum/lactose were found during the acute phase of Salmonella challenge (9 days after challenge), when a difference between groups in neutrophils/lymphocytes ratio were detected. These results suggest that the probiotic/lactose inoculum administration increases the calf's ability to respond to the disease increasing the systemic immune response specific. No differences were found in haemoglobin, haematocrit, MCH, MCHC, AST, urea, GGT, band neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes and IgA in the jejunum between the two groups of calves under the experimental conditions of this study. Further studies must be conducted to evaluate different probiotic/pathogens doses and different sampling times, to achieve a

  3. The role of flagella and chemotaxis genes in host pathogen interaction of the host adapted Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin compared to the broad host range serovar S. Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of flagella and chemotaxis genes in host pathogen interaction in Salmonella enterica is mainly based on studies of the broad host range serovar, S. Typhimurium, while little is known on the importance in host specific and host adapted serovars, such as S. Dublin. In the current study we have used previously characterized insertion mutants in flagella and chemotaxis genes to investigate this and possible differences in the importance between the two serovars. Results fliC (encoding the structural protein of the flagella) was essential for adhesion and fliC and cheB (CheB restores the chemotaxis system to pre-stimulus conformation) were essential for invasion of S. Dublin into epithelial Int407 cells. In S. Typhimurium, both lack of flagella (fliC/fljB double mutant) and cheB influenced adhesion, and invasion was influenced by lack of both cheA (the histidine-kinase of the chemotaxis system), fliC/fljB and cheB mutation. Uptake in J774A.1 macrophage cells was significantly reduced in cheA, cheB and fliC mutants of S. Dublin, while cheA was dispensable in S. Typhimurium. Removal of flagella in both serotypes caused an increased ability to propagate intracellular in J774 macrophage cells and decreased cytotoxicity toward these cells. Flagella and chemotaxis genes were found not to influence the oxidative response. The induction of IL-6 from J774A-1 cells depended on the presence of flagella in S. Typhimurium, whilst this was not the case following challenge with S. Dublin. Addition of fliC from S. Typhimurium in trans to a fliC mutant of S. Dublin increased cytotoxicity but it did not increase the IL-6 production. Flagella were demonstrated to contribute to the outcome of infection following oral challenge of mice in S. Dublin, while an S. Typhimurium fliC/fljB mutant showed increased virulence following intra peritoneal challenge. Conclusions The results showed that flagella and chemotaxis genes differed in their role in host pathogen

  4. Palynology, aminostratigraphy and U-series dating of marine gortian interglacial sediments in cork harbour, Southern Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, Laura A.; Sejrup, Hans Petter; Coxon, Peter; heijnis, Hendrik

    1998-09-01

    Palynological analysis, amino acid epimerization analysis and uranium thorium disequilibrium age determination of three Irish interglacial cores support the suggestion that there may have been more than one Holsteinian-style temperate interval in Europe. The cores were taken from estuarine deposits beneath glacial diamicton in Cork Harbour, southwest Ireland. The pollen records an incomplete temperate stage. The biotic signature is similar to those from several interglacial sites in Ireland and is considered part of the Gortian group. The pollen signature is Holsteinian/Hoxnian in character. Amino acid epimerization analysis suggests the deposits to be Oxygen Isotope Stage 7 in age, whereas uranium-thorium disequilibrium suggests a minimum Stage 5 age. Possible correlatives of the Gortian group in Europe are suggested.

  5. IRETHERM: Research and Exploration Challenges in Assessing Ireland's Deep Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Energy Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. G.; Muller, M. R.; Fullea, J.; Vozar, J.; Blake, S.; Delhaye, R.; Farrell, T.; Yeomans, C.; Loewer, M.; Reay, D.

    2012-12-01

    IRETHERM (www.iretherm.ie) is a new, academic-government-industry, collaborative research project, funded by Science Foundation Ireland, with the overarching objective of developing a holistic understanding of Ireland's low-enthalpy geothermal energy potential through integrated modelling of new and existing geophysical and geological data. A regional south-to-north trend in surface heat-flow is mapped across Ireland, ~40 to >80 mWm-2, but the source of the heat variation (whether crustal and/or lithospheric-mantle in origin) is unknown. With the exception of Permo-Triassic basins in Northern Ireland, hosting geothermal aquifers of promising but currently poorly-defined potential, rocks with high primary porosity have not been identified elsewhere. Whether any major Irish shear zones/faults might host a geothermal aquifer at depth is also unknown, although clusters of warm-springs in the vicinity of two major shear zones are promising. Our paper discusses the approaches and strategies that IRETHERM has adopted to meet the challenges of exploring for unknown deep geothermal resources (either hydrothermal aquifers or hot, dry rock) starting from a limited knowledge-base. IRETHERM's objectives over a four-year period are to: (i) Develop multi-parameter geophysical modelling and interpretation software tools that will enhance our ability to explore for and assess deep aquifers and granitic intrusions. (ii) Model and understand temperature variations in the upper-crust. Firstly, by building a 3-D model of crustal heat-production based on geochemical analysis of surface, borehole and mid- to lower-crustal xenolith samples. Secondly, by modelling, using a fully self-consistent 3-D approach, observed surface heat-flow variation as a function of variation in the structure and thermal properties of the crust and lithosphere, additionally constrained by surface elevation, geoid, gravity, seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) data. (iii) Test a strategic set of eight "type

  6. Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) Quality Standards in the Republic of Ireland and the Republic of Serbia: Two Discourses of Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breneselovic, Dragana Pavlovic

    2015-01-01

    The paper provides a comparative analysis of establishing quality in early childhood education and care (ECEC) in the Republic of Ireland and the Republic of Serbia. The analysis is done through desk research of documents dealing with the standards of quality. The following dimensions were compared: 1) The way of preparing and adopting documents;…

  7. Transnational Linkages Between the Irish in America and the Irish in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCready, William C.

    This paper examines the relationship between Irish Americans living in the United States and natives in Ireland. Although there is currently little interest or interaction between Irish Americans and Ireland, relationships can be found. The first part of this paper outlines the historical context of migration from Ireland to the United States.…

  8. From Emigration to Immigration: New Dawn for an Intercultural 21st Century Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutwarasibo, Fidele

    2005-01-01

    Within the course of a decade Ireland has emerged from being a country of emigration to a country of immigration. Since the mid-1990s, Ireland has undergone rapid economic expansion with the recent economic growth resulting in approximately 252,000 migrants entering Ireland over the last 6 years, according to the Irish Times (2003). While a large…

  9. Midwifery education in Ireland--The quest for modernity.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Rhona; Bradshaw, Carmel

    2016-02-01

    Midwifery education in Ireland has undergone significant changes in recent years including the introduction of direct entry midwifery programmes and a transfer of education to the university sector. While this has provided increased educational opportunities for midwives, the challenge for midwife educators is to prepare students for the increasing complexities of maternity care with a focus on obstetric risk and maternal morbidities with the need to educate midwifery students to support normality and provide woman centred care. The Nursing and Midwifery Board of Ireland has recently produced new Standards and Requirements for midwifery education and Practice Standards for midwives. This article provides information on midwifery education in Ireland and the documents that support the development of the profession.

  10. All Christians? Experiences of science educators in Northern Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Colette; Hickey, Ivor; Beggs, Jim

    2010-03-01

    In this paper we respond to Staver's article (this issue) on an attempt to resolve the discord between science and religion. Most specifically, we comment on Staver's downplaying of difference between Catholics and Protestants in order to focus on the religion-science question. It is our experience that to be born into one or other of these traditions in some parts of the world (especially Northern Ireland) resulted in starkly contrasting opportunities, identities and practices in becoming and being science educators. The paper starts with a short contextual background to the impact of religion on schooling and higher education in Northern Ireland. We then explore the lives and careers of three science/religious educators in Northern Ireland: Catholic (Jim) and Protestant (Ivor) males who are contemporaries and whose experience spans pre-Troubles to post-conflict and a Catholic female (Colette) who moved to Northern Ireland during the Troubles as a teenager. Finally, we discuss the situation regarding the teaching of creationism and evolution in Northern Ireland—an issue has recently generated high public interest. The Chair of the Education Committee of the Northern Ireland Assembly recently stated that "creationism is not for the RE class because I believe that it can stand scientific scrutiny and that is a debate which I am quite happy to encourage and be part of…" (News Letter 2008). It could be the case that the evolution debate is being fuelled as a deliberate attempt to undermine some of the post-conflict collaboration projects between schools and communities in Northern Ireland.

  11. Social mobility and constitutional and political preferences in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Breen, R

    2001-12-01

    During the past thirty years Catholics in Northern Ireland have experienced unprecedented upward social mobility. Some commentators have suggested that this has led Catholics not merely to adopt the lifestyles of the middle class but also to modify their constitutional preferences, leading to a decline in nationalism. In this paper I examine the relationship between social mobility, on the one hand, and, on the other, both constitutional preferences and political (left or right wing) preferences among Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland, using survey data collected in 1996. There is no evidence that Catholics' constitutional preferences are related to their mobility experiences.

  12. Female role models in physics education in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chormaic, Síle Nic; Fee, Sandra; Tobin, Laura; Hennessy, Tara

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we consider the statistics on undergraduate student representation in Irish universities and look at student numbers in secondary (high) schools in one region in Ireland. There seems to be no significant change in female participation in physics from 2002 to 2011. Additionally, we have studied the influence of an educator's gender on the prevalence of girls studying physics in secondary schools in Co. Louth, Ireland, and at the postgraduate level in Irish universities. It would appear that strong female role models have a positive influence and lead to an increase in girls' participation in physics.

  13. An application of HOMER and ACMANT for homogenising monthly precipitation records in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, John; Curley, Mary; Domonkos, Peter; Aguilar, Enric; Walsh, Seamus; Sweeney, John

    2015-04-01

    Climate change studies based only on raw long-term data are potentially flawed due to the many breaks introduced from non-climatic sources. Consequently, accurate climate data is an essential prerequisite for basing climate related decision making on; and quality controlled, homogenised climate data are becoming integral to European Union Member State efforts to deliver climate services. Ireland has a good repository of monthly precipitation data at approximately 1900 locations stored in the Met Éireann database. The record length at individual precipitation stations varies greatly. However, an audit of the data established the continuous record length at each station and the number of missing months, and based on this two initial subsets of station series (n = 88 and n = 110) were identified for preliminary homogenisation efforts. The HOMER joint detection algorithm was applied to the combined network of these 198 longer station series on an Ireland-wide basis where contiguous intact monthly records ranged from ~40 to 71 years (1941 - 2010). HOMER detected 91 breaks in total in the country-wide series analysis distributed across 63 (~32%) of the 71 year series records analysed. In a separate approach, four sub-series clusters (n = 38 - 61) for the 1950 - 2010 period were used in a parallel analysis applying both ACMANT and HOMER to a regionalised split of the 198 series. By comparison ACMANT detected a considerably higher number of breaks across the four regional series clusters, 238 distributed across 123 (~62%) of the 61 year series records analysed. These preliminary results indicate a relatively high proportion of detected breaks in the series, a situation not generally reflected in observed later 20th century precipitation records across Europe (Domonkos, 2014). However, this elevated ratio of series with detected breaks (~32% in HOMER and ~62% in ACMANT) parallels the break detection rate in a recent analysis of series in the Netherlands (Buishand et al

  14. Environmental consequences of a power plant shut-down: a three-dimensional water quality model of Dublin Bay.

    PubMed

    Bedri, Zeinab; Bruen, Michael; Dowley, Aodh; Masterson, Bartholomew

    2013-06-15

    A hydro-environmental model is used to investigate the effect of cessation of thermal discharges from a power plant on the bathing water quality of Dublin Bay. Before closing down, cooling water from the plant was mixed with sewage effluent prior to its discharge, creating a warmer, less-saline buoyant pollutant plume that adversely affects the water quality of Dublin Bay. The model, calibrated to data from the period prior to the power-plant shut-down (Scenario1), assessed the water quality following its shut-down under two scenarios; (i) Scenario2: continued abstraction of water to dilute sewage effluents before discharge, and (ii) Scnenario3: sewage effluents are discharged directly into the Estuary. Comparison between scenarios was based on distribution of Escherichia coli (E. coli), a main bathing quality indicator. Scenarios1 and 2, showed almost similar E. coli distribution patterns while Scenario3 displayed significantly higher E. coli concentrations due to the increased stratification caused by the lack of prior dilution.

  15. Observations of planetary transits made in Ireland in the 18th Century and the development of astronomy in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, C. J.

    2005-04-01

    We review the small number of known observations of planetary transits made in Ireland in the 18th century with particular reference to the 1769 observations of Venus by Charles Mason. Though inconclusive, there is evidence to suggest that planetary transits were instrumental in the foundation of at least one of the principal observatories in Ireland. In addition, we note the close personal involvement and the contributions of Nevil Maskelyne, the prime mover of the UK 1769 Transit observations, in the design and equipment of these observatories.

  16. Restricted access to abortion in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland: exploring abortion tourism and barriers to legal reform.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Fiona; O'Dowd, Kellie

    2014-01-01

    Access to abortion remains a controversial issue worldwide. In Ireland, both north and south, legal restrictions have resulted in thousands of women travelling to England and Wales and further afield to obtain abortions in the last decade alone, while others purchase the 'abortion pill' from Internet sources. This paper considers the socio-legal context in both jurisdictions, the data on those travelling to access abortion and the barriers to legal reform. It argues that moral conservatism in Ireland, north and south, has contributed to the restricted access to abortion, impacting on the experience of thousands of women, resulting in these individuals becoming 'abortion tourists'.

  17. Impact of agriculture on groundwater in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldwell, C. R.; Burdon, D. J.; Sherwood, M.

    1983-03-01

    Ireland has large water resources. Only 5.3% of developable waters are as yet developed, to supply some 650 I/day/per capita to the population of some 3.37 million people. State of development varies in each of the seven water resources regions. Precipitation is fairly evenly distributed over the year, but the percentage infiltrating to form groundwater varies quite sharply. Some 61% of infiltration occurs in the four winter months November to February, when agricultural activities are low. Only 10% infiltrates in the four summer months, May to August, when agricultural activities are high. In all, annual groundwater amounts to some 24.8 km3, of which 50% is considered to be recoverable. Capital groundwater reserves must be large, but are unquantified. Under these conditions, the impact of agriculture on groundwater quantities is negligible. Of the annual extraction of some 170 × 106m3 of groundwater, some 66 × 106m3/year are used in different agricultural activities. Drainage operations, however, have effects on Irish groundwater. Such lands may overlie impermeable strata or pans, or may receive concealed or visible groundwater discharge. Their drainage will affect the groundwater in various ways. There has been a considerable impact of agriculture on groundwater quality. The effects on the atmosphere and on precipitation are not identifiable. Effects of diffuse infiltration are treated with respect to: (a) application of ground limestone (lime); (b) application of K.N.P. inorganic fertilizer; (c) spreading of organic slurries; (d) development of organic nitrogen in soils, mainly after ploughing of grasslands; and (e) residues from herbicides, fungicides, and pesticides. The infiltration of these substances spread on the land is closely related to the interaction between times of ground-water recharge and times of fertilizer application. Effects of concentrated infiltration are treated under seven sub-heads: (a) infiltration of polluted surface waters; (b

  18. Ireland, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The island of Ireland comprises a large central lowland of limestone with a relief of hills surrounded by a discontinuous border of coastal mountains which vary greatly in geological structure. The mountain ridges of the south are composed of old red sandstone separated by limestone river valleys. Granite predominates in the mountains of Galway, Mayo and Donegal in the west and north-west and in Counties Down and Wicklow on the east coast, while a basalt plateau covers much of the north-east of the country. The central plain, which is broken in places by low hills, is extensively covered with glacial deposits of clay and sand. It has considerable areas of bog and numerous lakes. The island has seen at least two general glaciations and everywhere ice-smoothed rock, mountain lakes, glacial valleys and deposits of glacial sand, gravel and clay mark the passage of the ice.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial

  19. What Do Young People Need When They Leave Care? Views of Care-Leavers and Aftercare Workers in North Dublin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    EPIC is an independent voluntary organisation in the Republic of Ireland that advocates for the rights of children in care and young people who have care experience. One aspect of EPIC's work is the Aftercare Advocacy and Support Service, which provides confidential advice and support to young people who are preparing to leave care, those in…

  20. The Impact of Problem-Based Learning on the Information Behavior and Literacy of Veterinary Medicine Students at University College Dublin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Lorna

    2007-01-01

    Research was conducted on the impact of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) on the information seeking and literacy of veterinary students at University College Dublin. Data were collected using both quantitative and qualitative methods from students, academics and the librarian. Results showed that PBL has a significant impact on how students find and…

  1. A Scaled-Up Model of AP(E)L for Sectoral Professionalisation: Lessons from the 2005 Valex Pilot Project (Dublin)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the policy and pedagogical outcomes of an AP(E)L Pilot Project in the social care sector undertaken as an element of the 2003-2005 Socrates-Grundtvig Research Project: VaLEx Valuing Learning from Experience, by the Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT) and the Open Training College (OTC). It deals with the experiences of the two…

  2. Neighbourhood Based Residential Child Care: A Local Residential Child Care Unit as a Resource for Integrated and Flexible Child and Family Care in Dublin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilligan, Robbie

    A pioneering residential child care project in inner city Dublin began operations in July 1981. The project was designed to function as a resource for seriously deprived or at-risk children and their families. The community served is one characterized by exceptionally high unemployment, a 10 percent rate of heroin addiction among local 15- to…

  3. A Common Model To Support Interoperable Metadata: Progress Report on Reconciling Metadata Requirements from the Dublin Core and INDECS/DOI Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, David; Rust, Godfrey; Weibel, Stuart; Miller, Eric; Trant, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    The Dublin Core metadata community and the INDECS/DOI community of authors, rights holders, and publishers are seeking common ground in the expression of metadata for information resources. An open "Schema Harmonization" working group has been established to identify a common framework to support interoperability among these communities.…

  4. The Museum of Irish Industry, Robert Kane and Education for All in the Dublin of the 1850s and 1860s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Clara

    2009-01-01

    The Museum of Irish Industry in Dublin, in its short existence (1845-1867) facilitated the access of ordinary people to popular scientific education, became a "cause celebre" and was defended by popular protest when the government recommended its abolition in 1862. Its Director, Sir Robert Kane (1809-1890) was not only an advocate of…

  5. Measurement invariance of the Driver Behavior Questionnaire across samples of young drivers from Finland and Ireland.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Markus; Fearghal, O'Brien; Lajunen, Timo; Gormley, Michael; Summala, Heikki

    2015-05-01

    This article investigates the factor structure of the 27-item Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) in two samples of young drivers (18-25 years of age); one from Finland and the other from Ireland. We compare the two-, three-, and four-factor solutions using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and show that the four-factor model (with the latent variables rule violations, aggressive violations, slips and lapses) fits the data from the two countries best. Next, we compare the fit of this model across samples by the means of a measurement invariance analysis in the CFA framework. The analysis shows that the four-factor model fails to fit both samples equally well. This is mainly because the socially-oriented latent variables (rule violations and aggressive violations) are different in nature in the two samples. The cognitively-oriented latent variables (slips and lapses) are, however, similar across countries and the mean values of slips can be compared using latent variable models. However, the common practice of calculating sum scores to represent the four latent DBQ variables and comparing them across subgroups of respondents is unfounded, at least when comparing young respondents from Finland and Ireland.

  6. Are Separate Schools Divisive? A Case Study from Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    In Northern Ireland, where the majority of children are educated at schools attended mainly by coreligionists, the debate concerning the role of schools in perpetuating intergroup hostilities has recently been reignited. Against questions regarding the efficacy of community relations policy in education, the research reported in this paper employs…

  7. Early Childhood Education in Ireland: Change and Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Rosaleen

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood care and education in Ireland has come under increasing scrutiny in recent years, as a result of public concern about standards in some early years services. Services for children before they enter primary school are largely the responsibility of the department of health, while children in the formal school system are the…

  8. Education for Peace in Northern Ireland and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Candice

    2004-01-01

    Reviewed here are approaches to peacebuilding citizenship education in Northern Ireland and the USA, where social education has been responding to intergroup and structural violence. Strategies for peacebuilding have been developed and implemented in response to societal conflicts, government mandates, and available funding. Government support for…

  9. Cultural Flashpoint: The Politics of Teacher Education Reform in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Paul F.

    2013-01-01

    The publication of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009 (Cosgrove et al., 2010; Perkins et al., 2010) reading literacy results heralded a crisis of confidence in educational standards in Ireland. This article examines the national and international context of teacher education reform and the politics of the policy…

  10. Irish Speakers in Northern Ireland, and the Good Friday Agreement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craith, M. Nic

    1999-01-01

    Examines the Irish language community in Northern Ireland, and questions the validity of the census results of 1991. Particular focus is on the concept of a mother tongue and its relevance for speakers of Irish in the United Kingdom. Discusses measures to improve the status of Irish as a result of the Good Friday Agreement. (Author/VWL)

  11. Creativity in the Science Curriculum: A Northern Ireland Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Roger

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the revised Northern Ireland Curriculum which will be fully implemented across all key stages by June 2010. The revision gives schools greater flexibility with statements of minimum entitlement for subject strands replacing detailed subject programmes of study. Teachers are encouraged to promote a cross-curricular approach…

  12. The Changing Family in Northern Ireland: Young People and Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Margaret I.

    2000-01-01

    Interviewed adolescents in Northern Ireland to investigate their experiences with the divorce process and help provided by family, friends, and professionals. They considered the separation/divorce process long, frequently underpinned by acrimony and violence. Extended family and peers provided great support. Many teens used specialist counselors…

  13. Career Guidance in Northern Ireland: Retrospect and Prospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Moira; Millar, Rob

    2006-01-01

    The history of careers guidance in Northern Ireland has many similarities but also many differences from experiences in other parts of the UK. The Careers Service has remained within central government for the duration, and this has provided a degree of consistency in service provision over time. In line with the Department for Employment and…

  14. Approaching the Rubicon: Quality Issues in Teacher Education in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Eugene

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of quality issues in Ireland's preservice and inservice teacher education examines the 1992 Green Paper on Irish Education, which highlighted several proposals regarding establishment of a system of quality assurance in higher education institutions to offer students the best possible education and ensure high standards of quality in…

  15. Complex Contexts: Women and Community-Higher-Education in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quilty, Aideen; McAuliffe, Mary; Barry, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Education is not a neutral process, it can be used to establish and maintain conformity or be part of a process of liberation and social change (Freire, 1979; hooks, 1994). The Irish State's failure to acknowledge this lack of neutrality has characterised the formal education system in Ireland since its inception. From the introduction of the…

  16. An Examination of Health Promoting Schools in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moynihan, Sharon; Jourdan, Didier; Mannix McNamara, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a national survey that examined the extent of implementation of Health Promoting Schools (HPS) in Ireland. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative research design was adopted. A questionnaire was administered to all post-primary schools in the country (n = 704). Data were analysed…

  17. Newcomer Pupils in Northern Ireland: A Pastoral Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sharon Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Rapid changes in Northern Ireland's demographic, resulting in an increasingly multicultural and multilingual school population, are presenting new opportunities and challenges for schools in a region emerging from a troubled recent past. Reflecting on this from a pastoral perspective, this article focuses on the relationships between the school…

  18. Higher Education Expansion and Differentiation in the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Selina; Smyth, Emer

    2011-01-01

    This article explores social class and gender differences in entry to the two main higher education sectors, universities and institutes of technology, among school leavers in Ireland over the period 1980-2006. A rational choice perspective is adopted, with participation hypothesised to reflect the costs and benefits attaching to attending the two…

  19. Responding to School Disaffection: Insights from the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    In a recent publication, Fitzgerald (2003) inquired if the educational system in the Republic of Ireland was catering adequately for the less able learners and/or those from disadvantaged backgrounds. This paper responds to the question by providing an overview of educational inequality in the Irish context with a particular focus on what are…

  20. Three drinking-water-associated cryptosporidiosis outbreaks, Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Glaberman, Scott; Moore, John E; Lowery, Colm J; Chalmers, Rachel M; Sulaiman, Irshad; Elwin, Kristin; Rooney, Paul J; Millar, Beverley C; Dooley, James S G; Lal, Altaf A; Xiao, Lihua

    2002-06-01

    Three recent drinking-water-associated cryptosporidiosis outbreaks in Northern Ireland were investigated by using genotyping and subgenotyping tools. One Cryptosporidium parvum outbreak was caused by the bovine genotype, and two were caused by the human genotype. Subgenotyping analyses indicate that two predominant subgenotypes were associated with these outbreaks and had been circulating in the community.

  1. The Career Paths of Primary School Principals in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ummanel, Azize; McNamara, Gerry; Stynes, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The key purpose of this paper is to offer an exploration of the career paths of a number of Irish school principals. The information presented is part of a comparative study in the area, involving three island states: Cyprus, Malta and Ireland. The study provides an insight into how individuals become principals and how they perceive themselves in…

  2. Education as a Mechanism for Conflict Resolution in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Bernadette C.; McAllister, Ian

    2009-01-01

    How education systems operate in divided societies is an increasingly important question for academics and educational practitioners as well as for governments. The question is particularly pertinent in post-conflict societies, where education is a key mechanism for resolving conflict between divided communities. Using Northern Ireland as a case…

  3. Religious Education and the Law in Northern Ireland's Controlled Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, David

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the legislation under which religious education operates in Northern Ireland's schools. A brief historical sketch identifies the Irish Churches' interest in the educational debates of the 1920s and 1930s. The legislation that established religious education in the curriculum is traced from those debates to the present…

  4. Including Pupils with Special Educational Needs in Schools in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greville, Eamonn

    2009-01-01

    These guidelines offer information on space planning and design for school principals, boards of management and designers to make permanent learning facilities available for pupils with special educational needs across the 26 counties of Ireland. The guidelines reflect many of the recent changes in the country's educational system, changes that…

  5. Differentiated Normalization and Drug Transitions among Rural Youth in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hout, Marie Claire

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence surveys in Ireland indicate an increased trend of youth drug use with rural areas reporting comparable drug availability and prevalence of use in urban settings (Currie, C., Nic Gabhainn, S., Godeau, E., Roberts, C., Smith, R., & Currie, D. (Eds.). (2008). "Inequalities in young people's health: HBSC international report from…

  6. Proceedings of the Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2000-01-01

    The Winter Meeting of the Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland was held at the Royal Holloway College, Egham, Surrey from 5th to 7th January 2000. It included a symposium on ‘Phenotypic changes in epithelial development’ and the Annual General Meeting of the Society. The following are abstracts of communications and posters presented at the meeting. PMID:17103662

  7. Parental Concerns on Inclusion: The Northern Ireland Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Una

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between home and school is an integral feature of how pupils learn and parents have a central role to play in their child's education. Philosophical and practical discourse around inclusion has informed and directed inclusive policy in recent years. In Northern Ireland, it has latterly been conducted under the auspices of emerging…

  8. Shared Accents, Divided Speech Community? Change in Northern Ireland English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCafferty, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    Using data from Derry/Londonderry English, the impact of social factors on language variation is examined. Finds that where language change is occurring, ethnicity has an effect on the adoption of innovations. Changes originating in the (predominantly Protestant) east of Northern Ireland tend to be adopted primarily by Protestants, whereas…

  9. World Perspective Case Descriptions on Educational Programs for Adults: Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassett, Michael; And Others

    Fifteen adult education programs being conducted in Ireland are described in the case studies in this packet. The courses range from adult basic education to university degree courses in management and industrial relations, from marriage preparation to inservice teacher education. The following programs are profiled: (1) certificate in farming…

  10. Burnout among Accounting and Finance Academics in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Marann; Chughtai, Aamir; Flood, Barbara; Murphy, Evelyn; Willis, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the levels of burnout experienced by accounting and finance academics in Ireland. Design/methodology/approach: Data for this cross-sectional survey study were collected from 100 accounting and finance academics teaching in Irish third level institutions. Independent sample "t"-tests, one…

  11. How Do Teachers in Ireland and England Conceptualise Dyslexia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Sheena; McPhillips, Therese; Doveston, Mary

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a comparative study using data from questionnaire surveys carried out in England (n = 57) and Ireland (n = 72). The researchers examine how teachers and teaching assistants who are currently teaching pupils with dyslexia in primary schools describe dyslexia and what may have influenced their conceptualisation.…

  12. Just a Phase? Youth Unemployment in the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, Emer

    2008-01-01

    Ireland has experienced an unprecedented level of economic growth since the mid-1990s. The present article assesses the extent to which this phenomenon has altered the level and nature of youth unemployment, using data from six waves of a nationally representative survey of school-leavers. The main impact of the "Celtic Tiger" has been…

  13. Relationships of People with Learning Disabilities in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bane, Geraldine; Deely, Marie; Donohoe, Brian; Dooher, Martin; Flaherty, Josephine; Iriarte, Edurne Garcia; Hopkins, Rob; Mahon, Ann; Minogue, Ger; Mc Donagh, Padraig; O'Doherty, Siobhain; Curry, Martin; Shannon, Stephen; Tierney, Edel; Wolfe, Marie

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the perspectives of people with learning disabilities on relationships and supports in the Republic of Ireland. A national research network consisting of 21 researchers with learning disabilities, 12 supporters, and 7 university researchers conducted the study. Researchers with learning disabilities and their supporters ran 16…

  14. Counselors Abroad: Outcomes of an International Counseling Institute in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guth, Lorraine J.; McAuliffe, Garrett; Michalak, Megan

    2014-01-01

    As the counseling profession continues to build an international community, the need to examine cultural competence training also increases. This quantitative study examined the impact of the Diversity and Counseling Institute in Ireland (DCII) on participants' multicultural counseling competencies. Two instruments were utilized to examine…

  15. The People Left Behind: Anomic Themes in Rural Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheper-Hughes, Nancy

    This paper examines the major conflicts and stresses which surround the coming of age in rural Ireland today and which commonly contribute to mental breakdown. The study is based on ten months of participant observation in an Irish-speaking village of Southwest Kerry, combined with weekly visits to the county mental hospital. The author uses a…

  16. Shared Education in Northern Ireland: School Collaboration in Divided Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Tony

    2016-01-01

    During the years of political violence in Northern Ireland many looked to schools to contribute to reconciliation. A variety of interventions were attempted throughout those years, but there was little evidence that any had produced systemic change. The peace process provided an opportunity for renewed efforts. This paper outlines the experience…

  17. The prevalence of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) results from mutations in the SERPINA1 gene and classically presents with early-onset emphysema and liver disease. The most common mutation presenting with clinical evidence is the Z mutation, while the S mutation is associated with a milder plasma deficiency. AATD is an under-diagnosed condition and the World Health Organisation recommends targeted detection programmes for AATD in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), non-responsive asthma, cryptogenic liver disease and first degree relatives of known AATD patients. Methods We present data from the first 3,000 individuals screened following ATS/ERS guidelines as part of the Irish National Targeted Detection Programme (INTDP). We also investigated a DNA collection of 1,100 individuals randomly sampled from the general population. Serum and DNA was collected from both groups and mutations in the SERPINA1 gene detected by phenotyping or genotyping. Results The Irish National Targeted Detection Programme identified 42 ZZ, 44 SZ, 14 SS, 430 MZ, 263 MS, 20 IX and 2 rare mutations. Analysis of 1,100 randomly selected individuals identified 113 MS, 46 MZ, 2 SS and 2 SZ genotypes. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that AATD in Ireland is more prevalent than previously estimated with Z and S allele frequencies among the highest in the world. Furthermore, our targeted detection programme enriched the population of those carrying the Z but not the S allele, suggesting the Z allele is more important in the pathogenesis of those conditions targeted by the detection programme. PMID:21752289

  18. Quantitative risk assessment of Cryptosporidium in tap water in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Cummins, E; Kennedy, R; Cormican, M

    2010-01-15

    Cryptosporidium species are protozoan parasites associated with gastro-intestinal illness. Following a number of high profile outbreaks worldwide, it has emerged as a parasite of major public health concern. A quantitative Monte Carlo simulation model was developed to evaluate the annual risk of infection from Cryptosporidium in tap water in Ireland. The assessment considers the potential initial contamination levels in raw water, oocyst removal and decontamination events following various process stages, including coagulation/flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. A number of scenarios were analysed to represent potential risks from public water supplies, group water schemes and private wells. Where surface water is used additional physical and chemical water treatment is important in terms of reducing the risk to consumers. The simulated annual risk of illness for immunocompetent individuals was below 1 x 10(-4) per year (as set by the US EPA) except under extreme contamination events. The risk for immunocompromised individuals was 2-3 orders of magnitude greater for the scenarios analysed. The model indicates a reduced risk of infection from tap water that has undergone microfiltration, as this treatment is more robust in the event of high contamination loads. The sensitivity analysis highlighted the importance of watershed protection and the importance of adequate coagulation/flocculation in conventional treatment. The frequency of failure of the treatment process is the most important parameter influencing human risk in conventional treatment. The model developed in this study may be useful for local authorities, government agencies and other stakeholders to evaluate the likely risk of infection given some basic input data on source water and treatment processes used.

  19. Identifying critical source areas for phosphorus loss in Ireland using field and catchment scale ranking schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, K. J.; Magette, W. L.; Kurz, I.

    2005-03-01

    Phosphorus (P) in agricultural runoff is a major pollutant in many of Ireland's surface waters. Identification of areas that are at a high risk for P loss to surface waters is a critical component of river basin management. Two P ranking schemes (PRS's) were developed for Ireland, based on multi-criteria analysis approaches proposed in both the US and Europe, to predict the relative likelihood of P loss at both the field and catchment scales. The Field PRS was evaluated by comparing predicted rankings of potential P loss and transport against measured edge-of-field Dissolved Reactive P (DRP) loss for three fields with varying soil P levels. Qualitatively, results indicated that the Field PRS rankings corresponded to the magnitudes of measured P loss for the field sites, as well as to a reasoned evaluation of the relative likelihood that the fields would lose P that would subsequently make its way to surface water. The Catchment PRS was evaluated on a total of 31 catchments and sub-catchments by comparing predicted rankings of potential P loss and transport against measured in-stream median Molybdate Reactive P (MRP). Rankings of the relative likelihood of P loss and transport predicted by the Catchment PRS were positively correlated with median in-stream MRP ( r=0.51, P<0.05). Although the data available for these evaluations were limited, especially at field scale, and further research may identify the opportunity for modifications, both field and catchment scale P ranking schemes demonstrated a potential for identifying critical P source areas within catchments dominated by grass-based agricultural production systems, such as those in Ireland.

  20. The use of beached bird surveys for marine plastic litter monitoring in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Acampora, Heidi; Lyashevska, Olga; Van Franeker, Jan Andries; O'Connor, Ian

    2016-09-01

    Marine plastic litter has become a major threat to wildlife. Marine animals are highly susceptible to entanglement and ingestion of debris at sea. Governments all around the world are being urged to monitor litter sources and inputs, and to mitigate the impacts of marine litter, which is primarily composed of plastics. European policies, such as Oslo-Paris Convention (OSPAR) and Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) have adopted the monitoring of a seabird species, the Northern Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), as an environmental quality indicator through the analysis of stomach contents of beached Fulmar specimens. The aims of this research were to: firstly set a baseline investigation of multispecies of seabirds in Ireland affected by the ingestion of litter and, secondly to investigate the feasibility of using Fulmar and/or other potential species of seabird as an indicator for marine debris in Ireland through beached bird surveys. Within 30 months, 121 birds comprising 16 different species were collected and examined for the presence of litter. Of these, 27.3% (n = 33) comprising 12 different species were found to ingest litter, mainly plastics. The average mass of ingested litter was 0.141 g. Among 14 sampled Northern Fulmars, 13 (93%) had ingested plastic litter, all of them over the 0.1 g threshold used in OSPAR and MSFD policy target definitions. Results show that seabirds in Ireland are ingesting marine litter, as in many other countries in the world. Monitoring seabird litter ingestion has the potential to form part of a wider marine litter monitoring programme that can help to inform mitigation and management measures for marine litter.

  1. IRETHERM: Research and Exploration Challenges in Assessing Ireland's Deep Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Energy Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, M. R.; Jones, A. G.; Fullea, J.; Yeomans, C. M.; Loewer, M.; Reay, D.

    2012-04-01

    : (i) Develop multi-parameter geophysical modelling and interpretation software tools that will enhance our ability to explore for and assess deep aquifers and granitic intrusions. (ii) Model and understand temperature variations in the upper-crust. Firstly, by building a 3-D model of crustal heat-production based on geochemical analysis of surface, borehole and mid- to lower-crustal xenolith samples. Secondly, by modelling, using a fully self-consistent 3-D approach, observed surface heat-flow variation as a function of variation in the structure and thermal properties of the crust and lithosphere, additionally constrained by surface elevation, geoid and gravity data. (iii) Test a strategic set of eight "type" geothermal targets with a systematic program of electromagnetic surveys (MT, CSEM) across ten target areas. As the first product of our research, we present results from two recent magnetotelluric surveys in Northern Ireland, one over the Permo-Triassic Lough Neagh Basin with geothermal aquifer potential (known porosities and permeabilities of 8-24% and 2-1000mD respectively in the Sherwood Sandstone Formation) and the other over the Palaeogene radiogenic (4-7µW/m3) Mournes Granite offering hot, dry rock potential. We assess the geothermal potential of the targets themselves and discuss the limitations of the modelling approaches we have used and the future enhancements necessary to improve our ability to characterise these resources.

  2. What lies beneath? The underlying principles structuring the field of academic nursing in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Martin S

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a structural analysis of the field of academic nursing in Ireland and considers the implications of the field's current structure for its present status and future trajectory in the academy. Six years after preregistration nursing education transferred to the higher education sector, tensions continue to exist concerning the status and legitimacy of academic nursing and of those who profess to profess it. The languages of legitimation of senior nursing academics and national nursing leaders (n = 16) were elicited and subjected to a critical discourse analysis. Respondents' languages were analyzed in terms of the settings of four underlying structuring legitimation principles: autonomy, density, specialization, and temporality. Academic nursing in Ireland was found to be structured by low autonomy, high density, and weak specialization. I conclude that academic and professional leaders in Irish nursing need to urgently consider how academic nursing can reconfigure its relationships with clinical nursing, increase its intellectual autonomy, enhance its internal coherence and cohesiveness, strengthen the epistemic power of its knowledge base, and critically evaluate the ways in which past practices inform its present and whether and to what extent they should shape its future.

  3. Risk factors associated with increased mortality of farmed Pacific oysters in Ireland during 2011.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Tracy A; Morrissey, Teresa; Geoghegan, Fiona; Martin, S Wayne; Lyons, Kieran; Ashe, Seán; More, Simon J

    2014-02-01

    The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, plays a significant role in the aquaculture industry in Ireland. Episodes of increased mortality in C. gigas have been described in many countries, and in Ireland since 2008. The cause of mortality events in C. gigas spat and larvae is suspected to be multifactorial, with ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1, in particular OsHV-1μvar) considered a necessary, but not sufficient, cause. The objectives of the current study were to describe mortality events that occurred in C. gigas in Ireland during the summer of 2011 and to identify any associated environmental, husbandry and oyster endogenous factors. A prospective cohort study was conducted during 2010-2012, involving 80 study batches, located at 24 sites within 17 bays. All 17 bays had previously tested positive for OsHV-1μvar. All study farmers were initially surveyed to gather relevant data on each study batch, which was then tracked from placement in the bay to first grading. The outcome of interest was cumulative batch-level mortality (%). Environmental data at high and low mortality sites were compared, and a risk factor analysis, using a multiple linear regression mixed effects model, was conducted. Cumulative batch mortality ranged from 2% to 100% (median=16%, interquartile range: 10-34%). The final multivariable risk factor model indicated that batches imported from French hatcheries had significantly lower mortalities than non-French hatcheries; sites which tested negative for OsHV-1μvar during the study had significantly lower mortalities than sites which tested positive and mortalities increased with temperature until a peak was reached. There were several differences between the seed stocks from French and non-French hatcheries, including prior OsHV-1μvar exposure and ploidy. A range of risk factors relating to farm management were also considered, but were not found significant. The relative importance of prior OsHV-1μvar infection and ploidy will become clearer

  4. Understandings of Citizenship Education in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland: Public Discourses among Stakeholders in the Public and Private Sectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niens, Ulrike; McIlrath, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Internationally, citizenship education has come to the fore in the past decade. It may be particularly important within the context of societies with a legacy of political conflict, such as Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, where it is being implemented as part of the statutory curriculum. This article explores understandings of…

  5. Genetic diversity and population structure of Brassica oleracea germplasm in Ireland using SSR markers.

    PubMed

    El-Esawi, Mohamed A; Germaine, Kieran; Bourke, Paula; Malone, Renee

    2016-01-01

    The most economically important Brassica oleracea species is endangered in Ireland, with no prior reported genetic characterization studies. This study assesses the genetic diversity, population structure and relationships of B. oleracea germplasm in Ireland using microsatellite (SSRs) markers. A total of 118 individuals from 25 accessions of Irish B. oleracea were genotyped. The SSR loci used revealed a total of 47 alleles. The observed heterozygosity (0.699) was higher than the expected one (0.417). Moreover, the average values of fixation indices (F) were negative, indicating excess of heterozygotes in all accessions. Polymorphic information content (PIC) values of SSR loci ranged from 0.27 to 0.66, with an average of 0.571, and classified 10 loci as informative markers (PIC>0.5) to differentiate among the accessions studied. The genetic differentiation among accessions showed that 27.1% of the total genetic variation was found among accessions, and 72.9% of the variation resided within accessions. The averages of total heterozygosity (H(T)) and intra-accession genetic diversity (H(S)) were 0.577 and 0.442, respectively. Cluster analysis of SSR data distinguished among kale and Brussels sprouts cultivars. This study provided a new insight into the exploitation of the genetically diverse spring cabbages accessions, revealing a high genetic variation, as potential resources for future breeding programs. SSR loci were effective for differentiation among the accessions studied.

  6. Childhood adversity profiles and adult psychopathology in a representative Northern Ireland study.

    PubMed

    McLafferty, Margaret; Armour, Cherie; McKenna, Aine; O'Neill, Siobhan; Murphy, Sam; Bunting, Brendan

    2015-10-01

    Childhood adversities are key aetiological factors in the onset and persistence of psychopathology. The aims of this study were to identify childhood adversity profiles, and investigate the relationship between the adversity classes and psychopathology in Northern Ireland. The study utilized data from the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress, an epidemiological survey (N=1986), which used the CIDI to examine mental health disorders and associated risk factors. Latent Class Analysis revealed 3 distinct typologies; a low risk class (n=1709; 86%), a poly-adversity class (n=122; 6.1%), and an economic adversity class (n=155; 7.8%). Logistic Regression models revealed that individuals in the economic adversity class had a heightened risk of anxiety and substance disorders, with individuals in the poly-adversity class more likely to have a range of mental health problems and suicidality. The findings indicate the importance of considering the impact of co-occurring childhood adversities when planning treatment, prevention, and intervention programmes.

  7. The molecular epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in six cities in Britain and Ireland.

    PubMed

    Brown, A J; Lobidel, D; Wade, C M; Rebus, S; Phillips, A N; Brettle, R P; France, A J; Leen, C S; McMenamin, J; McMillan, A; Maw, R D; Mulcahy, F; Robertson, J R; Sankar, K N; Scott, G; Wyld, R; Peutherer, J F

    1997-08-18

    We have sequenced the p17 coding regions of the gag gene from 211 patients infected either through injecting drug use (IDU) or by sexual intercourse between men from six cities in Scotland, N. England, N. Ireland, and the Republic of Ireland. All sequences were of subtype B. Phylogenetic analysis revealed substantial heterogeneity in the sequences from homosexual men. In contrast, sequence from over 80% of IDUs formed a relatively tight cluster, distinct both from those of published isolates and of the gay men. There was no large-scale clustering of sequences by city in either risk group, although a number of close associations between pairs of individuals were observed. From the known date of the HIV-1 epidemic among IDUs in Edinburgh, the rate of sequence divergence at synonymous sites is estimated to be about 0.8%. On this basis we estimate the date of divergence of the sequences among homosexual men to be about 1975, which may correspond to the origin of the B subtype epidemic.

  8. Application of teledentistry in oral medicine in a community dental service, N. Ireland.

    PubMed

    Bradley, M; Black, P; Noble, S; Thompson, R; Lamey, P J

    2010-10-23

    Currently, patients with oral medicine conditions from all areas of Northern Ireland are referred by dentists and doctors to a small number of specialist services: predominantly, the Regional Oral Medicine Consultant at the School of Dentistry, Belfast. On receipt of the referral the consultant makes an assessment of the urgency of the case and the patient is placed on a waiting list. Until the recent implementation of waiting list initiatives (Elective Access Protocol, Department of Health, N. Ireland, 2006), patients remained on the waiting list for long periods of time. Analysis of these patient profiles highlights that many need both multiple treatment and review appointments of their chronic conditions, and consequently remain in the hospital system for significant periods of time. This increases the waiting time for these services. The idea of using teledentistry to triage referrals, and its potential as a tool to support locally based treatment, poses an alternative approach to the management of oral medicine referrals. It may be of particular interest to practitioners in rural locations where distance from the regional centre is significant. In 2005, to test this theory, a prototype teledentistry system was set up as part of a service improvement scheme by the Community Dental Service of the Homefirst Legacy Trust (now Northern Trust) in partnership with the Oral Medicine Department at the School of Dentistry, Royal Group of Hospitals Legacy Trust (now Belfast Trust). This paper describes the feasibility study.

  9. Transnational healthcare practices of Romanian migrants in Ireland: inequalities of access and the privatisation of healthcare services in Europe.

    PubMed

    Stan, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the transnational healthcare practices of Central and Eastern European migrants in Europe, taking the case of Romanian migrants in Ireland. It explores the implications of migrants' transnational healthcare practices for the transformation of citizenship in Europe, more particularly in terms of access to free public healthcare. The article places these practices in the larger perspective of global care chains, seen as including transnational flows of healthcare seekers and healthcare workers that link distant healthcare systems in an emerging European healthcare assemblage. The study adopted a holistic perspective, taking into account both formal and informal practices, as well as the use of healthcare services in both the host and the origin countries of migrants. These were explored during multi-sited fieldwork in Romania and Ireland, conducted between 2012 and 2013, and combining a variety of sources and methods (semi-structured interviews, informal conversations, documentary analysis, etc.). The article explores the links between migrants' transnational healthcare practices and two other important processes: 1) inequalities in access to healthcare services in migrants' countries of origin and of destination; and 2) the contribution of healthcare privatisation to these inequalities. It shows that Romanian migrants' transnational healthcare practices function as strategies of social mobility for migrants, while also reflecting the increasing privatisation of healthcare services in Ireland and Romania. The article argues that these processes are far from specific to Ireland, Romania, and the migration flows uniting them. Rather, they draw our attention to the rise of an unevenly developed European healthcare assemblage and citizenship regime in which patients' movements across borders are closely interlinked with diminishing and increasingly unequal access to public healthcare services.

  10. New cross sectional stature, weight, and head circumference references for Down's syndrome in the UK and Republic of Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Styles, M; Cole, T; Dennis, J; Preece, M

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To present a growth reference for children with uncomplicated Down's syndrome living in the UK and Republic of Ireland. Data are available for height and weight in the age range 0–18 years, including the first three months of life, and for head circumference in the first year. Methods: The study sample was drawn from 16 discrete geographical areas and was representative of children age 19 years of age or less who are now living in the UK and Republic of Ireland. Multiple growth measurements for 1507 children were obtained retrospectively by case note search. Data from children with significant cardiac or other major pathology were excluded from analysis. Data from preterm babies were excluded up to age 2 years. Centile curves were constructed from 5913 selected measurements from 1089 children and were derived using Cole's LMS method. Results: The resulting centiles differ substantially from those previously available in the UK, which were based on selective US data published in 1988. Conclusions: We propose that these charts should now be adopted as the standard UK/Republic of Ireland reference. PMID:12138054

  11. Why is celiac disease so common in Ireland?

    PubMed

    Cronin, C C; Shanahan, F

    2001-01-01

    Celiac disease (gluten sensitive enteropathy) is a condition affecting the small bowel, characterized by permanent intolerance to dietary gluten, and giving rise to varying degrees of malabsorption and diarrhea. With the advent of sensitive screening tests, the condition is being increasingly diagnosed. Celiac disease is more common in the Irish and in those of Irish descent. Simoons (1978, 1981) hypothesized that the present-day prevalence of celiac disease across Europe is related to the interaction between genetic gradients, largely determined by the advance of agriculture, and historical patterns of cereal ingestion. This essay examines Simoons' hypothesis as it relates to Ireland, reviews the ethnic and genetic mix of those living on the island of Ireland and aspects of Irish dietary history, and considers how these factors may have combined to result in a high frequency of celiac disease.

  12. Ticks and Tick-borne diseases in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Zintl, Annetta; Moutailler, Sara; Stuart, Peter; Paredis, Linda; Dutraive, Justine; Gonzalez, Estelle; O'Connor, Jack; Devillers, Elodie; Good, Barbara; OMuireagain, Colm; De Waal, Theo; Morris, Fergal; Gray, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Throughout Europe interest in tick-borne agents is increasing, particularly with regard to those that can cause human disease. The reason for this is the apparent rise in the incidence of many tick-borne diseases (TBD's). While there has never been a national survey of ticks or TBD's in Ireland, the trend here appears to be the reverse with a decline in the incidence of some agents seemingly associated with decreasing tick numbers particularly on agricultural land. In the absence of robust baseline data, however, this development cannot be confirmed. This review collates the limited information available from several dated published records on tick species and a small number of studies focused on certain TBD's. Some pilot data on tick density and TBD agents collected in 2016 are also presented. The aim is to explore the particular situation in Ireland with regard to ticks and TBD's and to provide a reference for future workers in the field.

  13. The Northern Ireland Framework for Peace: Terrorism and its Aftermath

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-10

    still a risk of Republican destabilization and inflammation of the dissident cause. 22 This was an important factor. The church, the media , and the...use of their criminal enterprises in the day, with involvement in both smuggling and the illegal narcotics market , and their terrorist activity in...Irish taxpayer is effectively setting the level of the Northern Ireland property market .76 The assumption is that all of this is manageable. Northern

  14. Sir William Wilde and provision for the blind in nineteenth-century Ireland.

    PubMed

    Mullaney, S

    2016-05-01

    As Assistant Commissioner for the Census of Ireland Sir William Wilde worked as an early epidemiologist, providing information regarding the deaf-and-dumb and the blind in mid-nineteenth-century Ireland. As a social agitator he focussed the attention of the authorities to the plight of the blind and their inability to earn a living and support themselves. This paper highlights his contribution to the provision for the blind in Ireland.

  15. European Union policy on pesticides: implications for agriculture in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Jess, Stephen; Kildea, Steven; Moody, Aidan; Rennick, Gordon; Murchie, Archie K; Cooke, Louise R

    2014-11-01

    European Community (EC) legislation has limited the availability of pesticide active substances used in effective plant protection products. The Pesticide Authorisation Directive 91/414/EEC introduced the principle of risk assessment for approval of pesticide active substances. This principle was modified by the introduction of Regulation (EC) 1107/2009, which applies hazard, the intrinsic toxicity of the active substance, rather than risk, the potential for hazard to occur, as the approval criterion. Potential impacts of EC pesticide legislation on agriculture in Ireland are summarised. While these will significantly impact on pesticide availability in the medium to long term, regulations associated with water quality (Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC and Drinking Water Directive 1998/83/EC) have the potential to restrict pesticide use more immediately, as concerns regarding public health and economic costs associated with removing pesticides from water increase. This rationale will further reduce the availability of effective pesticide active substances, directly affecting crop protection and increasing pesticide resistance within pest and disease populations. In addition, water quality requirements may also impact on important active substances used in plant protection in Ireland. The future challenge for agriculture in Ireland is to sustain production and profitability using reduced pesticide inputs within a framework of integrated pest management.

  16. Modelling Pseudo-nitzschia events off southwest Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, Caroline; Mouriño, Helena; Moita, Maria Teresa; Silke, Joe

    2015-11-01

    Toxic and non-toxic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms are common in coastal waters worldwide including Ireland. Off southwest Ireland, the timing of blooms on a weekly scale is highly variable, while the seasonal pattern is more regular with a bimodal distribution. Upwelling conditions are closely linked to Pseudo-nitzschia blooms. The work presented here describes a mathematical model, a Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial Model, employed to forecast the onset, abundance and duration of Pseudo-nitzschia blooms in the bays of southwest Ireland. Variables used in the model included field observations of Pseudo-nitzschia, sea surface temperature and wind. The estimated model reveals that, on average, cell levels on a given day depend on sea surface temperature, the value of a wind index on the previous day and the number of Pseudo-nitzschia in the water the previous week. The model forecast performed well for the onset and duration of blooms. However, the magnitude of blooms was sometimes underestimated by the model.

  17. Presbyterians and science in the north of Ireland before 1874.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Andrew R

    2008-12-01

    In his presidential address to the Belfast meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in 1874, John Tyndall launched what David Livingstone has called a 'frontal assault on teleology and Christian theism'. Using Tyndall's intervention as a starting point, this paper seeks to understand the attitudes of Presbyterians in the north of Ireland to science in the first three-quarters of the nineteenth century. The first section outlines some background, including the attitude of Presbyterians to science in the eighteenth century, the development of educational facilities in Ireland for the training of Presbyterian ministers, and the specific cultural and political circumstances in Ireland that influenced Presbyterian responses to science more generally. The next two sections examine two specific applications by Irish Presbyterians of the term 'science': first, the emergence of a distinctive Presbyterian theology of nature and the application of inductive scientific methodology to the study of theology, and second, the Presbyterian conviction that mind had ascendancy over matter which underpinned their commitment to the development of a science of the mind. The final two sections examine, in turn, the relationship between science and an eschatological reading of the signs of the times, and attitudes to Darwinian evolution in the fifteen years between the publication of The Origin of Species in 1859 and Tyndall's speech in 1874.

  18. Genetic basis of benzimidazole resistance in Teladorsagia circumcincta in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Jason D; Good, Barbara; de Waal, Theo; Fanning, June; Keane, Orla M

    2017-01-01

    Resistance to benzimidazole (BZ) anthelmintics is common in ovine nematodes of economic importance. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) at three positions in the isotype 1 β- tubulin gene have been associated with BZ resistance and molecular tests for the detection of BZ resistance have been developed. In order to determine if such tests are practicable in Ireland the polymorphisms associated with BZ resistance must be identified. To this end, BZ-resistant nematodes were recovered from four farms in Ireland. Resistant Teladorsagia circumcincta, Cooperia curticei and Trichostrongylus colubriformis were recovered, with resistant T. circumcincta the most common and the only species studied further. Sequencing of the isotype 1 β-tubulin gene from resistant T. circumcincta identified a T - A transition, resulting in an F200Y substitution known to be responsible for BZ-resistance, on three of the farms. However, on the fourth farm the frequency of the resistant A allele was only 0.33 indicating another BZ resistance mechanism may be present on this farm. An additional polymorphism resulting in a substitution of glutamate for leucine (E198L) was also found on this farm at low frequency (0.17). No polymorphisms at position 167 were identified on any farm. Therefore, molecular tests to detect BZ resistance in T. circumcincta in Ireland could prove useful; however, they may result in some instances of resistance remaining undetected.

  19. Reducing SCADA System Nuisance Alarms in the Water Industry in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Nigel; Phillips, Debra H; Nicell, Ciaran

    2015-08-01

    The advancement of telemetry control for the water industry has increased the difficulty of managing large volumes of nuisance alarms (i.e., alarms that do not require a response). The aim of this study was to identify and reduce the number of nuisance alarms that occur for Northern Ireland (NI) Water by carrying out alarm duration analysis to determine the appropriate length of persistence (an advanced alarm management tool) that could be applied. All data were extracted from TelemWeb (NI Water's telemetry monitoring system) and analyzed in Excel. Over a 6-week period, an average of 40 000 alarms occurred per week. The alarm duration analysis, which has never been implemented before by NI Water, found that an average of 57% of NI Water alarms had a duration of <5 minutes. Applying 5-minute persistence, therefore, could prevent an average 26 816 nuisance alarms per week. Most of these alarms were from wastewater assets.

  20. Poverty in Ireland in Comparative European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Christopher T.; Maitre, Bertrand

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we seek to put Irish poverty rates in a comparative European context. We do so in a context whereby the Irish economic boom and EU enlargement have led to increasing reservations being expressed regarding rates deriving from the EU "at risk of poverty" indicator. Our comparative analysis reports findings for both overall…

  1. Differences in coronary heart disease, stroke and cancer mortality rates between England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland: the role of diet and nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Robert David; Webster, Premila; Rayner, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Introduction It is unclear how much of the geographical variation in coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and cancer mortality rates within the UK is associated with diet. The aim of this study is to estimate how many deaths from CHD, stroke and cancer would be delayed or averted if Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland adopted a diet equivalent in nutritional quality to the English diet. Methods Mortality data for CHD, stroke and 10 diet-related cancers for 2007–2009 were used to calculate the mortality gap (the difference between actual mortality and English mortality rates) for Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Estimates of mean national consumption of 10 dietary factors were used as baseline and counterfactual inputs in a macrosimulation model (DIETRON). An uncertainty analysis was conducted using a Monte Carlo simulation with 5000 iterations. Results The mortality gap in the modelled scenario (achieving the English diet) was reduced by 81% (95% credible intervals: 62% to 108%) for Wales, 40% (33% to 51%) for Scotland and 81% (67% to 99%) for Northern Ireland, equating to approximately 3700 deaths delayed or averted annually. For CHD only, the mortality gap was reduced by 88% (69% to 118%) for Wales, 58% (47% to 72%) for Scotland, and 88% (70% to 111%) for Northern Ireland. Conclusion Improving the average diet in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland to a level already achieved in England could have a substantial impact on reducing geographical variations in chronic disease mortality rates in the UK. Much of the mortality gap between Scotland and England is explained by non-dietary risk factors. PMID:22080528

  2. Effects of contaminated sediment from Cork Harbour, Ireland on the cytochrome P450 system of turbot.

    PubMed

    Kilemade, M; Hartl, M G J; O'Halloran, J; O'Brien, N M; Sheehan, D; Mothersill, C; van Pelt, F N A M

    2009-03-01

    Hatchery-reared juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) were exposed for 3 weeks, under laboratory conditions, to inter-tidal sediments collected from polluted sites in Cork Harbour (Whitegate and Agahda) and a reference site at Ballymacoda Co., Cork, Ireland. The potential of the sediment exposure to induce cytochrome P450 activities and CYP1A1 in the fish was assessed. Chemical analysis revealed that the sediments originating from the reference and harbour sites were contaminated principally with PAHs-the harbour sites having double the levels of those at the reference site. Following 3 weeks exposure to the sediments western blotting demonstrated a strong immunogenic response for CYP1A1 in the liver, but not for gill or intestine. P450 activities were generally significantly higher than those exposed to reference site sediment. Liver was the most responsive tissue with significantly greater P450 activities compared with gill and intestinal tissues.

  3. IRETHERM: Magnetotelluric Assessment of Geothermal Energy Potential of Hydrothermal Aquifer, Radiothermal Granite and Warm Spring Targets in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Alan G.; Muller, Mark; Fullea, Javier; Vozar, Jan; Blake, Sarah; Delhaye, Robert; Farrell, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    IRETHERM (www.iretherm.ie) is an academic-government-industry, collaborative research project, funded by Science Foundation Ireland, with the overarching objective of developing a holistic understanding of Ireland's low-enthalpy geothermal energy potential through integrated modelling of new and existing geophysical and geological data. With the exception of Permo-Triassic basins in Northern Ireland, hosting geothermal aquifers of promising but currently poorly-defined potential, rocks with high primary porosity have not been identified elsewhere. Whether any major Irish shear zones/faults might host a geothermal aquifer at depth is also unknown, although clusters of warm-springs in the vicinity of two major shear zones are promising. IRETHERM's objectives over a four-year period are to: (i) Develop multi-parameter geophysical modelling and interpretation software tools that will enhance our ability to explore for and assess deep aquifers and granitic intrusions. (ii) Model and understand temperature variations in the upper-crust. Firstly, by building a 3-D model of crustal heat-production based on geochemical analysis of surface, borehole and mid- to lower-crustal xenolith samples. Secondly, by modelling, using a fully self-consistent 3-D approach, observed surface heat-flow variation as a function of variation in the structure and thermal properties of the crust and lithosphere, additionally constrained by surface elevation, geoid, gravity, seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) data. (iii) Test a strategic set of eight "type" geothermal targets with a systematic program of electromagnetic surveys (MT, CSEM) across ten target areas. During 2012, IRETHERM collected over 220 MT/AMT sites in the investigation of a range of different geothermal target types. Here we present preliminary electrical resistivity modelling results for each target investigated and discuss the implications of the models for geothermal energy potential: 1. Rathlin Basin The only sedimentary strata

  4. A new model for the provenance of the Upper Devonian Old Red Sandstone (UORS) of southern Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennis, Meg; Meere, Pat; Timmerman, Martin

    2010-05-01

    The geology of Southern Ireland is dominated by the influence of both the Caledonian and Variscan orogenies which have shaped the landscape of today. The Old Red Sandstone (ORS) sequences of the Middle - Upper Devonian Munster Basin have traditionally been viewed as a post-orogenic molasse deposit sourced from the Caledonides (Friend et al. 2000 & references therein), which were subsequently deformed by the Late Carboniferous Variscan Orogeny. This model does not take into account the potential impact of the Acadian Orogeny, an Early to Mid Devonian transpressional tectonic event which culminated in Mid Emsian times and resulted in the deformation and inversion of Lower ORS (LORS) basins across Britain and Ireland (Soper & Woodcock 2003; Meere & Mulchrone 2006). Evidence of Acadian deformation in Southern Ireland is recorded in the LORS sequence of the Lower-Middle Devonian basin, the Dingle Basin. Meere & Mulchrone (2006) show that penetrative deformation visible in the LORS of the Dingle Basin has an Acadian signature and is not associated with Late Carboniferous Variscan compression (Parkin 1976; Todd 2000). The role of the Acadian Orogeny in the tectono-sedimentary evolution of Southern Ireland has been analyzed in this study using a multidisciplinary approach. Petrographic analysis of both the LORS and Upper ORS (UORS) of southern Ireland suggests an alternative provenance model in which there is a direct genetic link between the two Devonian deposits. There is a fining-up relationship between the two basins and the volcanic lithic fragments - while extremely limited in occurrence in the Munster Basin - are strikingly similar in both units. The absence of conglomeratic units at the base of the Munster Basin provide further evidence that the UORS does not represent a classic molasse deposit. This is supported by EMPA data from both basins which indicates identical mica chemistries in both the LORS and UORS. A comparison with the white mica chemistries from a

  5. Ten Years after Patten: Young People and Policing in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Jonny; Jarman, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Through a comprehensive review of existing literature, this article documents young people's experiences of policing during the period of political transition and extensive reform of the structures of policing in Northern Ireland since the publication of the Independent Commission on Policing for Northern Ireland (The Patten Report) in 1999. The…

  6. New Educational Horizons in Contemporary Ireland: Trends and Challenges. Rethinking Education. Volume 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenham, Thomas G., Ed.; Kieran, Patricia, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Ireland is in the grip of a postmodern cultural deconstruction on many levels. The traditional "grand narratives" are increasingly viewed with suspicion and disenchantment as Ireland struggles to understand its evolving identity. There is a growing need for comprehensive interdisciplinary research that will facilitate teaching and…

  7. "It's Their Word against Mine": Young People's Attitudes to the Police Complaints Procedure in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Katy; Hamilton, Jennifer; Jarman, Neil

    2005-01-01

    One of the central aims of the police reform process in Northern Ireland has been to increase the legitimacy of the policing structures and police officers amongst those who are served and policed by the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI). To meet this aim, structures have been created to ensure that the PSNI is accountable to all sections…

  8. What's in the Numbers? Child Welfare Statistics and the Children (Northern Ireland) Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Davy; Pinkerton, John

    2016-01-01

    This article draws attention to the importance of routinely collected administrative data as an important source for understanding the characteristics of the Northern Ireland child welfare system as it has developed since the Children (Northern Ireland) Order 1995 became its legislative base. The article argues that the availability of such data…

  9. The Accelerating Campus Entrepreneurship (ACE) Initiative: Creating Entrepreneurial Graduates for Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Maebh; Hamouda, Angela; Cormican, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    According to the GEM Ireland Report (2009), those who have exposure to entrepreneurship education in Ireland have an increased propensity to start a new venture. The importance of entrepreneurial skills was picked up by the European Union which, in its Lisbon Strategy of March 2000, declared its objective of transforming Europe into the most…

  10. Exotic diseases of dogs and cats at risk of importation to Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Changes in legislation that facilitate movement of companion animals within the European Union will expose those animals to microbial and parasitic organisms currently exotic to Ireland. This paper reviewed information on the exotic diseases most likely to be introduced to Ireland by travelling dogs and cats: rabies, leishmaniosis, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis and dirofilariosis. PMID:21851670

  11. Prospects and Progress in Public Health and Health Promotion Research in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Brian; Yarnell, John

    2004-01-01

    Life expectancy in Northern Ireland continues to increase and it is expected that mortality due to heart disease, stroke and some cancers will continue to fall. The infant mortality rate, once higher is similar to that of the other UK and European countries. However, in common with neighboring countries, Northern Ireland has low levels of physical…

  12. Teachers' Readiness to Embrace Change in the Early Years of Schooling: A Northern Ireland Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Glenda; Gardner, John

    2006-01-01

    Early years classroom practice in Northern Ireland is perceived to be dominated by a traditional teacher-directed model to the detriment of a more constructivist, play-based and child-initiated learning environment favoured in many nations' early education provision (see for example Walsh, 2000). In 2002, the Northern Ireland Council for…

  13. Ireland's Multicultural Classrooms and Initial Teacher Education: The Convergence of Culture and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Maria

    2009-01-01

    In the context of Ireland's changing demographics, this paper explores the importance of pedagogic research in informing both philosophies and pedagogical practices in Initial Teacher Education (ITE) which endeavours to facilitate student teachers' engagement with the teaching and learning process in Ireland's multicultural classrooms. By…

  14. Management of Bullying in Northern Ireland Schools: A Pre-Legislative Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuckin, Conor; Lewis, Christopher Alan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Unlike the rest of the UK, Northern Ireland has only recently (2003) implemented legislation regarding the requirement for anti-bullying policies in the province's school system. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to ascertain the nature of the management of bully/victim problems across Northern Ireland schools prior to the…

  15. The Megalithic Monuments of Ireland and Their Folklore: A Photodocumentary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldbaum, Howard

    A photojournalism project is described in this paper that integrated the disciplines of photography, archaeology, and ethnology in an examination of prehistoric megalithic monuments in Ireland and their folklore. Following an introduction tracing the history of the monuments and pointing to the maintenance in Ireland of a body of oral tradition…

  16. Student Civic Participation in School: What Makes a Difference in Ireland?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilleece, Lorraine; Cosgrove, Jude

    2012-01-01

    Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child provides for the views of the child to be given due weight in accordance with the child's age and maturity. Legislation in Ireland recognizes the rights of children to have a voice in educational matters. Based on a sample of 2838 14-year-olds in Ireland and using questionnaire…

  17. Identity Dystopias, Empire Framing and Theoretical Hegemonies: Two Case Studies, India and Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allender, Tim; O'Donoghue, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the connections between official contemporary identity formation and colonial pasts. Using the case studies of India and Ireland the article explores how different traditions of theorisation are powerful in these formations. India and Ireland were two colonial domains that had many linkages outside the ambit of the British.…

  18. The Circumstances and Needs of Separated Children Seeking Asylum in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abunimah, Ali; Blower, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here is the first systematic attempt to examine empirically the needs and characteristics of separated children seeking asylum (SCSA) in Ireland. Case files for a random sample of 100 separated children entering Ireland in 2003-2004 were scrutinised. The findings indicate that SCSA are not a homogeneous group; they face a…

  19. Social Well-Being in Northern Ireland: A Longitudinal Study 1958-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, G. Dale; Jesse, Neal G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the question of how social well-being, or quality of life, in Northern Ireland has changed through time from 1958 to 1998. After reviewing major economic trends and governmental policy affecting the region, we develop an overall measure of quality of life based on previous research into social well-being in Northern Ireland. We…

  20. Mental Health Law Reform: The Impact on Children and Young People in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niwa, Laura

    2007-01-01

    The Bamford Review of Mental Health and Learning Disability (Northern Ireland) was established in October 2002 to examine all aspects of the law, policy and provisions that affect people with mental health needs or a learning disability in Northern Ireland. Its report "A Comprehensive Legislative Framework," which deals with the reform…

  1. Asking the Right Questions: Teacher Education in the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Brendan

    2006-01-01

    This paper locates contemporary issues in teacher education in the Republic of Ireland within the broad context of historical developments. The paper is in six parts. It opens with an exposition on the emergence of teacher training in pre Independent Ireland which considers teachers' working conditions, the management structure of schools, and the…

  2. Competence of Irish and Polish Teachers in the Opinions of Young Polish Immigrants in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustyniak, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Since 2004, Ireland has experienced the arrival of immigrants from various countries from all over the world including Poland. The Polish came to Ireland with their families including children of school age obliged to attend compulsory education. These children have attended schools dissimilar from the ones they are accustomed to in their home…

  3. Continuing Professional Development - Why Bother? Perceptions and Motivations of Teachers in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Dorothy J.; McConnell, Barbara; O'Sullivan, Helen

    2016-01-01

    In a larger study carried out by O'Sullivan "et al." to explore the perceptions and experiences of teachers in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland who were engaged in continuing professional development (CPD), one of the significant findings to emerge was the key role of teacher motivation. The current study therefore focuses on…

  4. Understanding Achievement Differences between Schools in Ireland--Can Existing Data-Sets Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilleece, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increased focus on school accountability in Ireland and calls for greater use to be made of student achievement data for monitoring student outcomes. In this paper, it is argued that existing data-sets in Ireland offer limited potential for the value-added modelling approaches used for accountability purposes in many…

  5. Teachers' Stories of Engaging Students in Controversial Action Projects on the Island of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSharry, Majella; Cusack, Mella

    2016-01-01

    Civic, Social and Political Education (CSPE) in the Republic of Ireland and Local and Global Citizenship (LGC) in Northern Ireland keenly promote students' active participation in society. However, the purpose of this participation is not necessarily to encourage students to campaign for change in the present but rather that "students are…

  6. Lightening Can Strike Twice: The Case for the Management and Control of Violent Offenders against Children in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasgow, John F. T.; Jackson, Paul T.; Kelly, Margaret; Reid, Colin

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses a case example to illustrate the need for robust arrangements manage violent offenders against children in Northern Ireland. It compares the legislative and policy framework used to deal with such offenders in England and Wales, demonstrating the more limited provisions in Northern Ireland. Within Northern Ireland, differing…

  7. Recent lung cancer patterns in younger age-cohorts in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Zubair; Connolly, Gregory N; Clancy, Luke

    2007-01-01

    Background Smoking causes 85% of all lung cancers in males and 70% in females. Therefore, birth cohort analysis and annual-percent-changes (APC) in age-specific lung cancer mortality rates, particularly in the youngest age cohorts, can explain the beneficial impacts of both past and recent anti-smoking interventions. Methods A long-term time-trend analysis (1958-2002) in lung cancer mortality rates focusing on the youngest age-cohorts (30-49 years of age) in particular was investigated in Ireland. The rates were standardised to the World Standard Population. Lung cancer mortality data were downloaded from the WHO Cancer Mortality Database to estimate APCs in death rates, using the Joinpoint regression (version 3.0) program. A simple age-cohort modelling (log-linear Poisson model) was also done, using SAS software. Results The youngest birth cohorts (born after 1965) have almost one-fourth lower lung cancer risk relative to those born around the First World War. A more than 50% relative decline in death rates among those between 35 and 39 years of age was observed in both sexes in recent years. The youngest age-cohorts (30-39 years of age) in males also showed a significant decrease in death rates in 1998-2002 by more than 3% every five years from 1958-1962 onwards. However, death rate declines in females are slower. Conclusions The youngest birth cohorts had the lowest lung cancer risk and also showed a significant decreasing lung cancer death rate in the most recent years. Such temporal patterns indicate the beneficial impacts of both recent and past tobacco control efforts in Ireland. However, the decline in younger female cohorts is slower. A comprehensive national tobacco control program enforced on evidence-based policies elsewhere can further accelerate a decline in death rates, especially among the younger generations. PMID:17476821

  8. Controls on subglacial patterns and depositional environments in western Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, J.

    2009-12-01

    In western Ireland, Late Devensian ice flow dynamics and resultant patterns of landforms and sediments reflect the interplay between internal (glaciological) forcing and external forcing by rapid climate changes centred on the adjacent Atlantic Ocean. This interplay can be best demonstrated where ice from climatically-sensitive mountain source regions flowed into surrounding lowlands, such as the Connemara region of west County Galway, western Ireland. Here, a semi-independent ice cap was present over the Twelve Bens mountains, and interacted with ice from the much larger regional ice sheet from central Ireland. Landform and sediment patterns in the flat lowland region (c. 100 km2 below 30 m asl) to the south of the Twelve Bens reflect elements of this ice interaction. In detail, landform and sediment distributions here are highly complex with marked spatial differences in patterns of sediment availability. Across much of the region, sculpted bedrock forms (whaleback and bedrock drumlin ridges, roches mountonnées, striae) reflect subglacial abrasion across the underlying igneous and metamorphic bedrock that forms a relatively flat and lake-dominated landscape. Glacigenic sediments are found only at or around ice-retreat margins, and within isolated bedrock valleys. Here, diamicton drumlins are relatively uncommon but yet must represent depositional conditions that are not reflected elsewhere in this ice sheet sector where subglacial sediments are generally absent. This paper explores the interrelationship between local and regional ice flows through their impact on spatial patterns of glacial landforms and sediments. The paper presents field data on the characteristics of bedrock forms (erosional) and diamicton drumlins (depositional). Subglacial sediments are described from drumlin outcrops at key sites around Connemara, which helps in the understanding of the evolution of the subglacial environment in response to ice interactions from different source regions.

  9. The role of citizen science in monitoring biodiversity in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Alison; Crowe, Olivia; Regan, Eugenie; Begley, Sinead; Caffarra, Amelia

    2014-08-01

    Citizen science is proving to be an effective tool in tracking the rapid pace at which our environment is changing over large geographic areas. It is becoming increasingly popular, in places such as North America and some European countries, to engage members of the general public and school pupils in the collection of scientific data to support long-term environmental monitoring. Participants in such schemes are generally volunteers and are referred to as citizen scientists. The Christmas bird count in the US is one of the worlds longest running citizen science projects whereby volunteers have been collecting data on birds on a specific day since 1900. Similar volunteer networks in Ireland have been in existence since the 1960s and were established to monitor the number and diversity of birds throughout the country. More recently, initiatives such as Greenwave (2006) and Nature Watch (2009) invite school children and members of the general public respectively, to record phenology data from a range of common species of plant, insect and bird. In addition, the Irish butterfly and bumblebee monitoring schemes engage volunteers to record data on sightings of these species. The primary purpose of all of these networks is to collect data by which to monitor changes in wildlife development and diversity, and in the case of Greenwave to involve children in hands-on, inquiry-based science. Together these various networks help raise awareness of key environmental issues, such as climate change and loss of biodiversity, while at the same time promote development of scientific skills among the general population. In addition, they provide valuable scientific data by which to track environmental change. Here we examine the role of citizen science in monitoring biodiversity in Ireland and conclude that some of the data collected in these networks can be used to fulfil Ireland's statutory obligations for nature conservation. In addition, a bee thought previously to be extinct

  10. The role of citizen science in monitoring biodiversity in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Alison; Crowe, Olivia; Regan, Eugenie; Begley, Sinead; Caffarra, Amelia

    2014-08-01

    Citizen science is proving to be an effective tool in tracking the rapid pace at which our environment is changing over large geographic areas. It is becoming increasingly popular, in places such as North America and some European countries, to engage members of the general public and school pupils in the collection of scientific data to support long-term environmental monitoring. Participants in such schemes are generally volunteers and are referred to as citizen scientists. The Christmas bird count in the US is one of the worlds longest running citizen science projects whereby volunteers have been collecting data on birds on a specific day since 1900. Similar volunteer networks in Ireland have been in existence since the 1960s and were established to monitor the number and diversity of birds throughout the country. More recently, initiatives such as Greenwave (2006) and Nature Watch (2009) invite school children and members of the general public respectively, to record phenology data from a range of common species of plant, insect and bird. In addition, the Irish butterfly and bumblebee monitoring schemes engage volunteers to record data on sightings of these species. The primary purpose of all of these networks is to collect data by which to monitor changes in wildlife development and diversity, and in the case of Greenwave to involve children in hands-on, inquiry-based science. Together these various networks help raise awareness of key environmental issues, such as climate change and loss of biodiversity, while at the same time promote development of scientific skills among the general population. In addition, they provide valuable scientific data by which to track environmental change. Here we examine the role of citizen science in monitoring biodiversity in Ireland and conclude that some of the data collected in these networks can be used to fulfil Ireland's statutory obligations for nature conservation. In addition, a bee thought previously to be extinct

  11. Underreporting of viral encephalitis and viral meningitis, Ireland, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Tara A; O'Lorcain, Piaras; Moran, Joanne; Garvey, Patricia; McKeown, Paul; Connell, Jeff; Cotter, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Viral encephalitis (VE) and viral meningitis (VM) have been notifiable infectious diseases under surveillance in the Republic of Ireland since 1981. Laboratories have reported confirmed cases by detection of viral nucleic acid in cerebrospinal fluid since 2004. To determine the prevalence of these diseases in Ireland during 2005-2008, we analyzed 3 data sources: Hospital In-patient Enquiry data (from hospitalized following patients discharge) accessed through Health Intelligence Ireland, laboratory confirmations from the National Virus Reference Laboratory, and events from the Computerised Infectious Disease Reporting surveillance system. We found that the national surveillance system underestimates the incidence of these diseases in Ireland with a 10-fold higher VE hospitalization rate and 3-fold higher VM hospitalization rate than the reporting rate. Herpesviruses were responsible for most specified VE and enteroviruses for most specified VM from all 3 sources. Recommendations from this study have been implemented to improve the surveillance of these diseases in Ireland.

  12. A national survey (NAP5-Ireland baseline) to estimate an annual incidence of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Jonker, W R; Hanumanthiah, D; O'Sullivan, E P; Cook, T M; Pandit, J J

    2014-09-01

    As part of the 5th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland concerning accidental awareness during general anaesthesia, we issued a questionnaire to every consultant anaesthetist in each of 46 public hospitals in Ireland, represented by 41 local co-ordinators. The survey ascertained the number of new cases of accidental awareness becoming known to them for patients under their care or supervision for a calendar year, as well as their career experience. Consultants from all hospitals responded, with an individual response rate of 87% (299 anaesthetists). There were eight new cases of accidental awareness that became known to consultants in 2011; an estimated incidence of 1:23 366. Two out of the eight cases (25%) occurred at or after induction of anaesthesia, but before surgery; four cases (50%) occurred during surgery; and two cases (25%) occurred after surgery was complete, but before full emergence. Four cases were associated with pain or distress (50%), one after an experience at induction and three after experiences during surgery. There were no formal complaints or legal actions that arose in 2011 related to awareness. Depth of anaesthesia monitoring was reported to be available in 33 (80%) departments, and was used by 184 consultants (62%), 18 (6%) routinely. None of the 46 hospitals had a policy to prevent or manage awareness. Similar to the results of a larger survey in the UK, the disparity between the incidence of awareness as known to anaesthetists and that reported in trials warrants explanation. Compared with UK practice, there appears to be greater use of depth of anaesthesia monitoring in Ireland, although this is still infrequent.

  13. From first symptoms to diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: perspectives of an Irish informal caregiver cohort—a thematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Galvin, Miriam; Gaffney, Rebecca; Corr, Bernie; Mays, Iain; Hardiman, Orla

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Informal caregivers play an integral part in the management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The objective of this study was to explore the journey from first problem symptoms to diagnosis from the perspective of informal caregivers providing care to people with ALS. Design As part of a semistructured interview, information was collected on a range of caregiver demographic details, and from an open-ended question their experiences of the time of symptom onset to diagnosis. We carried out descriptive statistical analysis and thematic analysis of qualitative data. Setting and participants Home interviews with informal caregivers (n=74) of people with ALS attending the National ALS/Motor Neuron Disease Clinic at Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. Results This was a largely female and spousal cohort of caregivers, living with the patient for whom they provided informal care. The majority of patients were men and were spinal onset. Caregivers described the time from first symptoms to diagnosis. Using a primarily inductive approach, the coding was data driven and the codes and themes derived from the content of these descriptions. Two main themes were identified (1) problem signs and symptoms (A) noticing and (B) reaction; (2) interaction with the health services. Conclusions Exploring the perspectives of caregivers from first problem symptoms to diagnosis provides valuable insights into the development of the condition, impediments to its recognition, help-seeking behaviours and interactions with healthcare services. The journey from early symptoms to diagnosis is important for future decision-making, affects readiness for caregiving and could negatively impact on caregiver health and well-being. The early acknowledgement by healthcare professionals of stressors along the journey to diagnosis, and appreciation of their possible impact on caregivers is important. The separate needs of caregivers should be assessed on a regular basis. PMID:28320799

  14. Development of essentialist thinking about religion categories in Northern Ireland (and the United States).

    PubMed

    Smyth, Kirsty; Feeney, Aidan; Eidson, R Cole; Coley, John D

    2017-03-01

    Social essentialism, the belief that members of certain social categories share unobservable properties, licenses expectations that those categories are natural and a good basis for inference. A challenge for cognitive developmental theory is to give an account of how children come to develop essentialist beliefs about socially important categories. Previous evidence from Israel suggests that kindergarteners selectively engage in essentialist reasoning about culturally salient (ethnicity) categories, and that this is attenuated among children in integrated schools. In 5 studies (N = 718) we used forced-choice (Study 1) and unconstrained (Studies 2-4) category-based inference tasks, and a questionnaire (Study 5) to study the development of essentialist reasoning about religion categories in Northern Ireland (Studies 1-3 & 5) and the U.S. (Study 4). Results show that, as in Israel, Northern Irish children selectively engage in essentialist reasoning about culturally salient (religion) categories, and that such reasoning is attenuated among children in integrated schools. However, the development trajectory of essentialist thinking and the patterns of attenuation among children attending integrated schools in Northern Ireland differ from the Israeli case. Meta-analysis confirmed this claim and ruled out an alternative explanation of the results based on community diversity. Although the Northern Irish and Israeli case studies illustrate that children develop selective essentialist beliefs about socially important categories, and that these beliefs are impacted by educational context, the differences between them emphasize the importance of historical, cultural, and political context in understanding conceptual development, and suggest that there may be more than one developmental route to social essentialism. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Unregulated private wells in the Republic of Ireland: consumer awareness, source susceptibility and protective actions.

    PubMed

    Hynds, Paul D; Misstear, Bruce D; Gill, Laurence W

    2013-09-30

    While the safety of public drinking water supplies in the Republic of Ireland is governed and monitored at both local and national levels, there are currently no legislative tools in place relating to private supplies. It is therefore paramount that private well owners (and users) be aware of source specifications and potential contamination risks, to ensure adequate water quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the level of awareness among private well owners in the Republic of Ireland, relating to source characterisation and groundwater contamination issues. This was undertaken through interviews with 245 private well owners. Statistical analysis indicates that respondents' source type significantly influences owner awareness, particularly regarding well construction and design parameters. Water treatment, source maintenance and regular water quality testing are considered the three primary "protective actions" (or "stewardship activities") to consumption of contaminated groundwater and were reported as being absent in 64%, 72% and 40% of cases, respectively. Results indicate that the level of awareness exhibited by well users did not significantly affect the likelihood of their source being contaminated (source susceptibility); increased awareness on behalf of well users was associated with increased levels of protective action, particularly among borehole owners. Hence, lower levels of awareness may result in increased contraction of waterborne illnesses where contaminants have entered the well. Accordingly, focused educational strategies to increase awareness among private groundwater users are advocated in the short-term; the development and introdiction of formal legislation is recommended in the long-term, including an integrated programme of well inspections and risk assessments.

  16. Parasite control practices on pasture-based dairy farms in the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Bloemhoff, Yris; Danaher, Martin; Andrew Forbes; Morgan, Eric; Mulcahy, Grace; Power, Clare; Sayers, Ríona

    2014-08-29

    Dictyocaulus viviparus, Ostertagia ostertagi (nematode parasites), and Fasciola hepatica (trematode parasite) result in productivity losses on dairy farms and impact on animal health through clinical and sub-clinical disease. Parasite control in livestock systems is largely based on the use of chemoprophylactic agents (anthelmintics), grazing management, or a combination of both. The objective of this study was to document current parasite control measures employed by Irish dairy farmers in a predominantly pasture-based livestock system. A questionnaire survey of 312 geographically representative farmers was completed in 2009 with a follow up survey completed in 2011. Statistical analysis highlighted significant differences in chemoprophylactic usage between 2009 and 2011. In particular, an increase in the use of albendazole for both trematode (19% in 2009 to 36% in 2011) and nematode (30% in 2009 to 58% in 2011) control was observed. This was most likely due to flukicide restrictions introduced in the Republic of Ireland in 2010 for dairy animals. Logistic regression highlighted regional differences in chemoprophylactic use. Farmers in southern parts of Ireland, an area with good quality soil, less rainfall, and a higher density of dairy farms than other regions, were approximately half as likely to dose for F. hepatica and were more likely (OR>2.0) to use albendazole for both nematode and fluke control. Approximately 30% of respondents who used a chemoprophylactic treatment for nematodes, used a product which was 'unsuitable for purpose' (e.g. ivermectin for the treatment of F. hepatica), highlighting the need for increased awareness, continuing research, and regionally targeted education tools regarding optimal parasite control.

  17. Clinical Q fever in Northern Ireland 1962-1989.

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, J. H.; Coyle, P. V.; Adgey, A. A.; O'Neill, H. J.; Simpson, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    Q fever was diagnosed in 443 patients in Northern Ireland between 1962 and 1989. From 1986 onwards there was an increase, which peaked in 1989 with 107 cases of whom 47 were infected in Ballycastle, Co Antrim. There were three outbreaks and 21 clusters of patients with Q fever. Most cases were in April and May which correlated with the peak lambing and calving season. Q fever mainly affected males in the 40-49 year old age group. County Antrim had the highest prevalence rate of 40/100,000 population and also had the most sheep. The number of sheep in Northern Ireland has doubled in the past ten years. Q fever was strongly associated with occupation and animal contact. Eighty-seven patients (19.6%) drank unpasteurized milk. The commonest presenting illnesses were pneumonia (62.8%), influenza-like illness (24.6%), involvement of the heart (9.0%) and hepatitis (1.6%). Thirty-two patients (7.2%) had endocarditis, 20 of whom had prosthetic valves and three of whom died. Coxiella burnetii was present on valves removed from seven patients. PMID:2278109

  18. FATAL FOETAL ABNORMALITY, IRISH CONSTITUTIONAL LAW, AND MELLET v IRELAND.

    PubMed

    de Londras, Fiona

    2016-12-27

    Under the Irish Constitution abortion is allowed only where the life of the pregnant woman is at risk. The provision in question, Article 40.3.3 (or the 8th Amendment) has long been criticised for failing to respect women's autonomy, and in Mellet v Ireland, the UN Human Rights Committee found that Amanda Jane Mellet, who travelled to Liverpool to access abortion following a finding that her foetus suffered a fatal abnormality, had suffered a violation of her rights under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). In this commentary I demonstrate the value of Mellet when compared to the possible legal findings in such circumstances under both the Constitution and the European Convention on Human Rights, and argue that the findings are not restricted to cases of fatal foetal abnormality. Rather, the Committee's decision illustrates the suffering that all women in Ireland who travel to access abortion experience, arguably constituting a violation of their right to be free from cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment. On that reading, Mellet signifies the need to implement a comprehensive rethink of Irish abortion law including, but going beyond, access to abortion in cases of fatal foetal abnormality.

  19. Amnesic shellfish poisoning toxins in bivalve molluscs in Ireland.

    PubMed

    James, Kevin J; Gillman, Marion; Amandi, Mónica Fernández; López-Rivera, Américo; Puente, Patricia Fernández; Lehane, Mary; Mitrovic, Simon; Furey, Ambrose

    2005-12-15

    In December 1999, domoic acid (DA) a potent neurotoxin, responsible for the syndrome Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP) was detected for the first time in shellfish harvested in Ireland. Two liquid chromatography (LC) methods were applied to quantify DA in shellfish after sample clean-up using solid-phase extraction (SPE) with strong anion exchange (SAX) cartridges. Toxin detection was achieved using photodiode array ultraviolet (LC-UV) and multiple tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)). DA was identified in four species of bivalve shellfish collected along the west and south coastal regions of the Republic of Ireland. The amount of DA that was present in three species was within EU guideline limits for sale of shellfish (20 microg DA/g); mussels (Mytilus edulis), <1.0 microg DA/g; oysters (Crassostrea edulis), <5.0 microg DA/g and razor clams (Ensis siliqua), <0.3 microg DA/g. However, king scallops (Pecten maximus) posed a significant human health hazard with levels up to 240 microg DA/g total tissues. Most scallop samples (55%) contained DA at levels greater than the regulatory limit. The DA levels in the digestive glands of some samples of scallops were among the highest that have ever been recorded (2,820 microg DA/g).

  20. A coprological survey of parasites of wild carnivores in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Peter; Golden, Olwen; Zintl, Annetta; de Waal, Theo; Mulcahy, Grace; McCarthy, Elaine; Lawton, Colin

    2013-10-01

    The increasing movement of people to wilderness areas, shrinking of wildlife habitats and the resulting urbanisation of wildlife has led to growing concerns about the transfer of parasitic diseases, particularly from contaminated faeces. Faecal samples from wild carnivores in Ireland were examined for the presence of protozoan and nematode parasites. Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) samples (n = 91) were positive for Uncinaria stenocephala (38%), Eucoleus aerophilus (26%), Toxocara canis (20%), Trichuris vulpis (4%) and Isospora-like oocysts (9%). Badger (Meles meles) samples (n = 50) were positive for Uncinaria criniformis (40%), E. aerophilus (6%) and Isospora-like oocysts (16%). No parasites were observed in pine marten (n = 48; Martes martes) faeces. Approximately 5% of American mink (Mustela vison) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium by polymerase chain reaction (identified as Cryptosporidium andersoni (n = 3) and 'mink' genotype (n = 1)). The results suggest that wild carnivores in Ireland have a range of parasites, although it is unclear from the present study to what extent these infections are associated with morbidity. While it can be expected that, via their faeces, wild carnivores contribute to the spread of these parasites, they are unlikely the primary source of environmental contamination. Therefore, they should not always be the principal target of control measures.

  1. Sex trafficking in Ireland from a health care perspective.

    PubMed

    McConkey, S J; Garcia, C; Mann, A; Conroy, R

    2014-10-01

    Sex trafficking within Ireland is a hidden phenomenon. In 2010, 78 alleged victims were reported to An Garda Siochina and the recorded levels of human trafficking into Ireland have remained at this level for the last four years. Despite this, no Irish guidelines or referral pathways exist to assist health care professionals. This paper highlights that health care professionals are not aware of this occurrence nor have they been trained to identify victims. Due to a lack of awareness many potential opportunities to detect these victims may be missed. While there is no single set of symptoms or signs that differentiates sex-trafficked victims from other sex workers, an awareness of common physical and psychological health problems associated with sex trafficking by health care professionals may increase victim detection rates. This paper summarises indicators, approach mechanisms, screening questions and a referral guideline relevant to the Irish health care system. This step-by-step guide can be used by health care professionals who encounter such a situation.

  2. Attitudes and practice of gynaecologists towards abortion in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Francome, C; Savage, W

    2011-01-01

    Women from Northern Ireland (NI) have to travel to Britain and pay for their terminations as the Abortion Act (1967) does not apply in that part of the UK. This paper analyses the attitudes of gynaecologists. A questionnaire was posted in 2009 to all NHS gynaecologists in NI (43). One had retired. After three mailings, 37 replied; a response rate of 88% (37.42). We found that of these, 21 (57%) favoured a liberalisation of the law in NI. If all the non-responders were against liberalisation, then still half (21/42) would be in favour. A total of 35% (13/37) wanted unrestricted access in the 1st trimester, a more liberal position than allowed by the current law in Great Britain. A total of 29 (78%) were in favour of free abortions for women from NI, as is largely the case in England and Wales. A total of 19 (51%) were in favour of the abortion charities being licensed to carry out legal abortions in Northern Ireland but 38% were opposed to this proposal.

  3. Information Technology and Development Series. Volume 2. Informatics and Industrial Development. Proceedings of the International Conference on Policies for Information Processing for Developing Countries Held at Dublin, Ireland on 9-13 March 1981,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    agricultural and small artisan groups move into coal-mining and textile centres and become urbanised . Stage I1 Improvements in industrial productivity through...production, poverty vill worsen in Asia and by 1987 more than 8MX) million people will be affected. ieneral unemployment and lack of jobs are at the root of...tIlshltt Vill mtch the user’s lc.cl of understandini. (11) Present the user with the material and assist him in applying the idcntificd tcchnotloical

  4. The European Network for Research, Action and Training in Adult Literacy and Basic Education (Dublin, Ireland, May 25-30, 1991). A Seminar Organised by EUROALPHA. Adult Basic Education in Prisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1991

    This conference report on adult basic education in European prisons contains the following introductory materials: a list of participants, the program, and introductions to the seminar by Frank Dunne and Pierre Freynet. "Keynote Address" (Robert Suvaal) discusses five items a prison educator must deal with: philosophy, position of…

  5. The Less Widely Taught Languages of Europe. Proceedings of the Joint United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, International Association of Applied Linguistics, and Irish Association of Applied Linguistics Symposium (St. Patrick's College, Dublin, Ireland, April 23-25, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathuna, Liam Mac, Ed.; And Others

    Papers presented at a symposium on Europe's less commonly taught languages include the following: "The Necessity of Dialogue" (Marcel de Greve); "Socio- and Psycholinguistic Interference in Teaching Foreign Languages" (Penka Ilieva-Baltova); "Satellite Television, National Television, and Video in Teaching/Learning Less…

  6. Energy demand on dairy farms in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Upton, J; Humphreys, J; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; French, P; Dillon, P; De Boer, I J M

    2013-10-01

    Reducing electricity consumption in Irish milk production is a topical issue for 2 reasons. First, the introduction of a dynamic electricity pricing system, with peak and off-peak prices, will be a reality for 80% of electricity consumers by 2020. The proposed pricing schedule intends to discourage energy consumption during peak periods (i.e., when electricity demand on the national grid is high) and to incentivize energy consumption during off-peak periods. If farmers, for example, carry out their evening milking during the peak period, energy costs may increase, which would affect farm profitability. Second, electricity consumption is identified in contributing to about 25% of energy use along the life cycle of pasture-based milk. The objectives of this study, therefore, were to document electricity use per kilogram of milk sold and to identify strategies that reduce its overall use while maximizing its use in off-peak periods (currently from 0000 to 0900 h). We assessed, therefore, average daily and seasonal trends in electricity consumption on 22 Irish dairy farms, through detailed auditing of electricity-consuming processes. To determine the potential of identified strategies to save energy, we also assessed total energy use of Irish milk, which is the sum of the direct (i.e., energy use on farm) and indirect energy use (i.e., energy needed to produce farm inputs). On average, a total of 31.73 MJ was required to produce 1 kg of milk solids, of which 20% was direct and 80% was indirect energy use. Electricity accounted for 60% of the direct energy use, and mainly resulted from milk cooling (31%), water heating (23%), and milking (20%). Analysis of trends in electricity consumption revealed that 62% of daily electricity was used at peak periods. Electricity use on Irish dairy farms, therefore, is substantial and centered around milk harvesting. To improve the competitiveness of milk production in a dynamic electricity pricing environment, therefore, management

  7. The male to female ratio at birth in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland: influence of societal stress

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Male live births occur slightly in excess of female births. The ratio of male divided by total births is referred to as M/F. Many factors reduce M/F including toxins, stress, and privation, with excess male foetal loss. “The Troubles” (1969-1998) of Northern Ireland (NI) and the economic downturn of Republic of Ireland (ROI) from 2007 posed stresses with corresponding controls. This study analysed M/F in NI and ROI. Methods Annual male and female live births in NI and the ROI were compared using chi tests. Results M/F was significantly higher in NI than in ROI. M/F in NI dropped after 1974. M/F rose in ROI up to 1994, then fell. Discussion Violence-related stress may have been the cause for the M/F drop in NI. Economic improvement followed by recession may have caused parallel M/F changes in ROI. These findings agree with the stress hypothesis of M/F. PMID:26668416

  8. A comparative study of clinical supervision in the Republic of Ireland and the United States.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Michael V; Creaner, Mary; Hutman, Heidi; Timulak, Ladislav

    2015-10-01

    We replicated Son, Ellis, and Yoo (2013) and extended Ellis et al.'s (2014) taxonomy of harmful and inadequate supervision by providing and testing cross-national comparative descriptive data about clinical supervision practices in the Republic of Ireland versus the United States. Participants were 149 Republic of Ireland and 151 U.S. mental health supervisees currently receiving clinical supervision. The results suggested that characteristics of supervision in the Republic of Ireland and United States evidenced both similarities and differences. The dissimilar credentialing systems appeared to account for the observed differences, suggesting that Ellis et al.'s (2014) criteria for inadequate supervision need to be modified to account for country-specific standards for supervision. Unexpectedly, no significant differences were observed between the Republic of Ireland and United States in the high occurrence of inadequate, harmful, or exceptional supervision. The results suggested that 79.2% (Republic of Ireland) and 69.5% (United States) of the supervisees were categorized as currently receiving inadequate supervision, and 40.3% (Republic of Ireland) and 25.2% (United States) of the supervisees as receiving harmful supervision. At some point in their careers, 92.4% (Republic of Ireland) and 86.4% (United States) of the supervisees received inadequate supervision--51.7% (Republic of Ireland) and 39.7% (United States) received harmful supervision. On the positive side, 51.0% (Republic of Ireland) and 55.0% (United States) of the supervisees reported receiving exceptional supervision from their current supervisors. Substantial discrepancies were observed between supervisees' perceptions versus more objective criteria of the inadequate or harmful supervision they received. Implications for cross-national supervision research and training are discussed.

  9. The Role of Eportfolios in Finance Studies: A Cross-Country Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domínguez, Amparo S.; Morales, Lucía; Tarkovska, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the use of ePortfolios as an efficient assessment tool to support students pursuing a Business degree, where Finance is a major component. We conducted an analysis on the role of ePortfolios in Higher Education at Dublin Institute of Technology (Republic of Ireland) and at Universitat Jaume I (Spain) for undergraduate studies.…

  10. An Efficient Multiplex PCR-Based Assay as a Novel Tool for Accurate Inter-Serovar Discrimination of Salmonella Enteritidis, S. Pullorum/Gallinarum and S. Dublin

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Dan; Song, Li; Tao, Jing; Zheng, Huijuan; Zhou, Zihao; Geng, Shizhong; Pan, Zhiming; Jiao, Xinan

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Pullorum/Gallinarum, and Dublin are infectious pathogens causing serious problems for pig, chicken, and cattle production, respectively. Traditional serotyping for Salmonella is costly and labor-intensive. Here, we established a rapid multiplex PCR method to simultaneously identify three prevalent Salmonella serovars Enteritidis, Pullorum/Gallinarum, and Dublin individually for the first time. The multiplex PCR-based assay focuses on three genes tcpS, lygD, and flhB. Gene tcpS exists only in the three Salmonella serovars, and lygD exists only in S. Enteritidis, while a truncated region of flhB gene is only found in S. Pullorum/Gallinarum. The sensitivity and specificity of the multiplex PCR assay using three pairs of specific primers for these genes were evaluated. The results showed that this multiplex PCR method could accurately identify Salmonella Enteritidis, Pullorum/Gallinarum, and Dublin from eight non-Salmonella species and 27 Salmonella serovars. The least concentration of genomic DNA that could be detected was 58.5 pg/μL and the least number of cells was 100 CFU. Subsequently, this developed method was used to analyze clinical Salmonella isolates from one pig farm, one chicken farm, and one cattle farm. The results showed that blinded PCR testing of Salmonella isolates from the three farms were in concordance with the traditional serotyping tests, indicating the newly developed multiplex PCR system could be used as a novel tool to accurately distinguish the three specific Salmonella serovars individually, which is useful, especially in high-throughput screening. PMID:28360901

  11. Hydrogeology and Potentiometric Surface of the Dublin and Midville Aquifer Systems in Richmond County, Georgia, January 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Lester J.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Dublin and Midville aquifer systems are part of the Cretaceous aquifer system that underlies most of Richmond County, Georgia (Gorday, 1985; Falls and others, 1997). The Cretaceous aquifer system is the second most productive aquifer in Georgia and is a major source of water in the region. About 220 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water was withdrawn from the Cretaceous aquifer system during 2000 in Georgia (Fanning, 2003). The Augusta-Richmond County Water System is the largest public water supplier in the county and withdrew 13 Mgal/d of ground water during 2000; withdrawals decreased from 2001 to 2005. The towns of Hephzibah and Blythe withdrew 0.4 and 0.03 Mgal/d, respectively. Industrial ground-water withdrawals are concentrated along the Savannah River and totaled 2.89 Mgal/d. To monitor seasonal and long-term water-level fluctuations and trends in the aquifers, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) - in cooperation with Augusta Utilities - maintains a countywide network of about 100 water-level monitoring wells in various aquifers, including a new continuous monitoring site (well 30AA33) and two existing USGS-Georgia Environmental Protection Division network sites (wells 29AA09 and 30AA04). Data compiled during this study were used to better define the hydrogeologic units and to construct an updated potentiometric-surface map for the area, which is used to better understand ground-water movement in the Cretaceous aquifer system. In addition, the potentiometric surface and related water-level data can be used for water-resource planning and to update ground-water flow models for the region (Clarke and West, 1997; Cherry, 2006).

  12. Only one of the two type VI secretion systems encoded in the Salmonella enterica serotype Dublin genome is involved in colonization of the avian and murine hosts.

    PubMed

    Pezoa, David; Blondel, Carlos J; Silva, Cecilia A; Yang, Hee-Jeong; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene; Santiviago, Carlos A; Contreras, Inés

    2014-01-09

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a virulence factor for many Gram-negative bacteria. Salmonella genus harbors five phylogenetically distinct T6SS loci encoded in Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands (SPIs) SPI-6, SPI-19, SPI-20, SPI-21 and SPI-22, which are differentially distributed among serotypes. The T6SSs encoded in SPI-6 and SPI-19 contribute to pathogenesis of serotypes Typhimurium and Gallinarum in mice and chickens, respectively. Salmonella Dublin is a pathogen restricted to cattle where it causes a systemic disease. Also, it can colonize other hosts such as chickens and mice, which can act as reservoirs of this serotype. Salmonella Dublin harbors the genes for both T6SS(SPI-6) and T6SS(SPI-19). This study has determined the contribution of T6SS(SPI-6) and T6SS(SPI-19) to host-colonization by Salmonella Dublin using avian and murine models of infection. Competitive index experiments showed that, a mutant strain lacking both T6SSs (∆T6SS(SPI-6)/∆T6SS(SPI-19)) presents a strong colonization defect in cecum of chickens, similar to the defect observed for the ∆T6SS(SPI-6) mutant, suggesting that this serotype requires a functional T6SS(SPI-6) for efficient colonization of the avian gastrointestinal tract. Colonization of mice was also defective, although to a lesser extent than in chickens. In contrast, the T6SS(SPI-19) was not necessary for colonization of either chickens or mice. Transfer of T6SS(SPI-6), but not T6SS(SPI-19), restored the ability of the double mutant to colonize both animal hosts. Our data indicate that Salmonella Dublin requires only the T6SS(SPI-6) for efficient colonization of mice and chickens, and that the T6SS(SPI-6) and T6SS(SPI-19) are not functionally redundant.

  13. Glutaric aciduria type I: outcome in the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Naughten, E R; Mayne, P D; Monavari, A A; Goodman, S I; Sulaiman, G; Croke, D T

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-one patients have been diagnosed with glutaric aciduria type I over a 16-year period in the Republic of Ireland, 11 following clinical presentation and 10 following a high-risk screen. Nineteen have been managed with diet. Eight patients have died, of whom 7 were diagnosed clinically. Six had dystonic and one spastic cerebral palsy. Of the 11 patients who did not have cerebral palsy, 10 were diagnosed following a high-risk screen. Seven of the 11 have no abnormal neurological signs; 6 of the 7 have abnormal CT or MRI findings; and no case of striatal degeneration has occurred during the past 14 years in the high-risk screened group.

  14. Occupational noise exposure of nightclub bar employees in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Aoife C; Boyd, Sara M; Henehan, Gary T M; Chambers, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Due to the transposition of the EU Directive 2003/10/EC into Irish Law, the entertainment sector was obligated to comply with the requirements of the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (General Application) Regulations 2007, Chapter 1 Part 5: Control of Noise at Work since February 2008. Compliance with the Noise Regulations was examined in 9 nightclubs in Ireland. The typical daily noise exposure of 19 bar employees was measured using 2 logging dosimeters and a Type 1 fixed position sound level meter. Physical site inspections identified nightclub noise control measures. Interviews and questionnaires were used to assess the managers and employees awareness of the noise legislation. The average bar employee daily noise exposure (L(EX, 8h)) was 92 dBA, almost 4 times more than the accepted legal limit. None of the venues examined were fully compliant with the requirements of the 2007 Noise Regulations, and awareness of this legislation was limited.

  15. Groundwater vulnerability assessment of the Cork Harbour area, SW Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, A. R.; Milenic, D.

    2007-11-01

    In the Cork Harbour area of SW Ireland, high yield karst and intergranular gravel aquifers are extremely vulnerable to pollution from a variety of sources, mainly due to the limited protection afforded by the thin cover of low permeability glacial and alluvial overburden. The main potential sources of pollution are due to rapid urbanisation of the Cork city area and its attendant infrastructure, and increased industrialisation in the area, with numerous new industries, particularly pharmaceutical and chemical industries, located around Cork Harbour. Other potential sources of pollution are a number of landfills in the area and an oil refinery near the mouth of Cork Harbour. Traditional agricultural sources of pollution also exist, due to increased use of chemical fertilisers. Finally, the susceptibility to saline intrusion of the karst and gravel aquifers around Cork Harbour is high due to the long coastline of the harbour and the low-lying nature of the karst synclines with their superimposed buried valleys.

  16. Individual and collective doses from cosmic radiation in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Colgan, P A; Synnott, H; Fenton, D

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses the individual and collective doses in Ireland due to cosmic radiation. Information on the exposure to cosmic radiation at ground level is reviewed and published data on the frequency of routes flown by Irish residents is used to calculate the dose due to air travel. Occupational exposure of aircrew is also evaluated. Experimental data on cosmic radiation exposure at ground level is in good agreement with international estimates and the average individual dose is calculated as 300 microSv annually. Published data on international air travel by Irish residents shows a 50% increase in the number of flights taken between 2001 and 2005. This increase is primarily on short-haul flights to Europe, but there have been significant percentage increases in all long-haul flights, with the exception of flights to Africa. The additional per capita dose due to air travel is estimated to be 45 muSv, of which 51% is accumulated on European routes and 34% on routes to the United States. Exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation is now controlled by legislation and all airlines holding an Air Operator's Certificate issued by the Irish Aviation Authority are required to report annually the doses received by their employees in the previous year. There has been a 75% increase in the number of aircrew receiving doses >1 mSv since 2002. In 2004 and 2005 the average individual doses received by Irish aircrew were 1.8 and 2.0, mSv, respectively. The corresponding per caput dose for the entire population is <3 muSv. While this is low compared with the per caput doses from other sources of cosmic radiation, aircrew exposure represents a higher collective dose than any other identified group of exposed workers in Ireland.

  17. Apportionment of urban aerosol sources in Cork (Ireland) by synergistic measurement techniques.

    PubMed

    Dall'Osto, Manuel; Hellebust, Stig; Healy, Robert M; O'Connor, Ian P; Kourtchev, Ivan; Sodeau, John R; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Ceburnis, Darius; O'Dowd, Colin D; Wenger, John C

    2014-09-15

    The sources of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during wintertime at a background urban location in Cork city (Ireland) have been determined. Aerosol chemical analyses were performed by multiple techniques including on-line high resolution aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS), on-line single particle aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TSI ATOFMS), on-line elemental carbon-organic carbon analysis (Sunset_EC-OC), and off-line gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and ion chromatography analysis of filter samples collected at 6-h resolution. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) has been carried out to better elucidate aerosol sources not clearly identified when analyzing results from individual aerosol techniques on their own. Two datasets have been considered: on-line measurements averaged over 2-h periods, and both on-line and off-line measurements averaged over 6-h periods. Five aerosol sources were identified by PMF in both datasets, with excellent agreement between the two solutions: (1) regional domestic solid fuel burning--"DSF_Regional," 24-27%; (2) local urban domestic solid fuel burning--"DSF_Urban," 22-23%; (3) road vehicle emissions--"Traffic," 15-20%; (4) secondary aerosols from regional anthropogenic sources--"SA_Regional" 9-13%; and (5) secondary aged/processed aerosols related to urban anthropogenic sources--"SA_Urban," 21-26%. The results indicate that, despite regulations for restricting the use of smoky fuels, solid fuel burning is the major source (46-50%) of PM2.5 in wintertime in Cork, and also likely other areas of Ireland. Whilst wood combustion is strongly associated with OC and EC, it was found that peat and coal combustion is linked mainly with OC and the aerosol from these latter sources appears to be more volatile than that produced by wood combustion. Ship emissions from the nearby port were found to be mixed with the SA_Regional factor. The PMF analysis allowed us to link the AMS cooking organic

  18. VICTOR: Vinflunine in advanced metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium: A retrospective analysis of the use of vinflunine in multi-centre real life setting as second line chemotherapy through Free of Charge Programme for patients in the UK and Ireland.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Syed A; Ansari, Jawaher; Huddart, Robert; Power, Derek G; Lyons, Jeanette; Wylie, James; Vilarino-Varlela, Maria; Elander, Nils O; McMenemin, Rhona; Pickering, Lisa M; Faust, Guy; Chauhan, Seema; Jackson, Richard J

    2017-03-01

    There is no standard of care in the UK or Ireland for second-line chemotherapy for patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma (TCCU). Vinflunine is approved for TCCU patients who have failed a platinum-based regimen, and is standard of care in Europe but is not routinely available in the UK. Data were collected retrospectively on patients who received vinfluine as a second-line treatment. The aims were to document the toxicity and efficacy in a real life setting. Data were collected on 49 patients from 9 sites across the UK and Ireland [median age, 64 (IQR, 57-70) years, 33 males]. All patients had advanced metastatic TCCU. Thirteen patients had bone or liver metastases, 4 patients had PS 2 and 11 patients had HB <10. Median vinflunine administration was 3.5 cycles (range 1-18). Most common grade 3-4 toxicities were constipation (4 patients) and fatigue (3 patients). Partial response rate was 29% (14 PR, 11 SD, 19 PD, 4 NE, 1 not available). Median OS was 9.1 (6.0, 12.7) months. Results are consistent with real life data from Europe. Toxicity is further reduced with prophylactic laxative and oral antibiotics. Vinflunine is an efficient and tolerable second line treatment in advanced TCCU.

  19. VICTOR: Vinflunine in advanced metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium: A retrospective analysis of the use of vinflunine in multi-centre real life setting as second line chemotherapy through Free of Charge Programme for patients in the UK and Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Syed A.; Ansari, Jawaher; Huddart, Robert; Power, Derek G.; Lyons, Jeanette; Wylie, James; Vilarino-Varlela, Maria; Elander, Nils O.; McMenemin, Rhona; Pickering, Lisa M.; Faust, Guy; Chauhan, Seema; Jackson, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    There is no standard of care in the UK or Ireland for second-line chemotherapy for patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma (TCCU). Vinflunine is approved for TCCU patients who have failed a platinum-based regimen, and is standard of care in Europe but is not routinely available in the UK. Data were collected retrospectively on patients who received vinfluine as a second-line treatment. The aims were to document the toxicity and efficacy in a real life setting. Data were collected on 49 patients from 9 sites across the UK and Ireland [median age, 64 (IQR, 57–70) years, 33 males]. All patients had advanced metastatic TCCU. Thirteen patients had bone or liver metastases, 4 patients had PS 2 and 11 patients had HB <10. Median vinflunine administration was 3.5 cycles (range 1–18). Most common grade 3–4 toxicities were constipation (4 patients) and fatigue (3 patients). Partial response rate was 29% (14 PR, 11 SD, 19 PD, 4 NE, 1 not available). Median OS was 9.1 (6.0, 12.7) months. Results are consistent with real life data from Europe. Toxicity is further reduced with prophylactic laxative and oral antibiotics. Vinflunine is an efficient and tolerable second line treatment in advanced TCCU. PMID:28098864

  20. Synthesis of gamma,delta-unsaturated glycolic acids via sequenced brook and Ireland--claisen rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Daniel C; Johnson, Jeffrey S

    2010-03-05

    Organozinc, -magnesium, and -lithium nucleophiles initiate a Brook/Ireland-Claisen rearrangement sequence of allylic silyl glyoxylates resulting in the formation of gamma,delta-unsaturated alpha-silyloxy acids.

  1. Students and Scientists Take a "Lichen" To Air Quality Assessment in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Anthony P.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a cooperative project in which students in a number of areas in Ireland collect environmental data for use by scientists working to solve real-life problems. Reports on the follow-up survey to the study. (DDR)

  2. Special Education Needs: The Code of Practice and Local Administration in Northern Ireland and Britain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getty, David; Gray, Marie Ann

    2001-01-01

    Study of the impact of The Code of Practice for Children with Special Education Needs on the governance and administration of local schools in Northern Ireland and Britain. Suggests methods and topics for future research. (Contains 44 references.)

  3. A geochemical study of the River Lagan, Northern Ireland: Insights into the hydrochemical catchment response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Alexander; Hindshaw, Ruth

    2015-04-01

    The management of water resources is rapidly becoming one of the most important issues affecting many societies worldwide. The chemical components of a river are often not directly related to discharge, instead the water chemistry and transit time of a catchment are a function of several parameters including the flow pathways, water sources and the storage of water within a catchment. There is a need to constrain the parameters controlling hydrochemistry if water resources are to be managed efficiently and be protected from anthropogenic influences. This study will present experimental analysis of a small catchment, focusing on the relationship between discharge and hydrochemistry; tracing water sources through the investigation of the hydrochemistry, δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr composition of rain water, groundwater, and stream water. This study focuses on the River Lagan catchment in Northern Ireland. The lower catchment of the river surrounds the city of Belfast, where it drains into the sea. However, the upper catchment (84.6 km2) is noted to be a natural regime, unaffected by damming and, as such, should provide an ideal opportunity to gain insight into the natural hydrochemistry and hydrologic pathways of the catchment. The bedrock of the area is dominated by the Southern Uplands-Down-Longford Terrane, consisting of greywacke sandstone and mudstone successions. Geochemical data obtained from the Geological Survey of Northern Ireland (GSNI), focusing on stream sediment and soils, suggests there is minimal geochemical variation throughout the upper catchment. The response of the catchment to rainfall was investigated through a time series, recorded during July and August 2014. This time series included a more intensive hourly series, taken over a period of 24 hours, during a forecast rain event. Potential end-members were also sampled: shallow groundwater samples were taken from a well and regular rain samples were collected. Spatial variability within the catchment

  4. Prevalence, impact and cost of multimorbidity in a cohort of people with chronic pain in Ireland: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Slattery, Brian W; O'Connor, Laura; Haugh, Stephanie; Dwyer, Christopher P; O'Higgins, Siobhan; Caes, Line; Egan, Jonathan; McGuire, Brian E

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Multimorbidity (MM) refers to the coexistence of two or more chronic conditions within one person, where no one condition is considered primary. As populations age and healthcare provision improves, MM is becoming increasingly common and poses a challenge to the single morbidity approach to illness management, usually adopted by healthcare systems. Indeed, recent research has shown that 66.2% of the people in primary care in Ireland are living with MM. Healthcare usage and cost is significantly associated with MM, and additional chronic conditions lead to exponential increases in service usage and financial costs, and decreases in physical and mental well-being. Certain conditions, for example, chronic pain, are highly correlated with MM. This study aims to assess the extent, profile, impact and cost of MM among Irish adults with chronic pain. Methods and analysis Using cluster sampling, participants aged 18 years and over will be recruited from Irish pain clinics and provided an information package and questionnaire asking them to participate in our study at three time points, 1 year apart. The questionnaire will include our specially developed checklist to assess the prevalence and impact of MM, along with validated measures of quality of life, pain, depression and anxiety, and illness perception. Economic data will also be collected, including direct and indirect costs. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been granted by the Research Ethics Committee of the National University of Ireland, Galway. Dissemination of results will be via journal articles and conference presentations. PMID:28100560

  5. Pathogen translocation and histopathological lesions in an experimental model of Salmonella Dublin infection in calves receiving lactic acid bacteria and lactose supplements

    PubMed Central

    Zbrun, María V.; Soto, Lorena P.; Bertozzi, Ezequiel; Sequeira, Gabriel J.; Marti, Luis E.; Signorini, Marcelo L.; Armesto, Roberto Rodríguez; Rosmini, Marcelo R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacity of a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculum to protect calves with or without lactose supplements against Salmonella Dublin infection by evaluating histopathological lesions and pathogen translocation. Fifteen calves were divided into three groups [control group (C-G), a group inoculated with LAB (LAB-G), and a group inoculated with LAB and given lactose supplements (L-LAB-G)] with five, six, and four animals, respectively. The inoculum, composed of Lactobacillus (L.) casei DSPV 318T, L. salivarius DSPV 315T, and Pediococcus acidilactici DSPV 006T, was administered with milk replacer. The LAB-G and L-LAB-G received a daily dose of 109 CFU/kg body weight of each strain throughout the experiment. Lactose was provided to the L-LAB-G in doses of 100 g/day. Salmonella Dublin (2 × 1010 CFU) was orally administered to all animals on day 11 of the experiment. The microscopic lesion index values in target organs were 83%, 70%, and 64.3% (p < 0.05) for the C-G, LAB-G, and L-LAB-G, respectively. Administration of the probiotic inoculum was not fully effective against infection caused by Salmonella. Although probiotic treatment was unable to delay the arrival of pathogen to target organs, it was evident that the inoculum altered the response of animals against pathogen infection. PMID:23000583

  6. Drinking water fluoridation and osteosarcoma incidence on the island of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Comber, Harry; Deady, Sandra; Montgomery, Erin; Gavin, Anna

    2011-06-01

    The incidence of osteosarcoma in Northern Ireland was compared with that in the Republic of Ireland to establish if differences in incidence between the two regions could be related to their different drinking water fluoridation policies. Data from the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry (NICR) and the National Cancer Registry of Ireland (NCRI) on osteosarcoma incidence in the respective populations were used to estimate the age-standardised and age-specific incidence rates in areas with and without drinking water fluoridation. One hundred and eighty-three osteosarcoma cases were recorded on the island of Ireland between 1994 and 2006. No significant differences were observed between fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas in either age-specific or age-standardised incidence rates of osteosarcoma. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that osteosarcoma incidence in the island of Ireland is significantly related to public water fluoridation. However, this conclusion must be qualified, in view of the relative rarity of the cancer and the correspondingly wide confidence intervals of the relative risk estimates.

  7. Stoats (Mustela erminea) provide evidence of natural overland colonization of Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Martínková, Natália; McDonald, Robbie A; Searle, Jeremy B

    2007-01-01

    The current Irish biota has controversial origins. Ireland was largely covered by ice at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and may not have had land connections to continental Europe and Britain thereafter. Given the potential difficulty for terrestrial species to colonize Ireland except by human introduction, we investigated the stoat (Mustela erminea) as a possible cold-tolerant model species for natural colonization of Ireland at the LGM itself. The stoat currently lives in Ireland and Britain and across much of the Holarctic region including the high Arctic. We studied mitochondrial DNA variation (1771 bp) over the whole geographical range of the stoat (186 individuals and 142 localities), but with particular emphasis on the British Isles and continental Europe. Irish stoats showed considerably greater nucleotide and haplotype diversity than those in Britain. Bayesian dating is consistent with an LGM colonization of Ireland and suggests that Britain was colonized later. This later colonization probably reflects a replacement event, which can explain why Irish and British stoats belong to different mitochondrial lineages as well as different morphologically defined subspecies. The molecular data strongly indicate that stoats colonized Ireland naturally and that their genetic variability reflects accumulation of mutations during a population expansion on the island. PMID:17412682

  8. Colonization of Ireland: revisiting 'the pygmy shrew syndrome' using mitochondrial, Y chromosomal and microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, A D; Vega, R; Rambau, R V; Yannic, G; Herman, J S; Hayden, T J; Searle, J B

    2011-12-01

    There is great uncertainty about how Ireland attained its current fauna and flora. Long-distance human-mediated colonization from southwestern Europe has been seen as a possible way that Ireland obtained many of its species; however, Britain has (surprisingly) been neglected as a source area for Ireland. The pygmy shrew has long been considered an illustrative model species, such that the uncertainty of the Irish colonization process has been dubbed 'the pygmy shrew syndrome'. Here, we used new genetic data consisting of 218 cytochrome (cyt) b sequences, 153 control region sequences, 17 Y-intron sequences and 335 microsatellite multilocus genotypes to distinguish between four possible hypotheses for the colonization of the British Isles, formulated in the context of previously published data. Cyt b sequences from western Europe were basal to those found in Ireland, but also to those found in the periphery of Britain and several offshore islands. Although the central cyt b haplotype in Ireland was found in northern Spain, we argue that it most likely occurred in Britain also, from where the pygmy shrew colonized Ireland as a human introduction during the Holocene. Y-intron and microsatellite data are consistent with this hypothesis, and the biological traits and distributional data of pygmy shrews argue against long-distance colonization from Spain. The compact starburst of the Irish cyt b expansion and the low genetic diversity across all markers strongly suggests a recent colonization. This detailed molecular study of the pygmy shrew provides a new perspective on an old colonization question.

  9. Tsunamigenic Aftershocks From Large Strike-Slip Earthquakes: An Example From the November 16, 2000 Mw=8.0 New Ireland, Papua New Guinea, Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geist, E.; Parsons, T.; Hirata, K.; Hirata, K.

    2001-12-01

    Two reverse mechanism earthquakes (M > 7) were triggered by the November 16, 2000 Mw=8.0 New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) left-lateral, strike-slip earthquake. The mainshock rupture initiated in the Bismarck Sea and propagated unilaterally to the southeast through the island of New Ireland and into the Solomon Sea. Although the mainshock caused a local seiche in the bay near Rabaul (New Britain) with a maximum runup of 0.9 m, the main tsunami observed on the south coast of New Britain, New Ireland, and Bougainville (maximum runup approximately 2.5-3 m), appears to have been caused by the Mw=7.4 aftershock 2.8 hours following the mainshock. It is unclear whether the second Mw=7.6 aftershock on November 17, 2000 (40 hours after the mainshock) also generated a tsunami. Analysis and modeling of the available tsunami information can constrain the source parameters of the tsunamigenic aftershock(s) and further elucidated the triggering mechanism. Preliminary stress modeling indicates that because the location of the first Mw=7.4 aftershock is located near the rupture termination of the mainshock, stress calculations are especially sensitive to the location of both ruptures and the assumed coefficient of friction. A similar example of a triggered tsunamigenic earthquake occurred following the 1812 Wrightwood (M ~7.5) earthquake in southern California as discussed by Deng and Sykes (1996, GRL, p. 1155-1158). In this case, they show that strike-slip rupture on the San Andreas fault produced coseismic stress changes that triggered the Santa Barbara Channel earthquake (M ~7.1), 13 days later. The mechanism for the Santa Barbara Channel event appears to have been an oblique thrust event. The November 2000 New Ireland earthquake sequence provides an important analog for studying the potential for tsunamigenic aftershocks following large San Andreas earthquakes in southern California.

  10. THE IMPACT OF ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS ON THE CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANT (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) POPULATION OF THE UNITED KINGDOM AND IRELAND (1995-2013).

    PubMed

    Kendall, Rebecca; Howard, Lauren; Masters, Nic; Grant, Robyn

    2016-06-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) is one of the most devastating infections and causes of mortality in captive Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus ) populations. Eight confirmed fatal EEHV cases have occurred since 1995 within the captive Asian elephant population of the United Kingdom and Ireland. This report aims to review the impact of EEHV on the captive Asian elephant population in the United Kingdom and Ireland, document and compare fatal cases, and recommend a framework of monitoring within the United Kingdom and Ireland to increase the success of treatment of EEHV hemorrhagic disease (EEHV HD) in the future. Six zoologic institutions (which include zoos, safari parks, and wildlife parks) that currently house or have previously housed a captive Asian elephant group were included in this report. Medical records and postmortem results were collected from four of these institutions for each confirmed fatal case. EEHV HD was found to be responsible for 29.6% of fatalities in Asian elephants born in captivity in the United Kingdom and Ireland between 1995 and 2013. Following a review of all the cases, it is shown that although clinical signs may be associated with specific EEHV species, the swiftness of disease progression means that most body tissues are impacted 1-6 days following the presentation of visible clinical signs and treatment is less likely to succeed. Therefore, EEHV monitoring should consist of conducting regular polymerase chain reaction analysis of whole blood samples from at-risk, young Asian elephants aged 1-8 yr in order for subclinical viremia to be identified early and treatment to be started before the appearance of visible clinical signs.

  11. Insights into genetic diversity, parentage, and group composition of Atlantic white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus acutus) off the west of Ireland based on nuclear and mitochondrial genetic markers.

    PubMed

    Mirimin, Luca; Banguera-Hinestroza, Eulalia; Dillane, Eileen; Hoelzel, Alan R; Cross, Tom F; Rogan, Emer

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of stranding events and the application of molecular markers can be powerful tools to study cryptic biological aspects of delphinid species that occur mainly in open ocean habitat. In the present study, we investigated nuclear and mitochondrial genetic variability of Atlantic white-sided dolphins that stranded from 1990 to 2006 (n = 42) along the west coast of Ireland, using 8 microsatellite loci and 599 bp of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Results from both classes of markers are concordant with the hypothesis of a large random-mating population of white-sided dolphins along the west coast of Ireland. In addition, the analyses of 2 live mass stranding events (19 and 5 individuals, respectively) revealed that dolphins within each group were mainly unrelated to each other, suggesting dispersal of both sexes from the natal group (i.e., no natal phylopatry). Parentage analyses allowed the identification of mother-offspring pairs but ruled out all adult males as possible fathers. In combination with data on age of individuals, these results confirmed previous knowledge on life-history parameters, with sexually mature females ranging between 11 and 15 years of age and an interbirth interval of at least 2 years. The present study provides novel information on population and group composition of Atlantic white-sided dolphins along the west coast of Ireland, where population and social structure of the species are still poorly understood.

  12. Online Database for the Assessment and Comparative Evaluation of Rehabilitation Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    National University of Ireland, Maynooth, Ireland 2School of Physiotherapy , University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland Report Documentation Page...outcome measures database?” Physiotherapy , vol. 85, pp. 234-235, 1999 [3] M. Torenbeek, B. Caulfield, W. van Harten, M. Garrett, “ACROSS: Current use of

  13. 3D cone-sheet and crystal-settling models reveal magma-reservoir structure of the Carlingford central complex, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauroth, Jenny; Burchardt, Steffi; Meade, Fiona; Troll, Valentin R.

    2014-05-01

    The Palaeogene Carlingford central complex, northeast Ireland, hosts a swarm of mostly basaltic cone-sheets with several lithological subsets (Halsall, 1974). The two most abundant sets are aphyric and highly porphyritic cone-sheets with up to 80% of cm-sized plagioclase phenocrysts. The abundance of highly porphyritic cone-sheets seems to systematically increase with altitude compared to the aphyric type (Meade, 2008). We hypothesised that this observation might be explained by the zonation of the source magma reservoir. In order to test this hypothesis, we modelled the 3D cone-sheet structure at depth and the settling of plagioclase phenocrysts. The 3D model of the Carlingford cone-sheet swarm reveals that lithological types of Carlingford cone-sheets are not systematically distributed in space. Using the method proposed by Burchardt et al. (2013), we constructed the likely source reservoir of the cone-sheets, which is saucer-shaped, elongated in NW direction, 7 km long and 3 km wide, and located at a depth of 1 km below the present-day land surface. Our calculation of the terminal velocity of the plagioclase phenocrysts shows that the large phenocrysts in the porphyritic cone-sheets were too big to float at the conditions present in the Carlingford magma reservoir. We can therefore exclude vertical magma-chamber stratification as an explanation for the formation and distribution of porphyritic and aphyric cone-sheets. Instead, we envisage the formation of a crystal mush at the base and sides of the Carlingford magma reservoir. Cone-sheet injection and magma-cha,ber replenishments have remobilised plagioclase cumulates, which may explain the occurrence and distribution of aphyric and highly porphyritic cone-sheets. REFERENCES Burchardt, S., Troll, V. R., Mathieu, L., Emeleus, H. C., Donaldson, C., 2013, Scientific Reports 3, 2891. Halsall, T.J., 1974, The minor intrusions and structure of the Carlingford complex, Eire (PhD thesis): University of Leicester. Meade

  14. Norovirus genotypes implicated in two oyster-related illness outbreaks in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Rajko-Nenow, P; Keaveney, S; Flannery, J; McINTYRE, A; Doré, W

    2014-10-01

    We investigated norovirus (NoV) concentrations and genotypes in oyster and faecal samples associated with two separate oyster-related outbreaks of gastroenteritis in Ireland. Quantitative analysis was performed using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and phylogenetic analysis was conducted to establish the NoV genotypes present. For both outbreaks, the NoV concentration in oysters was >1000 genome copies/g digestive tissue and multiple genotypes were identified. In faecal samples, GII.13 was the only genotype detected for outbreak 1, whereas multiple genotypes were detected in outbreak 2 following the application of cloning procedures. While various genotypes were identified in oyster samples, not all were successful in causing infection in consumers. In outbreak 2 NoV GII.1 was identified in all four faecal samples analysed and NoV GII concentrations in faecal samples were >108 copies/g. This study demonstrates that a range of NoV genotypes can be present in highly contaminated oysters responsible for gastroenteritis outbreaks.

  15. In with the new: the determinants of prescribing innovation by general practitioners in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Jane; Roper, Stephen

    2012-08-01

    An important element of the process by which new drugs achieve widespread use is their adoption by GPs. In this paper, we explore the factors that shape the timing of the first prescription of six new drugs by General Practitioners in Ireland. Our analysis is based on a dataset that matches prescription data with data on GP characteristics. We then use duration analysis to explore both equilibrium and non-equilibrium determinants of prescribing innovation. Our study highlights a range of commonalities across all of the drugs considered and suggests the importance of GP and practice characteristics in shaping prescribing decisions. We also find strongly significant, and consistently signed, stock and order effects across these drugs: GPs who have a track record of early adoption tend also to be early adopters of other new drugs; and, the larger the proportion of GPs which have already adopted a new drug the slower is subsequent adoption. Epidemic and learning effects are also evident with slower adoption by rural practices and among those GPs with narrower prescribing portfolios.

  16. Molecular epidemiological evaluation of the recent resurgence in mumps virus infections in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Carr, Michael J; Moss, Eibhlín; Waters, Allison; Dean, Jonathan; Jin, Li; Coughlan, Suzie; Connell, Jeff; Hall, William W; Hassan, Jaythoon

    2010-09-01

    Mumps is a vaccine-preventable disease; however, outbreaks have been reported in a number of countries with childhood immunization programs, particularly among young adults at the tertiary stage of education. We have retrospectively investigated the epidemiological, virological, and serological factors associated with mumps cases identified in Ireland from 2004 to 2009. Genetic analysis of mumps virus strain variability demonstrated that a single genotype, genotype G, was circulating, and it was also detected in cerebrospinal fluid samples obtained from patients with meningitis. We observed that younger individuals were disproportionately affected with neurological sequelae following mumps virus infection, and the average age of patients with mumps virus RNA detected in cerebrospinal fluid was 19.25 years (median, 19 years; range, 14 to 24 years). Our analysis showed a 4-fold rise in mumps cases in 2008-2009 and an increased incidence in infection in those >or=30 years of age. Over a 6-year period (2004 to 2009), a total of 7,805 serum samples were investigated; of this number, 1,813 (23%) were positive for mumps virus-specific IgM. We observed a strong bias for acute mumps virus infection in males compared to females (P < 10(-32)) that was independent of vaccination status.

  17. Secondary microseism generation mechanisms and microseism derived ocean wave parameters, NE Atlantic, West of Ireland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donne, S. E.; Bean, C. J.; Lokmer, I.; Nicolau, M.; O'Neill, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ocean waves, driven by atmospheric processes, generate faint continuous Earth vibrations known as microseisms (Bromirski, 1999). Under certain conditions, ocean waves travelling in opposite directions may interact with one another producing a partial or full standing wave. This wave-wave interaction produces a pressure profile, unattenuated with depth, which exerts a pressure change at the seafloor, resulting in secondary microseisms in the 0.1-0.33 Hz band. There are clear correlations between microseism amplitude and storm and ocean wave intensity. We aim to determine ocean wave heights in the Northeast Atlantic offshore Ireland at individual buoy locations, using terrestrially recorded microseism signals. Two evolutionary approaches are used: Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Grammatical Evolution (GE). These systems learn to interpret particular input patterns and corresponding outputs and expose the often complex underlying relationship between them. They learn by example and are therefore entirely data driven so data selection is extremely important for the success of the methods. An analysis and comparison of the performance of these methods for a five month period in 2013 will be presented showing that ocean wave characteristics may be reconstructed using microseism amplitudes, adopting a purely data driven approach. There are periods during the year when the estimations made from both the GE and ANN are delayed in time by 10 to 20 hours when compared to the target buoy measurements. These delays hold important information about the totality of the conditions needed for microseism generation, an analysis of which will be presented.

  18. Metagenomic Characterisation of the Viral Community of Lough Neagh, the Largest Freshwater Lake in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Skvortsov, Timofey; de Leeuwe, Colin; Quinn, John P.; McGrath, John W.; Allen, Christopher C. R.; McElarney, Yvonne; Watson, Catherine; Arkhipova, Ksenia; Lavigne, Rob; Kulakov, Leonid A.

    2016-01-01

    Lough Neagh is the largest and the most economically important lake in Ireland. It is also one of the most nutrient rich amongst the world’s major lakes. In this study, 16S rRNA analysis of total metagenomic DNA from the water column of Lough Neagh has revealed a high proportion of Cyanobacteria and low levels of Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Firmicutes. The planktonic virome of Lough Neagh has been sequenced and 2,298,791 2×300 bp Illumina reads analysed. Comparison with previously characterised lakes demonstrates that the Lough Neagh viral community has the highest level of sequence diversity. Only about 15% of reads had homologs in the RefSeq database and tailed bacteriophages (Caudovirales) were identified as a major grouping. Within the Caudovirales, the Podoviridae and Siphoviridae were the two most dominant families (34.3% and 32.8% of the reads with sequence homology to the RefSeq database), while ssDNA bacteriophages constituted less than 1% of the virome. Putative cyanophages were found to be abundant. 66,450 viral contigs were assembled with the largest one being 58,805 bp; its existence, and that of another 34,467 bp contig, in the water column was confirmed. Analysis of the contigs confirmed the high abundance of cyanophages in the water column. PMID:26927795

  19. Equity and orthodontic treatment: a study among adolescents in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Breistein, B; Burden, D J

    1998-04-01

    This epidemiological study investigated the reasons why children in Northern Ireland who need orthodontic treatment do not receive treatment even when it is provided free by the state. A total of 1584 15- and 16-year-olds were examined in 23 high schools with the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. The characteristics of the adolescents who had received orthodontic treatment were compared with those who had a definite need for treatment and yet did not receive treatment or advice. One in 10 of the adolescents examined had an unmet need for orthodontic treatment. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the influence of 11 variables including socioeconomic status, religion, and standard of dental health on the uptake of orthodontic care. This analysis revealed that the only significant predictors of whether an adolescent received orthodontic treatment was the dental attendance pattern of the adolescent, the adolescent's dental health, and the dental attendance pattern of the adolescent's mother. Those adolescents who had good dental health, who regularly attended a dentist, and whose mother regularly attended a dentist were more likely to receive orthodontic treatment.

  20. Modernising the higher surgical training in trauma and orthopaedic surgery in Ireland: taking the middle path approach.

    PubMed

    Sayana, M K; Ashraf, M; O'Byrne, J

    2009-12-01

    Traditionally, the UK and Ireland have followed the same postgraduate surgical training of orthopaedic surgeons. Modernising medical careers (MMC) and European Working Time Directive (EWTD) have radically changed the way surgical training is delivered in the UK. In Ireland, however, the traditional structure of surgical training system continues with an emphasis to modernise the training with more objective assessment tools. The aim of this review is to highlight the current differences in the higher surgical training in Orthopaedics in the UK and Ireland.

  1. Bilateral comparison of 10 V standards between the NSAI-NML (Ireland) and the BIPM, January to February 2013 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, O.; Chayramy, R.; Solve, S.; Stock, M.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b, a comparison of the 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the National Standards Authority of Ireland-National Metrology Laboratory (NSAI-NML), Dublin, Ireland, was carried out from January to February 2013. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPM_8 (Z8) and BIPM_9 (Z9), were transported by freight to NSAI-NML. At NSAI-NML, the reference standard for DC voltage at the 10 V level consists of a group of characterized Zener diode-based electronic voltage standards. The output EMF (electromotive force) of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the group standard. At the BIPM the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at NSAI-NML, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages of the Zener standards on internal temperature and ambient atmospheric pressure. The final result of the comparison is presented as the difference between the value assigned to DC voltage standard by NSAI-NML, at the level of 10 V, at NSAI-NML, UNML, and that assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference date of 5 February 2013. UNML - UBIPM = -0.63 µV uc = 1.31 µV, at 10 V where uc is thecombined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at NSAI-NML,based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. The comparison results show that the voltage standards maintained by NSAI-NML and the BIPM were equivalent, within their stated standard uncertainties, on the mean date of the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according

  2. Bilateral comparison of 10 V standards between the NSAI-NML (Ireland) and the BIPM, March 2014 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Power, O.; Stock, M.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b, a comparison of the 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the National Standards Authority of Ireland-National Metrology Laboratory (NSAI-NML), Dublin, Ireland, was carried out in February and March 2014. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPM_4 (Z4) and BIPM_5 (Z5), were transported by freight to NSAI-NML. At NSAI-NML, the reference standard for DC voltage at the 10 V level consists of a group of characterized Zener diode-based electronic voltage standards. The output EMF (Electromotive Force) of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the group standard. At the BIPM the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at NSAI-NML, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages of the Zener standards on internal temperature and ambient atmospheric pressure. The final result of the comparison is presented as the difference between the value assigned to DC voltage standard by NSAI-NML, at the level of 10 V, at NSAI-NML, UNML, and that assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference date of 10 March 2014. UNML - UBIPM = -0.64 µV uc = 1.35 µV, at 10 V where uc is thecombined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at NSAI-NML,based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. The comparison results show that the voltage standards maintained by NSAI-NML and the BIPM were equivalent, within their stated standard uncertainties, on the mean date of the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to

  3. Bilateral comparison of 10 V standards between the NSAI - NML (Ireland) and the BIPM, February 2016 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Power, O.; Stock, M.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b, a comparison of the 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the National Standards Authority of Ireland - National Metrology Laboratory (NSAI - NML), Dublin, Ireland, was carried out in January and February 2016. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPM7 (Z7) and BIPM9 (Z9), were transported by freight to NSAI-NML. At NSAI-NML, the reference standard for DC voltage at the 10 V level consists of a group of characterized Zener diode-based electronic voltage standards. The output EMF (Electromotive Force) of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the group standard. At the BIPM the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at NSAI-NML, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages of the Zener standards on internal temperature and ambient atmospheric pressure. The final result of the comparison is presented as the difference between the values assigned to DC voltage standards by NSAI - NML, at the level of 10 V, at NSAI - NML, UNML, and those assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference date of the 31 of January 2016. UNML - UBIPM = + 0.22 μV uc = 1.35 μV , at 10 V where uc is the combined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at NSAI-NML, based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  4. Bilateral Comparison of 10 V Standards between the NSAI - NML (Ireland) and the BIPM, March 2015 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Stock, M.; Power, O.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b, a comparison of the 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the National Standards Authority of Ireland - National Metrology Laboratory (NSAI - NML), Dublin, Ireland, was carried out in February and March 2015. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPM6 (Z6) and BIPMC (ZC), were transported by freight to NSAI-NML. At NSAI-NML, the reference standard for DC voltage at the 10 V level consists of a group of characterized Zener diode-based electronic voltage standards. The output EMF (Electromotive Force) of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the group standard. At the BIPM the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at NSAI-NML, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages of the Zener standards on internal temperature and ambient atmospheric pressure. The final resultof the comparison is presented as the difference between the values assigned to DC voltage standards by NSAI - NML, at the level of 10 V,at NSAI - NML, UNML, and those assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference date of 24 February 2015. UNML - UBIPM = - 0.82 mV; uc = 1.35 mV , at 10 V where uc is the combined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at NSAI-NML, based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  5. Radiocesium contamination at a steel plant in Ireland.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, J O; Hone, C; Turvey, F J

    1996-04-01

    Radioactive sources have been inadvertently incorporated into consignments of scrap metal in various locations throughout the world. In 1990, a 3.7 GBq 137 Cs source, due for transfer from a Scottish industrial establishment to one in England, was mistakenly included in a scrap consignment destined for Irish Steel, a metal recycling plant in County Cork in the Republic of Ireland. Unaware of the presence of the source, Irish Steel smelted this consignment in the usual manner. This involved separation of some non-ferrous materials which were then exported, in pellet form, To Pasminco Europe (now Britannia Zinc Ltd.) in Avonmouth, U.K. The presence of 137 Cs contamination in these pellets was detected by the U.K. company in the course of a routine radiation survey. Irish Steel carried out extensive decontamination of its plant, placing the contaminated dust in secure storage. The company has equipped itself with radiation detection devices which monitor incoming scrap. Outgoing products and furnace dust are also monitored on a routine basis. While this incident was of negligible radiological significance as far as personnel were concerned, the financial cost to Irish Steel have been substantial. It highlights the need for surveillance, by national competent authorities, of the movement of radioactive sources from production through use to final disposal.

  6. The sublittoral macrobenthic community composition of Lough Hyne, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrush, Simon F.; Townsend, Colin R.

    1986-10-01

    This paper describes a survey conducted across the floor of the South basin of Lough Hyne, a small sea-lough in south-west Ireland. To test for any pattern in macrobenthic community structure in relation to prevailing hydrographic conditions five stations at approximately 20 m depth were sampled on four occasions over a 14 month period, by SCUBA diving. Measurements of sediment pH, redox potential, sulphide potential, grain size, organic matter content and macrobenthic community structure allow two distinct habitats to be defined; coarse gravelly substratum adjacent to the inflow area and fine silty substratum over the remainder of the basin floor. A correlation of physicochemical parameters with axis loadings from an ordination of species composition at each station on each sampling occasion failed to reveal a continuum of change in relation to prevailing hydrographic conditions. Rather, sediment physicochemistry, the abundance of common macrobenthic species, number of species, number of individuals, variations in the numerical dominance hierarchy and station position in the ordination space fluctuated in a haphazard manner. Various localized disturbances, observed while conducting this survey, are considered to contribute to this pattern. The disturbing agents include smothering of areas of sediment by anoxic water, deposition of accumulations of detached seaweed and sediment excavations by Cancer pagurus.

  7. Unwinding the State subsidisation of private health insurance in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Turner, Brian

    2015-10-01

    Ireland's private health insurance market provides primarily supplementary health insurance for hospital services, operating alongside a public hospital system to which residents have universal access entitlements, subject to some copayments for those without a medical card. The State subsidises the purchase of private health insurance through measures including tax relief on premiums and not charging the full economic cost for private beds in public hospitals. Furthermore, privately insured patients occupying public beds in public hospitals did not, until 2014, incur charges for such accommodation, apart from modest statutory charges. In the Budget in October 2013, a number of measures were announced that began to unwind these subsidies. Although it was initially feared that these measures would add to premium inflation, leading in turn to further discontinuation of health insurance, the evidence suggests that premium inflation has eased and take-up has stabilised, although some of this may have been due to the introduction of lifetime community rating in May 2015. Nevertheless, it would appear that the restriction on the subsidisation of private health insurance has not had a significant adverse effect on the market, while it has reduced an inequitable cross-subsidy.

  8. Cooperation and conflict: field experiments in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Antonio S.; Mace, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    The idea that cohesive groups, in which individuals help each other, have a competitive advantage over groups composed of selfish individuals has been widely suggested as an explanation for the evolution of cooperation in humans. Recent theoretical models propose the coevolution of parochial altruism and intergroup conflict, when in-group altruism and out-group hostility contribute to the group's success in these conflicts. However, the few empirical attempts to test this hypothesis do not use natural groups and conflate measures of in-group and unbiased cooperative behaviour. We conducted field experiments based on naturalistic measures of cooperation (school/charity donations and lost letters' returns) with two religious groups with an on-going history of conflict—Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland. Conflict was associated with reduced donations to out-group schools and the return of out-group letters, but we found no evidence that it influences in-group cooperation. Rather, socio-economic status was the major determinant of cooperative behaviour. Our study presents a challenge to dominant perspectives on the origins of human cooperation, and has implications for initiatives aiming to promote conflict resolution and social cohesion. PMID:25143042

  9. Figurational dynamics and parliamentary discourses of living standards in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Paddy

    2009-12-01

    While the concept of living standards remains central to political debate, it has become marginal in sociological research compared to the burgeoning attention given to the topic of consumer culture in recent decades. However, they both concern how one does and should consume, and, indeed, behave at particular times. I use the theories of Norbert Elias to explain the unplanned but structured (ordered) changes in expected standards of living over time. This figurational approach is compared to other alternative explanations, particularly those advanced by Bourdieu, Veblen and Baudrillard. Though these offer some parallels with Elias's theories, I argue that consumption standards are produced and transformed through the changing dependencies and power relations between social classes. They cannot be reduced to the intentions, interests or ambitions of particular elites, nor to the needs of social systems. Using qualitative data from parliamentary debates in Ireland to trace changing norms and ideals of consumption, as well as historical data to reconstruct shifts in social interdependencies, I further contend that discourses of living standards and luxury are vital aspects of the growing identification and empathy between classes, which in turn encourages greater global integration in the face of emigration and national decline.

  10. Ireland's deep-water coral carbonate mounds: multidisciplinary research results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozachenko, M.; Wheeler, A.; Beyer, A.; Blamart, D.; Masson, D.; Olu-Le Roy, K.

    2003-04-01

    Recent international research activity, involving a strong Irish collaboration, has shown that coral reefs are not exclusively associated with warm tropical waters but are also present in the deeper and colder Northeast Atlantic. In the Porcupine Seabight west of Ireland, coral-colonised carbonate mounds (up to 350m high) are present at 600-900m water depth. The corals Lophelia pertusa L. and Madrepora oculata L. contribute to this diverse ecosystem that may also play a significant role in expanding deep-water fisheries. New side-scan sonar, multibeam echosounder, sub-bottom profiler and underwater video imagery supplemented with sedimentological sample material were used to map the seabed in the environs of the Belgica Carbonate Mound province, eastern Porcupine Seabight. The data were integrated in a GIS and provides information on sediment pathways and benthic current patterns within the study area. A facies map of the study area highlights differing sedimentary processes showing evidences for strong northward bottom currents whose interaction has an influence on mounds growth and morphology. This survey revealed mound flanks dominated by sediment waves that give way to coral banks towards the mound summits. A form of coral accumulation was also documented. Detailed analyses of sediment properties from long cores through sediment drifts have generated a high-resolution palaeoclimate record revealing temporal patterns in bottom current strength variations. An accurate assessment of this influence on mound through a comparison with coral growth rates is ongoing.

  11. Women's right to health and Ireland's abortion laws.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Maeve

    2015-07-01

    The provision of the Irish Constitution that guarantees "the unborn" a right to life equal to that of a pregnant woman has consequences for access to abortion and the care of women in pregnancy generally. Long-awaited legislation to give effect to the narrow constitutional right to abortion was enacted into law in 2013. In 2014, a guidance document for health professionals' implementation of the legislation was published. However, the legislation and guidance document fall far short of international human rights bodies' recommendations: they fail to deliver effective procedural rights to all of the women eligible for lawful abortion within the state and create new legal barriers to women's reproductive rights. At the same time, cases continue to highlight that the Irish Constitution imposes an unethical and rights-violating legal regime in non-abortion-related contexts. Recent developments suggest that both the failure to put guidelines in place and the development of guidelines that are not centered on women or based on rights further reduce women's access to rights and set unacceptable limitations on women's reproductive autonomy. Nevertheless, public and parliamentary scrutiny of cases involving Ireland's abortion laws is increasingly focusing on the need for reform.

  12. Classical Galactosaemia in Ireland: incidence, complications and outcomes of treatment.

    PubMed

    Coss, K P; Doran, P P; Owoeye, C; Codd, M B; Hamid, N; Mayne, P D; Crushell, E; Knerr, I; Monavari, A A; Treacy, E P

    2013-01-01

    Newborn screening for the inborn error of metabolism, classical galactosaemia prevents life-threatening complications in the neonatal period. It does not however influence the development of long-term complications and the complex pathophysiology of this rare disease remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to report the development of a healthcare database (using Distiller Version 2.1) to review the epidemiology of classical galactosaemia in Ireland since initiation of newborn screening in 1972 and the long-term clinical outcomes of all patients attending the National Centre for Inherited Metabolic Disorders (NCIMD). Since 1982, the average live birth incidence rate of classical galactosaemia in the total Irish population was approximately 1:16,476 births. This reflects a high incidence in the Irish 'Traveller' population, with an estimated birth incidence of 1:33,917 in the non-Traveller Irish population. Despite early initiation of treatment (dietary galactose restriction), the long-term outcomes of classical galactosaemia in the Irish patient population are poor; 30.6 % of patients ≥ 6 yrs have IQs <70, 49.6 % of patients ≥ 2.5 yrs have speech or language impairments and 91.2 % of females ≥ 13 yrs suffer from hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism (HH) possibly leading to decreased fertility. These findings are consistent with the international experience. This emphasizes the requirement for continued clinical research in this complex disorder.

  13. Health professionals' perspectives on service delivery in two Northern Ireland communities.

    PubMed

    Mason, C; Orr, J; Harrisson, S; Moore, R

    1999-10-01

    This research builds on the findings of an ethnographic study of health inequalities in two small, rural communities in Northern Ireland. Through further analysis of existing data, this second study aimed to explore health professionals' perspectives on issues of service delivery relevant to government policy on primary care. Anthropological fieldwork was conducted for two consecutive 4-month periods during 1995 and 1996 in one predominantly Catholic and one predominantly Protestant town. To preserve confidentiality, the locations have been given the pseudonyms, respectively, of Ballymacross and Hunterstown. Research tools included fieldwork journals and a fieldwork diary, meetings with key informants, tape-recorded interviews, group discussions, participant observation and use of secondary material such as census data, local newspapers and community health profiles. Interviews with 15 health workers revealed that there was not a coherent approach to achieving health gain, little collaborative enterprise and minimal interaction between the different professional groups. The National Health Service (NHS)-employed primary care professionals, more than local community workers, appeared to be demoralized, exhausted and suspicious of the business-orientated health service. In this respect, the primary care-led NHS appeared not to be working. It is concluded that a shared health agenda should be developed by NHS-employed primary care professionals and local community workers to create a health-inducing environment at community level. This needs to be complemented by the establishment of formal mechanisms for inter-agency working at local, professional and government levels.

  14. Mutations in keratin K9 in kindreds with epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma and epidemiology in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Covello, S P; Irvine, A D; McKenna, K E; Munro, C S; Nevin, N C; Smith, F J; Uitto, J; McLean, W H

    1998-12-01

    Epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (EPPK, MIM #144200) is an autosomal dominant disorder in which hyperkeratosis confined to the palms and soles is characterized histologically by cytolysis of suprabasal keratinocytes. Mutations in the keratin 9 gene (KRT9), a type 1 keratin expressed exclusively in the suprabasal keratinocytes of palmoplantar epidermis, have previously been demonstrated in this disorder. Here, we have studied four Northern Irish kindreds presenting with EPPK. By direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products, heterozygous missense mutations in exon 1 of KRT9 were detected in all the families. These included a novel mutation M156T; as well as M156V in two kindreds; and R162Q in the remaining family. All mutations were confirmed by reverse strand sequencing and restriction enzyme analysis. The point prevalence of EPPK in Northern Ireland was found to be 4.4 per 100,000. To date, all reported EPPK mutations occur in the helix initiation motif at the start of the central coiled-coil rod domain of K9.

  15. Inequalities in preventive and restorative dental services in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Cheema, J; Sabbah, W

    2016-09-09

    Aims The objective of this study is to assess socioeconomic inequalities in the use of selected dental procedures.Methods Data is from the Adult Dental Health Survey 2009, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of England, Northern Ireland and Wales. Overall, 6,279 participants were included in the analysis. Occupational classification and education were used to assess variations in the use of preventive, restorative services and tooth extraction using a series of logistic regression models, adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, DMFT, self-reported oral health, dental visits and country.Results There were clear socioeconomic variations in the utilisation of preventive and restorative services. In the fully adjusted model those with no educational qualification were less likely to report ever having preventive services than those with a degree (OR 0.48, 95%CI: 0.36,0.65). Similarly, individuals in routine/manual occupation were significantly less likely to report ever having preventive services than those in managerial/professional occupation (OR 0.58, 95%CI: 0.46,0.74) in the fully adjusted model.Conclusion The findings imply that despite relatively equitable access and higher use of dental services in UK, the least educated and those at the bottom of social hierarchy are less likely to have preventive and restorative dental services.

  16. A crustal seismic velocity model for the UK, Ireland and surrounding seas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, A.; England, R.W.; Maguire, Peter K.H.

    2007-01-01

    A regional model of the 3-D variation in seismic P-wave velocity structure in the crust of NW Europe has been compiled from wide-angle reflection/refraction profiles. Along each 2-D profile a velocity-depth function has been digitised at 5 km intervals. These 1-D velocity functions were mapped into three dimensions using ordinary kriging with weights determined to minimise the difference between digitised and interpolated values. An analysis of variograms of the digitised data suggested a radial isotropic weighting scheme was most appropriate. Horizontal dimensions of the model cells are optimised at 40 ?? 40 km and the vertical dimension at 1 km. The resulting model provides a higher resolution image of the 3-D variation in seismic velocity structure of the UK, Ireland and surrounding areas than existing models. The construction of the model through kriging allows the uncertainty in the velocity structure to be assessed. This uncertainty indicates the high density of data required to confidently interpolate the crustal velocity structure, and shows that for this region the velocity is poorly constrained for large areas away from the input data. ?? 2007 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2007 RAS.

  17. The Cost of Blindness in the Republic of Ireland 2010–2020

    PubMed Central

    Green, D.; Ducorroy, G.; McElnea, E.; Naughton, A.; Skelly, A.; O'Neill, C.; Kenny, D.; Keegan, D.

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To estimate the prevalence of blindness in the Republic of Ireland and the associated financial and total economic cost between 2010 and 2020. Methods. Estimates for the prevalence of blindness in the Republic of Ireland were based on blindness registration data from the National Council for the Blind of Ireland. Estimates for the financial and total economic cost of blindness were based on the sum of direct and indirect healthcare and nonhealthcare costs. Results. We estimate that there were 12,995 blind individuals in Ireland in 2010 and in 2020 there will be 17,997. We estimate that the financial and total economic costs of blindness in the Republic of Ireland in 2010 were €276.6 million and €809 million, respectively, and will increase in 2020 to €367 million and €1.1 billion, respectively. Conclusions. Here, ninety-eight percent of the cost of blindness is borne by the Departments of Social Protection and Finance and not by the Department of Health as might initially be expected. Cost of illness studies should play a role in public policy making as they help to quantify the indirect or “hidden” costs of disability and so help to reveal the true cost of illness. PMID:26981276

  18. Comparative summer dynamics of surface cyanobacterial communities in two connected lakes from the west of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Touzet, N; McCarthy, D; Gill, A; Fleming, G T A

    2016-05-15

    The eutrophication of lakes is typically associated with high biomass proliferations of potentially toxic cyanobacteria. At a regional level, the sustainable management of water resources necessitates an approach that recognises the interconnectivity of multiple water systems within river catchments. This study examined the dynamics in summer diversity of planktonic cyanobacterial communities and microcystin toxin concentrations in two inter-connected lakes from the west of Ireland prone to nutrient enrichment. DGGE analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons of genotype-I cyanobacteria (typically spherical) showed changes in the communities of both Lough Corrib and Ballyquirke Lough throughout the summer, and identified cyanobacterial genotypes both unique and shared to both lakes. Microcystin concentrations, estimated via the protein phosphatase 2A inhibition assay, were greater in August than in July and June in both lakes. This was concomitant to the increased occurrence of Microcystis as evidenced by DGGE band excision and subsequent sequencing and BLAST analysis. RFLP analysis of PCR amplified mcy-A/E genes clustered together the August samples of both lakes, highlighting a potential change in microcystin producers across the two lakes. Finally, the multiple factor analysis of the combined environmental data set for the two lakes highlighted the expected pattern opposing greater water temperature and chlorophyll concentration against macronutrient concentrations, but also indicated a negative relationship between microcystin concentration and cyanobacterial diversity, possibly underlining allelopathic interactions. Despite some element of connectivity, the dissimilarity in the composition of the cyanobacterial assemblages and the timing of community change in the two lakes likely were a reflexion of niche differences determined by meteorologically-forced variation in physico-chemical parameters in the two water bodies.

  19. "High/Scope Supporting the Child, the Family, the Community": A Report of the Proceedings of the High/Scope Ireland Third Annual Conference, 12th October 2004, Newry, Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peyton, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    The third annual High/Scope Ireland Conference provided a forum for speakers workshop leaders and delegates from across Ireland, the UK, USA, Europe and South Africa to share their experiences of High/Scope in action. Research demonstrates that long term benefits for High/Scope participants include increased literacy rates, school success and…

  20. The importance of social identity content in a setting of chronic social conflict: understanding intergroup relations in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Andrew; Haslam, S Alexander

    2008-03-01

    Two studies (N=117, 112) were conducted with school students in Northern Ireland to investigate the neglected relationship between social identity content and intergroup relations. Study 1 tested and found support for two hypotheses. The first was that the association between in-group identification and negative behavioural intentions would be moderated by antagonistic identity content. The second was that the antagonistic identity content mediates the relationship between the experience of intergroup antagonism and negative behavioural intentions. Study 2 replicated these findings at a time of reduced intergroup violence, and supplemented them with a qualitative-quantitative analysis of participants' written responses. In addition, findings demonstrate the importance of appreciating the content and meaning of social identities when theorizing about intergroup relations and developing conflict management interventions.

  1. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Ireland as hosts for parasites of potential zoonotic and veterinary significance.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, A; Hogan, S; Maguire, D; Fitzpatrick, C; Vaughan, L; Wall, D; Hayden, T J; Mulcahy, G

    Intestinal washes, faecal flotations and serological examinations for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum were used to assess the prevalence of parasites in carcases of foxes killed on roads or shot in the Dublin area and surrounding counties. The ascarids Uncinaria stenocephala and Toxocara canis were prevalent, as was the trematode Alaria alata. Taenia species, eggs of Capillaria species and sporocysts of Sarcocystis species were also found. Only one fox out of 70 examined was seropositive for N. caninum, whereas 24 of 51 were seropositive for T. gondii.

  2. Future Need of Ageing People with an Intellectual Disability in the Republic of Ireland: Lessons Learned from the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doody, Catriona M.; Markey, Kathleen; Doody, Owen

    2013-01-01

    People with an intellectual disability are living longer, and the numbers continue to rise. Ireland has and is seeing a dramatic change in the age pro?le of clients and the support services they require. While Ireland had speci?cally trained nurses in intellectual disability, they predominately work in residential settings. This can be seen as…

  3. Prevalence and Predictors of Grandparent Childcare in Ireland: Findings from a Nationally Representative Sample of Infants and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNally, Sinead; Share, Michelle; Murray, Aisling

    2014-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that grandparents provide a substantial amount of childcare support to parents of infants in Ireland yet there has been little attention to the provision of grandparent childcare at policy level. Using nationally representative data on childcare provision in the Republic of Ireland, this study examined the prevalence of…

  4. Constructing or Rejecting the Notion of the Other in University Management: The Cases of Ireland and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Pat; Goransson, Anita

    2015-01-01

    We focus on gender stereotypes in West European university management by comparing two countries: Sweden and Ireland. In secular Sweden there are strong policies that are implemented at all political levels supported by the public discourse; while in Ireland such measures are few and the equality infrastructures and discourse have been weakened by…

  5. Analysing the Correlation between Secondary Mathematics Curriculum Change and Trends in Beginning Undergraduates' Performance of Basic Mathematical Skills in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treacy, Páraic; Faulkner, Fiona; Prendergast, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon in which students enter university under-prepared for the mathematical demands of their undergraduate courses, regularly referred to as the 'Maths Problem', has been widely reported in Ireland, UK, Australia, and the US. This issue has been of particular concern in Ireland recently, with beginning undergraduates' performance of…

  6. An Evaluation of the Training Needs of Staff in the Further Education Sector in the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Gerry; Mulcahy, Carmel; O'Hara, Joe

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the training needs of educators working in the further education (FE), adult education, and Second Chance sectors in the Republic of Ireland. The research on which it is based was funded jointly by the European Union Leonardo da Vinci Programme and the Department of Education and Science of Ireland and took place from 1998 to…

  7. Back to the Future: Do Lessons from Finland Point the Way to a Return to Model Schools for Northern Ireland?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Anne; Clarke, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines the school-based element of initial teacher education (ITE) and the ways in which it contributes to the professional learning of student teachers in Finland (University of Helsinki) and Northern Ireland (University of Ulster). In particular it seeks to assess the potential of Training Schools for Northern Ireland. Universities…

  8. Parents as Co-Researchers: A Participatory Action Research Initiative Involving Parents of People with Intellectual Disabilities in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walmsley, Jan; Mannan, Hasheem

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates a participatory action research (PAR) approach to conducting family research in Ireland. Drawing on PAR methodology it describes how parents of people with intellectual disabilities were recruited and trained to facilitate focus groups of parents in Ireland, in order to create an evidence base to support improved dialogue…

  9. Moving out of Conflict: The Contribution of Integrated Schools in Northern Ireland to Identity, Attitudes, Forgiveness and Reconciliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlynn, Claire; Niens, Ulrike; Cairns, Ed; Hewstone, Miles

    2004-01-01

    As the integrated education movement in Northern Ireland passes its twenty-first anniversary, it is pertinent to explore the legacy of mixed Catholic and Protestant schooling. This paper summarises the findings of different studies regarding the impact of integrated education in Northern Ireland on social identity, intergroup attitudes and…

  10. Sedimentary fill and stratigraphic traps of Porcupine basin, offshore Ireland

    SciTech Connect

    Macurda, D.B. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    The Porcupine basin, off the southwest coast of Ireland, is a triangular north-south re-entrant into the present-day continental shelf. This aulacogen was formed in the Jurassic during the opening of the North Atlantic. A seismic stratigraphic investigation of the southern part of the basin has shown the complex evolution of the sedimentary fill from shallow to deep water facies, resulting in several stratigraphic traps. The central axis of the basin is dominated by a volcanic ridge. Part of the early sedimentary fill was intermittently covered by volcanic flows. The final stage of thin initial siliciclastic infill was the development of an extensive alluvial fan or fan-delta complex along the eastern basin margin. Aerially extensive carbonate sedimentation occurred during the Cretaceous, including a north-south reef tract more than 20 km wide in the eastern part of the basin. Increased subsidence resulted in the deposition of deep water siliciclastics in the Tertiary. The most prominent of these is a series of lower Tertiary submarine fans that were sourced from the western, northern, and eastern margins of the aulacogen. The early portions of the fans correlate well basin-wide; their later history is much more complex, with younger lobes up to 25 km wide developing south of their precursors. Subsequent onlap fill deposits provide an excellent seal. Sedimentation in the late Tertiary has included both high-energy and low-energy deep water deposits. The complex fill of the aulacogen has set up several stratigraphic plays, including carbonate reefs, alluvial fans of fan deltas, and submarine fans. Seismic amplitude anomalies in the latter suggest the heat flow has been sufficient to generate hydrocarbons to fill some of the traps.

  11. Trophic level responses differ as climate warms in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Alison; Yu, Rong; Liu, Lingling

    2015-08-01

    Effective ecosystem functioning relies on successful species interaction. However, this delicate balance may be disrupted if species do not respond to environmental change at a similar rate. Here we examine trends in the timing of spring phenophases of groups of species occupying three trophic levels as a potential indicator of ecosystem response to climate warming in Ireland. The data sets were of varying length (1976-2009) and from varying locations: (1) timing of leaf unfolding and May Shoot of a range of broadleaf and conifer tree species, (2) first appearance dates of a range of moth species, and (3) first arrival dates of a range of spring migrant birds. All three groups revealed a statistically significant ( P<0.01 and P<0.001) advance in spring phenology that was driven by rising spring temperature ( P<0.05; 0.45 °C /decade). However, the rate of advance was greater for moths (1.8 days/year), followed by birds (0.37 days/year) and trees (0.29 days/year). In addition, the length of time between (1) moth emergence and leaf unfolding and (2) moth emergence and bird arrival decreased significantly ( P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively), indicating a decrease in the timing between food supply and demand. These differing trophic level response rates demonstrate the potential for a mismatch in the timing of interdependent phenophases as temperatures rise. Even though these data were not specifically collected to examine climate warming impacts, we conclude that such data may be used as an early warning indicator and as a means to monitor the potential for future ecosystem disruption to occur as climate warms.

  12. Concepts of illness causation and attitudes to health care among older people in the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, Anne; Kelleher, Cecily

    2002-05-01

    Fifty-one older people (26 of them women) in the Republic of Ireland were interviewed using a semi-structured schedule on their health and illness experiences at three different time points in their lives; as children, as young adults and presently. Of particular interest were their views about the causes of heart disease, cancer and tuberculosis and their experiences of the prevailing health care system during their lifetime. Participants were recruited by letter from a database of respondents to a previous national quantitative survey of older people. Of 247 people originally contacted 127 (51%) responded by letter and 51 of these took part in the interview study. Data were analysed according to principles of content analysis using NUDIST software. Reported ideas about causes of illnesses were multicausal. These were categorised as behavioural, biological, psychosocial or other explanations. While respondents placed most emphasis on behavioural explanations, this was accompanied by more complex views and critical questioning of formal health education messages. There was a strong allegiance to current biomedical concepts and practices. This appeared to be explained in part by reported negative experiences of health care treatments during childhood, particularly in hospitals, now perceived to be much improved. Advances in biomedicine were discussed with accounts of benefits received or observed by participants. An analysis of the history of health services in Ireland suggests that some of the attitudes reported reflect the experiences of the respondents as a generation rather than as older people per se and hence highlights the impact of public policy on people's experiences of and attitudes toward health and health care systems.

  13. Radionuclide monitoring in Northern Ireland of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, B J; Cranley, K

    1987-01-01

    Northern Ireland received higher radiation doses due to the radionuclide contamination from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident than did the south of England. Levels of radioactive iodine (131I) and caesium (137Cs) in cows' milk in Northern Ireland increased to 166 and 120 Bq/l respectively in May 1986, but had decreased by factors of one million, and of twenty-five, respectively, by 1 September 1986. The resultant radiation doses represent less than one per cent of those received by a Northern Ireland individual over a period of 40 years from natural background radiation sources. The added risk to any individual from the Chernobyl accident will therefore be very small and may best be judged in the context of the enormously greater risk of death due to potentially preventable diseases, such as smoking-related lung cancer, and coronary heart disease. PMID:3590387

  14. The application of GEOtop for catchment scale hydrology in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, C.; Xu, X.; Albertson, J.; Kiely, G.

    2009-04-01

    GEOtop represents the new generation of distributed hydrological model driven by geospatial data (e.g. topography, soils, vegetation, land cover). It estimates rainfall-runoff, evapotranspiration and provides spatially distributed outputs as well as routing water and sediment flows through stream and river networks. The original version of GEOtop designed in Italy, includes a rigorous treatment of the core hydrological processes (e.g. unsaturated and saturated flow and transport, surface energy balances, and streamflow generation/routing). Recently GEOtop was extended to include treatment of shallow landslides. The GEOtop model is built on an open-source programming framework, which makes it well suited for adaptation and extension. GEOtop has been run very successfully in a number of alpine catchments (such as Brenta) but has not been used on Irish catchments before. The cell size used for the spatially distributed inputs varies from catchment to catchment. In smaller catchments (less than 2000ha) 50 by 50m cells have been used and 200 by 200 for larger catchments. Smaller cell sizes have been found to significantly increase the computational time so a larger cell size is used providing it does not significantly affect the performance of the model. Digital elevation model, drainage direction, landuse and soil type maps are the minimum spatial requirements with precipitation, radiation, temperature, atmospheric pressure and wind speed been the minimum meteorological requirements for a successful run. The soil type maps must also contain information regarding texture and hydraulic conductivity. The first trial of GEOtop in Ireland was on a small 1524 ha catchment in the south of Ireland. The catchment ranges from 50 to just over 200m, the land use is predominately agricultural grassland and it receives on average 1400mm of rain per year. Within this catchment there is a meteorological tower which provides the meteorological inputs, soil moisture is also recorded at

  15. Radiology trainees in the UK and Ireland: academic background, publication rates and research plans.

    PubMed

    McWeeney, D M; Walker, T W M; Gilbert, F J; McCarthy, P A

    2009-12-01

    To assess the level of achievement of current trainees, we investigated the academic qualifications, publication rates and future research plans of 240 radiology trainees in the UK and Ireland. All radiology trainees in the UK and Ireland were surveyed by a questionnaire enquiring about academic record and career ambitions. Our study shows that the level of academic achievement of radiology trainees is high, and provides interesting information concerning the current group of radiology trainees in these regions. It will be of interest both to radiology trainers and to doctors hoping to pursue a career in radiology. It also demonstrates that a potential recruitment crisis in academic radiology exists.

  16. Environmental impacts of milk powder and butter manufactured in the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, William; Goggins, Jamie; Clifford, Eoghan; Zhan, Xinmin

    2017-02-01

    The abolition of the milk quota system that was in place in Europe was abolished in 2015, which instigated an immediate increase in milk production in many European countries. This increase will aid in addressing the world's ever growing demand for food, but will incur increased stresses on the environmental impact and sustainability of the dairy industry. In this study, an environmental life cycle assessment was performed in order to estimate the environmental impacts associated with the manufacture of milk powder and butter in the Republic of Ireland. A farm gate to processing factory gate analysis, which includes raw milk transportation, processing into each product and packaging, is assessed in this study. Operational data was obtained from 5 dairy processing factories that produce milk powder (4 of which also produce butter). Results for each environmental impact category are presented per kilogram of product. Energy consumption (raw milk transportation and on-site electrical and thermal energy usage) contributes, on average, 89% and 78% of the total global warming potential, for milk powder and butter respectively, for the life cycle stages assessed. Similarly, energy consumption contributes, on average, 86% and 96% of the total terrestrial acidification potential for milk powder and butter respectively, for these life cycle stages. Emissions associated with wastewater treatment contribute approximately 10% and 40% to the total freshwater eutrophication potential and marine eutrophication potential, respectively, for both milk powder and butter production. In addition, packaging materials also has a significant contribution to these environmental impact categories for butter production. Results were also presented for three milk powder products being manufactured by the factories surveyed: skim milk powder, whole milk powder and full fat milk powder. The analysis presented in this paper helps to identify opportunities to reduce the environmental impacts

  17. Seroepidemiological and phylogenetic characterisation of neurotropic enteroviruses in Ireland, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Jorge Abboud; Waters, Allison; Kelly, Alison; Morley, Ursula; O'Reilly, Paul; O'Kelly, Edwin; Dean, Jonathan; Cunney, Robert; O'Lorcain, Piaras; Cotter, Suzanne; Connell, Jeff; O'Gorman, Joanne; Hall, William W; Carr, Michael; De Gascun, Cillian F

    2017-01-10

    Enteroviruses (EVs) are associated with a broad spectrum of clinical presentation, including aseptic meningitis (AM), encephalitis, hand, foot and mouth disease, acute flaccid paralysis and acute flaccid myelitis. Epidemics occur sporadically and are associated with increased cases of AM in children. The present study describes the seroepidemiological analysis of circulating EVs in Ireland from 2005-2014 and phylogenetic characterisation of echovirus 30 (E-30), enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and enterovirus D68 (EV-D68). EV VP1 genotyping was applied to viral isolates and clinical samples, including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and those isolates that remained untypeable by neutralising anti-sera. An increase in AM cases from 2010-2014 was associated with an E-30 genogroup variant VII and sequences clustered phylogenetically with those detected in AM outbreaks in France and Italy. EV-D68 viral RNA was not detected in CSF samples and no neurological involvement was reported. Three EVA71 positive CSF samples were identified in patients presenting with aseptic meningitis. A phylogenetic analysis of respiratory-associated EV-D68 and EV-A71 cases in circulation was performed to determine baseline epidemiological data. EV-D68 segregated with clades B and B(1) and EV-A71 clustered as subgenogroup C2. The EV VP1 genotyping method was more sensitive than neutralising anti-sera methods by virus culture and importantly demonstrated concordance between EV genotypes in faecal and CSF samples which should facilitate EV screening by less invasive sampling approaches in AM presentations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Extreme coastal storms along the north coast of Ireland: hydrodynamic forcing and beach response during the winter seasons of 2013/14 and 2014/15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, Carlos; Marianne, O'Connor; Guisado-Pintado, Emilia; Jackson, Derek; Cooper, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The increase in storminess (frequency, duration and magnitude) and the occurrence of extreme coastal storms partly associated with climate change, represent pressing concerns for coastal communities in many regions globally. The Atlantic seaboard of Europe has recently experienced record-breaking winter seasons, particularly in Ireland and the UK, where the 2013/14 winter was characterised as the stormiest on record according to measured levels of total precipitation, extreme wind speeds, and particularly the frequency and intensity of cyclone activity. The enhanced cyclone activity during 2013/14 has resulted in unprecedented sequences of extreme water levels and energetic waves and gave rise to widespread coastal erosion and flooding, setting new benchmarks for coastal analysis and offered a glimpse of future storm impact scenarios. A regional analysis of hydrodynamic forcing along the north coast of Ireland over the last two extended winter seasons (October to March) has revealed that, although 2013/14 was indeed characterised by an exceptional frequency and intensity of coastal storms, the 2014/15 extended winter was significantly stormier. Not only was the number of individual storm events higher, but also the duration and intensity was greater, including record values of offshore significant wave height. The geomorphic response along the sandy coastal stretches of the north coast of Ireland, evaluated from morphological change at a diverse group of beach sites, revealed considerable differences in beach erosion and actual shoreline response. Variability in beach changes during these two extreme winter seasons is attributed to a variety of factors. These include localised coastal orientation relative to particular storm tracks, the embayed and highly compartmentalised setting of most of the beaches, as well as site-specific morphodynamic mechanisms such as large rip-current cells forcing the onset and/or reactivation of erosional hotspots. Such heterogeneous

  19. Rheumatic fever in Ireland: the role of Dr Monica Lea Wilson (1889-1971).

    PubMed

    Ward, O Conor

    2013-02-01

    In 1869 William Stokes pointed out that the severity of rheumatic fever in Dublin had declined over recent decades. Similar worldwide decline led to the closure of many internationally famous rheumatic fever centres. The discovery by Robert Collis that rheumatic fever was a sequel to haemolytic streptococcal infection and the subsequent discovery of penicillin accelerated the decline. St Gabriel's Hospital in Dublin opened in 1951 under the clinical direction of Dr Monica Lea Wilson. Contrary to contemporary medical opinion a regimen of very prolonged bed rest was enforced. From 1961 the family doctors became concerned at the adverse psychological effects of the unnecessarily prolonged hospital stay. Twenty-seven of the 56 inpatients were re-assessed. None of them showed any evidence of active rheumatic fever and their parents took them home. The hospital closed in 1968. Dr Lea Wilson distanced herself from mainstream medicine and she is best remembered for having presented an unrecognized Caravaggio painting to the Jesuit Order in recognition of their pastoral support at the time of the controversial assassination in 1920 of her husband Percival, an Inspector in the Royal Irish Constabulary.

  20. Outcome of primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery in a tertiary referral centre in Northern Ireland – A regional study

    PubMed Central

    Mikhail, Michael A; Mangioris, George; Casalino, Giuseepe; McGimpsey, Stuart; Sharkey, James; Best, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To report the primary and final success, functional outcome and complication rates of patients with primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) who underwent retinal detachment surgery in a tertiary referral centre in Northern Ireland. Venue Vitreoretinal service, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland. Methods This is a retrospective case series of all patients who underwent primary RRD repair between 1st of January 2013 and 31st of December 2013. Charts were reviewed. Patients’ demographics, overall primary and final success, functional outcome, complication rates were identified and recorded. Subgroup analysis according to lens status and foveal attachment was also performed. Results A total of 212 cases of primary RRD were included. Mean age at time of surgery was 56.6 years (range 9-90 years); 175(82.5%) had pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), 27 (12.5%), scleral buckle (SB) repair and 10 (5%) pneumatic retinopexy (PR). Overall primary and final success rate were 86% and 95.6% respectively. Overall mean visual acuity improved from 1.1 to 0.4 LogMAR postoperatively after a mean follow-up of 9 months. There was no significant difference in the primary success rate in relation to the baseline lens status (χ2 = 3.4, P = 0.2) and to the baseline macular status (χ2 = 0.6, P = 0.7). Presence of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) negatively affected the primary success rate (χ2=7.2, P = 0.03). Poor prognostic factors for success were PVR at presentation, inferior breaks and increasing number of detached quadrants. Conclusions This study demonstrates a success rate comparable with other centres with a low rate of final failure. Despite sub-specialism and the great advances in VR surgery, the biology of RRD dictates a failure rate. New therapies may improve results in the future. PMID:28298707

  1. Catchment-scale evaluation of environmental regulations in the agricultural sector in Ireland (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melland, A. R.; Jordan, P.; Mellander, P.; Wall, D. J.; Buckley, C.; Mechan, S.; Shortle, G.

    2010-12-01

    The European Union (EU) Nitrates Directive regulations in Ireland limits the use of agricultural fertilisers to agronomic optima and aims to minimise surplus phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) losses to the aquatic environment. The legislated measures include limits on nutrient application according to soil P status, crop type and livestock intensity and restricts chemical and organic fertiliser spreading and ploughing to periods of the year with typically lower exposure of nutrients to runoff and leaching. These agricultural policies are being evaluated in an Agricultural Catchments Programme in six representative catchments dominated by moderate to high intensity grassland and arable enterprises across Ireland (Fealy et al., 2010). An experimental programme has been established to provide a baseline of farm nutrient management and water body quality during the early years of the measures and to provide estimates of trajectories towards (or otherwise) water quality targets. A ‘nutrient transfer continuum’ from source, through pathways, to delivery and impact in a water body receptor describes the different phases of diffuse pollution and is being used as a framework for evaluation. Compliance with Irish standards at different levels of the continuum is being evaluated and demonstrative studies are being conducted to provide evidence of linkages between source and delivery to validate conceptual models of P and N transfers in time and space in each catchment. Source compliance is being evaluated through census soil testing and a survey of nutrient management practice and farmyard infrastructure. Mobilisation and pathways of nutrient transfers do not have chemical standards except where a groundwater body acts as both a receptor and a pathway. To demonstrate these linkages, however, representative groundwater pathways are being monitored through piezometer, chemical end-member and tracer studies, and surface water pathways are being evaluated through subcatchment

  2. The Economic Returns to Field of Study and Competencies among Higher Education Graduates in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Elish; O'Connell, Philip J.; Smyth, Emer

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at the economic returns to different fields of study in Ireland in 2004 and also the value placed on various job-related competencies, accumulated on completion of higher education, in the Irish labour market. In examining these issues, the paper also analyses, through quantile regression, how the returns vary across the earnings…

  3. Child Poverty as Public Policy: Direct Provision and Asylum Seeker Children in the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanning, Bryan; Veale, Angela

    2004-01-01

    This paper evaluates responses to asylum seeker children in Ireland from a child poverty perspective and from that of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. It draws upon research undertaken in early 2001 on behalf of the Irish Refugee Council among asylum seeker families with children in Cork, Limerick and Ennis on their…

  4. Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar on Special Education (Cork, Ireland, September 8-12, 1969).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHugh, M. F., Ed.

    Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar on Special Education (Cork, Ireland, September 8-12, 1969) contain papers relating to the following themes: special education personnel, identification of the handicapped, general aspects of early education, special education methods, early education programs for the mentally handicapped, and early…

  5. Guide for Members of Governing Bodies of Universities and Colleges in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This guide is intended to assist members of governing bodies of universities and colleges of higher education in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland in the performance of their duties. The guide is divided into two parts. Part 1 is concerned with the role of the governing body. It outlines the legal status of institutions and their structures of…

  6. A Tale of Two Schools: Educating Catholic Female Deaf Children in Ireland, 1846-1946

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Noel Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the contributions of the Dominican Sisters and Sisters of Mercy in running schools for female deaf children in Ireland during the period 1846 to 1946. The schools were established as part of an attempt to educate Catholics in the Catholic faith and provide literacy to female deaf children. In assuming the challenge of…

  7. Screening and Assessment of Specific Learning Disabilities in Higher Education Institutes in the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkin, Emma; Doyle, Alison; Mc Guckin, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Students with specific learning difficulties (SpLD) in higher education institutions (HEIs) in the Republic of Ireland are required to have a formal psycho-educational assessment from an educational psychologist to register with Disability Services in HEIs, to be eligible for support through the Fund for Students with Disabilities (FSD). Such…

  8. Religion and Education in Ireland: Growing Diversity--or Losing Faith in the System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rougier, Nathalie; Honohan, Iseult

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the evolution of the state-supported denominational education system in Ireland in the context of increasing social diversity, and considers the capacity for incremental change in a system of institutional pluralism hitherto dominated by a single religion. In particular, we examine challenges to the historical arrangements…

  9. Education in Northern Ireland since the Good Friday Agreement: Kabuki Theatre Meets "Danse Macabre"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John

    2016-01-01

    The Good Friday Agreement (1998) between the UK and Irish governments, and most of the political parties in Northern Ireland, heralded a significant step forward in securing peace and stability for this troubled region of the British Isles. From the new-found stability, the previous fits and starts of education reform were replaced by a…

  10. Mathematics Diagnostic Testing in Engineering: An International Comparison between Ireland and Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, M.; Fidalgo, C.; Bigotte de Almeida, M. E.; Branco, J. R.; Santos, V.; Murphy, E.; Ní Fhloinn, E.

    2015-01-01

    Concern has been expressed throughout Europe about the significant deficiencies in the basic mathematical skills of many engineering undergraduates. Mathematics diagnostic tests in the UK, Ireland and Portugal have shown these shortcomings, which provide a challenge to those striving to introduce more innovative educational practices into…

  11. Practice as Prize: Citizenship Education in Two Primary Classrooms in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Fionnuala; Ruane, Brian; Oberman, Rowan

    2014-01-01

    While citizenship education forms part of the formal curriculum at primary level in Ireland, its inclusion as a strand unit of Social, Personal and Health Education, rather than as a discrete subject, tends to make it less visible. In practice, citizenship education is strongly influenced by external agencies and non-governmental organisations…

  12. Spiritual dimensions of care: developing an educational package for hospital nurses in the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Timmins, Fiona; Neill, Freda; Griffin, Mary Quinn; Kelly, John; De La Cruz, Eden

    2014-01-01

    The nurses' role in providing spiritual care to in-hospital patients is not clearly outlined in the Republic of Ireland (ROI). This and other deficits reveal that there are current gaps in nurses' knowledge and confidence in this area. In response, an educational innovation has been developed and this article reports on its development.

  13. Adolescents' Experiences of the Right to Play and Leisure in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Under Article 31 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, every child under the age of 18 has the right to engage in age-appropriate play and leisure activities. Drawing on the qualitative findings of a wider review of children's rights in Northern Ireland, this article examines the degree to which adolescents in Northern…

  14. Genotype _ environment interactions for forage yield of Lolium perenne L. sward plots in Ireland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lolium perenne L. (perennial ryegrass) is by far the most widely sown grass species in Ireland. Genotype by environment (G by E) interactions are a frequent occurrence in forage yield evaluations. The objectives were to determine (i) the nature and relative magnitudes of the pertinent G by E interac...

  15. Value-Added Models of Teacher and School Effectiveness in Ireland: Wise or Otherwise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane, Finbarr C.; Oloff-Lewis, Jennifer; Kim, Seong Hee

    2013-01-01

    The government of Ireland, like many European countries, is currently under severe pressure from external forces to grow the economy. One possible way to maintain and grow its economy is through the production of a highly educated and globally competitive workforce. In an effort to develop such a workforce, the government, through the Department…

  16. Drug Policy and Rationality: An Exploration of the Research-Policy Interface in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Niamh

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study which aimed to explore the extent to which drug policy making in Ireland might be deemed to be a rational, evidence-based process. The research was completed during the first half of 2008, as the National Drug Strategy 2001-2008--which explicitly claimed to have research as one of its main "pillars"--was…

  17. Harnessing the Slipstream: Building Educational Research Capacity in Northern Ireland. Size Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitch, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Northern Ireland is uniquely distinguished from England, Scotland and Wales, by being a society in transition, emerging from a prolonged period of civil conflict and political instability that has affected its infrastructure and has increased the need for co-ordinated and specialist research. The current paper traces some of the systemic…

  18. The Psychological Well-Being and Sociocultural Adaptation of Short-Term International Students in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Aileen; Ryan, Dermot; Hickey, Tina

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an empirical study of the psychosocial adaptation of international students in Ireland. Using measures of social support, loneliness, stress, psychological well-being, and sociocultural adaptation, data were obtained from international students and a comparison sample of Irish students. The study found that, although…

  19. Draft genome sequences of seven isolates of Phytophthora ramorum EU2 from Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Mata Saez, Lourdes de la; McCracken, Alistair R.; Cooke, Louise R.; O'Neill, Paul; Grant, Murray; Studholme, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present draft-quality genome sequence assemblies for the oomycete Phytophthora ramorum genetic lineage EU2. We sequenced genomes of seven isolates collected in Northern Ireland between 2010 and 2012. Multiple genome sequences from P. ramorum EU2 will be valuable for identifying genetic variation within the clonal lineage that can be useful for tracking its spread. PMID:26697370

  20. Draft genome sequences of seven isolates of Phytophthora ramorum EU2 from Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Mata Saez, Lourdes de la; McCracken, Alistair R; Cooke, Louise R; O'Neill, Paul; Grant, Murray; Studholme, David J

    2015-12-01

    Here we present draft-quality genome sequence assemblies for the oomycete Phytophthora ramorum genetic lineage EU2. We sequenced genomes of seven isolates collected in Northern Ireland between 2010 and 2012. Multiple genome sequences from P. ramorum EU2 will be valuable for identifying genetic variation within the clonal lineage that can be useful for tracking its spread.

  1. Import of norovirus infections in the Netherlands and Ireland following pilgrimages to Lourdes, 2008--preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, L; Duizer, E; Vennema, H; Siebenga, J; Swaan, C; Isken, L; Koopmans, M; Balay, K; Pothier, P; McKeown, P; van Dijk, G; Capdepon, P; Delmas, G

    2008-10-30

    Between mid-September and 19 October 2008, nine clusters of norovirus infection involving around 90 primary cases and over a hundred secondary cases were identified in patients from the Netherlands, Ireland, Italy and France, linked to pilgrimage to Lourdes, France.

  2. Cultural Attitudes, Parental Aspirations, and Socioeconomic Influence on Post-Primary School Selection in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelleher, Luke; Smyth, Austin; McEldowney, Malachy

    2016-01-01

    This research considers implications of planned reform of the education system in Northern Ireland for school choice and travel behavior. The school system is currently segregated on the basis of religion and academic ability at age 11. Discrete Choice Models based on a Stated Preference experiment included in a program of parental surveys yielded…

  3. Rights, Sexuality and Relationships in Ireland: "It'd Be Nice to Be Kind of Trusted"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Grace; Crowley, Helen; Hamilton, Carol

    2009-01-01

    How to translate the right of people with intellectual disabilities to a full sexual and intimate life into proactive support remains a challenge for disabilities services in Ireland. Little formal research has been undertaken in this country into what people with intellectual disabilities think about these issues and what they would like to see…

  4. Under-Represented Groups in Post-Secondary Education in Ontario and the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng-Hoy, April

    2012-01-01

    Increasing access to and participation in post-secondary education (PSE) for students with disabilities, from low-income families, and with parents who do not have any PSE are common issues that Ontario and the Republic of Ireland are currently facing. The barriers confronted by these under-represented groups in both PSE systems are often complex,…

  5. Attitudes of Catholic religious orders towards children and adults with an intellectual disability in postcolonial Ireland.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, John

    2010-06-01

    Attitudes of Catholic religious orders towards children and adults with an intellectual disability in postcolonial Ireland The purpose of this paper is to examine the intersecting roles of Catholic religious orders and psychiatrists in the development of residential care for people with an intellectual disability in Ireland during the fifty-year period after political autonomy from the UK in 1922. The context is the postcolonial development of the country and the crucial role played by the Catholic Church through several of its religious orders in developing and staffing intellectual disability services. The paper will consider the divergent positions of church and psychiatry in the foundation and contemporary position of what was originally known as the care of people with a mental handicap nursing in the 1960s. The development of this form of nursing during the mid-twentieth century can be seen as part of a wider postcolonial response to health and social care by the newly independent Irish state. The author argues that intellectual disability nursing in Ireland has been nuanced by association with the nation's struggle for self-determination from colonial oppression through adoption of a religious identity. This conflation of education and social care combined with a specific form of Catholic nursing has left an enduring legacy on the service provision to people with an intellectual disability in contemporary Ireland.

  6. Patterns of Substance Use among Young People Attending Colleges of Further Education in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrystal, Patrick; Percy, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Substance use and misuse amongst young people attending colleges of further education (FE) has received little attention in the drug use literature in the UK. This article aims to explore the patterns of drug use amongst young people attending colleges of further education in Northern Ireland. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey…

  7. "What Rough Beast?" Conceptualising the Poetry Teacher in Ireland through the Eyes of the Pupil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessy, Jennifer; Mannix McNamara, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Pupils have a significant contribution to make in the construction of knowledge about teaching and learning in schools. Therefore, consultation with pupils should play a significant role in the pursuit of pedagogical advancement. This study explores pupils' conceptions of effective poetry teachers at Leaving Certificate level in Ireland. Taking a…

  8. Trends in Basic Mathematical Competencies of Beginning Undergraduates in Ireland, 2003-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treacy, Páraic; Faulkner, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Deficiencies in beginning undergraduate students' basic mathematical skills has been an issue of concern in higher education, particularly in the past 15 years. This issue has been tracked and analysed in a number of universities in Ireland and internationally through student scores recorded in mathematics diagnostic tests. Students beginning…

  9. Curriculum Differentiation and Social Inequality in Higher Education Entry in Scotland and Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannelli, Cristina; Smyth, Emer; Klein, Markus

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the relative importance of upper secondary subject choice and attainment in explaining social inequalities in access to higher education (HE) in Scotland and Ireland. These two countries differ in the extent of curriculum differentiation, in the degree of standardisation in school examination and in HE entry criteria. In…

  10. Addiction Counsellors in the Republic of Ireland: Exploring the Emergence of a New Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Shane

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the emergence and expansion of addiction counselling as a specialist form of professional practice with problem drinkers and drug users in Ireland, over the past 30 years. It sees addiction counselling as having its roots in a widely shared disenchantment with the "medical model" of addiction treatment, and…

  11. "Doing the Job as a Parent": Parenting Alone, Work, and Family Policy in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Michelle; Coen, Liam; Bradley, Ciara; Rau, Henrike

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of family life in Ireland have focused on changes in "traditional" family structures, including the increase in one-parent families. This article illustrates the impact dominant conceptions in Irish society that privilege the family based on marriage have on one-parent family policy. The authors focus on two key areas of…

  12. New Peace, New Teachers: Student Teachers' Perspectives of Diversity and Community Relations in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Alison; McGlynn, Claire

    2009-01-01

    This paper reflects upon student teachers' conceptions of inter-community relations and the preparation they receive to address issues of diversity and mutual understanding. The study in Northern Ireland is set against a backdrop of political, social and educational change, where a shared, peaceful future appears possible. Student teachers at a…

  13. Intergenerational Relations in the West of Ireland and Sociocultural Approaches to Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Ricca

    2012-01-01

    Discussion of intergenerational relationships has perennially questioned how life experience can be transmitted effectively. This article revisits that debate, focusing on the intergenerational role of wisdom in the West of Ireland. Ethnographic reconstructions of wise interaction within families and communities, especially in regions of Irish…

  14. "Nervous Energy and Administrative Ability": The Early Lady Principals and Lady Superintendents in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fealy, Gerard; Harford, Judith

    2007-01-01

    At the turn of the twentieth century, middle-class educated gentlewomen in Ireland had established positions of authority and leadership in the relatively new professions of education and nursing. Acting in the roles of lady principals and lady superintendents, respectively, in education and nursing, many of these women had themselves participated…

  15. The wind energy market in the U.K. and Ireland

    SciTech Connect

    Lindley, D.

    1996-12-31

    The market for renewable energy projects has been created in England and Wales by measures established by the Electricity Act 1989 which created the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO). Identical market enablement mechanisms now exist for Scotland and Northern Ireland whilst yet another version of the NFFO mechanism has been established in Ireland. As a result, the UK now has 31 operational windfarms with a total rating of 195MW whilst the completion of the first windfarm in Ireland is expected in early 1997. This paper gives details of these mechanisms and the impact they have had on the creation of a renewables market. Current expectations are that additional wind energy capacity of about 900MW will be added in the UK and Ireland by the end of the millennium. This implies a market worth between US$525 million and US$600 million in turbine sales and a total turnkey investment cost of between US$1.2 billion and US$1.5 billion. 6 refs., 8 tabs.

  16. The Role of Investigations in Promoting Inquiry-Based Science Education in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Declan

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes recent developments in Ireland to promote a greater interest in science among students in the 12-15 age group by means of practical work involving Inquiry Based Science Education (IBSE). The tasks, know as Investigations, are a component of the assessment of the subject Science which is studied as part of the Junior…

  17. Family Voices: Life for Family Carers of People with Intellectual Disabilities in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Darren D.; Mannan, Hasheem; Garcia Iriarte, Edurne; McConkey, Roy; O'Brien, Patricia; Finlay, Frieda; Lawlor, Anne; Harrington, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Background: Families in Ireland remain the main providers of support for people with Intellectual disabilities, and the aim of this study was to map their life experiences whilst involving their family members as co-researchers. Materials and Method: This qualitative, participatory study involved 10 focus groups attended by 70 parents and siblings…

  18. Maternal Religiosity, Family Resources and Stressors, and Parent-Child Attachment Security in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cairns, Ed; Merrilees, Christine E.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the associations between mothers' religiosity, and families' and children's functioning in a stratified random sample of 695 Catholic and Protestant mother-child dyads in socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, a region which has experienced centuries of sectarian conflict between Protestant Unionists and…

  19. Major outbreak of suspected botulism in a dairy herd in the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, A E; Brady, C P; Byrne, W; Moriarty, J; O'Neill, P; McLaughlin, J G

    2008-03-29

    This is the first report of a major outbreak of a paralytic disease in cattle on a farm in the Republic of Ireland. Thirty-six of 65 dairy cows were euthanased or died. A presumptive diagnosis of botulism was made on the basis of the clinical signs, the duration of the outbreak and the postmortem findings, and by ruling out other differential diagnoses.

  20. Individual Education Plans in the Republic of Ireland: An Emerging System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Richard; Shevlin, Michael; Winter, Eileen; O'Raw, Paul; Zhao, Yu

    2012-01-01

    The Education for Persons with Special Educational Needs Act in Ireland advocated the development of individual education plans (IEPs). However, this section of the Act has never been fully implemented and there is no obligation upon schools to develop IEPs. Research conducted across the country by Richard Rose and Yu Zhao of the University of…