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Sample records for analysis dublin ireland

  1. Space Radar Image of Dublin, Ireland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image of Dublin, Ireland, shows how the radar distinguishes between densely populated urban areas and nearby areas that are relatively unsettled. In the center of the image is the city's natural harbor along the Irish Sea. The pinkish areas in the center are the densely populated parts of the city and the blue/green areas are the suburbs. The two ends of the Dublin Bay are Howth Point, the circular peninsula near the upper right side of the image, and Dun Laoghaire, the point to the south. The small island just north of Howth is called 'Ireland's Eye,' and the larger island, near the upper right corner of the image is Lambay Island. The yellow/green mountains in the lower left of the image (south) are the Wicklow Mountains. The large lake in the lower left, nestled within these mountains, is the Poulaphouca Reservoir along River Liffey. The River Liffey, the River Dodden and the Tolka River are the three rivers that flow into Dublin. The straight features west of the city are the Grand Canal and the three rivers are the faint lines above and below these structures. The dark X-shaped feature just to the north of the city is the Dublin International Airport. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 11, 1994. This area is centered at 53.3 degrees north latitude, 6.2 degrees west longitude. The area shown is approximately 55 kilometers by 42 kilometers (34 miles by 26 miles). The colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: Red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  2. Treponema pallidum azithromycin resistance in Dublin, Ireland.

    PubMed

    Muldoon, Eavan G; Walsh, Anne; Crowley, Brendan; Mulcahy, Fiona

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to reassess rates of syphilis azithromycin resistance in Dublin. Of the 104 samples, 36 (34.6%) were positive for Treponema pallidum DNA by polymerase chain reaction. Thirty samples were analyzed for A2058G mutation, 29 samples sequenced. Of the 29 samples, 27 (93.1%) had the mutation. Azithromycin cannot be recommended for the treatment of syphilis in Dublin.

  3. "The Problem of Trinity College Dublin": A Historical Perspective on Rationalisation in Higher Education in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a historical perspective on government policies for the rationalisation of higher education (HE) in Ireland through a critical re-appraisal of the initiative for "merger" of Trinity College and University College Dublin. The initiative launched by Donogh O'Malley in 1967 was the first significant attempt by an…

  4. Targeted intervention strategies to optimise diversion of BMW in the Dublin, Ireland region.

    PubMed

    Purcell, M; Magette, W L

    2011-01-01

    Urgent transformation is required in Ireland to divert biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) from landfill and prevent increases in overall waste generation. When BMW is optimally managed, it becomes a resource with value instead of an unwanted by-product requiring disposal. An analysis of survey responses from commercial and residential sectors for the Dublin region in previous research by the authors proved that attitudes towards and behaviour regarding municipal solid waste is spatially variable. This finding indicates that targeted intervention strategies designed for specific geographic areas should lead to improved diversion rates of BMW from landfill, a requirement of the Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC. In the research described in this paper, survey responses and GIS model predictions from previous research were the basis for goal setting, after which logic modelling and behavioural research were employed to develop site-specific waste management intervention strategies. The main strategies devised include (a) roll out of the Brown Bin (Organics) Collection and Community Workshops in Dún Laoghaire Rathdown, (b) initiation of a Community Composting Project in Dublin City (c) implementation of a Waste Promotion and Motivation Scheme in South Dublin (d) development and distribution of a Waste Booklet to promote waste reduction activities in Fingal (e) region wide distribution of a Waste Booklet to the commercial sector and (f) Greening Irish Pubs Initiative. Each of these strategies was devised after interviews with both the residential and commercial sectors to help make optimal waste management the norm for both sectors. Strategy (b), (e) and (f) are detailed in this paper. By integrating a human element into accepted waste management approaches, these strategies will make optimal waste behaviour easier to achieve. Ultimately this will help divert waste from landfill and improve waste management practice as a whole for the region. This method of devising

  5. Targeted intervention strategies to optimise diversion of BMW in the Dublin, Ireland region

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, M.; Magette, W.L.

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > Previous research indicates that targeted strategies designed for specific areas should lead to improved diversion. > Survey responses and GIS model predictions from previous research were the basis for goal setting. > Then logic modelling and behavioural research were employed to develop site-specific management intervention strategies. > Waste management initiatives can be tailored to specific needs of areas rather than one size fits all means currently used. - Abstract: Urgent transformation is required in Ireland to divert biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) from landfill and prevent increases in overall waste generation. When BMW is optimally managed, it becomes a resource with value instead of an unwanted by-product requiring disposal. An analysis of survey responses from commercial and residential sectors for the Dublin region in previous research by the authors proved that attitudes towards and behaviour regarding municipal solid waste is spatially variable. This finding indicates that targeted intervention strategies designed for specific geographic areas should lead to improved diversion rates of BMW from landfill, a requirement of the Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC. In the research described in this paper, survey responses and GIS model predictions from previous research were the basis for goal setting, after which logic modelling and behavioural research were employed to develop site-specific waste management intervention strategies. The main strategies devised include (a) roll out of the Brown Bin (Organics) Collection and Community Workshops in Dun Laoghaire Rathdown, (b) initiation of a Community Composting Project in Dublin City (c) implementation of a Waste Promotion and Motivation Scheme in South Dublin (d) development and distribution of a Waste Booklet to promote waste reduction activities in Fingal (e) region wide distribution of a Waste Booklet to the commercial sector and (f) Greening Irish Pubs Initiative. Each of these

  6. Mid-Dinantian Waulsortian buildups in the Dublin Basin, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somerville, Ian D.; Strogen, Peter; Jones, Gareth Ll.

    1992-08-01

    The sedimentary history and biostratigraphic setting of Waulsortian carbonate buildups of the Feltrim Limestone Formation (late Courceyan to early Chadian) within the Dublin Basin are described. There is no unique precursor or successor facies to this formation, and the massive Waulsortian banks are composed predominantly of peloidal, skeletal wackestones and lime mudstones with packstones near the tops of banks. These banks form tabular bodies of moderate relief and are interbedded with thin shales and argillaceous crinoidal limestones of inter-bank facies. In the southwest of the basin inter-bank facies are rare and the bank facies have abundant stromatactis cavities, and uniquely at Roselawn a fauna of rugose corals. All buildups in the Dublin Basin have Phase C and/or D component assemblages of Lees and Miller (1985) and are interpreted as accumulating in moderately shallow-water depths, near or within the photic zone. Isopachs for the Feltrim Limestone Formation show a NE-SW-trending axial depocentre where the Waulsortian facies is in excess of 400 m thickness. Deposition appears to have taken place on this "double-sided" ramp, in a manner similar to the model of Lees (1982) for Belgium and southern Britain. Soft-sediment deformation such as large-scale slumping, shale-injections and water-escape structures, not previously recorded from these rocks is widespread. The upper surface of the Feltrim Limestone Formation is fissured and displays a prominent erosion surface. Termination of Waulsortian facies deposition and influx of terrigenous sediment was caused by rapid uplift, attributed to Chadian tectonism. However, eustatic sea-level fall cannot be ruled out as a partial cause of the demise of the Waulsortian.

  7. The Dublin SURGE Project: geochemical baseline for heavy metals in topsoils and spatial correlation with historical industry in Dublin, Ireland.

    PubMed

    Glennon, M M; Harris, P; Ottesen, R T; Scanlon, R P; O'Connor, P J

    2014-04-01

    The Dublin SURGE (Soil Urban Geochemistry) Project is Dublin's first baseline survey of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants in topsoils and is part of a Europe-wide initiative to map urban geochemical baselines in ten cities. 1,058 samples were collected as part of a stratified random sampling programme in the greater Dublin area to give an overview of baseline conditions in the city. Samples were analysed for 31 inorganic elements including heavy metals. Analysis of results indicates that the concentrations of lead, copper, zinc and mercury are strongly influenced by human activities, with elevated concentrations in the city docklands, inner city and heavy industry areas. Sources of heavy metals in these areas may include historical industry, coal burning, re-use of contaminated soil, modern traffic and leaded paint and petrol. Concentrations of other inorganic elements in topsoil show patterns which are strongly related to regional bedrock parent material. The spatial distributions of heavy metals, in particular Pb and As, are explored in detail with respect to regional geology and the influence of historical industry on soil quality. Exploratory data, geostatistical and correlation analyses suggest that the concentrations of heavy metals tend to increase as the intensity of historical industrial activity increases. In particular, drinks production, power generation, oil/gas/coal, metals and textile historical industries appear to be the contamination source for several heavy metals. The data provide a geochemical baseline relevant to the protection of human health, compliance with environmental legislation, land use planning and urban regeneration.

  8. Including Prisoners and Ex-Offenders in Employment and Society. Proceedings of the Integra Conference (Dublin, Ireland, November 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronayne, Thomas, Ed.

    This book contains proceedings from a conference, held in Dublin, Ireland, on employment of prisoners and ex-offenders, including opening and closing addresses, papers from plenary sessions and summaries from panel sessions and workshops. The opening address, given by John O'Donoghue, is followed by "Including Prisoners and Ex-Offenders in…

  9. Shell shock in Ireland: The Richmond War Hospital, Dublin (1916-19).

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brendan D

    2015-03-01

    The history of mental disorders occasioned by World War I is a complex and important history, indelibly linked with social, political and cultural circumstances, and the history of the war itself. The Richmond War Hospital was a 32-bed establishment on the grounds of the large Richmond District Asylum in Dublin which, from 16 June 1916 until 23 December 1919, treated 362 soldiers with shell shock and other mental disorders, of whom more than half were considered to have recovered. Despite the limitations of the Richmond War Hospital, it was a generally forward-looking institution that pointed the way for future reform of Ireland's asylum system and, along with the other war hospitals, brought significant changes to the practice of psychiatry.

  10. [Jonathan Swift's asylum in Dublin--Ireland's introduction to institutional psychiatry 250 years ago].

    PubMed

    Reuber, M

    1995-09-01

    250 years ago, the satirical writer and clergyman Jonathan Swift from Dublin (1667-1745) founded the first Irish lunatic asylum. Rejecting the theories put forward by the English philosopher Thomas Hobbes and the doctor Thomas Willis, he was influenced by the ideas of the Scottish doctor and the "enlightened" thinker John Locke. Swift's St. Patrick's Hospital did not, however, realise a new philosophical concept: architecture and therapeutic approach of the new institution were clearly modelled on the much older Hospital of St. Mary of Bethlehem ( = Bedlam). Despite its conservative conceptual basis, the first institution dedicated to the mentally ill and intellectually subnormal in Ireland became a starting point for the apparantly unstoppable expansion of the, at one time, most comprehensive asylum system in the world. After Swift's Hospital had been enlarged twice at the tax-payers' expense (1778, 1793), the administration decided to relieve the institution by erecting the Richmond Asylum (1810), the first public asylum in Ireland. When this establishment also became overcrowded, in 1817, legislation was passed which led to the establishment of the oldest system of public asylums in Europe.

  11. Attitudes and behaviour towards waste management in the Dublin, Ireland region.

    PubMed

    Purcell, M; Magette, W L

    2010-10-01

    The hypothesis of this research was that attitudes about the management of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) are spatially variable, even within a city of modest (1.2 million) population. For a select number of representative electoral districts in the Dublin, Ireland region, residents were surveyed regarding attitudes towards waste management in general, and BMW management in particular. A total of 850 survey responses were collected. Door-to-door interviews produced 688 responses in the residential sector; these were supplemented by 162 responses to a web-based survey. The surveys revealed that the majority of households use local authority, rather than private, waste collection services (both are available). The majority of residents, regardless of the local authority in which they live, were satisfied with their waste management service. "Reducing the quantity of waste generated" was regarded the most important future issue for 28% of residential respondents. Statistical analyses of the survey responses showed that the local authority in which respondents resided significantly influenced most responses (including waste collection service used, waste service satisfaction and backyard composting activity). Many responses (including waste service satisfaction, waste management influences) were also significantly related to the respondents' personal characteristics (e.g., education level, type of accommodation, age, etc.). These statistical results proved the hypothesis of the research and demonstrated that waste management initiatives designed for one area of the city (or, indeed, for uniform application to the city as a whole) could ignore the needs of other areas. The survey responses suggest that targeted intervention strategies would lead to improved diversion rates of BMW from landfill, a requirement of the Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC.

  12. Syphilis serology in pregnancy: an eight-year study (2005-2012) in a large teaching maternity hospital in Dublin, Ireland.

    PubMed

    McGettrick, Padraig; Ferguson, Wendy; Jackson, Valerie; Eogan, Maeve; Lawless, Mairead; Ciprike, Vaneta; Varughese, Alan; Coulter-Smith, Sam; Lambert, John S

    2016-03-01

    All cases of positive syphilis serology detected in antenatal and peripartum screening in a large teaching maternity hospital in inner city Dublin, Ireland over an eight-year period (2005-2012 inclusive) were reviewed and included in our study. Demographic, antenatal registration, laboratory (including co-infections), partner serology, treatment and delivery data were recorded in our database. Infant follow-up, treatment and outcome data were also collected. During this period, 194 women had positive syphilis serology, of which 182 completed their pregnancies at the institution. This accounts for 0.28% of the total number of women completing their pregnancies during this time (N = 66038); 79 had no previous diagnosis of infection. There was one case of re-infection during pregnancy. Thirty-two women were co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B or hepatitis C. There was one case suggestive of congenital syphilis infection. Our study is a comprehensive analysis of the diagnosis, management and clinical outcomes of women testing positive for syphilis infection in pregnancy. It reveals the relatively high prevalence of syphilis infection in the population utilising the maternity services in north inner-city Dublin. It re-enforces the importance of continued active surveillance to prevent morbidity and mortality associated with maternal syphilis infection. It also highlights the importance of strategies such as re-testing high-risk groups and definitive screening of spouse serology.

  13. Characterising the hydrothermal circulation patterns beneath thermal springs in the limestones of the Carboniferous Dublin Basin, Ireland: a geophysical and geochemical approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Sarah; Henry, Tiernan; Muller, Mark R.; Jones, Alan G.; Moore, John Paul; Murray, John; Campanyà, Joan; Vozár, Jan; Walsh, John; Rath, Volker

    2016-04-01

    A hydrogeological conceptual model of the sources, circulation pathways and temporal variations of two low-enthalpy thermal springs is derived from a multi-disciplinary approach. The springs are situated in the Carboniferous limestones of the Dublin Basin, in east-central Ireland. Kilbrook spring (Co. Kildare) has the highest recorded temperatures for any thermal spring in Ireland (maximum of 25.0 °C), and St. Gorman's Well (Co. Meath) has a complex and variable temperature profile (maximum of 21.8 °C). These temperatures are elevated with respect to average Irish groundwater temperatures (9.5 - 10.5 °C), and represent a geothermal energy potential, which is currently under evaluation. A multi-disciplinary investigation based upon audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) surveys, time-lapse temperature and chemistry measurements, and hydrochemical analysis, has been undertaken with the aims of investigating the provenance of the thermal groundwater and characterising the geological structures facilitating groundwater circulation in the bedrock. The hydrochemical analysis indicates that the thermal waters flow within the limestones of the Dublin Basin, and there is evidence that Kilbrook spring receives a contribution from deep-basinal fluids. The time-lapse temperature, electrical conductivity and water level records for St. Gorman's Well indicate a strongly non-linear response to recharge inputs to the system, suggestive of fluid flow in karst conduits. The 3-D electrical resistivity models of the subsurface revealed two types of geological structure beneath the springs; (1) Carboniferous normal faults, and (2) Cenozoic strike-slip faults. These structures are dissolutionally enhanced, particularly where they intersect. The karstification of these structures, which extend to depths of at least 500 m, has provided conduits that facilitate the operation of a relatively deep hydrothermal circulation pattern (likely estimated depths between 240 and 1,000 m) within the Dublin

  14. Open drug scenes and drug-related public nuisance: a visual rapid assessment research study in Dublin, Ireland.

    PubMed

    Van Hout, Marie Claire; Bingham, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The research was undertaken at a time of increasing public concerns for drug- and alcohol-related public nuisance in the city center of Dublin, Ireland. Rapid Assessment Research was conducted involving qualitative interviewing with drug service users; business, transport, community, voluntary, and statutory stakeholders (n = 61); and an environmental mapping exercise. The interplay between homelessness, loitering, an influx of drug users via city metro systems, transient open drug scenes, street drinking, drug injecting, intimidation, knife crime, and prescribed medication abuse was evident. Potential strategies to address drug and alcohol related public nuisance are advised to include the relocation of treatment services, targeted harm reduction initiatives, urban regeneration, improved community rehabilitation pathways, and heightened policing intensity.

  15. Influences of traffic on Pb, Cu and Zn concentrations in roadside soils of an urban park in Dublin, Ireland.

    PubMed

    Dao, Ligang; Morrison, Liam; Zhang, Hongxuan; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2014-06-01

    Soils in the vicinity of roads are recipients of contaminants from traffic emissions. In order to obtain a better understanding of the impacts of traffic on soils, a total of 225 surface soil samples were collected from an urban park (Phoenix Park, Dublin, Ireland) in a grid system. Metal (Pb, Cu and Zn) concentrations were determined using a portable X-ray fluorescence analyzer. Strong spatial variations for the concentrations of Pb, Cu and Zn were observed. The spatial distribution maps created using geographical information system techniques revealed elevated metal concentrations close to the main traffic route in the park. The relationships between the accumulation of Pb, Cu and Zn in the roadside soils and the distance from the road were well fitted with an exponential model. Elevated metal concentrations from traffic pollution extended to a distance of approximately 40 m from the roadside. The results of this study provide useful information for the management of urban parks particularly in relation to policies aimed at reducing the impact of traffic related pollution on soils.

  16. Perspectives on the English Language in Ireland. Proceedings of the Symposium on Hiberno-English (1st, Dublin, Ireland, September 16-17, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, John, Ed.; And Others

    This collection of symposium papers on varieties of the English language used in Ireland includes: "The Role of Irish English in the Formation of Colonial Englishes," by P. Trudgill; "Anglo-Irish Verse in Translation from Irish," by P. L. Henry; "The Methodology of Urban Language Studies," by J. Milroy; "Questions and Answers: An Analysis of the…

  17. The passive control of air pollution exposure in Dublin, Ireland: a combined measurement and modelling case study.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, J; Gill, L W; McNabola, A

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the potential real world application of passive control systems to reduce personal pollutant exposure in an urban street canyon in Dublin, Ireland. The implementation of parked cars and/or low boundary walls as a passive control system has been shown to minimise personal exposure to pollutants on footpaths in previous investigations. However, previous research has been limited to generic numerical modelling studies. This study combines real-time traffic data, meteorological conditions and pollution concentrations, in a real world urban street canyon before and after the implementation of a passive control system. Using a combination of field measurements and numerical modelling this study assessed the potential impact of passive controls on personal exposure to nitric oxide (NO) concentrations in the street canyon in winter conditions. A calibrated numerical model of the urban street canyon was developed, taking into account the variability in traffic and meteorological conditions. The modelling system combined the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations and a semi-empirical equation, and demonstrated a good agreement with measured field data collected in the street canyon. The results indicated that lane distribution, fleet composition and vehicular turbulence all affected pollutant dispersion, in addition to the canyon geometry and local meteorological conditions. The introduction of passive controls displayed mixed results for improvements in air quality on the footpaths for different wind and traffic conditions. Parked cars demonstrated the most comprehensive passive control system with average improvements in air quality of up to 15% on the footpaths. This study highlights the potential of passive controls in a real street canyon to increase dispersion and improve air quality at street level.

  18. The passive control of air pollution exposure in Dublin, Ireland: a combined measurement and modelling case study.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, J; Gill, L W; McNabola, A

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the potential real world application of passive control systems to reduce personal pollutant exposure in an urban street canyon in Dublin, Ireland. The implementation of parked cars and/or low boundary walls as a passive control system has been shown to minimise personal exposure to pollutants on footpaths in previous investigations. However, previous research has been limited to generic numerical modelling studies. This study combines real-time traffic data, meteorological conditions and pollution concentrations, in a real world urban street canyon before and after the implementation of a passive control system. Using a combination of field measurements and numerical modelling this study assessed the potential impact of passive controls on personal exposure to nitric oxide (NO) concentrations in the street canyon in winter conditions. A calibrated numerical model of the urban street canyon was developed, taking into account the variability in traffic and meteorological conditions. The modelling system combined the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations and a semi-empirical equation, and demonstrated a good agreement with measured field data collected in the street canyon. The results indicated that lane distribution, fleet composition and vehicular turbulence all affected pollutant dispersion, in addition to the canyon geometry and local meteorological conditions. The introduction of passive controls displayed mixed results for improvements in air quality on the footpaths for different wind and traffic conditions. Parked cars demonstrated the most comprehensive passive control system with average improvements in air quality of up to 15% on the footpaths. This study highlights the potential of passive controls in a real street canyon to increase dispersion and improve air quality at street level. PMID:23669579

  19. Threshold Concepts: From Personal Practice to Communities of Practice. Proceedings of the National Academy's Sixth Annual Conference and the Fourth Biennial Threshold Concepts Conference [E-publication] (Dublin, Ireland, June 27-29, 2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mahony, Catherine, Ed.; Buchanan, Avril, Ed.; O'Rourke, Mary, Ed.; Higgs, Bettie, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    The 6th Annual Conference of the National Academy for the Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning (NAIRTL) and the 4th Biennial Threshold Concepts Conference was held at Trinity College Dublin, Ireland, on June 27-29, 2012. The NAIRTL is a collaborative initiative between University College Cork, Cork Institute of Technology, National…

  20. Use of a geographic information system to map cases of measles in real-time during an outbreak in Dublin, Ireland, 2011.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, G; Ward, M; Ennis, O; Johnson, H; Cotter, S; Carr, M J; O Riordan, B; Waters, A; Hassan, J; Connell, J; Hall, W; Clarke, A; Murphy, H; Fitzgerald, M

    2012-12-06

    In 2011, there was a large measles outbreak in Dublin. Nationally 285 cases were notified to the end of December 2011, and 250 (88%) were located in the Dublin region. After the first case was notified in week 6, numbers gradually increased, with 25 notified in June and a peak of 53 cases in August. Following public health intervention including a measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination campaign, no cases were reported in the Dublin region in December 2011. Most cases (82%) were children aged between 6 months and 14 years, and 46 cases (18%) were under 12 months-old. This is the first outbreak in Dublin to utilise a geographic information system for plotting measles cases on a digital map in real time. This approach, in combination with the analysis of case notifications, assisted the department of public health in demonstrating the extent of the outbreak. The digital mapping documented the evolution of two distinct clusters of 87 (35%) cases. These measles cases were infected with genotype D4-Manchester recently associated with large outbreaks across Europe. The two clusters occurred in socio-economically disadvantaged areas and were attributable to inadequate measles vaccination coverage due in part to the interruption of a school-based MMR2 vaccination programme.

  1. OES-IA Annex IV: Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices - Report from the Experts’ Workshop September 27th – 28th 2010 Clontarf Castle, Dublin Ireland

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea E.; O'Toole, Michael J.

    2010-12-02

    An experts' workshop was convened in Dublin Ireland September 27th – 28th 2010 in support of IEA Ocean Energy Systems Implementing Agreement Annex IV. PNNL was responsible for organizing the content of the workshop, overseeing the contractors (Irish Marine Institute) hosting the event, presenting material on Annex IV and materials applicable to the workshop intent. PNNL is also overseeing a contractor (Wave Energy Center/University of Plymouth – WEC/UP) in the collection and analysis of the Annex IV data. Fifty-eight experts from 8 countries attended the workshop by invitation, spending two days discussing the needs of Annex IV. Presentations by DOE (background on Annex IV), PNNL (process for developing Annex IV; presentation of the draft database for PNNL project, plans for incorporating Annex IV data), WEC/UP on the environmental effect matrix, and four MHK developers (two from the UK, one from Ireland and one from Sweden; each discussing their own projects and lessons learned for measuring and mitigating environmental effects, as well as interactions with consenting [permitting] processes) helped provide background. The workshop participants worked part of the time in the large group and most of the time in four smaller breakout groups. Participants engaged in the process and provided a wealth of examples of MHK environmental work, particularly in the European nations. They provided practical and actionable advice on the following: • Developing the Annex IV database, with specific uses and audiences • Strong consensus that we should collect detailed metadata on available data sets, rather than attempting to draw in copious datasets. The participants felt there would then be an opportunity to then ask for specific set of data as needed, with specific uses and ownership of the data specified. This is particularly important as many data collected, particularly in Europe but also in Canada, are proprietary; developers were not comfortable with the idea of

  2. Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kail, Candice

    2010-01-01

    Ireland has a rich and long history. It is a land of fable and of strife, from the legendary warrior Fionn Mac Cumhaill (anglicized as Finn McCool) and the god-like Tuatha De Danann to the potato famine and the more recent Troubles. In the last decade, Ireland has experienced an economic boom and assumed a new place in the political landscape via…

  3. The Great Libraries of Dublin: A Scholar's Delight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chepesiuk, Ronald

    1983-01-01

    Provides descriptions of prominent libraries in Dublin, Ireland, including Trinity College Library, National Library of Ireland, Chester Beatty Library, Marsh's Library (first public library), Kings Inn Law School Library, Steevens Hospital Library, Royal Irish Academy Library, Royal Dublin Society Library, religious libraries (Franciscan,,…

  4. Testing the Validity of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure and the Implicit Association Test: Measuring Attitudes toward Dublin and Country Life in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Waldron, Deirdre; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Stewart, Ian

    2009-01-01

    The current study aimed to test the validity of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP), as compared to the Implicit Association Test (IAT), by assessing the attitudes of Dublin dwellers and rural dwellers toward Dublin and country life. Discrimination between the two groups for the IAT was marginally significant. The IRAP…

  5. Injection of new psychoactive substance snow blow associated with recently acquired HIV infections among homeless people who inject drugs in Dublin, Ireland, 2015.

    PubMed

    Giese, Coralie; Igoe, Derval; Gibbons, Zorina; Hurley, Caroline; Stokes, Siobhan; McNamara, Sinead; Ennis, Orla; O'Donnell, Kate; Keenan, Eamon; De Gascun, Cillian; Lyons, Fiona; Ward, Mary; Danis, Kostas; Glynn, Ronan; Waters, Allison; Fitzgerald, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    In February 2015, an outbreak of recently acquired HIV infections among people who inject drugs (PWID) was identified in Dublin, following similar outbreaks in Greece and Romania in 2011. We compared drug and risk behaviours among 15 HIV cases and 39 controls. Injecting a synthetic cathinone, snow blow, was associated with recent HIV infection (AOR: 49; p=0.003). Prevention and control efforts are underway among PWID in Dublin, but may also be needed elsewhere in Europe. PMID:26537764

  6. Injection of new psychoactive substance snow blow associated with recently acquired HIV infections among homeless people who inject drugs in Dublin, Ireland, 2015.

    PubMed

    Giese, Coralie; Igoe, Derval; Gibbons, Zorina; Hurley, Caroline; Stokes, Siobhan; McNamara, Sinead; Ennis, Orla; O'Donnell, Kate; Keenan, Eamon; De Gascun, Cillian; Lyons, Fiona; Ward, Mary; Danis, Kostas; Glynn, Ronan; Waters, Allison; Fitzgerald, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    In February 2015, an outbreak of recently acquired HIV infections among people who inject drugs (PWID) was identified in Dublin, following similar outbreaks in Greece and Romania in 2011. We compared drug and risk behaviours among 15 HIV cases and 39 controls. Injecting a synthetic cathinone, snow blow, was associated with recent HIV infection (AOR: 49; p=0.003). Prevention and control efforts are underway among PWID in Dublin, but may also be needed elsewhere in Europe.

  7. Genotype analysis of faecal and blood isolates of Salmonella dublin from humans in England and Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Chowdry, N.; Threlfall, E. J.; Rowe, B.; Stanley, J.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of genotype was made for representative strains of Salmonella dublin. The collection consisted primarily of strains isolated from humans in England and Wales, and were of both intestinal and extra-intestinal origin. Three genetic elements were characterized by DNA hybridization. They were the spvBC genes, extrachromosomal virulence determinants, the salmonella-specific insertion sequence IS200, and the 16S ribosomal RNA genes, a phylogenetic marker. Two clones of S. dublin (SdRI and SdRII) which shared an identical IS200 profile, were identified on the basis of restriction fragment length polymorphism at the 16S rRNA locus. With one exception, all strains harboured a 52 MDa plasmid which contained a conserved 3.7 kbp Hind III fragment homologous to the spvBC mouse-virulence genes of S. typhimurium. However, a single plasmid-free strain of SdRI, isolated from a patient with septicaemia exhibited no spc homology. In SdRI there was no observable genotype distinction between strains causing gastroenteritis or bacteraemia. In contrast, none of the strains of SdRII were from cases of bacteraemia, and all human isolates of this clone were from cases of gastroenteritis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8097167

  8. Policy analysis: palliative care in Ireland.

    PubMed

    May, Peter; Hynes, Geralyn; McCallion, Philip; Payne, Sheila; Larkin, Philip; McCarron, Mary

    2014-03-01

    Palliative care for patients with advanced illness is a subject of growing importance in health services, policy and research. In 2001 Ireland became one of the first nations to publish a dedicated national palliative care policy. This paper uses the 'policy analysis triangle' as a framework to examine what the policy entailed, where the key ideas originated, why the policy process was activated, who were the key actors, and what were the main consequences. Although palliative care provision expanded following publication, priorities that were unaddressed or not fully embraced on the national policy agenda are identified. The factors underlying areas of non-fulfilment of policy are then discussed. In particular, the analysis highlights that policy initiatives in a relatively new field of healthcare face a trade-off between ambition and feasibility. Key policy goals could not be realised given the large resource commitments required; the competition for resources from other, better-established healthcare sectors; and challenges in expanding workforce and capacity. Additionally, the inherently cross-sectoral nature of palliative care complicated the co-ordination of support for the policy. Policy initiatives in emerging fields such as palliative care should address carefully feasibility and support in their conception and implementation. PMID:23932413

  9. Towards a new earthquake catalog for Ireland and its near offshore domains : a joint analysis of permanent and dense temporary seismic array data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroucau, Pierre; Lebedev, Sergei

    2016-04-01

    Ireland is located on the European North Atlantic margin, at the northwesternmost edge of the Eurasian continent, several hundred kilometers away from the closest plate boundaries, namely the North Atlantic ridge and the Nubia-Eurasia convergence front. Its low level of seismicity, according to the number of events and magnitudes given by the existing catalogs, is thus expected. However, it still appears surprisingly low compared to neighboring domains, including Great Britain and, more generally, the rest of the Atlantic margin. One explanation might be that the events reported in those catalogs do not reflect the actual seismic activity of Ireland due to a lack, until recently, of permanent seismological stations on the Irish territory. Although the Irish National seismic Network (INSN) now consists of 6 stations, and despite a good station coverage of Britain, to the east, by the British Geological survey (BGS) stations, most of the earthquakes occurring in Ireland may still be missed because of their low magnitude. Here, we combine the waveform data recorded at permanent (INSN, BGS) stations with that from dense temporary array deployed in the past 5 years by the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies (DIAS) and the University College Dublin (UCD). In addition to new arrival time data and new locations for already known catalog events, our analysis reveals newly detected earthquakes in Ireland, and sheds new light on the seismotectonics of this intraplate continental region. This sets the stage for joint earthquake relocation and 3D velocity model determination, which should lead to a better understanding of the relationships between the current seismic activity and the geological structure of the Irish lithosphere.

  10. Survival analysis of factors affecting incidence risk of Salmonella Dublin in Danish dairy herds during a 7-year surveillance period.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dohoo, Ian

    2012-12-01

    A national surveillance programme for Salmonella Dublin, based on regular bulk-tank milk antibody screening and movements of cattle, was initiated in Denmark in 2002. From 2002 to end of 2009 the prevalence of test-positive dairy herds was reduced from 26% to 10%. However, new infections and spread of S. Dublin between herds continued to occur. The objective of this study was to investigate factors affecting incidence risk of S. Dublin infection in Danish dairy herds between 2003 and 2009. Herds were considered at risk when they had been test-negative for at least four consecutive year-quarters (YQs), either at the start of the study period or after recovery from infection. Survival analysis was performed on a dataset including 6931 dairy herds with 118,969 YQs at risk, in which 1523 failures (new infection events) occurred. Predictors obtained from register data were tested in a multivariable, proportional hazard model allowing for recurrence within herds. During October to December the hazard of failures was higher (hazard ratio HR=3.4, P=0.0005) than the rest of the year. Accounting for the delay in bulk-tank milk antibody responses to S. Dublin infection, this indicates that introduction of bacteria was most frequent between July and October. Purchase from test-positive cattle herds within the previous 6 months was associated with higher hazard of failures (HR=2.5, P<0.0001) compared to no purchase and purchase from test-negative herds. Increasing local prevalence, herd size and bulk-tank milk somatic cell counts were also associated with increasing hazard of failures. The effect of prior infection was time-dependent; the hazard of failures was reduced following a logarithmic decline with increasing time at risk. The hazard was markedly higher in herds with prior infections the first year after becoming at risk again, and then approached the hazard in herds without known prior infections 2-3 years after becoming test-negative. This showed that herds with prior

  11. Ireland (2007)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Between 51.5 and 55.5 degrees north latitude, Ireland could easily find itself buried in snow during the winter, but the island's average temperature in January is 7 degrees Celsius (45 degrees Fahrenheit). Ireland's mild climate results from the influence of the ocean current known as the North Atlantic Drift, which extends the warm waters of the Gulf Stream northward. The island enjoys mild temperatures in the summertime as well; extreme heat and cold are virtually unknown. Precipitation ranges from 78.5 centimeters (31 inches) around Dublin to 300 centimeters (118 inches) along the west coast. The mild, rainy climate is good for vegetation. In this image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite on May 2, 2007, Ireland overwhelms the viewer with hues of green, particularly in the interior, where the vegetation overlies lowlands of limestone--the remains of marine animals from an ancient sea. Little of the island's famous greenness results from trees, however. Seventeenth-century clearing removed most of the country's forests, and despite replanting efforts, Ireland is Europe's least forested country, after Iceland. The island's mild temperatures and humidity have instead blanketed the landscape in abundant grasses. Along Ireland's west coast, bare brown rocks emerge from the plant cover. In the north, the rocks are primarily ancient, crystalline rocks deposited well over a billion years ago. In the south, the rocks are primarily sandstone deposited roughly 350 million years ago. Evidence of urbanization dots the landscape, especially along the east coast. The metropolitan area of Dublin appears as an uneven patch of gray, mingled with dots of green. Human habitation is also evident around Londonderry, Belfast, and Cork.

  12. Identification of Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin-specific sequences by subtractive hybridization and analysis of their role in intestinal colonization and systemic translocation in cattle.

    PubMed

    Pullinger, Gillian D; Dziva, Francis; Charleston, Bryan; Wallis, Timothy S; Stevens, Mark P

    2008-11-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin is a host-restricted serovar associated with typhoidal disease in cattle. In contrast, the fowl-associated serovar S. enterica serovar Gallinarum is avirulent in calves, yet it invades ileal mucosa and induces enteritis at levels comparable to those induced by S. enterica serovar Dublin. Suppression subtractive hybridization was employed to identify S. enterica serovar Dublin strain SD3246 genes absent from S. enterica serovar Gallinarum strain SG9. Forty-one S. enterica serovar Dublin fragments were cloned and sequenced. Among these, 24 mobile-element-associated genes were identified, and 12 clones exhibited similarity with sequences of known or predicted function in other serovars. Three S. enterica serovar Dublin-specific regions were homologous to regions from the genome of Enterobacter sp. strain 638. Sequencing of fragments adjacent to these three sequences revealed the presence of a 21-kb genomic island, designated S. enterica serovar Dublin island 1 (SDI-1). PCR analysis and Southern blotting showed that SDI-1 is highly conserved within S. enterica serovar Dublin isolates but rarely found in other serovars. To probe the role of genes identified by subtractive hybridization in vivo, 24 signature-tagged S. enterica serovar Dublin SD3246 mutants lacking loci not present in Salmonella serovar Gallinarum SG9 were created and screened by oral challenge of cattle. Though attenuation of tagged SG9 and SD3246 Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1) and SPI-2 mutant strains was detected, no obvious defects of these 24 mutants were detected. Subsequently, a DeltaSDI-1 mutant was found to exhibit weak but significant attenuation compared with the parent strain in coinfection of calves. SDI-1 mutation did not impair invasion, intramacrophage survival, or virulence in mice, implying that SDI-1 does not influence fitness per se and may act in a host-specific manner.

  13. Identification of Salmonella enterica Serovar Dublin-Specific Sequences by Subtractive Hybridization and Analysis of Their Role in Intestinal Colonization and Systemic Translocation in Cattle▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Pullinger, Gillian D.; Dziva, Francis; Charleston, Bryan; Wallis, Timothy S.; Stevens, Mark P.

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin is a host-restricted serovar associated with typhoidal disease in cattle. In contrast, the fowl-associated serovar S. enterica serovar Gallinarum is avirulent in calves, yet it invades ileal mucosa and induces enteritis at levels comparable to those induced by S. enterica serovar Dublin. Suppression subtractive hybridization was employed to identify S. enterica serovar Dublin strain SD3246 genes absent from S. enterica serovar Gallinarum strain SG9. Forty-one S. enterica serovar Dublin fragments were cloned and sequenced. Among these, 24 mobile-element-associated genes were identified, and 12 clones exhibited similarity with sequences of known or predicted function in other serovars. Three S. enterica serovar Dublin-specific regions were homologous to regions from the genome of Enterobacter sp. strain 638. Sequencing of fragments adjacent to these three sequences revealed the presence of a 21-kb genomic island, designated S. enterica serovar Dublin island 1 (SDI-1). PCR analysis and Southern blotting showed that SDI-1 is highly conserved within S. enterica serovar Dublin isolates but rarely found in other serovars. To probe the role of genes identified by subtractive hybridization in vivo, 24 signature-tagged S. enterica serovar Dublin SD3246 mutants lacking loci not present in Salmonella serovar Gallinarum SG9 were created and screened by oral challenge of cattle. Though attenuation of tagged SG9 and SD3246 Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1) and SPI-2 mutant strains was detected, no obvious defects of these 24 mutants were detected. Subsequently, a ΔSDI-1 mutant was found to exhibit weak but significant attenuation compared with the parent strain in coinfection of calves. SDI-1 mutation did not impair invasion, intramacrophage survival, or virulence in mice, implying that SDI-1 does not influence fitness per se and may act in a host-specific manner. PMID:18794283

  14. Investigating the provenance of thermal groundwater using compositional multivariate statistical analysis: a hydrogeochemical study from Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Sarah; Henry, Tiernan; Murray, John; Flood, Rory; Muller, Mark R.; Jones, Alan G.; Rath, Volker

    2016-04-01

    The geothermal energy of thermal groundwater is currently being exploited for district-scale heating in many locations world-wide. The chemical compositions of these thermal waters reflect the provenance and hydrothermal circulation patterns of the groundwater, which are controlled by recharge, rock type and geological structure. Exploring the provenance of these waters using multivariate statistical analysis (MSA) techniques increases our understanding of the hydrothermal circulation systems, and provides a reliable tool for assessing these resources. Hydrochemical data from thermal springs situated in the Carboniferous Dublin Basin in east-central Ireland were explored using MSA, including hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), to investigate the source aquifers of the thermal groundwaters. To take into account the compositional nature of the hydrochemical data, compositional data analysis (CoDa) techniques were used to process the data prior to the MSA. The results of the MSA were examined alongside detailed time-lapse temperature measurements from several of the springs, and indicate the influence of three important hydrogeological processes on the hydrochemistry of the thermal waters: 1) increased salinity due to evaporite dissolution and increased water-rock-interaction; 2) dissolution of carbonates; and 3) dissolution of metal sulfides and oxides associated with mineral deposits. The use of MSA within the CoDa framework identified subtle temporal variations in the hydrochemistry of the thermal springs, which could not be identified with more traditional graphing methods (e.g., Piper diagrams), or with a standard statistical approach. The MSA was successful in distinguishing different geological settings and different annual behaviours within the group of springs. This study demonstrates the usefulness of the application of MSA within the CoDa framework in order to better understand the underlying controlling processes

  15. Early medieval cattle remains from a Scandinavian settlement in Dublin: genetic analysis and comparison with extant breeds.

    PubMed Central

    MacHugh, D E; Troy, C S; McCormick, F; Olsaker, I; Eythórsdóttir, E; Bradley, D G

    1999-01-01

    A panel of cattle bones excavated from the 1000-year-old Viking Fishamble Street site in Dublin was assessed for the presence of surviving mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Eleven of these bones gave amplifiable mtDNA and a portion of the hypervariable control region was determined for each specimen. A comparative analysis was performed with control region sequences from five extant Nordic and Irish cattle breeds. The medieval population displayed similar levels of mtDNA diversity to modern European breeds. However, a number of novel mtDNA haplotypes were also detected in these bone samples. In addition, the presence of a putative ancestral sequence at high frequency in the medieval population supports an early post-domestication expansion of cattle in Europe. PMID:10091250

  16. Literacy Work in Wheatfield Prison, Dublin, Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kett, Mary

    2001-01-01

    Literacy education in Wheatfield Prison uses individualized, participatory, holistic approaches focused on personal development. The curriculum features language experience, extension of literacy skills with information technology, and creative arts. Forty percent of education participants take literacy classes; 40% of literacy students achieve…

  17. Research-Teaching Linkages: Practice and Policy. Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference of the National Academy for the Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning (3rd, Dublin, Ireland, November 11-12, 2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Jennifer, Ed.; Griffin, Carrie, Ed.; Higgs, Bettie, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The third annual conference of the National Academy for Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning (NAIRTL) was held at Trinity College Dublin on 11-12 November 2009, and was attended by over 300 delegates. The theme--"Research-Teaching Linkages: Practice and Policy"--was timely and generated some fascinating papers, workshops and debates,…

  18. Whole genome sequencing provides an unambiguous link between Salmonella Dublin outbreak strain and a historical isolate.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, M; Delappe, N; O'Connor, J; McKeown, P; Garvey, P; Cormican, M

    2016-02-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin is an uncommon cause of human salmonellosis; however, a relatively high proportion of cases are associated with invasive disease. The serotype is associated with cattle. A geographically diffuse outbreak of S. Dublin involving nine patients occurred in Ireland in 2013. The source of infection was not identified. Typing of outbreak associated isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was of limited value because PFGE has limited discriminatory power for S. Dublin. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) showed conclusively that the isolates were closely related to each other, to an apparently unrelated isolate from 2011 and distinct from other isolates that were not readily distinguishable by PFGE.

  19. Time-to-event analysis of predictors for recovery from Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy herds between 2002 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dohoo, Ian

    2013-07-01

    Salmonella Dublin infections reduce gross margins and compromise animal health and welfare in dairy cattle herds. Despite on-going control efforts in several countries the duration and risk factors of a persistent infection have been difficult to study due to a lack of suitable data. This study utilised the unique opportunity to extract systematically collected repeated bulk-tank milk antibody measurements from all the Danish dairy herds during a 10-year period to perform a time-to-event analysis of the factors that affect the duration of test-positivity and the hazards of recovery from S. Dublin at herd level. Recovery was defined as a shift from test-positive to test-negative between two year-quarters followed by at least three more test-negative year-quarters. The average duration of infection was approximately 2 years. Predictors of recovery were tested in a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model allowing herds to recover from infection multiple times over the 10-year surveillance period. The model results were based on 36,429 observations with data on all the predictors, representing 3563 herds with a total of 3246 recoveries. Sixty-seven herds (2.4%) remained test-positive throughout the study period. The rest of the 317 herds that did not have any recoveries were censored, mainly due to a cessation of milk production. Prior recovery from test-positivity turned out not to be a significant predictor of recovery in the model. The effect of the duration of infection on the conditional probability of recovery (i.e. the hazard) was time-dependent: early in the study period, long durations of infection were predictive of a low hazard of recovery. Later in the control programme the effect of duration of infection was reduced indicating a desired effect of an intensified control programme. There was an increasing tendency towards longer durations and lower hazard of recovery with: (i) increasing herd sizes, (ii) increasing bulk-tank milk somatic cell counts

  20. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA) (12th, Maynooth, Greater Dublin, Ireland, October 24-26, 2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Demetrios G., Ed.; Spector, J. Michael, Ed.; Ifenthaler, Dirk, Ed.; Isaias, Pedro, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the 12th International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA 2015), October 24-26, 2015, which has been organized by the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS), co-organized by Maynooth University, Ireland, and endorsed by the…

  1. Languages for Dublin Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Focusing on languages for the Dublin Core, examines the experience of some related ways to seek semantic interoperability through simplicity: planned languages, interlingua constructs, and pidgins. Also defines the conceptual and organizational problem of maintaining a metadata standard in multiple languages. (AEF)

  2. A Content Analysis of School Anti-Bullying Policies in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Noel; Smith, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    This original study presents a content analysis of 100 primary and post-primary school anti-bullying policies in Northern Ireland using a 36-item scoring scheme. Overall schools had 52% of the items in their policies. Most schools included reference to physical, verbal, relational, material and cyberbullying but a minority mentioned racist,…

  3. Grimsvotn ash plume detection by ground-based elastic Lidar at Dublin Airport on May 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lolli, S.; Martucci, G.; O'Dowd, C.; sauvage, L.; Nolan, P.

    2011-12-01

    Volcanic emissions comprising steam, ash, and gases are injected into the atmosphere and produce effects affecting Earth's climate. Volcanic ash is composed of non-spherical mineral and metal (particles spanning a large size range. The largest ones are likely to sediment quickly close to the eruption site. The ash component, and sulphate formed by subsequent oxidation of the SO2 occurring in clouds, poses a variety of hazards to humans and machinery on the ground, as well as damage to the aircrafts which fly through the ash layers. To mitigate such hazards the Irish Aviation Authority (IAA) equipped with an ALS Lidar, produced by LEOSPHERE, deployed at Dublin Airport, which provides real-time range-corrected backscatter signal and depolarization ratio profiles allowing the detection and monitoring of ash plumes. On May, 21st 2011, the Grimsvotn Icelandic volcano erupted, sending a plume of ash, smoke and steam 12 km into the air and causing flights to be disrupted at Iceland's main Keflavik airport and at a number of North European airports. Due to upper level global circulation, the ash plume moved from Iceland towards Ireland and North of Scotland, and was detected a number of times by the ALS Lidar above Dublin Airport between May, 21st and 25th. A preliminary analysis of the detected volcanic plume is presented here as well as a preliminary intercomparison of the microphysical and optical characteristics with the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in 2010.

  4. Simulating Climate Change in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, P.; Lynch, P.

    2012-04-01

    At the Meteorology & Climate Centre at University College Dublin, we are using the CLM-Community's COSMO-CLM Regional Climate Model (RCM) and the WRF RCM (developed at NCAR) to simulate the climate of Ireland at high spatial resolution. To address the issue of model uncertainty, a Multi-Model Ensemble (MME) approach is used. The ensemble method uses different RCMs, driven by several Global Climate Models (GCMs), to simulate climate change. Through the MME approach, the uncertainty in the RCM projections is quantified, enabling us to estimate the probability density function of predicted changes, and providing a measure of confidence in the predictions. The RCMs were validated by performing a 20-year simulation of the Irish climate (1981-2000), driven by ECMWF ERA-40 global re-analysis data, and comparing the output to observations. Results confirm that the output of the RCMs exhibit reasonable and realistic features as documented in the historical data record. Projections for the future Irish climate were generated by downscaling the Max Planck Institute's ECHAM5 GCM, the UK Met Office HadGEM2-ES GCM and the CGCM3.1 GCM from the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling. Simulations were run for a reference period 1961-2000 and future period 2021-2060. The future climate was simulated using the A1B, A2, B1, RCP 4.5 & RCP 8.5 greenhouse gas emission scenarios. Results for the downscaled simulations show a substantial overall increase in precipitation and wind speed for the future winter months and a decrease during the summer months. The predicted annual change in temperature is approximately 1.1°C over Ireland. To date, all RCM projections are in general agreement, thus increasing our confidence in the robustness of the results.

  5. Technical Education in Northern Ireland after Partition: A Case Study of the Work of a Newly-Formed Local Education Authority, County Down 1925-1933

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, George

    2006-01-01

    On the partition of Ireland in 1921, the Northern Ireland Ministry of Education assumed control of the educational services which had been previously administered by four independent bodies in Dublin. The Education Act (Northern Ireland) 1923 created the county councils and county borough councils of the new devolved state the local education…

  6. Imaging of gunshot injuries in a west Dublin teaching hospital--a ten year review.

    PubMed

    Murphy, I; Lavelle, L; Ni Mhurchu, E; McCarthy, R; Heffernan, E

    2014-09-01

    There has been an increase in gun-related crime in Ireland over the last decade to gangland violence, especially in west Dublin. This places a burden on hospital services not previously encountered. The aim of this study was to examine the demographics of gunshot: injuries presenting to a Dublin teaching hospital, and the impact on radiology over a ten year period. A total of 65 gunshot injuries were seen. Mortality for high velocity wounds was much higher (10/23, 43%) than for low-velocity shotgun injuries (2/34, 6%).

  7. Empirical water depth predictions in Dublin Bay based on satellite EO multispectral imagery and multibeam data using spatially weighted geographical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteys, Xavier; Harris, Paul; Caloca, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    The coastal shallow water zone can be a challenging and expensive environment within which to acquire bathymetry and other oceanographic data using traditional survey methods. Dangers and limited swath coverage make some of these areas unfeasible to survey using ship borne systems, and turbidity can preclude marine LIDAR. As a result, an extensive part of the coastline worldwide remains completely unmapped. Satellite EO multispectral data, after processing, allows timely, cost efficient and quality controlled information to be used for planning, monitoring, and regulating coastal environments. It has the potential to deliver repetitive derivation of medium resolution bathymetry, coastal water properties and seafloor characteristics in shallow waters. Over the last 30 years satellite passive imaging methods for bathymetry extraction, implementing analytical or empirical methods, have had a limited success predicting water depths. Different wavelengths of the solar light penetrate the water column to varying depths. They can provide acceptable results up to 20 m but become less accurate in deeper waters. The study area is located in the inner part of Dublin Bay, on the East coast of Ireland. The region investigated is a C-shaped inlet covering an area of 10 km long and 5 km wide with water depths ranging from 0 to 10 m. The methodology employed on this research uses a ratio of reflectance from SPOT 5 satellite bands, differing to standard linear transform algorithms. High accuracy water depths were derived using multibeam data. The final empirical model uses spatially weighted geographical tools to retrieve predicted depths. The results of this paper confirm that SPOT satellite scenes are suitable to predict depths using empirical models in very shallow embayments. Spatial regression models show better adjustments in the predictions over non-spatial models. The spatial regression equation used provides realistic results down to 6 m below the water surface, with

  8. How did pygmy shrews colonize Ireland? Clues from a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Mascheretti, Silvia; Rogatcheva, Margarita B; Gündüz, Islam; Fredga, Karl; Searle, Jeremy B

    2003-01-01

    There is a long-standing debate as to how Ireland attained its present fauna; we help to inform this debate with a molecular study of one species. A 1110 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was sequenced in 74 specimens of the pygmy shrew, Sorex minutus, collected from throughout its western Palaearctic range. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences revealed several well-supported lineages. Most of the 65 haplotypes belonged to a northern lineage, which ranged from Britain in the west to Lake Baikal in the east. The other lineages were largely limited to Iberia, Italy and the Balkans. One exception, however, was a lineage found in both Ireland and Andorra. This affinity, and the large difference between the mitochondrial sequences of Irish and British individuals, suggest that pygmy shrews did not colonize Ireland via a land connection from Britain, as has been previously supposed, but instead were introduced by boat from southwest continental Europe. All the Irish pygmy shrews analysed were identical or very similar in cytochrome b sequence, suggesting an extreme founding event. PMID:12908980

  9. Towards a For-Profit University in Dublin: Another Brick in the Wall of Neo-Liberalism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limond, David

    2010-01-01

    This article concerns the provision of for-profit higher education in the Republic of Ireland (RoI), particularly in Dublin. It briefly sketches the general development of university/college provision in the RoI and, more importantly, it describes certain aspects of the current state of play and makes a tentative prediction for the future--namely,…

  10. An American in Dublin: Visit to an Irish Primary School Demonstrates Learning Forward's International Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    A visit to a primary school in Dublin, Ireland, shows that, although the structure of the Irish school system is much different than in the U.S., the professional learning needs and challenges are very much the same. In this article, Anthony Armstrong, publications editor at Learning Forward, writes about his meeting with Maria Spring, principal…

  11. Whole genome sequencing provides an unambiguous link between Salmonella Dublin outbreak strain and a historical isolate.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, M; Delappe, N; O'Connor, J; McKeown, P; Garvey, P; Cormican, M

    2016-02-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin is an uncommon cause of human salmonellosis; however, a relatively high proportion of cases are associated with invasive disease. The serotype is associated with cattle. A geographically diffuse outbreak of S. Dublin involving nine patients occurred in Ireland in 2013. The source of infection was not identified. Typing of outbreak associated isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was of limited value because PFGE has limited discriminatory power for S. Dublin. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) showed conclusively that the isolates were closely related to each other, to an apparently unrelated isolate from 2011 and distinct from other isolates that were not readily distinguishable by PFGE. PMID:26165314

  12. Evaluation and comparison of molecular techniques for epidemiological typing of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar dublin.

    PubMed Central

    Liebisch, B; Schwarz, S

    1996-01-01

    A total of 28 unrelated isolates of the Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar dublin (S. dublin) collected during a 6-year period, as well as four samples of the S. dublin live vaccine strain Bovisaloral and its prototype strain S. dublin 442/039, were investigated by different molecular typing methods for the following reasons: (i) to find the most discriminatory method for the epidemiological typing of isolates belonging to this Salmonella serovar and (ii) to evaluate these methods for their capacity to discriminate among the live vaccine strain Bovisaloral, its prototype strain S. dublin 442/039, and field isolates of the serovar dublin. Five different plasmid profiles were observed; a virulence plasmid of 76 kbp as identified by hybridization with an spvB-spvC gene probe was present in all isolates. The detection of 16S rRNA genes and that of IS200 elements proved to be unsuitable for the epidemiological typing of S. dublin; only one hybridization pattern could be observed with each of these methods. The results obtained from macrorestriction analysis strongly depended on the choice of restriction enzyme. While the enzyme NotI yielded the lowest discriminatory index among all enzymes tested, it was the only enzyme that allowed discrimination between the Bovisaloral vaccine strain and its prototype strain. In contrast to the enzymes XbaI and SpeI, which only differentiated among the S. dublin field isolates, XhoI as well as AvrII also produced restriction fragment patterns of the Bovisaloral strain and of its prototype strain that were not shared by any of the S. dublin field isolates. Macrorestriction analysis proved to be the most discriminatory method not only for the epidemiological typing of S. dublin field isolates but also for the identification of the S. dublin live vaccine strain Bovisaloral. PMID:8904430

  13. Phenylketonuria mutation analysis in Northern Ireland: A rapid stepwise approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zschocke, J.; Graham, C.A.; Nevin, N.C.

    1995-12-01

    We present a multistep approach for the rapid analysis of phenylketonuria (PKU) mutations. In the first step, three common mutations and a polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) system are rapidly analyzed with a fluorescent multiplex assay. In the second step, minihaplotypes combining STR and VNTR data are used to determine rare mutations likely to be present in an investigated patient, which are then confirmed by restriction enzyme analysis. The remaining mutations are analyzed with denaturant gradient-gel electrophoresis and sequencing. The first two steps together identify both mutations in 90%-95% of PKU patients, and results can be obtained within 2 d. We have investigated 121 Northern Irish families with hyperphenylalaninemia, including virtually all patients born since 1972, and have found 34 different mutations on 241 of the 242 mutant alleles. Three mutations (R408W, 165T, and F39L) account for 57.5% of mutations, while 14 mutations occur with a frequency of 1%-6%. The present analysis system is efficient and inexpensive and is particularly well suited to routine mutation analysis in a diagnostic setting. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

  14. Elastic structure and seismicity of Donegal (Ireland): insights from passive seismic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piana Agostinetti, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    Ireland's crust is the result of a complex geological history, which began in the Palaeozoic with the oblique closure of the Iapetus Ocean and, probably, it is still on-going. In the northwestern portion of the island, the geology of Donegal has been the subject of detailed geological investigation by many workers in the last century. The most widely represented rock types in Donegal are metasediments of Dalradian and Moinian age, invaded by several granites of Caledonian age (so called Donegal granite). Smaller and separate intrusions are present (e.g. Fanad Head). On the contrary, it is widely accepted that the the deep crustal structure of the northern portion of Ireland has been re-worked in more recent time. The several phases of lithospheric stretching associated to the opening of the Atlantic ocean interested such portion of Ireland, with the extrusion of flood basalts. Moreover, the presence of a hot, low-density asthenospheric plume spreading from Iceland has been suggested, with the formation of a thick high-velocity layer of magmatic underplated material at the base of the crust. Oddly, at present, Donegal is the only seismically active area in Ireland, with an average rate of one Mw=2-3 event every 3-4 years. In the last three years, passive seismic data have been recorded at 12 seismic stations deployed across the most seismically active area in Co. Donegal, with the aim of reconstructing the seismic structure down to the upper-mantle depth and of locating the microseismic activity within investigating volume. Both local and teleseismic events were recorded giving the opportunity of integrating results form different techniques for seismic data analysis, and jointly interpret them together with surface geology and mapped fault traces. Local events have been used to define constrain faulting volumes, focal mechanisms and to reconstruct a low-resolution 3D Vp and VpVs velocity models. Teleseismic events have been used to compute receiver function data

  15. The scale and nature of Viking settlement in Ireland from Y-chromosome admixture analysis.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, Brian; Brady, Claire; Moore, Laoise T; Bradley, Daniel G

    2006-12-01

    The Vikings (or Norse) played a prominent role in Irish history but, despite this, their genetic legacy in Ireland, which may provide insights into the nature and scale of their immigration, is largely unexplored. Irish surnames, some of which are thought to have Norse roots, are paternally inherited in a similar manner to Y-chromosomes. The correspondence of Scandinavian patrilineal ancestry in a cohort of Irish men bearing surnames of putative Norse origin was examined using both slow mutating unique event polymorphisms and relatively rapidly changing short tandem repeat Y-chromosome markers. Irish and Scandinavian admixture proportions were explored for both systems using six different admixture estimators, allowing a parallel investigation of the impact of method and marker type in Y-chromosome admixture analysis. Admixture proportion estimates in the putative Norse surname group were highly consistent and detected little trace of Scandinavian ancestry. In addition, there is scant evidence of Scandinavian Y-chromosome introgression in a general Irish population sample. Although conclusions are largely dependent on the accurate identification of Norse surnames, the findings are consistent with a relatively small number of Norse settlers (and descendents) migrating to Ireland during the Viking period (ca. AD 800-1200) suggesting that Norse colonial settlements might have been largely composed of indigenous Irish. This observation adds to previous genetic studies that point to a flexible Viking settlement approach across North Atlantic Europe.

  16. Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    The anti-choice lobby has expressed concern that the government may consider reviewing or reforming abortion law in Northern Ireland. The legal status of abortion is similar to that in Britain before the introduction of the 1967 Abortion Act. However, the commemoration of the 30th anniversary of abortion law reform in Britain presents an opportunity to discuss the benefits of such change in Northern Ireland. Such discussion may cause ministers to reconsider the status of abortion. Anticipating possible discussion, some anti-choice Northern Ireland Members of Parliament tabled Early Day Motion (EDM) 352 "Northern Ireland and the Abortion Act," opposing the introduction of abortion services into Northern Ireland. Member of Parliament Harry Barnes tabled an amendment to the motion noting that current abortion law in Northern Ireland violates the standards of international human rights law and that about 2000 women travel from Northern Ireland annually for abortions. EDM 352 has been signed by 17 Members of Parliament; the amendment, by 13. PMID:12321442

  17. The Carbon Stocks of Peatlands Under Forestry in the Republic of Ireland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellock, M.; Laperle, C.; Kiely, G.; Reidy, B.; Duffy, C.; Tobin, B.

    2009-04-01

    Under the Kyoto Protocol it is necessary for all industries (including forestry) within the Republic of Ireland to report their GHG emission sinks and sources. Forestry plays an important role within the global carbon cycle as a carbon store within the biomass (above- and below-ground), litter and soil. Along with forests, peatlands are another important store for carbon, holding around one third of the global soil carbon pool. Peatlands held very important roles for irish society for hundreds of years, i.e. agriculture, horticulture, energy etc, and cover approximately 17.2 % or 1.34 million ha of the total irish land area (Hammond, 1981) with around 260,000 ha of the peatland forested (NFI, 2007). Afforestation of peatlands began in Ireland in the 1950s with the majority of the planting being done by the state. At present the state doesn't forest peatland, but there is still substantial planting from the private sector. Afforested peatland in Ireland represents a large store of C and so far there has been no quantification of the total carbon stock of the soil. The project FORESTC is aiming to provide an analysis of the stocks of C that are stored within the afforested peatlands of Ireland. To achieve this 20 forested peatland sites around Ireland will be sampled, comprising 5 conifer, low level blanket peat sites (peats located at elevations lower than 150 m), 5 conifer, high level blanket peat sites (peats located at elevations greater than 150 m), 5 conifer basin peats and 5 mixed conifer and broadleaf basin peats. The peat will be sampled down the entire soil profile up to 10 m deep for both bulk density and carbon % every 50 cm using a peat sampler (Eijlelkamp, NL). Along with the peat samples, litter and F/H layer samples will be taken to quantify the carbon stock of the litter layer atop the peat. This data shall then be able to provide a total carbon stock of these 20 forest sites that hopefully will allow for the estimation of the total C stock of the

  18. Analysis of Primary School Curriculum of Turkey, Finland, and Ireland in Terms of Media Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanriverdi, Belgin; Apak, Ozlem

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the implications of Media Literacy Education (MLE) in Turkey by analyzing the Primary School Curricula in terms of MLE comparatively in Turkey, Ireland and Finland. In this study, the selection of Finland and Ireland curricula is related with those countries' being the pioneering countries in MLE and the…

  19. "Click Here to Order This Book": A Case Study of Print and Electronic Patron-Driven Acquisition in University College Dublin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Mark; McCarney, Eoin

    2014-01-01

    University College Dublin became the first library in the Republic of Ireland to trial patron-driven acquisition (PDA) as a collection development tool in 2013. A total of 42% of UCD Library's book budget was allocated to the project, which included both electronic and print books. This article describes the twelve month project from the tender…

  20. Early intervention and child physical health: Evidence from a Dublin-based randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Orla; Fitzpatrick, Nick; Lovett, Judy; Rawdon, Caroline

    2015-12-01

    This article investigates the impact of an early intervention program, which experimentally modifies the parenting and home environment of disadvantaged families, on child physical health in the first 3 years of life. We recruited and randomized 233 (115 intervention, 118 control) pregnant women from a socioeconomically disadvantaged community in Dublin, Ireland into an intervention or control group. The treatment includes regular home visits commencing antenatally and an additional parenting course commencing at 2 years. Maternal reports of child health are assessed at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months. Treatment effects are estimated using permutation testing to account for small sample size, inverse probability weighting to account for differential attrition, and both the stepdown procedure and an indices approach to account for multiple hypothesis testing. Following adjustment for multiple testing and attrition, we observe a positive and statistically significant main treatment effect for wheezing/asthma. The intervention group are 15.5 percentage points (pp) less likely to require medical attention for wheezing/asthma compared to the control group. Subgroup analysis reveals more statistically significant adjusted treatment effects for boys than girls regarding fewer health problems (d=0.63), accidents (23.9pp), and chest infections (22.8-37.9pp). Our results suggest that a community-based home visiting program may have favorable impacts on early health conditions.

  1. Identifying past fire regimes throughout the Holocene in Ireland using new and established methods of charcoal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawthorne, Donna; Mitchell, Fraser J. G.

    2016-04-01

    Globally, in recent years there has been an increase in the scale, intensity and level of destruction caused by wildfires. This can be seen in Ireland where significant changes in vegetation, land use, agriculture and policy, have promoted an increase in fires in the Irish landscape. This study looks at wildfire throughout the Holocene and draws on lacustrine charcoal records from seven study sites spread across Ireland, to reconstruct the past fire regimes recorded at each site. This work utilises new and accepted methods of fire history reconstruction to provide a recommended analytical procedure for statistical charcoal analysis. Digital charcoal counting was used and fire regime reconstructions carried out via the CharAnalysis programme. To verify this record new techniques are employed; an Ensemble-Member strategy to remove the objectivity associated with parameter selection, a Signal to Noise Index to determine if the charcoal record is appropriate for peak detection, and a charcoal peak screening procedure to validate the identified fire events based on bootstrapped samples. This analysis represents the first study of its kind in Ireland, examining the past record of fire on a multi-site and paleoecological timescale, and will provide a baseline level of data which can be built on in the future when the frequency and intensity of fire is predicted to increase.

  2. Spatial Reflexivity and Undergraduate Transitions in the Republic of Ireland after the Celtic Tiger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairns, David; Growiec, Katarzyna; Smyth, Jim

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the geographical mobility intentions of students aged between 18 and 24 years in the Republic of Ireland after the end of the economic boom commonly referred to as the "Celtic Tiger". Focusing upon a sample of undergraduates in Dublin and Cork, the article looks at how many respondents intend to move abroad in the future,…

  3. Developing Citizenship Through Supervised Play: The Civics Institute of Ireland Playgrounds, 1933-75

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    Prompted by a concern regarding the large numbers of unsupervised children playing on the streets of Dublin in the 1920s and 1930s, the Civics Institute of Ireland (referred to subsequently as the Civics Institute) established 10 playgrounds where children aged between four and 14 years could play after school hours and during school holidays.…

  4. The School-Based Lives of LGBT Youth in the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reygan, Finn

    2009-01-01

    There is a dearth of research on the experience of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth in schools in the Republic of Ireland. The current study assessed the school-based experiences of twenty five (N = 25) participants in the BeLonG To LGBT youth group in Dublin city using a mixed design survey instrument. The majority (n = 19) of…

  5. Straight Talking: Explorations on Homosexuality and Homophobia in Secondary Schools in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Higgins-Norman, James

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines research that was conducted among students, parents, teachers and senior management teams in six secondary schools in the Greater Dublin area of Ireland. The research involved semi-structured interviews and observations. The findings of this research are significant in that it was the first time any data had been gathered on…

  6. Class 1 integrons in Dutch Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin isolates from clinical cases of bovine salmonellosis.

    PubMed

    Vo, An T T; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Fluit, Ad C; Heck, Max E O C; Verbruggen, Anjo; van der Zwaluw, Kim; Gaastra, Wim

    2006-10-31

    Fifty-nine Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin (Salmonella Dublin) isolates from clinical cases of bovine salmonellosis between 1993 and 2004 were tested for their susceptibility to 15 antimicrobial agents and the presence of class 1 integrons. Integrons were further analyzed by conserved segment PCR-RFLP. DNA sequencing was used to identify the inserted gene cassette. Twelve (20.3%) isolates were multidrug-resistant. A combination of resistance against chloramphenicol, streptomycin and sulphonamides was the most common phenotype observed. Multidrug-resistance (MDR) was found to be strongly associated with the presence of integrons, since a class 1 integron with the aadA1 gene cassette encoding resistance to streptomycin and spectinomycin was found in all 12 multidrug-resistant isolates. The presence of the aadA1 gene in Salmonella Dublin has not been reported before. None of the integron carrying Salmonella Dublin isolates could transfer its antimicrobial resistance to E. coli K12 by conjugation. Analysis of plasmid profiles and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns showed at least some clonality among the Salmonella Dublin isolates, but 11 different types could be distinguished based on both XbaI and BlnI-PFGE patterns. Thus, the Dutch Salmonella Dublin strains were closely related but not clonal.

  7. Salmonella dublin Septicemia in Two Puppies

    PubMed Central

    Nation, P.N.

    1984-01-01

    Two eight week old purebred female Bull Terrier puppies died within 24 hours of each other as a result of a septicemia caused by Salmonella dublin. The salient clinical features were: temperature of 41°C; rapid breathing; fluid, blood-stained stools; prostration and death. Pathological findings included embolic pneumonia, splenitis, myocarditis, nephritis and meningoencephalitis. Salmonella dublin was isolated from the spleen, lung and kidneys of both puppies. PMID:17422441

  8. Sir Robert Stawell Ball (1840-1913): Royal Astronomer in Ireland and astronomy's public voice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Allan

    2007-11-01

    Nineteenth-century Ireland, and especially Dublin, had a vibrant scientific tradition. And astronomy in particular was seriously cultivated, being part of an Irish tradition extending back to early medieval times. This paper examines principally the career of Sir Robert Stawell Ball, who, while holding three prestigious posts in Ireland, namely those of Andrews Professor at Trinity College, Dublin, Royal Astronomer of Ireland, and Director of the Dunsink Observatory, became famous for his genius as a popular astronomical interpreter, lecturer, and writer. The paper looks at Ball's wider career, the circumstances that provided a receptive market for astronomical information across the English-speaking world, and his massive outreach as both a lecturer and a writer.

  9. Linguistic Barriers among Internationally Educated Teachers in Ireland and Canada: A Critical Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Clea; McDaid, Rory

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on qualitative interview and focus group data collected from Internationally Educated Teachers (IETs) in the context of two different research studies conducted in Ireland and Manitoba, Canada, this article critically examines how national/regional linguistic requirements and expectations of a hidden curriculum are experienced as barriers…

  10. Defending Identity and Ethos: An Analysis of Teacher Perceptions of School Collaboration in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Caitlin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the process of collaborative working between teachers located in separate faith-based schools in Northern Ireland. Drawing on theories of intergroup relations, and with reference to in-depth interviews with teachers in post-primary schools, the article shows that despite earlier research which identified a…

  11. Negotiating Difference in Post-Conflict Northern Ireland: An Analysis of Approaches to Integrated Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlynn, Claire

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author critically examines a variety of approaches to multicultural education noted in integrated (mixed Catholic and Protestant) schools in Northern Ireland and considers their implications in the context of the wider debate around multiculturalism. She argues that educators should challenge sectarianism, but should also…

  12. High frequency Receiver Functions in the Dublin Basin: application to a potential geothermal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licciardi, Andrea; Piana Agostinetti, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    The Dublin Basin (DB) is a Carboniferous sedimentary basin located in the eastern part of Ireland, SW of Dublin. In the last years, the SW margin of the basin has been the object of interest for geothermal exploration, which led to the acquisition of two reflection seismic lines and the drilling of two ~ 1.4 km deep boreholes, from which a temperature of 130° C at ~4 km depth has been estimated. This deep geothermal potential of the DB is strictly related to SW basin-bounding Blackrock-Newcastle Fault (BNF) and the associated fault system. This fault runs in a NW-SE direction and separates the Carboniferous deposits that fill the basin from the Lower Paleozoic basement rocks which constitute the SW margin. In the framework of the SIM-CRUST project, four broadband seismic stations equipped with a Guralp CMG-6TD sensor have been deployed across the southwestern margin of the basin between July and August 2013, with an inter-station distance of about 1km. This closely spaced array has been designed to cross the BNF almost perpendicular. The main aim of this work is to recover the seismic stratigraphy of the shallow crust (0-8 km depth range) and determine the geometry of the BNF, by making use of the teleseismic Receiver Function (RF) method. This technique has been classically applied in seismology to image deep Earth's structure, but recent works have shown that it can also be used to retrieve information on the shallow part of the crust, just by increasing the frequency content in the analyzed RFs with little or no modifications to the preexisting analysis codes. We calculated a set of RFs for each station, progressively increasing the frequency from 0.5 up to 10 Hz. This is expected to dramatically increase the vertical resolution in the case of a good S/N ratio in the RFs. By stacking different RFs from a large set of epicentral distance and backazimuth incoherent signals are ruled out and true conversion are enhanced. Preliminary results show the presence of

  13. Analysis of rpoS mRNA in Salmonella dublin: identification of multiple transcripts with growth-phase-dependent variation in transcript stability.

    PubMed

    Paesold, G; Krause, M

    1999-02-01

    In Salmonella dublin, rpoS encodes an alternative sigma factor of the RNA polymerase that activates a variety of stationary-phase-induced genes, including some virulence-associated genes. In this work, we studied the regulation and transcriptional organization of rpoS during growth. We found two transcripts, 2.3 and 1.6 kb in length, that represent the complete rpoS sequence. The 2.3-kb transcript is a polycistronic message that also includes the upstream nlpD gene. It is driven by a weak promoter with increasing activity when cells enter early stationary growth. The 1.6-kb message includes 566 bp upstream of the rpoS start codon. It is transcribed from a strong sigma70 RNA polymerase-dependent promoter which is independent of growth. The decay of this transcript decreases substantially in early stationary growth, resulting in a significant net increase in rpoS mRNA levels. These levels are approximately 10-fold higher than the levels of the 2.3-kb mRNA, indicating that the 1.6-kb message is mainly responsible for RpoS upregulation. In addition to the 2.3- and 1.6-kb transcripts, two smaller 1.0- and 0.4-kb RNA species are produced from the nlpD-rpoS locus. They do not allow translation of full-length RpoS; hence their significance for rpoS regulation remains unclear. We conclude that of four transcripts arising from the nlpD-rpoS locus, only one plays a significant role in rpoS expression in S. dublin. Its upregulation when cells enter stationary growth is due primarily to an increase in transcript stability.

  14. The letter from Dublin: climate change, colonialism, and the Royal Society in the seventeenth century.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Brant

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses an anonymous letter published in the Philosophical Transactions in 1676 that reports the theories of American colonists about the cause of their warming climate (cultivation and deforestation), and offers Ireland's colonial experience as a counterexample: Ireland was a colony with decreased cultivation, but the same perceived warming. That such an objection seemed necessary to the author shows that anthropogenic climate change could be a subject of debate and that the concept of climate was tied into theories of land use and to the colonial enterprise. Since he was liminal to both the Royal Society of London and the intellectual circles of Dublin, his skepticism, contextualized here, questions both the elite discourse and the discourse at the colonial periphery.

  15. The letter from Dublin: climate change, colonialism, and the Royal Society in the seventeenth century.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Brant

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses an anonymous letter published in the Philosophical Transactions in 1676 that reports the theories of American colonists about the cause of their warming climate (cultivation and deforestation), and offers Ireland's colonial experience as a counterexample: Ireland was a colony with decreased cultivation, but the same perceived warming. That such an objection seemed necessary to the author shows that anthropogenic climate change could be a subject of debate and that the concept of climate was tied into theories of land use and to the colonial enterprise. Since he was liminal to both the Royal Society of London and the intellectual circles of Dublin, his skepticism, contextualized here, questions both the elite discourse and the discourse at the colonial periphery. PMID:21936189

  16. William Wilde and the Early Records of Consumption in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Breathnach, C S; Moynihan, J B

    2011-01-01

    Absence of documentary or bony evidence before the seventeenth century in Ireland is not conclusive evidence of freedom from tuberculosis. Clear records begin with Bills of Mortality kept in Dublin, the city at the centre of English administration of Ireland, and they show that the basis for an epidemic was firmly established therein before 1700. In the middle of the nineteenth century the cataclysmic Famine opened the floodgates of poverty and urban overcrowding that resulted in an alarming death rate that continued to increase until the early years of the twentieth century. It is to William Wilde (1815-1876) we owe the nuanced investigation of the earliest numerical records of consumption and related disorders in Ireland. PMID:22347740

  17. The Dublin Dashboard: Design and Development of a Real-Time Analytical Urban Dashboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McArdle, G.; Kitchin, R.

    2016-09-01

    As many cities increase in size across multiple dimensions such as population, economic output and physical size, new methods for understanding and managing cities are required. Data produced by and about urban environments offer insight into what is happening in cities. Real-time data from sensors within the city record current transport and environmental conditions such as noise levels, water levels, journey times and public transport delays. Similarly administrative data such as demographics, employment statistics, property prices and crime rates all provide insight into how a city is evolving. Traditionally, these data were maintained separately and managed by individual city departments. Advances in technology and a move to open-government have placed many of these data in the public domain. Urban dashboards have emerged as a technique to visualise these data in an accessible way. This paper describes the implementation of one such dashboard, the Dublin Dashboard, an interactive website which collects, analyses and visualises data from a variety of sources about Dublin in Ireland through a series of interactive maps, graphs and applications. This paper describes the approach, the data and the technology used to develop the Dublin Dashboard and acts as a guideline for developing urban dashboards in other cities.

  18. Diageo's 'Stop Out of Control Drinking' Campaign in Ireland: An Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Petticrew, Mark; Fitzgerald, Niamh; Durand, Mary Alison; Knai, Cécile; Davoren, Martin; Perry, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been argued that the alcohol industry uses corporate social responsibility activities to influence policy and undermine public health, and that every opportunity should be taken to scrutinise such activities. This study analyses a controversial Diageo-funded ‘responsible drinking’ campaign (“Stop out of Control Drinking”, or SOOCD) in Ireland. The study aims to identify how the campaign and its advisory board members frame and define (i) alcohol-related harms, and their causes, and (ii) possible solutions. Methods Documentary analysis of SOOCD campaign material. This includes newspaper articles (n = 9), media interviews (n = 11), Facebook posts (n = 92), and Tweets (n = 340) produced by the campaign and by board members. All material was coded inductively, and a thematic analysis undertaken, with codes aggregated into sub-themes. Results The SOOCD campaign utilises vague or self-defined concepts of ‘out of control’ and ‘moderate’ drinking, tending to present alcohol problems as behavioural rather than health issues. These are also unquantified with respect to actual drinking levels. It emphasises alcohol-related antisocial behaviour among young people, particularly young women. In discussing solutions to alcohol-related problems, it focuses on public opinion rather than on scientific evidence, and on educational approaches and information provision, misrepresenting these as effective. “Moderate drinking” is presented as a behavioural issue (“negative drinking behaviours”), rather than as a health issue. Conclusions The ‘Stop Out of Control Drinking’ campaign frames alcohol problems and solutions in ways unfavourable to public health, and closely reflects other Diageo Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activity, as well as alcohol and tobacco industry strategies more generally. This framing, and in particular the framing of alcohol harms as a behavioural issue, with the implication that consumption should be guided

  19. Physiological and molecular responses of Lactuca sativa to colonization by Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin.

    PubMed

    Klerks, M M; van Gent-Pelzer, M; Franz, E; Zijlstra, C; van Bruggen, A H C

    2007-08-01

    This paper describes the physiological and molecular interactions between the human-pathogenic organism Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin and the commercially available mini Roman lettuce cv. Tamburo. The association of S. enterica serovar Dublin with lettuce plants was first determined, which indicated the presence of significant populations outside and inside the plants. The latter was evidenced from significant residual concentrations after highly efficient surface disinfection (99.81%) and fluorescence microscopy of S. enterica serovar Dublin in cross sections of lettuce at the root-shoot transition region. The plant biomass was reduced significantly compared to that of noncolonized plants upon colonization with S. enterica serovar Dublin. In addition to the physiological response, transcriptome analysis by cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis also provided clear differential gene expression profiles between noncolonized and colonized lettuce plants. From these, generally and differentially expressed genes were selected and identified by sequence analysis, followed by reverse transcription-PCR displaying the specific gene expression profiles in time. Functional grouping of the expressed genes indicated a correlation between colonization of the plants and an increase in expressed pathogenicity-related genes. This study indicates that lettuce plants respond to the presence of S. enterica serovar Dublin at physiological and molecular levels, as shown by the reduction in growth and the concurrent expression of pathogenicity-related genes. In addition, it was confirmed that Salmonella spp. can colonize the interior of lettuce plants, thus potentially imposing a human health risk when processed and consumed.

  20. Gold potential in the Dalradian rocks of NW Northern Ireland: GIS-based prospectivity analysis using Tellus data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusty, P. A. J.; McDonnell, P. M.; Gunn, A. G.; Chacksfield, B. C.; Cooper, M.

    2009-04-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are essential tools for the management and integration of the large amounts of multivariate spatial data used in mineral exploration. Prospectivity analysis combines these datasets, in the context of a mineral deposit model, to produce a map showing the distribution of potential for a particular type of mineral deposit. In this example Arc-Spatial Data Modeller software has been used to analyse the prospectivity for orogenic vein gold mineralisation in the Dalradian rocks of north-western Northern Ireland. A knowledge-driven (fuzzy logic) approach was used because of the small number of gold deposits within the area. Fuzzy logic is used in situations where information is inexact and the use of classical set theory is inappropriate. Fuzzy logic allows assignment of weightings to exploration data on a continuous scale from 1 (full membership) to 0 (full non-membership). This allows a level of uncertainty or 'fuzziness' to be incorporated into the modelling. The key stages of prospectivity analysis are: (1) analysis of the deposit model to determine key exploration indicators; (2) data processing, interpretation and analysis to extract key indicators; (3) assignment of weightings, zones and styles of influence to key indicators; and (4) calculation of prospectivity. This research is based largely on new geochemical and geophysical data resulting from the Tellus Project in Northern Ireland. The Tellus Project involved geochemical and airborne geophysical surveys over the whole of Northern Ireland carried out between 2004-6 with funding from the Government of Northern Ireland. The study area (3074 km2) is underlain mainly by Neoproterozoic rocks of the Dalradian Supergroup (ca. 590 Ma) which form part of the Caledonide orogenic belt. The Dalradian Supergroup comprises a thick succession of semi-pelites, psammites and pelites, with graphitic pelite horizons that host much of the known gold mineralisation. In the Sperrin Mountains two

  1. Genomic Comparison of the Closely-Related Salmonella enterica Serovars Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum.

    PubMed

    Matthews, T David; Schmieder, Robert; Silva, Genivaldo G Z; Busch, Julia; Cassman, Noriko; Dutilh, Bas E; Green, Dawn; Matlock, Brian; Heffernan, Brian; Olsen, Gary J; Farris Hanna, Leigh; Schifferli, Dieter M; Maloy, Stanley; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Edwards, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    The Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Dublin, and Gallinarum are closely related but differ in virulence and host range. To identify the genetic elements responsible for these differences and to better understand how these serovars are evolving, we sequenced the genomes of Enteritidis strain LK5 and Dublin strain SARB12 and compared these genomes to the publicly available Enteritidis P125109, Dublin CT 02021853 and Dublin SD3246 genome sequences. We also compared the publicly available Gallinarum genome sequences from biotype Gallinarum 287/91 and Pullorum RKS5078. Using bioinformatic approaches, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions, deletions, and differences in prophage and pseudogene content between strains belonging to the same serovar. Through our analysis we also identified several prophage cargo genes and pseudogenes that affect virulence and may contribute to a host-specific, systemic lifestyle. These results strongly argue that the Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum serovars of Salmonella enterica evolve by acquiring new genes through horizontal gene transfer, followed by the formation of pseudogenes. The loss of genes necessary for a gastrointestinal lifestyle ultimately leads to a systemic lifestyle and niche exclusion in the host-specific serovars.

  2. Genomic Comparison of the Closely-Related Salmonella enterica Serovars Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, T. David; Schmieder, Robert; Silva, Genivaldo G. Z.; Busch, Julia; Cassman, Noriko; Dutilh, Bas E.; Green, Dawn; Matlock, Brian; Heffernan, Brian; Olsen, Gary J.; Farris Hanna, Leigh; Schifferli, Dieter M.; Maloy, Stanley; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A.; Edwards, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    The Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Dublin, and Gallinarum are closely related but differ in virulence and host range. To identify the genetic elements responsible for these differences and to better understand how these serovars are evolving, we sequenced the genomes of Enteritidis strain LK5 and Dublin strain SARB12 and compared these genomes to the publicly available Enteritidis P125109, Dublin CT 02021853 and Dublin SD3246 genome sequences. We also compared the publicly available Gallinarum genome sequences from biotype Gallinarum 287/91 and Pullorum RKS5078. Using bioinformatic approaches, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions, deletions, and differences in prophage and pseudogene content between strains belonging to the same serovar. Through our analysis we also identified several prophage cargo genes and pseudogenes that affect virulence and may contribute to a host-specific, systemic lifestyle. These results strongly argue that the Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum serovars of Salmonella enterica evolve by acquiring new genes through horizontal gene transfer, followed by the formation of pseudogenes. The loss of genes necessary for a gastrointestinal lifestyle ultimately leads to a systemic lifestyle and niche exclusion in the host-specific serovars. PMID:26039056

  3. Genomic Comparison of the Closely Related Salmonella enterica Serovars Enteritidis and Dublin.

    PubMed

    Betancor, Laura; Yim, Lucía; Martínez, Arací; Fookes, Maria; Sasias, Sebastian; Schelotto, Felipe; Thomson, Nicholas; Maskell, Duncan; Chabalgoity, José A

    2012-01-01

    The Enteritidis and Dublin serovars of Salmonella enterica are closely related, yet they differ significantly in pathogenicity and epidemiology. S. Enteritidis is a broad host range serovar that commonly causes gastroenteritis and infrequently causes invasive disease in humans. S. Dublin mainly colonizes cattle but upon infecting humans often results in invasive disease.To gain a broader view of the extent of these differences we conducted microarray-based comparative genomics between several field isolates from each serovar. Genome degradation has been correlated with host adaptation in Salmonella, thus we also compared at whole genome scale the available genomic sequences of them to evaluate pseudogene composition within each serovar.Microarray analysis revealed 3771 CDS shared by both serovars while 33 were only present in Enteritidis and 87 were exclusive to Dublin. Pseudogene evaluation showed 177 inactive CDS in S. Dublin which correspond to active genes in S. Enteritidis, nine of which are also inactive in the host adapted S. Gallinarum and S. Choleraesuis serovars. Sequencing of these 9 CDS in several S. Dublin clinical isolates revealed that they are pseudogenes in all of them, indicating that this feature is not peculiar to the sequenced strain. Among these CDS, shdA (Peyer´s patch colonization factor) and mglA (galactoside transport ATP binding protein), appear also to be inactive in the human adapted S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A, suggesting that functionality of these genes may be relevant for the capacity of certain Salmonella serovars to infect a broad range of hosts.

  4. Genomic comparison of the closely-related Salmonella enterica serovars enteritidis, dublin and gallinarum

    DOE PAGES

    Matthews, T. David; Schmieder, Robert; Silva, Genivaldo G. Z.; Busch, Julia; Cassman, Noriko; Dutilh, Bas E.; Green, Dawn; Matlock, Brian; Heffernan, Brian; Olsen, Gary J.; et al

    2015-06-03

    The Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Dublin, and Gallinarum are closely related but differ in virulence and host range. To identify the genetic elements responsible for these differences and to better understand how these serovars are evolving, we sequenced the genomes of Enteritidis strain LK5 and Dublin strain SARB12 and compared these genomes to the publicly available Enteritidis P125109, Dublin CT 02021853 and Dublin SD3246 genome sequences. We also compared the publicly available Gallinarum genome sequences from biotype Gallinarum 287/91 and Pullorum RKS5078. Using bioinformatic approaches, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions, deletions, and differences in prophage and pseudogene content betweenmore » strains belonging to the same serovar. Through our analysis we also identified several prophage cargo genes and pseudogenes that affect virulence and may contribute to a host-specific, systemic lifestyle. These results strongly argue that the Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum serovars of Salmonella enterica evolve by acquiring new genes through horizontal gene transfer, followed by the formation of pseudogenes. The loss of genes necessary for a gastrointestinal lifestyle ultimately leads to a systemic lifestyle and niche exclusion in the host-specific serovars.« less

  5. Ireland: child rape case undermines abortion ban.

    PubMed

    1992-11-01

    Abortion has been illegal in Ireland since 1861. This position was written into the national Constitution in 1963 and reconfirmed by referendum in 1983. Contraception is also illegal in the country. The pregnancy of a 14-year old adolescent due to an alleged rape, however, has caused many in Ireland to voice their support for abortion in limited circumstances. Approximately 5000 pregnant women go from Ireland to the United Kingdom annually for abortions. This 14-year old youth also planned to make the crossing, but was blocked from leaving by the Irish police and later by an injunction of the Attorney-General. The Irish Supreme Court upheld the injunction even though the young woman was reportedly contemplating suicide. A national outcry ensued with thousands of demonstrators marching in Dublin to demand the availability of information on abortion and that Irish women be allowed to travel whenever and wherever they desire. 66% of respondents to recent public opinion polls favor abortion in certain circumstances. Ultimately, the Irish Supreme Court reversed their stance to allow pregnant Irish women to travel internationally and gave suicidal Irish women the right to abortions. These decisions were made shortly within the time frame needed for the young lady in question to received a legal abortion in the United Kingdom.

  6. Web-Based Systems Development: Analysis and Comparison of Practices in Croatia and Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Michael; Vukovac, Dijana Plantak

    The “dot.com” hysteria which sparked fears of a “Web crisis” a decade ago has long subsided and firms established in the 1990 s now have mature development processes in place. This chapter presents a timely re-assessment of the state of Web development practices, comparing data gathered in Croatia and Ireland. Given the growth in popularity of “agile” methods in the past few years, a secondary objective of this research was to analyse the extent to which Web development practices are guided by or otherwise consistent with the underlying principles of agile development.

  7. Reporting the Rhetoric, Implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as Represented in Ireland's Second Report to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiersey, Rachel A.; Hayes, Noirin

    2010-01-01

    Ireland's second periodic report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC) presents the government's case that it is succeeding in protecting and promoting the rights of all children in Ireland. This article presents a critical discourse analysis of the government's Report to the CRC. Using a refined critical discourse…

  8. Analysis of outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease in Ireland: 1998 and 1999.

    PubMed

    Bonner, C; Foley, B; Wall, P; Fitzgerald, M

    2001-05-01

    Surveillance of general outbreaks of infectious gastroenteritis was introduced in 1998 by the Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI), in co-operation with the eight health boards. A total of 67 general outbreaks of gastroenteritis in Ireland were reported to the FSAI in 1998 and 1999. Over 1900 people were ill as a result of these outbreaks. Four percent required hospitalisation and there were two deaths. The duration of the outbreaks varied between one day and 38 days. Salmonellae (44%) and small round structured viruses (SRSV) (12%) were the most commonly reported pathogens. In 25% of the outbreaks the aetiology was unknown. The commonest settings were restaurants, hotels and take-aways, which accounted for 45% (30/67) of all outbreaks. Sixteen percent of all outbreaks occurred in hospitals and residential institutions. Over half of the outbreaks were reported to be foodborne, 63% of which were due to various serotypes of Salmonella enterica. Eggs were implicated as the vehicle of infection in 13% of all outbreaks. An infected food handler was identified in almost one third of outbreaks, although it could not be established if this had contributed directly to the outbreak. PMID:11474854

  9. The Pied Piper of Neo Liberalism Calls the Tune in the Republic of Ireland: An Analysis of Education Policy Text from 2000-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmie, Geraldine Mooney

    2012-01-01

    This article offers an analysis of the rhetoric of education policy text during the timeframe from 2000 to 2012 in the Republic of Ireland. The study was framed within two different discourses of the role of the teacher: one discourse regards the teacher as a professional within a dynamic system of democratic relations (Anyon, 2011; Apple, 2012;…

  10. Seeing the Wood from the Trees: A Critical Policy Analysis of Intersections between Social Class Inequality and Education in Twenty-First Century Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a critical policy analysis of intersections between social class inequality and education policy in Ireland. The focus is upon contemporary policy and legislation such as The Irish Constitution and equality legislation; social inclusion policies such as the DEIS scheme; literacy and numeracy policy documents; as well as current…

  11. Monitoring harm reduction in European prisons via the Dublin Declaration.

    PubMed

    Lines, Rick; Stöver, Heino; Donochoe, Martin C; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2009-01-01

    The Dublin Declaration on Partnership to fight HIV/AIDS in Europe and Central Asia is the key policy document on HIV/AIDS in the European Region as a whole Among the Declaration's 33 actions for governments are many that apply to prison populations. Based upon an analysis of these commitments, and a review of the current status of states in meeting those targets, it is clear that the scale-up of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programmes and services in prisons lags far behind what is needed, what is available outside of prisons, and what is mandated within the Declaration itself.

  12. Older people--recipients but also providers of informal care: an analysis among community samples in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    McGee, Hannah M; Molloy, Gerard; O'Hanlon, Ann; Layte, Richard; Hickey, Anne

    2008-09-01

    Data on both the provision and receipt of informal care among populations of older adults are limited. Patterns of both informal care provided and received by older adults in the Republic of Ireland (RoI) and Northern Ireland (NI) were evaluated. A cross-sectional community-based population survey was conducted. Randomly selected older people (aged 65+, n = 2033, mean age (standard deviation): 74.1 years (6.8), 43% men, 68% response rate) provided information on the provision and receipt of care, its location, and the person(s) who provided the care. Twelve per cent of the sample (251/2033) identified themselves as informal caregivers (8% RoI and 17% NI). Caregivers were more likely to be women, married, have less education and have less functional impairment. Forty-nine per cent (1033/2033, 49% RoI and 48% NI) reported receiving some form of care in the past year. Care recipients were more likely to be older, married, have more functional impairment, and poorer self-rated health. Receiving regular informal care (help at least once a week) from a non-resident relative was the most common form of help received [28% overall (578/2033); 27% RoI and 30% NI]. Five per cent (n = 102/2033) of the sample reported both providing and receiving informal care. Levels of informal care provided by community-dwelling older adults were notably higher than reported in single-item national census questions. The balance of formal and informal health and social care will become increasingly important as populations age. It is essential, therefore, to evaluate factors facilitating or impeding informal care delivery.

  13. Designing for surface water runoff control: end-user requirements in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruen, M.; O'Sullivan, J. J.; Gebre, F. A.; Purcell, P. J.

    2008-07-01

    Since 1975, flood estimation in Ireland has generally followed methods as outlined in the Flood Studies Report (Natural Environment Research Council, 1975). An update of this for conditions in the Republic of Ireland commenced in 2005 and included research in Urban Catchment Flood Analysis. To inform this work, a scoping study of issues relating to flooding caused by urban runoff was undertaken by a team from the Centre for Water Resources Research at University College Dublin and some of the findings are described in this paper. It focussed on quantitative and qualitative research methods (self-completion questionnaires and Focus Groups) to review the methods of flood estimation for urbanised catchments currently in use in Ireland. It assessed the nature of deficiencies associated with urban-runoff control and identified achievable and realistic objectives for further research. A questionnaire was developed around a number of key themes pertaining to flooding caused by urban runoff and circulated to 291 stakeholders in target sectors that ranged from Engineering Consultancies to Academic Institutions. A total of 100 questionnaires were returned giving a 34% response rate. The study found; (i) a proliferation of methods are used in practice resulting in significant differences between the estimates; (ii) some methods are sometimes being used for inappropriate spatial scales; (iii) there is a lack of clear guidance on the use of the methods and/or associated software packages; (iv) there is little appreciation of the uncertainties associated with the methods and (v) there are significant deficiencies in some of the basic information available. A list of recommendations was produced, to guide the commissioning of future research to improve the methods available to designers.

  14. An inventory of trees in Dublin city centre.

    PubMed

    Ningal, Tine; Mills, Gerald; Smithwick, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    While urban areas are often considered to be comprised chiefly of artificial surfaces, they can contain a substantial portion of green space and a great diversity of natural habitats. These spaces include public parks, private gardens and street trees, all of which can provide valuable environmental services, such as improved air quality. Trees play a particular role in cities as they are often placed along roadsides and in the median strip of busy streets. As such they regulate access to sunshine, restrict airflow, provide shelter, scavenge air pollutants and manage noise at the street level. A tree planting policy can be an important part of a broader environmental strategy aimed at improving the quality of life in urban areas but this requires up-to-date knowledge of the current tree stock, which does not exist for Dublin. This article presents an inventory of trees in Dublin's city centre, defined as the area between the Grand and Royal canals. The results show that there are over 10,000 trees in the study area representing a density of 684 trees km-2 or one tree to approximately every 50 residents of the city centre. The tree canopy extent when in full foliage was nearly 1 km2 in extent or 6% of the study area. A more detailed analysis of those trees planted along streets shows little species variation but clear distinction in the sizes of trees, which is indicative of the age of planting. These data are used to estimate the carbon stored in Dublin's trees.

  15. An inventory of trees in Dublin city centre.

    PubMed

    Ningal, Tine; Mills, Gerald; Smithwick, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    While urban areas are often considered to be comprised chiefly of artificial surfaces, they can contain a substantial portion of green space and a great diversity of natural habitats. These spaces include public parks, private gardens and street trees, all of which can provide valuable environmental services, such as improved air quality. Trees play a particular role in cities as they are often placed along roadsides and in the median strip of busy streets. As such they regulate access to sunshine, restrict airflow, provide shelter, scavenge air pollutants and manage noise at the street level. A tree planting policy can be an important part of a broader environmental strategy aimed at improving the quality of life in urban areas but this requires up-to-date knowledge of the current tree stock, which does not exist for Dublin. This article presents an inventory of trees in Dublin's city centre, defined as the area between the Grand and Royal canals. The results show that there are over 10,000 trees in the study area representing a density of 684 trees km-2 or one tree to approximately every 50 residents of the city centre. The tree canopy extent when in full foliage was nearly 1 km2 in extent or 6% of the study area. A more detailed analysis of those trees planted along streets shows little species variation but clear distinction in the sizes of trees, which is indicative of the age of planting. These data are used to estimate the carbon stored in Dublin's trees. PMID:21197800

  16. Analysis of groundwater-level response to rainfall and estimation of annual recharge in fractured hard rock aquifers, NW Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zuansi; Ofterdinger, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Despite fractured hard rock aquifers underlying over 65% of Ireland, knowledge of key processes controlling groundwater recharge in these bedrock systems is inadequately constrained. In this study, we examined 19 groundwater-level hydrographs from two Irish hillslope sites underlain by hard rock aquifers. Water-level time-series in clustered monitoring wells completed at the subsoil, soil/bedrock interface, shallow and deep bedrocks were continuously monitored hourly over two hydrological years. Correlation methods were applied to investigate groundwater-level response to rainfall, as well as its seasonal variations. The results reveal that the direct groundwater recharge to the shallow and deep bedrocks on hillslope is very limited. Water-level variations within these geological units are likely dominated by slow flow rock matrix storage. The rapid responses to rainfall (⩽2 h) with little seasonal variations were observed to the monitoring wells installed at the subsoil and soil/bedrock interface, as well as those in the shallow or deep bedrocks at the base of the hillslope. This suggests that the direct recharge takes place within these units. An automated time-series procedure using the water-table fluctuation method was developed to estimate groundwater recharge from the water-level and rainfall data. Results show the annual recharge rates of 42-197 mm/yr in the subsoil and soil/bedrock interface, which represent 4-19% of the annual rainfall. Statistical analysis of the relationship between the rainfall intensity and water-table rise reveal that the low rainfall intensity group (⩽1 mm/h) has greater impact on the groundwater recharge rate than other groups (>1 mm/h). This study shows that the combination of the time-series analysis and the water-table fluctuation method could be an useful approach to investigate groundwater recharge in fractured hard rock aquifers in Ireland.

  17. Bovine congenital erythropoietic protoporphyria in a crossbred limousin heifer in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McAloon, Conor G; Doherty, Michael L; O'Neill, Henry; Badminton, Michael; Ryan, Eoin G

    2015-01-01

    An unusual case of an 11-month-old, black Limousin-cross heifer, with an 8-month history of episodic seizures and photosensitisation, was referred by a veterinary practitioner to the Farm Animal Section of the UCD Veterinary Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Ireland, in August 2014. Following an investigation, a diagnosis of Bovine Congenital Erythropoietic Protoporphyria (BCEPP) was made. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of such a case in Ireland. BCEPP should be considered as a differential diagnosis in young animals displaying periodic seizures and/or photosensitisation. PMID:26140209

  18. Phenylketonuria and the peoples of Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Zschocke, J; Mallory, J P; Eiken, H G; Nevin, N C

    1997-08-01

    The comparison of regional patterns of recessive disease mutations is a new source of information for studies of population genetics. The analysis of phenylketonuria (PKU) mutations in Northern Ireland shows that most major episodes of immigration have left a record in the modern genepool. The mutation 165T can be traced to the Palaeolithic people of western Europe who, in the Mesolithic period, first colonised Ireland. R408W (on haplotype 1) in contrast, the most common Irish PKU mutation, may have been prevalent in the Neolithic farmers who settled in Ireland after 4500 BC. No mutation was identified that could represent European Celtic populations, supporting the view that the adoption of Celtic culture and language in Ireland did not involve major migration from the continent. Several less common mutations can be traced to the Norwegian Atlantic coast and were probably introduced into Ireland by Vikings. This indicates that PKU has not been brought to Norway from the British Isles, as was previously argued. The rarity in Northern Ireland of IVS12nt1, the most common mutation in Denmark and England, indicates that the English colonialization of Ireland did not alter the local genepool in a direction that could be described as Anglo-Saxon. Our results show that the culture and language of a population can be independent of its genetic heritage, and give some insight into the history of the peoples of Northern Ireland.

  19. Dublin centre sees light of day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John

    2008-01-01

    An innovative new centre designed to get the public interested in science and technology will open at Trinity College Dublin later this month. The centre, known as the Science Gallery, will allow scientists and the public to debate and exchange ideas through a variety of interactive exhibitions, workshops and other events. The first exhibition will be “Lightwave” - a nine-day, city-wide festival about the principles of light and the technologies used to control it.

  20. The Incredible Years parenting program in Ireland: a qualitative analysis of the experience of disadvantaged parents.

    PubMed

    Furlong, Mairéad; McGilloway, Sinéad

    2012-10-01

    Controlled trials demonstrate that parenting programs work, but less is known about the processes of change, contextual factors or intervention characteristics that influence trial outcomes. This qualitative study assessed the experiences of Irish parents involved in a randomized controlled trial of the Incredible Years BASIC parenting program, with a view to understanding how and why the program works, or does not work, within disadvantaged settings. Data from 33 parents of young children (aged 3-7 years) with conduct problems were collected by semi-structured interviews and analysed using constructivist grounded theory. Emerging themes indicated that parents perceived the program to have produced positive changes through learning key parenting skills (e.g. positive attention, empathy and problem-solving skills) and through enhanced parental mood/confidence, derived primarily from gaining non-judgmental support from the group. Parents also experienced cultural, personal and environmental challenges in learning the new skills, including discomfort with praise and positive attention, conflict with their partner and parenting within an antisocial environment. Parents dropped out of the course for largely circumstantial reasons. These findings should help to inform the future implementation of this well-known parenting program both in Ireland and elsewhere.

  1. The sports and exercise life-course: a survival analysis of recall data from Ireland.

    PubMed

    Lunn, Peter D

    2010-03-01

    Recall data from a representative sample of 3080 adults in Ireland in 2003 is used to investigate transitions into and out of regular participation in sports and exercise--an important contributor to overall physical activity. The method produces a continuous picture of participation across the life-course, allowing key transition periods in the life-course to be identified and the determinants of transitions to be analysed with multivariate models. Late adolescence emerges as an important period, when many people drop out from team sports, especially females. Participation in adulthood mostly involves taking up individual sports and exercise activities. The likelihood of making this transition is strongly associated with socio-economic status. Transitions in activity during adulthood do not display significant sex differences, suggesting that the gender gap for involvement in sports and exercise has its roots in childhood. The method also allows age and cohort effects to be distinguished, revealing higher participation among more recent cohorts. The findings must be interpreted carefully, since they are reliant on the accuracy of personal recall. Yet they have implications for how physical activity policy applies over the life-course, suggesting possible returns to targeting lower socio-economic groups in early adulthood, to offering a broader range of activities to young females, and to researching and promoting those activities most likely to be of interest to current young adults as they age.

  2. William Wilde in the West of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Coakley, D

    2016-05-01

    It is widely believed that Sir William Wilde's forebears were in Ireland for just two or three generations. This belief stems from a number of short biographies of Wilde which were published during his lifetime. These biographies gave different versions of the origin of the Wilde family and appear to have been generated by the creative imagination of Lady Jane Wilde or, as she was better known by her nom de plume, Speranza. She was equally imaginative in creating narratives about her own family background and in one she claimed descent from the Italian poet Dante Alighieri. So it was not a great challenge for her to invent biographies of her husband which she deemed suitable for a knight living at the prestigious address of 1 Merrion Square, leading many to believe that William and his son Oscar were more English than Irish. It was also important for Speranza to distance Sir William from any connection which the Wilde family might have had with trade. In this paper published and unpublished material are used, together with a careful examination of family deeds in the Registry of Deeds office, to elucidate the real roots of the Wilde family in Dublin and in the West of Ireland.

  3. William Wilde in the West of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Coakley, D

    2016-05-01

    It is widely believed that Sir William Wilde's forebears were in Ireland for just two or three generations. This belief stems from a number of short biographies of Wilde which were published during his lifetime. These biographies gave different versions of the origin of the Wilde family and appear to have been generated by the creative imagination of Lady Jane Wilde or, as she was better known by her nom de plume, Speranza. She was equally imaginative in creating narratives about her own family background and in one she claimed descent from the Italian poet Dante Alighieri. So it was not a great challenge for her to invent biographies of her husband which she deemed suitable for a knight living at the prestigious address of 1 Merrion Square, leading many to believe that William and his son Oscar were more English than Irish. It was also important for Speranza to distance Sir William from any connection which the Wilde family might have had with trade. In this paper published and unpublished material are used, together with a careful examination of family deeds in the Registry of Deeds office, to elucidate the real roots of the Wilde family in Dublin and in the West of Ireland. PMID:27083456

  4. AFLP analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Brassica oleracea in Ireland.

    PubMed

    El-Esawi, Mohamed A; Germaine, Kieran; Bourke, Paula; Malone, Renee

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea L. is one of the most economically important vegetable crop species of the genus Brassica L. This species is threatened in Ireland, without any prior reported genetic studies. The use of this species is being very limited due to its imprecise phylogeny and uncompleted genetic characterisation. The main objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of a set of 25 Irish B. oleracea accessions using the powerful amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique. A total of 471 fragments were scored across all the 11 AFLP primer sets used, out of which 423 (89.8%) were polymorphic and could differentiate the accessions analysed. The dendrogram showed that cauliflowers were more closely related to cabbages than kales were, and accessions of some cabbage types were distributed among different clusters within cabbage subgroups. Approximately 33.7% of the total genetic variation was found among accessions, and 66.3% of the variation resided within accessions. The total genetic diversity (HT) and the intra-accessional genetic diversity (HS) were 0.251 and 0.156, respectively. This high level of variation demonstrates that the Irish B. oleracea accessions studied should be managed and conserved for future utilisation and exploitation in food and agriculture. In conclusion, this study addressed important phylogenetic questions within this species, and provided a new insight into the inclusion of four accessions of cabbages and kales in future breeding programs for improving varieties. AFLP markers were efficient for assessing genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in Irish B. oleracea species. PMID:27156498

  5. Highway runoff quality in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Berhanu Desta, Mesfin; Bruen, Michael; Higgins, Neil; Johnston, Paul

    2007-04-01

    Highway runoff has been identified as a significant source of contaminants that impact on the receiving aquatic environment. Several studies have been completed documenting the characteristics of highway runoff and its implication to the receiving water in the UK and elsewhere. However, very little information is available for Ireland. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of highway runoff from major Irish roads under the current road drainage design and maintenance practice. Four sites were selected from the M4 and the M7 motorways outside Dublin. Automatic samplers and continuous monitoring devices were deployed to sample and monitor the runoff quality and quantity. More than 42 storm events were sampled and analysed for the heavy metals Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, 16 US EPA specified PAHs, volatile organic compounds including MTBE, and a number of conventional pollutants. All samples were analysed based on the Standard Methods. Significant quantities of solids and heavy metals were detected at all sites. PAHs were not detected very often, but when detected the values were different from quantities observed in UK highways. The heavy metal concentrations were strongly related to the total suspended solids concentrations, which has a useful implication for runoff management strategies. No strong relationship was discovered between pollutant concentrations and event characteristics such as rainfall intensity, antecedent dry days (ADD), or rainfall depth (volume). This study has demonstrated that runoff from Irish motorways was not any cleaner than in the UK although the traffic volume at the monitored sites was relatively smaller. This calls for a site specific investigation of highway runoff quality before adopting a given management strategy.

  6. The perception of place and the 'origins of handedness' debate: towards a cognitive cartography of science in late-Victorian Dublin.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    In 1884, a medical paper entitled 'Consideration of the Structural and Acquisitional Elements in Dextral Pre-Eminence' penned by the Dublin physician George Sigerson, appeared in the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. A number of years later, the Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland presented a similar piece by Dublin anatomist Daniel John Cunningham, on the topic of 'Right-Handedness and Left-Brainedness'. For the late nineteenth-century scientific community, these articles represented two Dublin-based contributions to a long-running and wide-ranging debate on the origins of handedness. However, by building on the geographical premise that scientific knowledge bears the imprint of its location and that place matters in the way scientific claims come to be sanctioned, this paper probes, not merely an encounter with evolutionary science in the less well explored domain of fin de siècle Dublin, but more crucially, how these local reviews of manual dexterity were in part shaped by the scientists' differing perceptions of their city. By attending to the lives of Sigerson and Cunningham and focusing on the interplay between life-space, city-space and science, it underscores the critical role of place and space in the reception, circulation and mobilisation of scientific knowledge in the city.

  7. The epidemiology of infectious syphilis in the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Cronin, M; Domegan, L; Thornton, L; Fitzgerald, M; Hopkins, S; O'Lorcain, P; Creamer, E; O'Flanagan, D

    2004-12-01

    In response to the increasing numbers of syphilis cases reported among men having sex with men (MSM) in Dublin, an Outbreak Control Team (OCT) was set up in late 2000. The outbreak peaked in 2001 and had largely ceased by late 2003. An enhanced syphilis surveillance system was introduced to capture data from January 2000. Between January 2000 and December 2003, 547 cases of infectious syphilis were notified in Ireland (415 were MSM). Four per cent of cases were diagnosed with HIV and 15.4% of cases were diagnosed with at least one other STI (excluding HIV) within the previous 3 months. The mean number of contacts reported by male cases in the 3 months prior to diagnosis was 4 (range 0-8) for bisexual contacts and 6 for homosexual contacts (range 1-90). Thirty one per cent of MSM reported having had recent unprotected oral sex and 15.9% of MSM reported having had recent unprotected anal sex. Sixteen per cent of cases reported having had sex abroad in the three months prior to diagnosis. The results suggest that risky sexual behaviour contributed to the onward transmission of infection in Dublin. The outbreak in Dublin could be seen as part of a European-wide outbreak of syphilis. The rates of co-infection with HIV and syphilis in Ireland are comparable with rates reported from other centres. There is a need to improve surveillance systems in order to allow real time evaluation of interventions and ongoing monitoring of infection trends. PMID:15677853

  8. Perception of safety of cyclists in Dublin City.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Anneka R; Pakrashi, Vikram; Ghosh, Bidisha; Szeto, W Y

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, cycling has been recognized and is being promoted as a sustainable mode of travel. The perception of cycling as an unsafe mode of travel is a significant obstacle in increasing the mode share of bicycles in a city. Hence, it is important to identify and analyze the factors which influence the safety experiences of the cyclists in an urban signalized multi-modal transportation network. Previous researches in the area of perceived safety of cyclists primarily considered the influence of network infrastructure and operation specific variables and are often limited to specific locations within the network. This study explores the factors that are expected to be important in influencing the perception of safety among cyclists but were never studied in the past. These factors include the safety behavior of existing cyclists, the users of other travel modes and their attitude toward cyclists, facilities and network infrastructures applicable to cycling as well as to other modes in all parts of an urban transportation network. A survey of existing cyclists in Dublin City was conducted to gain an insight into the different aspects related to the safety experience of cyclists. Ordered Logistic Regression (OLR) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used in the analysis of survey responses. This study has revealed that respondents perceive cycling as less safe than driving in Dublin City. The new findings have shown that the compliance of cyclists with the rules of the road increase their safety experience, while the reckless and careless attitudes of drivers are exceptionally detrimental to their perceived safety. The policy implications of the results of analysis are discussed with the intention of building on the reputation of cycling as a viable mode of transportation among all network users.

  9. Comparison of whole genome sequencing typing results and epidemiological contact information from outbreaks of Salmonella Dublin in Swedish cattle herds

    PubMed Central

    Ågren, Estelle C. C.; Wahlström, Helene; Vesterlund-Carlson, Catrin; Lahti, Elina; Melin, Lennart; Söderlund, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is becoming a routine tool for infectious disease outbreak investigations. The Swedish situation provides an excellent opportunity to test the usefulness of WGS for investigation of outbreaks with Salmonella Dublin (S. Dublin) as epidemiological investigations are always performed when Salmonella is detected in livestock production, and index isolates from all detected herds are stored and therefore available for analysis. This study was performed to evaluate WGS as a tool in forward and backward tracings from herds infected with S. Dublin. Material and methods In this study, 28 isolates from 26 cattle herds were analysed and the WGS results were compared with results from the epidemiological investigations, for example, information on contacts between herds. The isolates originated from herds in three different outbreaks separated geographically and to some extent also in time, and from the only region in Sweden where S. Dublin is endemic (Öland). Results The WGS results of isolates from the three non-endemic regions were reliably separated from each other and from the endemic isolates. Within the outbreaks, herds with known epidemiological contacts generally showed smaller differences between isolates as compared to when there were no known epidemiological contacts. Conclusion The results indicate that WGS can provide valuable supplemental information in S. Dublin outbreak investigations. The resolution of the WGS was sufficient to distinguish isolates from the different outbreaks and provided additional information to the investigations within an outbreak. PMID:27396609

  10. Genomic comparison of the closely-related Salmonella enterica serovars enteritidis, dublin and gallinarum

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, T. David; Schmieder, Robert; Silva, Genivaldo G. Z.; Busch, Julia; Cassman, Noriko; Dutilh, Bas E.; Green, Dawn; Matlock, Brian; Heffernan, Brian; Olsen, Gary J.; Hanna, Leigh Farris; Schifferli, Dieter M.; Maloy, Stanley; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A.; Edwards, Robert A.; Cloeckaert, Axel

    2015-06-03

    The Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Dublin, and Gallinarum are closely related but differ in virulence and host range. To identify the genetic elements responsible for these differences and to better understand how these serovars are evolving, we sequenced the genomes of Enteritidis strain LK5 and Dublin strain SARB12 and compared these genomes to the publicly available Enteritidis P125109, Dublin CT 02021853 and Dublin SD3246 genome sequences. We also compared the publicly available Gallinarum genome sequences from biotype Gallinarum 287/91 and Pullorum RKS5078. Using bioinformatic approaches, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions, deletions, and differences in prophage and pseudogene content between strains belonging to the same serovar. Through our analysis we also identified several prophage cargo genes and pseudogenes that affect virulence and may contribute to a host-specific, systemic lifestyle. These results strongly argue that the Enteritidis, Dublin and Gallinarum serovars of Salmonella enterica evolve by acquiring new genes through horizontal gene transfer, followed by the formation of pseudogenes. The loss of genes necessary for a gastrointestinal lifestyle ultimately leads to a systemic lifestyle and niche exclusion in the host-specific serovars.

  11. Spotlight on VET: Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of VET (vocational education and training) in Ireland. In Ireland, the main providers of VET are the national Training and Employment Authority (FAS--a non-commercial semi-State body, part of the public sector) and vocational education committees (VECs--public sector bodies at county level responsible for vocational…

  12. Gifted Education in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Colm

    2013-01-01

    This article will outline the current status of gifted education in Ireland. To fully understand the picture, one needs to look at the history of the Irish education system and how educational decisions are made in the country. Political climate is often an important factor in how people view special education programs and Ireland is no different…

  13. Mathematics diagnostic testing in engineering: an international comparison between Ireland and Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, M.; Fidalgo, C.; Bigotte de Almeida, M. E.; Branco, J. R.; Santos, V.; Murphy, E.; Fhloinn, E. Ní

    2015-09-01

    Concern has been expressed throughout Europe about the significant deficiencies in the basic mathematical skills of many engineering undergraduates. Mathematics diagnostic tests in the UK, Ireland and Portugal have shown these shortcomings, which provide a challenge to those striving to introduce more innovative educational practices into engineering education, such as projects or real-world problems. Every year, in the Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland) and the Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Coimbra (Portugal), a diagnostic test is given to incoming first-year students. A comparison showed some potentially interesting differences between these students. In September 2013, a project was undertaken to compare mathematical competencies of incoming engineering students in both countries. A modified diagnostic test was devised and the results were then compared to ascertain if there are common areas of difficulty between students in Ireland and Portugal, or evidence of one group significantly outperforming the other in a particular area.

  14. Correlation analysis as a tool to investigate the bioaccessibility of nickel, vanadium and zinc in Northern Ireland soils.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Sherry; Ofterdinger, Ulrich; McKinley, Jennifer M; Cox, Siobhan; Barsby, Amy

    2013-10-01

    Correlation analyses were conducted on nickel (Ni), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) oral bioaccessible fractions (BAFs) and selected geochemistry parameters to identify specific controls exerted over trace element bioaccessibility. BAFs were determined by previous research using the unified BARGE method. Total trace element concentrations and soil geochemical parameters were analysed as part of the Geological Survey of Northern Ireland Tellus Project. Correlation analysis included Ni, V and Zn BAFs against their total concentrations, pH, estimated soil organic carbon (SOC) and a further eight element oxides. BAF data were divided into three separate generic bedrock classifications of basalt, lithic arenite and mudstone prior to analysis, resulting in an increase in average correlation coefficients between BAFs and geochemical parameters. Sulphur trioxide and SOC, spatially correlated with upland peat soils, exhibited significant positive correlations with all BAFs in gastric and gastro-intestinal digestion phases, with such effects being strongest in the lithic arenite bedrock group. Significant negative relationships with bioaccessible Ni, V and Zn and their associated total concentrations were observed for the basalt group. Major element oxides were associated with reduced oral trace element bioaccessibility, with Al2O3 resulting in the highest number of significant negative correlations followed by Fe2O3. spatial mapping showed that metal oxides were present at reduced levels in peat soils. The findings illustrate how specific geology and soil geochemistry exert controls over trace element bioaccessibility, with soil chemical factors having a stronger influence on BAF results than relative geogenic abundance. In general, higher Ni, V and Zn bioaccessibility is expected in peat soil types.

  15. Case of coccidioidomycosis in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Patrick Thomas; Deegan, Alexander P; McDonnell, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Coccidioidal infection is a well-recognised cause of pulmonary disease in certain parts of the south-western USA, Central and South America; however, it is rarely encountered elsewhere in the world. We describe the case of a previously healthy man presenting to a Dublin hospital with fever, dry cough and chest pain, following a visit to the western USA. Despite treatment with broad-spectrum antimicrobials, the patient developed progressive bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and a large pleural effusion. After extensive investigations including CT, bronchoscopy and pleural fluid analysis, a diagnosis of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis was made. Following the initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy, the patient made a full recovery. This case was of interest due to the rarity of the disease outside its areas of endemicity and the unusual findings associated with its diagnosis. PMID:27516109

  16. "Give Them Time" -- An Analysis of School Readiness in Ireland's Early Education System: A Steiner Waldorf Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Doireann; Angus, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a Steiner Waldorf Perspective to School Readiness and applies that international ideology to educational practice and curriculum policy in modern Ireland. The case for a later school start is championed with strong arguments underpinning the reasons why a later start is better in the long run for children's formal learning…

  17. Daedalus in Dublin: A Physicist's Labyrinth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Thomas C.

    2014-03-01

    I describe some of the rich physical and natural-philosophy heritage of the urban center of the Irish capital Dublin (first tour) and its environs (second tour), in a two-part excursion that could take between two and eight hours in toto. In terms of history, both tours center around the nineteenth century. The first tour is located in and around Trinity College, and we encounter such personages as William Rowan Hamilton, George Fitzgerald, Ernest Walton, and Erwin Schrödinger, among others. Moving away from Trinity College, the second tour explores some of the periphery of the city. I describe the role of politics, money, and religion in shaping the emergence and development of scientific talent among the Irish people, and consequently the footprint left by physics in the city today, with its numerous sites and names that put Irish physics in an honorable place among the nations.

  18. Sex Assessment Using the Femur and Tibia in Medieval Skeletal Remains from Ireland: Discriminant Function Analysis.

    PubMed

    Novak, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Sex determination based on discriminant function analysis of skeletal measurements is probably the most effective method for assessment of sex in archaeological and contemporary populations due to various reasons, but it also suffers from limitations such as population specificity. In this paper standards for sex assessment from the femur and tibia in the medieval Irish population are presented. Six femoral and six tibial measurements obtained from 56 male and 45 female skeletons were subjected to discriminant function analysis. Average accuracies obtained by this study range between 87.1 and 97%. The highest level of accuracy (97%) was achieved when using combined variables of the femur and tibia (maximum diameter of femoral head and circumference at tibial nutrient foramen), as well as two variables of the tibia (proximal epiphyseal breadth and circumference at nutrient foramen). Discriminant functions using a single variable provided accuracies between 87.1 and 96% with the circumference at the level of the tibial nutrient foramen providing the best separation. High accuracy rates obtained by this research correspond to the data recorded in other studies thus confirming the importance of discriminant function analysis in assessment of sex in both archaeological and forensic contexts.

  19. Sex Assessment Using the Femur and Tibia in Medieval Skeletal Remains from Ireland: Discriminant Function Analysis.

    PubMed

    Novak, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Sex determination based on discriminant function analysis of skeletal measurements is probably the most effective method for assessment of sex in archaeological and contemporary populations due to various reasons, but it also suffers from limitations such as population specificity. In this paper standards for sex assessment from the femur and tibia in the medieval Irish population are presented. Six femoral and six tibial measurements obtained from 56 male and 45 female skeletons were subjected to discriminant function analysis. Average accuracies obtained by this study range between 87.1 and 97%. The highest level of accuracy (97%) was achieved when using combined variables of the femur and tibia (maximum diameter of femoral head and circumference at tibial nutrient foramen), as well as two variables of the tibia (proximal epiphyseal breadth and circumference at nutrient foramen). Discriminant functions using a single variable provided accuracies between 87.1 and 96% with the circumference at the level of the tibial nutrient foramen providing the best separation. High accuracy rates obtained by this research correspond to the data recorded in other studies thus confirming the importance of discriminant function analysis in assessment of sex in both archaeological and forensic contexts. PMID:27301232

  20. Lost in transition?: a discursive analysis of academic nursing in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Martin S

    2010-07-01

    A critical discourse analysis of Irish nurse academics' comments reveals a dependent, fragmented discipline with a weak academic infrastructure, prone to colonization by other discourses. Respondents lack a language that articulates an academic and professional nursing identity, the form and content of educational programs that are distinctively nursing, and lack the proper focus and scope of nursing research. These findings are discussed in light of the role of academic clinical practice and nursing discipline-specific discourses in providing the conditions of possibility for the establishment, maintenance, and reproduction of a critical mass of nurse scholars with both academic and clinical legitimacy.

  1. Comparison of the CFTR mutation spectrum in three cohorts of patients of Celtic origin from Brittany (France) and Ireland.

    PubMed

    Scotet, Virginie; Barton, David E; Watson, James B G; Audrézet, Marie-Pierre; McDevitt, Trudi; McQuaid, Shirley; Shortt, Cathy; De Braekeleer, Marc; Férec, Claude; Le Maréchal, Cédric

    2003-07-01

    This study aims to compare the spectrum of the mutations identified in the gene responsible for cystic fibrosis in three cohorts of patients of Celtic origin from Brittany and Ireland. It included 389 patients from Brittany, 631 from Dublin and 139 from Cork. The CFTR gene analysis relied on the detection of the most common mutations, followed by a complete gene scanning using DGGE or D-HPLC. High mutation detection rates were obtained in each cohort: 99.6%, 96.8%, and 96.0% respectively. A high frequency of the c.1652_1655 del3 mutation (F508del: 74.8% to 81.3%) and of the "Celtic" mutation (c.1784G>A (G551D): 3.7% to 9.7%) was observed in each population. Apart from this, the mutation spectrums differed. In Brittany, the most common abnormalities were: c.1078delT (3.6%), c.4041C>G (N1303K: 1.4%), c.2670G>A (W846X(2): 1.0%) and c.1717-1G>A (1.0%), whereas in the cohort of Dublin, the main mutations were: c.482G>A (R117H: 3.0%), c.1811G>C (R560T: 2.4%) and c.621+1G>T (1.7%). Finally, in the Cork area, only the c.482G>A mutation (R117H) reached a frequency of 1%. Two previously-unreported mutations were identified in the Dublin cohort: c.2623-2A>G and c.3446T>G (M1105R). This collaborative study highlights the similarities of the CFTR alleles in the Breton and Irish populations, but also the disparities that exist between these populations, despite their common origin. Each population has its own history, with its mixture of founder effects and genetic drifts, which are at the origin of the current mutation distribution. The molecular study of the CFTR gene provides new tools for retracing European populations' histories.

  2. The Economic Impact of Ulster University on the Northern Ireland Economy. Higher Education in Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Ursula; McNicoll, Iain; White, James

    2015-01-01

    This study provides an analysis of the economic impact of Ulster University and its students on the Northern Ireland economy. With over 26,000 students, Ulster University is Northern Ireland's largest university in terms of student numbers. With its headquarters based at the Coleraine Campus, it has three more campuses in Northern Ireland: the…

  3. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Ireland and the role of local government

    SciTech Connect

    O'Mullane, Monica

    2012-01-15

    Background: Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Ireland has developed significantly since its endorsement in the health strategies of the Republic of Ireland (2001) and Northern Ireland (2002). Throughout 2007 and 2008, research was conducted to examine HIA as a policy-informing tool throughout both jurisdictions. One aspect of this research investigated the role of local government and its relationship in advancing HIA practise and use in Ireland. Methods: A case study research design was used which employed qualitative research methods, including semistructured interviewing and participant observation. In total 48 interviews were conducted with members of the HIA steering committees and individuals closely involved in the HIAs. Results: The relationship between local government and HIA in Northern Ireland is a positive one given the strong tradition of local government in the jurisdiction. The Review of Public Administration (RPA) negatively influenced the integration of HIA into local authority procedures. In the Republic of Ireland, the influence of social values and political will was found to be negatively present with the HIA on Traveller accommodation. Evidence from the HIA conducted on traffic and transport in Dublin was used to plan further health promotion and community planning activities in the area. Conclusion: Local government plays a vital role in HIA practise and development in both jurisdictions. The willingness to work with external partners (such as the health care services) was an important enabler or barrier to HIA operation. This will remain the case in the foreseeable future. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated influences on the use of HIA knowledge of four cases from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The engagement of the public authorities assists implementation of the findings of the HIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tension continues between positivist and incrementalist

  4. Media Technologies and Language Learning. Proceedings of an IRAAL Seminar (Dublin, Ireland, November 25, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, David, Ed.; O Meadhra, Bebhinn, Ed.

    A seminar sponsored by the Irish Association for Applied Linguistics on the role of media and media technologies in second and foreign language learning is reported. The organization of this report reflects the program of the seminar. Four plenary papers established some broad applied linguistic perspectives and presented an overview of recent…

  5. Triggering of tsunamigenic aftershocks from large strike-slip earthquakes: Analysis of the November 2000 New Ireland earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Tom

    2005-10-01

    The November 2000 New Ireland earthquake sequence started with a Mw = 8.0 left-lateral main shock on 16 November and was followed by a series of aftershocks with primarily thrust mechanisms. The earthquake sequence was associated with a locally damaging tsunami on the islands of New Ireland and nearby New Britain, Bougainville, and Buka. Results from numerical tsunami-propagation models of the main shock and two of the largest thrust aftershocks (Mw > 7.0) indicate that the largest tsunami was caused by an aftershock located near the southeastern termination of the main shock, off the southern tip of New Ireland (Aftershock 1). Numerical modeling and tide gauge records at regional and far-field distances indicate that the main shock also generated tsunami waves. Large horizontal displacements associated with the main shock in regions of steep bathymetry accentuated tsunami generation for this event. Most of the damage on Bougainville and Buka Islands was caused by focusing and amplification of tsunami energy from a ridge wave between the source region and these islands. Modeling of changes in the Coulomb failure stress field caused by the main shock indicate that Aftershock 1 was likely triggered by static stress changes, provided the fault was on or synthetic to the New Britain interplate thrust as specified by the Harvard CMT mechanism. For other possible focal mechanisms of Aftershock 1 and the regional occurrence of thrust aftershocks in general, evidence for static stress change triggering is not as clear. Other triggering mechanisms such as changes in dynamic stress may also have been important. The 2000 New Ireland earthquake sequence provides evidence that tsunamis caused by thrust aftershocks can be triggered by large strike-slip earthquakes. Similar tectonic regimes that include offshore accommodation structures near large strike-slip faults are found in southern California, the Sea of Marmara, Turkey, along the Queen Charlotte fault in British Columbia

  6. Investigating traffic light violations by cyclists in Dublin City Centre.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Matthew; Caulfield, Brian

    2015-11-01

    This research examines the behaviour of cyclists in Dublin City with specific regard to red light running. A number of specific research questions are raised by this study. These questions address the impact of different infrastructure types on red light running, as well as the behavioural patterns and demographics of offending cyclists. Two data collection methods were used to gather information on cyclists in Dublin City - an observational survey and an online questionnaire. The observational surveys examined cyclist compliance with different traffic signal systems and the impact of on-road and off-road cycle infrastructure. An online questionnaire was used to get direct feedback from cyclists in Dublin City on the reasons (if any) they decide to commit infringement at traffic lights. With the recent growth of cycling in Dublin City (as well as many other international cities) it is vital to accommodate and manage this growing demand by ensuring the safety and road discipline of cyclists. The next few years will be crucial for the continued development of cycling in Dublin, particularly due to the increasing investment by transport planners in cycle infrastructure. It is therefore important to identify now the main factors which influence cyclist's decisions to break red lights in order to guide local traffic authorities in their efforts to reduce such transgressions.

  7. Investigating traffic light violations by cyclists in Dublin City Centre.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Matthew; Caulfield, Brian

    2015-11-01

    This research examines the behaviour of cyclists in Dublin City with specific regard to red light running. A number of specific research questions are raised by this study. These questions address the impact of different infrastructure types on red light running, as well as the behavioural patterns and demographics of offending cyclists. Two data collection methods were used to gather information on cyclists in Dublin City - an observational survey and an online questionnaire. The observational surveys examined cyclist compliance with different traffic signal systems and the impact of on-road and off-road cycle infrastructure. An online questionnaire was used to get direct feedback from cyclists in Dublin City on the reasons (if any) they decide to commit infringement at traffic lights. With the recent growth of cycling in Dublin City (as well as many other international cities) it is vital to accommodate and manage this growing demand by ensuring the safety and road discipline of cyclists. The next few years will be crucial for the continued development of cycling in Dublin, particularly due to the increasing investment by transport planners in cycle infrastructure. It is therefore important to identify now the main factors which influence cyclist's decisions to break red lights in order to guide local traffic authorities in their efforts to reduce such transgressions. PMID:26320736

  8. X-ray computerized tomography analysis and density estimation using a sediment core from the Challenger Mound area in the Porcupine Seabight, off Western Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Akiko; Nakano, Tsukasa; Ikehara, Ken

    2011-02-01

    X-ray computerized tomography (CT) analysis was used to image a half-round core sample of 50 cm long recovered from near Challenger Mound in the Porcupine Seabight, off western Ireland during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 307. This allowed three-dimensional examination of complex shapes of pebbles and ice-rafted debris in sedimentary sequences. X-ray CT analysis was also used for the determination of physical properties; a comparison between bulk density by the mass-volume method and estimated density based on linear attenuation coefficients of X-ray CT images provides insight into a spatially detailed and precise map of density variation in samples through the distribution of CT numbers.

  9. The Neo-Liberal Turn in Understanding Teachers' and School Leaders' Work Practices in Curriculum Innovation and Change: A Critical Discourse Analysis of a Newly Proposed Reform Policy in Lower Secondary Education in the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmie, Geraldine Mooney

    2014-01-01

    The study in this article involved a critical discourse analysis of five policy documents in relation to a curriculum reform proposed for lower secondary education in the Republic of Ireland. It examined the (re)positioning of governance in relation to curriculum and teacher education. Findings indicate a predominant clinical discourse closely…

  10. Cytomegalovirus Infection in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Jaythoon; O’Neill, Derek; Honari, Bahman; De Gascun, Cillian; Connell, Jeff; Keogan, Mary; Hickey, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections occur worldwide and primary infection usually occurs in early childhood and is often asymptomatic whereas primary infection in adults may result in symptomatic illness. CMV establishes a chronic latent infection with intermittent periods of reactivation. Primary infection or reactivation associate with increased mortality and morbidity in those who are immunocompromised. Transplacental transmission may result in significant birth defects or long-term sensorineural hearing loss. We performed a study to determine the CMV seroprevalence and the association between HLA Class I alleles and frequency of CMV infection in Ireland. The presence of CMV IgG, a marker of previous CMV infection, was determined for a cohort of 1849 HLA typed solid organ transplant donors between 1990 and 2013. The presence of CMV IgG was correlated with HLA type. The CMV seroprevalence in solid organ transplant donors was 33.4% (range 22–48% per annum) over the time period 1990 to 2013. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that both age and HLA alleles were associated with CMV seropositivity. A significant and positive relationship between age and CMV seropositivity was observed (OR = 1.013, P < 0.001, CI [1.007, 1.019]). Chi-square analysis revealed that the female gender was independently associated with CMV seropositivity (P < 0.01). Seroprevalence in women of reproductive age (20–39 years) was significantly higher than men of the same age (37% vs 26%, P < 0.01). The frequencies of HLA-A1, HLA-A2, and HLA-A3 in our cohort were 40.8%, 48.8%, and 25.9%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of HLA-A1 but not HLA-A2 or HLA-A3 was independently associated with CMV seronegativity (P < 0.01). Interestingly, individuals who co-expressed HLA-A2 and HLA-A3 alleles were significantly more likely to be CMV seropositive (P < 0.02). The frequencies of HLA-B5, HLA-B7, and HLA-B8 in our cohort

  11. Detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin by polymerase chain reaction in multiplex format.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Ligong; Kong, Xiaohan; Lu, Zhaoxin; Lv, Fengxia; Zhang, Chong; Bie, Xiaomei

    2014-05-01

    S. Dublin has caused widespread concerns in cattle produce. Using a comparative genomic method, two specific targets like SeD_A1118 and SeD_A2283 for S. Dublin identification were firstly obtained. An efficient multiplex PCR for S. Dublin detection based on the two novel specific genes and invA was therefore developed.

  12. Occupational stressors, burnout and coping strategies between hospital and community psychiatric nurses in a Dublin region.

    PubMed

    McTiernan, K; McDonald, N

    2015-04-01

    Burnout negatively impacts the delivery of mental health services. Psychiatric nurses face stressors that are distinct from other nursing specialities. The research was conducted in Ireland and captured a relatively large sample of respondents. The results compared the stressors, coping strategies and burnout levels between hospital and community-based psychiatric nurses. Occupational stress can negatively impact on the well-being of psychiatric nurses, which in turn can lead to poor client care. There is a dearth of published research conducted in Ireland that examines stress within the discipline. A between-groups study, undertaken in February 2011, investigated stressors, burnout and coping strategies between hospital and community-based psychiatric nurses in a Dublin region. Sixty-nine participants (8 males and 61 females), aged between 18 to 60 years voluntarily completed the Mental Health Professional Stress Scale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the PsychNurse Methods of Coping Scale. The findings revealed that nurses were operating in a moderately stressful environment. Stressors focused on organizational issues as opposed to client issues. The main stressors identified were lack of resources, workload and organizational structures/processes. Both groups reported average levels of emotional exhaustion, low levels of depersonalization and average levels of personal accomplishment. A Mann-Whitney U-test and Independent Samples t-test found significant differences between hospital and community-based nurses regarding depersonalization and personal accomplishment, respectively. Hospital nurses reported higher depersonalization scores, and community nurses had a greater sense of personal accomplishment. The personal accomplishment scores of hospital nurses were below mental health professional norms. No significant differences emerged regarding coping strategies. Avoidant coping strategies were favoured by both groups. It is recommended that interventions

  13. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Dublin and Midville aquifer systems at Waynesboro, Burke County, Georgia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gonthier, Gerard J.

    2013-01-01

    The hydrogeology and water quality of the Dublin and Midville aquifer systems were characterized in the City of Waynesboro area in Burke County, Georgia, based on geophysical and drillers’ logs, flowmeter surveys, a 24-houraquifer test, and the collection and chemical analysis of water samples in a newly constructed well. At the test site, the Dublin aquifer system consists of interlayered sands and clays between depths of 396 and 691 feet, and the Midville aquifer system consists of a sandy clay layer overlying a sand and gravel layer between depths of 728 and 936 feet. The new well was constructed with three screened intervals in the Dublin aquifer system and four screened intervals in the Midville aquifer system. Wellbore-flowmeter testing at a pumping rate of 1,000 gallons per minute indicated that 52.2 percent of the total flow was from the shallower Dublin aquifer system with the remaining 47.8 percent from the deeper Midville aquifer system. The lower part of the lower Midville aquifer (900 to 930 feet deep), contributed only 0.1 percent of the total flow. Hydraulic properties of the two aquifer systems were estimated using data from two wellbore-flowmeter surveys and a 24-hour aquifer test. Estimated values of transmissivity for the Dublin and Midville aquifer systems were 2,000 and 1,000 feet squared per day, respectively. The upper and lower Dublin aquifers have a combined thickness of about 150 feet and the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the Dublin aquifer system averages 10 feet per day. The upper Midville aquifer, lower Midville confining unit, and lower Midville aquifer have a combined thickness of about 210 feet, and the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the Midville aquifer system averages 6 feet per day. Storage coefficient of the Dublin aquifer system, computed using the Theis method on water-level data from one observation well, was estimated to be 0.0003. With a thickness of about 150 feet, the specific storage of the Dublin aquifer

  14. Counseling in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Morain, Padraig; McAuliffe, Garrett J.; Conroy, Kayte; Johnson, Jennifer M.; Michel, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    Counseling in Ireland has experienced rapid growth in the past 30 years. Public attitudes toward counseling have become more positive, especially with the increasing secularization of a once strongly religious Catholic society. Licensure is nonexistent but there are certification bodies that attempt to ensure qualified practice. There is no…

  15. Community Development in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Anna

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade, community development in Ireland has emphasized social and economic inclusion, regeneration, and civic participation. Continuing challenges include designation of diverse community representatives, demand for increased administrative efficiency, and management of mandates and accountability. There are more community development…

  16. Vocational Training in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooney, Roy; Dunne, Paul

    This monograph, one of a series of studies of vocational education in the countries of the European Communities, describes the vocational training system in Ireland. The study was compiled from existing statistics and descriptions, and most figures cited refer to 1984. The report is organized in eight chapters. Chapter 1 covers population,…

  17. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Dublin from dairy source calves in the central San Joaquin Valley, California (1998-2002).

    PubMed

    Berge, Anna Catharina B; Thornburg, Elizabeth; Adaska, John M; Moeller, Robert B; Blanchard, Patricia C

    2008-07-01

    The present study describes antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Dublin (S. Dublin) in clinical submissions from calves and temporal and farm-type trends in antimicrobial resistance patterns of the isolates. A total of 300 isolates of S. Dublin were obtained from fecal or internal organs of calves fewer than 120 days of age originating from 84 dairies and 18 calf ranches from July 1998 to December 2002. The isolates were susceptibility tested to a panel of 10 antimicrobials using the disk diffusion assay. Temporal and farm-type trends in individual antimicrobial inhibition zone sizes were assessed and antimicrobial resistance patterns were described using cluster analysis. Isolates obtained from calf ranches compared with dairies exhibited decreased susceptibility to florfenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, sulfisoxazole, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, and tetracycline. During the years 1998-2002, decreasing susceptibility was seen for ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. There were 20 different antimicrobial resistance patterns in the isolate set, indicating that S. Dublin has the ability to transfer and pick up resistance genes with relative ease. The trends seen in antimicrobial resistance in S. Dublin may likely be linked to antimicrobial drug use in young calves.

  18. Understanding hydrothermal circulation patterns at a low-enthalpy thermal spring using audio-magnetotelluric data: A case study from Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Sarah; Henry, Tiernan; Muller, Mark R.; Jones, Alan G.; Moore, John Paul; Murray, John; Campanyà, Joan; Vozar, Jan; Walsh, John; Rath, Volker

    2016-09-01

    Kilbrook spring is a thermal spring in east-central Ireland. The temperatures in the spring are the highest recorded for any thermal spring in Ireland (maximum of 25 °C). The temperature is elevated with respect to average Irish groundwater temperatures (9.5-10.5 °C), and represents a geothermal energy potential, which is currently under evaluation. A multi-disciplinary investigation based upon an audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) survey, and hydrochemical analysis including time-lapse temperature and chemistry measurements, has been undertaken with the aims of investigating the provenance of the thermal groundwater and characterising the geological structures facilitating groundwater circulation in the bedrock. The three-dimensional (3-D) electrical resistivity model of the subsurface at Kilbrook spring was obtained by the inversion of AMT impedances and vertical magnetic transfer functions. The model is interpreted alongside high resolution temperature and electrical conductivity measurements, and a previous hydrochemical analysis. The hydrochemical analysis and time-lapse measurements suggest that the thermal waters have a relatively stable temperature and major ion hydrochemistry, and flow within the limestones of the Carboniferous Dublin Basin at all times. The 3-D resistivity model of the subsurface reveals a prominent NNW aligned structure within a highly resistive limestone lithology that is interpreted as a dissolutionally enhanced strike-slip fault, of Cenozoic age. The karstification of this structure, which extends to depths of at least 500 m directly beneath the spring, has provided conduits that facilitate the operation of a relatively deep hydrothermal circulation pattern (likely estimated depths between 560 and 1000 m) within the limestone succession of the Dublin Basin. The results of this study support the hypothesis that the winter thermal maximum and simultaneous increased discharge at Kilbrook spring is the result of rapid infiltration, heating and

  19. An integrated pressure and pathway approach to the spatial analysis of groundwater nitrate: a case study from the southeast of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Tedd, K M; Coxon, C E; Misstear, B D R; Daly, D; Craig, M; Mannix, A; Williams, N H Hunter

    2014-04-01

    Excess nitrogen in soil, aquatic and atmospheric environments is an escalating global problem. Eutrophication is the principal threat to surface water quality in the Republic of Ireland. European Union Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) water quality status assessments found that 16% of Irish groundwater bodies were 'at risk' of poor status due to the potential deterioration of associated estuarine and coastal water quality by nitrate from groundwater. This paper presents a methodology for evaluating pressure and pathway parameters affecting the spatial distribution of groundwater nitrate, investigated at a regional scale using existing national spatial datasets. The potential for nitrate transfer to groundwater was rated based on the introduced concepts of Pressure Loading and Pathway Connectivity Rating, each based on a combination of selected pressure and pathway parameters respectively. In the region studied, the South Eastern River Basin District of Ireland, this methodology identified that pathway parameters were more important than pressure parameters in understanding the spatial distribution of groundwater nitrate. Statistical analyses supported these findings and further demonstrated that the proportion of poorly drained soils, arable land, karstic flow regimes, regionally important bedrock aquifers and high vulnerability groundwater within the zones of contribution of the monitoring points are statistically significantly related to groundwater nitrate concentrations. Soil type was found to be the most important parameter. Analysis of variance showed that a number of the pressure and pathway parameters are interrelated. The parameters identified by the presented methodology may provide useful insights into the best way to manage and mitigate the influence of nitrate contamination of groundwater in this region. It is suggested that the identification of critical source areas based on the identified parameters would be an appropriate management tool

  20. Alternatives to Industrial Work Placement at Dublin Institute of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Catherine; Gamble, Elena

    2011-01-01

    In the current economic crisis, higher education graduates need transferable professional skills more than ever. They need resourcefulness, an ability to work reflectively, a sense of civic awareness and an impressive curriculum vitae. This case study analyses how Dublin Institute of Technology's Programme for Students Learning With Communities…

  1. 9 CFR 113.123 - Salmonella Dublin Bacterin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... biological product containing Salmonella dublin fraction shall meet the applicable requirements in 9 CFR 113... completed product shall be tested for viable bacteria and fungi as provided in 9 CFR 113.26. (b) Safety test... provided in 9 CFR 113.33(b). (c) Potency test. Bulk or final container samples of completed product...

  2. 9 CFR 113.123 - Salmonella Dublin Bacterin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... biological product containing Salmonella dublin fraction shall meet the applicable requirements in 9 CFR 113... completed product shall be tested for viable bacteria and fungi as provided in 9 CFR 113.26. (b) Safety test... provided in 9 CFR 113.33(b). (c) Potency test. Bulk or final container samples of completed product...

  3. 9 CFR 113.123 - Salmonella Dublin Bacterin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... biological product containing Salmonella dublin fraction shall meet the applicable requirements in 9 CFR 113... completed product shall be tested for viable bacteria and fungi as provided in 9 CFR 113.26. (b) Safety test... provided in 9 CFR 113.33(b). (c) Potency test. Bulk or final container samples of completed product...

  4. 9 CFR 113.123 - Salmonella Dublin Bacterin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... biological product containing Salmonella dublin fraction shall meet the applicable requirements in 9 CFR 113... completed product shall be tested for viable bacteria and fungi as provided in 9 CFR 113.26. (b) Safety test... provided in 9 CFR 113.33(b). (c) Potency test. Bulk or final container samples of completed product...

  5. 9 CFR 113.123 - Salmonella Dublin Bacterin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... biological product containing Salmonella dublin fraction shall meet the applicable requirements in 9 CFR 113... completed product shall be tested for viable bacteria and fungi as provided in 9 CFR 113.26. (b) Safety test... provided in 9 CFR 113.33(b). (c) Potency test. Bulk or final container samples of completed product...

  6. To Hel(sinki) and Back for the Dublin Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Priscilla

    1997-01-01

    Describes the fifth Dublin Core (DC Workshop) DC is a small set of simple, descriptive data elements intended to aid in the discovery of Internet resources. Covers metadata issues, "DC Lite," current international projects utilizing the Core, and issues yet to be resolved. (AEF)

  7. Principle Paradigms Revisiting the Dublin Core 1:1 Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    The Dublin Core "1:1 Principle" asserts that "related but conceptually different entities, for example a painting and a digital image of the painting, are described by separate metadata records" (Woodley et al., 2005). While this seems to be a simple requirement, studies of metadata quality have found that cultural heritage…

  8. Quality of Family Life and Mortality in Seventeenth Century Dublin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Inquiry into the quality of family life in seventeenth century Dublin is an attempt to understand conditions in the second largest city in the British Isles; further, the era was one of convulsions in the body politic, social, and religious. The Scottish James I and VI (1556 1625) determined that the Irish province closest to Scotland, Ulster,…

  9. The Frustration of Lady Aberdeen in her Crusade against Tuberculosis in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Breathnach, Caoimhghín S; Moynihan, John B

    2012-01-01

    When in his Annual Report for 1905 the Registrar General for Ireland pointed out to the lately arrived Lord Lieutenant, The Earl of Aberdeen, that annually in every 100 deaths in Ireland 16 were victims of tuberculosis, Lady Aberdeen took notice. In March 1907 she founded the WNHA with the clear duty of taking part in the fight against the appalling ravages of that disease, and organised a Tuberculosis Exhibition the following October. And so began a campaign that led to the building of Peamount Sanatorium in county Dublin, the Allan Ryan Hospital at Ringsend, and the Collier Dispensary in the city centre. However, the Irish parliamentarians at Westminster emasculated the Tuberculosis Prevention (Ireland) Act 1908 by ensuring that notification was not made compulsory. Passage of the National Health Insurance Act (1911) necessitated changes that resulted in the Tuberculosis Prevention (Ireland) Act (1913), but the crucial shortcomings of the earlier Act were not rectified: notification was necessary but still not compulsory. Lady Aberdeen recognised this serious flaw she was powerless to correct, and turned to propaganda, editing Sláinte, a monthly magazine founded in January 1909 by the WNHA, and editing a three-volume account of Ireland’s Crusade Against Tuberculosis (1908-1909). PMID:23536737

  10. Repression of Flagella Is a Common Trait in Field Isolates of Salmonella enterica Serovar Dublin and Is Associated with Invasive Human Infections

    PubMed Central

    Sasías, Sebastián; Martínez, Arací; Betancor, Laura; Estevez, Verónica; Scavone, Paola; Bielli, Alejandro; Sirok, Alfredo; Chabalgoity, José Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin is adapted to cattle but infrequently infects humans, very often resulting in invasive infections with high levels of morbidity and mortality. A Salmonella-induced intestinal acute inflammatory response is postulated as a mechanism to prevent bacterial dissemination to systemic sites. In S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, flagella contribute to this response by providing motility and FliC-mediated activation of pattern recognition receptors. In this study, we found 4 Salmonella enterica isolates, with the antigenic formula 9,12:−:−, that, based on fliC sequence and multilocus sequence type (MLST) analyses, are aflagellate S. Dublin isolates. Interestingly, all were obtained from human bloodstream infections. Thus, we investigated the potential role of flagella in the unusual invasiveness exhibited by S. Dublin in humans by analyzing flagellation and proinflammatory properties of a collection of 10 S. Dublin human clinical isolates. We found that 4 of 7 blood isolates were aflagellate due to significantly reduced levels of fliC expression, whereas all 3 isolates from other sources were flagellated. Lack of flagella correlated with a reduced ability of triggering interleukin-8 (IL-8) and CCL20 chemokine expression in human intestinal Caco-2 cells and with reduced early inflammation in the ceca of streptomycin-pretreated C57/BL6 mice. These results indicate that flagella contribute to the host intestinal inflammatory response to Salmonella serovar Dublin and suggest that their absence may contribute to its systemic dissemination through dampening of the gut immune response. Analysis of FliC production in a collection of cattle isolates indicated that the aflagellate phenotype is widely distributed in field isolates of S. Dublin. PMID:24421045

  11. Repression of flagella is a common trait in field isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin and is associated with invasive human infections.

    PubMed

    Yim, Lucía; Sasías, Sebastián; Martínez, Arací; Betancor, Laura; Estevez, Verónica; Scavone, Paola; Bielli, Alejandro; Sirok, Alfredo; Chabalgoity, José Alejandro

    2014-04-01

    The nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin is adapted to cattle but infrequently infects humans, very often resulting in invasive infections with high levels of morbidity and mortality. A Salmonella-induced intestinal acute inflammatory response is postulated as a mechanism to prevent bacterial dissemination to systemic sites. In S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, flagella contribute to this response by providing motility and FliC-mediated activation of pattern recognition receptors. In this study, we found 4 Salmonella enterica isolates, with the antigenic formula 9,12:-:-, that, based on fliC sequence and multilocus sequence type (MLST) analyses, are aflagellate S. Dublin isolates. Interestingly, all were obtained from human bloodstream infections. Thus, we investigated the potential role of flagella in the unusual invasiveness exhibited by S. Dublin in humans by analyzing flagellation and proinflammatory properties of a collection of 10 S. Dublin human clinical isolates. We found that 4 of 7 blood isolates were aflagellate due to significantly reduced levels of fliC expression, whereas all 3 isolates from other sources were flagellated. Lack of flagella correlated with a reduced ability of triggering interleukin-8 (IL-8) and CCL20 chemokine expression in human intestinal Caco-2 cells and with reduced early inflammation in the ceca of streptomycin-pretreated C57/BL6 mice. These results indicate that flagella contribute to the host intestinal inflammatory response to Salmonella serovar Dublin and suggest that their absence may contribute to its systemic dissemination through dampening of the gut immune response. Analysis of FliC production in a collection of cattle isolates indicated that the aflagellate phenotype is widely distributed in field isolates of S. Dublin.

  12. Genotyping of Mycobacterium bovis isolates from badgers in four areas of the Republic of Ireland by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed

    Costello, E; Flynn, O; Quigley, F; O'Grady, D; Griffin, J; Clegg, T; McGrath, G

    2006-11-01

    An analysis of the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis in badgers was made in four selected areas of the Republic of Ireland in which an intensive badger removal programme was being carried out over a period of five years. Tissue samples from 2310 badgers were cultured. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with IS6110, polymorphic GC-rich sequence (PGRS) and direct repeat sequence (DR) probes was applied to the isolates from 398 badgers, and 52 different rflp types were identified. Most of the isolates belonged to seven predominant types, and the other 45 types were represented by few isolates. An analysis suggests that some of these 45 types may have been introduced by the inward migration of badgers and others may have been the result of genetic changes to one of the prevalent types. The badgers were divided into groups on the basis of the sett at which they were captured, and RFLP typing was applied to isolates from two or more badgers from 85 groups. Multiple RFLP types were identified among isolates from 50 of these groups, suggesting that badgers probably moved frequently between group territories.

  13. Analysis of High Frequency Site-Specific Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide at Mace Head, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClellan, M. J.; Harris, E. J.; Olszewski, W.; Ono, S.; Prinn, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) significantly impacts Earth's climate due to its dual role as an inert potent greenhouse gas in the troposphere and as a reactive source of ozone-destroying nitrogen oxides in the stratosphere. However, there remain significant uncertainties in the global budget of this gas. The marked spatial divide in its reactivity means that all stages in the N2O life cycle—emission, transport, and destruction—must be examined to understand the overall effect of N2O on climate. Source and sink processes of N2O lead to varying concentrations of N2O isotopologues (14N14N16O, 14N15N16O, 15N14N16O, and 14N14N18O being measured) due to preferential isotopic production and elimination in different environments. Estimation of source and sink fluxes can be improved by combining isotopically resolved N2O observations with simulations using a chemical transport model with reanalysis meteorology and treatments of isotopic signatures of specific surface sources and stratospheric intrusions. We present the first few months of site-specific nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition data from the Stheno-TILDAS instrument (Harris et al, 2013) at Mace Head, Ireland and compare these to results from MOZART-4 (Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4) chemical transport model runs including N2O isotopic fractionation processes and reanalysis meterological fields (NCEP/NCAR, MERRA, and GEOS-5). This study forms the basis for future inverse modeling experiments that will improve the accuracy of isotopically differentiated N2O emission and loss estimates. Ref: Harris, E., D. Nelson, W. Olszewski, M. Zahniser, K. Potter, B. McManus, A. Whitehill, R. Prinn, and S. Ono, Development of a spectroscopic technique for continuous online monitoring of oxygen and site-specific nitrogen isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrous oxide, Analytical Chemistry, 2013; DOI: 10.1021/ac403606u.

  14. Forest Cover Estimation in Ireland Using Radar Remote Sensing: A Comparative Analysis of Forest Cover Assessment Methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Devaney, John; Barrett, Brian; Barrett, Frank; Redmond, John; O`Halloran, John

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of spatial and temporal changes in forest cover is an essential component of forest monitoring programs. Due to its cloud free capability, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an ideal source of information on forest dynamics in countries with near-constant cloud-cover. However, few studies have investigated the use of SAR for forest cover estimation in landscapes with highly sparse and fragmented forest cover. In this study, the potential use of L-band SAR for forest cover estimation in two regions (Longford and Sligo) in Ireland is investigated and compared to forest cover estimates derived from three national (Forestry2010, Prime2, National Forest Inventory), one pan-European (Forest Map 2006) and one global forest cover (Global Forest Change) product. Two machine-learning approaches (Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees) are evaluated. Both Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees classification accuracies were high (98.1–98.5%), with differences between the two classifiers being minimal (<0.5%). Increasing levels of post classification filtering led to a decrease in estimated forest area and an increase in overall accuracy of SAR-derived forest cover maps. All forest cover products were evaluated using an independent validation dataset. For the Longford region, the highest overall accuracy was recorded with the Forestry2010 dataset (97.42%) whereas in Sligo, highest overall accuracy was obtained for the Prime2 dataset (97.43%), although accuracies of SAR-derived forest maps were comparable. Our findings indicate that spaceborne radar could aid inventories in regions with low levels of forest cover in fragmented landscapes. The reduced accuracies observed for the global and pan-continental forest cover maps in comparison to national and SAR-derived forest maps indicate that caution should be exercised when applying these datasets for national reporting. PMID:26262681

  15. Forest Cover Estimation in Ireland Using Radar Remote Sensing: A Comparative Analysis of Forest Cover Assessment Methodologies.

    PubMed

    Devaney, John; Barrett, Brian; Barrett, Frank; Redmond, John; O Halloran, John

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of spatial and temporal changes in forest cover is an essential component of forest monitoring programs. Due to its cloud free capability, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an ideal source of information on forest dynamics in countries with near-constant cloud-cover. However, few studies have investigated the use of SAR for forest cover estimation in landscapes with highly sparse and fragmented forest cover. In this study, the potential use of L-band SAR for forest cover estimation in two regions (Longford and Sligo) in Ireland is investigated and compared to forest cover estimates derived from three national (Forestry2010, Prime2, National Forest Inventory), one pan-European (Forest Map 2006) and one global forest cover (Global Forest Change) product. Two machine-learning approaches (Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees) are evaluated. Both Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees classification accuracies were high (98.1-98.5%), with differences between the two classifiers being minimal (<0.5%). Increasing levels of post classification filtering led to a decrease in estimated forest area and an increase in overall accuracy of SAR-derived forest cover maps. All forest cover products were evaluated using an independent validation dataset. For the Longford region, the highest overall accuracy was recorded with the Forestry2010 dataset (97.42%) whereas in Sligo, highest overall accuracy was obtained for the Prime2 dataset (97.43%), although accuracies of SAR-derived forest maps were comparable. Our findings indicate that spaceborne radar could aid inventories in regions with low levels of forest cover in fragmented landscapes. The reduced accuracies observed for the global and pan-continental forest cover maps in comparison to national and SAR-derived forest maps indicate that caution should be exercised when applying these datasets for national reporting. PMID:26262681

  16. Forest Cover Estimation in Ireland Using Radar Remote Sensing: A Comparative Analysis of Forest Cover Assessment Methodologies.

    PubMed

    Devaney, John; Barrett, Brian; Barrett, Frank; Redmond, John; O Halloran, John

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of spatial and temporal changes in forest cover is an essential component of forest monitoring programs. Due to its cloud free capability, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an ideal source of information on forest dynamics in countries with near-constant cloud-cover. However, few studies have investigated the use of SAR for forest cover estimation in landscapes with highly sparse and fragmented forest cover. In this study, the potential use of L-band SAR for forest cover estimation in two regions (Longford and Sligo) in Ireland is investigated and compared to forest cover estimates derived from three national (Forestry2010, Prime2, National Forest Inventory), one pan-European (Forest Map 2006) and one global forest cover (Global Forest Change) product. Two machine-learning approaches (Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees) are evaluated. Both Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees classification accuracies were high (98.1-98.5%), with differences between the two classifiers being minimal (<0.5%). Increasing levels of post classification filtering led to a decrease in estimated forest area and an increase in overall accuracy of SAR-derived forest cover maps. All forest cover products were evaluated using an independent validation dataset. For the Longford region, the highest overall accuracy was recorded with the Forestry2010 dataset (97.42%) whereas in Sligo, highest overall accuracy was obtained for the Prime2 dataset (97.43%), although accuracies of SAR-derived forest maps were comparable. Our findings indicate that spaceborne radar could aid inventories in regions with low levels of forest cover in fragmented landscapes. The reduced accuracies observed for the global and pan-continental forest cover maps in comparison to national and SAR-derived forest maps indicate that caution should be exercised when applying these datasets for national reporting.

  17. Prediction of household and commercial BMW generation according to socio-economic and other factors for the Dublin region.

    PubMed

    Purcell, M; Magette, W L

    2009-04-01

    Both planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management systems require accurate prediction of waste generation. This research predicted the quantity and distribution of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) generation within a diverse 'landscape' of residential areas, as well as from a variety of commercial establishments (restaurants, hotels, hospitals, etc.) in the Dublin (Ireland) region. Socio-economic variables, housing types, and the sizes and main activities of commercial establishments were hypothesized as the key determinants contributing to the spatial variability of BMW generation. A geographical information system (GIS) 'model' of BMW generation was created using ArcMap, a component of ArcGIS 9. Statistical data including socio-economic status and household size were mapped on an electoral district basis. Historical research and data from scientific literature were used to assign BMW generation rates to residential and commercial establishments. These predictions were combined to give overall BMW estimates for the region, which can aid waste planning and policy decisions. This technique will also aid the design of future waste management strategies, leading to policy and practice alterations as a function of demographic changes and development. The household prediction technique gave a more accurate overall estimate of household waste generation than did the social class technique. Both techniques produced estimates that differed from the reported local authority data; however, given that local authority reported figures for the region are below the national average, with some of the waste generated from apartment complexes being reported as commercial waste, predictions arising from this research are believed to be closer to actual waste generation than a comparison to reported data would suggest. By changing the input data, this estimation tool can be adapted for use in other locations. Although focusing on waste in the Dublin region

  18. Prediction of household and commercial BMW generation according to socio-economic and other factors for the Dublin region.

    PubMed

    Purcell, M; Magette, W L

    2009-04-01

    Both planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management systems require accurate prediction of waste generation. This research predicted the quantity and distribution of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) generation within a diverse 'landscape' of residential areas, as well as from a variety of commercial establishments (restaurants, hotels, hospitals, etc.) in the Dublin (Ireland) region. Socio-economic variables, housing types, and the sizes and main activities of commercial establishments were hypothesized as the key determinants contributing to the spatial variability of BMW generation. A geographical information system (GIS) 'model' of BMW generation was created using ArcMap, a component of ArcGIS 9. Statistical data including socio-economic status and household size were mapped on an electoral district basis. Historical research and data from scientific literature were used to assign BMW generation rates to residential and commercial establishments. These predictions were combined to give overall BMW estimates for the region, which can aid waste planning and policy decisions. This technique will also aid the design of future waste management strategies, leading to policy and practice alterations as a function of demographic changes and development. The household prediction technique gave a more accurate overall estimate of household waste generation than did the social class technique. Both techniques produced estimates that differed from the reported local authority data; however, given that local authority reported figures for the region are below the national average, with some of the waste generated from apartment complexes being reported as commercial waste, predictions arising from this research are believed to be closer to actual waste generation than a comparison to reported data would suggest. By changing the input data, this estimation tool can be adapted for use in other locations. Although focusing on waste in the Dublin region

  19. IRETHERM: Multidimensional geophysical modeling of the southern margin of the Dublin Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vozar, Jan; Jones, Alan G.; Rath, Volker; Campanya, Joan; Pasquali, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    Multi-dimensional magnetotelluric (MT) modelling of data from the Newcastle area west of Dublin, acquired as part of the geothermal potential of Ireland (IRETHERM) project, is presented. The Newcastle area, situated on the southern margin of the Carboniferous Dublin Basin, exhibits elevated geothermal gradient (>30 ° C/km) in the exploratory boreholes drilled by GT Energy. The MT soundings were carried out in the highly urbanized Dublin suburb and are heavily noise-contaminated and distorted due to EM noise from nearby industry and the DC tram system (LUAS). We obtained reliable and interpretable MT impedance and geomagnetic transfer functions at most sites by processing the 'quietest' 4-hour night time subsets of data using several robust codes and the ELICIT method. Tensor decomposition was applied at each site to ascertain if the data are suitable for 2-D modelling and to determine the appropriate geoelectric strike direction. The obtained 2-D models underwent examination using a new stability technique, and the final two 2-D profiles with reliability estimations, expressed through conductance and resistivity, were derived. 3-D models, including all usable MT data in the Newcastle area, have also been determined with and without resistivity constrains for shallow structures from resistivity measurements in one of the boreholes (borehole NGE1). The 3-D models exhibit structures with higher conductivity in comparison to the 2-D models, with similarly resistive background rocks. The shallow conductive structures, to a depth of 1 km, have north-south elongations correlated with the surface traces of faults that are perpendicular to the regional Blackrock to Newcastle Fault (BNF). Deeper structures become more oriented to a regional geoelectric strike similar to 2-D regional strike. To obtain superior characterization of the thermal transport properties of the investigated area, we used porosity and resistivity data from borehole NGE1 to estimate relation between

  20. PREFACE: Kelvin and Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flood, Raymond; McCartney, Mark; Whitaker, Andrew

    2009-07-01

    Sir Joseph Larmor unveiling the Kelvin memorial in the Botanic Gardens, Belfast on a rainy day in 1913 Sir Joseph Larmor unveiling the Kelvin memorial in the Botanic Gardens, Belfast on a rainy day in 1913 © The Ulster Museum: Hogg collection William Thomson, later Lord Kelvin, was born in Belfast in 1824, and his family had lived near Ballynahinch in the north of Ireland, quite close to Belfast, from the seventeenth century. At the time of Kelvin's birth, James Thomson, his father, was Professor of Mathematics at the Belfast Royal Academical Institution (Inst). However, following the death of his wife in 1830, James took up a new position as Professor at the University of Glasgow, and he and his children moved there in 1832. Apart from three years studying at Cambridge, and a very brief period immediately afterwards travelling and teaching in Cambridge, Kelvin was to spend the rest of his life in Glasgow, where he occupied the Chair of Natural Philosophy (or Physics) for 53 years. The natural assumption might be that his birth in Ireland was irrelevant to Kelvin's life and work, and that the fine monument erected in his honour in Belfast's Botanic Gardens, which is pictured on the front cover of this volume, was more a demonstration of civic pride than a recognition of an aspect of Kelvin's life which was important to him. The purpose of the meeting was to demon strate that this was not the case, that, great Glaswegian as he undoubtedly became, Kelvin always delighted in the title of Irishman. The influence of his father, very much an Ulsterman, was immense, and Kelvin and his siblings were to follow his non-sectarian and reforming approach. Also important for Kelvin was his Christian upbringing, which began in Belfast, and his beliefs were to play a role of importance in his life and indeed in much of his most important work, in particular that on thermodynamics. Two of his siblings returned to Belfast and spent much of their lives there, and Kelvin was a

  1. Ireland's newest import.

    PubMed

    Kissling, F

    1999-01-01

    This editorial reports that leaders of the antiabortion movement have visited Northern and Southern Ireland to share their protest tactics with colleagues. This paper also comments on the irony of the issue of violent actions of antiabortion activists. Joe Scheidler and Patrick Mahoney, both militant American antiabortion leaders, may have spoken of saving lives in the island but they will sow the same divisiveness and a climate of hate they have helped create in the US. These leaders, particularly Scheidler, have ties with the most violent member of the movement, Michael Bray. Bray has served in prison for the bombing of ten abortion clinics in Washington, DC. He believes that any action undertaken in opposition to abortion is justified and condones the murder of doctors and nurses who provide abortions. A most realistic evidence of abortion violence in America is the one committed against Emily Lyons. She was maimed and blinded in one eye by a bomb blast that shattered an Alabama abortion clinic in 1998. These examples should serve as warning to the citizens of Ireland about the presence of the leaders in their country. Political and religious leaders should provide condemnation of their violent ways in the strongest possible terms.

  2. Ireland's newest import.

    PubMed

    Kissling, F

    1999-01-01

    This editorial reports that leaders of the antiabortion movement have visited Northern and Southern Ireland to share their protest tactics with colleagues. This paper also comments on the irony of the issue of violent actions of antiabortion activists. Joe Scheidler and Patrick Mahoney, both militant American antiabortion leaders, may have spoken of saving lives in the island but they will sow the same divisiveness and a climate of hate they have helped create in the US. These leaders, particularly Scheidler, have ties with the most violent member of the movement, Michael Bray. Bray has served in prison for the bombing of ten abortion clinics in Washington, DC. He believes that any action undertaken in opposition to abortion is justified and condones the murder of doctors and nurses who provide abortions. A most realistic evidence of abortion violence in America is the one committed against Emily Lyons. She was maimed and blinded in one eye by a bomb blast that shattered an Alabama abortion clinic in 1998. These examples should serve as warning to the citizens of Ireland about the presence of the leaders in their country. Political and religious leaders should provide condemnation of their violent ways in the strongest possible terms. PMID:12178908

  3. PREFACE: Kelvin and Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flood, Raymond; McCartney, Mark; Whitaker, Andrew

    2009-07-01

    Sir Joseph Larmor unveiling the Kelvin memorial in the Botanic Gardens, Belfast on a rainy day in 1913 Sir Joseph Larmor unveiling the Kelvin memorial in the Botanic Gardens, Belfast on a rainy day in 1913 © The Ulster Museum: Hogg collection William Thomson, later Lord Kelvin, was born in Belfast in 1824, and his family had lived near Ballynahinch in the north of Ireland, quite close to Belfast, from the seventeenth century. At the time of Kelvin's birth, James Thomson, his father, was Professor of Mathematics at the Belfast Royal Academical Institution (Inst). However, following the death of his wife in 1830, James took up a new position as Professor at the University of Glasgow, and he and his children moved there in 1832. Apart from three years studying at Cambridge, and a very brief period immediately afterwards travelling and teaching in Cambridge, Kelvin was to spend the rest of his life in Glasgow, where he occupied the Chair of Natural Philosophy (or Physics) for 53 years. The natural assumption might be that his birth in Ireland was irrelevant to Kelvin's life and work, and that the fine monument erected in his honour in Belfast's Botanic Gardens, which is pictured on the front cover of this volume, was more a demonstration of civic pride than a recognition of an aspect of Kelvin's life which was important to him. The purpose of the meeting was to demon strate that this was not the case, that, great Glaswegian as he undoubtedly became, Kelvin always delighted in the title of Irishman. The influence of his father, very much an Ulsterman, was immense, and Kelvin and his siblings were to follow his non-sectarian and reforming approach. Also important for Kelvin was his Christian upbringing, which began in Belfast, and his beliefs were to play a role of importance in his life and indeed in much of his most important work, in particular that on thermodynamics. Two of his siblings returned to Belfast and spent much of their lives there, and Kelvin was a

  4. The phenology of Rubus fruticosus in Ireland: herbarium specimens provide evidence for the response of phenophases to temperature, with implications for climate warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diskin, E.; Proctor, H.; Jebb, M.; Sparks, T.; Donnelly, A.

    2012-11-01

    To date, phenological research has provided evidence that climate warming is impacting both animals and plants, evidenced by the altered timing of phenophases. Much of the evidence supporting these findings has been provided by analysis of historic records and present-day fieldwork; herbaria have been identified recently as an alternative source of phenological data. Here, we used Rubus specimens to evaluate herbaria as potential sources of phenological data for use in climate change research and to develop the methodology for using herbaria specimens in phenological studies. Data relevant to phenology (collection date) were recorded from the information cards of over 600 herbarium specimens at Ireland's National Herbarium in Dublin. Each specimen was assigned a score (0-5) corresponding to its phenophase. Temperature data for the study period (1852 - 2007) were obtained from the University of East Anglia's Climate Research Unit (CRU); relationships between temperature and the dates of first flower, full flower, first fruit and full fruit were assessed using weighted linear regression. Of the five species of Rubus examined in this study, specimens of only one ( R. fruticosus) were sufficiently abundant to yield statistically significant relationships with temperature. The results revealed a trend towards earlier dates of first flower, full flower and first fruit phenophases with increasing temperature. Through its multi-phenophase approach, this research serves to extend the most recent work—which validated the use of herbaria through use of a single phenophase—to confirm herbarium-based research as a robust methodology for use in future phenological studies.

  5. Feasibility and psychometric analysis of graduate satisfaction survey of medical students graduating from the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland-Medical University of Bahrain (RCSI Bahrain).

    PubMed

    Strachan, Kathryn; Ansari, Ahmed Al

    2016-01-01

    To assess the satisfaction levels of graduates of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland University of Bahrain (RCSI Bahrain). The graduate survey was administered to four groups of graduates of the RCSI Bahrain who graduated between the years 2010 and 2014. The graduate survey assessed five major domains and comprised 41 items. The RCSI Bahrain opened its doors in 2004, with the first class graduating in 2010. The graduate cohorts used in this study were working in various countries at the time of survey completion. Out of 599 graduates, 153 responded to the graduate survey. The total mean response rate of the graduate survey was 26 %, including 102 females, 44 males, and 7 students who did not indicate their gender. 49 students graduated in 2012, and 53 students graduated in 2013. Of these graduates, 83 were working in Bahrain at the time of survey administration, 11 in the USA, 4 in Malta, and 3 in the UK; the total number of countries where graduates were working was 14. Reliability analysis found high internal consistency for the instrument (with a Cronbach's α of 0.97). The whole instrument was found to be suitable for factor analysis (KMO = 0.853; Bartlett test significant, p < 0.00). Factor analysis showed that the data on the questionnaire decomposed into five factors, which accounted for 72.3 % of the total variance: future performance, career development, skills development, graduate as collaborator, and communication skills. The survey results found that graduates of the RCSI Bahrain program who responded to this questionnaire are generally satisfied with their experience at the university, feel well prepared to join the field and feel ready to compete with graduates of competing universities. Furthermore, the graduate survey was found to be a reliable instrument and we provided some evidence to support the construct validity of the instrument.

  6. Role of two-component sensory systems of Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin in the pathogenesis of systemic salmonellosis in cattle.

    PubMed

    Pullinger, Gillian D; van Diemen, Pauline M; Dziva, Francis; Stevens, Mark P

    2010-10-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin (S. Dublin) is associated with enteritis, typhoid and abortion in cattle. Infections are acquired by the oral route, and the bacteria transit through varied anatomical and cellular niches to elicit systemic disease. S. Dublin must therefore sense and respond to diverse extrinsic stimuli to control gene expression in a spatial and temporal manner. Two-component systems (TCSs) play key roles in such processes, and typically contain a membrane-associated sensor kinase (SK) that modifies a cognate response regulator. Analysis of the genome sequence of S. Dublin identified 31 conserved SK genes. Each SK gene was separately disrupted by lambda Red recombinase-mediated insertion of transposons harbouring unique sequence tags. Calves were challenged with a pool of the mutants together with control strains of defined virulence by the oral and intravenous routes. Quantification of tagged mutants in output pools derived from various tissues and cannulated lymphatic vessels allowed the assignment of spatial roles for each SK following oral inoculation or when the intestinal barrier was bypassed by intravenous delivery. Mutant phenotypes were also assigned in cultured intestinal epithelial cells. Mutants with insertions in barA, envZ, phoQ, ssrA or qseC were significantly negatively selected at all enteric and systemic sites sampled after oral dosing. Mutants lacking baeS, dpiB or citA were negatively selected at some but not all sites. After intravenous inoculation, only barA and phoQ mutants were significantly under-represented at systemic sites. The novel role of baeS in intestinal colonization was confirmed by oral co-infection studies, with a mutant exhibiting modest but significant attenuation at a number of enteric sites. This is the first systematic analysis of the role of all Salmonella TCSs in a highly relevant model of enteric fever. Spatial roles were assigned to eight S. Dublin SKs, but most were not essential for intestinal or

  7. Examples of studies of solar and lunar cycles carried out in Ireland in Neolithic times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna McKenna-Lawlor, Susan

    2016-10-01

    Brứ na Bόinn (Newgrange) is the largest member of a group of Neolithic passage graves located in the Boyne Valley, Co. Meath, about 50 km from Dublin in Ireland. According to radio carbon dating, the monument was constructed between about 3200 and 3100 BC and it is thus s about five hundred years older than the current form of Stonehenge as well as older than the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt. Also, it predates the Mycenaean culture of ancient Greece. At the Winter Solstice, the rising sun shines through an external architectural feature called the roof box and traverses a 19m long passage to illuminate an inner chamber decorated by an elegant triple spiral and other carvings. This illumination lasts for about 17 minutes. Today, first light enters about four minutes after sunrise, but calculations based on the precession of the Earth show that, 5,000 years ago, first light would have entered exactly at sunrise. The poster presents drawings of the geometrical alignment concerned and places the monument in the context of other Neolithic monuments in Ireland oriented to key dates in the solar calendar. Evidence for the existence in the Boyne Valley of an interest in lunar as well as in solar cycles is discussed and a carving of a lunar cycle, deemed to be the earliest to be identified without serious ambiguity in either Ireland or Britain, is illustrated and described.

  8. Coming to Journalism: A Comparative Case Study of Postgraduate Students in Dublin and Amman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Boyle, Neil; Knowlton, Steven

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from a pilot study of postgraduate journalism students in Dublin and Amman. The study compared professional outlooks and social characteristics of students in both contexts and examined institutional settings. The study finds that journalism students in Dublin and Amman have very similar views on the profession,…

  9. 78 FR 53054 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Chillicothe, Dublin, Hillsboro, and Marion, Ohio

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... Dublin, Ohio, over the objection of the Committee. See 70 FR 19337 (April 13, 2005). The Committee had... ground, and the Bureau denied the petition in the Memorandum Opinion and Order. See 71 FR 40927 (July 19... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Chillicothe, Dublin, Hillsboro, and Marion,...

  10. A milk-borne outbreak due to Salmonella dublin.

    PubMed Central

    Small, R. G.; Sharp, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Salmonella dublin is primarily adapted to bovines and is a relatively rare cause of human illness. An outbreak is described in which it was estimated that at least 700 persons were infected from milk which had not been subjected to heat treatment. Although the organism was isolated from retail samples of milk, investigations at the dairy farm were inconclusive and a number of questions are posed. Attention is drawn to the value of inter-disciplinary cooperation in the investigation of the outbreak. PMID:570201

  11. New Histories for a New State: A Study of History Textbook Content in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terra, Luke

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the changing content of history textbooks in Northern Ireland, drawing on a sample of 15 textbooks published from 1968 to 2010. Findings from the content and narrative analysis indicated that following the introduction of the Northern Ireland Curriculum in 1991, history textbooks shifted from a narrative to source-driven…

  12. 100 Years of Primary Curriculum Development and Implementation in Ireland: A Tale of a Swinging Pendulum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    There are ongoing initiatives in curriculum development and implementation in Ireland and internationally in order to enhance the educational experiences and outcomes of learners. This article is the first historical longitudinal analysis of primary school curriculum development and implementation in Ireland from the 1890s to the 1990s. The…

  13. Young Women's Positive and Negative Perceptions of Self in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlister, Siobhan; Neill, Gail

    2007-01-01

    This paper represents analysis of one aspect of a larger research project examining the everyday lives and experiences of young women in Northern Ireland. As an introductory exercise within focus groups, 48 young women considered and discussed the good and not so good things about being a young woman in Northern Ireland. Through these accounts…

  14. The Economic Impact of Queen's University Belfast on the Northern Ireland Economy. Higher Education in Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Ursula; McNicoll, Iain; White, James

    2015-01-01

    This study provides an analysis of the economic impact of Queen's University Belfast and its students on the Northern Ireland economy. Based in the City of Belfast, the university has over 22,500 students. Its turnover of nearly £290 million makes it Northern Ireland's largest university in terms of its financial standing. With origins going back…

  15. Spatial Microsimulation for Rural Policy Analysis in Ireland: The Implications of CAP Reforms for the National Spatial Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballas, D.; Clarke, G. P.; Wiemers, E.

    2006-01-01

    Microsimulation attempts to describe economic and social events by modelling the behaviour of individual agents. These models have proved useful in evaluating the impact of policy changes at the micro level. Spatial microsimulation models contain geographic information and allow for a regional or local approach to policy analysis. This paper…

  16. Exploring the consistency, transparency and portability of dental technology education: benchmarking across Norway, Ireland and Australia.

    PubMed

    Myhrer, T; Evans, J L; Haugen, H K; Gorman, C; Kavanagh, Y; Cameron, A B

    2016-08-01

    Dental technology programmes of study must prepare students to practice in a broad range of contemporary workplaces. Currently, there is limited evidence to benchmark dental technology education - locally, nationally or internationally. This research aims to improve consistency, transparency and portability of dental technology qualifications across three countries. Data were accessed from open-source curriculum documents and five calibrated assessment items. Three institutions collaborated with Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway; Trinity College Dublin, Ireland; and Griffith University, Australia. From these, 29-44 students completed 174 assessments. The curricula reflect the community needs of each country and display common themes that underpin professional dental technology practice. Assessment results differed between institutions but no more than a normal distribution. Face-to-face assessment moderation was critical to achieve consistency. This collaborative research has led to the development of a set of guidelines for other dental technology education providers interested in developing or aligning courses internationally to enhance the portability of qualifications.

  17. Physical activity in Dublin children aged 7–9 years

    PubMed Central

    Hussey, J; Gormley, J; Bell, C

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To investigate the amount of regular activity and time spent in sedentary occupations in children aged 7–9 years. Sex differences in levels of activity and time and facilities for physical education at school were also examined. Methods—A 10% sample of Dublin National Schools were selected. Parents of children in second class were surveyed. The questionnaire used was a modification of the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents. Teachers of second class were questioned about the time and facilities for physical education in schools. Results—Some 39% of children were participating in hard exercise for at least 20 minutes three or more times a week, with fewer girls (28%) than boys (53%) contributing to this result. A further 57% of children were engaging in at least 20 minutes of light exercise three or more times a week, with no sex differences. Estimated energy expenditure in regular activity was higher in boys than girls. Most (78%) of the children were spending one to three hours a day sedentary in front of a screen. Conclusions—This study provides comprehensive data on physical activity levels in Dublin schoolchildren aged 7–9 years. The amount of inactivity is of concern. Even at this young age, boys are reported to participate in more physical activity than girls. Key Words: physical activity; exercise; children PMID:11477025

  18. The Impact of Afforestation on the Carbon Stocks of Mineral Soils Across the Republic of Ireland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellock, M.; Laperle, C.; Kiely, G.; Reidy, B.; Duffy, C.; Tobin, B.

    2009-04-01

    conifer, broadleaf, and mixed (broadleaf and conifer) and soil type: brown earth, podzol, brown podzolic, gley and brown earth. The paired plot method involves selecting a second site that represents the same soil type and physical characteristics as the forest site. The only difference between the two sites should be the current land-use of the pair site, which should represent the pre-afforestation land-use of the forest site. Each forest site and its pair site will be sampled in the top 30 cm of soil for bulk density and organic carbon %, while litter and F/H layer samples will be taken and analysed for carbon. This data should provide an analysis of the carbon stocks of the soil and litter of both the forest site and its pair site allowing for comparison and thus the impact of afforestation on carbon stocks. References. Byrne, K.A., & Milne, R. (2006). Carbon stocks and sequestration in plantation forests in the Republic of Ireland. Forestry, 79, no. 4: 361. Davis, M.R., & Condron, L.M. (2002). Impact of grassland afforestation on soil carbon in New Zealand: a review of paired-site studies. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 40, no. 4: 675-690. Kyoto Protocol. 1997 Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. FCCC/CP/1997/7/Add.1, Decision 1/CP.3, Annex 7. UN. National Forest Inventory: NFI Methodology. (2007). Forest Service, The Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food, Wexford, Ireland. Pilcher, J.R. & Mac an tSaoir, S. (1995). Wood, Trees and Forests in Ireland. (Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. Renou, F. & Farrell, E.P. (2005). Reclaiming peatlands for forestry: the Irish experience. In: Stanturf, J.A. and Madsen, P.A. (eds.). Restoration of boreal and temperate forests. CRC Press, Boca Raton. p.541-557. UNFCCC. 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Palais des Nations, Geneva. http://www.unfccc.de/index.html

  19. Bullying in Schools: A Northern Ireland Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Katrina; McAleavy, Gerry; Adamson, Gary

    2004-01-01

    Northern Ireland, unlike the Republic of Ireland or England, has no province-wide information on bullying in schools. This study provided baseline information on this complex issue across 120 schools in all five Education and Library Boards in Northern Ireland, comprising 60 primary and 60 post-primary schools, 1079 primary pupils (Year 6) and…

  20. Mallow Springs, County Cork, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldwell, C. R.

    1996-03-01

    Because of its copious and reliable rainfall, Ireland has an abundance of springs. Many of the larger ones issue from the Carboniferous limestone that occurs in over 40% of the country. The spring water is mainly a calcium bicarbonate type with a temperature of about 10°C. In the 18th century, warm and cold springs were developed as spas in various parts of Ireland. The popularity of these springs was short and most were in major decline by 1850. Today only one cold spa at Lisdoonvarna, Co. Clare is still operating. Springs in Ireland were places of religious significance for the pre-Christian Druidic religion. In the Christian period they became holy wells, under the patronage of various saints. Cures for many different ailments were attributed to water from these wells.

  1. 'Mixed' religion relationships and well-being in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    McAloney, Kareena

    2014-08-01

    Religion plays a pivotal role in intergroup and interpersonal relationships in Northern Ireland, and individuals traditionally marry within their own religious group. However, 'mixed' marriages between Catholics and Protestants do occur and present an interesting, yet under researched, dynamic within this divided society. Both religion and committed relationships have been associated with physical and psychological health, but little is known about how divergence in religious beliefs within relationships impacts on health. A secondary data analysis of the Northern Ireland cohort of the Understanding Society: the UK Household Longitudinal Study was conducted to investigate the impact of mixed religion relationships on physical and psychological well-being in Northern Ireland. Less than 10% of relationships were mixed religion relationships, and being in a mixed relationship was associated with poorer mental health but not with physical health. Mixed religion relationships in Northern Ireland are relatively uncommon in Northern Ireland, but are an important form of intergroup contact, as such it is important to fully understand the implications for the individuals involved and develop mechanisms to support those individuals psychological well-being.

  2. Exploring Sedimentary Basins with High Frequency Receiver Function: the Dublin Basin Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licciardi, A.; Piana Agostinetti, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Receiver Function (RF) method is a widely applied seismological tool for the imaging of crustal and lithospheric structures beneath a single seismic station with one to tens kilometers of vertical resolution. However, detailed information about the upper crust (0-10 km depth) can also be retrieved by increasing the frequency content of the analyzed RF data-set (with a vertical resolution lower than 0.5km). This information includes depth of velocity contrasts, S-wave velocities within layers, as well as presence and location of seismic anisotropy or dipping interfaces (e.g., induced by faulting) at depth. These observables provides valuable constraints on the structural settings and properties of sedimentary basins both for scientific and industrial applications. To test the RF capabilities for this high resolution application, six broadband seismic stations have been deployed across the southwestern margin of the Dublin Basin (DB), Ireland, whose geothermal potential has been investigated in the last few years. With an inter-station distance of about 1km, this closely spaced array has been designed to provide a clear picture of the structural transition between the margin and the inner portion of the basin. In this study, a Bayesian approach is used to retrieve the posterior probability distributions of S-wave velocity at depth beneath each seismic station. A multi-frequency RF data-set is analyzed and RF and curves of apparent velocity are jointly inverted to better constrain absolute velocity variations. A pseudo 2D section is built to observe the lateral changes in elastic properties across the margin of the basin with a focus in the shallow portion of the crust. Moreover, by means of the harmonic decomposition technique, the azimuthal variations in the RF data-set are isolated and interpreted in terms of anisotropy and dipping interfaces associated with the major fault system in the area. These results are compared with the available information from

  3. Low Energy Schools in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffernan, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Out of a commitment to reducing carbon dioxide emissions, Ireland's Department of Education and Science has designed and constructed two low energy schools, in Tullamore, County Offaly, and Raheen, County Laois. With energy use in buildings responsible for approximately 55% of the CO[subscript 2] released into the atmosphere and a major…

  4. Youth in Northern Ireland: Introduction to the Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percy, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a collection of articles that represent some of the research and policy analysis of key issues affecting the lives of young people currently living in Northern Ireland, which is in the midst of an unparalleled political and social transformation. The articles focus on crime, drug use, criminal justice, families, divorce, and youth…

  5. Paul Mills Ireland III Portrait of a Soldier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, John P.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the life and identity of Paul Mills Ireland, III. The qualitative study was conducted using the portraiture approach and was further developed by incorporating the holistic content approach of analysis in narrative research. This fifth generation soldier was the product of a strong military lineage, most of whom were…

  6. Hyper Text Mark-up Language and Dublin Core metadata element set usage in websites of Iranian State Universities’ libraries

    PubMed Central

    Zare-Farashbandi, Firoozeh; Ramezan-Shirazi, Mahtab; Ashrafi-Rizi, Hasan; Nouri, Rasool

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Recent progress in providing innovative solutions in the organization of electronic resources and research in this area shows a global trend in the use of new strategies such as metadata to facilitate description, place for, organization and retrieval of resources in the web environment. In this context, library metadata standards have a special place; therefore, the purpose of the present study has been a comparative study on the Central Libraries’ Websites of Iran State Universities for Hyper Text Mark-up Language (HTML) and Dublin Core metadata elements usage in 2011. Materials and Methods: The method of this study is applied-descriptive and data collection tool is the check lists created by the researchers. Statistical community includes 98 websites of the Iranian State Universities of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education and Ministry of Science, Research and Technology and method of sampling is the census. Information was collected through observation and direct visits to websites and data analysis was prepared by Microsoft Excel software, 2011. Results: The results of this study indicate that none of the websites use Dublin Core (DC) metadata and that only a few of them have used overlaps elements between HTML meta tags and Dublin Core (DC) elements. The percentage of overlaps of DC elements centralization in the Ministry of Health were 56% for both description and keywords and, in the Ministry of Science, were 45% for the keywords and 39% for the description. But, HTML meta tags have moderate presence in both Ministries, as the most-used elements were keywords and description (56%) and the least-used elements were date and formatter (0%). Conclusion: It was observed that the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Science follows the same path for using Dublin Core standard on their websites in the future. Because Central Library Websites are an example of scientific web pages, special attention in designing them can help the researchers

  7. EFFECT OF AIR-POLLUTION CONTROL ON DEATH RATES IN DUBLIN, IRELAND: AN INTERVENTION STUDY. (R827353C006)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Particulate air pollution episodes have been associated with increased daily death. However, there is little direct evidence that diminished particulate air pollution concentrations would lead to reductions in death rates. We assessed the effect of ...

  8. Language across Cultures. Proceedings of a Symposium (St. Patrick's College, Dublin, Ireland, July 8-9, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathuna, Liam Mac; Singleton, David

    Papers presented at the symposium on the relationship between language and culture include, in addition to an opening adress: "Sociosemiotics Across Cultures" (Wolfgang Kuhlwein); "Translation Across Languages or Across Cultures?" (Albrecht Neubert); "Grammatical Categories Across Cultures" (Olga Tomic); "On Taking Language Tests: What the…

  9. Metabolic Field (Schrodinger); an explanatory platform for biology: Based on lecture at Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland, July 18, 2012.

    PubMed

    Bortz, Walter M

    2015-12-01

    Metabolism represents the nexus of fundamental physical forces, which while present in all structure and function require new explanatory emergent principles, which, so far, cannot be predicted or derived solely from description of chemistry and physics. Metabolism is essentially concerned with the transduction of energy flows with respect to time, space, and matter. Language models and metaphors contribute to construction of scientific explanation within biology. The concept of a metabolic field yields a deeper, broader, more quantitative integrated theoretical framework leading to novel predictive models of systems biology.

  10. Republic of Ireland: abortion controversy.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    The problems associated with illegal abortion dominate public discussion in Ireland. While abortion is illegal in Ireland, the Supreme Court directed in 1992 that Irish women can go to Britain for abortions when their lives are thought to be at risk. Abortion was a constant feature during the Irish Presidential election campaign in October, while a dispute about the future of a 13-year-old girl's pregnancy dominated the headlines in November. The presidential election on October 30 resulted in a victory for one of the two openly anti-choice candidates, Mary McAleese, a lawyer from Northern Ireland. With a voter turnout of 47.6%, McAleese polled 45.2% of the votes cast. Although the president may refuse to sign bills which have been passed by parliament, McAleese has said that she will sign whatever bill is placed before her, even if it liberalizes abortion law in the republic. As for the case of the 13-year-old pregnant girl, she was taken into the care of Irish health authority officials once the case was reported to the police. However, the health board, as a state agency, is prevented by Irish law from helping anyone travel abroad for abortion. The girl was eventually given leave in a judgement by a High Court Judicial Review on November 28 to travel to England for an abortion.

  11. The occurrence of PAHs and faecal sterols in Dublin Bay and their influence on sedimentary microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Brian T; O'Reilly, Shane S; Monteys, Xavier; Reid, Barry F; Szpak, Michal T; McCaul, Margaret V; Jordan, Sean F; Allen, Christopher C R; Kelleher, Brian P

    2016-05-15

    The source, concentration, and potential impact of sewage discharge and incomplete organic matter (OM) combustion on sedimentary microbial populations were assessed in Dublin Bay, Ireland. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and faecal steroids were investigated in 30 surface sediment stations in the bay. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) content at each station was used to identify and quantify the broad microbial groups present and the impact of particle size, total organic carbon (%TOC), total hydrogen (%H) and total nitrogen (%N) was also considered. Faecal sterols were found to be highest in areas with historical point sources of sewage discharge. PAH distribution was more strongly associated with areas of deposition containing high %silt and %clay content, suggesting that PAHs are from diffuse sources such as rainwater run-off and atmospheric deposition. The PAHs ranged from 12 to 3072ng/g, with 10 stations exceeding the suggested effect range low (ERL) for PAHs in marine sediments. PAH isomer pair ratios and sterol ratios were used to determine the source and extent of pollution. PLFAs were not impacted by sediment type or water depth but were strongly correlated to, and influenced by PAH and sewage levels. Certain biomarkers such as 10Me16:0, i17:0 and a17:0 were closely associated with PAH polluted sediments, while 16:1ω9, 16:1ω7c, Cy17:0, 18:1ω6, i16:0 and 15:0 all have strong positive correlations with faecal sterols. Overall, the results show that sedimentary microbial communities are impacted by anthropogenic pollution.

  12. The occurrence of PAHs and faecal sterols in Dublin Bay and their influence on sedimentary microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Brian T; O'Reilly, Shane S; Monteys, Xavier; Reid, Barry F; Szpak, Michal T; McCaul, Margaret V; Jordan, Sean F; Allen, Christopher C R; Kelleher, Brian P

    2016-05-15

    The source, concentration, and potential impact of sewage discharge and incomplete organic matter (OM) combustion on sedimentary microbial populations were assessed in Dublin Bay, Ireland. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and faecal steroids were investigated in 30 surface sediment stations in the bay. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) content at each station was used to identify and quantify the broad microbial groups present and the impact of particle size, total organic carbon (%TOC), total hydrogen (%H) and total nitrogen (%N) was also considered. Faecal sterols were found to be highest in areas with historical point sources of sewage discharge. PAH distribution was more strongly associated with areas of deposition containing high %silt and %clay content, suggesting that PAHs are from diffuse sources such as rainwater run-off and atmospheric deposition. The PAHs ranged from 12 to 3072ng/g, with 10 stations exceeding the suggested effect range low (ERL) for PAHs in marine sediments. PAH isomer pair ratios and sterol ratios were used to determine the source and extent of pollution. PLFAs were not impacted by sediment type or water depth but were strongly correlated to, and influenced by PAH and sewage levels. Certain biomarkers such as 10Me16:0, i17:0 and a17:0 were closely associated with PAH polluted sediments, while 16:1ω9, 16:1ω7c, Cy17:0, 18:1ω6, i16:0 and 15:0 all have strong positive correlations with faecal sterols. Overall, the results show that sedimentary microbial communities are impacted by anthropogenic pollution. PMID:26961173

  13. Centennial-scale climate change in Ireland during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swindles, Graeme T.; Lawson, Ian T.; Matthews, Ian P.; Blaauw, Maarten; Daley, Timothy J.; Charman, Dan J.; Roland, Thomas P.; Plunkett, Gill; Schettler, Georg; Gearey, Benjamin R.; Turner, T. Edward; Rea, Heidi A.; Roe, Helen M.; Amesbury, Matthew J.; Chambers, Frank M.; Holmes, Jonathan; Mitchell, Fraser J. G.; Blackford, Jeffrey; Blundell, Antony; Branch, Nicholas; Holmes, Jane; Langdon, Peter; McCarroll, Julia; McDermott, Frank; Oksanen, Pirita O.; Pritchard, Oliver; Stastney, Phil; Stefanini, Bettina; Young, Dan; Wheeler, Jane; Becker, Katharina; Armit, Ian

    2013-11-01

    We examine mid- to late Holocene centennial-scale climate variability in Ireland using proxy data from peatlands, lakes and a speleothem. A high degree of between-record variability is apparent in the proxy data and significant chronological uncertainties are present. However, tephra layers provide a robust tool for correlation and improve the chronological precision of the records. Although we can find no statistically significant coherence in the dataset as a whole, a selection of high-quality peatland water table reconstructions co-vary more than would be expected by chance alone. A locally weighted regression model with bootstrapping can be used to construct a 'best-estimate' palaeoclimatic reconstruction from these datasets. Visual comparison and cross-wavelet analysis of peatland water table compilations from Ireland and Northern Britain show that there are some periods of coherence between these records. Some terrestrial palaeoclimatic changes in Ireland appear to coincide with changes in the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation and solar activity. However, these relationships are inconsistent and may be obscured by chronological uncertainties. We conclude by suggesting an agenda for future Holocene climate research in Ireland.

  14. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in Ireland: phylogenetic evidence for risk group-specific subepidemics.

    PubMed

    De Gascun, Cillian F; Waters, Allison; Regan, Ciara M; O'Halloran, Jane; Farrell, Gillian; Coughlan, Suzie; Bergin, Colm; Powderly, William G; Hall, William W

    2012-09-01

    HIV genetic diversity may have an impact on viral pathogenesis, transmission, response to treatment, and vaccine development. Public health surveillance that monitors the frequency and variety of HIV subtypes in a particular region or patient group is vital to successfully control the pandemic. We present the first comprehensive report on HIV diversity in Ireland. This study comprised all new HIV-1 diagnoses that were confirmed in the National Virus Reference Laboratory, University College Dublin, from January 2004 to December 2008. HIV 1 protease and reverse transcriptase sequences were generated using the Siemens Trugene HIV 1 Genotyping System. Subtypes were determined using web-based genotyping tools. There were 1579 new diagnoses [615 (39%) female and 964 (61%) male], of which 1060 had HIV-1 RNA specimens available for sequencing. Of sequenced samples, HIV-1 subtype B accounted for 50% overall, decreasing from 55.1% in 2004 to 49.5% in 2008. In addition, subtype B accounted for more than 80% of Irish-born individuals and more than 90% of Irish-born injection drug users and men who have sex with men. Subtype C was the second most prevalent in the overall cohort, accounting for 25%, although it accounted for only 6.1% of Irish-born individuals, with no evidence of in country transmission. The prevalence of non-subtype B HIV-1 infection in Ireland is increasing. However, these appear primarily to be imported infections not yet circulating within traditional Irish risk groups. Enhanced HIV-1 molecular epidemiology surveillance is required to monitor the spread of HIV-1, to inform future public health policy, and to ultimately control the HIV-1 epidemic in Ireland.

  15. Whole genome sequencing provides insights into the genetic determinants of invasiveness in Salmonella Dublin.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, M; Cormican, M

    2016-08-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin (S. Dublin) is one of the non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS); however, a relatively high proportion of human infections are associated with invasive disease. We applied whole genome sequencing to representative invasive and non-invasive clinical isolates of S. Dublin to determine the genomic variations among them and to investigate the underlying genetic determinants associated with invasiveness in S. Dublin. Although no particular genomic variation was found to differentiate in invasive and non-invasive isolates four virulence factors were detected within the genome of all isolates including two different type VI secretion systems (T6SS) encoded on two Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPI), including SPI-6 (T6SSSPI-6) and SPI-19 (T6SSSPI-19), an intact lambdoid prophage (Gifsy-2-like prophage) that contributes significantly to the virulence and pathogenesis of Salmonella serotypes in addition to a virulence plasmid. These four virulence factors may all contribute to the potential of S. Dublin to cause invasive disease in humans.

  16. Cyber-Bullying: The Situation in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Moore, Mona

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the first major survey of cyber-bullying undertaken in Ireland. While preliminary results have been published they were based on a smaller and incomplete sample of 12-16 year olds living in Ireland. The preliminary results addressed the incidence level of cyber-bullying and that of the different subcategories of…

  17. Communications, Corporatism, and Dependent Development in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Desmond

    1995-01-01

    Explores the complex relationship between the corporate state and public service broadcasting in Europe, using a historical case study of Ireland. Discusses the Pan-European debate; public service broadcasting; critical media theory and the state; broadcasting and the corporate state; the corporate state and broadcasting in Ireland; neo-liberal…

  18. Overseas nurse recruitment: Ireland as an illustration of the dynamic nature of nurse migration.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Niamh; Brugha, Ruairí; McGee, Hannah

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents an analysis of Ireland's recent experience of overseas nurse recruitment. Ireland began actively recruiting nurses from overseas in 2000 and has recruited almost 10,000 nurses, primarily from India and the Philippines since that time. This paper takes a timely look at the Irish experience to date. It reviews the literature on the supply and demand factors that determine the need for, and the international migration of, nurses and presents working visa and nurse registration statistics. This enables the authors to quantify and discuss the trends and scale of recent nurse migration to Ireland from outside the European Union (EU). The paper discusses the data essential for national workforce planning and highlights the deficiencies in the Irish data currently available for that purpose. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of Ireland's heavy reliance on overseas nurse recruitment.

  19. An analysis of the existing resources in relation to education and treatment of diabetes in four European countries: Estonia, Finland, Ireland, and Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Burton, Aileen; Mikkonen, Ìrma; Buckley, Catherine; Creedon, Sile; Hynynen, Marja-Anneli; Kiljako, Marit; Kuzminskiene, Lilija; Leahy-Warren, Patricia; Mikutaviciene, Inga; Puputti, Seija; Rasteniene, Vilma; Riikonen, Riita; Simm, Piret; Soovali, Eve-Merike; Tiainen, Arja-Irene; Väistö, Ritva

    2011-05-01

    Diabetes has reached pandemic proportions worldwide. To address and assist health care professionals in maintaining and updating their knowledge base on diabetes care, a multilateral project within the framework of the Lifelong Learning Programme and the Erasmus Curriculum Development - sub programme was initiated in 2008. Four European countries are involved in the project - Estonia, Finland, Ireland and Lithuania. Across all four countries the prevalence of diabetes is rising rapidly. The project's (DIPRA - Counselling for Practice - a pilot of improving counselling quality of diabetes) main product will be an on-line study module on patient education and counselling for health care professionals. The management of diabetes demands a broad range of skills which include, communication, leadership, counselling, teaching and research to name but a few. While it is acknowledged that nurses can incorporate these skills into practice and so benefit the care of the patient there is no uniformity across the four countries studied as to what constitutes a specialist diabetes nurse. The study module and all the materials (databank, on-line lectures, and interactive exercises) will be developed in English and translated into partners' national languages (Estonian, Finnish, Lithuanian) to maximize the accessibility of all professionals in partner countries. PMID:21255975

  20. Strike-Slip Tectonics in Northwestern Ireland? Evidence From the 2012 January Seismic Sequence in Co. Donegal, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, S.; Agius, M. R.; Schaeffer, A. J.; Horan, C.; Piccinini, D.; Piana Agostinetti, N.

    2012-12-01

    Ireland lies on the eastern edge of the northern Atlantic, next to western Eurasia's continental shelf. Its surface geology has recorded a number of major tectonic events: the Iapetus Suture Zone has been left behind by the closure of the Iapetus Ocean during the Caledonian Orogeny. The present-day tectonic stress regime across Ireland, however, is not clearly understood. Three main mechanisms have been suggested to cause earthquake activity in the British Isles: (1) the glacio-isostatic stress associated with the post-glacial rebound, (2) the response of the lithosphere to the presence of a hot, low-density anomaly in the underlying mantle, and (3) the regional stress field due to the northwest-southeast compression caused by the spreading at the North Atlantic Mid-Ocean Ridge. The investigation of the distribution of microseismicity and the analysis of the focal mechanism of larger events are widely used tools for the understanding of the present-day deformation. However, neither tool could be applied in Ireland before, mainly because of the lack, until recently, of a sufficiently dense seismic network. In this study, we analyze the seismic sequence that occurred during January 2012 in Co. Donegal, in the northwest of Ireland. The area has been repeatedly struck by low-magnitude (Mw < 3.0) events in the past decades, but an inadequate seismic network precluded the analysis of the distribution of microseismicity and the possibility of computing reliable focal mechanisms. Here, we present the first complete analysis of a seismic sequence occurring on-shore in Ireland. Thanks to the increasing number of broadband seismic stations, we can compute the focal mechanisms for the strongest event (i.e. the mainshock) recorded by both permanent and temporary seismic stations (belonging to the INSN, Ireland Array, ISUME and Wave-Obs networks). We also locate about 20 aftershocks that occurred in the few weeks after the mainshock. We obtain a focal mechanism solution for the

  1. Decomposing socioeconomic inequalities in childhood obesity: evidence from Ireland.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Brendan; Cullinan, John

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to quantify and decompose the socioeconomic gradient in childhood obesity in the Republic of Ireland. The analysis is performed using data from the first wave of the Growing Up in Ireland survey, a nationally representative survey of 8568 nine-year-old children conducted in 2007 and 2008. We estimate concentration indices to quantify the extent of the socioeconomic gradient in childhood obesity and undertake a subsequent decomposition analysis to pinpoint the key factors underpinning the observed inequalities. Overall the results confirm a strong socioeconomic gradient in childhood obesity in the Republic of Ireland. Concentration indices of obesity (CI=-0.168) and overweight/obese (CI=-0.057) show that the gradient is more pronounced in obese children, while results from the decomposition analysis suggest that the majority of the inequality in childhood obesity is explained by parental level variables. Our findings suggest that addressing childhood obesity inequalities requires coordinated policy responses at both the child and parental level.

  2. Effect of management on prevention of Salmonella Dublin exposure of calves during a one-year control programme in 84 Danish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T D; Vesterbæk, I L; Kudahl, A B; Borup, K J; Nielsen, L R

    2012-06-01

    Studies reporting on how to control Salmonella in cattle herds have mainly been theoretical simulation models or case reports describing control of clinical salmonellosis outbreaks. The objective of this observational study was to investigate which management routines were associated with successful control of Salmonella Dublin in calves in dairy herds with previous signs of endemic infection. A total of 86 bulk-tank milk Salmonella Dublin antibody-positive bovine dairy herds were enrolled in the study in September 2008 and were all encouraged to control spread of the infection. One year later it was assessed if they were successful. The criterion for successful control was defined as the 10 youngest calves above three months of age testing Salmonella Dublin antibody-negative, indicating that exposure to Salmonella of these calves from birth until close to the day of testing had been successfully prevented. Management routines were registered through telephone interviews based on a questionnaire resulting in 45 variables for analysis. By the end of the study, a total of 84 herds had completed the interviews and had serum samples collected from calves. Data were analysed using two statistical methods: logistic regression analysis and discriminant analysis. Both analyses identified that increased probability of successful control was strongly associated with avoiding purchase of cattle from test-positive herds. Additionally, ensuring good calving area management, separating calf pens by solid walls rather than bars and not introducing biosecurity routines between the barn sections (e.g. boot wash, change of clothing) were associated with increased probability of successful control in the logistic analysis. The latter may seem illogical, but may be explained by successful herds already having good hygienic routines in place and therefore not having introduced new routines between barn sections in the study period. The discriminant analysis furthermore identified

  3. A Y-Chromosome Signature of Hegemony in Gaelic Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Laoise T. ; McEvoy, Brian ; Cape, Eleanor ; Simms, Katharine ; Bradley, Daniel G. 

    2006-01-01

    Seventeen-marker simple tandem repeat genetic analysis of Irish Y chromosomes reveals a previously unnoted modal haplotype that peaks in frequency in the northwestern part of the island. It shows a significant association with surnames purported to have descended from the most important and enduring dynasty of early medieval Ireland, the Uí Néill. This suggests that such phylogenetic predominance is a biological record of past hegemony and supports the veracity of semimythological early genealogies. The fact that about one in five males sampled in northwestern Ireland is likely a patrilineal descendent of a single early medieval ancestor is a powerful illustration of the potential link between prolificacy and power and of how Y-chromosome phylogeography can be influenced by social selection. PMID:16358217

  4. Digital Libraries and the Problem of Purpose [and] On DigiPaper and the Dissemination of Electronic Documents [and] DFAS: The Distributed Finding Aid Search System [and] Best Practices for Digital Archiving: An Information Life Cycle Approach [and] Mapping and Converting Essential Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Metadata into MARC21 and Dublin Core: Towards an Alternative to the FGDC Clearinghouse [and] Evaluating Website Modifications at the National Library of Medicine through Search Log analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, David M.; Huttenlocher, Dan; Moll, Angela; Smith, MacKenzie; Hodge, Gail M.; Chandler, Adam; Foley, Dan; Hafez, Alaaeldin M.; Redalen, Aaron; Miller, Naomi

    2000-01-01

    Includes six articles focusing on the purpose of digital public libraries; encoding electronic documents through compression techniques; a distributed finding aid server; digital archiving practices in the framework of information life cycle management; converting metadata into MARC format and Dublin Core formats; and evaluating Web sites through…

  5. Ireland

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  An Irish Tale: One City, Two Asteroids     View Larger Image ... were recently commemorated by the official naming of two asteroids, "ArmaghObs" and "Ardmacha". The latter is the ancient Gaelic name ...

  6. Thank you for not flowering: conservation genetics and gene flow analysis of native and non-native populations of Fraxinus (Oleaceae) in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Thomasset, M; Hodkinson, T R; Restoux, G; Frascaria-Lacoste, N; Douglas, G C; Fernández-Manjarrés, J F

    2014-06-01

    The risks of gene flow between interfertile native and introduced plant populations are greatest when there is no spatial isolation of pollen clouds and phenological patterns overlap completely. Moreover, invasion probabilities are further increased if introduced populations are capable of producing seeds by selfing. Here we investigated the mating system and patterns of pollen-mediated gene flow among populations of native ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and mixed plantations of non-native ash (F. angustifolia and F. excelsior) as well as hybrid ash (F. excelsior × F. angustifolia) in Ireland. We analysed the flowering phenology of the mother trees and genotyped with six microsatellite loci in progeny arrays from 132 native and plantation trees (1493 seeds) and 444 potential parents. Paternity analyses suggested that plantation and native trees were pollinated by both native and introduced trees. No signs of significant selfing in the introduced trees were observed and no evidence of higher male reproductive success was found for introduced trees compared with native ones either. A small but significant genetic structure was found (φft=0.05) and did not correspond to an isolation-by-distance pattern. However, we observed a significant temporal genetic structure related to the different phenological groups, especially with early and late flowering native trees; each phenological group was pollinated with distinctive pollen sources. Implications of these results are discussed in relation to the conservation and invasiveness of ash and the spread of resistance genes against pathogens such as the fungus Chalara fraxinea that is destroying common ash forests in Europe.

  7. Mapping and converting essential Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata into MARC21 and Dublin Core: towards an alternative to the FGDC Clearinghouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chandler, A.; Foley, D.; Hafez, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to raise and address a number of issues related to the conversion of Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata into MARC21 and Dublin Core. We present an analysis of 466 FGDC metadata records housed in the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) node of the FGDC Clearinghouse, with special emphasis on the length of fields and the total length of records in this set. One of our contributions is a 34 element crosswalk, a proposal that takes into consideration the constraints of the MARC21 standard as implemented in OCLC's World Cat and the realities of user behavior.

  8. Farmer's lung in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, C F; Hall, G; Chivers, A; Martin, B; Nicholls, D P; Evans, J

    1990-01-01

    A total of 381 farmers in Northern Ireland were studied using a questionnaire, pulmonary function tests, and antibody levels to Micropolyspora faena to assess the incidence of farmer's lung. Twenty (4.9%) had a history of a previous diagnosis of farmer's lung by their doctor. Forty four (10.4%) had delayed onset symptoms compatible with farmer's lung, 32 (7.9%) had precipitant antibody, and 61 (15%) had raised antibody by the enzyme linked immunosorbent (ELISA) method. Restricted lungs were present physiologically in 40 (9.8%). A confirmation of delayed symptoms and precipitant antibody was present in seven (1.7%) whereas delayed symptoms and ELISA antibody was present in nine (2.2%). Using either antibody method only two (0.5%) had a combination of antibody to M faenae, delayed onset symptoms, and restricted pulmonary physiology. PMID:2357452

  9. Farmer's lung in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Stanford, C F; Hall, G; Chivers, A; Martin, B; Nicholls, D P; Evans, J

    1990-05-01

    A total of 381 farmers in Northern Ireland were studied using a questionnaire, pulmonary function tests, and antibody levels to Micropolyspora faena to assess the incidence of farmer's lung. Twenty (4.9%) had a history of a previous diagnosis of farmer's lung by their doctor. Forty four (10.4%) had delayed onset symptoms compatible with farmer's lung, 32 (7.9%) had precipitant antibody, and 61 (15%) had raised antibody by the enzyme linked immunosorbent (ELISA) method. Restricted lungs were present physiologically in 40 (9.8%). A confirmation of delayed symptoms and precipitant antibody was present in seven (1.7%) whereas delayed symptoms and ELISA antibody was present in nine (2.2%). Using either antibody method only two (0.5%) had a combination of antibody to M faenae, delayed onset symptoms, and restricted pulmonary physiology. PMID:2357452

  10. Dublin Institute of Technology's Programme for Students Learning with Communities: A Critical Account of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Elena; Bates, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on the process of critically evaluating Dublin Institute of Technology's Programme for Students Learning With Communities after its first year of operation. The programme supports and promotes community-based learning/service-learning across DIT. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is presented in the form of a…

  11. Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhimurium and Dublin Can Lyse Macrophages by a Mechanism Distinct from Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Patricia R.; Gautier, Anne V.; Paulin, Sue M.; Bland, A. Patricia; Jones, Philip W.; Wallis, Timothy S.

    2000-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Dublin lysed primary bovine alveolar macrophages and immortalized J774.2 macrophage-like cells in the absence of either the morphological changes or DNA fragmentation characteristic of apoptosis. Macrophage lysis was dependent on a subset of caspases and an intact sipB gene. PMID:10816540

  12. 75 FR 76953 - Foreign-Trade Zone 238-Dublin, VA Site Renumbering Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 238--Dublin, VA Site Renumbering Notice Foreign-Trade Zone 238 was approved by the Foreign-Trade Zones Board on August 5, 1999 (Board Order 1047). FTZ...

  13. Immunization of mice and guinea-pigs against Salmonella dublin infection with live and inactivated vaccine.

    PubMed

    Cameron, C M; Fuls, W J

    1975-06-01

    The immunogenicity of a number of avirulent rough Salmonella dublin mutants was compared in mice and guinea-pigs. Live vaccine prepared from Strain HB 1/17 at doses of 5 X 10(7) per mouse usually gave an immunity of between 70 and 80% but in certain experiments the results were more variable and always poorer. This strain gave a cross protection of 28,5% to S. typhimurium in mice. In guinea-pigs it evoked an average protection of approximately 46% to homologous challenge and approximately 26% to challenge with S. tryphimurium. Strain 5765 protected up to 80% of mice against S. dublin infection and was generally superior to Strain HB 1/17 in this respect. It was, however, less effective in protecting mice against S. tryphimurium (20%). In guinea-pigs it was also less effective than Strain HB 1/17, giving 34% protection against homologous and 20% against heterologous challenge. Other strains also produced immunity in mice but they were not studied in detail. Formalin-inactivated alum-precipitated vaccine prepared from avirulent smooth strain and containing 0,5% packed cells proved to be extremely effective in protecting mice against S. dublin infection. It produced an average immunity of 75% and was often 100% effective. It also protected 60% of mice against challenge with S. tryphimurium. In guinea-pigs it was, however, totally ineffective against challenge with both S. dublin and S. tryphimurium.

  14. First report of liver abscess caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin.

    PubMed

    Qu, Fen; Fan, Zhenping; Cui, Enbo; Zhang, Wenjin; Bao, Chunmei; Chen, Suming; Mao, Yuanli; Zhou, Dongsheng

    2013-09-01

    This is the first reported case of liver abscess attributable to Salmonella serovar Dublin infection and also the fourth case of Salmonella liver abscess complicated with hepatocellular carcinoma reported since 1990. Drainage combined with intravenous antibiotics resulted in improvement, but recovery regressed again. Subsequent hepatic left lobectomy led to full recovery.

  15. Solving Long-Term Unemployment in Dublin: The Lessons from Policy Innovation. Policy Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Eithne; Ingolsby, Brid; Daly, Fiona

    This report identifies what policies can be effective in eliminating hard-core unemployment in Dublin and preventing its re-emergence in a new generation. An executive summary precedes the main body of the report. Chapter 1 describes the background of economic boom against which the persistence of long-term unemployment appears paradoxical;…

  16. Application of Dublin Core Metadata in the Description of Digital Primary Sources in Elementary School Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland-Swetland, Anne J.; Kafai, Yasmin B.; Landis, William E.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the results of research examining the ability of fourth and fifth grade science and social science students to use Dublin Core metadata elements to describe image resources for inclusion in a digital archive. Describes networked learning environments called Digital Portfolio Archives and discusses metadata for historical primary…

  17. "A Victim of Its Own Success"? The Diploma in Addiction Studies at Trinity College Dublin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Marguerite; Butler, Shane

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews and reflects on the Diploma in Addiction Studies: a 1-year, full-time programme taught at the School of Social Work and Social Policy in Trinity College Dublin since the academic year 1983/1984, which has recently had its external funding withdrawn. The programme was aimed at multidisciplinary classes, including students from…

  18. Age-structured dynamic, stochastic and mechanistic simulation model of Salmonella Dublin infection within dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Kudahl, Anne Braad; Østergaard, Søren

    2012-06-01

    In the demand for a decision support tool to guide farmers wanting to control Salmonella Dublin (S. Dublin) in Danish dairy herds, we developed an age-structured stochastic, mechanistic and dynamic simulation model of S. Dublin in dairy herds, which incorporated six age groups (neonatal, preweaned calves, weaned calves, growing heifers, breeding heifers and cows) and five infection states (susceptible, acutely infected, carrier, super shedder and resistant). The model simulated population and infection dynamics over a period of 10 years in weekly time steps as: 1) population sizes of each of the six age-groups; 2) S. Dublin incidence and number of animals in each infection state; and 3) S. Dublin related morbidity and mortality in the acutely infected animals. The effects of introducing one infectious heifer on the risk of spread of S. Dublin within the herd and on the duration of infection were estimated through 1000 simulation iterations for 48 scenarios. The scenarios covered all combinations of three herd sizes (70, 200 and 400 cows), four hygiene levels indicating infectious contact parameters, and four herd susceptibility levels indicating different susceptibility parameters for the individual animals in each of the six age groups in the herd. The hygiene level was highly influential on the probability that the infection spread within the herd, duration of infection and epidemic size. The herd susceptibility level was also influential, but not likely to provide sufficient prevention and control of infection on its own. Herd size did not affect the probability of infection spread upon exposure, but the larger the herd the more important were management and housing practices that improve hygiene and reduce susceptibility to shorten durations of infection in the herd and to increase the probability of extinction. In general, disease and mortality patterns followed epidemic waves in the herds. However, an interesting pattern was seen for acute infections and

  19. Dynamic changes in antibody levels as an early warning of Salmonella Dublin in bovine dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Stockmarr, A; Bødker, R; Nielsen, L R

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella Dublin is a bacterium that causes disease and production losses in cattle herds. In Denmark, a surveillance and control program was initiated in 2002 to monitor and reduce the prevalence of Salmonella Dublin. In dairy herds, the surveillance includes herd classification based on bulk tank milk measurements of antibodies directed against Salmonella Dublin at 3-mo intervals. In this study, an "alarm herd" concept, based on the dynamic progression of these repeated measurements, was formulated such that it contains predictive power for Salmonella Dublin herd classification change from "likely free of infection" to "likely infected" in the following quarter of the year, thus warning the farmer 3 mo earlier than the present system. The alarm herd concept was defined through aberrations from a stable development over time of antibody levels. For suitable parameter choices, alarm herd status was a positive predictor for Salmonella Dublin status change in dairy herds, in that alarm herds had a higher risk of changing status in the following quarter compared with nonalarm herds. This was despite the fact that both alarm and nonalarm herds had antibody levels that did not indicate the herds being "likely infected" according to the existing classification system in the present quarter. The alarm herd concept can be used as a new early warning element in the existing surveillance program. Additionally, to improve accuracy of herd classification, the alarm herd concept could be incorporated into a model including other known risk factors for change in herd classification. Furthermore, the model could be extended to other diseases monitored in similar ways.

  20. Folic acid supplements to prevent neural tube defects: trends in East of Ireland 1996-2002.

    PubMed

    Ward, M; Hutton, J; Mc Donnell, R; Bachir, N; Scallan, E; O'Leary, M; Hoey, J; Doyle, A; Delany, V; Sayers, G

    2004-10-01

    Promotion of folic acid to prevent neural Tube Defects (NTD) has been ongoing for ten years in Ireland, without a concomitant reduction in the total birth prevalence of NTD. The effectiveness of folic acid promotion as the sole means of primary prevention of NTD is therefore questionable. We examined trends in folic acid knowledge and peri-conceptional use from 1996-2002 with the aim of assessing the value of this approach. From 1996-2002, 300 women attending ante-natal clinics in Dublin hospitals annually were surveyed regarding their knowledge and use of folic acid. During the period the proportion who had heard of folic acid rose from 54% to 94% between 1996 and 2002 (c2 test for trend: p<0.001). Knowledge that folic acid can prevent NTD also rose from 21% to 66% (c2 test for trend: p<0.001). Although the proportion who took folic acid during pregnancy increased from 14% to 83% from 1996 to 2002 (c2 test for trend: p<0.001), peri-conceptional intake did not rise above 24% in any year. There is a high awareness of folic acid and its relation to NTD, which is not matched by peri-conceptional uptake. The main barrier to peri-conceptional uptake is the lack of pregnancy planning. To date promotional campaigns appear to have been ineffective in reducing the prevalence of NTD in Ireland. Consequently, fortification of staple foodstuffs is the only practical and reliable means of primary prevention of NTD.

  1. Ageing in Changing Community Contexts: Cross-Border Perspectives from Rural Ireland and Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kieran; O'Shea, Eamon; Scharf, Thomas; Murray, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Ongoing demographic, social, economic and cultural changes point to the dynamic and continually changing contexts of rural areas in Ireland and Northern Ireland. However, the influence of such changes on the lives of older people remains under-explored, particularly the question of how older people perceive, connect to and engage in their…

  2. Cyberbullying, Schools and the Law: A Comparative Study in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Noel; Mc Guckin, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study addresses the fast developing behavioural issue of cyberbullying in schools and its complex legal context. Purpose: This study set out to investigate teachers' perceptions of the extent of cyberbullying and the extent to which school leaders in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland feel knowledgeable and confident…

  3. Blooming Seas West of Ireland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    For several weeks in May and early June, daily satellite images of the North Atlantic Ocean west of Ireland have captured partial glimpses of luxuriant blooms of microscopic marine plants between patches of clouds. On June 4, 2007, the skies over the ocean cleared, displaying the sea's spring bloom in brilliant color. A bright blue bloom stretches north from the Mouth of the River Shannon and tapers off like a plume of blue smoke north of Clare Island. (In the large image, a second bloom is visible to the north, wrapping around County Donegal, on the island's northwestern tip.) The image was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite. Cold, nutrient-stocked water often wells up to the surface from the deeper ocean along coastal shelves and at the edges of ocean currents. When it does, it delivers a boost of nutrients that fuel large blooms of single-celled plants collectively known as phytoplankton. The plants are the foundation of the marine food web, and their proliferation in this area of the North Atlantic explains why the waters of western Ireland support myriad fisheries and populations of large mammals like seals, whales, and dolphins. Like plants on land, phytoplankton make their food through photosynthesis, harnessing sunlight for energy using chlorophyll and other light-capturing pigments. The pigments change the way light reflects off the surface water, appearing as colorful swirls of turquoise and green against the darker blue of the ocean. Though individually tiny, collectively these plants play a big role in Earth's carbon and climate cycles; worldwide, they remove about as much carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis as land plants do. Satellites are the only way to map the occurrence of phytoplankton blooms across the global oceans on a regular basis. That kind of information is important not only to scientists who model carbon and climate, but also to biologists and fisheries

  4. Review of pathogenesis and diagnostic methods of immediate relevance for epidemiology and control of Salmonella Dublin in cattle.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2013-02-22

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin (S. Dublin) receives increasing attention in cattle production. It is host-adapted to cattle, and leads to unacceptable levels of morbidity, mortality and production losses in both newly and persistently infected herds. Cattle health promoting institutions in several countries are currently constructing active surveillance programmes or voluntary certification programmes, and encourage control and eradication of S. Dublin infected cattle herds. There is a need to understand the underlying pathogenesis of the infection at both animal and herd level to design successful programmes. Furthermore, knowledge about and access to diagnostic tests for use in practice including information about test accuracy and interpretation of available diagnostic test methods are requested. The aim is to synthesise the abundant literature on elements of pathogenesis and diagnosis of immediate relevance for epidemiology and control of S. Dublin at animal and herd level. Relatively few in vivo studies on S. Dublin pathogenesis in cattle included more than a few animals and often showed varying result. It makes it difficult to draw conclusions about mechanisms that affect dissemination in cattle and that might be targets for control methods directed towards improving resistance against the bacteria, e.g. new vaccines. It is recommended to perform larger studies to elucidate dose-response relationships and age- and genetic effects of immunity. Furthermore, it is recommended to attempt to develop faster and more sensitive methods for detection of S. Dublin for diagnosis of infectious animals.

  5. Giant hydronephrosis and secondary pyelonephritis induced by Salmonella dublin in a Holstein calf.

    PubMed

    Taghipur Bazargani, T; Khodakaram-Tafti, A; Ashrafi, I; Abbassi, A M

    2015-01-01

    Hydronephrosis occurs as a congenital or an acquired condition following obstruction of the urinary tract. In this study, a four month old male Holstein calf with emaciation, growth retardation and a poor dry scruffy hair coat was examined because of remarkable distention of right abdomen. At necropsy, right kidney was hydronephrotic as a very big fluid-filled round pelvis with the presence of multilocular cysts bulged from the cortical surface. With sectioning, more than 10 L of bloody fluid poured out from this sac. Microscopic examination showed severe atrophy of cortical tissue and fibrosis of the medulla. Also, the dilated pelvis was composed of fibrinous exudate and necrosis of epithelium associated with multifocal aggregations of neutrophils and bacterial microcolonies. In a culture and serotyping of isolated bacteria, Salmonella dublin was determined. In conclusion, S. dublin induced pyelonephritis secondary to congenital giant hydronephrosis is the first report in cattle in the world.

  6. Within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin in endemically infected dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, L R

    2013-10-01

    In this study within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin was investigated in three age groups (calves, young stock, adult cows) during five herd visits at 3-month intervals of 14 endemically infected dairy herds. A total of 10162 paired faecal cultures and antibody measurements were used to calculate the age and temporal dynamics of seroprevalence and prevalence of positive faecal cultures. Faecal culture-positive prevalence was generally low. It was highest (5.4%) in calves during December to February. Seroprevalence varied from 0% to 70% between herds, but was generally more stable in young stock and adult cows than in calves. Hierarchical mixed-model results showed that seroprevalence was associated with the bacteriological status in calves and cows, but not in young stock. These results can be used to develop and validate theoretical infection dynamics models and to design effective control programmes for Salmonella Dublin in dairy herds.

  7. A Brief History of the Potato in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on the potato in Ireland focusing on how the potato arrived in Ireland and the advantages and disadvantages of the potato as a food crop. Discusses the Irish potato famine in Ireland, effects of the famine, and the government's laissez-faire response. Includes a list of questions. (CMK)

  8. Polish women's experiences of breastfeeding in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Szafranska, Marcelina; Gallagher, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding among Polish mothers at three-four months (38.6 per cent) is in keeping with the low rates of breastfeeding in Ireland overall (Begley et al 2008), and suggests that Polish women have begun to adopt the infant feeding practices of Irish women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence Polish women's decisions to initiate and continue breastfeeding in Ireland. A descriptive qualitative approach was utilised to explore participants' perspectives of breastfeeding. Results showed that professional and family support are key to a successful breastfeeding experience for these mothers. Recommendations include further individualised support in order to meet the needs of Polish women breastfeeding in Ireland. PMID:26975131

  9. Suicide in the United kingdom and ireland.

    PubMed

    Lester, D; Cantor, C H; Leenaars, A A

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare epidemiological trends in suicide for the three regions of the United Kingdom (England and Wales, Northern Ireland, and Scotland) and for Ireland from 1960 to 1990. The data on suicide rates were obtained from the World Health Organization statistical base, supplemented by data from the statistical offices of the four regions. While the suicide rates in Ireland, Northern Ireland and Scotland increased during the period under study, English/Welsh suicide rates first declined and then held steady. In Ireland, both male and female suicide rates increased, whereas in the other regions only male suicide rates rose. According to age, in England and Wales, suicide rates rose for male teenagers and young males, while for the other regions male suicide rates increased in general for all age groups. Social indicators (unemployment, marriage and birth rates) were quite successful in predicting male suicide rates in all four regions and in predicting female suicide rates in England and Wales and in Ireland. The results emphasize the importance of studying several regions in epidemiological studies in order to identify which trends are general and which are unique to one nation. In the present study, the epidemiological trends for suicide in England and Wales were quite different from those in the other three regions. In particular, the steady overall suicide rate in England and Wales and the rising suicide rate for young males alone differ from the trends observed in the other regions and raise importante questions about the causes of the social suicide rate in these four regions.

  10. The Salmonella dublin virulence plasmid mediates systemic but not enteric phases of salmonellosis in cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, T S; Paulin, S M; Plested, J S; Watson, P R; Jones, P W

    1995-01-01

    Plasmid-bearing and plasmid-free isolates and a plasmid-cured strain of Salmonella dublin were compared for virulence in calves. The plasmid-bearing strains were highly virulent, causing severe enteric and systemic disease with high mortality. In contrast, the plasmid-free strains caused diarrhea but only low mortality. The infection kinetics of a wild-type and a derivative plasmid-cured strain were compared. Both strains were isolated in high numbers from intestinal sites at 3 and 6 days after oral challenge and were isolated at comparable frequencies from systemic sites at 3 days, but not at 6 days, when the wild-type strain was predominant. The strains were equally invasive in intestinal epithelia with and without Peyer's patch and elicited comparable secretory and inflammatory responses and intestinal pathology in ligated ileal loops. The effect of the virulence plasmid on growth kinetics and on the outer membrane protein profile was assessed in an in vivo growth chamber. The virulence plasmid did not influence either extracellular growth or the expression of major outer membrane proteins. These observations demonstrate that the virulence plasmid is not involved in either the enteric phase of infection or the systemic dissemination of S. dublin but probably mediates the persistence of S. dublin at systemic sites. PMID:7790094

  11. Comparison of the environmental survival characteristics of Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Miranda J; Liebana, Ernesto; McLaren, Ian; Clifton-Hadley, Felicity A; Wales, Andrew D; Davies, Robert H

    2012-10-12

    To examine possible correlations in bovine Salmonella isolates between environmental survival and serovar-associated epidemiological patterns, bovine field isolates of Salmonella serovars Typhimurium and Dublin (two each) were inoculated into bovine faeces slurry and tested monthly by culture for survival during a six-month period of storage at a variable ambient temperature in a disused animal transporter. Low moisture conditions, where the slurry was dried onto wooden dowels, increased detectable survival of a low-level inoculum by up to five months, compared with wet slurry. A more modest increase of survival time was seen with storage of wet slurry under refrigeration at 4°C. Under both dry and wet conditions, the concentration of culturable Salmonella Typhimurium declined at a slower rate than did that of Salmonella Dublin. Salmonella that was naturally contaminating bovine faeces from farms with Salmonella Typhimurium did not show superior survival times compared with Salmonella Typhimurium that had been artificially inoculated into samples. The differing survival characteristics of the two serovars that was observed in environmental faeces may complement their different modes of infection in cattle. Salmonella Dublin, being a bovine host-adapted strain that establishes chronic infection in some animals, may have less need to survive for a prolonged period outside of its host than does Salmonella Typhimurium.

  12. Constructing genuine savings indicators for Ireland, 1995-2005.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Susana; Moro, Mirko

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we compute the genuine savings indicators for the Republic of Ireland over the period 1995-2005. We expand and improve existing World Bank's estimates by: a) using data collected from official Irish sources; b) employing the net present value method to assess resource depreciation; c) including external costs from SO(2) and NOx emissions; and d) estimating human capital accumulation using the returns to education. We also perform a sensitivity analysis to check the robustness of our estimates to different assumptions and parameters. Our estimates are consistently smaller than the World Bank's and negative in the first years of the period considered. PMID:20932633

  13. Constructing genuine savings indicators for Ireland, 1995-2005.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Susana; Moro, Mirko

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we compute the genuine savings indicators for the Republic of Ireland over the period 1995-2005. We expand and improve existing World Bank's estimates by: a) using data collected from official Irish sources; b) employing the net present value method to assess resource depreciation; c) including external costs from SO(2) and NOx emissions; and d) estimating human capital accumulation using the returns to education. We also perform a sensitivity analysis to check the robustness of our estimates to different assumptions and parameters. Our estimates are consistently smaller than the World Bank's and negative in the first years of the period considered.

  14. Estimating the incidence, prevalence and true cost of asthma in the UK: secondary analysis of national stand-alone and linked databases in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales—a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Mome; Gupta, Ramyani; Farr, Angela; Heaven, Martin; Stoddart, Andrew; Nwaru, Bright I; Fitzsimmons, Deborah; Chamberlain, George; Bandyopadhyay, Amrita; Fischbacher, Colin; Dibben, Christopher; Shields, Michael; Phillips, Ceri; Strachan, David; Davies, Gwyneth; McKinstry, Brian; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Asthma is now one of the most common long-term conditions in the UK. It is therefore important to develop a comprehensive appreciation of the healthcare and societal costs in order to inform decisions on care provision and planning. We plan to build on our earlier estimates of national prevalence and costs from asthma by filling the data gaps previously identified in relation to healthcare and broadening the field of enquiry to include societal costs. This work will provide the first UK-wide estimates of the costs of asthma. In the context of asthma for the UK and its member countries (ie, England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales), we seek to: (1) produce a detailed overview of estimates of incidence, prevalence and healthcare utilisation; (2) estimate health and societal costs; (3) identify any remaining information gaps and explore the feasibility of filling these and (4) provide insights into future research that has the potential to inform changes in policy leading to the provision of more cost-effective care. Methods and analysis Secondary analyses of data from national health surveys, primary care, prescribing, emergency care, hospital, mortality and administrative data sources will be undertaken to estimate prevalence, healthcare utilisation and outcomes from asthma. Data linkages and economic modelling will be undertaken in an attempt to populate data gaps and estimate costs. Separate prevalence and cost estimates will be calculated for each of the UK-member countries and these will then be aggregated to generate UK-wide estimates. Ethics and dissemination Approvals have been obtained from the NHS Scotland Information Services Division's Privacy Advisory Committee, the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage Collaboration Review System, the NHS South-East Scotland Research Ethics Service and The University of Edinburgh's Centre for Population Health Sciences Research Ethics Committee. We will produce a report for Asthma-UK, submit papers to

  15. International trends in health science librarianship Part 8: the UK and the Republic of Ireland Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Latimer, Karen; Lawton, Aoife

    2013-12-01

    This is the 8th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship with a focus on the UK and Ireland in the first decade of the 21st century. The invited authors are from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Future issues will track trends from Scotland and Wales.

  16. The National Maritime College of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greville, Eamonn

    2005-01-01

    The new National Maritime College of Ireland is regarded as the country's most exciting and innovative development in maritime training and education and is the first tertiary institution to be built and operated under the government's Public Private Partnership (PPP) model of procurement. The project is the outcome of a partnership between Cork…

  17. The visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Cromie, H.

    1995-01-01

    Since 1989 there has been a burgeoning of the visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals. This paper compares the three organisational models for hospital arts currently operating within the Province and in an overview discusses ways to coordinate working practice for future development of the visual arts in local hospitals. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 PMID:8533183

  18. Strategic Planning in Ireland's Institutes of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwood, Larry; Rainnie, Al

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses upon Ireland's institute of technology sector, which has been transformed from a 1970s technical orientation to its broader current role of research and higher education provision. The transformational shifts experienced by institutes over the previous three decades have been profound: increased autonomy, new managerial and…

  19. The Northern Ireland Resource File and Aspire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, David; Montgomery, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    The paper begins by identifying issues as to how initial teacher training and in-service training for teachers inadequately prepares them for teaching the pupils with special educational needs (SEN). The paper then provides a brief legislative background to SEN in the Northern Ireland context, before describing two elements of educational reform…

  20. The Harp: The Symbol of Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Donna Dee

    The harp as a symbol of the Irish people is discussed. The first part of the paper discusses the early use of the harp in Irish society and how the magical powers of this instrument affected the natives and invaders of the small island for centuries. From the time of the Celtic occupation of Ireland in 500 BC, music played by harpers has been…

  1. Regional health library service in northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Crawford, D S

    1990-10-01

    The regional medical library service provided to physicians, hospitals, nurses, social workers, and health care administrators throughout Northern Ireland by the Queen's University of Belfast is described. A brief outline of the National Health Service in the United Kingdom is given, and the library service is described in terms of collections, cataloging, interlibrary loan, and reference. PMID:2224299

  2. Family SMEs in Ireland as Learning Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdthistle, Naomi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether small and medium-sized family businesses in Ireland have the potential to be classified as learning organizations. Design/methodology/approach: The research methodology adopted for this study is that of multiple-case studies. In this research, personal interviews were selected as the…

  3. Unemployment and suicide in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Snyder, M L

    1992-06-01

    For Northern Ireland, yearly mean percentages of unemployment and suicide rates (per 100,000 population) for specific age groups and by sex were compared over a 19-year period. Significant results were obtained for only two age groups of males (15-24 yr. and 45-54 yr.) and none for females. PMID:1496080

  4. Vocational Education and Training in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaher, Leo

    This monograph describes the various approaches to vocational training in Ireland. The report was compiled from existing statistics, various studies, and interviews with representatives of all the organizations, colleges, companies, and institutes involved in vocational training. Section 1 provides background information on political structures,…

  5. Rabies in Ireland: a precarious freedom.

    PubMed

    Costello, J A

    1988-01-01

    The prolonged freedom from rabies enjoyed by Ireland is based on both its island location and the rigid enforcement of national legislation. The yachting tourist and the increased level of shipping activity in ports and harbours are a major threat of disease introduction. Mass media publicity and public awareness are the main safeguards necessary to protect the freedom of our island.

  6. Many Voices: Building a Biblioblogosphere in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Michelle; Kouker, Alexander; O'Connor, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Blogging has been associated with the Library and Information Science (LIS) community for some time now. Libfocus.com is an online blog that was founded in 2011. Its goal was to create a communal communication space for LIS professionals in Ireland and beyond, to share and discuss issues and ideas. The content of the blog is curated by an…

  7. E-Work in Ireland. IES Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, P.; Bertin, I.; Huws, U.

    Electronic work (E-work) in Ireland was examined through a comparison of survey results from 301 Irish companies with 50 or more employees with averages for the 18 European countries, including 62 in the knowledge sector, and a subsequent survey of 100 smaller companies. Findings from other Irish surveys examining e-work were also considered.…

  8. 150 years of mapping Ireland's population distribution.

    PubMed

    Horner, A

    1988-01-01

    "Over the last 150 years various approaches to the construction of maps showing the distribution of population in Ireland have been explored. This article reviews these approaches, and is particularly intended to illustrate how the compilers of Irish population maps have confronted that central issue facing all cartographers, namely the selection of an appropriate level of generalisation." PMID:12283332

  9. Entrepreneurship Education: Ireland's Solution to Economic Regeneration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, John; Fenton, Mary; Barry, Almar

    2012-01-01

    The significance of entrepreneurship has come into sharper focus as enterprise and innovation are being flagged as solutions to regenerate the Irish economy. The Irish Innovation Task Force believes that Ireland could become an "innovation hub", attracting foreign risk capital and international and indigenous entrepreneurs to start and grow…

  10. Winning the Future: An Investigation into the Creativity Capacity across the Levels of Education in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Keelin

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the creativity capacity across the levels of education in Ireland, involving 702 participants. Creative capacity was investigated through a comparative analysis of creativity quotient (CQ). A divergent thinking task comprising the "how many uses" activity was assessed using the criteria for determining CQ;…

  11. Training in the Retail Trade in Ireland. Report for the FORCE Programme. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    An international team of researchers studied the following aspects of training in Ireland's retail sector: structure and characteristics, institutional and social context, employment and labor, changing conditions and their implications for skill requirements, and training and recruitment. Data were collected from an analysis of social and…

  12. The Fallibility of High Stakes "11-Plus" Testing in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John; Cowan, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    This paper sets out the findings from a large-scale analysis of the Northern Ireland Transfer Procedure Tests, used to select pupils for grammar schools. As it was not possible to get completed test scripts from government agencies, over 3000 practice scripts were completed in simulated conditions and were analysed to establish whether the tests…

  13. Spatial patterns in surveillance data during control of Salmonella Dublin in bovine dairy herds in Jutland, Denmark 2003-2009.

    PubMed

    Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2011-09-01

    Salmonella Dublin is the most commonly isolated Salmonella serotype in Danish cattle and leads to economic and welfare losses in infected herds. Furthermore, it leads to high mortality in human cases. A national surveillance program for Salmonella Dublin was initiated in Denmark in October 2002. This study aimed at modelling the progress and spatial patterns during the control of Salmonella Dublin in dairy herds in the Jutland peninsula in Denmark, especially differences between regions and years. A total of 6331 dairy herds were included during 2003-2009. Antibody measurements of bulk-tank milk samples were used for testing herd-level Salmonella status in these dairy herds. Risk maps were estimated as prevalence intensity maps. Spatial clustering was analysed using scan statistics and SMR was estimated. In 2003, the prevalence of Salmonella Dublin test-positive dairy herds was 24%. It decreased to 12% in 2009. Prevalence intensity maps showed large differences in the reduction of Salmonella Dublin test-positive herds. The number of clusters reduced during the study period. However, throughout the study period two clusters remained significant. Differences were seen in the progress of the control between regions over the years. The implementation and effectiveness of the control program was different between regions. The progress of control was seen to vary not only between regions, but also over time influencing infection dynamics. Thus, recommendations and regionally targeted efforts during control campaigns are needed.

  14. β-Glucan plus ascorbic acid in neonatal calves modulates immune functions with and without Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin.

    PubMed

    Eicher, S D; Patterson, J A; Rostagno, M H

    2011-08-15

    To determine if β-glucan plus ascorbic acid affects adherence and pathogenicity of Salmonella Dublin and innate immune response in neonatal calves, 20 calves were fed control or supplemented diets (β-glucan, 0.9 g/d, plus ascorbic acid, 500 mg/d) until d 23. On d 21, 5 calves per treatment received 2.4 × 10(8)CFU of S. Dublin orally. S. Dublin spread through intestinal tissues into mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), spleen, and lung tissues within 48 h. All supplemented calves had less mRNA expression of IL-1 receptor antagonist in liver. Leukocyte cell surface markers changed in lung cells, but not in blood, MLN, or spleen. CD14 in lungs was greatest for calves receiving supplement and challenge, but CD18 in lungs was greater for challenged than control calves. Lung DEC205 was greatest for challenged calves with and without supplement compared to controls, but more lung cells expressed CD14 for all treated groups compared to controls. These data show that S. Dublin briefly inhabited the intestinal tract, moving quickly to spleen, MLN, and lung tissues. Lung tissue was modulated by S. Dublin, but supplement alone increased CD14 expressing cells. The supplement appears not to attenuate invasiness but modified some lung cell populations by 48h.

  15. Genetic structure of pike (Esox lucius) reveals a complex and previously unrecognized colonization history of Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Pedreschi, Debbi; Kelly-Quinn, Mary; Caffrey, Joe; O’Grady, Martin; Mariani, Stefano; Phillimore, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Aim We investigated genetic variation of Irish pike populations and their relationship with European outgroups, in order to elucidate the origin of this species to the island, which is largely assumed to have occurred as a human-mediated introduction over the past few hundred years. We aimed thereby to provide new insights into population structure to improve fisheries and biodiversity management in Irish freshwaters. Location Ireland, Britain and continental Europe. Methods A total of 752 pike (Esox lucius) were sampled from 15 locations around Ireland, and 9 continental European sites, and genotyped at six polymorphic microsatellite loci. Patterns and mechanisms of population genetic structure were assessed through a diverse array of methods, including Bayesian clustering, hierarchical analysis of molecular variance, and approximate Bayesian computation. Results Varying levels of genetic diversity and a high degree of population genetic differentiation were detected. Clear substructure within Ireland was identified, with two main groups being evident. One of the Irish populations showed high similarity with British populations. The other, more widespread, Irish strain did not group with any European population examined. Approximate Bayesian computation suggested that this widespread Irish strain is older, and may have colonized Ireland independently of humans. Main conclusions Population genetic substructure in Irish pike is high and comparable to the levels observed elsewhere in Europe. A comparison of evolutionary scenarios upholds the possibility that pike may have colonized Ireland in two ‘waves’, the first of which, being independent of human colonization, would represent the first evidence for natural colonization of a non-anadromous freshwater fish to the island of Ireland. Although further investigations using comprehensive genomic techniques will be necessary to confirm this, the present results warrant a reappraisal of current management strategies

  16. Economic analyses of pig manure treatment options in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Tereza; Troy, Shane M; Gilkinson, Stephen; Frost, Peter; Xie, Sihuang; Zhan, Xinmin; Harrington, Caolan; Healy, Mark G; Lawlor, Peadar G

    2012-02-01

    An economic analysis was performed on treatment options for pig manure in Ireland. Costs were based on a 500 sow integrated pig farm producing 10,500 m(3) of manure per year at 4.8% dry matter. The anaerobic digestion of pig manure and grass silage (1:1; volatile solids basis) was unviable under the proposed tariffs, with costs at € 5.2 m(-3) manure. Subsequent solid-liquid separation of the digestate would cost an additional € 12.8 m(-3) manure. The treatment of the separated solid fraction by composting and of the liquid fraction by integrated constructed wetlands, would add € 2.8 and € 4.6 m(-3) manure, respectively to the treatment costs. The cost analysis presented showed that the technologies investigated are currently not cost effective in Ireland. Transport and spreading of raw manure, at € 4.9 m(-3) manure (15 km maximum distance from farm) is the most cost effective option.

  17. External cost internalisation of urban transport: a case study of Dublin.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, E; O'Mahony, M

    2002-04-01

    Transport users do not currently pay all costs associated with their transport activities and in particular do not pay the costs they impose on the environment. Case studies on Dublin, Amsterdam, Brussels and London have been conducted to evaluate how best to meet the requirement of the European Commission in its fair and efficient pricing aims in the transport sector, i.e. where transport users are made to pay all costs they impose. The paper presents the results of Do Nothing (DN) and Do Something (DS) scenarios for 2005 where in the latter case each transport user pays for all costs they impose including pollution, noise, accidents etc. The Dublin results, from an economics model used in the study, are examined in detail; the findings are compared with those of parallel studies conducted in the other cities to demonstrate the international relevance of this work. The comparison between the DN and DS scenarios indicates that taxes on all transport modes should be increased substantially, particularly in the morning and evening peak periods. As a result of the price increases, travel demand is reduced. A practical example where transport users could be made to pay for all their costs is road use pricing, i.e. charging individuals for the use of road space. The taxation levels suggested in the DS scenario have been used in a road use pricing trial in Dublin, the results of which were published in O'Mahony, Geraghty and Humphreys (Transportation 27, 269-283, 2000), to see if the reductions in the travel requirements of individuals proposed by the economics model are in fact true. The principles of the work presented in this paper are not only relevant to environmental impact management in the transport sector but can also be applied to other sectors.

  18. Antiabortion positions and young women's life plans in contemporary Ireland.

    PubMed

    Oaks, Laury

    2003-05-01

    At a critical time when Ireland's abortion ban faces legal challenges and the number of women obtaining abortions abroad each year continues to climb, some antiabortion advocates have turned their attention toward the social factors that influence women's abortion decision-making. Through an analysis of articles carried in the Irish mainstream and Catholic presses, this article examines how antiabortion advocates since the late 1990s have promoted an "antiabortion, pro-motherhood" message in response to trends that they identify as indicating that Irish reproduction has "gone awry". Antiabortion activists have focused in particular on the life plans of young, middle-class, career-oriented women, many of whom have benefited from increased employment opportunities within Ireland. These women are more likely than young women in past generations to postpone childbearing or opt for abortion in the face of an unwanted pregnancy, and thus, symbolize for antiabortion advocates the devaluation of a "traditional" Irish culture centered on the privileging of motherhood and married family life. This article examines antiabortion ideologies deployed around motherhood, work, and childcare, and argues that antiabortion advocates' "pro-motherhood" campaign fails to adequately respond to the changing realities of young, middle-class Irish women's life opportunities and expectations. PMID:12650733

  19. Salmonella in broiler flocks in the republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Montserrat; Fanning, June; Murphy, Anne; Murray, Gerardine; Griffin, Margaret; Flack, Alma; Leonard, Nola; Egan, John

    2009-01-01

    In order to obtain an estimation of the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in flocks of broilers in the Republic of Ireland, a study was conducted in 2006 in a total of 362 broiler flocks associated with four integrated companies. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 27.3% of flocks, and eight Salmonella serovars were identified, none of which were Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Typhimurium. The most prevalent serovar was Salmonella Mbandaka, followed by Salmonella Kentucky, which respectively accounted for 61.6% and 27.0% of positive samples. Notable differences were observed among the flocks associated with different integrated companies, both in the Salmonella spp. prevalence and in the serovar distribution. Results from routine official Salmonella testing in broiler production in 2006 showed similar serovar distribution within each integrated company from the associated hatchery and factory samples. In our study, differences in the prevalence of Salmonella at farm level did not correlate with differences in the percentages of positive chicken carcasses officially tested, which were low, for all the four companies investigated. Given the high prevalence of Salmonella Mbandaka, all human isolates obtained in the Republic of Ireland from 2003 to 2006 were compared to a subset of poultry isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, but an epidemiological link between the animal and the human strains could not be established. Finally the antimicrobial resistance analysis indicated a low proportion of resistant strains among the broiler flock isolates. PMID:19061369

  20. The Economic Burden of PTSD in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Finola R; Brady, Sharon E; Bunting, Brendan P; Murphy, Samuel D; Bolton, David; O'Neill, Siobhan M

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the economic costs of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among the Northern Ireland (NI) adult population. The authors present a prevalence-based, bottom-up study based primarily on data from 1,986 participants in the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress (NISHS). Both direct costs of treatment and indirect costs of productivity losses were included. Units of service and medication resource use were obtained from the NISHS and combined with their relevant unit costs from the Personal Social Services Research Unit and Prescription Costs Analysis data for NI. Indirect costs included the costs of incapacity days due to PTSD and presenteeism costs, with gender-specific wage rates used as the relevant unit costs. The total direct and indirect cost of PTSD in NI (2008) was £172,756,062. This figure is likely to be conservative due to the exclusion of a number of cost categories. Nevertheless, comparison of estimates of the burden of PTSD with the estimated cost of treating all adults with PTSD with the recommended treatments shows the potential for substantial economic gains to be made through extension and investment in effective evidence-based treatments. PMID:25990825

  1. Short communication: Characterization of the serologic response induced by vaccination of late-gestation cows with a Salmonella Dublin vaccine.

    PubMed

    Smith, Geof W; Smith, Feli; Zuidhof, Sjoert; Foster, Derek M

    2015-04-01

    Diarrhea due to Salmonella infection is an important cause of neonatal calf diarrhea. The acquisition of passive immunity in the calf by vaccinating the dam has shown some success in previous studies; however, no data exists on the use of currently licensed vaccines in the United States. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether vaccinating cows in late gestation with a commercially available Salmonella Dublin vaccine would stimulate Salmonella-specific antibodies in the colostrum of cows at calving and whether these antibodies would be transferred to the calf. Thirty Holstein cows were vaccinated 3 wk before the end of lactation with a Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin vaccine, with a second dose given at dry-off. An additional 30 cows received only saline. Calves had a blood sample collected immediately after birth and were then fed fresh colostrum from their dam within 2 h of calving. A postcolostrum blood sample was collected 24 to 48 h later. Salmonella Dublin antibodies in colostrum as well as serum from the cows and calves were measured using an ELISA technique. Results of this study showed that vaccinated cattle had elevated Salmonella Dublin antibody titers at the time of calving (40.3 ± 9.1) as compared with control cows (-9.4 ± 1.1). Calves that received colostrum from vaccinated cattle also had a significant increase in Salmonella Dublin antibodies (88.5 ± 8.9) as compared with calves born to unvaccinated cows (-3.2 ± 1.2). This study demonstrated that the use of a commercially available Salmonella Dublin vaccine can stimulate antibodies that are passed on to the calf via colostral transfer. Further studies need to be done to determine whether these antibodies will offer protection against Salmonella challenge.

  2. Effect of air pollution control on mortality and hospital admissions in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Dockery, Douglas W; Rich, David Q; Goodman, Patrick G; Clancy, Luke; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; George, Prethibha; Kotlov, Tania

    2013-07-01

    During the 1980s the Republic of Ireland experienced repeated severe pollution episodes. Domestic coal burning was a major source of this pollution. In 1990 the Irish government introduced a ban on the marketing, sale, and distribution of coal in Dublin. The ban was extended to Cork in 1995 and to 10 other communities in 1998 and 2000. We previously reported decreases in particulate black smoke (BS*) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations, measured as total gaseous acidity, in Dublin after the 1990 coal ban (Clancy et al. 2002). In the current study we explored and compared the effectiveness of the sequential 1990, 1995, and 1998 bans in reducing community air pollution and in improving public health. We compiled records of daily BS, total gaseous acidity (SO2), and counts of cause-specific deaths from 1981 to 2004 for Dublin County Borough (1990 ban), county Cork (1995 ban), and counties Limerick, Louth, Wexford, and Wicklow (1998 ban). We also compiled daily counts of hospital admissions for cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive diagnoses for Cork County Borough (1991 to 2004) and counties Limerick, Louth, Wexford, and Wicklow (1993 to 2004). We compared pre-ban and post-ban BS and SO2 concentrations for each city. Using interrupted time-series methods, we estimated the change in cause-specific, directly standardized mortality rates in each city or county after the corresponding local coal ban. We regressed weekly age- and sex-standardized mortality rates against an indicator of the post- versus pre-ban period, adjusting for influenza epidemics, weekly mean temperature, and a season smooth of the standardized mortality rates in Coastal counties presumably not affected by the bans. We compared these results with similar analyses in Midlands counties also presumably unaffected by the bans. We also estimated the change in cause-specific, directly standardized, weekly hospital admissions rates normalized for underreporting in each city or county after the 1995

  3. C2-C6 background hydrocarbon concentrations monitored at a roof top and green park site, in Dublin City centre.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, R T; Broderick, B M

    2007-09-01

    A 5 week monitoring campaign was carried out in Dublin City centre, to establish which site gave a more accurate background city centre estimation: a roof-top or green field site. This background represented a conservative estimate of HC exposure in Dublin City centre, useful for quantifying health effects related to this form of pollution and also for establishing a local background relative to the four surrounding main roads when the wind direction is travelling towards each road with the background receptor upwind. Over the entire monitoring campaign, the lowest concentrations and relative standard deviations were observed at the green field site, regardless of time of day or meteorological effects.

  4. Development of stable isotope mixing models in ecology - Dublin

    EPA Science Inventory

    More than 40 years ago, stable isotope analysis methods used in geochemistry began to be applied to ecological studies. One common application is using mathematical mixing models to sort out the proportional contributions of various sources to a mixture. Examples include contri...

  5. 69 FR 11040 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-03-09

    ... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa AGENCY... terminating its antidumping investigations on electrolytic manganese dioxide from Australia, Greece, Ireland... dioxide from Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa (investigations Nos. 731-TA-1048 and...

  6. The development of counselling psychology in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Allison; O'Callaghan, Dermot; O'Brien, Owen; Broderick, John; Long, Catherine; O'Grady, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the distinctive nature of the specialism of counselling psychology and outlines the development of the discipline in Ireland in the context of international developments and its recognition as a professional branch of applied psychology. Today, counselling psychologists are employed in varied clinical and non-clinical settings including health and mental health services (statutory, private and voluntary sector) along with education, forensic, justice, industry and private practices. Counselling psychologist is the primary professional identity of many practising psychologists in Ireland and the Psychological Society of Ireland's Division of Counselling Psychology is the main affiliation of at least 179 members. With its focus on facilitating personal and interpersonal functioning across the life span and its emphasis on the therapeutic process, the specialism continues to bridge the disciplines of psychology, counselling and psychotherapy. In this article, some of the challenges still faced by counselling psychology are explored as it navigates its way through the changing landscape of further development and evolution. PMID:26494940

  7. Environmental Education in Northern Ireland: Concern and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Tom

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the current status of environmental education in primary and secondary schools in Northern Ireland, identifying issues and concerns, and summarizing recent developments that address these concerns. (DC)

  8. Documented prevalence of HIV type 1 antiretroviral transmitted drug resistance in Ireland from 2004 to 2008.

    PubMed

    De Gascun, Cillian F; Waters, Allison; Regan, Ciara; O'Halloran, Jane; Farrell, Gillian; Coughlan, Suzie; Bergin, Colm; Powderly, William G; Hall, William W

    2012-03-01

    HIV-1-infected individuals with transmitted HIV drug resistance (TDR) begin antiretroviral therapy (ART) with a lower genetic barrier to resistance and a higher risk of both virological failure and of developing further resistance. TDR surveillance informs HIV-1 public health strategies and first line ART. TDR has not been studied nationally in an Irish population. This study includes all new HIV diagnoses from January 2004 to September 2008 from the National Virus Reference Laboratory, University College Dublin. HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase sequences were generated, and resistance mutations identified using the Siemens TRUGENE HIV-1 Genotyping System. Subtypes were determined using web-based genotyping tools. The study comprised 1579 patients. There were 305 new diagnoses in 2004 (173 male; 132 female), 298 in 2005 (175M; 123F), 321 in 2006 (197M; 124F), 297 in 2007 (184M; 113F), and 358 (235M; 123F) in 2008. HIV-1 RNA was sequenced from 158/305 patients in 2004, 199/298 in 2005, 225/321 in 2006, 203/297 in 2007, and 275/358 in 2008. The overall TDR rate was 6.3%, peaking in 2006 at 10.4% and declining to 5.3% in 2008. The majority of TDR was seen in Irish born individuals with HIV-1 subtype B infection. The TDR rate in Ireland is comparatively low. Thus, a health technology assessment is required to ascertain the most cost effective use of genotypic antiretroviral resistance testing (GART) in the future: the current approach of performing baseline GART on all new diagnoses, or perhaps a more targeted approach that focuses on patients commencing nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART.

  9. A pragmatic assessment of government support for organic agriculture in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Duram, Leslie A

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on a pragmatic approach, this paper provides an analysis of government support for organic farming in Ireland. Varying levels of encouragement and programmes are provided to farmers in their conversion from conventional to organic production, and in their maintenance of organic production. As support policies vary across regions and are linked to European Union legislation, it is challenging to document the many types of support in place. This paper investigates relevant technical, financial, and policy support available to organic farmers in Ireland. As an exploratory study, it develops an assessment of Ireland within eight key categories of organic agricultural support: policy, leadership, technical support, financial support, research, education and information, marketing and promotion, and future outlook. Information and data from the Irish Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (DAFF), the Irish Agriculture and Food Development Authority (Teagasc), and other government and semi-governmental agencies were utilized to assess the level of support in each category. This assessment provides key findings which will allow policymakers, organizations and citizens to better understand the current situation and set a path for the future development of organic farming in Ireland.

  10. Criminal insanity in 19th-century Ireland, Europe and the United States: cases, contexts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brendan D

    2009-01-01

    The insanity defence has a lengthy, complex history. This article provides a concise, comparative background to the evolution of criminal insanity legislation and institutions for the mentally ill in the nineteenth century, with particular reference to Ireland and the United States. Three key themes are identified and explored: (a) the emergence of the insanity defence in the nineteenth century (e.g. the McNaughtan Rules); (b) conditions in nineteenth-century asylums and institutions for the 'criminally insane' (with particular reference to overcrowding, physical illness and asylum deaths); and (c) nineteenth-century considerations of criminal responsibility in women with mental illness (with particular reference to medical and judicial views of the relevance of menstruation, pregnancy and child-birth). These themes are explored through review of historical literature (with particular reference to the work of Dr. Isaac Ray, founding father of forensic psychiatry in the United States) and examination of previously unpublished archival material from the Central Criminal Lunatic Asylum, Dublin.

  11. The sensitivity and specificity of the RSID-saliva kit for the detection of human salivary amylase in the Forensic Science Laboratory, Dublin, Ireland.

    PubMed

    Casey, David G; Price, Judy

    2010-01-30

    We demonstrate here that the RSID-saliva test can be used as a test for human salivary alpha-amylase on samples routinely examined in forensic casework. We show that the RSID-saliva test detects salivary alpha-amylase at lower concentrations than the Phadebas Quantitative test, that the RSID-saliva test does not cross-react with forensically important human fluids and that the RSID-saliva test can be successfully integrated into the whole swab semen extraction method.

  12. Flexible Learning: Proceedings of the National Academy for Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning Annual Conference (4th, Dublin, Ireland, October 6-7, 2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy for Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This volume presents 64 abstracts of keynote and parallel paper presentations of the Irish National Academy for Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning's (NAIRTL) conference on the theme of flexible learning. The Flexible Learning conference was a joint initiative by NAIRTL and the Learning Innovation Network. The keynote presentations…

  13. Language Learning in Formal and Informal Contexts. Proceedings of a Joint Seminar of the Irish and British Associations for Applied Linguistics (Dublin, Ireland, September 11-13, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, D. M., Ed.; Little, D. G., Ed.

    A number of issues of central importance to understanding the nature of language, its acquisition and use were considered at a seminar on language learning. Papers delivered at the seminar are as follows: "Why Don't Learners Learn What Teachers Teach? The Interaction Hypothesis" (Dick Allwright); "The Role of Instruction in Second Language…

  14. Devising and Implementing a Suitable Graduate Education Platform for Dublin's Institute of Technology (DIT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carton, Janet; Jerrams, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Graduate education platforms have received general acclaim as key components in the future structural development of third-level and fourth-level education in Europe. In Ireland the Higher Education Authority (HEA) has endorsed the restructuring of postgraduate education to incorporate the training of research students in key generic and…

  15. Disability Awareness and University Staff Training in Ireland (Practice Brief)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padden, Lisa; Ellis, Carol

    2015-01-01

    It is vital that all university staff have awareness of the difficulties that may be experienced by students with disabilities. Staff must be given the knowledge and resources to support these students effectively. University College Dublin (UCD) Access & Lifelong Learning has developed a communication and training strategy to improve…

  16. Beta-glucan plus ascorbic acid in neonatal calves modulates immune functions with and without Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calves often succumb to Salmonella enterica, Dublin after maternal antibody protection has abated. Enhancement of innate immunity or earlier maturation of adaptive immunity to support vaccinations with dietary immune modulators may be the best option for protection during this vulnerable period. I...

  17. Developing Online Tutorials to Improve Information Literacy Skills for Second-Year Nursing Students of University College Dublin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Kirsteen; Bolich, Cecilia; Duffy, Daniel; Quinn, Ciarán; Walsh, Kathryn; Connolly, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the process of developing online tutorials for a specified student group, in this case Second-Year Nursing students in University College Dublin. The product was commissioned by the Health Sciences Library and the UCD School of Nursing, Midwifery, and Health Systems. It was developed as a "Capstone Project" for part…

  18. Gross margin losses due to Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy cattle herds estimated by simulation modelling.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T D; Kudahl, A B; Østergaard, S; Nielsen, L R

    2013-08-01

    Salmonella Dublin affects production and animal health in cattle herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the gross margin (GM) losses following introduction and spread of S. Dublin within dairy herds. The GM losses were estimated using an age-structured stochastic, mechanistic and dynamic simulation model. The model incorporated six age groups (neonatal, pre-weaned calves, weaned calves, growing heifers, breeding heifers and cows) and five infection stages (susceptible, acutely infected, carrier, super shedder and resistant). The effects of introducing one S. Dublin infectious heifer were estimated through 1000 simulation iterations for 12 scenarios. These 12 scenarios were combinations of three herd sizes (85, 200 and 400 cows) and four management levels (very good, good, poor and very poor). Input parameters for effects of S. Dublin on production and animal health were based on literature and calibrations to mimic real life observations. Mean annual GMs per cow stall were compared between herds experiencing within-herd spread of S. Dublin and non-infected reference herds over a 10-year period. The estimated GM losses were largest in the first year after infection, and increased with poorer management and herd size, e.g. average annual GM losses were estimated to 49 euros per stall for the first year after infection, and to 8 euros per stall annually averaged over the 10 years after herd infection for a 200 cow stall herd with very good management. In contrast, a 200 cow stall herd with very poor management lost on average 326 euros per stall during the first year, and 188 euros per stall annually averaged over the 10-year period following introduction of infection. The GM losses arose from both direct losses such as reduced milk yield, dead animals, treatment costs and abortions as well as indirect losses such as reduced income from sold heifers and calves, and lower milk yield of replacement animals. Through sensitivity analyses it was found that the

  19. Factors Influencing the Take-Up of Physics within Second-Level Education in Ireland--The Teachers' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Politis, Yurgos; Killeavy, Maureen; Mitchell, Peter I.

    2007-01-01

    There has been a disturbing decline in the take-up of physics within second-level education in Ireland since the early nineties. Here, an analysis is presented of the main factors influencing the take-up of physics from the perspective of secondary school teachers. The database underpinning the analysis is based on a comprehensive survey of…

  20. The Association of Attitude to Reading and Reading Achievement among a Representative Sample of Nine Year Olds in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fives, Allyn

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the association between reading self-belief and reading achievement among a representative sample of nine year old children in the Republic of Ireland. Results from analysis of variance and simple effects analysis showed a positive linear association between reading achievement and "attitude to reading." The…

  1. ICT Policy and Implementation in Education: Cases in Canada, Northern Ireland and Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Roger; Hunter, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Countries with similar levels of economic development often implement different education ICT policies. Much of the existing research attributes such differences to economic and political factors. In this paper, we examine the development of ICT policy and implementation in the two parts of Ireland and in two Canadian provinces and find that…

  2. Geographic Accessibility to Higher Education on the Island of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Sharon; Flannery, Darragh; Cullinan, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents, for the first time, comprehensive measures of geographic accessibility to higher education both within and between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. Using geographic information system techniques, we find high levels of geographic accessibility to higher education in both jurisdictions. However, when we…

  3. Suicide and Young People: The Case of Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Suicides in Northern Ireland are examined in the context of what is known about global and regional trends with respect to gender and age, and change over time. For Northern Ireland, suicide numbers and rates are plotted for 10-24 year olds from 1967 to 2005. Questions are raised about the validity of officially registered suicides in the light of…

  4. Implementing E-Learning in Northern Ireland: Prospects and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhomoibhi, James O.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to examine trends in the development of e-learning in Northern Ireland, report on existing policies, practices and issues affecting its implementation across the sectors. Design/methodology/approach: The present study draws on e-learning policies and strategies that have been developed for Northern Ireland. Examples were drawn from…

  5. Practical Work in Ireland: A Time of Reform and Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Declan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses the role of practical work in science education in Ireland. The 2002 report of a government Task Force on the Physical Sciences, set up to consider the problems facing the teaching of the physical sciences in second-level schools in Ireland, has resulted in rapid reform of the science curriculum at both junior…

  6. Space Radar Image of County Kerry, Ireland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Iveragh Peninsula, one of the four peninsulas in southwestern Ireland, is shown in this spaceborne radar image. The lakes of Killarney National Park are the green patches on the left side of the image. The mountains to the right of the lakes include the highest peaks (1,036 meters or 3,400 feet) in Ireland. The patchwork patterns between the mountains are areas of farming and grazing. The delicate patterns in the water are caused by refraction of ocean waves around the peninsula edges and islands, including Skellig Rocks at the right edge of the image. The Skelligs are home to a 15th century monastery and flocks of puffins. The region is part of County Kerry and includes a road called the 'Ring of Kerry' that is one of the most famous tourist routes in Ireland. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on April 12, 1994. The image is 82 kilometers by 42 kilometers (51 miles by 26 miles) and is centered at 52.0 degrees north latitude, 9.9 degrees west longitude. North is toward the lower left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, vertically transmitted and received; and blue is C-band, vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  7. Agricultural drainage practices in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, T. D.

    1986-02-01

    Agricultural drainage practices are reviewed under two main headings: arterial drainage of river catch-ments by developing main channels, and field drainage of smaller parcels of land using pipes and open trenches. The use of cost/benefit analysis on the arterial drainage program is considered and the inherent errors are discussed. Conservation of the environment is described as it applies to land-scaping, fisheries, and wildlife, and the drainage authorities are shown to have an enlightened attitude to proper preservation of the world around us.

  8. Radon monitoring and hazard prediction in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elio, Javier; Crowley, Quentin; Scanlon, Ray; Hodgson, Jim; Cooper, Mark; Long, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas which forms as a decay product from uranium. It is the largest source of natural ionizing radiation affecting the global population. When radon is inhaled, its short-lived decay products can interact with lung tissue leading to DNA damage and development of lung cancer. Ireland has among the highest levels of radon in Europe and eighth highest of an OECD survey of 29 countries. Every year some two hundred and fifty cases of lung cancer in Ireland are linked to radon exposure. This new research project will build upon previous efforts of radon monitoring in Ireland to construct a high-resolution radon hazard map. This will be achieved using recently available high-resolution airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (radiometric) and soil geochemistry data (http://www.tellus.ie/), indoor radon concentrations (http://www.epa.ie/radiation), and new direct measurement of soil radon. In this regard, legacy indoor radon concentrations will be correlated with soil U and Th concentrations and other geogenic data. This is a new approach since the vast majority of countries with a national radon monitoring programme rely on indoor radon measurements, or have a spatially limited dataset of soil radon measurements. Careful attention will be given to areas where an indicative high radon hazard based on geogenic factors does not match high indoor radon concentrations. Where such areas exist, it may imply that some parameter(s) in the predictive model does not match that of the environment. These areas will be subjected to measurement of radon soil gas using a combination of time averaged (passive) and time dependant (active) measurements in order to better understand factors affecting production, transport and accumulation of radon in the natural environment. Such mapping of radon-prone areas will ultimately help to inform when prevention and remediation measures are necessary, reducing the radon exposure of the population. Therefore, given

  9. Antithrombin Dublin (p.Val30Glu): a relatively common variant with moderate thrombosis risk of causing transient antithrombin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Fernández, José; de la Morena-Barrio, María Eugenia; Padilla, José; Miñano, Antonia; Bohdan, Nataliya; Águila, Sonia; Martínez-Martínez, Irene; Sevivas, Teresa S; de Cos, Carmen; Fernández-Mosteirín, Nuria; Llamas, Pilar; Asenjo, Susana; Medina, Pilar; Souto, Juan Carlos; Overvad, Kim; Kristensen, Søren R; Corral, Javier; Vicente, Vicente

    2016-07-01

    The key haemostatic role of antithrombin and the risk of thrombosis associated with its deficiency support that the low incidence of antithrombin deficiency among patients with thrombosis might be explained by underestimation of this disorder. It was our aim to identify mutations in SERPINC1 causing transient antithrombin deficiency. SERPINC1 was sequenced in 214 cases with a positive test for antithrombin deficiency, including 67 with no deficiency in the sample delivered to our laboratory. The p.Val30Glu mutation (Antithrombin Dublin) was identified in five out of these 67 cases, as well as in three out of 127 cases with other SERPINC1 mutations. Genotyping in 1593 patients with venous thrombosis and 2592 controls from two populations, revealed a low prevalent polymorphism (0.3 %) that moderately increased the risk of venous thrombosis (OR: 2.9; 95 % CI: 1.07-8.09; p= 0.03) and identified one homozygous patient with an early thrombotic event. Carriers had normal anti-FXa activity, and plasma antithrombin was not sensitive to heat stress or proteolytic cleavage. Analysis of one sample with transient deficit revealed a type I deficiency, without aberrant or increased latent forms. The recombinant variant, which lacked the two amino-terminal residues, had reduced secretion from HEK-EBNA cells, formed hyperstable disulphide-linked polymers, and had negligible activity. In conclusion, p.Val30Glu by affecting the cleavage of antithrombin's signal peptide, results in a mature protein lacking the N-terminal dipeptide with no functional consequences in normal conditions, but that increases the sensitivity to be folded intracellularly into polymers, facilitating transient antithrombin deficiency and the subsequent risk of thrombosis.

  10. Relationships between Attitudes to Irish, Social Class, Religion and National Identity in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riagain, Padraig O.

    2007-01-01

    Research on language attitudes in the Republic of Ireland has been greatly influenced by stratification theories. That is to say, differences in attitudes are seen to reflect the positions individuals occupy in the social structure. Research on language attitudes in Northern Ireland is less developed, but has tended to view such attitudes as…

  11. Young Adolescents' Positioning of Human Rights: Findings from Colombia, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Keith C.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how young adolescents thought about the location of human rights issues and the nature of violations in differing geographic regions. Open-ended, task-based interviews were conducted with 116 students in Colombia, Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and the United States. Although students in each location pointed to…

  12. Trends in Irish-Medium Education in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland since 1920: Shifting Agents and Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdory, Sara E.; Janmaat, Jan Germen

    2015-01-01

    Some recent studies have suggested a significant bottom-up or parental component to recent movements for autochthonous minority language-medium education (MLME). This study takes MLME as the outcome of interest and seeks to explain trends in Irish-medium education (IME) in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland since 1920--a unique…

  13. The pursuit of thinness: a study of Dublin schoolgirls aged 15 y.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Y M; Gibney, M J; Flynn, M A

    1998-05-01

    Despite increasing trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity, fatness phobia is common during female adolescence. This study has demonstrated a high level of dissatisfaction with body weight in a sample of Dublin schoolgirls aged 15 y. Of 420 subjects, 59% reported that they wanted to be slimmer and 68% had previously tried to lose weight. Contrary to expectations, overweight girls were not found to hold the monopoly on such dissatisfactions. Normal weight and even underweight girls also expressed a desire to be thinner and reported using unhealthy weight control practices including random avoidance of staple foods, fasting, smoking and purging, in their pursuit of the 'perfect' female figure. Obesity prevention programmes which target adolescent girls 'at risk' of overweight and obesity, must take cognizance of their profound fear of fatness, otherwise the use of harmful slimming strategies may be further increased as teenage girls frantically try to lose weight and to avoid the stigma associated with female fatness.

  14. The 13th Stationary/83rd (Dublin) General Hospital, Boulogne, 1914-1919.

    PubMed

    Harbison, J

    2015-01-01

    Casualties from the Western Front during the First World War were often evacuated to base hospitals on the northern coast of France for more advanced and specialist care. These temporary base hospitals frequently had more than 1,000 beds and were typically staffed by older, more senior doctors than were present nearer the front line. The 13th Stationary Hospital opened in October 1914 on the Boulogne docks and became the main specialist unit for the treatment of eye, face and jaw injuries. In May 1917 it was renamed the 83rd (Dublin) Hospital when the staff was augmented by volunteer staff from Irish hospitals. The hospital subsequently housed an innovative 'physical medicine' or rehabilitation unit. The hospital remained open for the duration of the War, moving to Langenfeld in the Ruhr following the Armistice.

  15. Postfamine stature and socioeconomic status in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Young, Kristin; Relethford, John H; Crawford, Michael H

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has documented socioeconomic stratification of secular trend in height in historical populations. Using data from 4,900 males and 1,430 females born between 1840 and 1910 collected as part of the Harvard Anthropological Survey of Ireland (1934-1936), this study examined the secular changes in postfamine Ireland using several socioeconomic variables, including: occupation, migration, education, siblings, birthplace, and occupation of father and mother's father. Correlations were also calculated between height and various historical economic indices. Significant differences in the height of Irish males were found by occupation, education, and socioeconomic status of father and maternal grandfather. Males employed in agriculture, or whose fathers or grandfathers were so employed, were significantly taller than other males. For the smaller female sample, only occupation and grandfather's socioeconomic status had a significant impact on height. An inverse correlation was also found between the British Cost of Living Index (BCL) and male heights. Our results suggest that availability of resources plays an important role in the overall nutritional status reflected in terminal adult height.

  16. 9 CFR 93.432 - Cattle from the Republic of Ireland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle from the Republic of Ireland... Cattle from the Republic of Ireland. (a) All cattle to be imported from the Republic of Ireland shall be... that the cattle originated from a herd which is officially certified by the Republic of Ireland as...

  17. From biopolitics to bioethics: church, state, medicine and assisted reproductive technology in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Orla; Allison, Jill

    2006-09-01

    This paper examines the emerging bioethical debate on assisted reproductive technology (ART) in Ireland, which is shaped by the long-standing contentious issue of abortion and the constitutional protection afforded to the 'unborn'. The focus of the paper is on the way in which the terms of this debate are shaped and constrained by the historical relations of power between church, state and medicine. Since the representation of Ireland as a post-Catholic, plural republic is becoming increasingly mainstream to cultural and political discourse, we pay particular attention to how the Catholic Church embraces bioethics as a meta frame or code for refocusing questions of values, beliefs and meanings to sustain the ideal of Ireland as a 'pro-life' and essentially Catholic nation. The Catholic Church is not simply asserting its voice of dissent in the context of public debate as one voice amongst a plurality of other voices, but to shape the emerging debate as a powerful, institutional actor. The opportunity to do so is afforded by the lack of public debate on bioethical issues and the exceedingly slow pace at which bioethics is moving towards an institutionalised framework in Ireland. These events can be explained by the legacy of the social power of the Catholic Church in Ireland and the direct and indirect influence it has long exercised over public policy vis-à-vis the state and its institutions, including medicine. There are two interconnected threads to the contextual analysis presented in our case study: first, the legacy of the social power wielded by the Catholic Church, and its slow and incremental demise reflected in the pace of secularisation in Ireland and the privatisation of morality; second, the emergence of a bioethical regulatory debate on ART, which is mired in the abortion controversy. Our analysis focuses on a number of key contradictions and tensions in the way in which the key institutions of church, state and medicine navigate their own positions

  18. Programmes in Social Care: A Comparison between the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, and Ireland. Educational and Psychological Interactions, No. 118.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallstedt, Pelle; Hogstrom, Mats

    This comparative study of social care programs at four European colleges in Nijmegen (Netherlands), Malmo (Sweden), Sligo (Ireland), and Lillehammer (Norway) looks at whether graduates from one country would be qualified to work in social care in the other countries. The report is based on analysis of data from official documents, questionnaires…

  19. The Role of the Social Partners in Vocational Education and Training, Including Continuing Education and Training, in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Timothy; Coldrick, Arthur J.

    This document is the result of the analysis of reports and the conduct of interviews with representatives of the social partners (employers, employers' organizations, and unions), education and training agencies, and other relevant agencies in Ireland. The document consists of four parts and a bibliography. The first part describes vocational…

  20. Graduate Employment and Training in SMEs in Northern Ireland: An Overview Using the 2000 Labour Force Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Richard; Reid, Renee S.

    2005-01-01

    Using the UK Labour Force Survey, this paper considers whether graduate employment is more important in the small and medium-size enterprise (SME) sector in Northern Ireland than in other regions of the UK. The authors disaggregate their analysis by gender, occupation and industry to provide a detailed breakdown. The issue of whether graduates are…

  1. A Qualitative Study of the Lived Experiences of Disabled Post-Transition Students in Higher Education Institutions in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redpath, Jennifer; Kearney, Patricia; Nicholl, Peter; Mulvenna, Maurice; Wallace, Jonathan; Martin, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a systematic analysis of 13 in-depth interviews of disabled students from universities in Northern Ireland. Undertaken as part of the Uni4U initiative, the findings presented describe barriers experienced by students with disabilities to participation in higher education. The students provided comments concerning their…

  2. Policing, collective action and social movement theory: the case of the Northern Ireland civil rights campaign.

    PubMed

    Ellison, G; Martin, G

    2000-12-01

    In this paper we examine the relationship between social movements and the police through an analysis of the Civil Rights Movement (CRM) which emerged in the late 1960s in Northern Ireland. Following della Porta (1995) and Melucci (1996) we argue that the way in which episodes of collective action are policed can affect profoundly both levels of mobilization and the orientation of social movements. We also submit that the symbolic and representational dimensions of policing can be a significant trigger in the stimulation of identification processes and collective action. The paper concludes by questioning some of the assumptions contained within social movement theory, and their applicability to divided societies such as Northern Ireland.

  3. Salmonella Dublin faecal excretion probabilities in cattle with different temporal antibody profiles in 14 endemically infected dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, L R

    2013-09-01

    This longitudinal field study investigated the hypothesis that persistently high antibody levels indicate a high risk of Salmonella Dublin shedding in animals in 14 endemically infected dairy herds. A hierarchical multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse 6614 paired faecal cultures and four types of temporal antibody profiles from cattle aged ≥180 days. Age and repeated measurements on animals nested within herds were taken into account. Overall, the prevalence of faecal shedders was low (0·3% and 2·8% in the lowest and highest risk groups, respectively). An important predictor of faecal shedding was young age. There was a significant, but modest increase in risk in cattle with persistently high or recently increased antibody levels, but no difference between these two groups. Contrary to previous recommendations, the detection of carriers by the use of repeated antibody testing is not likely to be a plausible control option in most Salmonella Dublin-infected dairy herds.

  4. An outbreak of Salmonella dublin infection in England and Wales associated with a soft unpasteurized cows' milk cheese.

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, H.; Cowden, J.; Jacob, M.; Rowe, B.; Roberts, D.; Bruce, J.; Mitchell, E.

    1992-01-01

    An outbreak of Salmonella dublin infection occurred in England and Wales in October to December 1989. Forty-two people were affected, mainly adults, and most lived in south-east England. Microbiological and epidemiological investigations implicated an imported Irish soft unpasteurized cows' milk cheese as the vehicle of infection. A case-control study showed a statistically significant association between infection and consumption of the suspect cheese (p = 0.001). Salmonella dublin was subsequently isolated from cheeses obtained from the manufacturer's premises. Initial control measures included the withdrawal of the cheese from retail sale and a Food Hazard Warning to Environmental Health Departments, as well as a press release, from the Department of Health. Subsequently, a decision was taken by the manufacturer to pasteurize milk used in the production of cheese for the UK market and importation of the cheese resumed in June 1990. PMID:1468523

  5. Housing supply and residential segregation in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Vang, Zoua M

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the role of housing supply in ethnic diversity and the residential segregation of Asian, African and eastern European immigrants from Irish nationals in Ireland. Housing supply is defined as the proportions of new housing, private rental accommodation and social housing among all housing units in an electoral district. Multivariate regressions reveal that, among all three housing supply variables, the proportion of private rentals had the largest effect on ethnic diversity and immigrant— Irish segregation. Areas with higher proportions of private rental units were more ethnically diverse, had greater presences of Africans, Asians and eastern Europeans (as opposed to high concentrations of Irish nationals) and exhibited greater integration between each of the three immigrant groups and Irish nationals. The article concludes with a discussion of immigrant assimilation and questions whether the patterns of residential integration observed would further facilitate other forms of social inclusion for immigrants in Irish society. PMID:21114091

  6. Pricing and reimbursement of drugs in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Barry, Michael; Tilson, Lesley; Ryan, Máirín

    2004-06-01

    Expenditure on healthcare in Ireland, which is mainly derived from taxation, has increased considerably in recent years to an estimated 9.2 billion euro in 2003. Pharmaceuticals account for approximately 10% of total healthcare expenditure. Approximately one-third of patients receive their medications free of charge whilst the remaining two-thirds are subject to a co-payment threshold of 78 euro per month, i.e. 936 euro per year. The price of medications in Ireland is linked to those of five other member states where the price to the wholesaler of any medication will not exceed the lesser of the currency-adjusted wholesale price in the United Kingdom or the average of wholesale prices in Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom. A price freeze at the introduction price has been in existence since 1993. Despite the price freeze, expenditure on medicines on the community drugs scheme has increased from 201 million euro in 1993 to 898 million euro in 2002. The two main factors contributing to the increased expenditure on medicines include "product mix", the prescribing of new and more expensive medication, and "volume effect" comprising growth in the number of prescription items. Changing demographics and the extension of the General Medical Services (GMS) Scheme to provide free medicines for all those over the age of 70 years have also contributed. Prior to reimbursement under the community drugs schemes, a medicine must be included in the GMS code book or positive list. A demonstration of cost-effectiveness is not a pre-requisite for reimbursement. PMID:15452757

  7. Continuous high-frequency monitoring of estuarine water quality as a decision support tool: a Dublin Port case study.

    PubMed

    Briciu-Burghina, Ciprian; Sullivan, Timothy; Chapman, James; Regan, Fiona

    2014-09-01

    High-frequency, continuous monitoring using in situ sensors offers a comprehensive and improved insight into the temporal and spatial variability of any water body. In this paper, we describe a 7-month exploratory monitoring programme in Dublin Port, demonstrating the value of high-frequency data in enhancing knowledge of processes, informing discrete sampling, and ultimately increasing the efficiency of port and environmental management. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to show that shipping operating in Dublin Port has a small-medium effect on turbidity readings collected by in situ sensors. Turbidity events are largely related to vessel activity in Dublin Port, caused by re-suspension of sediments by vessel propulsion systems. The magnitudes of such events are strongly related to water level and tidal state at vessel arrival times. Crucially, measurements of Escherichia coli and enterococci contamination from discrete samples taken at key periods related to detected turbidity events were up to nine times higher after vessel arrival than prior to disturbance. Daily in situ turbidity patterns revealed time-dependent water quality "hot spots" during a 24-h period. We demonstrate conclusively that if representative environmental assessment of water quality is to be performed at such sites, sampling times, informed by continous monitoring data, should take into account these daily variations. This work outlines the potential of sensor technologies and continuous monitoring, to act as a decision support tool in both environmental and port management.

  8. Courses in Physics in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents a description of the curricula in physics at 124 universities, colleges, and polytechnical institutes in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. General information is provided on examination requirements for admission and procedures for making application to the schools. (SA)

  9. Trinity mysteries: university, elite schooling and sport in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Finn, Gerry P T

    2010-01-01

    The development of sport in Ireland was, contrary to some arguments, highly influenced by English examples and Anglo-Irish institutions. Trinity College and prestigious Irish schools did have an impact, as did the number of Irish students sent to England for public school or university education. Athleticism was evident in Ireland as it was in England. Although the development of soccer did follow a slightly different trajectory from other sports, as was also the case in both England and Scotland, this does not mean that it departed from this broad evolutionary model of Irish sport. Yet this was Ireland: and Ireland was different. As opposition to British rule intensified, forms of sporting participation took on more and more of a national symbolism. The outcome was the emergence of a very potent form of athleticism: an Irish athleticism for an Irish people.

  10. Ireland's Second TV Channel: Seeking National Culture and Viewer Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, W. J., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Examines the salient arguments posited by the pro-BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) and pro-RTE (Radio Telefis Eireann) sides during Ireland's second television channel debate and ultimate decision. (Author/GT)

  11. A Comparative Examination of Schools' Responses to Bereavement and the Associated Needs of the School Community in Galway, West of Ireland and Derry, Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, Marguerita; Tracey, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The aim and objective of this study is to examine and compare how schools in Galway, Republic of Ireland and Derry in the North of Ireland (cities located within two independent jurisdictions in Ireland) manage and respond to bereavement. To carry out a survey of schools, the "Loss in Schools" questionnaire is considered the most suitable tool.…

  12. The bedrock electrical conductivity structure of Northern Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beamish, David

    2013-08-01

    An airborne geophysical survey of the whole of Northern Ireland has provided over 4.8 M estimates of the bedrock conductivity over the wide range of geological formations present. This study investigates how such data can be used to provide additional knowledge in relation to existing digital geological map information. A by-product of the analysis is a simplification of the spatially aggregated information obtained in such surveys. The methodology used is a GIS-based attribution of the conductivity estimates using a lithological classification of the bedrock formations. A 1:250k geological classification of the data is performed leading to a 56 unit lithological and geostatistical analysis of the conductivity information. The central moments (medians) of the classified data are used to provide a new digital bedrock conductivity map of Northern Ireland with values ranging from 0.32 to 41.36 mS m-1. This baseline map of conductivities displays a strong correspondence with an existing 4 quadrant, chrono-geological description of Northern Ireland. Once defined, the baseline conductivity map allows departures from the norm to be assessed across each specific lithological unit. Bulk electrical conductivity is controlled by a number of petrophysical parameters and it is their variation that is assessed by the procedures employed. The igneous rocks are found to display the largest variability in conductivity values and many of the statistical distributions are multi-modal. A sequence of low-value modes in these data are associated with intrusives within volcanic complexes. These and much older Neoproterzoic rocks appear to represent very low porosity formations that may be the product of rapid cooling during emplacement. By way of contrast, extensive flood basalts (the Antrim lavas) record a well-defined and much higher median value (12.24 mS m-1) although they display complex spatial behaviour in detail. Sedimentary rocks appear to follow the broad behaviours anticipated

  13. IRETHERM: Geophysical modeling of the southern margin of the Dublin Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vozar, J.; Jones, A. G.; Llovet, J. C.; Pasquali, R.

    2014-12-01

    Multi-dimensional magnetotelluric (MT) modelling of data collected in the Newcastle area are presented in the frame of the IRETHERM project. The Newcastle area, situated on the southern margin of the Dublin Basin, exhibits elevated geothermal gradient (>30 °C/km) in the exploratory boreholes drilled by GT Energy. The MT soundings were carried out in the highly urbanized Dublin suburb and are heavily noise-contaminated and distorted due to EM noise from nearby industry and the DC tram system. Processing the "quietest" 4-hour night time subsets of data using several robust codes and the ELICIT method we obtained reliable and interpretable MT impedance and geomagnetic transfer functions at most sites. Tensor decomposition was applied at each site to ascertain if the data are suitable for 2D modelling and to determine the appropriate geoelectric strike direction. The final 2-D models underwent examination using a new stability technique, and the final two 2-D profiles with reliability estimations, expressed through conductance and resistivity, were derived. 3-D models of all MT data in the Newcastle area have also been determined. The 3-D models exhibit higher conductive structures in comparison to the 2-D models, with similarly resistive background rocks. The shallow conductive structures, to the depth of 1 km, have north-south elongation correlated with surface traces of faults, which are perpendicular to the regional Blackrock to Newcastle Fault (BNF). Deeper structures become more oriented to regional geoelectric strike similar to 2-D regional strike. The 2-D and 3-D modeling reveal that the BNF is imaged as a conductive zone to depths of 4 km and is likely highly fractured. Generally, the area south of the BNF is more resistive and compact with a horizontal conductive layer at approximately 1 km depth and with a very thin surficial sedimentary layer. In contrast, the structures north of the BNF are more heterogeneous, with deeper conductive layers (2-3 km depth

  14. When people shed religious identity in Ireland and Austria: Evidence from censuses

    PubMed Central

    McClendon, David; Hackett, Conrad

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Disaffiliation from religion is an important factor behind the rapid rise in persons claiming no religious affiliation in many advanced industrial countries. Scholars typically think of disaffiliation as a life course process that is confined to young adults, with little change occurring among older adults, yet few studies have examined this assumption outside the United States and Great Britain. OBJECTIVE We evaluate whether the young-adult model of disaffiliation from religion applies in Ireland and Austria, two historically Catholic-majority countries with different levels of non-affiliation growth. METHODS We use census data on religious affiliation in Ireland (1971–2011) and Austria (1971–2001) to track aggregate changes in the percentage reporting no religious affiliation over the life course for successive birth cohorts. RESULTS We find support for the young-adult model in Ireland. However, recent cohorts in Austria exhibit a distinct pattern of disaffiliation that continues into middle adulthood. Our analysis suggests that mid-life disaffiliation in Austria is connected to a religious tax, which we argue spurs nominally affiliated adults to disaffiliate themselves, as their income rises and the costs of religious affiliation increase. CONCLUSION Our findings offer insight into some of the social factors behind recent religious change across Europe and highlight the need for more cross-national research on the age and cohort dimensions of this change. PMID:25541579

  15. ISO, FGDC, DIF and Dublin Core - Making Sense of Metadata Standards for Earth Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, P. R.; Ritchey, N. A.; Peng, G.; Toner, V. A.; Brown, H.

    2014-12-01

    Metadata standards provide common definitions of metadata fields for information exchange across user communities. Despite the broad adoption of metadata standards for Earth science data, there are still heterogeneous and incompatible representations of information due to differences between the many standards in use and how each standard is applied. Federal agencies are required to manage and publish metadata in different metadata standards and formats for various data catalogs. In 2014, the NOAA National Climatic data Center (NCDC) managed metadata for its scientific datasets in ISO 19115-2 in XML, GCMD Directory Interchange Format (DIF) in XML, DataCite Schema in XML, Dublin Core in XML, and Data Catalog Vocabulary (DCAT) in JSON, with more standards and profiles of standards planned. Of these standards, the ISO 19115-series metadata is the most complete and feature-rich, and for this reason it is used by NCDC as the source for the other metadata standards. We will discuss the capabilities of metadata standards and how these standards are being implemented to document datasets. Successful implementations include developing translations and displays using XSLTs, creating links to related data and resources, documenting dataset lineage, and establishing best practices. Benefits, gaps, and challenges will be highlighted with suggestions for improved approaches to metadata storage and maintenance.

  16. Alcohol use among amateur sportsmen in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to establish baseline data on alcohol consumption patterns, behaviours and harms among amateur sportsmen in the Republic of Ireland. Findings The study presents findings from the baseline survey for a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a community intervention programme to reduce problem alcohol use among a representative sample of Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) clubs in two counties in the Republic of Ireland. Self reported alcohol use, prevalence of binge drinking, AUDIT scores and alcohol-related harms were assessed in amateur GAA sportsmen aged 16 years and over. Nine hundred and sixty (960) players completed questionnaires (72% response rate). Mean age was 24.0 years (S.D. 5.2). Of those aged 18 years or over, 75% had post-primary education; most (864, 90%) were current drinkers and 8.2% were regular smokers. The self-reported average yearly alcohol consumption was 12.5 litres. Almost one third (31%) of current drinkers reported drinking over the recommended limit of 21 standard drinks per week and just over half (54.3%) reported drinking 6 or more standard drinks in a row at least once a week (regular binge drinking). Of those who (self) completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) questionnaire, three-quarters (74.7%) had a score of 8 or more; 11.5% had a score of 20 or above warranting referral for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. Almost all (87.6%) of the 864 drinkers reported experiencing at least one harm due to their drinking. These alcohol misuse outcomes were higher than those found in a nationally representative sample of males of a similar age. There were strong associations between regular binge drinking and reporting harms such as being in a fight (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.02, p < 0.001), missing time from work or college (adjusted OR 1.39, p = 0.04) or being in an accident (adjusted OR 1.78, p = 0.04). Conclusions These male amateur sportsmen

  17. Eskers in Ireland, analogs for sinuous ridges on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicer, Xavier; Bourke, Mary

    2014-05-01

    Sinuous ridges on the surface of Mars are often inferred as putative esker ridges. Eskers cover several hundred kilometers of the Irish landscape and are one of the dominant landforms in the Irish Midlands. Well exposed stratigraphic sections and the body of existing knowledge due to extensive research carried out on these landforms make the Irish eskers an excellent analog for sinuous ridges on Mars. The Irish Eskers are sinuous ridges 0.1 - 80 km long, 20 - 500 m wide and 4 - 50 m high laid down by glacial meltwater in tunnels and crevasses in stationary or retreating ice sheets. They are commonly composed of sands and gravels with rounded boulders and cobbles. The gravels are usually bedded and the beds often slump towards the flank of the esker, indicating collapse as the confining ice walls melt. Four types of eskers have been identified in Ireland: (i) Continuous subglacial tunnel fill represents deposition within tunnels underneath or within an ice body originally used as water escape conduits; (ii) Continuous fluvial ice-channel fill deposit in channels cut into the ice on top of the glacier or down to the substrate subsequently infilled by sediments; (iii) Long beads - subglacial tunnel fill are segmented ridges, with a length-width ratio of 5:1 to 10:1, representing sequential deposition near or at the ice margin as the ice sheet retreats; (iv) Short beads are glaciolacustrine deposits interpreted as sequential deposition of ice-contact subaqueous outwash fans. Irish eskers have significant morphological similarities with those identified on Mars providing an opportunity for an insightful morphological and morphometric analysis to determine potential formative environments on Mars. Putative Martian eskers are 2-300 km long, 50-3000 m wide and 10-150 m high. The Irish eskers are similar in scale and present dimensions within these ranges. Eskers in Ireland are composed of sand and gravel with cobbles and boulders. Mars esker-like ridges observed in high

  18. Ensemble of regional climate model projections for Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Paul; McGrath, Ray

    2016-04-01

    of over 35 days per year. Results show significant projected decreases in mean annual, spring and summer precipitation amounts by mid-century. The projected decreases are largest for summer, with "likely" reductions ranging from 0% to 20%. The frequencies of heavy precipitation events show notable increases (approximately 20%) during the winter and autumn months. The number of extended dry periods is projected to increase substantially during autumn and summer. Regional variations of projected precipitation change remain statistically elusive. The energy content of the wind is projected to significantly decrease for the future spring, summer and autumn months. Projected increases for winter were found to be statistically insignificant. The projected decreases were largest for summer, with "likely" values ranging from 3% to 15%. Results suggest that the tracks of intense storms are projected to extend further south over Ireland relative to those in the reference simulation. As extreme storm events are rare, the storm-tracking research needs to be extended. Future work will focus on analysing a larger ensemble, thus allowing a robust statistical analysis of extreme storm track projections.

  19. Carbon monoxide measurements at Mace Head, Ireland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doddridge, Bruce G.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Spain, T. Gerard; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Novelli, Paul C.

    1994-01-01

    The North Atlantic Ocean is bordered by continents which may each, under the influence of seasonal weather patterns, act as sources of natural and anthropogenic trace gas and particulate species. Photochemically active species such as carbon monoxide (CO) react to form ozone (O3), a species of critical importance in global climate change. CO is sparingly soluble in water, and the relatively long lifetime of CO in the troposphere makes this species an ideal tracer of air masses with origin over land. We have measured CO using a nondispersive infrared gas filter correlation analyzer at Mace Head on the west coast of Ireland nearly continuously since August 9, 1991. Measurements of CO were acquired at 20-sec resolution and recorded as 60-sec averages. Daily, monthly, and diurnal variation data characteristics of CO mixing ratios observed at this site are reported. Depending on source regions of air parcels passing over this site, 60-min concentrations of CO range from clean air values of approximately 90 ppbv to values in excess of 300 ppbv. Data characterizing the correlation between 60-min CO and O3 mixing ratio data observed at this site are reported also.

  20. CLP activities and control in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    The 10(th) December 2010 marked a new beginning for Regulation (EC) no. 1272/2008 on the classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) in Ireland with the start of its operational phase. It was on this date that the administrative and enforcement provisions for CLP were encompassed in the new Chemicals Amendment Act, 2010. In this Act, the Health and Safety Authority, known as the "the Authority" is named as Competent Authority (CA) for CLP, along with the Minister for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, in respect of pesticides and plant protection products and the Beaumont Hospital Board with responsibility for receiving information relating to emergency health response. In practice, the Authority has been de facto CA for CLP since its publication on the 31(st) December 2008, given its role in existing classification and labelling regimes. This article focuses on the work undertaken by the Authority on CLP at a National, European and International level including its implementation, training, helpdesk, guidance, enforcement and awareness raising activities.

  1. Phylogeographic, ancient DNA, fossil and morphometric analyses reveal ancient and modern introductions of a large mammal: the complex case of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carden, Ruth F.; McDevitt, Allan D.; Zachos, Frank E.; Woodman, Peter C.; O'Toole, Peter; Rose, Hugh; Monaghan, Nigel T.; Campana, Michael G.; Bradley, Daniel G.; Edwards, Ceiridwen J.

    2012-05-01

    The problem of how and when the island of Ireland attained its contemporary fauna has remained a key question in understanding Quaternary faunal assemblages. We assessed the complex history and origins of the red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Ireland using a multi-disciplinary approach. Mitochondrial sequences of contemporary and ancient red deer (dating from c 30,000 to 1700 cal. yr BP) were compared to decipher possible source populations of red deer in Ireland, in addition to craniometric analyses of skulls from candidate regions to distinguish between different colonization scenarios. Radiocarbon dating was undertaken on all bone fragments that were previously undated. Finally, a comprehensive review of the scientific literature, unpublished reports and other sources of data were also searched for red deer remains within Irish palaeontological and archaeological contexts. Despite being present in Ireland prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), there is a notable scarcity of red deer from the Younger Dryas stadial period until the Neolithic. The presence of red deer in Irish archaeological sites then occurs more frequently relative to other species. One population in the southwest of Ireland (Co. Kerry) shared haplotypes with the ancient Irish specimens and molecular dating and craniometric analysis suggests its persistence in Ireland since the Neolithic period. The synthesis of the results from this multi-disciplinary study all indicate that red deer were introduced by humans during the Irish Neolithic period and that one of these populations persists today. In conjunction with recent results from other species, Neolithic people from Ireland's nearest landmass, Britain, played a vital role in establishing its contemporary fauna and flora.

  2. Babesias of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Blood samples were obtained from 38 wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) at two sites in Ireland and subjected to PCR analysis of the 18S rRNA gene followed by sequencing. Two fragments of the 18S rRNA gene were generated by two different PCR protocols and subsequent sequencing suggested that at least six of the deer were infected by a babesia that, in those loci, is indistinguishable from Babesia divergens, an important tick-borne pathogen of cattle and of zoonotic significance. Additionally, a B. odocoilei-like parasite was detected in three samples and a babesia that did not match any sequences in the GenBank database was found in five samples. Neither B. capreoli nor B. venatorum (EU1) were found. There have been several reports of B. divergens occurring in deer species, including red deer, roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). However, in view of recent re-sequencing of bovine-origin samples deposited previously in GenBank, it is unlikely that any of these sequences from deer are B. divergens. The present study describes the only deer piroplasm detected so far that shows complete identity with B. divergens, in just over half of the 18S rRNA gene. The entire gene of this deer parasite should be analysed and transmission experiments undertaken before the infectivity of B. divergens for red deer can be confirmed. PMID:21314977

  3. Modernization and religious intermarriage in the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, R

    2001-12-01

    There are strong theoretical reasons for hypothesizing that those sections of the population who are most exposed to modernization processes are more likely to marry outside their own religious group. We examine this for Catholic-Protestant intermarriage in the Republic of Ireland. We use a multivariate analysis on survey data to test the hypotheses that urban dwellers, persons of non-farming parents, persons with higher levels of education and the young are more likely to be religiously intermarried. While the odds of being in an intermarriage are greater for urban dwellers, this is in large part due to their being non-farmers. The farming effect is not necessarily related to religiosity. The odds of being in an intermarriage do not increase significantly for persons with third level education and this can be explained in terms of the marriage market for minority groups. It is shown that the historical context and the minority position of religious group should be taken into account in explanations which relate modernization to the pattern of religious intermarriage. PMID:11853062

  4. Cosmic Radiation and Aircrew Exposure: Implementation of European Requirements in Civil Aviation, Dublin, 1-3 July 1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, Lee

    1999-03-01

    The European Union's Basic Safety Standards Directive (96/29/Euratom) lays down safety standards for the protection of workers and the general public against the effects of ionising radiations. Article 42 of the Directive deals with the protection of aircrew. It states that for crew of jet aircraft who are likely to be subject to exposure to more than 1 mSv y-1 appropriate measures must be taken, in particular: to assess the exposure of the crew concerned, to take into account the assessed exposure when organising working schedules with a view to reducing the doses of highly exposed aircrew, to inform concerned workers of the health risks involved in their work, to apply Article 10 to female aircrew. (The unborn child shall be treated like a member of the public.) This Directive must be transformed into national law of the 15 member states of the European Union by 13 May 2000. The European Commission and the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland sponsored this International Conference. The objective of this conference was to assist both the airline industry and the national regulatory organisations in identifying the means available to comply with the requirements of the Directive. Over 200 delegates attended the conference from more than 25 countries. The welcoming addresses were made by Mary Upton (Director of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland), Joe Jacob (Minister for State responsible for Nuclear Safety) and James Currie (Director-General for the Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection). Mr Currie stated that there was a need for political decisions to be based on good science, and that technological trends will lead to higher and longer flights, and therefore higher radiation doses. The first day concentrated on the scientific basis of measurement, calculation and monitoring of cosmic radiation. The first speaker, Dr Heinrich from the University of Siegen, Germany, talked about the physics of cosmic radiation fields. He pointed

  5. Differential innate immune responses of bovine peripheral blood leukocytes to Salmonella enterica serovars Dublin, Typhimurium, and Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Deng; Rostagno, Marcos H; Ebner, Paul D; Eicher, Susan D

    2015-05-15

    The majority of Salmonella serovars cause no clinical disease in cattle, while some are associated with severe disease. The objective of the current study was to determine the innate immune responses of bovine peripheral blood leukocytes exposed to Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin (bovine-specific), Salmonella typhimurium (murine adapted, but zoonotic), and Salmonella enteritidis (poultry host-adapted) in 3-week-old calves. All Salmonella exposures increased cell surface CD14 and CD18 regardless of serovar. The greatest CD14 marker mean fluorescence was in monocytes and the greatest mean fluorescent of the marker mean was in neutrophils. Phagocytosis increased with all serovars, but was not different among them. Neutrophils had the greatest marker mean fluorescence for phagocytosis, with all serovars being equal. Oxidative burst increased in all serovars compared to control cells, but were not different among the serovars. Neutrophils and monocytes were similar in the oxidative burst, with limited oxidative burst detected in the primarily lymphocyte population. mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-12, increased above the control cells whereas none of these serovars affected mRNA expression of TLR4. TNF-α was greatest in S. enterica and S. typhimurium, compared to Salmonella dublin. In contrast, IL-8 was expressed more in S. dublin than S. typhiurium, with S. Enteriditus intermediary. These results show while cell surface markers, phagocytosis, and oxidative burst were largely unaffected by serovar, cytokine and chemokine expression differed among the Salmonella serovars. It appears that internal responses of the cells differ, rather than cell recognition, creating pathogenicity differences among of the serovars, even in the neonate with developing immunity.

  6. Bioaccessibility of trace elements in soils in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Barsby, Amy; McKinley, Jennifer M; Ofterdinger, Ulrich; Young, Mike; Cave, Mark R; Wragg, Joanna

    2012-09-01

    Assessment of elevated concentrations of potentially toxic elements (PTE) in soils and the association with specific soil parent material have been the focus of research for a number of years. Risk-based assessment of potential exposure scenarios to identified elevated PTE concentrations has led to the derivation of site- and contaminant-specific soil guideline values (SGVs), which represent generic assessment criteria (GACs) to identify exceeded levels that may reflect an unacceptable risk to human health. A better understanding of the 'bioavailable' or 'bioaccessible' contaminant concentrations offers an opportunity to better refine contaminant exposure assessments. Utilizing a comprehensive soil geochemical dataset for Northern Ireland provided by the Tellus Survey (GSNI) in conjunction with supplementary bioaccessibility testing of selected soil samples following the Unified BARGE Method, this paper uses exploratory data analysis and geostatistical analysis to investigate the spatial variability of pseudo-total and bioaccessible concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr. Cu, Ni, Pb, U, V and Zn. The paper investigates variations in individual element concentrations as well as cross-element correlations and observed lithological/pedological associations. The analysis of PTE concentrations highlighted exceeded levels of GAC values for V and Cr and exceeded SGV/GAC values for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. UBM testing showed that for some soil parent materials associated with elevated PTE concentrations e.g. the Antrim Lava Group with high Ni concentrations, the measured oral bioaccessible fraction was relatively low. For other soil parent materials with relatively moderate PTE concentrations, measured oral bioaccessible fraction was relatively high (e.g. the Gala Sandstone Group of the Southern Uplands-Down Longford Terrain). These findings have implications for regional human health risk assessments for specific PTEs.

  7. From Emigration to Immigration: New Dawn for an Intercultural 21st Century Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutwarasibo, Fidele

    2005-01-01

    Within the course of a decade Ireland has emerged from being a country of emigration to a country of immigration. Since the mid-1990s, Ireland has undergone rapid economic expansion with the recent economic growth resulting in approximately 252,000 migrants entering Ireland over the last 6 years, according to the Irish Times (2003). While a large…

  8. Language Policy and Minority Language Education in Ireland: Re-Exploring the Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Laoire, Muiris

    2012-01-01

    The formulation of a languages-in-education policy (LEP) in Ireland illustrates some challenges at the macro- and micro-levels. A clamour for policy has reverberated through language education institutions in Ireland within the last decade. This paper explores and discusses: (1) the trajectory of an LEP in Ireland from initial formulation to…

  9. 9 CFR 93.432 - Cattle from the Republic of Ireland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... importation. In addition: (1) Such herd unit may include cattle which were born and raised within such herd... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from the Republic of Ireland... Cattle from the Republic of Ireland. (a) All cattle to be imported from the Republic of Ireland shall...

  10. 9 CFR 93.432 - Cattle from the Republic of Ireland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... importation. In addition: (1) Such herd unit may include cattle which were born and raised within such herd... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle from the Republic of Ireland... Cattle from the Republic of Ireland. (a) All cattle to be imported from the Republic of Ireland shall...

  11. Experiences of School Bullying in Northern Ireland: Data from the Life and Times Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mc Guckin, Conor; Lewis, Christopher Alan

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the levels of bully/victim behaviors in schools in Northern Ireland. The aim of the present study was to supplement previous research findings from Northern Ireland by examining the self-reported experiences of school bullying among Northern Ireland children through data collected as part of the 1998 "Youth Life and Times…

  12. Transnational Linkages Between the Irish in America and the Irish in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCready, William C.

    This paper examines the relationship between Irish Americans living in the United States and natives in Ireland. Although there is currently little interest or interaction between Irish Americans and Ireland, relationships can be found. The first part of this paper outlines the historical context of migration from Ireland to the United States.…

  13. Deliberating or dithering? Ireland and human embryonic stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Gough, Fionnuala

    2013-04-01

    Disagreement about matters of public policy concerned with moral issues is inevitable in pluralist democracies. One approach to the resolution of moral conflicts in society is the concept of deliberative democracy, which emphasises the process or procedure which ultimately allows a political decision to be reached. The Republic of Ireland effectively has no legislative framework regulating human embryonic stem cell research (hESC research). This article proposes that Irish policymakers establish a procedural framework, similar to that used in other European democracies, to allow the development of appropriate regulations pertaining to hESC research in Ireland. In particular the article will consider how a three-tier model of procedural regulation has been used to achieve certainty in the area ofhESC research in the United Kingdom and Germany and how this model might be applied to Ireland.

  14. Midwifery education in Ireland--The quest for modernity.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Rhona; Bradshaw, Carmel

    2016-02-01

    Midwifery education in Ireland has undergone significant changes in recent years including the introduction of direct entry midwifery programmes and a transfer of education to the university sector. While this has provided increased educational opportunities for midwives, the challenge for midwife educators is to prepare students for the increasing complexities of maternity care with a focus on obstetric risk and maternal morbidities with the need to educate midwifery students to support normality and provide woman centred care. The Nursing and Midwifery Board of Ireland has recently produced new Standards and Requirements for midwifery education and Practice Standards for midwives. This article provides information on midwifery education in Ireland and the documents that support the development of the profession. PMID:26776156

  15. A new direction for medical education in Ireland?

    PubMed

    Finucane, Paul; Kellett, John

    2007-03-01

    In recent years, new concepts of educational theory and practice have stimulated new approaches to medical education in many countries. For various reasons, medical education in Ireland has been slow to change such that there are now increasing concerns about educational standards. In addition, Ireland currently produces too few doctors and is therefore highly dependent on overseas doctors to maintain its health service. The responsible agencies are finally about to address these problems through a major expansion of medical education coupled with a strong agenda for educational reform. While the reform process will clearly be influenced by the experience of other counties, Ireland now has a great opportunity to take innovation in medical education a step further. For example, there is now an opportunity to develop new strategies to ensure the social accountability of medical education, to increase its community orientation and to foster interprofessional teaching and learning. PMID:17338960

  16. Midwifery education in Ireland--The quest for modernity.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Rhona; Bradshaw, Carmel

    2016-02-01

    Midwifery education in Ireland has undergone significant changes in recent years including the introduction of direct entry midwifery programmes and a transfer of education to the university sector. While this has provided increased educational opportunities for midwives, the challenge for midwife educators is to prepare students for the increasing complexities of maternity care with a focus on obstetric risk and maternal morbidities with the need to educate midwifery students to support normality and provide woman centred care. The Nursing and Midwifery Board of Ireland has recently produced new Standards and Requirements for midwifery education and Practice Standards for midwives. This article provides information on midwifery education in Ireland and the documents that support the development of the profession.

  17. All Christians? Experiences of science educators in Northern Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Colette; Hickey, Ivor; Beggs, Jim

    2010-03-01

    In this paper we respond to Staver's article (this issue) on an attempt to resolve the discord between science and religion. Most specifically, we comment on Staver's downplaying of difference between Catholics and Protestants in order to focus on the religion-science question. It is our experience that to be born into one or other of these traditions in some parts of the world (especially Northern Ireland) resulted in starkly contrasting opportunities, identities and practices in becoming and being science educators. The paper starts with a short contextual background to the impact of religion on schooling and higher education in Northern Ireland. We then explore the lives and careers of three science/religious educators in Northern Ireland: Catholic (Jim) and Protestant (Ivor) males who are contemporaries and whose experience spans pre-Troubles to post-conflict and a Catholic female (Colette) who moved to Northern Ireland during the Troubles as a teenager. Finally, we discuss the situation regarding the teaching of creationism and evolution in Northern Ireland—an issue has recently generated high public interest. The Chair of the Education Committee of the Northern Ireland Assembly recently stated that "creationism is not for the RE class because I believe that it can stand scientific scrutiny and that is a debate which I am quite happy to encourage and be part of…" (News Letter 2008). It could be the case that the evolution debate is being fuelled as a deliberate attempt to undermine some of the post-conflict collaboration projects between schools and communities in Northern Ireland.

  18. Female role models in physics education in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chormaic, Síle Nic; Fee, Sandra; Tobin, Laura; Hennessy, Tara

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we consider the statistics on undergraduate student representation in Irish universities and look at student numbers in secondary (high) schools in one region in Ireland. There seems to be no significant change in female participation in physics from 2002 to 2011. Additionally, we have studied the influence of an educator's gender on the prevalence of girls studying physics in secondary schools in Co. Louth, Ireland, and at the postgraduate level in Irish universities. It would appear that strong female role models have a positive influence and lead to an increase in girls' participation in physics.

  19. An application of HOMER and ACMANT for homogenising monthly precipitation records in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, John; Curley, Mary; Domonkos, Peter; Aguilar, Enric; Walsh, Seamus; Sweeney, John

    2015-04-01

    Climate change studies based only on raw long-term data are potentially flawed due to the many breaks introduced from non-climatic sources. Consequently, accurate climate data is an essential prerequisite for basing climate related decision making on; and quality controlled, homogenised climate data are becoming integral to European Union Member State efforts to deliver climate services. Ireland has a good repository of monthly precipitation data at approximately 1900 locations stored in the Met Éireann database. The record length at individual precipitation stations varies greatly. However, an audit of the data established the continuous record length at each station and the number of missing months, and based on this two initial subsets of station series (n = 88 and n = 110) were identified for preliminary homogenisation efforts. The HOMER joint detection algorithm was applied to the combined network of these 198 longer station series on an Ireland-wide basis where contiguous intact monthly records ranged from ~40 to 71 years (1941 - 2010). HOMER detected 91 breaks in total in the country-wide series analysis distributed across 63 (~32%) of the 71 year series records analysed. In a separate approach, four sub-series clusters (n = 38 - 61) for the 1950 - 2010 period were used in a parallel analysis applying both ACMANT and HOMER to a regionalised split of the 198 series. By comparison ACMANT detected a considerably higher number of breaks across the four regional series clusters, 238 distributed across 123 (~62%) of the 61 year series records analysed. These preliminary results indicate a relatively high proportion of detected breaks in the series, a situation not generally reflected in observed later 20th century precipitation records across Europe (Domonkos, 2014). However, this elevated ratio of series with detected breaks (~32% in HOMER and ~62% in ACMANT) parallels the break detection rate in a recent analysis of series in the Netherlands (Buishand et al

  20. Restricted access to abortion in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland: exploring abortion tourism and barriers to legal reform.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Fiona; O'Dowd, Kellie

    2014-01-01

    Access to abortion remains a controversial issue worldwide. In Ireland, both north and south, legal restrictions have resulted in thousands of women travelling to England and Wales and further afield to obtain abortions in the last decade alone, while others purchase the 'abortion pill' from Internet sources. This paper considers the socio-legal context in both jurisdictions, the data on those travelling to access abortion and the barriers to legal reform. It argues that moral conservatism in Ireland, north and south, has contributed to the restricted access to abortion, impacting on the experience of thousands of women, resulting in these individuals becoming 'abortion tourists'.

  1. Environmental consequences of a power plant shut-down: a three-dimensional water quality model of Dublin Bay.

    PubMed

    Bedri, Zeinab; Bruen, Michael; Dowley, Aodh; Masterson, Bartholomew

    2013-06-15

    A hydro-environmental model is used to investigate the effect of cessation of thermal discharges from a power plant on the bathing water quality of Dublin Bay. Before closing down, cooling water from the plant was mixed with sewage effluent prior to its discharge, creating a warmer, less-saline buoyant pollutant plume that adversely affects the water quality of Dublin Bay. The model, calibrated to data from the period prior to the power-plant shut-down (Scenario1), assessed the water quality following its shut-down under two scenarios; (i) Scenario2: continued abstraction of water to dilute sewage effluents before discharge, and (ii) Scnenario3: sewage effluents are discharged directly into the Estuary. Comparison between scenarios was based on distribution of Escherichia coli (E. coli), a main bathing quality indicator. Scenarios1 and 2, showed almost similar E. coli distribution patterns while Scenario3 displayed significantly higher E. coli concentrations due to the increased stratification caused by the lack of prior dilution.

  2. Ireland, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The island of Ireland comprises a large central lowland of limestone with a relief of hills surrounded by a discontinuous border of coastal mountains which vary greatly in geological structure. The mountain ridges of the south are composed of old red sandstone separated by limestone river valleys. Granite predominates in the mountains of Galway, Mayo and Donegal in the west and north-west and in Counties Down and Wicklow on the east coast, while a basalt plateau covers much of the north-east of the country. The central plain, which is broken in places by low hills, is extensively covered with glacial deposits of clay and sand. It has considerable areas of bog and numerous lakes. The island has seen at least two general glaciations and everywhere ice-smoothed rock, mountain lakes, glacial valleys and deposits of glacial sand, gravel and clay mark the passage of the ice.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial

  3. Education as a Mechanism for Conflict Resolution in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Bernadette C.; McAllister, Ian

    2009-01-01

    How education systems operate in divided societies is an increasingly important question for academics and educational practitioners as well as for governments. The question is particularly pertinent in post-conflict societies, where education is a key mechanism for resolving conflict between divided communities. Using Northern Ireland as a case…

  4. Religious Education and the Law in Northern Ireland's Controlled Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, David

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the legislation under which religious education operates in Northern Ireland's schools. A brief historical sketch identifies the Irish Churches' interest in the educational debates of the 1920s and 1930s. The legislation that established religious education in the curriculum is traced from those debates to the present…

  5. Relationships of People with Learning Disabilities in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bane, Geraldine; Deely, Marie; Donohoe, Brian; Dooher, Martin; Flaherty, Josephine; Iriarte, Edurne Garcia; Hopkins, Rob; Mahon, Ann; Minogue, Ger; Mc Donagh, Padraig; O'Doherty, Siobhain; Curry, Martin; Shannon, Stephen; Tierney, Edel; Wolfe, Marie

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the perspectives of people with learning disabilities on relationships and supports in the Republic of Ireland. A national research network consisting of 21 researchers with learning disabilities, 12 supporters, and 7 university researchers conducted the study. Researchers with learning disabilities and their supporters ran 16…

  6. Are Separate Schools Divisive? A Case Study from Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    In Northern Ireland, where the majority of children are educated at schools attended mainly by coreligionists, the debate concerning the role of schools in perpetuating intergroup hostilities has recently been reignited. Against questions regarding the efficacy of community relations policy in education, the research reported in this paper employs…

  7. Courses in Physics in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Includes honors degree courses; special entry requirements; course structure; courses regularly available; notes; and how to obtain further information on 42 universities, 28 polytechnics, 12 colleges of technology, and 13 colleges of education in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Some schools have advertisements listing additional…

  8. Northern Ireland disease surveillance report, October to December 2015.

    PubMed

    2016-02-13

    ·Pneumonia and encephalitis due to Histophilus somni in heifers ·Pneumonia due to Bibersteinia trehalosi in a cow ·Fasciolosis in ewes and lambs ·Dosing gun injuries in lambs ·Histomonosis in chickens These are among matters discussed in the Northern Ireland animal disease surveillance quarterly report for October to December 2015. PMID:26868239

  9. Irish Speakers in Northern Ireland, and the Good Friday Agreement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craith, M. Nic

    1999-01-01

    Examines the Irish language community in Northern Ireland, and questions the validity of the census results of 1991. Particular focus is on the concept of a mother tongue and its relevance for speakers of Irish in the United Kingdom. Discusses measures to improve the status of Irish as a result of the Good Friday Agreement. (Author/VWL)

  10. Differentiated Normalization and Drug Transitions among Rural Youth in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hout, Marie Claire

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence surveys in Ireland indicate an increased trend of youth drug use with rural areas reporting comparable drug availability and prevalence of use in urban settings (Currie, C., Nic Gabhainn, S., Godeau, E., Roberts, C., Smith, R., & Currie, D. (Eds.). (2008). "Inequalities in young people's health: HBSC international report from the…

  11. Tolerance and Moral Reasoning among Adolescents in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslin, Ann

    1982-01-01

    Describes a study which showed that adolescents who reasoned at Kohlberg's "principles" level of moral reasoning are more tolerant than those who reasoned predominantly at the "conventional" level. Subjects in the study were senior high students in Ireland. Information was gathered through questionnaires. (RM)

  12. Just a Phase? Youth Unemployment in the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, Emer

    2008-01-01

    Ireland has experienced an unprecedented level of economic growth since the mid-1990s. The present article assesses the extent to which this phenomenon has altered the level and nature of youth unemployment, using data from six waves of a nationally representative survey of school-leavers. The main impact of the "Celtic Tiger" has been to smooth…

  13. The Career Paths of Primary School Principals in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ummanel, Azize; McNamara, Gerry; Stynes, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The key purpose of this paper is to offer an exploration of the career paths of a number of Irish school principals. The information presented is part of a comparative study in the area, involving three island states: Cyprus, Malta and Ireland. The study provides an insight into how individuals become principals and how they perceive themselves in…

  14. Reviving a Community, Modernizing an Industry: Ireland's Furniture College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Technology Strategies, Inc., Carrboro, NC.

    Connemara, a rural region in Ireland, is characterized by high unemployment, high emigration, poor infrastructure, inadequate public services, and a low rate of transfer to third-level education. To address the situation, the Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology (GMIT), joined forces with Connemara West (a community-owned development organization…

  15. Early Childhood Education in Ireland: Change and Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Rosaleen

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood care and education in Ireland has come under increasing scrutiny in recent years, as a result of public concern about standards in some early years services. Services for children before they enter primary school are largely the responsibility of the department of health, while children in the formal school system are the…

  16. An Examination of Health Promoting Schools in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moynihan, Sharon; Jourdan, Didier; Mannix McNamara, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a national survey that examined the extent of implementation of Health Promoting Schools (HPS) in Ireland. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative research design was adopted. A questionnaire was administered to all post-primary schools in the country (n = 704). Data were analysed…

  17. Burnout among Accounting and Finance Academics in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Marann; Chughtai, Aamir; Flood, Barbara; Murphy, Evelyn; Willis, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the levels of burnout experienced by accounting and finance academics in Ireland. Design/methodology/approach: Data for this cross-sectional survey study were collected from 100 accounting and finance academics teaching in Irish third level institutions. Independent sample "t"-tests, one way analysis…

  18. Refusal of emergency caesarean section in Ireland: a relational approach.

    PubMed

    Wade, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the issue of emergency caesarean section refusal. This raises complex legal and ethical issues surrounding autonomy, capacity, and the right to refuse treatment. In Ireland, the situation is complicated further by the constitutional right to life of the unborn. While cases involving caesarean section refusal have occurred in other jurisdictions, a case of this nature has yet to be reported in Ireland. This article examines possible ways in which the interaction of a woman's right to refuse treatment and the right to life of the unborn could be approached in Ireland in the context of caesarean section refusal. The central argument of the article is that the liberal individualistic approach to autonomy evident in the caesarean section cases in England and Wales is difficult to apply in the Irish context, due to the conflicting constitutional rights of the woman and foetus. Thus, alternative visions of autonomy which take the interests and rights of others into account in medical decision-making are examined. In particular, this article focuses on the concept of relational consent, as developed by Alasdair Maclean and examines how such an approach could be applied in the context of caesarean section refusal in Ireland. The article explains why this approach is particularly appropriate and identifies mechanisms through which such a theory of consent could be applied. It is argued that this approach enhances a woman's right to autonomy, while at the same time allows the right to life of the unborn to be defended.

  19. Creativity in the Science Curriculum: A Northern Ireland Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Roger

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the revised Northern Ireland Curriculum which will be fully implemented across all key stages by June 2010. The revision gives schools greater flexibility with statements of minimum entitlement for subject strands replacing detailed subject programmes of study. Teachers are encouraged to promote a cross-curricular approach…

  20. Teachers' Values: A Case Study of Northern Ireland Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, A.

    1985-01-01

    Reports results of a series of semi-structured interviews with 12 teachers from Catholic and Protestant schools in Northern Ireland. Explores such topics as professional autonomy, teacher-pupil relations, a teacher's freedom to pursue his or her own methods, discipline, sources of professional identity and the social and political backgrounds to…

  1. Adult Persons with Intellectual Disabilities on the Island of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConkey, R.; Mulvany, F.; Barron, S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Information on the numbers of adult persons (aged 20 years and over) with intellectual disability (ID) is rarely collated at a national level. This is an impediment to service planning especially for a changing population. Methods: A database of all persons in receipt of ID services has been operating in the Republic of Ireland since…

  2. How Do Teachers in Ireland and England Conceptualise Dyslexia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Sheena; McPhillips, Therese; Doveston, Mary

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a comparative study using data from questionnaire surveys carried out in England (n = 57) and Ireland (n = 72). The researchers examine how teachers and teaching assistants who are currently teaching pupils with dyslexia in primary schools describe dyslexia and what may have influenced their conceptualisation.…

  3. Including Pupils with Special Educational Needs in Schools in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greville, Eamonn

    2009-01-01

    These guidelines offer information on space planning and design for school principals, boards of management and designers to make permanent learning facilities available for pupils with special educational needs across the 26 counties of Ireland. The guidelines reflect many of the recent changes in the country's educational system, changes that…

  4. World Perspective Case Descriptions on Educational Programs for Adults: Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassett, Michael; And Others

    Fifteen adult education programs being conducted in Ireland are described in the case studies in this packet. The courses range from adult basic education to university degree courses in management and industrial relations, from marriage preparation to inservice teacher education. The following programs are profiled: (1) certificate in farming…

  5. Sex Education in Northern Ireland Schools: A Critical Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolston, Bill; Schubotz, Dirk; Simpson, Audrey

    2005-01-01

    To date there has been little research on young people and sexuality in Northern Ireland. This paper draws on the first major study in this area to analyse the delivery of formal sex education in schools. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to access young people's opinions about the quality of the sex education they had received…

  6. The Progression of Early Intervention Disability Services in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Clare; Murphy, Geraldine; Sixsmith, Jane

    2013-01-01

    The Republic of Ireland is an island situated in north-west Europe inhabited by 4.6 million people, with 2.8% between 0 and 4 years of age with a disability (Central Statistics Office, 2012). The Irish Government funds the Irish health services, which, in turn, directly and indirectly funds disability services. Education and Disability legislation…

  7. Newcomer Pupils in Northern Ireland: A Pastoral Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sharon Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Rapid changes in Northern Ireland's demographic, resulting in an increasingly multicultural and multilingual school population, are presenting new opportunities and challenges for schools in a region emerging from a troubled recent past. Reflecting on this from a pastoral perspective, this article focuses on the relationships between the school…

  8. Cultural Flashpoint: The Politics of Teacher Education Reform in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Paul F.

    2013-01-01

    The publication of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009 (Cosgrove et al., 2010; Perkins et al., 2010) reading literacy results heralded a crisis of confidence in educational standards in Ireland. This article examines the national and international context of teacher education reform and the politics of the policy…

  9. Higher Education Expansion and Differentiation in the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Selina; Smyth, Emer

    2011-01-01

    This article explores social class and gender differences in entry to the two main higher education sectors, universities and institutes of technology, among school leavers in Ireland over the period 1980-2006. A rational choice perspective is adopted, with participation hypothesised to reflect the costs and benefits attaching to attending the two…

  10. Media Studies in Northern Ireland: Threat or Promise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Jude; Crouch, Chris

    1988-01-01

    Describes attitudes of teachers in Northern Ireland toward media studies in school systems. Impediments to introducing media studies are discussed, including teachers' lack of expertise, media's lack of academic status, overcrowded curriculum, and lack of equipment. Positive aspects of media studies are also reviewed, including student attitudes…

  11. Shared Education in Northern Ireland: School Collaboration in Divided Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Tony

    2016-01-01

    During the years of political violence in Northern Ireland many looked to schools to contribute to reconciliation. A variety of interventions were attempted throughout those years, but there was little evidence that any had produced systemic change. The peace process provided an opportunity for renewed efforts. This paper outlines the experience…

  12. Counselors Abroad: Outcomes of an International Counseling Institute in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guth, Lorraine J.; McAuliffe, Garrett; Michalak, Megan

    2014-01-01

    As the counseling profession continues to build an international community, the need to examine cultural competence training also increases. This quantitative study examined the impact of the Diversity and Counseling Institute in Ireland (DCII) on participants' multicultural counseling competencies. Two instruments were utilized to examine…

  13. Gauging the Deliverable? Educational Research in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John; Gallagher, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the landscape for educational research in the smallest country of the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland. As elsewhere, educational research exists in political and economic circumstances that have considerable influence on its direction, nature and purpose and this article seeks to contextualise these influences. Northern…

  14. What Do Young People Need When They Leave Care? Views of Care-Leavers and Aftercare Workers in North Dublin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    EPIC is an independent voluntary organisation in the Republic of Ireland that advocates for the rights of children in care and young people who have care experience. One aspect of EPIC's work is the Aftercare Advocacy and Support Service, which provides confidential advice and support to young people who are preparing to leave care, those in…

  15. The use of beached bird surveys for marine plastic litter monitoring in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Acampora, Heidi; Lyashevska, Olga; Van Franeker, Jan Andries; O'Connor, Ian

    2016-09-01

    Marine plastic litter has become a major threat to wildlife. Marine animals are highly susceptible to entanglement and ingestion of debris at sea. Governments all around the world are being urged to monitor litter sources and inputs, and to mitigate the impacts of marine litter, which is primarily composed of plastics. European policies, such as Oslo-Paris Convention (OSPAR) and Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) have adopted the monitoring of a seabird species, the Northern Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), as an environmental quality indicator through the analysis of stomach contents of beached Fulmar specimens. The aims of this research were to: firstly set a baseline investigation of multispecies of seabirds in Ireland affected by the ingestion of litter and, secondly to investigate the feasibility of using Fulmar and/or other potential species of seabird as an indicator for marine debris in Ireland through beached bird surveys. Within 30 months, 121 birds comprising 16 different species were collected and examined for the presence of litter. Of these, 27.3% (n = 33) comprising 12 different species were found to ingest litter, mainly plastics. The average mass of ingested litter was 0.141 g. Among 14 sampled Northern Fulmars, 13 (93%) had ingested plastic litter, all of them over the 0.1 g threshold used in OSPAR and MSFD policy target definitions. Results show that seabirds in Ireland are ingesting marine litter, as in many other countries in the world. Monitoring seabird litter ingestion has the potential to form part of a wider marine litter monitoring programme that can help to inform mitigation and management measures for marine litter. PMID:27500454

  16. Identifying critical source areas for phosphorus loss in Ireland using field and catchment scale ranking schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, K. J.; Magette, W. L.; Kurz, I.

    2005-03-01

    Phosphorus (P) in agricultural runoff is a major pollutant in many of Ireland's surface waters. Identification of areas that are at a high risk for P loss to surface waters is a critical component of river basin management. Two P ranking schemes (PRS's) were developed for Ireland, based on multi-criteria analysis approaches proposed in both the US and Europe, to predict the relative likelihood of P loss at both the field and catchment scales. The Field PRS was evaluated by comparing predicted rankings of potential P loss and transport against measured edge-of-field Dissolved Reactive P (DRP) loss for three fields with varying soil P levels. Qualitatively, results indicated that the Field PRS rankings corresponded to the magnitudes of measured P loss for the field sites, as well as to a reasoned evaluation of the relative likelihood that the fields would lose P that would subsequently make its way to surface water. The Catchment PRS was evaluated on a total of 31 catchments and sub-catchments by comparing predicted rankings of potential P loss and transport against measured in-stream median Molybdate Reactive P (MRP). Rankings of the relative likelihood of P loss and transport predicted by the Catchment PRS were positively correlated with median in-stream MRP ( r=0.51, P<0.05). Although the data available for these evaluations were limited, especially at field scale, and further research may identify the opportunity for modifications, both field and catchment scale P ranking schemes demonstrated a potential for identifying critical P source areas within catchments dominated by grass-based agricultural production systems, such as those in Ireland.

  17. Public awareness, behaviours and attitudes towards domestic wastewater treatment systems in the Republic of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naughton, O.; Hynds, P. D.

    2014-10-01

    Numerous studies have highlighted and quantified the role of domestic wastewater treatment systems (DWWTSs) as significant sources of human-specific aquatic contaminants in both developed and developing regions, particularly with respect to private and municipal groundwater supplies. However, from a socio-hydrological perspective, little work has focused on these systems and the potential environmental and human burden posed. This is of particular relevance in the Republic of Ireland, where approximately one third of the population is serviced by DWWTSs. The objective of the current study was to examine levels of awareness and subsequent behavioural tendencies among owners and users of DWWTSs in the Republic of Ireland, particularly in light of recent and future (national and EU) legislative amendments. Structured questionnaires were completed bi-modally with 1106 Irish respondents. Analysis identified a number of significant knowledge gaps which currently exist among DWWTS users in Ireland. These were associated with environmentally inadvisable behavioural practises, potentially leading to increased contamination vulnerability and subsequently, increased human exposure to waterborne contaminants. Household water supply type was significantly associated with DWWTS threat acknowledgement (p = 0.014), with unregulated private groundwater users exhibited the lowest awareness of DWWTS as a potential source of aquatic contaminants despite being the group at greatest risk. A bi-modal clustering approach was employed, with respondents found to fall into one of three distinct “attitudinal” clusters. Future engagement strategies should strive to provide guidance regarding the role of people and their activities within the hydrological cycle. The current study reinforces this conclusion, while providing evidence-based recommendations regarding provision of demographically focused educational strategies; these will further increase environmental policy compliance, and in

  18. A Common Model To Support Interoperable Metadata: Progress Report on Reconciling Metadata Requirements from the Dublin Core and INDECS/DOI Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, David; Rust, Godfrey; Weibel, Stuart; Miller, Eric; Trant, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    The Dublin Core metadata community and the INDECS/DOI community of authors, rights holders, and publishers are seeking common ground in the expression of metadata for information resources. An open "Schema Harmonization" working group has been established to identify a common framework to support interoperability among these communities.…

  19. The Museum of Irish Industry, Robert Kane and Education for All in the Dublin of the 1850s and 1860s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Clara

    2009-01-01

    The Museum of Irish Industry in Dublin, in its short existence (1845-1867) facilitated the access of ordinary people to popular scientific education, became a "cause celebre" and was defended by popular protest when the government recommended its abolition in 1862. Its Director, Sir Robert Kane (1809-1890) was not only an advocate of popular…

  20. A Scaled-Up Model of AP(E)L for Sectoral Professionalisation: Lessons from the 2005 Valex Pilot Project (Dublin)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the policy and pedagogical outcomes of an AP(E)L Pilot Project in the social care sector undertaken as an element of the 2003-2005 Socrates-Grundtvig Research Project: VaLEx Valuing Learning from Experience, by the Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT) and the Open Training College (OTC). It deals with the experiences of the two…

  1. The Impact of Problem-Based Learning on the Information Behavior and Literacy of Veterinary Medicine Students at University College Dublin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Lorna

    2007-01-01

    Research was conducted on the impact of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) on the information seeking and literacy of veterinary students at University College Dublin. Data were collected using both quantitative and qualitative methods from students, academics and the librarian. Results showed that PBL has a significant impact on how students find and…

  2. Neighbourhood Based Residential Child Care: A Local Residential Child Care Unit as a Resource for Integrated and Flexible Child and Family Care in Dublin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilligan, Robbie

    A pioneering residential child care project in inner city Dublin began operations in July 1981. The project was designed to function as a resource for seriously deprived or at-risk children and their families. The community served is one characterized by exceptionally high unemployment, a 10 percent rate of heroin addiction among local 15- to…

  3. A multi-technique study of the glacial stratigraphy of Co. Clare and Co. Kerry, southwest Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Andrew E.

    2002-03-01

    A multi-technique approach has been adopted in a study of the lithostratigraphy of glacial deposits in southwestern Ireland, including clast lithological analysis, fine sand geochemistry, low frequency mass specific susceptibility and fine sand calcium carbonate (equivalent) content. A revised lithostratigraphical scheme is suggested for the Quaternary glacial deposits of the region, together with a simple strategy that may be adopted for stratigraphical studies in other regions of southern Ireland. It appears that geochemical determinations via inductively coupled plasma-atomic absorption spectrometry are particularly useful in characterising and discriminating between till units within local stratigraphical studies and may be used to inform the applicability of other utilitarian techniques for use on a regional scale.

  4. IRETHERM: Research and Exploration Challenges in Assessing Ireland's Deep Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Energy Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, M. R.; Jones, A. G.; Fullea, J.; Yeomans, C. M.; Loewer, M.; Reay, D.

    2012-04-01

    : (i) Develop multi-parameter geophysical modelling and interpretation software tools that will enhance our ability to explore for and assess deep aquifers and granitic intrusions. (ii) Model and understand temperature variations in the upper-crust. Firstly, by building a 3-D model of crustal heat-production based on geochemical analysis of surface, borehole and mid- to lower-crustal xenolith samples. Secondly, by modelling, using a fully self-consistent 3-D approach, observed surface heat-flow variation as a function of variation in the structure and thermal properties of the crust and lithosphere, additionally constrained by surface elevation, geoid and gravity data. (iii) Test a strategic set of eight "type" geothermal targets with a systematic program of electromagnetic surveys (MT, CSEM) across ten target areas. As the first product of our research, we present results from two recent magnetotelluric surveys in Northern Ireland, one over the Permo-Triassic Lough Neagh Basin with geothermal aquifer potential (known porosities and permeabilities of 8-24% and 2-1000mD respectively in the Sherwood Sandstone Formation) and the other over the Palaeogene radiogenic (4-7µW/m3) Mournes Granite offering hot, dry rock potential. We assess the geothermal potential of the targets themselves and discuss the limitations of the modelling approaches we have used and the future enhancements necessary to improve our ability to characterise these resources.

  5. Young children's awareness of violence in Northern Ireland: the influence of Northern Irish television in Scotland and Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Cairns, E; Hunter, D; Herring, L

    1980-02-01

    Children aged 5 to 6 years living in either a suburb of London or in a small town in Northern Ireland which has been virtually free from violence, were asked to make up stories in response to a series of pictures depicting such things as derelict houses or a train crash. More Northern Irish children mentioned bombs and explosions than did the London children. To investigate the possibility that this knowledge of explosions might be the result of at least incidental exposure to coverage of such events on Northern Irish television news a further study was initiated. Children from another relatively quiet part of Northern Ireland were compared with children from two separate areas of Scotland where television reception is only possible from Northern Ireland and from a third area in Scotland where Northern Ireland television news cannot be received. Children from those areas where Northern Irish television news can be received again outnumbered those from the control area in terms of mentions of the words bomb or explosion. PMID:7357227

  6. What lies beneath? The underlying principles structuring the field of academic nursing in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Martin S

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a structural analysis of the field of academic nursing in Ireland and considers the implications of the field's current structure for its present status and future trajectory in the academy. Six years after preregistration nursing education transferred to the higher education sector, tensions continue to exist concerning the status and legitimacy of academic nursing and of those who profess to profess it. The languages of legitimation of senior nursing academics and national nursing leaders (n = 16) were elicited and subjected to a critical discourse analysis. Respondents' languages were analyzed in terms of the settings of four underlying structuring legitimation principles: autonomy, density, specialization, and temporality. Academic nursing in Ireland was found to be structured by low autonomy, high density, and weak specialization. I conclude that academic and professional leaders in Irish nursing need to urgently consider how academic nursing can reconfigure its relationships with clinical nursing, increase its intellectual autonomy, enhance its internal coherence and cohesiveness, strengthen the epistemic power of its knowledge base, and critically evaluate the ways in which past practices inform its present and whether and to what extent they should shape its future.

  7. Systemic fungal infection in a dog: a unique case in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Atencia, Sabela; Papakonstantinou, Stratos; Leggett, Bernadette; McAllister, Hester; Mooney, Carmel T

    2014-01-01

    A three year old male entire Staffordshire bull terrier was referred to University College Dublin Veterinary Hospital, with a two week history of fever, inflammation of the right hock, lameness on the right hindlimb, peripheral lymphadenopathy and gastrointestinal signs (vomiting and diarrhoea). For the preceding three months the dog had been treated for atopic dermatitis with oral ciclosporin (5 mg/kg, PO, q 24 hours). Cytological analysis of the affected lymph nodes demonstrated fungal-like organisms predominantly contained within macrophages. Subsequent fungal culture and microscopic identification confirmed the presence of a Byssochlamys sp. This fungus is a saprophytic organism which has been associated with mycotoxin production. It has not previously been identified as a cause of systemic infection in animals or humans. Ciclosporin was discontinued, and a second generation triazole, voriconazole prescribed at a dose of 6 mg/kg for the first two doses, and continued at 3 mg/kg every 12 hours for six months. There was an excellent response. Follow-up examination five weeks after treatment was completed confirmed remission of the disease. The dog remains alive and well three years later. The present case represents an unusual fungal infection in a dog secondary to immunosuppressive therapy with ciclosporin. Such a possibility should be considered in animals presenting with signs consistent with systemic infection when receiving immunosuppressive medication.

  8. Understandings of Citizenship Education in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland: Public Discourses among Stakeholders in the Public and Private Sectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niens, Ulrike; McIlrath, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Internationally, citizenship education has come to the fore in the past decade. It may be particularly important within the context of societies with a legacy of political conflict, such as Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, where it is being implemented as part of the statutory curriculum. This article explores understandings of…

  9. Disablist Bullying in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland: An Investigation of Student Teachers' Knowledge, Experience and Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Noel; Mc Guckin, Conor

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the knowledge, experience and confidence of student teachers from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland in relation to disablist bullying. Adopting a mixed methodological approach of four focus groups (N = 18) and a pencil-and-paper questionnaire (N = 257), the study explored the students knowledge, experience and…

  10. Health policy and the policymaking system: A case study of primary care in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Niall; Garvey, John; Palcic, Dónal

    2016-08-01

    In 2001 the Irish government published a reforming policy intended to modernise and expand the delivery of primary care in Ireland. Fifteen years later, the Irish health system remains beset by problems indicative of a fragmented and underdeveloped primary care system. This case study examines the formation and implementation of the 2001 primary care policy and identifies key risk categories within the policymaking process itself that inhibited the timely achievement of policy objectives. Our methodology includes a directed content analysis of the policy formation and implementation documents and the influencing academic literature, as well as semi-structured interviews with key personnel involved in the process. We identify three broad risk categories - power, resources and capability - within the policymaking process that strongly influenced policy formation and implementation. We additionally show that the disjoint between policy formation and policy implementation was a contested issue among those involved in the policy process and provided space for these risks to critically undermine Ireland's primary care policy. PMID:27342835

  11. Childhood adversity profiles and adult psychopathology in a representative Northern Ireland study.

    PubMed

    McLafferty, Margaret; Armour, Cherie; McKenna, Aine; O'Neill, Siobhan; Murphy, Sam; Bunting, Brendan

    2015-10-01

    Childhood adversities are key aetiological factors in the onset and persistence of psychopathology. The aims of this study were to identify childhood adversity profiles, and investigate the relationship between the adversity classes and psychopathology in Northern Ireland. The study utilized data from the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress, an epidemiological survey (N=1986), which used the CIDI to examine mental health disorders and associated risk factors. Latent Class Analysis revealed 3 distinct typologies; a low risk class (n=1709; 86%), a poly-adversity class (n=122; 6.1%), and an economic adversity class (n=155; 7.8%). Logistic Regression models revealed that individuals in the economic adversity class had a heightened risk of anxiety and substance disorders, with individuals in the poly-adversity class more likely to have a range of mental health problems and suicidality. The findings indicate the importance of considering the impact of co-occurring childhood adversities when planning treatment, prevention, and intervention programmes.

  12. Reasons for non-participation in the Northern Ireland Bowel Cancer Screening Programme: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Declan T; Treanor, Charlene; McMullan, Colin; Owen, Tracy; Graham, Adele; Anderson, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify the reasons why some people do not participate in bowel cancer screening so that steps can be taken to improve informed decision-making. Design Qualitative study, using focus groups with thematic analysis of data to identify, analyse and report patterns. Transcripts were repeatedly read and inductively coded using a phenomenological perspective, and organised into key themes. Setting Belfast and Armagh, two areas of Northern Ireland with relatively low uptake of bowel cancer screening. Participants Ten women and 18 men in three single-gender focus groups (two male and one female), each with 9–10 participants. Study participants were recruited by convenience sampling from the general public and were eligible for, but had not taken part in, the Northern Ireland Bowel Cancer Screening Programme. Results Key themes identified were fear of cancer; the test procedure; social norms; past experience of cancer and screening; lack of knowledge or understanding about bowel cancer screening; and resulting behaviour towards the test. Fear about receiving bad news and reluctance to conduct the test themselves were reactions that participants seemed willing to overcome after taking part in open discussion about the test. Conclusions We identified barriers to participation in bowel cancer screening and used these insights to develop new materials to support delivery of the programme. Some of the issues raised have been identified in other UK settings, suggesting that knowledge about barriers, and strategies to improve uptake, may be generalisable. PMID:26353870

  13. Genetic diversity and population structure of Brassica oleracea germplasm in Ireland using SSR markers.

    PubMed

    El-Esawi, Mohamed A; Germaine, Kieran; Bourke, Paula; Malone, Renee

    2016-01-01

    The most economically important Brassica oleracea species is endangered in Ireland, with no prior reported genetic characterization studies. This study assesses the genetic diversity, population structure and relationships of B. oleracea germplasm in Ireland using microsatellite (SSRs) markers. A total of 118 individuals from 25 accessions of Irish B. oleracea were genotyped. The SSR loci used revealed a total of 47 alleles. The observed heterozygosity (0.699) was higher than the expected one (0.417). Moreover, the average values of fixation indices (F) were negative, indicating excess of heterozygotes in all accessions. Polymorphic information content (PIC) values of SSR loci ranged from 0.27 to 0.66, with an average of 0.571, and classified 10 loci as informative markers (PIC>0.5) to differentiate among the accessions studied. The genetic differentiation among accessions showed that 27.1% of the total genetic variation was found among accessions, and 72.9% of the variation resided within accessions. The averages of total heterozygosity (H(T)) and intra-accession genetic diversity (H(S)) were 0.577 and 0.442, respectively. Cluster analysis of SSR data distinguished among kale and Brussels sprouts cultivars. This study provided a new insight into the exploitation of the genetically diverse spring cabbages accessions, revealing a high genetic variation, as potential resources for future breeding programs. SSR loci were effective for differentiation among the accessions studied.

  14. "Not ready to throw in the towel": perceptions of physical activity held by older adults in Stockholm and Dublin.

    PubMed

    Leavy, Breiffni; Aberg, Anna Cristina

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore and describe the perceptions of physical activity held by older urban Swedish and Irish adults. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 30 people age 65 years and older (mean age 74.5), of whom 15 were living in Dublin and 15 were living in Stockholm. The "thematic framework" approach was used to analyze the data. Three central themes were identified regarding people's perceptions of physical activity: physical activity as self-expression, physical activity as interaction, and physical activity as health promotion. Participants' perceptions of physical activity tended to relate to their perceived level of physical activity, regardless of their cultural background. Certain culture-specific motivators and barriers to exercise were also identified. Less active Irish men were more likely to underestimate the health-promoting benefits of exercise.

  15. A cluster of Legionnaires' disease and associated Pontiac fever morbidity in office workers, Dublin, June-July 2008.

    PubMed

    Ward, M; Boland, M; Nicolay, N; Murphy, H; McElhiney, J; Collins, C; Lynch, M; McCarthy, M; O' Donnell, J

    2010-01-01

    In June and July 2008, two office workers were admitted to a Dublin hospital with Legionnaires' disease. Investigations showed that cooling towers in the basement car park were the most likely source of infection. However, positive results from cooling tower samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) did not correlate with subsequent culture results. Also, many employees reported Pontiac fever-like morbidity following notification of the second case of Legionnaires' disease. In total, 54 employees attended their general practitioner or emergency department with symptoms of Legionnaires' disease or Pontiac fever. However, all laboratory tests for Legionnaires' disease or Pontiac fever were negative. In this investigation, email was used extensively for active case finding and provision of time information to employees and medical colleagues. We recommend clarification of the role of PCR in the diagnosis of legionellosis and also advocate for a specific laboratory test for the diagnosis of the milder form of legionellosis as in Pontiac fever. PMID:20414339

  16. Transnational healthcare practices of Romanian migrants in Ireland: inequalities of access and the privatisation of healthcare services in Europe.

    PubMed

    Stan, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the transnational healthcare practices of Central and Eastern European migrants in Europe, taking the case of Romanian migrants in Ireland. It explores the implications of migrants' transnational healthcare practices for the transformation of citizenship in Europe, more particularly in terms of access to free public healthcare. The article places these practices in the larger perspective of global care chains, seen as including transnational flows of healthcare seekers and healthcare workers that link distant healthcare systems in an emerging European healthcare assemblage. The study adopted a holistic perspective, taking into account both formal and informal practices, as well as the use of healthcare services in both the host and the origin countries of migrants. These were explored during multi-sited fieldwork in Romania and Ireland, conducted between 2012 and 2013, and combining a variety of sources and methods (semi-structured interviews, informal conversations, documentary analysis, etc.). The article explores the links between migrants' transnational healthcare practices and two other important processes: 1) inequalities in access to healthcare services in migrants' countries of origin and of destination; and 2) the contribution of healthcare privatisation to these inequalities. It shows that Romanian migrants' transnational healthcare practices function as strategies of social mobility for migrants, while also reflecting the increasing privatisation of healthcare services in Ireland and Romania. The article argues that these processes are far from specific to Ireland, Romania, and the migration flows uniting them. Rather, they draw our attention to the rise of an unevenly developed European healthcare assemblage and citizenship regime in which patients' movements across borders are closely interlinked with diminishing and increasingly unequal access to public healthcare services. PMID:24797693

  17. Transnational healthcare practices of Romanian migrants in Ireland: inequalities of access and the privatisation of healthcare services in Europe.

    PubMed

    Stan, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the transnational healthcare practices of Central and Eastern European migrants in Europe, taking the case of Romanian migrants in Ireland. It explores the implications of migrants' transnational healthcare practices for the transformation of citizenship in Europe, more particularly in terms of access to free public healthcare. The article places these practices in the larger perspective of global care chains, seen as including transnational flows of healthcare seekers and healthcare workers that link distant healthcare systems in an emerging European healthcare assemblage. The study adopted a holistic perspective, taking into account both formal and informal practices, as well as the use of healthcare services in both the host and the origin countries of migrants. These were explored during multi-sited fieldwork in Romania and Ireland, conducted between 2012 and 2013, and combining a variety of sources and methods (semi-structured interviews, informal conversations, documentary analysis, etc.). The article explores the links between migrants' transnational healthcare practices and two other important processes: 1) inequalities in access to healthcare services in migrants' countries of origin and of destination; and 2) the contribution of healthcare privatisation to these inequalities. It shows that Romanian migrants' transnational healthcare practices function as strategies of social mobility for migrants, while also reflecting the increasing privatisation of healthcare services in Ireland and Romania. The article argues that these processes are far from specific to Ireland, Romania, and the migration flows uniting them. Rather, they draw our attention to the rise of an unevenly developed European healthcare assemblage and citizenship regime in which patients' movements across borders are closely interlinked with diminishing and increasingly unequal access to public healthcare services.

  18. New cross sectional stature, weight, and head circumference references for Down's syndrome in the UK and Republic of Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Styles, M; Cole, T; Dennis, J; Preece, M

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To present a growth reference for children with uncomplicated Down's syndrome living in the UK and Republic of Ireland. Data are available for height and weight in the age range 0–18 years, including the first three months of life, and for head circumference in the first year. Methods: The study sample was drawn from 16 discrete geographical areas and was representative of children age 19 years of age or less who are now living in the UK and Republic of Ireland. Multiple growth measurements for 1507 children were obtained retrospectively by case note search. Data from children with significant cardiac or other major pathology were excluded from analysis. Data from preterm babies were excluded up to age 2 years. Centile curves were constructed from 5913 selected measurements from 1089 children and were derived using Cole's LMS method. Results: The resulting centiles differ substantially from those previously available in the UK, which were based on selective US data published in 1988. Conclusions: We propose that these charts should now be adopted as the standard UK/Republic of Ireland reference. PMID:12138054

  19. Audit of the Health Service Executive orthodontic referral pathway between 2009 and 2011 in the Dublin Mid-Leinster region.

    PubMed

    Wolstencroft, Simon; Khosa, Allah Dad

    2013-01-01

    An audit was undertaken in 2009 to determine the success of the new national orthodontic referral protocol introduced to the Health Service Executive (HSE) in 2007 and operated in the Dublin Mid-Leinster HSE region. It was repeated in 2011 to determine if the HSE austerity measures have had a bearing on the orthodontic service performance in the Dublin Mid-Leinster HSE region. The audit also measured the success of referring practitioners in identifying the correct Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) classification of the patient. In the 2011 audit, the figures were broken down to identify the occlusal variables that caused dental practitioners most difficulties in identification. The audit demonstrates a good referral to assessment timeframe in 2009 (85-80% compliance for IOTN 5 and 4 within three to six months, respectively), which deteriorates significantly in 2011 (26-4% for IOTN 5 and 4 within three to six months, respectively). The ability of dentists to identify the correct IOTN classification was better in 2009 (60% correct) compared to 2011 (51% correct), but both figures fell below the audit standard of 75% of referrals with correct IOTN classifications. The IOTN occlusal dental health components most readily identified by referring practitioners and meeting audit standards were 5a (overjet >9mm), 5i (impacted teeth) and 5h (extensive hypodontia). The remaining occlusal dental health components in the HSE IOTN fell below the audit standard. The audit clearly identifies a requirement for a continued educational effort to maintain the HSE IOTN skill base in primary care, and a need for additional resources to manage the demand for orthodontic assessments.

  20. Tom O'Connor: His legacy of atmospheric aerosol research in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, S. Gerard

    2013-05-01

    Dr. Thomas C. (Tom) O'Connor received his foundation in atmospheric aerosols through his M. Sc. work at University College Dublin (with P.J. Nolan) and then as research scholar with Leo W. Pollak at the Dublin Institute of Advanced Studies. On moving to Galway in 1956, a significant legacy was his choosing of a field station site at Mace Head and his pioneering measurements there. He played a pivotal role in the development and progression of the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station (www.macehead.org) for some 50 years. He passed away peacefully in November 2012.

  1. Service user involvement in mental health practitioner education in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Higgins, A; Maguire, G; Watts, M; Creaner, M; McCann, E; Rani, S; Alexander, J

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, there is an ever increasing call to involve people who use mental health services in the development, delivery and evaluation of education programmes. Within Ireland, there is very little evidence of the degree of service user involvement in the educational preparation of mental health practitioners. This paper presents the findings on service user involvement in the education and training of professionals working in mental health services in Ireland. Findings from this study indicate that in the vast majority of courses curricula are planned and delivered without consultation or input from service users. Currently the scope of service user involvement is on teaching, with little involvement in curriculum development, student assessment and student selection. However, there is evidence that this is changing, with many respondents indicating an eagerness to move this agenda forward.

  2. Presbyterians and science in the north of Ireland before 1874.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Andrew R

    2008-12-01

    In his presidential address to the Belfast meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in 1874, John Tyndall launched what David Livingstone has called a 'frontal assault on teleology and Christian theism'. Using Tyndall's intervention as a starting point, this paper seeks to understand the attitudes of Presbyterians in the north of Ireland to science in the first three-quarters of the nineteenth century. The first section outlines some background, including the attitude of Presbyterians to science in the eighteenth century, the development of educational facilities in Ireland for the training of Presbyterian ministers, and the specific cultural and political circumstances in Ireland that influenced Presbyterian responses to science more generally. The next two sections examine two specific applications by Irish Presbyterians of the term 'science': first, the emergence of a distinctive Presbyterian theology of nature and the application of inductive scientific methodology to the study of theology, and second, the Presbyterian conviction that mind had ascendancy over matter which underpinned their commitment to the development of a science of the mind. The final two sections examine, in turn, the relationship between science and an eschatological reading of the signs of the times, and attitudes to Darwinian evolution in the fifteen years between the publication of The Origin of Species in 1859 and Tyndall's speech in 1874. PMID:19391418

  3. Presbyterians and science in the north of Ireland before 1874.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Andrew R

    2008-12-01

    In his presidential address to the Belfast meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in 1874, John Tyndall launched what David Livingstone has called a 'frontal assault on teleology and Christian theism'. Using Tyndall's intervention as a starting point, this paper seeks to understand the attitudes of Presbyterians in the north of Ireland to science in the first three-quarters of the nineteenth century. The first section outlines some background, including the attitude of Presbyterians to science in the eighteenth century, the development of educational facilities in Ireland for the training of Presbyterian ministers, and the specific cultural and political circumstances in Ireland that influenced Presbyterian responses to science more generally. The next two sections examine two specific applications by Irish Presbyterians of the term 'science': first, the emergence of a distinctive Presbyterian theology of nature and the application of inductive scientific methodology to the study of theology, and second, the Presbyterian conviction that mind had ascendancy over matter which underpinned their commitment to the development of a science of the mind. The final two sections examine, in turn, the relationship between science and an eschatological reading of the signs of the times, and attitudes to Darwinian evolution in the fifteen years between the publication of The Origin of Species in 1859 and Tyndall's speech in 1874.

  4. European Union policy on pesticides: implications for agriculture in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Jess, Stephen; Kildea, Steven; Moody, Aidan; Rennick, Gordon; Murchie, Archie K; Cooke, Louise R

    2014-11-01

    European Community (EC) legislation has limited the availability of pesticide active substances used in effective plant protection products. The Pesticide Authorisation Directive 91/414/EEC introduced the principle of risk assessment for approval of pesticide active substances. This principle was modified by the introduction of Regulation (EC) 1107/2009, which applies hazard, the intrinsic toxicity of the active substance, rather than risk, the potential for hazard to occur, as the approval criterion. Potential impacts of EC pesticide legislation on agriculture in Ireland are summarised. While these will significantly impact on pesticide availability in the medium to long term, regulations associated with water quality (Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC and Drinking Water Directive 1998/83/EC) have the potential to restrict pesticide use more immediately, as concerns regarding public health and economic costs associated with removing pesticides from water increase. This rationale will further reduce the availability of effective pesticide active substances, directly affecting crop protection and increasing pesticide resistance within pest and disease populations. In addition, water quality requirements may also impact on important active substances used in plant protection in Ireland. The future challenge for agriculture in Ireland is to sustain production and profitability using reduced pesticide inputs within a framework of integrated pest management.

  5. Digital field mapping of the Dingle Peninsular, County Kerry, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, David; Bense, Frithjof

    2014-05-01

    In September 2011, a team of eight students from the University of Göttingen digitally mapped seven 10 km2 adjoining areas on the western tip of the Dingle Peninsular in County Kerry, Ireland for their M.Sc. mapping projects. The students worked in pairs; each pair was equipped with an outdoor, waterproof, drop-proof touchscreen tablet running Windows and Midland Valley Exploration Ltd's Fieldmove software. They also used paper field-notebooks, cameras and hand compasses. The tablets have built-in GPS, two five-hour batteries, and displays that are designed to work even in bright sunlight. In preparation for the fieldwork, the topographic maps of the area (from 1890!) were scanned, geo-rectified and draped onto the DEM of the area using the Midland Valley's Move software. The geology of the Dingle Peninsular is complex; an inlier of Ordovician rocks that were deformed in the Caledonian Orogeny, are surrounded by Devonian Old Red Sandstone (ORS) units, which were syntectonically deposited as the whole area was folded during the Variscan Orogeny. Consequently the ORS units vary in thickness tremendously and facies often vary laterally. The ORS also contains many unconformities. The area is excellently exposed at the coastline, but it is poor inland because of glacial deposits. As a consequent the students required the software to record bedding planes, cleavages, fold axes and unconformities, as well as standard geological information. The work went well, despite the weather (the post tropical cyclone Katia!). It was far quicker to complete the map compared to working on a paper map, after the students had got used to the software and the tablet controls. The GPS in the tablet was deemed to be inaccurate and locations on the map were ascertained using standard techniques. It was also extremely useful to export tectonic data in the evening for stereonet projection analysis. Each 10 km2 area was mapped at 1:10000 in approx. 2 weeks. Because the tablet requires two

  6. Reducing SCADA System Nuisance Alarms in the Water Industry in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Nigel; Phillips, Debra H; Nicell, Ciaran

    2015-08-01

    The advancement of telemetry control for the water industry has increased the difficulty of managing large volumes of nuisance alarms (i.e., alarms that do not require a response). The aim of this study was to identify and reduce the number of nuisance alarms that occur for Northern Ireland (NI) Water by carrying out alarm duration analysis to determine the appropriate length of persistence (an advanced alarm management tool) that could be applied. All data were extracted from TelemWeb (NI Water's telemetry monitoring system) and analyzed in Excel. Over a 6-week period, an average of 40 000 alarms occurred per week. The alarm duration analysis, which has never been implemented before by NI Water, found that an average of 57% of NI Water alarms had a duration of <5 minutes. Applying 5-minute persistence, therefore, could prevent an average 26 816 nuisance alarms per week. Most of these alarms were from wastewater assets. PMID:26237691

  7. Analysis of community properties and node properties to understand the structure of the bus transport network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yeran; Mburu, Lucy; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-05-01

    Akin to most infrastructures, intraurban bus networks are large and highly complex. Understanding the composition of such networks requires an intricate decomposition of the network into modules, taking into account the manner in which network links are distributed among the nodes. There exists for each set of highly interlinked nodes little connectivity with the next set of highly interlinked nodes. This inherent property of nodes makes community detection a popular approach for analyzing the structure of complex networks. In this study, we attempt to understand the structure of the intraurban bus network of Ireland's capital city, Dublin in a two-step approach. We first analyze the modular structure of the network by identifying potential communities. Secondly, we assess the prominence of each network node by examining the module-based topological properties of the nodes. Results of this empirical study reveal a clear pattern of independent communities, indicating thus, an implicit multi-community structure of the intraurban bus network. Examination of the geographic characteristics of the identified communities shows a degree of socio-economic divisions of the Dublin city. Furthermore, a large majority of the important nodes (vital transportation hubs) are located at the city center, implying that most of the bus lines in Dublin city tend to intersect the city's core.

  8. Invasive Group A streptococcal disease in Ireland, 2004 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Martin, J; Murchan, S; O'Flanagan, D; Fitzpatrick, F

    2011-01-01

    Invasive group A streptococcal infections (iGAS) are a major clinical and public health challenge. iGAS is a notifiable disease in Ireland since 2004. The aim of this paper is to describe the epidemiology of iGAS in Ireland for the first time over the seven-year period from 2004 to 2010. The Irish national electronic infectious disease reporting system was used by laboratories to enter the source of iGAS isolates, and by departments of public health to enter clinical and epidemiological details. We extracted and analysed data from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2010. Over the study period, 400 iGAS cases were notified. The annual incidence of iGAS doubled, from 0.8 per 100,000 population in 2004 to 1.6 in 2008, and then remained the same in 2009 and 2010. The reported average annual incidence rates were highest among children up to five years of age (2.3/100,000) and adults aged over 60 years (3.2/100,000). The most common risk factors associated with iGAS were skin lesions or wounds. Of the 174 people for whom clinical syndrome information was available, 28 (16%) cases presented with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and 19 (11%) with necrotising fasciitis. Of the 141 cases for whom seven-day outcomes were recorded, 11 people died with iGAS identified as the main cause of death (seven-day case fatality rate 8%). The notification rate of iGAS in Ireland was lower than that reported in the United Kingdom, Nordic countries and North America but higher than southern and eastern European countries. The reasons for lower notification rates in Ireland compared with other countries may be due to a real difference in incidence, possibly due to prescribing practices, or due to artefacts resulting from the specific Irish case definition and/or low reporting in the early stages of a new surveillance system. iGAS disease remains an uncommon but potentially severe disease in Ireland. Ongoing surveillance is required in order to undertake appropriate control measures and gain a

  9. Genome Sequences of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium, Choleraesuis, Dublin, and Gallinarum Strains of Well- Defined Virulence in Food-Producing Animals ▿

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Emily J.; Limaye, Bhakti; Inamdar, Harshal; Datta, Avik; Manjari, K. Sunitha; Pullinger, Gillian D.; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Joshi, Rajendra R.; Watson, Michael; Stevens, Mark P.

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is an animal and zoonotic pathogen of worldwide importance and may be classified into serovars differing in virulence and host range. We sequenced and annotated the genomes of serovar Typhimurium, Choleraesuis, Dublin, and Gallinarum strains of defined virulence in each of three food-producing animal hosts. This provides valuable measures of intraserovar diversity and opportunities to formally link genotypes to phenotypes in target animals. PMID:21478351

  10. Only one of the two type VI secretion systems encoded in the Salmonella enterica serotype Dublin genome is involved in colonization of the avian and murine hosts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a virulence factor for many Gram-negative bacteria. Salmonella genus harbors five phylogenetically distinct T6SS loci encoded in Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands (SPIs) SPI-6, SPI-19, SPI-20, SPI-21 and SPI-22, which are differentially distributed among serotypes. The T6SSs encoded in SPI-6 and SPI-19 contribute to pathogenesis of serotypes Typhimurium and Gallinarum in mice and chickens, respectively. Salmonella Dublin is a pathogen restricted to cattle where it causes a systemic disease. Also, it can colonize other hosts such as chickens and mice, which can act as reservoirs of this serotype. Salmonella Dublin harbors the genes for both T6SSSPI-6 and T6SSSPI-19. This study has determined the contribution of T6SSSPI-6 and T6SSSPI-19 to host-colonization by Salmonella Dublin using avian and murine models of infection. Competitive index experiments showed that, a mutant strain lacking both T6SSs (∆T6SSSPI-6/∆T6SSSPI-19) presents a strong colonization defect in cecum of chickens, similar to the defect observed for the ∆T6SSSPI-6 mutant, suggesting that this serotype requires a functional T6SSSPI-6 for efficient colonization of the avian gastrointestinal tract. Colonization of mice was also defective, although to a lesser extent than in chickens. In contrast, the T6SSSPI-19 was not necessary for colonization of either chickens or mice. Transfer of T6SSSPI-6, but not T6SSSPI-19, restored the ability of the double mutant to colonize both animal hosts. Our data indicate that Salmonella Dublin requires only the T6SSSPI-6 for efficient colonization of mice and chickens, and that the T6SSSPI-6 and T6SSSPI-19 are not functionally redundant. PMID:24405577

  11. Characterization of intestinal invasion by Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella dublin and effect of a mutation in the invH gene.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, P R; Paulin, S M; Bland, A P; Jones, P W; Wallis, T S

    1995-01-01

    The relative levels of invasiveness of two bovine isolates each of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella dublin and of invH mutants of S. typhimurium were determined in MDCK and Int 407 cultured-cell assays and in bovine ileal loops. S. dublin was found to be significantly less invasive in cultured cells than S. typhimurium, but this difference was not observed in bovine intestines. The invH mutants exhibited a significant reduction in invasion in both cultured cells and bovine intestines. The invasive phenotypes of the strains were confirmed by fluorescent microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The wild-type strains were observed in the laminae propriae of the intestinal villi, while in contrast the invH mutants were generally associated with the enterocyte layer. The degree of damage in the bovine ileum was related to the magnitude of the invasion. There was no difference in the amount of S. typhimurium or S. dublin recovered from the bovine ileum either with or without Peyer's patches 3 h after inoculation of the loop. PMID:7790093

  12. Poverty in Ireland in Comparative European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Christopher T.; Maitre, Bertrand

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we seek to put Irish poverty rates in a comparative European context. We do so in a context whereby the Irish economic boom and EU enlargement have led to increasing reservations being expressed regarding rates deriving from the EU "at risk of poverty" indicator. Our comparative analysis reports findings for both overall levels of…

  13. Microbiological assessment of private drinking water supplies in Co. Cork, Ireland.

    PubMed

    Bacci, Fabio; Chapman, Deborah V

    2011-12-01

    The microbiological quality of 75 private drinking water supply boreholes in Co. Cork, Ireland was assessed in order to determine the incidence of contamination and the potential pathways of such contamination. Microbiological analysis was carried out using the membrane filtration technique for the recovery of thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms. The sanitary protection of the supplies was evaluated by means of systematic inspections and subsequent qualitative sanitary risk assessment. Almost a quarter of all supplies investigated (24%, n = 18) was found positive for thermotolerant coliforms. Weather conditions had a significant impact on microbiological water quality, increasing both contamination incidence and gross contamination frequency. Over half of the supplies had nine or more sanitary hazards and most had rudimentary sanitary protection measures at the head of the borehole. These low sanitary protection measures suggest that boreholes can pose a significant hazard to valuable groundwater resources by providing direct contamination routes.

  14. A new model for the provenance of the Upper Devonian Old Red Sandstone (UORS) of southern Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennis, Meg; Meere, Pat; Timmerman, Martin

    2010-05-01

    The geology of Southern Ireland is dominated by the influence of both the Caledonian and Variscan orogenies which have shaped the landscape of today. The Old Red Sandstone (ORS) sequences of the Middle - Upper Devonian Munster Basin have traditionally been viewed as a post-orogenic molasse deposit sourced from the Caledonides (Friend et al. 2000 & references therein), which were subsequently deformed by the Late Carboniferous Variscan Orogeny. This model does not take into account the potential impact of the Acadian Orogeny, an Early to Mid Devonian transpressional tectonic event which culminated in Mid Emsian times and resulted in the deformation and inversion of Lower ORS (LORS) basins across Britain and Ireland (Soper & Woodcock 2003; Meere & Mulchrone 2006). Evidence of Acadian deformation in Southern Ireland is recorded in the LORS sequence of the Lower-Middle Devonian basin, the Dingle Basin. Meere & Mulchrone (2006) show that penetrative deformation visible in the LORS of the Dingle Basin has an Acadian signature and is not associated with Late Carboniferous Variscan compression (Parkin 1976; Todd 2000). The role of the Acadian Orogeny in the tectono-sedimentary evolution of Southern Ireland has been analyzed in this study using a multidisciplinary approach. Petrographic analysis of both the LORS and Upper ORS (UORS) of southern Ireland suggests an alternative provenance model in which there is a direct genetic link between the two Devonian deposits. There is a fining-up relationship between the two basins and the volcanic lithic fragments - while extremely limited in occurrence in the Munster Basin - are strikingly similar in both units. The absence of conglomeratic units at the base of the Munster Basin provide further evidence that the UORS does not represent a classic molasse deposit. This is supported by EMPA data from both basins which indicates identical mica chemistries in both the LORS and UORS. A comparison with the white mica chemistries from a

  15. Prospects and Progress in Public Health and Health Promotion Research in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Brian; Yarnell, John

    2004-01-01

    Life expectancy in Northern Ireland continues to increase and it is expected that mortality due to heart disease, stroke and some cancers will continue to fall. The infant mortality rate, once higher is similar to that of the other UK and European countries. However, in common with neighboring countries, Northern Ireland has low levels of physical…

  16. Study in the United Kingdom and Ireland. An IIE Guide to Study Abroad. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Edrice Marguerite, Ed.

    Information on 828 study programs taking place in England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, and the Republic of Ireland is provided. Many are academic offerings of United States, British, and Irish colleges, universities, and polytechnics, and the remainder are offered by a variety of organizations such as adult education centers, vocational…

  17. New Educational Horizons in Contemporary Ireland: Trends and Challenges. Rethinking Education. Volume 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenham, Thomas G., Ed.; Kieran, Patricia, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Ireland is in the grip of a postmodern cultural deconstruction on many levels. The traditional "grand narratives" are increasingly viewed with suspicion and disenchantment as Ireland struggles to understand its evolving identity. There is a growing need for comprehensive interdisciplinary research that will facilitate teaching and learning in this…

  18. Responding to Students' Needs in Special Schools in Ireland and England: Findings from Two Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Therese; Prunty, Anita; Dupont, Maeve

    2012-01-01

    As more students with special educational needs attend mainstream schools, it is critical that the role and operation of special schools be examined. This article reports on two case studies, one special school in England and one in Ireland, which formed part of a national review of the role of special schools and special classes in Ireland. Two…

  19. Social Well-Being in Northern Ireland: A Longitudinal Study 1958-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, G. Dale; Jesse, Neal G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the question of how social well-being, or quality of life, in Northern Ireland has changed through time from 1958 to 1998. After reviewing major economic trends and governmental policy affecting the region, we develop an overall measure of quality of life based on previous research into social well-being in Northern Ireland. We…

  20. Mental Health Law Reform: The Impact on Children and Young People in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niwa, Laura

    2007-01-01

    The Bamford Review of Mental Health and Learning Disability (Northern Ireland) was established in October 2002 to examine all aspects of the law, policy and provisions that affect people with mental health needs or a learning disability in Northern Ireland. Its report "A Comprehensive Legislative Framework," which deals with the reform of law in…

  1. The Megalithic Monuments of Ireland and Their Folklore: A Photodocumentary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldbaum, Howard

    A photojournalism project is described in this paper that integrated the disciplines of photography, archaeology, and ethnology in an examination of prehistoric megalithic monuments in Ireland and their folklore. Following an introduction tracing the history of the monuments and pointing to the maintenance in Ireland of a body of oral tradition…

  2. Mental Health of Immigrant Children: A New Challenge for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Services in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skokauskas, Norbert; Clarke, Dermot

    2009-01-01

    Ethnically, Ireland has diversified greatly over the past few years. According to the 2006 census, 419733 foreign nationals live in Ireland. Immigration is one of the one of the most stressful events a child can undergo; it involves profound changes, including a disruption of well-established relationships and acculturation. Since the…

  3. 68 FR 47607 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, China, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-08-11

    ..., except to the extent permitted by section 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, China, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa... States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from Australia, China, Greece, Ireland, Japan,...

  4. 68 FR 55062 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide from Australia, China, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-09-22

    ..., Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register of August 11, 2003 (68 FR 47607). The... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide from Australia, China, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa... States is materially injured by reason of imports from Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and...

  5. Ireland's Multicultural Classrooms and Initial Teacher Education: The Convergence of Culture and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Maria

    2009-01-01

    In the context of Ireland's changing demographics, this paper explores the importance of pedagogic research in informing both philosophies and pedagogical practices in Initial Teacher Education (ITE) which endeavours to facilitate student teachers' engagement with the teaching and learning process in Ireland's multicultural classrooms. By…

  6. The Accelerating Campus Entrepreneurship (ACE) Initiative: Creating Entrepreneurial Graduates for Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Maebh; Hamouda, Angela; Cormican, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    According to the GEM Ireland Report (2009), those who have exposure to entrepreneurship education in Ireland have an increased propensity to start a new venture. The importance of entrepreneurial skills was picked up by the European Union which, in its Lisbon Strategy of March 2000, declared its objective of transforming Europe into the most…

  7. Identity Dystopias, Empire Framing and Theoretical Hegemonies: Two Case Studies, India and Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allender, Tim; O'Donoghue, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the connections between official contemporary identity formation and colonial pasts. Using the case studies of India and Ireland the article explores how different traditions of theorisation are powerful in these formations. India and Ireland were two colonial domains that had many linkages outside the ambit of the British.…

  8. Continuing Professional Development - Why Bother? Perceptions and Motivations of Teachers in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Dorothy J.; McConnell, Barbara; O'Sullivan, Helen

    2016-01-01

    In a larger study carried out by O'Sullivan "et al." to explore the perceptions and experiences of teachers in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland who were engaged in continuing professional development (CPD), one of the significant findings to emerge was the key role of teacher motivation. The current study therefore focuses on…

  9. Exposure to Community Violence and Political Socialization among Adolescents in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of adolescent exposure to cross-community violence, intense paramilitary operations, aggression, and intimidation in Northern Ireland. Using publicly available survey data gathered by agencies in Northern Ireland, the research examines the effects of exposure to political violence with focus upon the manner by…

  10. Exotic diseases of dogs and cats at risk of importation to Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Changes in legislation that facilitate movement of companion animals within the European Union will expose those animals to microbial and parasitic organisms currently exotic to Ireland. This paper reviewed information on the exotic diseases most likely to be introduced to Ireland by travelling dogs and cats: rabies, leishmaniosis, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis and dirofilariosis. PMID:21851670

  11. Understanding Achievement Differences between Schools in Ireland--Can Existing Data-Sets Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilleece, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increased focus on school accountability in Ireland and calls for greater use to be made of student achievement data for monitoring student outcomes. In this paper, it is argued that existing data-sets in Ireland offer limited potential for the value-added modelling approaches used for accountability purposes in many…

  12. Religious Diversity in Primary Schools: Reflections from the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faas, Daniel; Darmody, Merike; Sokolowska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Growing secularisation of the population and the arrival of new culturally and religiously diverse migrants are posing new challenges to schools in the Republic of Ireland (Ireland). These challenges are particularly acute in Irish primary schools, the majority of which are under Catholic patronage. Recent changes have necessitated an extensive…

  13. English as an Additional Language and Initial Teacher Education: Views and Experiences from Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses training for teaching English as an Additional Language (EAL) at initial teacher education (ITE) level in Northern Ireland. This small-scale qualitative study describes 15 primary and post-primary teachers' perspectives on their preparation for teaching EAL in Northern Ireland. It explores reflections on EAL content in ITE…

  14. Student Civic Participation in School: What Makes a Difference in Ireland?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilleece, Lorraine; Cosgrove, Jude

    2012-01-01

    Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child provides for the views of the child to be given due weight in accordance with the child's age and maturity. Legislation in Ireland recognizes the rights of children to have a voice in educational matters. Based on a sample of 2838 14-year-olds in Ireland and using questionnaire…

  15. Mental health in Northern Ireland: have "the Troubles" made it worse?

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, D; Stevenson, M

    2003-01-01

    Design: A secondary analysis of a nationally representative population survey conducted in 1997. Setting: Northern Ireland. Methods: This is an analysis of the 1694 respondents (aged 16–64) who had their mental health assessed using the 12 question version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). The effects of the Troubles was based on the responses to two survey questions; one asking about the impact on respondent's area; the second about the impact on the life of the respondent or their family. To model simultaneous effects, multiple logistic regression models were constructed with GHQ case as the dependent variable, the impact of the Troubles questions as independent variables, and the demographic, socioeconomic, and health related factors as covariates. Results: 21.3% (361) of respondents said that the Troubles had either "quite a bit" or "a lot" of impact on their lives or the lives of their families and 25.1% (418) reported a similar impact on their area of residence. The likelihood of psychological morbidity increased the greater the extent to which the Troubles affected the respondent's area or life, the association being stronger for the second factor. Neither demographic nor socioeconomic factors significantly diminished this relation although adjusting for health related factors did attenuate the magnitude of the odd ratios especially for the effects of the Troubles on area of residence. Conclusion: It is probable that mental health of the population of Northern Ireland has been significantly affected by the Troubles. Whether this is attributable to the violence in itself or to other aspects of the Troubles is unclear and whether any additional inputs from psychiatric services are needed requires further study. PMID:12821690

  16. Lightening Can Strike Twice: The Case for the Management and Control of Violent Offenders against Children in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasgow, John F. T.; Jackson, Paul T.; Kelly, Margaret; Reid, Colin

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses a case example to illustrate the need for robust arrangements manage violent offenders against children in Northern Ireland. It compares the legislative and policy framework used to deal with such offenders in England and Wales, demonstrating the more limited provisions in Northern Ireland. Within Northern Ireland, differing…

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and sexual behaviour among female students attending higher education in the Republic of Ireland

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Emer; Brennan, Wendy; Cormican, Martin; Glacken, Marita; O'Donovan, Diarmuid; Vellinga, Akke; Cahill, Niall; Lysaght, Fionnguala; O'Donnell, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Background There are no prevalence data on Chlamydia trachomatis relating to female students attending higher education available for the Republic of Ireland. This information is required to guide on the necessity for Chlamydia screening programmes in higher education settings. This research aimed to determine the prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection among female higher education students in Ireland. Methods All females presenting during one-day periods at Student Health Units in three higher education institutions in two cities in the Republic of Ireland were invited to participate. Participants completed a questionnaire on lifestyle and socio-demographic factors and provided a urine sample. Samples were tested for C. trachomatis DNA by a PCR based technique (Cobas Amplicor, Roche). To examine possible associations between a positive test and demographic and lifestyle risk factors, a univariate analysis was performed. All associations with a p value < 0.05 were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 460 sexually active participants 22 tested positive (prevalence 4.8%; 95% CI 3.0 to 7.1%). Variables associated with significantly increased risk were current suggestive symptoms, two or more one-night stands and three or more lifetime sexual partners. The students displayed high-risk sexual behaviour. Conclusion The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection and the lack of awareness of the significance of suggestive symptoms among sexually experienced female students demonstrate the need for a programme to test asymptomatic or non-presenting higher education students. The risk factors identified by multivariate analysis may be useful in identifying those who are most likely to benefit from screening. Alcohol abuse, condom use, sexual behaviour (at home and abroad) and, knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (including asymptomatic nature or relevant symptoms) were identified as

  18. Underreporting of viral encephalitis and viral meningitis, Ireland, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Tara A; O'Lorcain, Piaras; Moran, Joanne; Garvey, Patricia; McKeown, Paul; Connell, Jeff; Cotter, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Viral encephalitis (VE) and viral meningitis (VM) have been notifiable infectious diseases under surveillance in the Republic of Ireland since 1981. Laboratories have reported confirmed cases by detection of viral nucleic acid in cerebrospinal fluid since 2004. To determine the prevalence of these diseases in Ireland during 2005-2008, we analyzed 3 data sources: Hospital In-patient Enquiry data (from hospitalized following patients discharge) accessed through Health Intelligence Ireland, laboratory confirmations from the National Virus Reference Laboratory, and events from the Computerised Infectious Disease Reporting surveillance system. We found that the national surveillance system underestimates the incidence of these diseases in Ireland with a 10-fold higher VE hospitalization rate and 3-fold higher VM hospitalization rate than the reporting rate. Herpesviruses were responsible for most specified VE and enteroviruses for most specified VM from all 3 sources. Recommendations from this study have been implemented to improve the surveillance of these diseases in Ireland.

  19. The role of citizen science in monitoring biodiversity in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Alison; Crowe, Olivia; Regan, Eugenie; Begley, Sinead; Caffarra, Amelia

    2014-08-01

    Citizen science is proving to be an effective tool in tracking the rapid pace at which our environment is changing over large geographic areas. It is becoming increasingly popular, in places such as North America and some European countries, to engage members of the general public and school pupils in the collection of scientific data to support long-term environmental monitoring. Participants in such schemes are generally volunteers and are referred to as citizen scientists. The Christmas bird count in the US is one of the worlds longest running citizen science projects whereby volunteers have been collecting data on birds on a specific day since 1900. Similar volunteer networks in Ireland have been in existence since the 1960s and were established to monitor the number and diversity of birds throughout the country. More recently, initiatives such as Greenwave (2006) and Nature Watch (2009) invite school children and members of the general public respectively, to record phenology data from a range of common species of plant, insect and bird. In addition, the Irish butterfly and bumblebee monitoring schemes engage volunteers to record data on sightings of these species. The primary purpose of all of these networks is to collect data by which to monitor changes in wildlife development and diversity, and in the case of Greenwave to involve children in hands-on, inquiry-based science. Together these various networks help raise awareness of key environmental issues, such as climate change and loss of biodiversity, while at the same time promote development of scientific skills among the general population. In addition, they provide valuable scientific data by which to track environmental change. Here we examine the role of citizen science in monitoring biodiversity in Ireland and conclude that some of the data collected in these networks can be used to fulfil Ireland's statutory obligations for nature conservation. In addition, a bee thought previously to be extinct

  20. Gender and insanity in nineteenth-century Ireland.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Oonagh

    2004-01-01

    The nineteenth century was a period of considerable social, political, and economic change in Ireland, change that was demonstrated with particular force in relation to the care of the insane. This chapter seeks to examine some of the means through which the insane were re-figured in nineteenth-century Irish society, and looks in particular at popular conceptions of danger, the gender specificity or otherwise of insanity, and the question of celibacy as a precipitating factor in mental illness. The chapter seeks to engage with the ongoing debate in the history of psychiatry over the relative importance of gender as a factor in the admission, treatment, and discharge of the insane.

  1. The role of citizen science in monitoring biodiversity in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Alison; Crowe, Olivia; Regan, Eugenie; Begley, Sinead; Caffarra, Amelia

    2014-08-01

    Citizen science is proving to be an effective tool in tracking the rapid pace at which our environment is changing over large geographic areas. It is becoming increasingly popular, in places such as North America and some European countries, to engage members of the general public and school pupils in the collection of scientific data to support long-term environmental monitoring. Participants in such schemes are generally volunteers and are referred to as citizen scientists. The Christmas bird count in the US is one of the worlds longest running citizen science projects whereby volunteers have been collecting data on birds on a specific day since 1900. Similar volunteer networks in Ireland have been in existence since the 1960s and were established to monitor the number and diversity of birds throughout the country. More recently, initiatives such as Greenwave (2006) and Nature Watch (2009) invite school children and members of the general public respectively, to record phenology data from a range of common species of plant, insect and bird. In addition, the Irish butterfly and bumblebee monitoring schemes engage volunteers to record data on sightings of these species. The primary purpose of all of these networks is to collect data by which to monitor changes in wildlife development and diversity, and in the case of Greenwave to involve children in hands-on, inquiry-based science. Together these various networks help raise awareness of key environmental issues, such as climate change and loss of biodiversity, while at the same time promote development of scientific skills among the general population. In addition, they provide valuable scientific data by which to track environmental change. Here we examine the role of citizen science in monitoring biodiversity in Ireland and conclude that some of the data collected in these networks can be used to fulfil Ireland's statutory obligations for nature conservation. In addition, a bee thought previously to be extinct

  2. Exploring the Functions of Reading: A Cross-Cultural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaney, Vincent; Neuman, Susan B.

    To determine if purposes in reading differ with sex, grade level, and nationality, a 16-item "Functions of Reading Scale" (developed from content analysis of student essays on why they like to read) was administered to 459 Irish (Dublin, Ireland) and American (Windham, Connecticut) students in grades three, five, and eight. Data analysis,…

  3. The significance of Tournaisian tectonism in the Dublin basin: Implications for basin evolution and zinc-lead mineralization in the Irish Midlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Morton, Simone N.; Wallace, Malcolm W.; Reed, Christopher P.; Hewson, Chad; Redmond, Patrick; Cross, Eoin; Moynihan, Conor

    2015-12-01

    Recently acquired seismic reflection data, combined with detailed subsurface stratigraphic analysis (core analysis and gamma ray logs) reveal a new view of Lower Carboniferous stratigraphy and tectonism in Ireland. Seismic stratigraphic relationships and stratal thickness variations within Tournaisian units indicates that the Ballinalack High (and associated faulting) was produced by tectonism during the mid to late Tournaisian (Moathill Event, ~ 348 Ma). A second major tectonic event, dominated by regional subsidence (rather than faulting), occurred during the Lower Viséan (Tober Colleen Event, ~ 345 Ma). Each of these tectonic events was associated with major subsidence in the basin, producing strong transgressions within the stratigraphy. We suggest that the Late Tournaisian Moathill Event was responsible for producing the structural setting of the Ballinalack and other Zn-Pb deposits in the Irish Midlands. The suggested earlier timing of fault movement in the basin has implications for arguments about the origin of Irish-type Zn-Pb deposits and the necessity (or not) for having active faulting during mineralization.

  4. A national survey (NAP5-Ireland baseline) to estimate an annual incidence of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Jonker, W R; Hanumanthiah, D; O'Sullivan, E P; Cook, T M; Pandit, J J

    2014-09-01

    As part of the 5th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland concerning accidental awareness during general anaesthesia, we issued a questionnaire to every consultant anaesthetist in each of 46 public hospitals in Ireland, represented by 41 local co-ordinators. The survey ascertained the number of new cases of accidental awareness becoming known to them for patients under their care or supervision for a calendar year, as well as their career experience. Consultants from all hospitals responded, with an individual response rate of 87% (299 anaesthetists). There were eight new cases of accidental awareness that became known to consultants in 2011; an estimated incidence of 1:23 366. Two out of the eight cases (25%) occurred at or after induction of anaesthesia, but before surgery; four cases (50%) occurred during surgery; and two cases (25%) occurred after surgery was complete, but before full emergence. Four cases were associated with pain or distress (50%), one after an experience at induction and three after experiences during surgery. There were no formal complaints or legal actions that arose in 2011 related to awareness. Depth of anaesthesia monitoring was reported to be available in 33 (80%) departments, and was used by 184 consultants (62%), 18 (6%) routinely. None of the 46 hospitals had a policy to prevent or manage awareness. Similar to the results of a larger survey in the UK, the disparity between the incidence of awareness as known to anaesthetists and that reported in trials warrants explanation. Compared with UK practice, there appears to be greater use of depth of anaesthesia monitoring in Ireland, although this is still infrequent.

  5. FimH adhesin from host unrestricted Salmonella Enteritidis binds to different glycoprotein ligands expressed by enterocytes from sheep, pig and cattle than FimH adhesins from host restricted Salmonella Abortus-ovis, Salmonella Choleraesuis and Salmonella Dublin.

    PubMed

    Grzymajło, Krzysztof; Ugorski, Maciej; Kolenda, Rafał; Kędzierska, Anna; Kuźmińska-Bajor, Marta; Wieliczko, Alina

    2013-10-25

    Adhesion to gut tissues and colonization of the alimentary tract, two important stages in the pathogenesis of Salmonella, are mediated by FimH adhesin of type 1 fimbriae. It was suggested that minor differences in the structure of FimH are most likely associated with differences in adhesion specificities, and may determine the tropism of various Salmonella serovars to different species and tissues. We investigated this hypothesis by comparing the binding properties of FimH proteins from three Salmonella enterica serovars with limited (Choleraesuis, Dublin) or restricted (Abortusovis) host ranges to FimH from broad host range S. Enteritidis and mannose inactive FimH from S. Gallinarum. Although all active variants of FimH protein were able to bind mannose-rich glycoproteins (RNase B, HRP and Man-BSA) with comparable affinity measured by surface plasmon resonance, there were significant differences in the binding profiles of the FimH proteins from host restricted serovars and host unrestricted serovar Enteritidis, to glycoproteins from enterocyte cell lines established in vitro and derived from sheep, pig and cattle. When low-binding FimH adhesin from S. Enteritidis was subjected to Western blot analysis, it bound to surface membrane protein of about 130 kDa, and high-binding FimH adhesins from S. Abortusovis, S. Choleraesuis and S. Dublin bound to surface membrane protein of about 55 kDa present in each cell line. Differential binding of FimH proteins from host-restricted and broad-host-range Salmonella to intestinal receptors was confirmed using mutant FimH adhesins obtained by site-directed mutagenesis. It was found that the low-binding variant of FimH from S. Choleraesuis with mutation Leu57Pro lost the ability to bind protein band of 55 kDa, but instead interacted with glycoprotein of about 130 kDa. On the other hand, the high-binding variant of FimH adhesin from S. Enteritids with mutation Asn101Ser did not bind to its receptor of 130 kDa, but instead it

  6. Hormonal contraceptive use in Ireland: trends and co-prescribing practices.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, Laura; Liddy, Anne-Marie; Barry, Michael; Bennett, Kathleen

    2015-12-01

    Hormonal contraceptives are highly prevalent. Currently, little is known about Irish hormonal contraceptive trends to date since the 1995 British media contraceptive controversy. The aim of this study was to examine recent trends in contraceptive use in Ireland and to determine the frequency of co-prescriptions with important interacting medications. Approximately 40% of the Irish population are prescribed 70% of total medicines under the Irish GMS scheme. Medicines were identified using the WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system. Regression analysis was used to examine trends over time. Of all contraceptives dispensed in 2013, oral contraceptives were used the most (74%) and long acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) the least (7.5%). Fourth generation combined oral contraceptives (COCs) predominated, although a slight significant decline was shown (P < 0.0001). Second and third generation COCs were significantly increasing and decreasing, respectively (P < 0.0001). Progestin-only pills were significantly increasing (P < 0.0001 across age groups). Low rates of contraceptive co-prescribing with important interacting drugs are shown. However, 93.6% of those on enzyme-inducing anti-epileptic medications were co-prescribed ineffective contraception containing <50 μg oestrogen.Irish prescribing trends of second and third generation COCs have remained consistent since 1995. The slow decline in fourth generation COC uptake follows new evidence of an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) reported in 2011. The low, but increasing, uptake of LARCs is consistent with other countries. Co-prescribing practices involving hormonal contraceptives requires continued vigilance. This study emphasizes the need to optimize co-prescribing practices involving hormonal contraceptives and anti-epileptic medications and highlights the need to address the barriers to the currently low uptake of LARC methods in Ireland. PMID:26503402

  7. Unregulated private wells in the Republic of Ireland: consumer awareness, source susceptibility and protective actions.

    PubMed

    Hynds, Paul D; Misstear, Bruce D; Gill, Laurence W

    2013-09-30

    While the safety of public drinking water supplies in the Republic of Ireland is governed and monitored at both local and national levels, there are currently no legislative tools in place relating to private supplies. It is therefore paramount that private well owners (and users) be aware of source specifications and potential contamination risks, to ensure adequate water quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the level of awareness among private well owners in the Republic of Ireland, relating to source characterisation and groundwater contamination issues. This was undertaken through interviews with 245 private well owners. Statistical analysis indicates that respondents' source type significantly influences owner awareness, particularly regarding well construction and design parameters. Water treatment, source maintenance and regular water quality testing are considered the three primary "protective actions" (or "stewardship activities") to consumption of contaminated groundwater and were reported as being absent in 64%, 72% and 40% of cases, respectively. Results indicate that the level of awareness exhibited by well users did not significantly affect the likelihood of their source being contaminated (source susceptibility); increased awareness on behalf of well users was associated with increased levels of protective action, particularly among borehole owners. Hence, lower levels of awareness may result in increased contraction of waterborne illnesses where contaminants have entered the well. Accordingly, focused educational strategies to increase awareness among private groundwater users are advocated in the short-term; the development and introdiction of formal legislation is recommended in the long-term, including an integrated programme of well inspections and risk assessments.

  8. Unregulated private wells in the Republic of Ireland: consumer awareness, source susceptibility and protective actions.

    PubMed

    Hynds, Paul D; Misstear, Bruce D; Gill, Laurence W

    2013-09-30

    While the safety of public drinking water supplies in the Republic of Ireland is governed and monitored at both local and national levels, there are currently no legislative tools in place relating to private supplies. It is therefore paramount that private well owners (and users) be aware of source specifications and potential contamination risks, to ensure adequate water quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the level of awareness among private well owners in the Republic of Ireland, relating to source characterisation and groundwater contamination issues. This was undertaken through interviews with 245 private well owners. Statistical analysis indicates that respondents' source type significantly influences owner awareness, particularly regarding well construction and design parameters. Water treatment, source maintenance and regular water quality testing are considered the three primary "protective actions" (or "stewardship activities") to consumption of contaminated groundwater and were reported as being absent in 64%, 72% and 40% of cases, respectively. Results indicate that the level of awareness exhibited by well users did not significantly affect the likelihood of their source being contaminated (source susceptibility); increased awareness on behalf of well users was associated with increased levels of protective action, particularly among borehole owners. Hence, lower levels of awareness may result in increased contraction of waterborne illnesses where contaminants have entered the well. Accordingly, focused educational strategies to increase awareness among private groundwater users are advocated in the short-term; the development and introdiction of formal legislation is recommended in the long-term, including an integrated programme of well inspections and risk assessments. PMID:23771203

  9. Astronomy in Ireland from earliest times to the eighteenth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, Susan M. P.

    Evidence that the builders of Irish passage graves and stone circles may have possessed some knowledge of basic celestial cycles is discussed. The introduction of Celtic culture to Ireland circa 600 B.C. is next described and an account of the astronomical learning of the Celts provided based on classical documentation and Irish vernacular sources. Following on the coming of Christianity to Ireland in the fifth century, the necessity to construct Easter tables led Irish monks to such related activities as establishing collections of computi, compiling Annals and undertaking studies of available astronomical material. In particular, through exposure to Helenistic writings, they understood celestial motions in terms of the Ptolemaic model and were recognised authorities in Europe in the eighth and ninth centuries on astronomical matters. The influence of the Viking and Norman invasions in disrupting the intellectual life of the country is then outlined and the circumstances relating to the creation of conditions leading to the brilliant flowering of Irish astronomy in the eighteenth century are elucidated.

  10. Clinical Q fever in Northern Ireland 1962-1989.

    PubMed

    Connolly, J H; Coyle, P V; Adgey, A A; O'Neill, H J; Simpson, D M

    1990-10-01

    Q fever was diagnosed in 443 patients in Northern Ireland between 1962 and 1989. From 1986 onwards there was an increase, which peaked in 1989 with 107 cases of whom 47 were infected in Ballycastle, Co Antrim. There were three outbreaks and 21 clusters of patients with Q fever. Most cases were in April and May which correlated with the peak lambing and calving season. Q fever mainly affected males in the 40-49 year old age group. County Antrim had the highest prevalence rate of 40/100,000 population and also had the most sheep. The number of sheep in Northern Ireland has doubled in the past ten years. Q fever was strongly associated with occupation and animal contact. Eighty-seven patients (19.6%) drank unpasteurized milk. The commonest presenting illnesses were pneumonia (62.8%), influenza-like illness (24.6%), involvement of the heart (9.0%) and hepatitis (1.6%). Thirty-two patients (7.2%) had endocarditis, 20 of whom had prosthetic valves and three of whom died. Coxiella burnetii was present on valves removed from seven patients.

  11. Efficacy of cleaning and disinfection on pig farms in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Mannion, C; Leonard, F C; Lynch, P B; Egan, J

    2007-09-15

    Little is known about the effectiveness of the cleaning and disinfection methods used on commercial pig farms either in Ireland or worldwide. A National Salmonella Control Programme was implemented in Ireland in August 2002 to monitor and control the infection of pigs with Salmonella species. Commercial pig herds must be categorised according to their Salmonella status as either category 1, 2 or 3, having a serological prevalence of infection with Salmonella serotypes up to 10 per cent, between 10 and 50 per cent or more than 50 per cent, respectively. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of washing and disinfecting finisher units on category 1 and category 3 farms in reducing or eliminating the levels of contamination. Counts of Enterobacteriaceae were used as indicators of the contamination of the environment with enteric bacteria, which could include Salmonella species. Samples were taken from the pen floors, feeders and drinkers of seven category 1 and seven category 3 farms, and Enterobacteriaceae and salmonellae were enumerated in each sample. The results suggested that intensive cleaning and disinfection was effective at reducing levels of Enterobacteriaceae on the pen floors of both categories, but that residual contamination remained on the surfaces of the feeders and drinkers on all the farms, particularly on the category 3 farms.

  12. Sexual behavior and attitudes of university students in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Sneddon, I; Kremer, J

    1992-06-01

    Two surveys of a Northern Ireland student sample were conducted in 1987 and 1988. A total of 419 female and 201 male subjects completed self-administered anonymous questionnaires concerning their behavior, knowledge, and attitudes towards sex, AIDS, homosexuality, contraception, and relationships. Results indicated a relatively low level of sexual experience, and for those with experience, relatively few partners. The possible influences of gender and religiosity on sexual behavior and attitudes, in the context of Northern Ireland, are discussed. Subjects reported considerable variation in the amount of sex education, but the majority received little or none. This student sample held relatively conservative attitudes towards love, sex, and marriage and this was particularly true for females and for regular churchgoers. In addition, attitudes towards homosexuality were negative (particularly among regular churchgoers). Attitudes towards contraception were more positive than expected among Catholic subjects, and few indicated that they would refuse to use contraceptives on principle. Responses to items about AIDS were highly uniform, suggesting that much of the information made available to the public has been absorbed. However, the lack of uniformity of response to more general items about sex, relationships, and contraception may indicate that fundamental changes in sexual behavior are unlikely to be brought about by influencing a rather narrowly defined set of attitudes about AIDS. PMID:1610290

  13. A coprological survey of parasites of wild carnivores in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Peter; Golden, Olwen; Zintl, Annetta; de Waal, Theo; Mulcahy, Grace; McCarthy, Elaine; Lawton, Colin

    2013-10-01

    The increasing movement of people to wilderness areas, shrinking of wildlife habitats and the resulting urbanisation of wildlife has led to growing concerns about the transfer of parasitic diseases, particularly from contaminated faeces. Faecal samples from wild carnivores in Ireland were examined for the presence of protozoan and nematode parasites. Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) samples (n = 91) were positive for Uncinaria stenocephala (38%), Eucoleus aerophilus (26%), Toxocara canis (20%), Trichuris vulpis (4%) and Isospora-like oocysts (9%). Badger (Meles meles) samples (n = 50) were positive for Uncinaria criniformis (40%), E. aerophilus (6%) and Isospora-like oocysts (16%). No parasites were observed in pine marten (n = 48; Martes martes) faeces. Approximately 5% of American mink (Mustela vison) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium by polymerase chain reaction (identified as Cryptosporidium andersoni (n = 3) and 'mink' genotype (n = 1)). The results suggest that wild carnivores in Ireland have a range of parasites, although it is unclear from the present study to what extent these infections are associated with morbidity. While it can be expected that, via their faeces, wild carnivores contribute to the spread of these parasites, they are unlikely the primary source of environmental contamination. Therefore, they should not always be the principal target of control measures.

  14. Energy demand on dairy farms in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Upton, J; Humphreys, J; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; French, P; Dillon, P; De Boer, I J M

    2013-10-01

    Reducing electricity consumption in Irish milk production is a topical issue for 2 reasons. First, the introduction of a dynamic electricity pricing system, with peak and off-peak prices, will be a reality for 80% of electricity consumers by 2020. The proposed pricing schedule intends to discourage energy consumption during peak periods (i.e., when electricity demand on the national grid is high) and to incentivize energy consumption during off-peak periods. If farmers, for example, carry out their evening milking during the peak period, energy costs may increase, which would affect farm profitability. Second, electricity consumption is identified in contributing to about 25% of energy use along the life cycle of pasture-based milk. The objectives of this study, therefore, were to document electricity use per kilogram of milk sold and to identify strategies that reduce its overall use while maximizing its use in off-peak periods (currently from 0000 to 0900 h). We assessed, therefore, average daily and seasonal trends in electricity consumption on 22 Irish dairy farms, through detailed auditing of electricity-consuming processes. To determine the potential of identified strategies to save energy, we also assessed total energy use of Irish milk, which is the sum of the direct (i.e., energy use on farm) and indirect energy use (i.e., energy needed to produce farm inputs). On average, a total of 31.73 MJ was required to produce 1 kg of milk solids, of which 20% was direct and 80% was indirect energy use. Electricity accounted for 60% of the direct energy use, and mainly resulted from milk cooling (31%), water heating (23%), and milking (20%). Analysis of trends in electricity consumption revealed that 62% of daily electricity was used at peak periods. Electricity use on Irish dairy farms, therefore, is substantial and centered around milk harvesting. To improve the competitiveness of milk production in a dynamic electricity pricing environment, therefore, management

  15. The European Network for Research, Action and Training in Adult Literacy and Basic Education (Dublin, Ireland, May 25-30, 1991). A Seminar Organised by EUROALPHA. Adult Basic Education in Prisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1991

    This conference report on adult basic education in European prisons contains the following introductory materials: a list of participants, the program, and introductions to the seminar by Frank Dunne and Pierre Freynet. "Keynote Address" (Robert Suvaal) discusses five items a prison educator must deal with: philosophy, position of education in…

  16. The Less Widely Taught Languages of Europe. Proceedings of the Joint United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, International Association of Applied Linguistics, and Irish Association of Applied Linguistics Symposium (St. Patrick's College, Dublin, Ireland, April 23-25, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathuna, Liam Mac, Ed.; And Others

    Papers presented at a symposium on Europe's less commonly taught languages include the following: "The Necessity of Dialogue" (Marcel de Greve); "Socio- and Psycholinguistic Interference in Teaching Foreign Languages" (Penka Ilieva-Baltova); "Satellite Television, National Television, and Video in Teaching/Learning Less Widely Taught Languages"…

  17. Assessing the vulnerability of groundwater to pollution in Ireland based on the COST-620 Pan-European approach.

    PubMed

    Pavlis, Michail; Cummins, Enda

    2014-01-15

    The aim of the analysis was to assess the intrinsic and specific vulnerability of groundwater to pollution from pesticides in Ireland at the national scale. A methodology to incorporate the effect of groundwater recharge in vulnerability assessment is described which can be particularly useful for the evaluation of dilution of groundwater pollutants. A sensitivity analysis using Monte-Carlo simulation revealed that the most important parameters of the model were subsoil (ρ = 0.79) and topsoil (ρ = 0.72), which is in agreement with the current knowledge of the parameters that have a significant effect on groundwater vulnerability in Ireland. The intrinsic vulnerability assessment was verified using total organic carbon (TOC) concentration in groundwater, a novel approach for the validation of groundwater vulnerability methods at regional scales. A statistical analysis showed that TOC concentration was significantly different (p < 0.001) between watersheds classified as highly vulnerable and watersheds classified as less vulnerable, providing evidence that the developed method can effectively classify karst areas in terms of groundwater vulnerability.

  18. A comparative study of clinical supervision in the Republic of Ireland and the United States.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Michael V; Creaner, Mary; Hutman, Heidi; Timulak, Ladislav

    2015-10-01

    We replicated Son, Ellis, and Yoo (2013) and extended Ellis et al.'s (2014) taxonomy of harmful and inadequate supervision by providing and testing cross-national comparative descriptive data about clinical supervision practices in the Republic of Ireland versus the United States. Participants were 149 Republic of Ireland and 151 U.S. mental health supervisees currently receiving clinical supervision. The results suggested that characteristics of supervision in the Republic of Ireland and United States evidenced both similarities and differences. The dissimilar credentialing systems appeared to account for the observed differences, suggesting that Ellis et al.'s (2014) criteria for inadequate supervision need to be modified to account for country-specific standards for supervision. Unexpectedly, no significant differences were observed between the Republic of Ireland and United States in the high occurrence of inadequate, harmful, or exceptional supervision. The results suggested that 79.2% (Republic of Ireland) and 69.5% (United States) of the supervisees were categorized as currently receiving inadequate supervision, and 40.3% (Republic of Ireland) and 25.2% (United States) of the supervisees as receiving harmful supervision. At some point in their careers, 92.4% (Republic of Ireland) and 86.4% (United States) of the supervisees received inadequate supervision--51.7% (Republic of Ireland) and 39.7% (United States) received harmful supervision. On the positive side, 51.0% (Republic of Ireland) and 55.0% (United States) of the supervisees reported receiving exceptional supervision from their current supervisors. Substantial discrepancies were observed between supervisees' perceptions versus more objective criteria of the inadequate or harmful supervision they received. Implications for cross-national supervision research and training are discussed.

  19. The Role of Eportfolios in Finance Studies: A Cross-Country Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domínguez, Amparo S.; Morales, Lucía; Tarkovska, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the use of ePortfolios as an efficient assessment tool to support students pursuing a Business degree, where Finance is a major component. We conducted an analysis on the role of ePortfolios in Higher Education at Dublin Institute of Technology (Republic of Ireland) and at Universitat Jaume I (Spain) for undergraduate studies.…

  20. An evaluation of perceived education and training needs of staff nurses and care officers.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out to ascertain the specific education and training needs of nursing and care officer staff working at the Central Mental Hospital (CMH) in Dublin, Ireland, which provides national forensic psychiatric services. This is the first time an education and training needs analysis was conducted for all nursing and care officer staff.

  1. Prisoner or patient? The official debate on the criminal lunatic in nineteenth-century Ireland.

    PubMed

    Prior, Pauline M

    2004-06-01

    Nineteenth-century Ireland was colonized and strictly controlled from Britain. In this highly regulated society, reports of the Inspectorate of Lunacy in Ireland were used to express an official medical view on cirminal lunacy. This view was based on experiences gained in the Central Criminal Lunatic Asylum for Ireland, opened at Dundrum in 1820. This paper will examine some of the ideas expressed in these reports, including views on the treatment of criminal lunatics, on their potential for dangerous behaviour, and on emigration as a form of after-care.

  2. Stroke Associated with Atrial Fibrillation – Incidence and Early Outcomes in the North Dublin Population Stroke Study

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Niamh; Sheehan, Orla; Kelly, Lisa; Marnane, Michael; Merwick, Aine; Moore, Alan; Kyne, Lorraine; Duggan, Joseph; Moroney, Joan; McCormack, Patricia M.E.; Daly, Leslie; Fitz-Simon, Nicola; Harris, Dawn; Horgan, Gillian; Williams, Emma B.; Furie, Karen L.; Kelly, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Prospective population-based studies are important to accurately determine the incidence and characteristics of stroke associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), while avoiding selection bias which may complicate hospital-based studies. Methods We investigated AF-associated stroke within the North Dublin Population Stroke Study, a prospective cohort study of stroke/transient ischaemic attack in 294,592 individuals, according to recommended criteria for rigorous stroke epidemiological studies. Results Of 568 stroke patients ascertained in the first year, 31.2% (177/568) were associated with AF (90.4%, i.e. 160/177 ischaemic infarcts). The crude incidence rate of all AF-associated stroke was 60/100,000 person-years (95% CI = 52–70). Prior stroke was almost twice as common in AF compared to non-AF groups (21.9 vs. 12.8%, p = 0.01). The frequency of AF progressively increased across ischaemic stroke patients stratified by increasing stroke severity (NIHSS 0–4, 29.7%; 5–9, 38.1%; 10–14, 43.8%; ≥15, 53.3%, p < 0.0001). The 90-day trajectory of recovery of AF-associated stroke was identical to that of non-AF stroke, but Rankin scores in AF stroke remained higher at 7, 28 and 90 days (p < 0.001 for all). Discussion: AF-associated stroke occurred in one third of all patients and was associated with a distinct profile of recurrent, severe and disabling stroke. Targeted strategies to increase anticoagulation rates may provide a substantial benefit to prevent severe disabling stroke at a population level. PMID:19893311

  3. Hydrogeology and Potentiometric Surface of the Dublin and Midville Aquifer Systems in Richmond County, Georgia, January 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Lester J.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Dublin and Midville aquifer systems are part of the Cretaceous aquifer system that underlies most of Richmond County, Georgia (Gorday, 1985; Falls and others, 1997). The Cretaceous aquifer system is the second most productive aquifer in Georgia and is a major source of water in the region. About 220 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water was withdrawn from the Cretaceous aquifer system during 2000 in Georgia (Fanning, 2003). The Augusta-Richmond County Water System is the largest public water supplier in the county and withdrew 13 Mgal/d of ground water during 2000; withdrawals decreased from 2001 to 2005. The towns of Hephzibah and Blythe withdrew 0.4 and 0.03 Mgal/d, respectively. Industrial ground-water withdrawals are concentrated along the Savannah River and totaled 2.89 Mgal/d. To monitor seasonal and long-term water-level fluctuations and trends in the aquifers, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) - in cooperation with Augusta Utilities - maintains a countywide network of about 100 water-level monitoring wells in various aquifers, including a new continuous monitoring site (well 30AA33) and two existing USGS-Georgia Environmental Protection Division network sites (wells 29AA09 and 30AA04). Data compiled during this study were used to better define the hydrogeologic units and to construct an updated potentiometric-surface map for the area, which is used to better understand ground-water movement in the Cretaceous aquifer system. In addition, the potentiometric surface and related water-level data can be used for water-resource planning and to update ground-water flow models for the region (Clarke and West, 1997; Cherry, 2006).

  4. Expression profile and subcellular location of the plasmid-encoded virulence (Spv) proteins in wild-type Salmonella dublin.

    PubMed

    El-Gedaily, A; Paesold, G; Krause, M

    1997-08-01

    The plasmid-encoded virulence genes (spvABCD) in nontyphoid Salmonella strains mediate lethal infections in a variety of animals. Previous studies have shown that these genes are transcriptionally regulated by stationary-phase growth. We studied the expression profile and the subcellular locations of the SpvABCD proteins in wild-type S. dublin by using polyclonal antibodies against SpvA, SpvB, SpvC, and SpvD. The cellular levels of the individual proteins were determined during growth by quantitative immunoblotting. As expected, SpvA, SpvB, SpvC, and SpvD were not detectable before the late logarithmic growth phase and appeared in the sequence SpvA, SpvB, SpvC, and SpvD. In contrast to the transcriptional regulation, however, SpvA and SpvB reached their maximal expression shortly after induction and declined during further growth whereas SpvC and SpvD expression remained high throughout the stationary phase, indicating that the Spv proteins are individually regulated at a posttranscriptional level. To localize SpvABCD within the bacteria, the cells were fractionated into the periplasmic, cytoplasmic, inner membrane, and outer membrane components. The cell fractions and the culture supernatant were analyzed by immunoblotting. SpvA was present in the outer membrane, SpvB was present in the cytoplasm and the inner membrane, and SpvC was present in the cytoplasm. SpvD was secreted into the supernatant; however, a substantial portion of this protein was also detected in the cytoplasm and membranes. The molecular weights of SpvD in the supernatant and in the cytoplasm appeared to be equal, suggesting that SpvD is not cleaved upon secretion.

  5. Substance use in young persons in Ireland, a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kevin; Sahm, Laura; McCarthy, Suzanne; Lambert, Sharon; Byrne, Stephen

    2013-08-01

    Adolescence is a time of physical and mental development when small changes can impact on the rest of a person's life. Substance use in this crucial period can have long-lasting consequences for the individual and for society. The prevalence of substance use in young people is an area of concern for policy makers and health workers. This systematic review looked at prevalence for four substances: alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and benzodiazepines, across the Republic of Ireland for persons between the ages of 13 and 24, and compared usage between 2000 and 2012. Eighteen articles were included in the review. It was seen that tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis use has fallen in the lifetime and previous month use. The level of benzodiazepine use has remained similar in the period of study. Future work should redress the imbalance in substance use research that sees the majority of researchers looking at a few substances while little work is done on the others.

  6. Holistic medicine not "torture": performing acupuncture in Galway, Ireland.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kevin Taylor

    2010-07-01

    This article examines how the aesthetic design of clinics and interactive discourse and rituals construct the social reality of acupuncture sessions as a form of holistic medical therapy. Verbal and nonverbal interactions create an appealing medical environment but also help prevent the emergence of undesired counter-realities (e.g., pain, biomedical intervention). Based on observations of acupuncture sessions conducted in Galway, Ireland, I illustrate how ambiance and aesthetic elements of clinics create a complex medico-cultural environment that balances oppositional associations (Western/non-Western, exoticism/convention, medical alterity/medical professionalism). Patients interviewed continually referred to acupuncture as a natural and non-invasive form of medical treatment. This suggests that interpersonal discourse and aesthetic design play key roles in how patients define acupuncture treatment, and that these ephemeral agents may also influence how patients come to define efficacy. PMID:20694891

  7. Corneal transplantation in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed Central

    Vail, A; Gore, S M; Bradley, B A; Easty, D L; Rogers, C A

    1993-01-01

    The Corneal Transplant Follow up Study has registered 4560 corneal grafts performed in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland from July 1987 to June 1991. Rates of reported grafts doubled during that time. This increase was greater for surgeons and regions reporting fewer grafts, but was consistent across patient factors. Eleven of 428 consultants were responsible for over 25% of grafts, and their patients' characteristics differed significantly from others. Overall, reasons for grafting were visual only (77%), visual and other (16%), and non-visual (7%). Most frequent diagnoses were endothelial failure (38%), inflammation (26%), and keratoconus (20%). Age ranged from 2 months to 97 years, and differed markedly with diagnosis. Eighteen per cent of transplants were regrafts, and 40% were vascularised preoperatively. PMID:8218035

  8. Molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium species in livestock in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Mirhashemi, Marzieh Ezzaty; Zintl, Annetta; Grant, Tim; Lucy, Frances; Mulcahy, Grace; De Waal, Theo

    2016-01-30

    Cryptosporidium is a protozoan that can cause gastro-intestinal illness with diarrhoea in a wide range of hosts. In fact some species of Cryptosporidium can infect the broad range of hosts. The current paper is focused to investigate monthly prevalence and diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. during the spring and early summer (March-June) in 2009 and 2010 in farms with no history of cryptosporidiosis. Animal samples were analyzed to elucidate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in two regions, West and the East catchments in Ireland. Our investigation demonstrates the prevalence ranges from 14% to 26% an early summer peak (June) was observed. Based on the findings of this study Cryptosporidium ryanae (in cattle, horses), and Cryptosporidium bovis/xiaoi followed by Cryptosporidium parvum (in sheep) were found to be the predominant species in asymptomatic cases. The circulation of other Cryptosporidium species such as C. parvum, C. bovis, C. ubiquitum, C. andersoni and Cryptosporidium horse and pig genotypes in livestock was investigated.

  9. Operationalizing non-lethality: a Northern Ireland perspective.

    PubMed

    Burrows, C

    2001-01-01

    'The troubles' over the last 33 years in Northern Ireland have claimed the lives of 3,636 people, including 302 police-officers and 644 soldiers. Of these deaths, 315 were attributed to the military and 52 to the police.(1) Formative experience of public disorder within the early parts of the conflict is reviewed. This article places the evolution, development and use of baton rounds (rubber and plastic bullets) in context and describes the training of police in their use. The development of a conflict management strategy which provides synergy with community based policing is discussed and the importance of understanding the underlying causes of a conflict for law enforcement personnel is emphasized. PMID:11578043

  10. Apportionment of urban aerosol sources in Cork (Ireland) by synergistic measurement techniques.

    PubMed

    Dall'Osto, Manuel; Hellebust, Stig; Healy, Robert M; O'Connor, Ian P; Kourtchev, Ivan; Sodeau, John R; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Ceburnis, Darius; O'Dowd, Colin D; Wenger, John C

    2014-09-15

    The sources of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during wintertime at a background urban location in Cork city (Ireland) have been determined. Aerosol chemical analyses were performed by multiple techniques including on-line high resolution aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS), on-line single particle aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TSI ATOFMS), on-line elemental carbon-organic carbon analysis (Sunset_EC-OC), and off-line gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and ion chromatography analysis of filter samples collected at 6-h resolution. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) has been carried out to better elucidate aerosol sources not clearly identified when analyzing results from individual aerosol techniques on their own. Two datasets have been considered: on-line measurements averaged over 2-h periods, and both on-line and off-line measurements averaged over 6-h periods. Five aerosol sources were identified by PMF in both datasets, with excellent agreement between the two solutions: (1) regional domestic solid fuel burning--"DSF_Regional," 24-27%; (2) local urban domestic solid fuel burning--"DSF_Urban," 22-23%; (3) road vehicle emissions--"Traffic," 15-20%; (4) secondary aerosols from regional anthropogenic sources--"SA_Regional" 9-13%; and (5) secondary aged/processed aerosols related to urban anthropogenic sources--"SA_Urban," 21-26%. The results indicate that, despite regulations for restricting the use of smoky fuels, solid fuel burning is the major source (46-50%) of PM2.5 in wintertime in Cork, and also likely other areas of Ireland. Whilst wood combustion is strongly associated with OC and EC, it was found that peat and coal combustion is linked mainly with OC and the aerosol from these latter sources appears to be more volatile than that produced by wood combustion. Ship emissions from the nearby port were found to be mixed with the SA_Regional factor. The PMF analysis allowed us to link the AMS cooking organic

  11. Only one of the two type VI secretion systems encoded in the Salmonella enterica serotype Dublin genome is involved in colonization of the avian and murine hosts.

    PubMed

    Pezoa, David; Blondel, Carlos J; Silva, Cecilia A; Yang, Hee-Jeong; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene; Santiviago, Carlos A; Contreras, Inés

    2014-01-09

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a virulence factor for many Gram-negative bacteria. Salmonella genus harbors five phylogenetically distinct T6SS loci encoded in Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands (SPIs) SPI-6, SPI-19, SPI-20, SPI-21 and SPI-22, which are differentially distributed among serotypes. The T6SSs encoded in SPI-6 and SPI-19 contribute to pathogenesis of serotypes Typhimurium and Gallinarum in mice and chickens, respectively. Salmonella Dublin is a pathogen restricted to cattle where it causes a systemic disease. Also, it can colonize other hosts such as chickens and mice, which can act as reservoirs of this serotype. Salmonella Dublin harbors the genes for both T6SS(SPI-6) and T6SS(SPI-19). This study has determined the contribution of T6SS(SPI-6) and T6SS(SPI-19) to host-colonization by Salmonella Dublin using avian and murine models of infection. Competitive index experiments showed that, a mutant strain lacking both T6SSs (∆T6SS(SPI-6)/∆T6SS(SPI-19)) presents a strong colonization defect in cecum of chickens, similar to the defect observed for the ∆T6SS(SPI-6) mutant, suggesting that this serotype requires a functional T6SS(SPI-6) for efficient colonization of the avian gastrointestinal tract. Colonization of mice was also defective, although to a lesser extent than in chickens. In contrast, the T6SS(SPI-19) was not necessary for colonization of either chickens or mice. Transfer of T6SS(SPI-6), but not T6SS(SPI-19), restored the ability of the double mutant to colonize both animal hosts. Our data indicate that Salmonella Dublin requires only the T6SS(SPI-6) for efficient colonization of mice and chickens, and that the T6SS(SPI-6) and T6SS(SPI-19) are not functionally redundant.

  12. Individual and collective doses from cosmic radiation in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Colgan, P A; Synnott, H; Fenton, D

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses the individual and collective doses in Ireland due to cosmic radiation. Information on the exposure to cosmic radiation at ground level is reviewed and published data on the frequency of routes flown by Irish residents is used to calculate the dose due to air travel. Occupational exposure of aircrew is also evaluated. Experimental data on cosmic radiation exposure at ground level is in good agreement with international estimates and the average individual dose is calculated as 300 microSv annually. Published data on international air travel by Irish residents shows a 50% increase in the number of flights taken between 2001 and 2005. This increase is primarily on short-haul flights to Europe, but there have been significant percentage increases in all long-haul flights, with the exception of flights to Africa. The additional per capita dose due to air travel is estimated to be 45 muSv, of which 51% is accumulated on European routes and 34% on routes to the United States. Exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation is now controlled by legislation and all airlines holding an Air Operator's Certificate issued by the Irish Aviation Authority are required to report annually the doses received by their employees in the previous year. There has been a 75% increase in the number of aircrew receiving doses >1 mSv since 2002. In 2004 and 2005 the average individual doses received by Irish aircrew were 1.8 and 2.0, mSv, respectively. The corresponding per caput dose for the entire population is <3 muSv. While this is low compared with the per caput doses from other sources of cosmic radiation, aircrew exposure represents a higher collective dose than any other identified group of exposed workers in Ireland.

  13. Modelling predictions of cancer deaths in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    French, D; Catney, D; Gavin, AT

    2006-01-01

    Background An ageing population has service planners concerned about future levels of disease which are age dependent. Predictions of mortality for colorectal, lung and breast cancers, which account for 30% of cancer cases and 40% of cancers deaths, were calculated for 2010 and 2015, based on trends in death rates and the predicted change in the demography of the Northern Ireland population. Methods The US National Cancer Institute's “Joinpoint” program was used to check for structural breaks in the time series of cancer death rates from 1984 to 2004. The prediction models applied to the data allowed variations in trends across age groups to be taken into account. A linear model was used for increasing or constant trends and a log linear model was used where the trend was decreasing. The models assume the number of deaths in each stratum, defined by age-sex and time-period, is Poisson distributed, with the average value determined by a log or linear function. Results Recent trends in rates of cancers studied were downwards except for female lung. Predictions include decreased colorectal cancer deaths in females and lung cancer deaths in males. In females, lung cancer deaths are predicted to more than double by the year 2015 (473 deaths), based on the 1984 level. Colorectal death rates in males are predicted to drop, but the number of deaths will increase by more than 10%, due to demographic change. Numbers of breast cancer deaths are likely to rise slightly, despite falling age standardised death rates, due to an ageing population. Conclusions This work has provided estimates of early future trends, useful to service planners, and highlights the need for tobacco control, to reduce numbers of lung cancer deaths in females. The recently announced control of environmental tobacco legislation is one welcome development which should reduce lung cancer mortality in Northern Ireland. PMID:16755941

  14. Students and Scientists Take a "Lichen" To Air Quality Assessment in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Anthony P.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a cooperative project in which students in a number of areas in Ireland collect environmental data for use by scientists working to solve real-life problems. Reports on the follow-up survey to the study. (DDR)

  15. A geochemical study of the River Lagan, Northern Ireland: Insights into the hydrochemical catchment response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Alexander; Hindshaw, Ruth

    2015-04-01

    The management of water resources is rapidly becoming one of the most important issues affecting many societies worldwide. The chemical components of a river are often not directly related to discharge, instead the water chemistry and transit time of a catchment are a function of several parameters including the flow pathways, water sources and the storage of water within a catchment. There is a need to constrain the parameters controlling hydrochemistry if water resources are to be managed efficiently and be protected from anthropogenic influences. This study will present experimental analysis of a small catchment, focusing on the relationship between discharge and hydrochemistry; tracing water sources through the investigation of the hydrochemistry, δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr composition of rain water, groundwater, and stream water. This study focuses on the River Lagan catchment in Northern Ireland. The lower catchment of the river surrounds the city of Belfast, where it drains into the sea. However, the upper catchment (84.6 km2) is noted to be a natural regime, unaffected by damming and, as such, should provide an ideal opportunity to gain insight into the natural hydrochemistry and hydrologic pathways of the catchment. The bedrock of the area is dominated by the Southern Uplands-Down-Longford Terrane, consisting of greywacke sandstone and mudstone successions. Geochemical data obtained from the Geological Survey of Northern Ireland (GSNI), focusing on stream sediment and soils, suggests there is minimal geochemical variation throughout the upper catchment. The response of the catchment to rainfall was investigated through a time series, recorded during July and August 2014. This time series included a more intensive hourly series, taken over a period of 24 hours, during a forecast rain event. Potential end-members were also sampled: shallow groundwater samples were taken from a well and regular rain samples were collected. Spatial variability within the catchment

  16. An ongoing measles outbreak linked to a suspected imported case, Ireland, April to June 2016.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Peter; Chaintarli, Katerina; Ryan, Fiona; Cotter, Suzanne; Cronin, Anthony; Carlton, Louise; MacSweeney, Mary; McDonnell, Mairead; Connell, Jeff; Fitzgerald, Rose; Hamilton, Douglas; Ward, Mary; Glynn, Ronan; Migone, Chantal

    2016-07-01

    We report an outbreak of measles which started in April 2016 and which, by 13 June, has resulted in 22 confirmed and five probable measles cases occurring in four regions of Ireland. Genotype B3 was identified. We describe the identification, ongoing investigation and control measures being implemented. This outbreak occurs during a period of very low measles transmission in Ireland, with only one confirmed case (imported) notified in 2016 before this event. PMID:27416848

  17. Caries experience, the caries burden and associated factors in children in England, Wales and Northern Ireland 2013.

    PubMed

    Vernazza, C R; Rolland, S L; Chadwick, B; Pitts, N

    2016-09-23

    Background The 2013 Children's Dental Health Survey is the fifth in a series of national surveys.Aims To describe caries prevalence and severity and factors affecting these, in children in England, Wales and Northern Ireland in 2013.Methodology A representative sample of children (aged 5, 8, 12 and 15 years) in England, Wales and Northern Ireland were invited to participate in dental examinations. Caries was measured at both the dentine ('obvious caries') and dentine plus enamel ('clinical caries') levels and analysis included identifying those with indicators of significant burden of caries and identifying predictive factors.Results In 5-year-olds, 40% had obvious caries experience increasing to 56% when enamel lesions were included. In 15-year-olds, the respective figures were 46% and 63%. Fourteen percent of 5-year-olds and 15% of 15-year-olds had a least one indicator of significant levels of caries and those from deprived backgrounds were more likely to fall into this group.Conclusions Overall, the prevalence of caries in children is continuing to decrease, but the rate is slowing. The level of disease for those with disease is much higher than the average values might suggest and there remain a sizeable minority with a significant burden of caries, associated with deprivation. This complex picture poses significant clinical and public health challenges. PMID:27659635

  18. THE IMPACT OF ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS ON THE CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANT (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) POPULATION OF THE UNITED KINGDOM AND IRELAND (1995-2013).

    PubMed

    Kendall, Rebecca; Howard, Lauren; Masters, Nic; Grant, Robyn

    2016-06-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) is one of the most devastating infections and causes of mortality in captive Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus ) populations. Eight confirmed fatal EEHV cases have occurred since 1995 within the captive Asian elephant population of the United Kingdom and Ireland. This report aims to review the impact of EEHV on the captive Asian elephant population in the United Kingdom and Ireland, document and compare fatal cases, and recommend a framework of monitoring within the United Kingdom and Ireland to increase the success of treatment of EEHV hemorrhagic disease (EEHV HD) in the future. Six zoologic institutions (which include zoos, safari parks, and wildlife parks) that currently house or have previously housed a captive Asian elephant group were included in this report. Medical records and postmortem results were collected from four of these institutions for each confirmed fatal case. EEHV HD was found to be responsible for 29.6% of fatalities in Asian elephants born in captivity in the United Kingdom and Ireland between 1995 and 2013. Following a review of all the cases, it is shown that although clinical signs may be associated with specific EEHV species, the swiftness of disease progression means that most body tissues are impacted 1-6 days following the presentation of visible clinical signs and treatment is less likely to succeed. Therefore, EEHV monitoring should consist of conducting regular polymerase chain reaction analysis of whole blood samples from at-risk, young Asian elephants aged 1-8 yr in order for subclinical viremia to be identified early and treatment to be started before the appearance of visible clinical signs.

  19. THE IMPACT OF ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS ON THE CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANT (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) POPULATION OF THE UNITED KINGDOM AND IRELAND (1995-2013).

    PubMed

    Kendall, Rebecca; Howard, Lauren; Masters, Nic; Grant, Robyn

    2016-06-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) is one of the most devastating infections and causes of mortality in captive Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus ) populations. Eight confirmed fatal EEHV cases have occurred since 1995 within the captive Asian elephant population of the United Kingdom and Ireland. This report aims to review the impact of EEHV on the captive Asian elephant population in the United Kingdom and Ireland, document and compare fatal cases, and recommend a framework of monitoring within the United Kingdom and Ireland to increase the success of treatment of EEHV hemorrhagic disease (EEHV HD) in the future. Six zoologic institutions (which include zoos, safari parks, and wildlife parks) that currently house or have previously housed a captive Asian elephant group were included in this report. Medical records and postmortem results were collected from four of these institutions for each confirmed fatal case. EEHV HD was found to be responsible for 29.6% of fatalities in Asian elephants born in captivity in the United Kingdom and Ireland between 1995 and 2013. Following a review of all the cases, it is shown that although clinical signs may be associated with specific EEHV species, the swiftness of disease progression means that most body tissues are impacted 1-6 days following the presentation of visible clinical signs and treatment is less likely to succeed. Therefore, EEHV monitoring should consist of conducting regular polymerase chain reaction analysis of whole blood samples from at-risk, young Asian elephants aged 1-8 yr in order for subclinical viremia to be identified early and treatment to be started before the appearance of visible clinical signs. PMID:27468010

  20. Pathogen translocation and histopathological lesions in an experimental model of Salmonella Dublin infection in calves receiving lactic acid bacteria and lactose supplements

    PubMed Central

    Zbrun, María V.; Soto, Lorena P.; Bertozzi, Ezequiel; Sequeira, Gabriel J.; Marti, Luis E.; Signorini, Marcelo L.; Armesto, Roberto Rodríguez; Rosmini, Marcelo R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacity of a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculum to protect calves with or without lactose supplements against Salmonella Dublin infection by evaluating histopathological lesions and pathogen translocation. Fifteen calves were divided into three groups [control group (C-G), a group inoculated with LAB (LAB-G), and a group inoculated with LAB and given lactose supplements (L-LAB-G)] with five, six, and four animals, respectively. The inoculum, composed of Lactobacillus (L.) casei DSPV 318T, L. salivarius DSPV 315T, and Pediococcus acidilactici DSPV 006T, was administered with milk replacer. The LAB-G and L-LAB-G received a daily dose of 109 CFU/kg body weight of each strain throughout the experiment. Lactose was provided to the L-LAB-G in doses of 100 g/day. Salmonella Dublin (2 × 1010 CFU) was orally administered to all animals on day 11 of the experiment. The microscopic lesion index values in target organs were 83%, 70%, and 64.3% (p < 0.05) for the C-G, LAB-G, and L-LAB-G, respectively. Administration of the probiotic inoculum was not fully effective against infection caused by Salmonella. Although probiotic treatment was unable to delay the arrival of pathogen to target organs, it was evident that the inoculum altered the response of animals against pathogen infection. PMID:23000583

  1. Contribution of proton-translocating proteins to the virulence of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium, Gallinarum, and Dublin in chickens and mice.

    PubMed

    Turner, A K; Barber, L Z; Wigley, P; Muhammad, S; Jones, M A; Lovell, M A; Hulme, S; Barrow, P A

    2003-06-01

    We investigated the attenuating effects of a range of respiratory chain mutations in three Salmonella serovars which might be used in the development of live vaccines. We tested mutations in nuoG, cydA, cyoA, atpB, and atpH in three serovars of Salmonella enterica: Typhimurium, Dublin, and Gallinarum. All three serovars were assessed for attenuation in their relevant virulence assays of typhoid-like infections. Serovar Typhimurium was assessed in 1-day-old chickens and the mouse. Serovar Gallinarum 9 was assessed in 3-week-old chickens, and serovar Dublin was assessed in 6-week-old mice. Our data show variation in attenuation for the nuoG, cydA, and cyoA mutations within the different serovar-host combinations. However, mutations in atpB and atpH were highly attenuating for all three serovars in the various virulence assays. Further investigation of the mutations in the atp operon showed that the bacteria were less invasive in vivo, showing reduced in vitro survival within phagocytic cells and reduced acid tolerance. We present data showing that this reduced acid tolerance is due to an inability to adapt to conditions rather than a general sensitivity to reduced pH. The data support the targeting of respiratory components for the production of live vaccines and suggest that mutations in the atp operon provide suitable candidates for broad-spectrum attenuation of a range of Salmonella serovars.

  2. Secondary microseism generation mechanisms and microseism derived ocean wave parameters, NE Atlantic, West of Ireland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donne, S. E.; Bean, C. J.; Lokmer, I.; Nicolau, M.; O'Neill, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ocean waves, driven by atmospheric processes, generate faint continuous Earth vibrations known as microseisms (Bromirski, 1999). Under certain conditions, ocean waves travelling in opposite directions may interact with one another producing a partial or full standing wave. This wave-wave interaction produces a pressure profile, unattenuated with depth, which exerts a pressure change at the seafloor, resulting in secondary microseisms in the 0.1-0.33 Hz band. There are clear correlations between microseism amplitude and storm and ocean wave intensity. We aim to determine ocean wave heights in the Northeast Atlantic offshore Ireland at individual buoy locations, using terrestrially recorded microseism signals. Two evolutionary approaches are used: Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Grammatical Evolution (GE). These systems learn to interpret particular input patterns and corresponding outputs and expose the often complex underlying relationship between them. They learn by example and are therefore entirely data driven so data selection is extremely important for the success of the methods. An analysis and comparison of the performance of these methods for a five month period in 2013 will be presented showing that ocean wave characteristics may be reconstructed using microseism amplitudes, adopting a purely data driven approach. There are periods during the year when the estimations made from both the GE and ANN are delayed in time by 10 to 20 hours when compared to the target buoy measurements. These delays hold important information about the totality of the conditions needed for microseism generation, an analysis of which will be presented.

  3. Norovirus genotypes implicated in two oyster-related illness outbreaks in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Rajko-Nenow, P; Keaveney, S; Flannery, J; McINTYRE, A; Doré, W

    2014-10-01

    We investigated norovirus (NoV) concentrations and genotypes in oyster and faecal samples associated with two separate oyster-related outbreaks of gastroenteritis in Ireland. Quantitative analysis was performed using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and phylogenetic analysis was conducted to establish the NoV genotypes present. For both outbreaks, the NoV concentration in oysters was >1000 genome copies/g digestive tissue and multiple genotypes were identified. In faecal samples, GII.13 was the only genotype detected for outbreak 1, whereas multiple genotypes were detected in outbreak 2 following the application of cloning procedures. While various genotypes were identified in oyster samples, not all were successful in causing infection in consumers. In outbreak 2 NoV GII.1 was identified in all four faecal samples analysed and NoV GII concentrations in faecal samples were >108 copies/g. This study demonstrates that a range of NoV genotypes can be present in highly contaminated oysters responsible for gastroenteritis outbreaks.

  4. Metagenomic Characterisation of the Viral Community of Lough Neagh, the Largest Freshwater Lake in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Skvortsov, Timofey; de Leeuwe, Colin; Quinn, John P; McGrath, John W; Allen, Christopher C R; McElarney, Yvonne; Watson, Catherine; Arkhipova, Ksenia; Lavigne, Rob; Kulakov, Leonid A

    2016-01-01

    Lough Neagh is the largest and the most economically important lake in Ireland. It is also one of the most nutrient rich amongst the world's major lakes. In this study, 16S rRNA analysis of total metagenomic DNA from the water column of Lough Neagh has revealed a high proportion of Cyanobacteria and low levels of Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Firmicutes. The planktonic virome of Lough Neagh has been sequenced and 2,298,791 2×300 bp Illumina reads analysed. Comparison with previously characterised lakes demonstrates that the Lough Neagh viral community has the highest level of sequence diversity. Only about 15% of reads had homologs in the RefSeq database and tailed bacteriophages (Caudovirales) were identified as a major grouping. Within the Caudovirales, the Podoviridae and Siphoviridae were the two most dominant families (34.3% and 32.8% of the reads with sequence homology to the RefSeq database), while ssDNA bacteriophages constituted less than 1% of the virome. Putative cyanophages were found to be abundant. 66,450 viral contigs were assembled with the largest one being 58,805 bp; its existence, and that of another 34,467 bp contig, in the water column was confirmed. Analysis of the contigs confirmed the high abundance of cyanophages in the water column. PMID:26927795

  5. Masculinities and young men's sex education needs in Ireland: problematizing client-centred health promotion approaches.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Abbey; Howlett, Etaoine; Drennan, Jonathan; Brady, Dympna

    2005-12-01

    In recent decades, dominant discourses in health promotion have emphasized empowerment, client participation and the notion of people identifying and being facilitated to meet their own health needs. However, there has been little analysis of the concept of 'need' and the possibility, at least, that the fulfillment of some such self-defined needs are not in the interest of social justice and equality. In this article, we present an account of the sex education needs of secondary school pupils from their own perspectives, and problematize the concept of self-identified needs in health education. Twenty-nine focus group interviews were conducted with 226 secondary school pupils in Ireland, and data were subjected to a qualitative analysis. Findings suggested that young men tended to prioritize practical guidance that would provide them with the skills and confidence to take the lead in sexual encounters, and display competence in the act of penetrative sex. We argue that these self-defined sex education needs emanate from a culture of traditional masculinity where, for a male, one's place in the pecking order is derived from one's capacity to conquer, lead and display mastery with regard to sex. In the discussion, we attempt to unpack the notion of clients identifying their own needs and the concept of empowerment as it relates to our data, in the context of gender-based structural inequalities.

  6. Metagenomic Characterisation of the Viral Community of Lough Neagh, the Largest Freshwater Lake in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Skvortsov, Timofey; de Leeuwe, Colin; Quinn, John P.; McGrath, John W.; Allen, Christopher C. R.; McElarney, Yvonne; Watson, Catherine; Arkhipova, Ksenia; Lavigne, Rob; Kulakov, Leonid A.

    2016-01-01

    Lough Neagh is the largest and the most economically important lake in Ireland. It is also one of the most nutrient rich amongst the world’s major lakes. In this study, 16S rRNA analysis of total metagenomic DNA from the water column of Lough Neagh has revealed a high proportion of Cyanobacteria and low levels of Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Firmicutes. The planktonic virome of Lough Neagh has been sequenced and 2,298,791 2×300 bp Illumina reads analysed. Comparison with previously characterised lakes demonstrates that the Lough Neagh viral community has the highest level of sequence diversity. Only about 15% of reads had homologs in the RefSeq database and tailed bacteriophages (Caudovirales) were identified as a major grouping. Within the Caudovirales, the Podoviridae and Siphoviridae were the two most dominant families (34.3% and 32.8% of the reads with sequence homology to the RefSeq database), while ssDNA bacteriophages constituted less than 1% of the virome. Putative cyanophages were found to be abundant. 66,450 viral contigs were assembled with the largest one being 58,805 bp; its existence, and that of another 34,467 bp contig, in the water column was confirmed. Analysis of the contigs confirmed the high abundance of cyanophages in the water column. PMID:26927795

  7. Trends in basic mathematical competencies of beginning undergraduates in Ireland, 2003-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treacy, Páraic; Faulkner, Fiona

    2015-11-01

    Deficiencies in beginning undergraduate students' basic mathematical skills has been an issue of concern in higher education, particularly in the past 15 years. This issue has been tracked and analysed in a number of universities in Ireland and internationally through student scores recorded in mathematics diagnostic tests. Students beginning their science-based and technology-based undergraduate courses in the University of Limerick have had their basic mathematics skills tested without any prior warning through a 40 question diagnostic test during their initial service mathematics lecture since 1998. Data gathered through this diagnostic test have been recorded in a database kept at the university and explored to track trends in mathematical competency of these beginning undergraduates. This paper details findings surrounding an analysis of the database between 2003 and 2013, outlining changes in mathematical competencies of these beginning undergraduates in an attempt to determine reasons for such changes. The analysis found that the proportion of students tested through this diagnostic test that are predicted to be at risk of failing their service mathematics end-of-semester examinations has increased significantly between 2003 and 2013. Furthermore, when students' performance in secondary level mathematics was controlled, it was determined that the performance of beginning undergraduates in 2013 was statistically significantly below that of the performance of the beginning undergraduates recorded 10 years previously.

  8. Metagenomic Characterisation of the Viral Community of Lough Neagh, the Largest Freshwater Lake in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Skvortsov, Timofey; de Leeuwe, Colin; Quinn, John P; McGrath, John W; Allen, Christopher C R; McElarney, Yvonne; Watson, Catherine; Arkhipova, Ksenia; Lavigne, Rob; Kulakov, Leonid A

    2016-01-01

    Lough Neagh is the largest and the most economically important lake in Ireland. It is also one of the most nutrient rich amongst the world's major lakes. In this study, 16S rRNA analysis of total metagenomic DNA from the water column of Lough Neagh has revealed a high proportion of Cyanobacteria and low levels of Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Firmicutes. The planktonic virome of Lough Neagh has been sequenced and 2,298,791 2×300 bp Illumina reads analysed. Comparison with previously characterised lakes demonstrates that the Lough Neagh viral community has the highest level of sequence diversity. Only about 15% of reads had homologs in the RefSeq database and tailed bacteriophages (Caudovirales) were identified as a major grouping. Within the Caudovirales, the Podoviridae and Siphoviridae were the two most dominant families (34.3% and 32.8% of the reads with sequence homology to the RefSeq database), while ssDNA bacteriophages constituted less than 1% of the virome. Putative cyanophages were found to be abundant. 66,450 viral contigs were assembled with the largest one being 58,805 bp; its existence, and that of another 34,467 bp contig, in the water column was confirmed. Analysis of the contigs confirmed the high abundance of cyanophages in the water column.

  9. In with the new: the determinants of prescribing innovation by general practitioners in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Jane; Roper, Stephen

    2012-08-01

    An important element of the process by which new drugs achieve widespread use is their adoption by GPs. In this paper, we explore the factors that shape the timing of the first prescription of six new drugs by General Practitioners in Ireland. Our analysis is based on a dataset that matches prescription data with data on GP characteristics. We then use duration analysis to explore both equilibrium and non-equilibrium determinants of prescribing innovation. Our study highlights a range of commonalities across all of the drugs considered and suggests the importance of GP and practice characteristics in shaping prescribing decisions. We also find strongly significant, and consistently signed, stock and order effects across these drugs: GPs who have a track record of early adoption tend also to be early adopters of other new drugs; and, the larger the proportion of GPs which have already adopted a new drug the slower is subsequent adoption. Epidemic and learning effects are also evident with slower adoption by rural practices and among those GPs with narrower prescribing portfolios. PMID:21503785

  10. 3D cone-sheet and crystal-settling models reveal magma-reservoir structure of the Carlingford central complex, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauroth, Jenny; Burchardt, Steffi; Meade, Fiona; Troll, Valentin R.

    2014-05-01

    The Palaeogene Carlingford central complex, northeast Ireland, hosts a swarm of mostly basaltic cone-sheets with several lithological subsets (Halsall, 1974). The two most abundant sets are aphyric and highly porphyritic cone-sheets with up to 80% of cm-sized plagioclase phenocrysts. The abundance of highly porphyritic cone-sheets seems to systematically increase with altitude compared to the aphyric type (Meade, 2008). We hypothesised that this observation might be explained by the zonation of the source magma reservoir. In order to test this hypothesis, we modelled the 3D cone-sheet structure at depth and the settling of plagioclase phenocrysts. The 3D model of the Carlingford cone-sheet swarm reveals that lithological types of Carlingford cone-sheets are not systematically distributed in space. Using the method proposed by Burchardt et al. (2013), we constructed the likely source reservoir of the cone-sheets, which is saucer-shaped, elongated in NW direction, 7 km long and 3 km wide, and located at a depth of 1 km below the present-day land surface. Our calculation of the terminal velocity of the plagioclase phenocrysts shows that the large phenocrysts in the porphyritic cone-sheets were too big to float at the conditions present in the Carlingford magma reservoir. We can therefore exclude vertical magma-chamber stratification as an explanation for the formation and distribution of porphyritic and aphyric cone-sheets. Instead, we envisage the formation of a crystal mush at the base and sides of the Carlingford magma reservoir. Cone-sheet injection and magma-cha,ber replenishments have remobilised plagioclase cumulates, which may explain the occurrence and distribution of aphyric and highly porphyritic cone-sheets. REFERENCES Burchardt, S., Troll, V. R., Mathieu, L., Emeleus, H. C., Donaldson, C., 2013, Scientific Reports 3, 2891. Halsall, T.J., 1974, The minor intrusions and structure of the Carlingford complex, Eire (PhD thesis): University of Leicester. Meade

  11. The application of GEOtop for catchment scale hydrology in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, C.; Xu, X.; Albertson, J.; Kiely, G.

    2009-04-01

    GEOtop represents the new generation of distributed hydrological model driven by geospatial data (e.g. topography, soils, vegetation, land cover). It estimates rainfall-runoff, evapotranspiration and provides spatially distributed outputs as well as routing water and sediment flows through stream and river networks. The original version of GEOtop designed in Italy, includes a rigorous treatment of the core hydrological processes (e.g. unsaturated and saturated flow and transport, surface energy balances, and streamflow generation/routing). Recently GEOtop was extended to include treatment of shallow landslides. The GEOtop model is built on an open-source programming framework, which makes it well suited for adaptation and extension. GEOtop has been run very successfully in a number of alpine catchments (such as Brenta) but has not been used on Irish catchments before. The cell size used for the spatially distributed inputs varies from catchment to catchment. In smaller catchments (less than 2000ha) 50 by 50m cells have been used and 200 by 200 for larger catchments. Smaller cell sizes have been found to significantly increase the computational time so a larger cell size is used providing it does not significantly affect the performance of the model. Digital elevation model, drainage direction, landuse and soil type maps are the minimum spatial requirements with precipitation, radiation, temperature, atmospheric pressure and wind speed been the minimum meteorological requirements for a successful run. The soil type maps must also contain information regarding texture and hydraulic conductivity. The first trial of GEOtop in Ireland was on a small 1524 ha catchment in the south of Ireland. The catchment ranges from 50 to just over 200m, the land use is predominately agricultural grassland and it receives on average 1400mm of rain per year. Within this catchment there is a meteorological tower which provides the meteorological inputs, soil moisture is also recorded at

  12. Supporting Parental Involvement in Children's Early Learning: Lessons from Community Childcare Centres in Dublin's Docklands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Share, Michelle; Kerrins, Liz

    2013-01-01

    Recently in Ireland attention has been placed on the importance of parental involvement in early childhood care and education settings as seen in the Síolta Quality Standards and Aistear Curriculum Framework. Yet there is little Irish empirical evidence on parental involvement in childcare settings; on the involvement models being used, or on the…

  13. Bilateral comparison of 10 V standards between the NSAI-NML (Ireland) and the BIPM, January to February 2013 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, O.; Chayramy, R.; Solve, S.; Stock, M.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b, a comparison of the 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the National Standards Authority of Ireland-National Metrology Laboratory (NSAI-NML), Dublin, Ireland, was carried out from January to February 2013. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPM_8 (Z8) and BIPM_9 (Z9), were transported by freight to NSAI-NML. At NSAI-NML, the reference standard for DC voltage at the 10 V level consists of a group of characterized Zener diode-based electronic voltage standards. The output EMF (electromotive force) of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the group standard. At the BIPM the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at NSAI-NML, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages of the Zener standards on internal temperature and ambient atmospheric pressure. The final result of the comparison is presented as the difference between the value assigned to DC voltage standard by NSAI-NML, at the level of 10 V, at NSAI-NML, UNML, and that assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference date of 5 February 2013. UNML - UBIPM = -0.63 µV uc = 1.31 µV, at 10 V where uc is thecombined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at NSAI-NML,based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. The comparison results show that the voltage standards maintained by NSAI-NML and the BIPM were equivalent, within their stated standard uncertainties, on the mean date of the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according

  14. Bilateral comparison of 10 V standards between the NSAI - NML (Ireland) and the BIPM, February 2016 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Power, O.; Stock, M.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b, a comparison of the 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the National Standards Authority of Ireland - National Metrology Laboratory (NSAI - NML), Dublin, Ireland, was carried out in January and February 2016. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPM7 (Z7) and BIPM9 (Z9), were transported by freight to NSAI-NML. At NSAI-NML, the reference standard for DC voltage at the 10 V level consists of a group of characterized Zener diode-based electronic voltage standards. The output EMF (Electromotive Force) of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the group standard. At the BIPM the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at NSAI-NML, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages of the Zener standards on internal temperature and ambient atmospheric pressure. The final result of the comparison is presented as the difference between the values assigned to DC voltage standards by NSAI - NML, at the level of 10 V, at NSAI - NML, UNML, and those assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference date of the 31 of January 2016. UNML - UBIPM = + 0.22 μV uc = 1.35 μV , at 10 V where uc is the combined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at NSAI-NML, based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  15. Bilateral Comparison of 10 V Standards between the NSAI - NML (Ireland) and the BIPM, March 2015 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Stock, M.; Power, O.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b, a comparison of the 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the National Standards Authority of Ireland - National Metrology Laboratory (NSAI - NML), Dublin, Ireland, was carried out in February and March 2015. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPM6 (Z6) and BIPMC (ZC), were transported by freight to NSAI-NML. At NSAI-NML, the reference standard for DC voltage at the 10 V level consists of a group of characterized Zener diode-based electronic voltage standards. The output EMF (Electromotive Force) of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the group standard. At the BIPM the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at NSAI-NML, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages of the Zener standards on internal temperature and ambient atmospheric pressure. The final resultof the comparison is presented as the difference between the values assigned to DC voltage standards by NSAI - NML, at the level of 10 V,at NSAI - NML, UNML, and those assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference date of 24 February 2015. UNML - UBIPM = - 0.82 mV; uc = 1.35 mV , at 10 V where uc is the combined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at NSAI-NML, based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  16. Bilateral comparison of 10 V standards between the NSAI-NML (Ireland) and the BIPM, March 2014 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Power, O.; Stock, M.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b, a comparison of the 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the National Standards Authority of Ireland-National Metrology Laboratory (NSAI-NML), Dublin, Ireland, was carried out in February and March 2014. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPM_4 (Z4) and BIPM_5 (Z5), were transported by freight to NSAI-NML. At NSAI-NML, the reference standard for DC voltage at the 10 V level consists of a group of characterized Zener diode-based electronic voltage standards. The output EMF (Electromotive Force) of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the group standard. At the BIPM the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at NSAI-NML, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages of the Zener standards on internal temperature and ambient atmospheric pressure. The final result of the comparison is presented as the difference between the value assigned to DC voltage standard by NSAI-NML, at the level of 10 V, at NSAI-NML, UNML, and that assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference date of 10 March 2014. UNML - UBIPM = -0.64 µV uc = 1.35 µV, at 10 V where uc is thecombined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at NSAI-NML,based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. The comparison results show that the voltage standards maintained by NSAI-NML and the BIPM were equivalent, within their stated standard uncertainties, on the mean date of the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to

  17. Mortality Among Children And Young People Who Survive Cancer In Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, DW

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Whilst survival rates for childhood cancers are excellent, it is known that these patients have an increased risk of death from disease recurrence and other causes. We investigate patterns, trends and survival of cancers in children and young adults in N. Ireland. Materials and Methods 21 years (1993-2013) of cancer incidence data including non-malignant brain tumours from the N. Ireland Cancer Registry for persons aged 0-24 years was analysed using Joinpoint regresssion for trend and the Kaplan Meier method for survival analysis up to end 2013 with excess mortality calculated at one and five years after first cancer diagnosis using standardised mortality ratios. Results 2633 children and young people were diagnosed with cancer, 1386 (52.6%) male and 1247 female with 1139 (43.3%) aged 0-14. While trends increased over time they did not reach statistical significance except in the 15-24 age group for males and females combined. The most common cancers for age 0-14 were brain, eye and central nervous system and leukaemia with skin (including non-melanoma skin) the most common in the 15-24 age group. 59 patients (2.2%) had a record of a second cancer. Survival was high at 90.7% after 1 year, better among females and similar for older and younger groups. Although mortality in children is low overall, there was an excess mortality 24.7% (22-27.5) p<0.001 at one year and 7.3% (5.5-9.2) p<0.001 for those who survived 5 years. Excluding the primary cancer there was an excess mortality for one year survivors, with deaths twice that of the background level (SMR= 2.2 (1.3-3.0)p=0.005 and although one and a half times background levels at 5 years, the excess mortality was not significant 1.5 (0.6-2.3 p=0.269). Conclusion Whilst survival from childhood cancers is excellent, this work in common with larger studies, highlights the need for ongoing monitoring of cancer survivors. Preventable skin cancer was identified as a problem in young adults.

  18. Mortality Among Children And Young People Who Survive Cancer In Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, DW

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Whilst survival rates for childhood cancers are excellent, it is known that these patients have an increased risk of death from disease recurrence and other causes. We investigate patterns, trends and survival of cancers in children and young adults in N. Ireland. Materials and Methods 21 years (1993-2013) of cancer incidence data including non-malignant brain tumours from the N. Ireland Cancer Registry for persons aged 0-24 years was analysed using Joinpoint regresssion for trend and the Kaplan Meier method for survival analysis up to end 2013 with excess mortality calculated at one and five years after first cancer diagnosis using standardised mortality ratios. Results 2633 children and young people were diagnosed with cancer, 1386 (52.6%) male and 1247 female with 1139 (43.3%) aged 0-14. While trends increased over time they did not reach statistical significance except in the 15-24 age group for males and females combined. The most common cancers for age 0-14 were brain, eye and central nervous system and leukaemia with skin (including non-melanoma skin) the most common in the 15-24 age group. 59 patients (2.2%) had a record of a second cancer. Survival was high at 90.7% after 1 year, better among females and similar for older and younger groups. Although mortality in children is low overall, there was an excess mortality 24.7% (22-27.5) p<0.001 at one year and 7.3% (5.5-9.2) p<0.001 for those who survived 5 years. Excluding the primary cancer there was an excess mortality for one year survivors, with deaths twice that of the background level (SMR= 2.2 (1.3-3.0)p=0.005 and although one and a half times background levels at 5 years, the excess mortality was not significant 1.5 (0.6-2.3 p=0.269). Conclusion Whilst survival from childhood cancers is excellent, this work in common with larger studies, highlights the need for ongoing monitoring of cancer survivors. Preventable skin cancer was identified as a problem in young adults. PMID:27698517

  19. A Quantitative Categorical Analysis of Metadata Elements in Image-Applicable Metadata Schemas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Jane

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a quantitative categorical analysis of metadata elements in the Dublin Core, VRA (Visual Resource Association) Core, REACH (Record Export for Art and Cultural Heritage), and EAD (Encoded Archival Description) metadata schemas, all of which can be used for organizing and describing images. Introduces a new schema comparison methodology…

  20. Radiocesium contamination at a steel plant in Ireland.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, J O; Hone, C; Turvey, F J

    1996-04-01

    Radioactive sources have been inadvertently incorporated into consignments of scrap metal in various locations throughout the world. In 1990, a 3.7 GBq 137 Cs source, due for transfer from a Scottish industrial establishment to one in England, was mistakenly included in a scrap consignment destined for Irish Steel, a metal recycling plant in County Cork in the Republic of Ireland. Unaware of the presence of the source, Irish Steel smelted this consignment in the usual manner. This involved separation of some non-ferrous materials which were then exported, in pellet form, To Pasminco Europe (now Britannia Zinc Ltd.) in Avonmouth, U.K. The presence of 137 Cs contamination in these pellets was detected by the U.K. company in the course of a routine radiation survey. Irish Steel carried out extensive decontamination of its plant, placing the contaminated dust in secure storage. The company has equipped itself with radiation detection devices which monitor incoming scrap. Outgoing products and furnace dust are also monitored on a routine basis. While this incident was of negligible radiological significance as far as personnel were concerned, the financial cost to Irish Steel have been substantial. It highlights the need for surveillance, by national competent authorities, of the movement of radioactive sources from production through use to final disposal.